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authorDoc Manager <doceng@FreeBSD.org>1997-10-21 14:18:47 +0000
committerDoc Manager <doceng@FreeBSD.org>1997-10-21 14:18:47 +0000
commitc60d02e58116f0bc849b3044b5c5d00847c2a049 (patch)
tree4d8185e7fda26ad545708eb7c9c944444b0b434c
parent2b0315ee748a447e6c06f4a099aad5aa38b4f263 (diff)
downloaddoc-c60d02e58116f0bc849b3044b5c5d00847c2a049.tar.gz
doc-c60d02e58116f0bc849b3044b5c5d00847c2a049.zip
Create tag '2.2.5'.release/2.2.5
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=2094 svn path=/release/2.2.5/; revision=2095; tag=release/2.2.5
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/Makefile11
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/Makefile.inc4
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/ddwg/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/ddwg/ddwg.sgml1142
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/devel/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/devel/devel.docb1835
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/diskformat/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/diskformat/diskformat.docb418
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/disklessx/Makefile5
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/disklessx/disklessx.sgml266
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/doc.ftr5
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/doc.hdr14
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/fonts/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/fonts/fonts.docb723
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/index.sgml49
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/mh/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/mh/mh.docb704
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/multios/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/multios/multios.docb680
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/newuser/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/newuser/newuser.docb943
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/ppp/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/ppp/ppp.sgml1736
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/upgrade/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--en/tutorials/upgrade/upgrade.docb758
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/fonts/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/fonts/article.sgml723
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/formatting-media/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/formatting-media/article.sgml418
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mh/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mh/article.sgml704
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/multi-os/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/multi-os/article.sgml680
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml943
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/programming-tools/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/programming-tools/article.sgml1835
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/fonts/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/fonts/article.sgml723
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/formatting-media/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/formatting-media/article.sgml418
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/mh/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/mh/article.sgml704
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/multi-os/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/multi-os/article.sgml680
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/new-users/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml943
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/programming-tools/Makefile7
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/programming-tools/article.sgml1835
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/tutorials/Makefile11
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/tutorials/Makefile.inc4
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/tutorials/ddwg/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/tutorials/ddwg/ddwg.sgml1142
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/tutorials/disklessx/Makefile5
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/tutorials/doc.ftr5
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/tutorials/doc.hdr14
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/tutorials/index.sgml49
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/tutorials/ppp/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/tutorials/ppp/ppp.sgml1736
-rw-r--r--ja_JP.eucJP/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--ja_JP.eucJP/books/handbook/Makefile27
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diff --git a/en/tutorials/Makefile b/en/tutorials/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 0434928bee..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,11 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.11 1997-09-13 04:24:09 jfieber Exp $
-
-DOCS?= index.sgml
-SUBDIR= devel diskformat disklessx fonts mh multios newuser upgrade
-DOCSUBDIR= ddwg ppp
-
-.if defined $(NEW_BUILD)
-SUBDIR=
-.endif
-
-.include "../web.mk"
diff --git a/en/tutorials/Makefile.inc b/en/tutorials/Makefile.inc
deleted file mode 100644
index 7da7fe75c2..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/Makefile.inc
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,4 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile.inc,v 1.4 1997-07-01 03:52:21 max Exp $
-
-WEBBASE?= /data/tutorials
-SGMLOPTS+= -hdr ${.CURDIR}/../doc.hdr -ftr ${.CURDIR}/../doc.ftr
diff --git a/en/tutorials/ddwg/Makefile b/en/tutorials/ddwg/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index f28e8dcab7..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/ddwg/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,6 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.3 1997-07-01 05:38:11 max Exp $
-
-DOC= ddwg
-SRCS= ddwg.sgml
-
-.include <bsd.sgml.mk>
diff --git a/en/tutorials/ddwg/ddwg.sgml b/en/tutorials/ddwg/ddwg.sgml
deleted file mode 100644
index 9cb25739aa..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/ddwg/ddwg.sgml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,1142 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE linuxdoc PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD linuxdoc//EN">
-
-<!--
- ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
- ++ file: /home/erich/lib/src/sgml/ddwg.sgml
- ++
- ++ Copyright Eric L. Hernes - Wednesday, August 2, 1995
- ++
- ++ $Id: ddwg.sgml,v 1.4 1997-10-03 20:53:38 wosch Exp $
- ++
- ++ Sgml doc for something
- -->
-
-<article>
-
-<title>FreeBSD Device Driver Writer's Guide
-<author>Eric L. Hernes, <tt/erich@rrnet.com/
-<date>Wednesday, May 29, 1996
-
-<abstract>
-
-This document describes how to add a device driver to FreeBSD. It is
-<it/not/ intended to be a tutorial on UNIX device drivers in general.
-It is intended for device driver authors, familiar with the UNIX
-device driver model, to work on FreeBSD.
-
-</abstract>
-
-<toc>
-
-<sect> Overview
-
-<p> <it>
-The FreeBSD kernel is very well documented, unfortunately it's all
-in `C'.
-</it>
-
-<sect> Types of drivers.
-
-<sect1> Character
-
-<sect2> Data Structures
-<p> <tt/struct cdevsw/ Structure
-
-<sect2> Entry Points
-<sect3> d_open()
-<p>
-d_open() takes several arguments, the formal list looks something like:
-<code>
-int
-d_open(dev_t dev, int flag, int mode, struct proc *p)
-</code>
-d_open() is called on <em/every/ open of the device.
-<p>
-
-The <tt/dev/ argument contains the major and minor number of the
-device opened. These are available through the macros <tt/major()/ and
-<tt/minor()/
-<p>
-
-The <tt/flag/ and <tt/mode/ arguments are as described in the
-<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?open(2)" name="open(2)">
-manual page. It is recommended that you check these for access modes
-in &lt;sys/fcntl.h&gt; and do what is required. For example if <tt/flag/
-is (O_NONBLOCK | O_EXLOCK) the open should fail if either it would
-block, or exclusive access cannot be granted.
-<p>
-
-The <tt/p/ argument contains all the information about the current
-process.
-
-<sect3> d_close()
-<p>
-d_close() takes the same argument list as d_open():
-<code>
-int
-d_close(dev_t dev , int flag , int mode , struct proc *p)
-</code>
-
-d_close() is only called on the last close of your device (per minor
-device). For example in the following code fragment, d_open() is called
-3 times, but d_close() is called only once.
-<code>
- ...
- fd1=open("/dev/mydev", O_RDONLY);
- fd2=open("/dev/mydev", O_RDONLY);
- fd3=open("/dev/mydev", O_RDONLY);
- ...
- <useful stuff with fd1, fd2, fd3 here>
- ...
- close(fd1);
- close(fd2);
- close(fd3);
- ...
-</code>
-
-The arguments are similar to those described above for
-d_open().
-
-<sect3> d_read() and d_write()
-<p>
-d_read() and d_write take the following argument lists:
-<code>
-int
-d_read(dev_t dev, struct uio *uio, int flat)
-int
-d_write(dev_t dev, struct uio *uio, int flat)
-</code>
-
-The d_read() and d_write() entry points are called when
-<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?read(2)" name="read(2)"> and
-<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?write(2)" name="write(2)">
-are called on your device from user-space. The transfer
-of data can be handled through the kernel support routine uiomove().
-
-<sect3> d_ioctl()
-<p>
-It's argument list is as follows:
-<code>
-int
-d_ioctl(dev_t dev, int cmd, caddr_t arg, int flag, struct proc *p)
-</code>
-
-d_ioctl() is a catch-all for operations which don't make sense in
-a read/write paradigm. Probably the most famous of all ioctl's is on
-tty devices, through
-<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?stty(1)" name="stty(1)">.
-The ioctl entry point is called from
-ioctl() in sys/kern/sys_generic.c<p>
-
-There are four different types of ioctl's which can be implemented.
-&lt;sys/ioccom.h&gt; contains convenience macros for defining these ioctls.
-
-<tt/_IO(g,n)/ for control type operations. &nl;
-
-<tt/_IOR(g,n,t)/ for operations that read data from a device. &nl;
-
-<tt/_IOW(g,n,t)/ for operations that write data to a device. &nl;
-
-<tt/_IOWR(g,n,t)/ for operations that write to a device, and then
-read data back. &nl;
-
-Here <tt/g/ refers to a <em/group/. This is an 8-bit value, typically
-indicative of the device; for example, 't' is used in tty ioctls.
-<tt/n/ refers to the number of the ioctl within the group. On SCO, this
-number alone denotes the ioctl. <tt/t/ is the data type which will
-get passed to the driver; this gets handed to a sizeof() operator in
-the kernel. The ioctl() system call will either copyin() or copyout()
-or both for your driver, then hand you a pointer to the data structure
-in the <tt/arg/ argument of the d_ioctl call. Currently the data size
-is limited to one page (4k on the i386).
-
-<sect3> d_stop()
-<sect3> d_reset()
-<sect3> d_devtotty()
-<sect3> d_select()
-<sect3> d_mmap()
-<sect3> d_strategy()
-<p>
-d_strategy()'s argument list is as follows:
-<code>
-void
-d_strategy(struct buf *bp)
-</code>
-
-<p> d_strategy() is used for devices which use some form of scatter-gather
-io. It is most common in a block device. This is significantly different
-than the System V model, where only the block driver performs scatter-gather
-io. Under BSD, character devices are sometimes requested to perform
-scatter-gather io via the readv() and writev() system calls.
-
-<sect2> Header Files
-
-<sect1> Block
-<sect2> Data Structures
-<p> <tt/struct bdevsw/ Structure
-<p> <tt/struct buf/ Structure
-
-<sect2> Entry Points
-<sect3> d_open()
-<p> Described in the Character device section.
-
-<sect3> d_close()
-<p> Described in the Character device section.
-
-<sect3> d_strategy()
-<p> Described in the Character device section.
-
-<sect3> d_ioctl()
-<p> Described in the Character device section.
-
-<sect3> d_dump()
-
-<sect3> d_psize()
-
-<sect2> Header Files
-
-<sect1> Network
-<sect2> Data Structures
-<p> <tt/struct ifnet/ Structure
-
-<sect2> Entry Points
-<sect3> if_init()
-<sect3> if_output()
-<sect3> if_start()
-<sect3> if_done()
-<sect3> if_ioctl()
-<sect3> if_watchdog()
-
-<sect2> Header Files
-
-<sect1> Line Discipline
-<sect2> Data Structures
-
-<p> <tt/struct linesw/ Structure
-
-<sect2> Entry Points
-<sect3> l_open()
-<sect3> l_close()
-<sect3> l_read()
-<sect3> l_write()
-<sect3> l_ioctl()
-<sect3> l_rint()
-<sect3> l_start()
-<sect3> l_modem()
-
-<sect2> Header Files
-
-<sect> Supported Busses
-
-<sect1> ISA -- Industry Standard Architecture
-<sect2> Data Structures
-
-<sect3> <tt/struct isa_device/ Structure
-<p>
-This structure is required, but generally it is created by
-<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?config(8)" name="config(8)">
-from the kernel configuration file. It is required on a per-device
-basis, meaning that if you have a driver which controls two serial
-boards, you will have two isa_device structures. If you build a
-device as an LKM, you must create your own isa_device structure to
-reflect your configuration. (lines 85 - 131 in pcaudio_lkm.c) There is
-nearly a direct mapping between the config file and the isa_device
-structure. The definition from /usr/src/sys/i386/isa/isa_device.h is:
-<code>
-struct isa_device {
- int id_id; /* device id */
- struct isa_driver *id_driver;
- int id_iobase; /* base i/o address */
- u_short id_irq; /* interrupt request */
- short id_drq; /* DMA request */
- caddr_t id_maddr; /* physical i/o memory address on bus (if any)*/
- int id_msize; /* size of i/o memory */
- inthand2_t *id_intr; /* interrupt interface routine */
- int id_unit; /* unit number */
- int id_flags; /* flags */
- int id_scsiid; /* scsi id if needed */
- int id_alive; /* device is present */
-#define RI_FAST 1 /* fast interrupt handler */
- u_int id_ri_flags; /* flags for register_intr() */
- int id_reconfig; /* hot eject device support (such as PCMCIA) */
- int id_enabled; /* is device enabled */
- int id_conflicts; /* we're allowed to conflict with things */
- struct isa_device *id_next; /* used in isa_devlist in userconfig() */
-};
-</code>
-
-<!-- XXX add stuff here -->
-<sect3> <tt/struct isa_driver/ Structure
-
-<p>
-This structure is defined in ``/usr/src/sys/i386/isa/isa_device.h''.
-These are required on a per-driver basis. The definition is:
-<code>
-struct isa_driver {
- int (*probe) __P((struct isa_device *idp));
- /* test whether device is present */
- int (*attach) __P((struct isa_device *idp));
- /* setup driver for a device */
- char *name; /* device name */
- int sensitive_hw; /* true if other probes confuse us */
-};
-</code>
-
-This is the structure used by the probe/attach code to detect and
-initialize your device. The <tt/probe/ member is a pointer to your
-device probe function; the <tt/attach/ member is a pointer to your
-attach function. The <tt/name/ member is a character pointer to the
-two or three letter name for your driver. This is the name reported
-during the probe/attach process (and probably also in
-<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?lsdev(8)" name="lsdev(8)">). The
-<tt/sensitive_hw/ member is a flag which helps the probe code
-determine probing order.
-
-A typical instantiation is:
-<code>
-struct isa_driver mcddriver = { mcd_probe, mcd_attach, "mcd" };
-</code>
-
-<sect2> Entry Points
-
-<sect3> probe()
-<p>
-probe() takes a <tt/struct isa_device/ pointer as an argument and returns
-an int. The return value is ``zero'' or ``non-zero'' as to the absence
-or presence of your device. This entry point may (and probably should)
-be declared as <tt/static/ because it is accessed via the <tt/probe/ member
-of the <tt/struct isa_driver/ structure. This function is intended
-to detect the presence of your device only; it should not do any
-configuration of the device itself.
-
-<sect3> attach()
-<p>
-attach() also takes a <tt/struct isa_device/ pointer as an argument and
-returns an int. The return value is also ``zero'' or ``non-zero'' indicating
-whether or not the attach was successful. This function is intended
-to do any special initialization of the device as well as confirm that
-the device is usable. It too should be declared <tt/static/ because
-it is accessed through the <tt/attach/ member of the <tt/isa_driver/
-structure.
-
-<sect2> Header Files
-
-<sect1> EISA -- Extended Industry Standard Architecture
-
-<sect2> Data Structures
-
-<p> <tt/struct eisa_dev/ Structure
-<p> <tt/struct isa_driver/ Structure
-
-<sect2> Entry Points
-
-<sect3> probe()
-<p> Described in the ISA device section.
-
-<sect3> attach()
-<p> Described in the ISA device section.
-
-<sect2> Header Files
-
-<sect1> PCI -- Peripheral Computer Interconnect
-<sect2> Data Structures
-
-<p> <tt/struct pci_device/ Structure
-
- name: The short device name.
-
- probe: Checks if the driver can support a device
- with this type. The tag may be used to get
- more info with pci_read_conf(). See below.
- It returns a string with the device's name,
- or a NULL pointer, if the driver cannot
- support this device.
-
- attach: Allocate a control structure and prepare
- it. This function may use the PCI mapping
- functions. See below.
- (configuration id) or type.
-
- count: A pointer to a unit counter.
- It's used by the PCI configurator to
- allocate unit numbers.
-
-<sect2> Entry Points
-
-<sect3> probe()
-
-<sect3> attach()
-
-<sect3> shutdown()
-
-<sect2> Header Files
-
-<sect1> SCSI -- Small Computer Systems Interface
-<sect2> Data Structures
-
-<p> <tt/struct scsi_adapter/ Structure
-<p> <tt/struct scsi_device/ Structure
-<p> <tt/struct scsi_ctlr_config/ Structure
-<p> <tt/struct scsi_device_config/ Structure
-<p> <tt/struct scsi_link/ Structure
-
-<sect2> Entry Points
-<sect3> attach()
-<sect3> init()
-
-<sect2> Header Files
-
-<sect1> PCCARD (PCMCIA)
-<sect2> Data Structures
-<p> <tt/struct slot_cont/ Structure
-<p> <tt/struct pccard_drv/ Structure
-<p> <tt/struct pccard_dev/ Structure
-<p> <tt/struct slot/ Structure
-
-<sect2> Entry Points
-<sect3> handler()
-<sect3> unload()
-<sect3> suspend()
-<sect3> init()
-
-<sect2> Header Files
- a. &lt;pccard/slot.h&gt;
-
-<sect> Linking Into the Kernel.
-
-<p>
-In FreeBSD, support for the ISA and EISA busses is i386 specific.
-While FreeBSD itself is presently available on the i386 platform,
-some effort has been made to make the PCI, PCCARD, and SCSI code
-portable. The ISA and EISA specific code resides in
-/usr/src/sys/i386/isa and /usr/src/sys/i386/eisa respectively.
-The machine independent PCI, PCCARD, and SCSI code reside in
-/usr/src/sys/{pci,pccard,scsi}. The i386 specific code for these
-reside in /usr/src/sys/i386/{pci,pccard,scsi}.
-
-<p>
-In FreeBSD, a device driver can be either binary or source. There is
-no ``official'' place for binary drivers to reside. BSD/OS uses
-something like sys/i386/OBJ. Since most drivers are distributed
-in source, the following discussion refers to a source driver.
-Binary only drivers are sometimes provided by hardware vendors
-who wish to maintain the source as proprietary.
-
-<p>
-A typical driver has the source code in one c-file, say dev.c. The
-driver also can have some include files; devreg.h typically contains
-public device register declarations, macros, and other driver
-specific declarations. Some drivers call this devvar.h instead.
-Some drivers, such as the dgb (for the Digiboard PC/Xe),
-require microcode to be loaded onto the board. For the dgb driver
-the microcode is compiled and dumped into a header file ala
-<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?file2c(1)" name="file2c(1)">.
-
-<p>
-If the driver has data structures and ioctl's which are specific to
-the driver/device, and need to be accessible from user-space, they
-should be put in a separate include file which will reside in
-/usr/include/machine/ (some of these reside in /usr/include/sys/).
-These are typically named something like ioctl_dev.h or devio.h.
-
-<p>
-If a driver is being written which, from user space is
-identical to a device which already exists, care should be taken to
-use the same ioctl interface and data structures. For example, from
-user space, a SCSI CDROM drive should be identical to an IDE cdrom
-drive; or a serial line on an intelligent multiport card (Digiboard,
-Cyclades, ...) should be identical to the sio devices. These devices
-have a fairly well defined interface which should be used.
-
-<p>
-There are two methods for linking a driver into the kernel, static and
-the LKM model. The first method is fairly standard across the
-*BSD family. The other method was originally developed by Sun
-(I believe), and has been implemented into BSD using the Sun model.
-I don't believe that the current implementation uses any Sun code.
-
-<sect1> Standard Model
-
-<p>
-The steps required to add your driver to the standard FreeBSD kernel are
-<itemize>
-<item> Add to the driver list
-<item> Add an entry to the &lsqb;bc&rsqb;devsw
-<item> Add the driver entry to the kernel config file
-<item> <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?config(8)" name="config(8)">,
-compile, and install the kernel
-<item> make required nodes.
-<item> reboot.
-</itemize>
-
-<sect2> Adding to the driver list.
-<p>
-The standard model for adding a device driver to the Berkeley kernel
-is to add your driver to the list of known devices. This list is
-dependent on the CPU architecture. If the device is not i386 specific
-(PCCARD, PCI, SCSI), the file is in ``/usr/src/sys/conf/files''.
-If the device is i386 specific, use ``/usr/src/sys/i386/conf/files.i386''.
-A typical line looks like:
-<tscreen><code>
-i386/isa/joy.c optional joy device-driver
-</code></tscreen>
-
-The first field is the pathname of the driver module relative to
-/usr/src/sys. For the case of a binary driver the path would be
-something like ``i386/OBJ/joy.o''.
-
-The second field tells
-<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?config(8)" name="config(8)">
-that this is an optional driver. Some
-devices are required for the kernel to even be built.
-
-The third field is the name of the device.
-
-The fourth field tells config that it's a device driver (as opposed to
-just optional). This causes config to create entries for the device
-in some structures in /usr/src/sys/compile/KERNEL/ioconf.c.
-
-It is also possible to create a file
-``/usr/src/sys/i386/conf/files.KERNEL'' whose contents will override
-the default files.i386, but only for the kernel ``KERNEL''.
-
-<sect2>Make room in conf.c
-<p>
-Now you must edit ``/usr/src/sys/i386/i386/conf.c'' to make an entry
-for your driver. Somewhere near the top, you need to declare your
-entry points. The entry for the joystick driver is:
-<code>
-#include "joy.h"
-#if NJOY > 0
-d_open_t joyopen;
-d_close_t joyclose;
-d_rdwr_t joyread;
-d_ioctl_t joyioctl;
-#else
-#define joyopen nxopen
-#define joyclose nxclose
-#define joyread nxread
-#define joyioctl nxioctl
-#endif
-</code>
-
-This either defines your entry points, or null entry points which
-will return ENXIO when called (the #else clause).
-
-The include file ``joy.h'' is automatically generated by
-<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?config(8)" name="config(8)"> when
-the kernel build tree is created. This usually has only one line like:
-<code>
-#define NJOY 1
-</code>
-or
-<code>
-#define NJOY 0
-</code>
-which defines the number of your devices in your kernel.
-
-You must additionally add a slot to either cdevsw&lsqb;&rsqb, or to
-bdevsw&lsqb;&rsqb, depending on whether it is a character device or
-a block device, or both if it is a block device with a raw interface.
-The entry for the joystick driver is:
-
-<code>
-/* open, close, read, write, ioctl, stop, reset, ttys, select, mmap, strat */
-struct cdevsw cdevsw[] =
-{
- ...
- { joyopen, joyclose, joyread, nowrite, /*51*/
- joyioctl, nostop, nullreset, nodevtotty,/*joystick */
- seltrue, nommap, NULL},
- ...
-}
-</code>
-
-Order is what determines the major number of your device. Which is why
-there will always be an entry for your driver, either null entry
-points, or actual entry points. It is probably worth noting that this
-is significantly different from SCO and other system V derivatives,
-where any device can (in theory) have any major number. This is
-largely a convenience on FreeBSD, due to the way device nodes are
-created. More on this later.
-
-<sect2>Adding your device to the config file.
-<p>
-This is simply adding a line describing your device.
-The joystick description line is:
-<verb>
-device joy0 at isa? port "IO_GAME"
-</verb>
-This says we have a device called ``joy0'' on the isa bus using
-io-port ``IO_GAME'' (IO_GAME is a macro defined in
-/usr/src/sys/i386/isa/isa.h).
-
-A slightly more complicated entry is for the ``ix'' driver:
-<verb>
-device ix0 at isa? port 0x300 net irq 10 iomem 0xd0000 iosiz 32768 vector ixintr
-</verb>
-This says that we have a device called `ix0' on the ISA bus. It uses
-io-port 0x300. It's interrupt will be masked with other devices in
-the network class. It uses interrupt 10. It uses
-32k of shared memory at physical address 0xd0000. It also defines
-it's interrupt handler to be ``ixintr()''
-
-<sect2><htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?config(8)" name="config(8)">
-the kernel.
-<p>
-Now with our config file in hand, we can create a kernel compile directory.
-This is done by simply typing:
-<verb>
-# config KERNEL
-</verb>
-where KERNEL is the name of your config file. Config creates a
-compile tree for you kernel in /usr/src/sys/compile/KERNEL. It
-creates the Makefile, some .c files, and some .h files with macros
-defining the number of each device in your kernel.
-
-Now you can go to the compile directory and build. Each time you run
-config, your previous build tree will be removed, unless you config
-with a -n. If you have config'ed and compiled a GENERIC kernel, you can
-``make links'' to avoid compiling a few files on each iteration. I typically
-run
-<verb>
-# make depend links all
-</verb>
-followed by a ``make install'' when the kernel is done to my liking.
-
-<sect2>Making device nodes.
-<p>
-On FreeBSD, you are responsible for making your own device nodes. The
-major number of your device is determined by the slot number in the
-device switch. Minor number is driver dependent, of course. You can
-either run the mknod's from the command line, or add a section to
-/dev/MAKEDEV.local, or even /dev/MAKEDEV to do the work. I sometimes
-create a MAKEDEV.dev script that can be run stand-alone or pasted
-into /dev/MAKEDEV.local
-
-<sect2>Reboot.
-<p>
-This is the easy part. There are a number of ways to do this, reboot,
-fastboot, shutdown -r, cycle the power, etc. Upon bootup you should
-see your XXprobe() called, and if all is successful, your XXattach()
-too.
-
-<sect1> Loadable Kernel Module (LKM)
-
-<p>
-There are really no defined procedures for writing an LKM driver. The
-following is my own conception after experimenting with the LKM device
-interface and looking at the standard device driver model, this is one
-way of adding an LKM interface to an existing driver without touching
-the original driver source (or binary). It is recommended though,
-that if you plan to release source to your driver, the LKM specific
-parts should be part of the driver itself, conditionally compiled
-on the LKM macro (i.e. #ifdef LKM).
-
-This section will focus on writing the LKM specific part of the driver. We
-will assume that we have written a driver which will drop into the standard
-device driver model, which we would now like to implement as an LKM. We will
-use the pcaudio driver as a sample driver, and develop an LKM front-end. The
-source and makefile for the pcaudio LKM, ``pcaudio_lkm.c'' and ``Makefile'',
-should be placed in /usr/src/lkm/pcaudio. What follows is a breakdown of
-pcaudio_lkm.c.
-
-Lines 17 - 26
-
- -- This includes the file ``pca.h'' and conditionally compiles the rest
-of the LKM on whether or not we have a pcaudio device defined. This
-mimics the behavior of config. In a standard device driver,
-<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?config(8)" name="config(8)">
-generates the pca.h file from the number pca devices in the config file.
-<code>
- 17 /*
- 18 * figure out how many devices we have..
- 19 */
- 20
- 21 #include "pca.h"
- 22
- 23 /*
- 24 * if we have at least one ...
- 25 */
- 26 #if NPCA > 0
-</code>
-
-Lines 27 - 37
-
- -- Includes required files from various include directories.
-<code>
- 27 #include <sys/param.h>
- 28 #include <sys/systm.h>
- 29 #include <sys/exec.h>
- 30 #include <sys/conf.h>
- 31 #include <sys/sysent.h>
- 32 #include <sys/lkm.h>
- 33 #include <sys/errno.h>
- 34 #include <i386/isa/isa_device.h>
- 35 #include <i386/isa/isa.h>
- 36
- 37
-</code>
-
-Lines 38 - 51
-
- -- Declares the device driver entry points as external.
-<code>
- 38 /*
- 39 * declare your entry points as externs
- 40 */
- 41
- 42 extern int pcaprobe(struct isa_device *);
- 43 extern int pcaattach(struct isa_device *);
- 44 extern int pcaopen(dev_t, int, int, struct proc *);
- 45 extern int pcaclose(dev_t, int, int, struct proc *);
- 46 extern int pcawrite(dev_t, struct uio *, int);
- 47 extern int pcaioctl(dev_t, int, caddr_t);
- 48 extern int pcaselect(dev_t, int, struct proc *);
- 49 extern void pcaintr(struct clockframe *);
- 50 extern struct isa_driver pcadriver;
- 51
-</code>
-
-Lines 52 - 70
-
- -- This is creates the device switch entry table for your driver.
-This table gets swapped wholesale into the system device switch at
-the location specified by your major number. In the standard model,
-these are in /usr/src/sys/i386/i386/conf.c. NOTE: you cannot pick a
-device major number higher than what exists in conf.c, for example at
-present, conf.c rev 1.85, there are 67 slots for character devices,
-you cannot use a (character) major device number 67 or greater,
-without first reserving space in conf.c.
-<code>
- 52 /*
- 53 * build your device switch entry table
- 54 */
- 55
- 56 static struct cdevsw pcacdevsw = {
- 57 (d_open_t *) pcaopen, /* open */
- 58 (d_close_t *) pcaclose, /* close */
- 59 (d_rdwr_t *) enodev, /* read */
- 60 (d_rdwr_t *) pcawrite, /* write */
- 61 (d_ioctl_t *) pcaioctl, /* ioctl */
- 62 (d_stop_t *) enodev, /* stop?? */
- 63 (d_reset_t *) enodev, /* reset */
- 64 (d_ttycv_t *) enodev, /* ttys */
- 65 (d_select_t *) pcaselect, /* select */
- 66 (d_mmap_t *) enodev, /* mmap */
- 67 (d_strategy_t *) enodev /* strategy */
- 68 };
- 69
- 70
-</code>
-
-Lines 71 - 131
-
- -- This section is analogous to the config file declaration of your
-device. The members of the isa_device structure are filled in by what
-is known about your device, I/O port, shared memory segment, etc. We
-will probably never have a need for two pcaudio devices in the kernel,
-but this example shows how multiple devices can be supported.
-<code>
- 71 /*
- 72 * this lkm arbitrarily supports two
- 73 * instantiations of the pc-audio device.
- 74 *
- 75 * this is for illustration purposes
- 76 * only, it doesn't make much sense
- 77 * to have two of these beasts...
- 78 */
- 79
- 80
- 81 /*
- 82 * these have a direct correlation to the
- 83 * config file entries...
- 84 */
- 85 struct isa_device pcadev[NPCA] = {
- 86 {
- 87 11, /* device id */
- 88 &amp;pcadriver, /* driver pointer */
- 89 IO_TIMER1, /* base io address */
- 90 -1, /* interrupt */
- 91 -1, /* dma channel */
- 92 (caddr_t)-1, /* physical io memory */
- 93 0, /* size of io memory */
- 94 pcaintr , /* interrupt interface */
- 95 0, /* unit number */
- 96 0, /* flags */
- 97 0, /* scsi id */
- 98 0, /* is alive */
- 99 0, /* flags for register_intr */
- 100 0, /* hot eject device support */
- 101 1 /* is device enabled */
- 102 },
- 103 #if NPCA >1
- 104 {
- 105
- 106 /*
- 107 * these are all zeros, because it doesn't make
- 108 * much sense to be here
- 109 * but it may make sense for your device
- 110 */
- 111
- 112 0, /* device id */
- 113 &amp;pcadriver, /* driver pointer */
- 114 0, /* base io address */
- 115 -1, /* interrupt */
- 116 -1, /* dma channel */
- 117 -1, /* physical io memory */
- 118 0, /* size of io memory */
- 119 NULL, /* interrupt interface */
- 120 1, /* unit number */
- 121 0, /* flags */
- 122 0, /* scsi id */
- 123 0, /* is alive */
- 124 0, /* flags for register_intr */
- 125 0, /* hot eject device support */
- 126 1 /* is device enabled */
- 127 },
- 128 #endif
- 129
- 130 };
- 131
-</code>
-
-Lines 132 - 139
-
- -- This calls the C-preprocessor macro MOD_DEV, which sets up an LKM device
-driver, as opposed to an LKM filesystem, or an LKM system call.
-<code>
- 132 /*
- 133 * this macro maps to a function which
- 134 * sets the LKM up for a driver
- 135 * as opposed to a filesystem, system call, or misc
- 136 * LKM.
- 137 */
- 138 MOD_DEV("pcaudio_mod", LM_DT_CHAR, 24, &amp;pcacdevsw);
- 139
-</code>
-
-Lines 140 - 168
-
- -- This is the function which will be called when the driver is
-loaded. This function tries to work like sys/i386/isa/isa.c
-which does the probe/attach calls for a driver at boot time. The
-biggest trick here is that it maps the physical address of the shared
-memory segment, which is specified in the isa_device structure to a
-kernel virtual address. Normally the physical address is put in the
-config file which builds the isa_device structures in
-/usr/src/sys/compile/KERNEL/ioconf.c. The probe/attach sequence of
-/usr/src/sys/isa/isa.c translates the physical address to a virtual
-one so that in your probe/attach routines you can do things like
-<verb>
-(int *)id->id_maddr = something;
-</verb>
-and just refer to the shared memory segment via pointers.
-<code>
- 140 /*
- 141 * this function is called when the module is
- 142 * loaded; it tries to mimic the behavior
- 143 * of the standard probe/attach stuff from
- 144 * isa.c
- 145 */
- 146 int
- 147 pcaload(){
- 148 int i;
- 149 uprintf("PC Audio Driver Loaded\n");
- 150 for (i=0; i<NPCA; i++){
- 151 /*
- 152 * this maps the shared memory address
- 153 * from physical to virtual, to be
- 154 * consistent with the way
- 155 * /usr/src/sys/i386/isa.c handles it.
- 156 */
- 157 pcadev[i].id_maddr -=0xa0000;
- 158 pcadev[i].id_maddr += atdevbase;
- 159 if ((*pcadriver.probe)(pcadev+i)) {
- 160 (*(pcadriver.attach))(pcadev+i);
- 161 } else {
- 162 uprintf("PC Audio Probe Failed\n");
- 163 return(1);
- 164 }
- 165 }
- 166 return 0;
- 167 }
- 168
-</code>
-
-Lines 169 - 179
-
- -- This is the function called when your driver is unloaded; it just displays
-a message to that effect.
-<code>
- 169 /*
- 170 * this function is called
- 171 * when the module is unloaded
- 172 */
- 173
- 174 int
- 175 pcaunload(){
- 176 uprintf("PC Audio Driver Unloaded\n");
- 177 return 0;
- 178 }
- 179
-</code>
-
-Lines 180 - 190
-
- -- This is the entry point which is specified on the command line of the
-modload. By convention it is named &lt;dev&gt;_mod. This is how it is
-defined in bsd.lkm.mk, the makefile which builds the LKM. If you name your
-module following this convention, you can do ``make load'' and ``make
-unload'' from /usr/src/lkm/pcaudio. <p>
-Note: this has gone through <em/many/ revisions from release 2.0 to 2.1.
-It may or may not be possible to write a module which is portable across
-all three releases. <p>
-<code>
- 180 /*
- 181 * this is the entry point specified
- 182 * on the modload command line
- 183 */
- 184
- 185 int
- 186 pcaudio_mod(struct lkm_table *lkmtp, int cmd, int ver)
- 187 {
- 188 DISPATCH(lkmtp, cmd, ver, pcaload, pcaunload, nosys);
- 189 }
- 190
- 191 #endif /* NICP > 0 */
-</code>
-
-<sect1> Device Type Idiosyncrasies
-<sect2> Character
-<sect2> Block
-<sect2> Network
-<sect2> Line Discipline
-
-<sect1> Bus Type Idiosyncrasies
-<sect2> ISA
-<sect2> EISA
-<sect2> PCI
-<sect2> SCSI
-<sect2> PCCARD
-
-<sect> Kernel Support
-
-<sect1> Data Structures
-
-<sect2> <tt/struct kern_devconf/ Structure
-<p>
-
-This structure contains some information about the state of the device
-and driver. It is defined in /usr/src/sys/sys/devconf.h as:
-<code>
-struct devconf {
- char dc_name[MAXDEVNAME]; /* name */
- char dc_descr[MAXDEVDESCR]; /* description */
- int dc_unit; /* unit number */
- int dc_number; /* unique id */
- char dc_pname[MAXDEVNAME]; /* name of the parent device */
- int dc_punit; /* unit number of the parent */
- int dc_pnumber; /* unique id of the parent */
- struct machdep_devconf dc_md; /* machine-dependent stuff */
- enum dc_state dc_state; /* state of the device (see above) */
- enum dc_class dc_class; /* type of device (see above) */
- size_t dc_datalen; /* length of data */
- char dc_data[1]; /* variable-length data */
-};
-</code>
-
-<sect2> <tt/struct proc/ Structure
-<p>
-
-This structure contains all the information about a process.
-It is defined in /usr/src/sys/sys/proc.h:
-<code>
-/*
- * Description of a process.
- *
- * This structure contains the information needed to manage a thread of
- * control, known in UN*X as a process; it has references to substructures
- * containing descriptions of things that the process uses, but may share
- * with related processes. The process structure and the substructures
- * are always addressable except for those marked "(PROC ONLY)" below,
- * which might be addressable only on a processor on which the process
- * is running.
- */
-struct proc {
- struct proc *p_forw; /* Doubly-linked run/sleep queue. */
- struct proc *p_back;
- struct proc *p_next; /* Linked list of active procs */
- struct proc **p_prev; /* and zombies. */
-
- /* substructures: */
- struct pcred *p_cred; /* Process owner's identity. */
- struct filedesc *p_fd; /* Ptr to open files structure. */
- struct pstats *p_stats; /* Accounting/statistics (PROC ONLY). */ struct plimit *p_limit; /* Process limits. */
- struct vmspace *p_vmspace; /* Address space. */
- struct sigacts *p_sigacts; /* Signal actions, state (PROC ONLY). */
-
-#define p_ucred p_cred->pc_ucred
-#define p_rlimit p_limit->pl_rlimit
-
- int p_flag; /* P_* flags. */
- char p_stat; /* S* process status. */
- char p_pad1[3];
-
- pid_t p_pid; /* Process identifier. */
- struct proc *p_hash; /* Hashed based on p_pid for kill+exit+... */
- struct proc *p_pgrpnxt; /* Pointer to next process in process group. */
- struct proc *p_pptr; /* Pointer to process structure of parent. */
- struct proc *p_osptr; /* Pointer to older sibling processes. */
-
-/* The following fields are all zeroed upon creation in fork. */
-#define p_startzero p_ysptr
- struct proc *p_ysptr; /* Pointer to younger siblings. */
- struct proc *p_cptr; /* Pointer to youngest living child. */
- pid_t p_oppid; /* Save parent pid during ptrace. XXX */
- int p_dupfd; /* Sideways return value from fdopen. XXX */
-
- /* scheduling */
- u_int p_estcpu; /* Time averaged value of p_cpticks. */
- int p_cpticks; /* Ticks of cpu time. */
- fixpt_t p_pctcpu; /* %cpu for this process during p_swtime */
- void *p_wchan; /* Sleep address. */
- char *p_wmesg; /* Reason for sleep. */
- u_int p_swtime; /* Time swapped in or out. */
- u_int p_slptime; /* Time since last blocked. */
-
- struct itimerval p_realtimer; /* Alarm timer. */
- struct timeval p_rtime; /* Real time. */
- u_quad_t p_uticks; /* Statclock hits in user mode. */
- u_quad_t p_sticks; /* Statclock hits in system mode. */
- u_quad_t p_iticks; /* Statclock hits processing intr. */
-
- int p_traceflag; /* Kernel trace points. */
- struct vnode *p_tracep; /* Trace to vnode. */
-
- int p_siglist; /* Signals arrived but not delivered. */
-
- struct vnode *p_textvp; /* Vnode of executable. */
-
- char p_lock; /* Process lock (prevent swap) count. */
- char p_pad2[3]; /* alignment */
-
-/* End area that is zeroed on creation. */
-#define p_endzero p_startcopy
-
-/* The following fields are all copied upon creation in fork. */
-#define p_startcopy p_sigmask
-
- sigset_t p_sigmask; /* Current signal mask. */
- sigset_t p_sigignore; /* Signals being ignored. */
- sigset_t p_sigcatch; /* Signals being caught by user. */
-
- u_char p_priority; /* Process priority. */
- u_char p_usrpri; /* User-priority based on p_cpu and p_nice. */
- char p_nice; /* Process "nice" value. */
- char p_comm[MAXCOMLEN+1];
-
- struct pgrp *p_pgrp; /* Pointer to process group. */
-
- struct sysentvec *p_sysent; /* System call dispatch information. */
-
- struct rtprio p_rtprio; /* Realtime priority. */
-/* End area that is copied on creation. */
-#define p_endcopy p_addr
- struct user *p_addr; /* Kernel virtual addr of u-area (PROC ONLY). */
- struct mdproc p_md; /* Any machine-dependent fields. */
-
- u_short p_xstat; /* Exit status for wait; also stop signal. */
- u_short p_acflag; /* Accounting flags. */
- struct rusage *p_ru; /* Exit information. XXX */
-};
-</code>
-
-<sect2> <tt/struct buf/ Structure
-<p>
-The <tt/struct buf/ structure is used to interface with the buffer cache.
-It is defined in /usr/src/sys/sys/buf.h:
-
-<code>
-/*
- * The buffer header describes an I/O operation in the kernel.
- */
-struct buf {
- LIST_ENTRY(buf) b_hash; /* Hash chain. */
- LIST_ENTRY(buf) b_vnbufs; /* Buffer's associated vnode. */
- TAILQ_ENTRY(buf) b_freelist; /* Free list position if not active. */
- struct buf *b_actf, **b_actb; /* Device driver queue when active. */
- struct proc *b_proc; /* Associated proc; NULL if kernel. */
- volatile long b_flags; /* B_* flags. */
- int b_qindex; /* buffer queue index */
- int b_error; /* Errno value. */
- long b_bufsize; /* Allocated buffer size. */
- long b_bcount; /* Valid bytes in buffer. */
- long b_resid; /* Remaining I/O. */
- dev_t b_dev; /* Device associated with buffer. */
- struct {
- caddr_t b_addr; /* Memory, superblocks, indirect etc. */
- } b_un;
- void *b_saveaddr; /* Original b_addr for physio. */
- daddr_t b_lblkno; /* Logical block number. */
- daddr_t b_blkno; /* Underlying physical block number. */
- /* Function to call upon completion. */
- void (*b_iodone) __P((struct buf *));
- /* For nested b_iodone's. */
- struct iodone_chain *b_iodone_chain;
- struct vnode *b_vp; /* Device vnode. */
- int b_pfcent; /* Center page when swapping cluster. */
- int b_dirtyoff; /* Offset in buffer of dirty region. */
- int b_dirtyend; /* Offset of end of dirty region. */
- struct ucred *b_rcred; /* Read credentials reference. */
- struct ucred *b_wcred; /* Write credentials reference. */
- int b_validoff; /* Offset in buffer of valid region. */
- int b_validend; /* Offset of end of valid region. */
- daddr_t b_pblkno; /* physical block number */
- caddr_t b_savekva; /* saved kva for transfer while bouncing
- */
- void *b_driver1; /* for private use by the driver */
- void *b_driver2; /* for private use by the driver */
- void *b_spc;
- struct vm_page *b_pages[(MAXPHYS + PAGE_SIZE - 1)/PAGE_SIZE];
- int b_npages;
-};
-</code>
-
-<sect2> <tt/struct uio/ Structure
-<p>
-This structure is used for moving data between the kernel and user spaces
-through read() and write() system calls. It is defined in
-/usr/src/sys/sys/uio.h:
-<code>
-struct uio {
- struct iovec *uio_iov;
- int uio_iovcnt;
- off_t uio_offset;
- int uio_resid;
- enum uio_seg uio_segflg;
- enum uio_rw uio_rw;
- struct proc *uio_procp;
-};
-
-</code>
-
-<sect1> Functions
-lots of 'em
-
-<sect> References.
-
-<p> FreeBSD Kernel Sources http://www.freebsd.org
-<p> NetBSD Kernel Sources http://www.netbsd.org
-<p> Writing Device Drivers: Tutorial and Reference;
-Tim Burke, Mark A. Parenti, Al, Wojtas;
-Digital Press, ISBN 1-55558-141-2.
-
-<p> Writing A Unix Device Driver;
-Janet I. Egan, Thomas J. Teixeira;
-John Wiley &amp; Sons, ISBN 0-471-62859-X.
-
-<p> Writing Device Drivers for SCO Unix;
-Peter Kettle;
-
-</article>
diff --git a/en/tutorials/devel/Makefile b/en/tutorials/devel/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 72c7507f01..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/devel/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,7 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.4 1997-07-01 05:38:11 max Exp $
-
-DOCS= devel.docb
-INDEXLINK= devel.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
-
diff --git a/en/tutorials/devel/devel.docb b/en/tutorials/devel/devel.docb
deleted file mode 100644
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--- a/en/tutorials/devel/devel.docb
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,1835 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: devel.docb,v 1.3 1997-08-17 17:33:49 jfieber Exp $ -->
-<!-- The FreeBSD Documentation Project -->
-
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-<book>
-<bookinfo>
-<bookbiblio>
-<title>A User's Guide to FreeBSD Programming Tools</title>
-
-<authorgroup>
-<author>
-<firstname>James</firstname>
-<surname>Raynard</surname>
-<affiliation>
-<address>
-<email>jraynard@freebsd.org</email>
-</address>
-</affiliation>
-</author></authorgroup>
-
-<pubdate>August 17, 1997</pubdate>
-
-<copyright>
-<year>1997</year>
-<holder>James Raynard</holder>
-</copyright>
-
-<abstract><para>This document is an introduction to using some of the programming
-tools supplied with FreeBSD, although much of it will be applicable to
-many other versions of Unix. It does <emphasis>not</emphasis> attempt to describe
-coding in any detail. Most of the document assumes little or no
-previous programming knowledge, although it is hoped that most
-programmers will find something of value in it</para></abstract>
-</bookbiblio>
-</bookinfo>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Introduction<anchor id=foo></title>
-
-<para>FreeBSD offers an excellent development environment. Compilers
-for C, C++, and Fortran and an assembler come with the basic system,
-not to mention a Perl interpreter and classic Unix tools such as
-<command>sed</> and <command>awk</>. If that is not enough, there are
-many more compilers and interpreters in the Ports collection. FreeBSD
-is very compatible with standards such as <acronym>POSIX</> and
-<acronym>ANSI</> C, as well with its own BSD heritage, so it is
-possible to write applications that will compile and run with little
-or no modification on a wide range of platforms.</para>
-
-<para>However, all this power can be rather overwhelming at first if
-you've never written programs on a Unix platform before. This
-document aims to help you get up and running, without getting too
-deeply into more advanced topics. The intention is that this document
-should give you enough of the basics to be able to make some sense of
-the documentation.</para>
-
-<para>Most of the document requires little or no knowledge of
-programming, although it does assume a basic competence with using
-Unix and a willingness to learn!</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Introduction to Programming</title>
-
-<para>A program is a set of instructions that tell the computer to do
-various things; sometimes the instruction it has to perform depends
-on what happened when it performed a previous instruction. This
-section gives an overview of the two main ways in which you can give
-these instructions, or <quote>commands</quote> as they are usually
-called. One way uses an <firstterm>interpreter</>, the other a
-<firstterm>compiler</>. As human languages are too difficult for a
-computer to understand in an unambiguous way, commands are usually
-written in one or other languages specially designed for the
-purpose.</para>
-
-
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Interpreters</title>
-
-<para>With an interpreter, the language comes as an environment, where you
-type in commands at a prompt and the environment executes them for
-you. For more complicated programs, you can type the commands into a
-file and get the interpreter to load the file and execute the commands
-in it. If anything goes wrong, many interpreters will drop you into a
-debugger to help you track down the problem.</para>
-
-<para>The advantage of this is that you can see the results of your
-commands immediately, and mistakes can be corrected readily. The
-biggest disadvantage comes when you want to share your programs with
-someone. They must have the same interpreter, or you must have some
-way of giving it to them, and they need to understand how to use it.
-Also users may not appreciate being thrown into a debugger if they
-press the wrong key! From a performance point of view, interpreters
-can use up a lot of memory, and generally do not generate code as
-efficiently as compilers.</para>
-
-<para>In my opinion, interpreted languages are the best way to start
-if you have not done any programming before. This kind of environment
-is typically found with languages like Lisp, Smalltalk, Perl and
-Basic. It could also be argued that the Unix shell (<command>sh</>,
-<command>csh</>) is itself an interpreter, and many people do in fact
-write shell <quote>scripts</quote> to help with various
-<quote>housekeeping</> tasks on their machine. Indeed, part of the
-original Unix philosophy was to provide lots of small utility
-programs that could be linked together in shell scripts to perform
-useful tasks.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Interpreters available with FreeBSD</title>
-
-<para>Here is a list of interpreters that are available as <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/">FreeBSD
-packages</ulink>, with a brief discussion of some of the more popular
-interpreted languages. </para>
-
-<para>To get one of these packages, all you need to do is to click on
-the hotlink for the package, then run
-<screen>$ <userinput>pkg_add <replaceable>package name</></userinput></screen>
-</para>
-
-<para>as root. Obviously, you will need to have a fully functional FreeBSD
-2.1.0 or later system for the package to work!</para>
-
-<para>
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><acronym>BASIC</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Short for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction
-Code. Developed in the 1950s for teaching University students to
-program and provided with every self-respecting personal computer in
-the 1980s, <acronym>BASIC</> has been the first programming language
-for many programmers. It's also the foundation for <trademark>Visual
-Basic</>.</para>
-
-<para>The <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/bwbasic-2.10.tgz">Bywater
-Basic Interpreter</ulink> and the <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/pbasic-2.0.tgz">Phil
-Cockroft's Basic Interpreter</ulink> (formerly Rabbit Basic) are
-available as FreeBSD <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/">FreeBSD
-packages</ulink></para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Lisp</term>
-<listitem><para>A language that was developed in the late 1950s as an alternative to
-the <quote>number-crunching</quote> languages that were popular at the time.
-Instead of being based on numbers, Lisp is based on lists; in fact
-the name is short for <quote>List Processing</quote>. Very popular in AI
-(Artificial Intelligence) circles.</para>
-
-<para>Lisp is an extremely powerful and sophisticated language, but
-can be rather large and unwieldy. </para>
-
-<para>FreeBSD has <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/gcl-2.0.tgz">GNU
-Common Lisp</ulink> available as a package.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Perl</term>
-<listitem><para>Very popular with system administrators for writing
-scripts; also often used on World Wide Web servers for writing <acronym>CGI</>
-scripts.</para>
-
-<para>Version 4, which is probably still the most widely-used
-version, comes with FreeBSD; the newer <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/perl-5.001.tgz">Perl
-Version 5</ulink> is available as a package.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Scheme</term>
-<listitem><para>A dialect of Lisp that is rather more compact and
-cleaner than Common Lisp. Popular in Universities as it is simple
-enough to teach to undergraduates as a first language, while it has a
-high enough level of abstraction to be used in research work.</para>
-
-<para>FreeBSD has packages of the
-<ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/elk-3.0.tgz">Elk Scheme Interpreter</ulink>, the
-<ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/mit-scheme-7.3.tgz">MIT Scheme Interpreter</ulink> and the
-<ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/scm-4e1.tgz">SCM Scheme Interpreter</ulink>.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Icon</term>
-<listitem><para><ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/icon-9.0.tgz">The Icon Programming Language</ulink>.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Logo</term>
-<listitem><para><ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/ucblogo-3.3.tgz">Brian Harvey's LOGO Interpreter</ulink>.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Python</term>
-<listitem><para><ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/python-1.2">The Python Object-Oriented Programming Language</ulink></para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Compilers</title>
-
-<para>Compilers are rather different. First of all, you write your
-code in a file (or files) using an editor. You then run the compiler
-and see if it accepts your program. If it did not compile, grit your
-teeth and go back to the editor; if it did compile and gave you a
-program, you can run it either at a shell command prompt or in a
-debugger to see if it works properly.<footnote><para>If you run it in
-the shell, you may get a core dump.</para></footnote></para>
-
-<para>Obviously, this is not quite as direct as using an interpreter.
-However it allows you to do a lot of things which are very difficult
-or even impossible with an interpreter, such as writing code which
-interacts closely with the operating system&mdash;or even writing
-your own operating system! It's also useful if you need to write very
-efficient code, as the compiler can take its time and optimise the
-code, which would not be acceptable in an interpreter. And
-distributing a program written for a compiler is usually more
-straightforward than one written for an interpreter&mdash;you can just
-give them a copy of the executable, assuming they have the same
-operating system as you.</para>
-
-<para>Compiled languages include Pascal, C and C++. C and C++ are rather
-unforgiving languages, and best suited to more experienced
-programmers; Pascal, on the other hand, was designed as an educational
-language, and is quite a good language to start with. Unfortunately,
-FreeBSD doesn't have any Pascal support, except for a Pascal-to-C
-converter in the ports.</para>
-
-<para>As the edit-compile-run-debug cycle is rather tedious when
-using separate programs, many commercial compiler makers have
-produced Integrated Development Environments (<acronym>IDE</acronym>s
-for short). FreeBSD does not have an <acronym>IDE</> as such; however
-it is possible to use Emacs for this purpose. This is discussed in
-<xref linkend="emacs">.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Compiling with <command>cc</command></title>
-
-<para>This section deals only with the GNU compiler for C and C++,
-since that comes with the base FreeBSD system. It can be invoked by
-either <command>cc</> or <command>gcc</>. The details of producing a
-program with an interpreter vary considerably between interpreters,
-and are usually well covered in the documentation and on-line help
-for the interpreter.</para>
-
-<para>Once you've written your masterpiece, the next step is to convert it
-into something that will (hopefully!) run on FreeBSD. This usually
-involves several steps, each of which is done by a separate
-program.</para>
-
-<procedure>
-<step><para>Pre-process your source code to remove comments and do other
-tricks like expanding macros in C.
-</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Check the syntax of your code to see if you have obeyed the
-rules of the language. If you have not, it will complain!
-</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Convert the source code into assembly
-language&mdash;this is very close to machine code, but still
-understandable by humans. Allegedly.<footnote><para>To be strictly
-accurate, <command>cc</> converts the source code into its own,
-machine-independent <firstterm>p-code</> instead of assembly language
-at this stage.</para></footnote></para></step>
-
-<step><para>Convert the assembly language into machine
-code&mdash;yep, we are talking bits and bytes, ones and zeros
-here.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Check that you have used things like functions and global
-variables in a consistent way. For example, if you have called a
-non-existent function, it will complain.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>If you are trying to produce an executable from several
-source code files, work out how to fit them all together.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Work out how to produce something that the system's run-time
-loader will be able to load into memory and run.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Finally, write the executable on the file
-system.</para></step>
-
-</procedure>
-
-<para>The word <firstterm>compiling</> is often used to refer to just
-steps 1 to 4&mdash;the others are referred to as
-<firstterm>linking</>. Sometimes step 1 is referred to as
-<firstterm>pre-processing</> and steps 3-4 as
-<firstterm>assembling</>.</para>
-
-<para>Fortunately, almost all this detail is hidden from you, as
-<command>cc</> is a front end that manages calling all these programs
-with the right arguments for you; simply typing
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc foobar.c</></screen></para>
-
-<para>will cause <filename>foobar.c</> to be compiled by all the
-steps above. If you have more than one file to compile, just do
-something like
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc foo.c bar.c</></screen>
-</para>
-
-<para>Note that the syntax checking is just that&mdash;checking the
-syntax. It will not check for any logical mistakes you may have made,
-like putting the program into an infinite loop, or using a bubble
-sort when you meant to use a binary sort.<footnote><para>In case you
-didn't know, a binary sort is an efficient way of sorting things into
-order and a bubble sort isn't.</para></footnote></para>
-
-<para>There are lots and lots of options for <command>cc</>, which
-are all in the man page. Here are a few of the most important ones,
-with examples of how to use them.</para>
-
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><option>-o <replaceable>filename</replaceable></></term>
-
-<listitem><para>The output name of the file. If you do not use this
-option, <command>cc</> will produce an executable called
-<filename>a.out</>.<footnote><para>The reasons for this are buried in
-the mists of history.</para></footnote></para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc foobar.c</> <lineannotation>executable is <filename>a.out</></>
-$ <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c</> <lineannotation>executable is <filename>foobar</></></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-c</option></term>
-<listitem><para>Just compile the file, do not link it. Useful for toy
-programs where you just want to check the syntax, or if you are using
-a <filename>Makefile</filename>.</para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -c foobar.c</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>This will produce an <firstterm>object file</> (not an
-executable) called <filename>foobar.o</filename>. This can be linked
-together with other object files into an executable.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-g</option></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Create a debug version of the executable. This makes
-the compiler put information into the executable about which line of
-which source file corresponds to which function call. A debugger can
-use this information to show the source code as you step through the
-program, which is <emphasis>very</emphasis> useful; the disadvantage
-is that all this extra information makes the program much bigger.
-Normally, you compile with <option>-g</option> while you are
-developing a program and then compile a <quote>release
-version</quote> without <option>-g</option> when you're satisfied it
-works properly.</para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -g foobar.c</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>This will produce a debug version of the
-program.<footnote><para>Note, we didn't use the <option>-o</option>
-flag to specify the executable name, so we will get an executable
-called <filename>a.out</filename>. Producing a debug version called
-<filename>foobar</filename> is left as an exercise for the
-reader!</para></footnote></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-O</option></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Create an optimised version of the executable. The
-compiler performs various clever tricks to try and produce an
-executable that runs faster than normal. You can add a number after
-the <option>-O</option> to specify a higher level of optimisation,
-but this often exposes bugs in the compiler's optimiser. For
-instance, the version of <command>cc</command> that comes with the
-2.1.0 release of FreeBSD is known to produce bad code with the
-<option>-O2</option> option in some circumstances.</para>
-
-<para>Optimisation is usually only turned on when compiling a release
-version.</para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -O -o foobar foobar.c</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>This will produce an optimised version of
-<filename>foobar</filename>.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-
-<para>The following three flags will force <command>cc</command> to
-check that your code complies to the relevant international standard,
-often referred to as the <acronym>ANSI</acronym> standard, though
-strictly speaking it is an <acronym>ISO</acronym> standard.</para>
-
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-Wall</option></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Enable all the warnings which the authors of
-<command>cc</command> believe are worthwhile. Despite the name, it
-will not enable all the warnings <command>cc</command> is capable
-of.</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-ansi</option></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Turn off most, but not all, of the non-<acronym>ANSI</>&nbsp;C
-features provided by <command>cc</command>. Despite the name, it does
-not guarantee strictly that your code will comply to the
-standard.</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-pedantic</option></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Turn off <emphasis>all</emphasis>
-<command>cc</command>'s non-<acronym>ANSI</>&nbsp;C features.</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-
-<para>Without these flags, <command>cc</command> will allow you to
-use some of its non-standard extensions to the standard. Some of
-these are very useful, but will not work with other compilers&mdash;in
-fact, one of the main aims of the standard is to allow people to
-write code that will work with any compiler on any system. This is
-known as <firstterm>portable code</firstterm>.</para>
-
-<para>Generally, you should try to make your code as portable as
-possible, as otherwise you may have to completely re-write the
-program later to get it to work somewhere else&mdash;and who knows
-what you may be using in a few years time?</para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -Wall -ansi -pedantic -o foobar foobar.c</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>This will produce an executable <filename>foobar</filename>
-after checking <filename>foobar.c</filename> for standard
-compliance.</para>
-
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-l<replaceable>library</replaceable></option></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Specify a function library to be used during when
-linking.</para>
-
-<para>The most common example of this is when compiling a program that
-uses some of the mathematical functions in C. Unlike most other
-platforms, these are in a separate library from the standard C one
-and you have to tell the compiler to add it.</para>
-
-<para>The rule is that if the library is called
-<filename>lib<replaceable>something</replaceable>.a</filename>, you
-give <command>cc</command> the argument
-<option>-l<replaceable>something</replaceable></option>. For example,
-the math library is <filename>libm.a</filename>, so you give
-<command>cc</command> the argument <option>-lm</option>. A common
-<quote>gotcha</quote> with the math library is that it has to be the
-last library on the command line.</para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c -lm</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>This will link the math library functions into
-<filename>foobar</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>If you are compiling C++ code, you need to add
-<option>-lg++</option>, or <option>-lstdc++</option> if you are using
-FreeBSD 2.2 or later, to the command line argument to link the C++
-library functions. Alternatively, you can run <command>c++</command>
-instead of <command>cc</command>, which does this for you.
-<command>c++</command> can also be invoked as <command>g++</command>
-on FreeBSD.</para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.cc -lg++</userinput> <lineannotation>For FreeBSD 2.1.6 and earlier</>
-$ <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.cc -lstdc++</userinput> <lineannotation>For FreeBSD 2.2 and later</>
-$ <userinput>c++ -o foobar foobar.cc</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>Each of these will both produce an executable
-<filename>foobar</filename> from the C++ source file
-<filename>foobar.cc</filename>. Note that, on Unix systems, C++
-source files traditionally end in <filename>.C</filename>,
-<filename>.cxx</filename> or <filename>.cc</filename>, rather than
-the <trademark>MS-DOS</trademark> style <filename>.cpp</filename>
-(which was already used for something else). <command>gcc</command>
-used to rely on this to work out what kind of compiler to use on the
-source file; however, this restriction no longer applies, so you may
-now call your C++ files <filename>.cpp</filename> with
-impunity!</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Common <command>cc</command> Queries and Problems</title>
-
-<para>Q. I am trying to write a program which uses the
-<function>sin()</function> function and I get an error like this.
-What does it mean?
-<informalexample>
-<screen>/var/tmp/cc0143941.o: Undefined symbol `_sin' referenced from text segment</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>A. When using mathematical functions like
-<function>sin()</function>, you have to tell <command>cc</command> to
-link in the math library, like so:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c -lm</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>Q. All right, I wrote this simple program to practice using
-<option>-lm</option>. All it does is raise 2.1 to the power of 6.
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;
-
-int main() {
- float f;
-
- f = pow(2.1, 6);
- printf("2.1 ^ 6 = %f\n", f);
- return 0;
-}</programlisting>
-</informalexample>
-and I compiled it as:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc temp.c -lm</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-like you said I should, but I get this when I run it:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>./a.out</userinput>
-2.1 ^ 6 = 1023.000000</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>This is <emphasis>not</emphasis> the right answer! What is
-going on?</para>
-
-<para>A. When the compiler sees you call a function, it checks if it
-has already seen a prototype for it. If it has not, it assumes the
-function returns an <type>int</type>, which is
-definitely not what you want here.</para>
-
-<para>Q. So how do I fix this?</para>
-
-<para>A. The prototypes for the mathematical functions are in
-<filename>math.h</filename>. If you include this file, the compiler
-will be able to find the prototype and it will stop doing strange
-things to your calculation!
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>#include &lt;math.h&gt;
-#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;
-
-int main() {
-...</programlisting>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>After recompiling it as you did before, run it:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>./a.out</userinput>
-2.1 ^ 6 = 85.766121</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>If you are using any of the mathematical functions,
-<emphasis>always</emphasis> include <filename>math.h</filename> and
-remember to link in the math library.</para>
-
-<para>Q. I compiled a file called <filename>foobar.c</filename> and I
-cannot find an executable called <filename>foobar</filename>. Where's
-it gone?</para>
-
-<para>A. Remember, <command>cc</command> will call the executable
-<filename>a.out</filename> unless you tell it differently. Use the
-<option>-o&nbsp;<replaceable>filename</replaceable></option> option:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>Q. OK, I have an executable called <filename>foobar</filename>,
-I can see it when I run <command>ls</command>, but when I type in
-<command>foobar</command> at the command prompt it tells me there is
-no such file. Why can it not find it?</para>
-
-<para>A. Unlike <trademark>MS-DOS</trademark>, Unix does not look in the
-current directory when it is trying to find out which executable you
-want it to run, unless you tell it to. Either type
-<command>./foobar</command>, which means <quote>run the file called
-<filename>foobar</filename> in the current directory</quote>, or
-change your <systemitem class=environvar>PATH</systemitem>
-environment variable so that it looks something like
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:.</screen>
-</informalexample>
-The dot at the end means <quote>look in the current directory if it is not in
-any of the others</quote>.</para>
-
-<para>Q. I called my executable <filename>test</filename>, but
-nothing happens when I run it. What is going on?</para>
-
-<para>A. Most Unix systems have a program called
-<command>test</command> in <filename>/usr/bin</filename> and the
-shell is picking that one up before it gets to checking the current
-directory. Either type:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>./test</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-or choose a better name for your program!</para>
-
-<para>Q. I compiled my program and it seemed to run all right at
-first, then there was an error and it said something about <errorname>core
-dumped</errorname>. What does that mean?</para>
-
-<para>A. The name <firstterm>core dump</firstterm> dates back to the
-very early days of Unix, when the machines used core memory for
-storing data. Basically, if the program failed under certain
-conditions, the system would write the contents of core memory to
-disk in a file called <filename>core</filename>, which the programmer
-could then pore over to find out what went wrong.</para>
-
-<para>Q. Fascinating stuff, but what I am supposed to do now?</para>
-
-<para>A. Use <command>gdb</command> to analyse the core (see <xref
-linkend="debugging">).</para>
-
-<para>Q. When my program dumped core, it said something about a
-<errorname>segmentation fault</errorname>. What's that?</para>
-
-<para>A. This basically means that your program tried to perform some sort
-of illegal operation on memory; Unix is designed to protect the
-operating system and other programs from rogue programs.</para>
-
-<para>Common causes for this are:
-<itemizedlist>
-<listitem><para>Trying to write to a <symbol>NULL</symbol> pointer, eg
-<programlisting>char *foo = NULL;
-strcpy(foo, "bang!");</programlisting>
-</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Using a pointer that hasn't been initialised, eg
-<programlisting>char *foo;
-strcpy(foo, "bang!");</programlisting>
-The pointer will have some random value that, with luck,
-will point into an area of memory that isn't available to
-your program and the kernel will kill your program before
-it can do any damage. If you're unlucky, it'll point
-somewhere inside your own program and corrupt one of your
-data structures, causing the program to fail
-mysteriously.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Trying to access past the end of an array, eg
-<programlisting>int bar[20];
-bar[27] = 6;</programlisting></para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para> Trying to store something in read-only memory, eg
-<programlisting>char *foo = "My string";
-strcpy(foo, "bang!");</programlisting>
-Unix compilers often put string literals like
-<literal>"My string"</literal> into
-read-only areas of memory.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Doing naughty things with
-<function>malloc()</function> and <function>free()</function>, eg
-<programlisting>char bar[80];
-free(bar);</programlisting>
-or
-<programlisting>char *foo = malloc(27);
-free(foo);
-free(foo);</programlisting>
-</para></listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist></para>
-
-<para>Making one of these mistakes will not always lead to an
-error, but they are always bad practice. Some systems and
-compilers are more tolerant than others, which is why programs
-that ran well on one system can crash when you try them on an
-another.</para>
-
-<para>Q. Sometimes when I get a core dump it says <errorname>bus
-error</errorname>. It says in my Unix book that this means a hardware
-problem, but the computer still seems to be working. Is this
-true?</para>
-
-<para>A. No, fortunately not (unless of course you really do have a hardware
-problem&hellip;). This is usually another way of saying that you
-accessed memory in a way you shouldn't have.</para>
-
-<para>Q. This dumping core business sounds as though it could be quite
-useful, if I can make it happen when I want to. Can I do this, or
-do I have to wait until there's an error?</para>
-
-<para>A. Yes, just go to another console or xterm, do
-<screen>$ <userinput>ps</userinput></screen>
-to find out the process ID of your program, and do
-<screen>$ <userinput>kill -ABRT <replaceable>pid</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-where <parameter><replaceable>pid</replaceable></parameter> is the
-process ID you looked up.</para>
-
-<para>This is useful if your program has got stuck in an infinite
-loop, for instance. If your program happens to trap
-<symbol>SIGABRT</symbol>, there are several other signals which have
-a similar effect.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Make</title>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>What is <command>make</command>?</title>
-
-<para>When you're working on a simple program with only one or two source
-files, typing in
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc file1.c file2.c</userinput></screen>
-is not too bad, but it quickly becomes very tedious when there are
-several files&mdash;and it can take a while to compile, too.</para>
-
-<para>One way to get around this is to use object files and only recompile
-the source file if the source code has changed. So we could have
-something like:
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc file1.o file2.o</userinput> &hellip; <userinput>file37.c</userinput> &hellip</screen>
-if we'd changed <filename>file37.c</filename>, but not any of the
-others, since the last time we compiled. This may speed up the
-compilation quite a bit, but doesn't solve the typing
-problem.</para>
-
-<para>Or we could write a shell script to solve the typing problem, but it
-would have to re-compile everything, making it very inefficient on a
-large project.</para>
-
-<para>What happens if we have hundreds of source files lying about? What if
-we're working in a team with other people who forget to tell us when
-they've changed one of their source files that we use?</para>
-
-<para>Perhaps we could put the two solutions together and write something
-like a shell script that would contain some kind of magic rule saying
-when a source file needs compiling. Now all we need now is a program
-that can understand these rules, as it's a bit too complicated for the
-shell.</para>
-
-<para>This program is called <command>make</command>. It reads in a
-file, called a <firstterm>makefile</firstterm>, that tells it how
-different files depend on each other, and works out which files need
-to be re-compiled and which ones don't. For example, a rule could say
-something like <quote>if <filename>fromboz.o</filename> is older than
-<filename>fromboz.c</filename>, that means someone must have changed
-<filename>fromboz.c</filename>, so it needs to be
-re-compiled.</quote> The makefile also has rules telling make
-<emphasis>how</emphasis> to re-compile the source file, making it a
-much more powerful tool.</para>
-
-<para>Makefiles are typically kept in the same directory as the
-source they apply to, and can be called
-<filename>makefile</filename>, <filename>Makefile</filename> or
-<filename>MAKEFILE</filename>. Most programmers use the name
-<filename>Makefile</filename>, as this puts it near the top of a
-directory listing, where it can easily be seen.<footnote><para>They
-don't use the <filename>MAKEFILE</filename> form as block capitals
-are often used for documentation files like
-<filename>README</filename>.</para></footnote></para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Example of using <command>make</command></title>
-
-<para>Here's a very simple make file:
-<programlisting>foo: foo.c
- cc -o foo foo.c</programlisting>
-It consists of two lines, a dependency line and a creation line.</para>
-
-<para>The dependency line here consists of the name of the program
-(known as the <firstterm>target</firstterm>), followed by a colon,
-then whitespace, then the name of the source file. When
-<command>make</command> reads this line, it looks to see if
-<filename>foo</filename> exists; if it exists, it compares the time
-<filename>foo</filename> was last modified to the time
-<filename>foo.c</filename> was last modified. If
-<filename>foo</filename> does not exist, or is older than
-<filename>foo.c</filename>, it then looks at the creation line to
-find out what to do. In other words, this is the rule for working out
-when <filename>foo.c</filename> needs to be re-compiled.</para>
-
-<para>The creation line starts with a <token>tab</token> (press the
-<keycap>tab</keycap> key) and then the command you would type to
-create <filename>foo</filename> if you were doing it at a command
-prompt. If <filename>foo</filename> is out of date, or does not
-exist, <command>make</command> then executes this command to create
-it. In other words, this is the rule which tells make how to
-re-compile <filename>foo.c</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>So, when you type <userinput>make</userinput>, it will make
-sure that <filename>foo</filename> is up to date with respect to your
-latest changes to <filename>foo.c</filename>. This principle can be
-extended to <filename>Makefile</filename>s with hundreds of
-targets&mdash;in fact, on FreeBSD, it is possible to compile the
-entire operating system just by typing <userinput>make
-world</userinput> in the appropriate directory!</para>
-
-<para>Another useful property of makefiles is that the targets don't have
-to be programs. For instance, we could have a make file that looks
-like this:
-<programlisting>foo: foo.c
- cc -o foo foo.c
-
-install:
- cp foo /home/me</programlisting></para>
-
-<para>We can tell make which target we want to make by typing:
-<screen>$ <userinput>make <replaceable>target</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-<command>make</command> will then only look at that target and ignore any
-others. For example, if we type <userinput>make foo</userinput> with the
-makefile above, make will ignore the <action>install</action> target.</para>
-
-<para>If we just type <userinput>make</userinput> on its own, make
-will always look at the first target and then stop without looking at
-any others. So if we typed <userinput>make</userinput> here, it will
-just go to the <action>foo</action> target, re-compile
-<filename>foo</filename> if necessary, and then stop without going on
-to the <action>install</action> target.</para>
-
-<para>Notice that the <action>install</action> target doesn't
-actually depend on anything! This means that the command on the
-following line is always executed when we try to make that target by
-typing <userinput>make install</userinput>. In this case, it will
-copy <filename>foo</filename> into the user's home directory. This is
-often used by application makefiles, so that the application can be
-installed in the correct directory when it has been correctly
-compiled.</para>
-
-<para>This is a slightly confusing subject to try and explain. If you
-don't quite understand how <command>make</command> works, the best
-thing to do is to write a simple program like <quote>hello
-world</quote> and a make file like the one above and experiment. Then
-progress to using more than one source file, or having the source
-file include a header file. The <command>touch</command> command is
-very useful here&mdash;it changes the date on a file without you
-having to edit it.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>FreeBSD Makefiles</title>
-
-<para>Makefiles can be rather complicated to write. Fortunately,
-BSD-based systems like FreeBSD come with some very powerful ones as
-part of the system. One very good example of this is the FreeBSD
-ports system. Here's the essential part of a typical ports
-<filename>Makefile</filename>:
-<programlisting>MASTER_SITES= ftp://freefall.cdrom.com/pub/FreeBSD/LOCAL_PORTS/
-DISTFILES= scheme-microcode+dist-7.3-freebsd.tgz
-
-.include &lt;bsd.port.mk&gt;</programlisting></para>
-
-<para>Now, if we go to the directory for this port and type
-<userinput>make</userinput>, the following happens:</para>
-
-<procedure>
-<step><para>A check is made to see if the source code for this port is
-already on the system.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>If it isn't, an FTP connection to the URL in
-<symbol>MASTER_SITES</symbol> is set up to download the
-source.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>The checksum for the source is calculated and compared it with
-one for a known, good, copy of the source. This is to make sure that
-the source was not corrupted while in transit.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Any changes required to make the source work on FreeBSD are
-applied&mdash;this is known as <firstterm>patching</firstterm>.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Any special configuration needed for the source is done.
-(Many Unix program distributions try to work out which version of
-Unix they are being compiled on and which optional Unix features are
-present&mdash;this is where they are given the information in the
-FreeBSD ports scenario).</para></step>
-
-<step><para>The source code for the program is compiled. In effect,
-we change to the directory where the source was unpacked and do
-<command>make</command>&mdash;the program's own make file has the
-necessary information to build the program.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>We now have a compiled version of the program. If we
-wish, we can test it now; when we feel confident about the program,
-we can type <userinput>make install</userinput>. This will cause the
-program and any supporting files it needs to be copied into the
-correct location; an entry is also made into a <database>package
-database</database>, so that the port can easily be uninstalled later
-if we change our mind about it.</para></step>
-
-</procedure>
-
-<para>Now I think you'll agree that's rather impressive for a four
-line script!</para>
-
-<para>The secret lies in the last line, which tells
-<command>make</command> to look in the system makefile called
-<filename>bsd.port.mk</filename>. It's easy to overlook this line,
-but this is where all the clever stuff comes from&mdash;someone has
-written a makefile that tells <command>make</command> to do all the
-things above (plus a couple of other things I didn't mention,
-including handling any errors that may occur) and anyone can get
-access to that just by putting a single line in their own make
-file!</para>
-
-<para>If you want to have a look at these system makefiles, they're
-in <filename>/usr/share/mk</filename>, but it's probably best to wait
-until you've had a bit of practice with makefiles, as they are very
-complicated (and if you do look at them, make sure you have a flask
-of strong coffee handy!)</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>More advanced uses of <command>make</command></title>
-
-<para><command>Make</command> is a very powerful tool, and can do much
-more than the simple example above shows. Unfortunately, there are
-several different versions of <command>make</command>, and they all
-differ considerably. The best way to learn what they can do is
-probably to read the documentation&mdash;hopefully this introduction will
-have given you a base from which you can do this.</para>
-
-<para>The version of make that comes with FreeBSD is the <application>Berkeley
-make</application>; there is a tutorial for it in
-<filename>/usr/share/doc/psd/12.make</filename>. To view it, do
-<screen>$ <userinput>zmore paper.ascii.gz</userinput></screen>
-in that directory.</para>
-
-<para>Many applications in the ports use <application>GNU
-make</application>, which has a very good set of <quote>info</quote>
-pages. If you have installed any of these ports, <application>GNU
-make</application> will automatically have been installed as
-<command>gmake</command>. It's also available as a port and package
-in its own right.</para>
-
-<para>To view the info pages for <application>GNU make</application>,
-you will have to edit the <filename>dir</filename> file in the
-<filename>/usr/local/info</filename> directory to add an entry for
-it. This involves adding a line like
-<programlisting> * Make: (make). The GNU Make utility.</programlisting>
-to the file. Once you have done this, you can type
-<userinput>info</userinput> and then select
-<guimenuitem>make</guimenuitem> from the menu (or in
-<application>Emacs</application>, do <userinput>C-h
-i</userinput>).</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="debugging">
-<title>Debugging</title>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>The Debugger</title>
-
-<para>The debugger that comes with FreeBSD is called
-<command>gdb</command> (<application>GNU
-debugger</application>). You start it up by typing
-<screen>$ <userinput>gdb <replaceable>progname</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-although most people prefer to run it inside
-<application>Emacs</application>. You can do this by:
-<screen><userinput>M-x gdb RET <replaceable>progname</replaceable> RET</userinput></screen></para>
-
-<para>Using a debugger allows you to run the program under more
-controlled circumstances. Typically, you can step through the program
-a line at a time, inspect the value of variables, change them, tell
-the debugger to run up to a certain point and then stop, and so on.
-You can even attach to a program that's already running, or load a
-core file to investigate why the program crashed. It's even possible
-to debug the kernel, though that's a little trickier than the user
-applications we'll be discussing in this section.</para>
-
-<para><command>gdb</command> has quite good on-line help, as well as
-a set of info pages, so this section will concentrate on a few of the
-basic commands.</para>
-
-<para>Finally, if you find its text-based command-prompt style
-off-putting, there's a graphical front-end for it <ulink
-URL="http://www.freebsd.org/ports/devel.html">xxgdb</ulink>
-in the ports collection.</para>
-
-<para>This section is intended to be an introduction to using
-<command>gdb</command> and does not cover specialised topics such as
-debugging the kernel.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Running a program in the debugger</title>
-
-<para>You'll need to have compiled the program with the
-<option>-g</option> option to get the most out of using
-<command>gdb</command>. It will work without, but you'll only see the
-name of the function you're in, instead of the source code. If you
-see a line like:
-<screen>&hellip; (no debugging symbols found) &hellip;</screen>when
-<command>gdb</command> starts up, you'll know that the program wasn't
-compiled with the <option>-g</option> option.</para>
-
-<para>At the <command>gdb</command> prompt, type <userinput>break
-main</userinput>. This will tell the debugger to skip over the
-preliminary set-up code in the program and start at the beginning of
-your code. Now type <userinput>run</userinput> to start the
-program&mdash;it will start at the beginning of the set-up code and
-then get stopped by the debugger when it calls
-<function>main()</function>. (If you've ever wondered where
-<function>main()</function> gets called from, now you know!).</para>
-
-<para>You can now step through the program, a line at a time, by
-pressing <command>n</command>. If you get to a function call, you can
-step into it by pressing <command>s</command>. Once you're in a
-function call, you can return from stepping into a function call by
-pressing <command>f</command>. You can also use <command>up</command> and
-<command>down</command> to take a quick look at the caller.</para>
-
-<para>Here's a simple example of how to spot a mistake in a program
-with <command>gdb</command>. This is our program (with a deliberate
-mistake):
-<programlisting>#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;
-
-int bazz(int anint);
-
-main() {
- int i;
-
- printf("This is my program\n");
- bazz(i);
- return 0;
-}
-
-int bazz(int anint) {
- printf("You gave me %d\n", anint);
- return anint;
-}</programlisting>
-</para>
-
-<para>This program sets <symbol>i</symbol> to be <literal>5</literal>
-and passes it to a function <function>bazz()</function> which prints
-out the number we gave it.</para>
-
-<para>When we compile and run the program we get
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -g -o temp temp.c</userinput>
-$ <userinput>./temp</userinput>
-This is my program
-anint = 4231</screen></para>
-
-<para>That wasn't what we expected! Time to see what's going
-on!<screen>$ <userinput>gdb temp</userinput>
-GDB is free software and you are welcome to distribute copies of it
- under certain conditions; type "show copying" to see the conditions.
-There is absolutely no warranty for GDB; type "show warranty" for details.
-GDB 4.13 (i386-unknown-freebsd), Copyright 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
-(gdb) <userinput>break main</> <lineannotation>Skip the set-up code</>
-Breakpoint 1 at 0x160f: file temp.c, line 9. <lineannotation><command>gdb</command> puts breakpoint at <function>main()</></>
-(gdb) <userinput>run</> <lineannotation>Run as far as <function>main()</></>
-Starting program: /home/james/tmp/temp <lineannotation>Program starts running</>
-
-Breakpoint 1, main () at temp.c:9 <lineannotation><command>gdb</command> stops at <function>main()</></>
-(gdb) <userinput>n</> <lineannotation>Go to next line</>
-This is my program <lineannotation>Program prints out</>
-(gdb) <userinput>s</> <lineannotation>step into <function>bazz()</></>
-bazz (anint=4231) at temp.c:17 <lineannotation><command>gdb</command> displays stack frame</>
-(gdb)</screen></para>
-
-
-<para>Hang on a minute! How did <symbol>anint</symbol> get to be
-<literal>4231</literal>? Didn't we set it to be <literal>5</literal>
-in <function>main()</function>? Let's move up to
-<function>main()</function> and have a look.</para>
-
-<para><screen>(gdb) <userinput>up</> <lineannotation>Move up call stack</>
-#1 0x1625 in main () at temp.c:11 <lineannotation><command>gdb</command> displays stack frame</>
-(gdb) <userinput>p i</> <lineannotation>Show us the value of <symbol>i</></>
-$1 = 4231 <lineannotation><command>gdb</command> displays <literal>4231</></></screen>
-Oh dear! Looking at the code, we forgot to initialise
-<symbol>i</symbol>. We meant to put
-<programlisting><lineannotation>&hellip;</>
-main() {
- int i;
-
- i = 5;
- printf("This is my program\n");
-<lineannotation>&hellip</></programlisting>
-but we left the <literal>i=5;</literal> line out. As we didn't
-initialise <symbol>i</symbol>, it had whatever number happened to be
-in that area of memory when the program ran, which in this case
-happened to be <literal>4231</literal>.</para>
-
-<note><para><command>gdb</command> displays the stack frame
-every time we go into or out of a function, even if we're using
-<command>up</command> and <command>down</command> to move around the
-call stack. This shows the name of the function and the values of
-its arguments, which helps us keep track of where we are and what's
-going on. (The stack is a storage area where the program stores
-information about the arguments passed to functions and where to go
-when it returns from a function call).</para></note>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Examining a core file</title>
-
-<para>A core file is basically a file which contains the complete
-state of the process when it crashed. In <quote>the good old
-days</quote>, programmers had to print out hex listings of core files
-and sweat over machine code manuals, but now life is a bit easier.
-Incidentally, under FreeBSD and other 4.4BSD systems, a core file is
-called <filename><replaceable>progname</>.core</> instead of just
-<filename>core</filename>, to make it clearer which program a core
-file belongs to.</para>
-
-<para>To examine a core file, start up <command>gdb</command> in the
-usual way. Instead of typing <command>break</command> or
-<command>run</command>, type
-<screen>(gdb) <userinput>core <replaceable>progname</replaceable>.core</userinput></screen>
-If you're not in the same directory as the core file, you'll have to
-do <userinput>dir /path/to/core/file</userinput> first.</para>
-
-<para>You should see something like this:
-<screen>$ <userinput>gdb a.out</userinput>
-GDB is free software and you are welcome to distribute copies of it
- under certain conditions; type "show copying" to see the conditions.
-There is absolutely no warranty for GDB; type "show warranty" for details.
-GDB 4.13 (i386-unknown-freebsd), Copyright 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
-(gdb) <userinput>core a.out.core</userinput>
-Core was generated by `a.out'.
-Program terminated with signal 11, Segmentation fault.
-Cannot access memory at address 0x7020796d.
-#0 0x164a in bazz (anint=0x5) at temp.c:17
-(gdb)</screen></para>
-
-<para>In this case, the program was called
-<filename>a.out</filename>, so the core file is called
-<filename>a.out.core</filename>. We can see that the program crashed
-due to trying to access an area in memory that was not available to
-it in a function called <function>bazz</function>.</para>
-
-<para>Sometimes it's useful to be able to see how a function was
-called, as the problem could have occurred a long way up the call
-stack in a complex program. The <command>bt</command> command causes
-<command>gdb</command> to print out a back-trace of the call
-stack:
-<screen>(gdb) <userinput>bt</userinput>
-#0 0x164a in bazz (anint=0x5) at temp.c:17
-#1 0xefbfd888 in end ()
-#2 0x162c in main () at temp.c:11
-(gdb)</screen>The <function>end()</function> function is called when
-a program crashes; in this case, the <function>bazz()</function>
-function was called from <function>main()</function>.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Attaching to a running program</title>
-
-<para>One of the neatest features about <command>gdb</command> is
-that it can attach to a program that's already running. Of course,
-that assumes you have sufficient permissions to do so. A common
-problem is when you are stepping through a program that forks, and
-you want to trace the child, but the debugger will only let you trace
-the parent.</para>
-
-<para>What you do is start up another <command>gdb</command>, use
-<command>ps</command> to find the process ID for the child, and
-do<screen>(gdb) <userinput>attach <replaceable>pid</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-in <command>gdb</command>, and then debug as usual.</para>
-
-<para><quote>That's all very well,</quote> you're probably thinking,
-<quote>but by the time I've done that, the child process will be over
-the hill and far away</quote>. Fear not, gentle reader, here's how to
-do it (courtesy of the <command>gdb</command> info pages):
-<screen><lineannotation>&hellip</lineannotation>
-if ((pid = fork()) < 0) /* _Always_ check this */
- error();
-else if (pid == 0) { /* child */
- int PauseMode = 1;
-
- while (PauseMode)
- sleep(10); /* Wait until someone attaches to us */
- <lineannotation>&hellip</lineannotation>
-} else { /* parent */
- <lineannotation>&hellip</lineannotation></screen>
-Now all you have to do is attach to the child, set
-<symbol>PauseMode</symbol> to <literal>0</literal>, and
-wait for the <function>sleep()</function> call to return!</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="emacs">
-<title>Using Emacs as a Development Environment</title>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Emacs</title>
-
-<para>Unfortunately, Unix systems don't come with the kind of
-everything-you-ever-wanted-and-lots-more-you-didn't-in-one-gigantic-package
-integrated development environments that other systems
-have.<footnote><para>At least, not unless you pay out very large sums
-of money.</para></footnote> However, it is possible to set up your
-own environment. It may not be as pretty, and it may not be quite as
-integrated, but you can set it up the way you want it. And it's free.
-And you have the source to it.</para>
-
-<para>The key to it all is Emacs. Now there are some people who
-loathe it, but many who love it. If you're one of the former, I'm
-afraid this section will hold little of interest to you. Also, you'll
-need a fair amount of memory to run it&mdash;I'd recommend 8MB in
-text mode and 16MB in X as the bare minimum to get reasonable
-performance.</para>
-
-<para>Emacs is basically a highly customisable editor&mdash;indeed,
-it has been customised to the point where it's more like an operating
-system than an editor! Many developers and sysadmins do in fact
-spend practically all their time working inside Emacs, leaving it
-only to log out.</para>
-
-<para>It's impossible even to summarise everything Emacs can do here, but
-here are some of the features of interest to developers:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem><para>Very powerful editor, allowing search-and-replace on
-both strings and regular expressions (patterns), jumping to start/end
-of block expression, etc, etc.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Pull-down menus and online help.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Language-dependent syntax highlighting and
-indentation.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Completely customisable.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>You can compile and debug programs within
-Emacs.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>On a compilation error, you can jump to the offending
-line of source code.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Friendly-ish front-end to the <command>info</command>
-program used for reading GNU hypertext documentation, including the
-documentation on Emacs itself.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Friendly front-end to <command>gdb</command>,
-allowing you to look at the source code as you step through your
-program.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>You can read Usenet news and mail while your program
-is compiling.</para></listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>And doubtless many more that I've overlooked.</para>
-
-<para>Emacs can be installed on FreeBSD using <ulink
-URL="http://www.freebsd.org/ports/editors">the Emacs
-port</ulink>.</para>
-
-<para>Once it's installed, start it up and do <userinput>C-h
-t</userinput> to read an Emacs tutorial&mdash;that means hold down
-the <keycap>control</keycap> key, press <keycap>h</keycap>, let go of
-the <keycap>control</keycap> key, and then press <keycap>t</keycap>.
-(Alternatively, you can you use the mouse to select <guimenuitem>Emacs
-Tutorial</guimenuitem> from the <guimenu>Help</guimenu> menu).</para>
-
-<para>Although Emacs does have menus, it's well worth learning the
-key bindings, as it's much quicker when you're editing something to
-press a couple of keys than to try and find the mouse and then click
-on the right place. And, when you're talking to seasoned Emacs users,
-you'll find they often casually throw around expressions like
-<quote><literal>M-x replace-s RET foo RET bar RET</literal></quote>
-so it's useful to know what they mean. And in any case, Emacs has far
-too many useful functions for them to all fit on the menu
-bars.</para>
-
-<para>Fortunately, it's quite easy to pick up the key-bindings, as
-they're displayed next to the menu item. My advice is to use the
-menu item for, say, opening a file until you understand how it works
-and feel confident with it, then try doing C-x C-f. When you're happy
-with that, move on to another menu command.</para>
-
-<para>If you can't remember what a particular combination of keys
-does, select <guimenuitem>Describe Key</guimenuitem> from the
-<guimenu>Help</guimenu> menu and type it in&mdash;Emacs will tell you
-what it does. You can also use the <guimenuitem>Command
-Apropos</guimenuitem> menu item to find out all the commands which
-contain a particular word in them, with the key binding next to
-it.</para>
-
-<para>By the way, the expression above means hold down the
-<keysym>Meta</keysym> key, press <keysym>x</keysym>, release the
-<keysym>Meta</keysym> key, type <userinput>replace-s</userinput>
-(short for <literal>replace-string</literal>&mdash;another feature of
-Emacs is that you can abbreviate commands), press the
-<keysym>return</keysym> key, type <userinput>foo</userinput> (the
-string you want replaced), press the <keysym>return</keysym> key,
-type bar (the string you want to replace <literal>foo</literal> with)
-and press <keysym>return</keysym> again. Emacs will then do the
-search-and-replace operation you've just requested.</para>
-
-<para>If you're wondering what on earth the <keysym>Meta</keysym> key
-is, it's a special key that many Unix workstations have.
-Unfortunately, PC's don't have one, so it's usually the
-<keycap>alt</keycap> key (or if you're unlucky, the <keysym>escape</keysym>
-key).</para>
-
-<para>Oh, and to get out of Emacs, do <command>C-x C-c</command>
-(that means hold down the <keysym>control</keysym> key, press
-<keysym>c</keysym>, press <keysym>x</keysym> and release the
-<keysym>control</keysym> key). If you have any unsaved files open,
-Emacs will ask you if you want to save them. (Ignore the bit in the
-documentation where it says <command>C-z</command> is the usual way
-to leave Emacs&mdash;that leaves Emacs hanging around in the
-background, and is only really useful if you're on a system which
-doesn't have virtual terminals).</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Configuring Emacs</title>
-
-<para>Emacs does many wonderful things; some of them are built in,
-some of them need to be configured.</para>
-
-<para>Instead of using a proprietary macro language for
-configuration, Emacs uses a version of Lisp specially adapted for
-editors, known as Emacs Lisp. This can be quite useful if you want to
-go on and learn something like Common Lisp, as it's considerably
-smaller than Common Lisp (although still quite big!).</para>
-
-<para>The best way to learn Emacs Lisp is to download the <ulink
-URL="ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu:pub/gnu/elisp-manual-19-2.4.tar.gz">Emacs
-Tutorial</ulink></para>
-
-<para>However, there's no need to actually know any Lisp to get
-started with configuring Emacs, as I've included a sample
-<filename>.emacs</filename> file, which should be enough to get you
-started. Just copy it into your home directory and restart Emacs if
-it's already running; it will read the commands from the file and
-(hopefully) give you a useful basic setup.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>A sample <filename>.emacs</filename> file</title>
-
-<para>Unfortunately, there's far too much here to explain it in detail;
-however there are one or two points worth mentioning.</para>
-
-<para>
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem><para>Everything beginning with a <literal>;</> is a
-comment and is ignored by Emacs.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>In the first line, the
-<literal>-*-&nbsp;Emacs-Lisp&nbsp;-*-</literal> is so that we can
-edit the <filename>.emacs</filename> file itself within Emacs and get
-all the fancy features for editing Emacs Lisp. Emacs usually tries to
-guess this based on the filename, and may not get it right for
-<filename>.emacs</filename>. </para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>The <keysym>tab</keysym> key is bound to an
-indentation function in some modes, so when you press the tab key, it
-will indent the current line of code. If you want to put a
-<token>tab</token> character in whatever you're writing, hold the
-<keysym>control</keysym> key down while you're pressing the
-<keysym>tab</keysym> key.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>This file supports syntax highlighting for C, C++,
-Perl, Lisp and Scheme, by guessing the language from the
-filename.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Emacs already has a pre-defined function called
-<function>next-error</function>. In a compilation output window, this
-allows you to move from one compilation error to the next by doing
-<command>M-n</command>; we define a complementary function,
-<function>previous-error</function>, that allows you to go to a
-previous error by doing <command>M-p</command>. The nicest feature of
-all is that <command>C-c C-c</command> will open up the source file
-in which the error occurred and jump to the appropriate
-line.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para> We enable Emacs's ability to act as a server, so
-that if you're doing something outside Emacs and you want to edit a
-file, you can just type in
-<screen>$ <userinput>emacsclient <replaceable>filename</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-and then you can edit the file in your Emacs!<footnote><para>Many
-Emacs users set their <systemitem
-class=environvar>EDITOR</systemitem> environment to
-<literal>emacsclient</literal> so this happens every time they need
-to edit a file.</para></footnote></para></listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-<example>
-<title>A sample <filename>.emacs</filename> file</title>
-<screen>;; -*-Emacs-Lisp-*-
-
-;; This file is designed to be re-evaled; use the variable first-time
-;; to avoid any problems with this.
-(defvar first-time t
- "Flag signifying this is the first time that .emacs has been evaled")
-
-;; Meta
-(global-set-key "\M- " 'set-mark-command)
-(global-set-key "\M-\C-h" 'backward-kill-word)
-(global-set-key "\M-\C-r" 'query-replace)
-(global-set-key "\M-r" 'replace-string)
-(global-set-key "\M-g" 'goto-line)
-(global-set-key "\M-h" 'help-command)
-
-;; Function keys
-(global-set-key [f1] 'manual-entry)
-(global-set-key [f2] 'info)
-(global-set-key [f3] 'repeat-complex-command)
-(global-set-key [f4] 'advertised-undo)
-(global-set-key [f5] 'eval-current-buffer)
-(global-set-key [f6] 'buffer-menu)
-(global-set-key [f7] 'other-window)
-(global-set-key [f8] 'find-file)
-(global-set-key [f9] 'save-buffer)
-(global-set-key [f10] 'next-error)
-(global-set-key [f11] 'compile)
-(global-set-key [f12] 'grep)
-(global-set-key [C-f1] 'compile)
-(global-set-key [C-f2] 'grep)
-(global-set-key [C-f3] 'next-error)
-(global-set-key [C-f4] 'previous-error)
-(global-set-key [C-f5] 'display-faces)
-(global-set-key [C-f8] 'dired)
-(global-set-key [C-f10] 'kill-compilation)
-
-;; Keypad bindings
-(global-set-key [up] "\C-p")
-(global-set-key [down] "\C-n")
-(global-set-key [left] "\C-b")
-(global-set-key [right] "\C-f")
-(global-set-key [home] "\C-a")
-(global-set-key [end] "\C-e")
-(global-set-key [prior] "\M-v")
-(global-set-key [next] "\C-v")
-(global-set-key [C-up] "\M-\C-b")
-(global-set-key [C-down] "\M-\C-f")
-(global-set-key [C-left] "\M-b")
-(global-set-key [C-right] "\M-f")
-(global-set-key [C-home] "\M-&lt;")
-(global-set-key [C-end] "\M-&gt;")
-(global-set-key [C-prior] "\M-&lt;")
-(global-set-key [C-next] "\M-&gt;")
-
-;; Mouse
-(global-set-key [mouse-3] 'imenu)
-
-;; Misc
-(global-set-key [C-tab] "\C-q\t") ; Control tab quotes a tab.
-(setq backup-by-copying-when-mismatch t)
-
-;; Treat 'y' or &lt;CR&gt; as yes, 'n' as no.
-(fset 'yes-or-no-p 'y-or-n-p)
- (define-key query-replace-map [return] 'act)
- (define-key query-replace-map [?\C-m] 'act)
-
-;; Load packages
-(require 'desktop)
-(require 'tar-mode)
-
-;; Pretty diff mode
-(autoload 'ediff-buffers "ediff" "Intelligent Emacs interface to diff" t)
-(autoload 'ediff-files "ediff" "Intelligent Emacs interface to diff" t)
-(autoload 'ediff-files-remote "ediff"
- "Intelligent Emacs interface to diff") </screen>
-
-<screen>(if first-time
- (setq auto-mode-alist
- (append '(("\\.cpp$" . c++-mode)
- ("\\.hpp$" . c++-mode)
- ("\\.lsp$" . lisp-mode)
- ("\\.scm$" . scheme-mode)
- ("\\.pl$" . perl-mode)
- ) auto-mode-alist)))
-
-;; Auto font lock mode
-(defvar font-lock-auto-mode-list
- (list 'c-mode 'c++-mode 'c++-c-mode 'emacs-lisp-mode 'lisp-mode 'perl-mode 'scheme-mode)
- "List of modes to always start in font-lock-mode")
-
-(defvar font-lock-mode-keyword-alist
- '((c++-c-mode . c-font-lock-keywords)
- (perl-mode . perl-font-lock-keywords))
- "Associations between modes and keywords")
-
-(defun font-lock-auto-mode-select ()
- "Automatically select font-lock-mode if the current major mode is
-in font-lock-auto-mode-list"
- (if (memq major-mode font-lock-auto-mode-list)
- (progn
- (font-lock-mode t))
- )
- )
-
-(global-set-key [M-f1] 'font-lock-fontify-buffer)
-
-;; New dabbrev stuff
-;(require 'new-dabbrev)
-(setq dabbrev-always-check-other-buffers t)
-(setq dabbrev-abbrev-char-regexp "\\sw\\|\\s_")
-(add-hook 'emacs-lisp-mode-hook
- '(lambda ()
- (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-fold-search) nil)
- (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-replace) nil)))
-(add-hook 'c-mode-hook
- '(lambda ()
- (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-fold-search) nil)
- (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-replace) nil)))
-(add-hook 'text-mode-hook
- '(lambda ()
- (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-fold-search) t)
- (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-replace) t)))
-
-;; C++ and C mode...
-(defun my-c++-mode-hook ()
- (setq tab-width 4)
- (define-key c++-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
- (define-key c++-mode-map "\C-ce" 'c-comment-edit)
- (setq c++-auto-hungry-initial-state 'none)
- (setq c++-delete-function 'backward-delete-char)
- (setq c++-tab-always-indent t)
- (setq c-indent-level 4)
- (setq c-continued-statement-offset 4)
- (setq c++-empty-arglist-indent 4))
-
-(defun my-c-mode-hook ()
- (setq tab-width 4)
- (define-key c-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
- (define-key c-mode-map "\C-ce" 'c-comment-edit)
- (setq c-auto-hungry-initial-state 'none)
- (setq c-delete-function 'backward-delete-char)
- (setq c-tab-always-indent t)
-;; BSD-ish indentation style
- (setq c-indent-level 4)
- (setq c-continued-statement-offset 4)
- (setq c-brace-offset -4)
- (setq c-argdecl-indent 0)
- (setq c-label-offset -4))
-
-;; Perl mode
-(defun my-perl-mode-hook ()
- (setq tab-width 4)
- (define-key c++-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
- (setq perl-indent-level 4)
- (setq perl-continued-statement-offset 4))
-
-;; Scheme mode...
-(defun my-scheme-mode-hook ()
- (define-key scheme-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent))
-
-;; Emacs-Lisp mode...
-(defun my-lisp-mode-hook ()
- (define-key lisp-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
- (define-key lisp-mode-map "\C-i" 'lisp-indent-line)
- (define-key lisp-mode-map "\C-j" 'eval-print-last-sexp))
-
-;; Add all of the hooks...
-(add-hook 'c++-mode-hook 'my-c++-mode-hook)
-(add-hook 'c-mode-hook 'my-c-mode-hook)
-(add-hook 'scheme-mode-hook 'my-scheme-mode-hook)
-(add-hook 'emacs-lisp-mode-hook 'my-lisp-mode-hook)
-(add-hook 'lisp-mode-hook 'my-lisp-mode-hook)
-(add-hook 'perl-mode-hook 'my-perl-mode-hook)
-
-;; Complement to next-error
-(defun previous-error (n)
- "Visit previous compilation error message and corresponding source code."
- (interactive "p")
- (next-error (- n)))</screen>
-
-<screen>;; Misc...
-(transient-mark-mode 1)
-(setq mark-even-if-inactive t)
-(setq visible-bell nil)
-(setq next-line-add-newlines nil)
-(setq compile-command "make")
-(setq suggest-key-bindings nil)
-(put 'eval-expression 'disabled nil)
-(put 'narrow-to-region 'disabled nil)
-(put 'set-goal-column 'disabled nil)
-
-;; Elisp archive searching
-(autoload 'format-lisp-code-directory "lispdir" nil t)
-(autoload 'lisp-dir-apropos "lispdir" nil t)
-(autoload 'lisp-dir-retrieve "lispdir" nil t)
-(autoload 'lisp-dir-verify "lispdir" nil t)
-
-;; Font lock mode
-(defun my-make-face (face colour &amp;optional bold)
- "Create a face from a colour and optionally make it bold"
- (make-face face)
- (copy-face 'default face)
- (set-face-foreground face colour)
- (if bold (make-face-bold face))
- )
-
-(if (eq window-system 'x)
- (progn
- (my-make-face 'blue "blue")
- (my-make-face 'red "red")
- (my-make-face 'green "dark green")
- (setq font-lock-comment-face 'blue)
- (setq font-lock-string-face 'bold)
- (setq font-lock-type-face 'bold)
- (setq font-lock-keyword-face 'bold)
- (setq font-lock-function-name-face 'red)
- (setq font-lock-doc-string-face 'green)
- (add-hook 'find-file-hooks 'font-lock-auto-mode-select)
-
- (setq baud-rate 1000000)
- (global-set-key "\C-cmm" 'menu-bar-mode)
- (global-set-key "\C-cms" 'scroll-bar-mode)
- (global-set-key [backspace] 'backward-delete-char)
- ; (global-set-key [delete] 'delete-char)
- (standard-display-european t)
- (load-library "iso-transl")))
-
-;; X11 or PC using direct screen writes
-(if window-system
- (progn
- ;; (global-set-key [M-f1] 'hilit-repaint-command)
- ;; (global-set-key [M-f2] [?\C-u M-f1])
- (setq hilit-mode-enable-list
- '(not text-mode c-mode c++-mode emacs-lisp-mode lisp-mode
- scheme-mode)
- hilit-auto-highlight nil
- hilit-auto-rehighlight 'visible
- hilit-inhibit-hooks nil
- hilit-inhibit-rebinding t)
- (require 'hilit19)
- (require 'paren))
- (setq baud-rate 2400) ; For slow serial connections
- )
-
-;; TTY type terminal
-(if (and (not window-system)
- (not (equal system-type 'ms-dos)))
- (progn
- (if first-time
- (progn
- (keyboard-translate ?\C-h ?\C-?)
- (keyboard-translate ?\C-? ?\C-h)))))
-
-;; Under UNIX
-(if (not (equal system-type 'ms-dos))
- (progn
- (if first-time
- (server-start))))
-
-;; Add any face changes here
-(add-hook 'term-setup-hook 'my-term-setup-hook)
-(defun my-term-setup-hook ()
- (if (eq window-system 'pc)
- (progn
-;; (set-face-background 'default "red")
- )))
-
-;; Restore the "desktop" - do this as late as possible
-(if first-time
- (progn
- (desktop-load-default)
- (desktop-read)))
-
-;; Indicate that this file has been read at least once
-(setq first-time nil)
-
-;; No need to debug anything now
-(setq debug-on-error nil)
-
-;; All done
-(message "All done, %s%s" (user-login-name) ".")
-</screen>
-</example>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Extending the Range of Languages Emacs Understands</title>
-
-<para>Now, this is all very well if you only want to program in the
-languages already catered for in the <filename>.emacs</filename> file
-(C, C++, Perl, Lisp and Scheme), but what happens if a new language
-called <quote>whizbang</quote> comes out, full of exciting
-features?</para>
-
-<para>The first thing to do is find out if whizbang
-comes with any files that tell Emacs about the language. These
-usually end in <filename>.el</filename>, short for <quote>Emacs
-Lisp</quote>. For example, if whizbang is a FreeBSD
-port, we can locate these files by doing
-<screen>$ <userinput>find /usr/ports/lang/whizbang -name "*.el" -print</userinput></screen>
-and install them by copying them into the Emacs site Lisp directory. On
-FreeBSD 2.1.0-RELEASE, this is
-<filename>/usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>So for example, if the output from the find command was
-<screen>/usr/ports/lang/whizbang/work/misc/whizbang.el</screen>
-we would do
-<screen>$ <userinput>cp /usr/ports/lang/whizbang/work/misc/whizbang.el /usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp</userinput></screen>
-</para>
-
-<para>Next, we need to decide what extension whizbang source files
-have. Let's say for the sake of argument that they all end in
-<filename>.wiz</filename>. We need to add an entry to our
-<filename>.emacs</filename> file to make sure Emacs will be able to
-use the information in <filename>whizbang.el</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>Find the <symbol>auto-mode-alist entry</symbol> in
-<filename>.emacs</filename> and add a line for whizbang, such
-as:
-<programlisting><lineannotation>&hellip;</>
-("\\.lsp$" . lisp-mode)
-("\\.wiz$" . whizbang-mode)
-("\\.scm$" . scheme-mode)
-<lineannotation>&hellip;</></programlisting>
-This means that Emacs will automatically go into
-<function>whizbang-mode</function> when you edit a file ending in
-<filename>.wiz</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>Just below this, you'll find the
-<symbol>font-lock-auto-mode-list</symbol> entry. Add
-<function>whizbang-mode</function> to it like so:
-<programlisting>;; Auto font lock mode
-(defvar font-lock-auto-mode-list
- (list 'c-mode 'c++-mode 'c++-c-mode 'emacs-lisp-mode 'whizbang-mode 'lisp-mode 'perl-mode 'scheme-mode)
- "List of modes to always start in font-lock-mode")</programlisting>
-This means that Emacs will always enable
-<function>font-lock-mode</function> (ie syntax highlighting) when
-editing a <filename>.wiz</filename> file.</para>
-
-<para>And that's all that's needed. If there's anything else you want
-done automatically when you open up a <filename>.wiz</filename> file,
-you can add a <function>whizbang-mode hook</function> (see
-<function>my-scheme-mode-hook</function> for a simple example that
-adds <function>auto-indent</function>).</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Further Reading</title>
-
-<itemizedlist>
-<listitem><para>Brian Harvey and Matthew Wright
-<emphasis>Simply Scheme</emphasis>
-MIT 1994.<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-262-08226-8</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Randall Schwartz
-<emphasis>Learning Perl</emphasis>
-O'Reilly 1993<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 1-56592-042-2</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Patrick Henry Winston and Berthold Klaus Paul Horn
-<emphasis>Lisp (3rd Edition)</emphasis>
-Addison-Wesley 1989<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-201-08319-1</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Brian W. Kernighan and Rob Pike
-<emphasis>The Unix Programming Environment</emphasis>
-Prentice-Hall 1984<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-13-937681-X</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie
-<emphasis>The C Programming Language (2nd Edition)</emphasis>
-Prentice-Hall 1988<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-13-110362-8</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Bjarne Stroustrup
-<emphasis>The C++ Programming Language</emphasis>
-Addison-Wesley 1991<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-201-53992-6</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>W. Richard Stevens
-<emphasis>Advanced Programming in the Unix Environment</emphasis>
-Addison-Wesley 1992<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-201-56317-7</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>W. Richard Stevens
-<emphasis>Unix Network Programming</emphasis>
-Prentice-Hall 1990<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-13-949876-1</para></listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-
-</chapter>
-</book>
diff --git a/en/tutorials/diskformat/Makefile b/en/tutorials/diskformat/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 158bc4d801..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/diskformat/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,7 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.1 1997-09-13 04:24:23 jfieber Exp $
-
-DOCS= diskformat.docb
-INDEXLINK= diskformat.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
-
diff --git a/en/tutorials/diskformat/diskformat.docb b/en/tutorials/diskformat/diskformat.docb
deleted file mode 100644
index 996485f694..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/diskformat/diskformat.docb
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,418 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-<!-- $Id: diskformat.docb,v 1.3 1997-09-20 05:34:02 jfieber Exp $ -->
-<book>
-
-<bookinfo>
-<bookbiblio>
-<title>Formatting Media For Use With FreeBSD 2.2-RELEASE</title>
-<subtitle>A Tutorial</subtitle>
-
-<authorgroup>
-<author>
-<firstname>Doug</firstname>
-<surname>White</surname>
-<affiliation>
-<address><email>dwhite@resnet.uoregon.edu</email></address>
-</affiliation>
-</author>
-</authorgroup>
-
-<pubdate>March 1997</pubdate>
-<abstract><para>This document describes how to slice, partition, and
-format hard disk drives and similar media for use with FreeBSD. The
-examples given have been tested under FreeBSD 2.2-GAMMA and may work
-for other releases. </para>
-</abstract>
-</bookbiblio>
-</bookinfo>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Introduction & Definitions</title>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Overview</title>
-<para>Successfully adding disks to an existing system is the mark of an
-experienced system administrator. Slicing, partitioning, and adding
-disks requires a careful dance of proper command and name syntax. One
-slipped finger and an entire disk could disappear in seconds. This
-document is written in an attempt to simplify this process and avoid
-accidents. Thankfully, enhancements to existing tools (notably
-sysinstall) have greatly improved this process in recent releases of
-FreeBSD. </para>
-
-<para>There are two possible modes of disk formatting:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem><para><firstterm>compatibility mode</firstterm>: Arranging a
-disk so that it has a slice table for use with other operating
-systems.</para> </listitem>
-
-<listitem><para><firstterm>dangerously dedicated mode</firstterm>:
-Formatting a disk with no slice table. This makes the process of
-adding disks easier, however non-FreeBSD operating systems may not
-accept the disk. </para> </listitem>
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-<para>For most cases, dedicated mode is the easiest to set up and use
-in existing systems, as a new disk is usually dedicated entirely to
-FreeBSD. However, compatibility mode insures optimum interoperability
-with future installations at a cost of increased complexity.</para>
-
-<para>In addition to selecting the mode, two methods of slicing the
-disk are available. One is using the system installation tool
-<command>/stand/sysinstall</command>. 2.1.7-RELEASE and later
-versions of <command>sysinstall</command> contain code to ease setup
-of disks during normal system operation, mainly allowing access to the
-Label and Partition editors and a Write feature which will update just
-the selected disk and slice without affecting other disks. The other
-method is running the tools manually from a root command line. For
-dangerously dedicated mode, only three or four commands are involved
-while <command>sysinstall</command> requires some manipulation.</para>
-</sect1>
-<sect1>
-<title>Definitions</title>
-
-<para>UNIX disk management over the centuries has invented many new
-definitions for old words. The following glossary covers the
-definitions used in this document and (hopefully) for FreeBSD in
-general. </para>
-
-<!-- I'm tempted to use GLOSSARY here but will resort to a list for
-now. -->
-
-<itemizedlist>
-<listitem><para>compatibility mode: Arranging a disk so that it has a slice
-table for use with other operating systems. Oppose dangerously
-dedicated mode.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>dangerously dedicated mode: Formatting a disk with no slice
-table. This makes the process of adding disks easier, however
-non-FreeBSD operating systems may not accept the disk. Oppose
-compatibility mode.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>disk: A circular disc, covered with magnetic or similarly
-manipulable material, spun by a motor under a head. Data is stored on
-the disk by changing the pattern of magnetism on the disc, which can
-be later read. Hard disks, CD-ROMs, Magneto-optical,and Zip/Jaz
-removables are examples of disks.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>slice: A division of a disk. Up to four slices are permitted on one
-disk in the PC standard. Slices are composed of contiguous sectors.
-Slices are recorded in a <quote>slice table</quote> used by the system BIOS to
-locate bootable partitions. The slice table is usually called the
-Partition Table in DOS parlance. Maintained by the fdisk utility.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>partition: A division of a slice. Usually used in reference
-to divisions of the FreeBSD slice of a disk. Each filesystem and swap
-area on a disk resides in a partition. Maintained using the disklabel
-utility.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>sector: Smallest subdivision of a disk. One sector usually
-represents 512 bytes of data.</para></listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Warnings & Pitfalls</title>
-
-<para>Building disks is not something to take lightly. It is quite possible
-to destroy the contents of other disks in your system if the proper
-precautions are not taken.</para>
-
-<para><emphasis>Check your work carefully.</> It is very simple to destroy
-the incorrect disk when working with these commands. When
-in doubt consult the kernel boot output for the proper device.</para>
-
-<para>Needless to say, we are not responsible for any damage to any data
-or hardware that you may experience. You work at your own risk!</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Zip, Jaz, and Other Removables</title>
-
-<para>Removable disks can be formatted in the same way as normal hard
-disks. It is essential to have the disk drive connected to the system
-and a disk placed in the drive during startup, so the kernel can
-determine the drive's geometry. Check the <command>dmesg</command>
-output and make sure your device and the disk's size is listed. If
-the kernel reports
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-Can't get the size
-</screen>
-</informalexample>
-then the disk was not in the drive. In this case, you will need to restart the
-machine before attempting to format disks.
-</para>
-</sect1>
-
-</chapter>
-<chapter>
-<title>Formatting Disks in Dedicated Mode</title>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Introduction</title>
-
-<para>This section details how to make disks that are totally dedicated to
-FreeBSD. Remember, dedicated mode disks cannot be booted by the PC
-architecture.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-<sect1>
-<title>Making Dedicated Mode Disks using Sysinstall</title>
-
-<para><command>/stand/sysinstall</command>, the system installation
-utility, has been expanded in recent versions to make the process of
-dividing disks properly a less tiring affair. The fdisk and disklabel
-editors built into sysinstall are GUI tools that remove much of the
-confusion from slicing disks. For FreeBSD versions 2.1.7 and later,
-this is perhaps the simplest way to slice disks.</para>
-
-<orderedlist>
-<listitem><para>Start sysinstall as root by typing
-<informalexample>
-<screen><userinput>/stand/sysinstall</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-from the command prompt.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Index</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Partition</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select the disk to edit with arrow keys and
-<keycap>SPACE</keycap>.</para>
-</listitem>
-<listitem><para>If you are using this entire disk for FreeBSD, select
-<command>A</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>When asked:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-Do you want to do this with a true partition entry so as to remain
-cooperative with any future possible operating systems on the
-drive(s)?
-</screen>
-</informalexample>answer <command>No</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>When asked if you still want to do this, answer
-<command>Yes</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Write</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>When warned about Writing on installed systems, answer
-<command>Yes</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para><command>Quit</command>the FDISK Editor and
-<keycap>ESCAPE</keycap> back to the Index menu.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Label</command> from the Index
-menu.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Label as desired. For a single partition, enter
-<command>C</command> to Create a partition, accept the
-default size, partition type Filesystem, and a mountpoint (which isn't
-used).</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Enter <command>W</command> when done and confirm to
-continue. The filesystem will be newfs'd for you, unless you select
-otherwise (for news partitions you'll want to do this!). You'll get
-the error:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>Error mounting /mnt/dev/wd2s1e on /mnt/blah : No such file or directory </screen>
-</informalexample>
-Ignore.
-</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Exit out by repeatedly pressing <keycap>ESCAPE</keycap>.</para></listitem>
-</orderedlist>
-
-</sect1>
-<sect1>
-<title>Making Dedicated Mode Disks Using the Command Line</title>
-
-
-<para>Execute the following commands, replacing wd2 with the disk
-name. Lines beginning with # are comments. </para>
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-<userinput>
- dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd2 count=2
- disklabel /dev/rwd2 | disklabel -B -R -r wd2 /dev/stdin
- # We only want one partition, so using slice 'c' should be fine:
- newfs /dev/rwd2c
-</userinput>
-</screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para> If you need to edit the disklabel to create multiple
-partitions (such as swap), use the following: </para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-<userinput>
- dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd2 count=2
- disklabel /dev/r$d > /tmp/label
- # Edit disklabel to add partitions:
- vi /tmp/label
- disklabel -B -R -r wd2 /tmp/label
- # newfs partitions appropriately
-</userinput>
-</screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>Your disk is now ready for use.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Making Compatibility Mode Disks</title>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Introduction</title>
-<para>The command line is the easiest way to make dedicated disks, and
-the worst way to make compatibility disks. The command-line fdisk
-utility requires higher math skills and an in-depth understanding of
-the slice table, which is more than most people want to deal with.
-Use sysinstall for compatibility disks, as described below.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-<sect1>
-
-<title>Making Compatibility Mode Disks Using Sysinstall</title>
-
-<orderedlist>
-<listitem><para>Start sysinstall as root by typing
-<informalexample>
-<screen><userinput>/stand/sysinstall</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-from the command prompt.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Index</command>.</para> </listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Partition</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select the disk to edit with arrow keys and
-<keycap>SPACE</keycap>.
-</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>If you are using this entire disk for FreeBSD, select
-<command>A</command>.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>When asked:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-Do you want to do this with a true partition entry so as to remain
-cooperative with any future possible operating systems on the
-drive(s)?
-</screen>
-</informalexample> answer <command>yes</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Write</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>When asked to install the boot manager, select None with
-<keycap>SPACE</keycap> then hit <keycap>ENTER</keycap> for OK.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para><command>Quit</command> the FDISK Editor.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>You'll be asked about the boot manager, select
-<command>None</command>
-again. </para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Label</command> from the Index
-menu.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Label as desired. For a single partition, accept the
-default size, type filesystem, and a mountpoint (which isn't
-used).</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>The filesystem will be newfs'd for you, unless you select otherwise (for news partitions you'll want to do this!). You'll get the error:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-Error mounting /mnt/dev/wd2s1e on /mnt/blah : No such file or directory </screen>
-</informalexample>
-Ignore.
-</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Exit out by repeatedly pressing <keycap>ESCAPE</keycap>.</para></listitem>
-</orderedlist>
-
-<para>Your new disk is now ready for use.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Other Disk Operations</title>
-<sect1>
-<title>Adding Swap Space</title>
-
-<para>As a system grows, it's need for swap space can also grow.
-Although adding swap space to existing disks is very difficult, a new
-disk can be partitioned with additional swap space. </para>
-
-<para>To add swap space when adding a disk to a system:
-<orderedlist>
-<listitem><para>When partitioning the disk, edit the disklabel and
-allocate the amount of swap space to add in partition `b' and the
-remainder in another partition, such as `a' or `e'. The size is given
-in 512 byte blocks. </para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>When newfsing the drive, do NOT newfs the `c'
-partition. Instead, newfs the partition where the non-swap space
-lies.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Add an entry to <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> as follows:
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>
-/dev/wd0b none swap sw 0 0
-</programlisting>
-</informalexample>
-Change /dev/wd0b to the device of the newly added
-space.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>To make the new space immediately available, use the
-<command>swapon</command> command.
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-<userinput>
-$ swapon /dev/sd0b
-</userinput>
-swapon: added /dev/sd0b as swap space
-</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para></listitem>
-</orderedlist>
-</para>
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Copying the Contents of Disks</title>
-<!-- Should have specific tag -->
-<para>Submitted By: Renaud Waldura (<email>renaud@softway.com</email>) </para>
-
-<para>To move file from your original base disk to the fresh new one,
-do:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-<userinput>
-mount /dev/wd2 /mnt
-pax -r -w -p e /usr/home /mnt
-umount /mnt
-rm -rf /usr/home/*
-mount /dev/wd2 /usr/home
-</userinput>
-</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Credits</title>
-
-
-
-<para>The author would like to thank the following individuals for
-their contributions to this project:
-<itemizedlist>
-<listitem><para>Darryl Okahata
-(<email>darrylo@hpnmhjw.sr.hp.com</email>) for his
-simple dedicated mode setup documentation which I have used repeatedly
-on freebsd-questions.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Jordan Hubbard
-(<email>jkh@freebsd.org</email>) for making
-sysinstall useful for this type of task.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>John Fieber
-(<email>jfieber@indiana.edu</email>) for making
-information and examples of the DocBook DTD on which this document is
-based.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Greg Lehey (<email>grog@freebsd.org</email>) for checking my
-work and pointing out inaccuracies, as well as miscellaneous support.
-</para></listitem>
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-
-
-</book>
diff --git a/en/tutorials/disklessx/Makefile b/en/tutorials/disklessx/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 086d200c36..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/disklessx/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,5 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.2 1997-07-01 05:38:12 max Exp $
-
-DOCS= disklessx.sgml
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
diff --git a/en/tutorials/disklessx/disklessx.sgml b/en/tutorials/disklessx/disklessx.sgml
deleted file mode 100644
index 408ae81e91..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/disklessx/disklessx.sgml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,266 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 3.2//EN" [
-<!ENTITY base CDATA "../..">
-<!ENTITY date "$Date: 1996-12-28 23:36:52 $">
-<!ENTITY title "Diskless X Server: a how to guide">
-<!ENTITY copyright " ">
-<!ENTITY % includes SYSTEM "../../includes.sgml"> %includes;
-]>
-<!-- $Id: disklessx.sgml,v 1.3 1996-12-28 23:36:52 mpp Exp $ -->
-
-<html>
-&header;
-
-<H3>By Jerry Kendall</H3>
-<H3>(<a href="mailto:jerry@kcis.com">jerry@kcis.com</a>)</H3>
-
-<p>With the help of some 'friends' on the FreeBSD-hackers list, I have
-been able to create a diskless X terminal... The creation of the X terminal
-required first creating a diskless system with minimal utilities mounted
-via NFS. These same steps were used to create 2 separate diskless systems.
-The first is 'altair.kcis.com'. A diskless X terminal that I run on my
-old 386DX-40. It has a 340Meg hard disk but, I did not want to change it.
-So, it boots from 'antares.kcis.com' across a Ethernet. The second system
-is a 486DX2-66. I setup a diskless FreeBSD (complete) that uses no local
-disk. The server in that case is a Sun 670MP running
-SunOS 4.1.3. The same setup configuration was needed for both.</p>
-
-<hr>
-NOTE: I am sure that there is stuff that needs to be added to this. Please send me any comments....
-<hr>
-
-<h2>Creating the boot floppy (On the diskless system)</h2>
-
-<p>Since the network boot loaders will not work with some of
-the TSR's and such that MS-DOS uses, it is best to create
-a dedicated boot floppy OR, if you can, create an MS-DOS menu
-that will (via the config.sys/autoexec.bat files) ask what
-configuration to load when the system starts. The later is the
-method that I use and it works great. My MS-DOS (6.x) menu is below.</p>
-<pre>
- ---- config.sys ----
- [menu]
- menuitem=normal, normal
- menuitem=unix, unix
- [normal]
- ....
- normal config.sys stuff
- ...
- [unix]
- ----
-
- ---- autoexec.bat ----
- @ECHO OFF
- goto %config%
-
- :normal
- ...
- normal autoexec.bat stuff
- ...
- goto end
-
- :unix
- cd \netboot
- nb8390.com
-
- :end
- ----</pre>
-
-<h2>Getting the network boot programs (On the server)</h2>
-
-<p>Compile the 'net-boot' programs that are located in
-/usr/src/sys/i386/boot/netboot. You should read the comments
-at the top of the makefile. Adjust as required. !!!! make a
-backup of the original in case it gets fobar'd !!! When the build
-is done, there should be 2 MS-DOS executables, 'nb8390.com' and
-'nb3c509.com'. One of these two programs will be what you need
-to run on the diskless server. It will load the kernel from the
-boot server. At this point, put both programs on the MS-DOS
-boot floppy created earlier.
-
-<h2>Determine which program to run (On the diskless system)</h2>
-
-<p>If you know the chipset that your Ethernet adapter uses, this is
-easy. If you have the NS8390 chipset, or a NS8390 based chipset,
-use NB8390.COM. If you have a 3Com 509 based chipset, use the
-NB3C509.COM boot program. If you are not sure which you have,
-try using one, if it says 'No adapter found', try the other.
-Beyond that, you are pretty much on your own.
-
-<h2>Booting across the network</h2>
-
-<p>Boot the diskless system with out any config.sys/autoexec.bat
-files. try running the boot program for your Ethernet adapter.</p>
-<pre>
- My Ethernet adapter is running in WD8013 16bit mode so
- I run NB8390.COM
-
- C:> cd \netboot
- C:> nb8390
-
- Boot from Network (Y/N) ? Y
-
- BOOTP/TFTP/NFS bootstrap loader ESC for menu
-
- Searching for adapter..
- WD8013EBT base 0x0300, memory 0x000D8000, addr 00:40:01:43:26:66
-
- Searching for server..</pre>
-
-<p>At this point, my diskless system is trying to find a machine to act
-as a boot server. Make note of the addr line above, you will need this
-number later. Reset the diskless system and modify your config.sys and
-autoexec.bat files to do these steps automatically for you. Perhaps in
-a menu. If you had to run 'nb3c509.com' instead of 'nb8390.com' the
-output is the same as above. If you got 'No adapter found' at the
-'Searching for adapter..' message, verify that you did indeed set the
-compile time defines in the makefile correctly.</p>
-
-<h2>Allowing systems to boot across the network (On the
- server)</h2>
-
-<p>Make sure the /etc/inetd.conf file has entries for tftp and bootps.
-Mine are listed below:</p>
-<pre>
- ---- /etc/inetd.conf ----
- tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/libexec/tftpd tftpd
- #
- # Additions by who ever you are
- bootps dgram udp wait root /usr/libexec/bootpd bootpd /etc/bootptab
- ----
-</pre>
-<p>If you have to change the /etc/inetd.conf file, send a HUP signal to
-inetd. To do this, get the process ID of inetd with 'ps -ax | grep
-inetd | grep -v grep'. Once you have it, send it a HUP signal. Do this
-by 'kill -HUP &lt;pid&gt;'. This will force inetd to re-read its config file.</p>
-
-<p>Did you remember to note the 'addr' line from the output of the boot
-loader on the diskless system???? Guess what, here is where you need it.</p>
-
-<p>Add an entry to /etc/bootptab (maybe creating the file). It should be
-laid out identical to this:</p>
-
-<pre>
- altair:\
- :ht=ether:\
- :ha=004001432666:\
- :sm=255.255.255.0:\
- :hn:\
- :ds=199.246.76.1:\
- :ip=199.246.76.2:\
- :gw=199.246.76.1:\
- :vm=rfc1048:
-
- The lines are as follows:
- 'altair' the diskless systems name without the domain name.
- 'ht=ether' the hardware type of 'ethernet'.
- 'ha=004001432666' the hardware address (the number noted above).
- 'sm=255.255.255.0' the subnet mask.
- 'hn' tells server to send client's hostname to the client.
- 'ds=199.246.76.1' tells the client who the domain server is.
- 'ip=199.246.76.2' tells the client what it's IP address is.
- 'gw=199.246.76.1' tells the client what the default gateway is.
- 'vm=...' just leave it there...
-</pre>
-<p>NOTE:
-****** Be sure to setup the IP addresses correctly, the addresses
-above are my own......</p>
-
-<p>Create the directory '/tftpboot' on the server it will contain the
-configuration files for the diskless systems that the server will
-serve. These files will be named 'cfg.&lt;ip&gt;' where &lt;ip&gt; is the IP
-address of the diskless system. The config file for 'altair' is
-/tftpboot/cfg.199.246.76.2. The contents is:</p>
-
-<pre>
- ---- /tftpboot/cfg.199.246.76.2 ----
- rootfs 199.246.76.1:/DiskLess/rootfs/altair
- hostname altair.kcis.com
- ----
-</pre>
-<p>The line 'hostname altair.kcis.com' simply tells the diskless
-system what its fully qualified domain name is.</p>
-
-<p>The line 'rootfs 199.246.76.1:/DiskLess/rootfs/altair' tells the
-diskless system where its NFS mountable root filesystem is located.</p>
-
-<p>NOTE:!!!!! The NFS mounted root filesystem will be mounted READ ONLY.</p>
-
-<p>The hierarchy for the diskless system can be re-mounted allowing
-read-write operations if required.</p>
-
-<p>I use my spare 386DX-40 as a dedicated X terminal...</p>
-
-<p>The hierarchy for 'altair' is:</p>
-
-<pre>
- /
- /bin
- /etc
- /tmp
- /sbin
- /dev
- /dev/fd
- /usr
- /var
- /var/run
-</pre>
-
-<p>The actual list of files is:</p>
-
-<pre>
- -r-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 779984 Dec 11 23:44 ./kernel
- -r-xr-xr-x 1 root bin 299008 Dec 12 00:22 ./bin/sh
- -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 499 Dec 15 15:54 ./etc/rc
- -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 1411 Dec 11 23:19 ./etc/ttys
- -rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 157 Dec 15 15:42 ./etc/hosts
- -rw-r--r-- 1 root bin 1569 Dec 15 15:26 ./etc/XF86Config.altair
- -r-x------ 1 bin bin 151552 Jun 10 1995 ./sbin/init
- -r-xr-xr-x 1 bin bin 176128 Jun 10 1995 ./sbin/ifconfig
- -r-xr-xr-x 1 bin bin 110592 Jun 10 1995 ./sbin/mount_nfs
- -r-xr-xr-x 1 bin bin 135168 Jun 10 1995 ./sbin/reboot
- -r-xr-xr-x 1 root bin 73728 Dec 13 22:38 ./sbin/mount
- -r-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 1992 Jun 10 1995 ./dev/MAKEDEV.local
- -r-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 24419 Jun 10 1995 ./dev/MAKEDEV
-</pre>
-<p>Don't forget to 'MAKEDEV all' in the 'dev' directory.</p>
-
-<p>My /etc/rc for 'altair' is:</p>
-
-<pre>
- #!/bin/sh
- #
- PATH=/bin:/sbin
- export PATH
- #
- # configure the localhost
- /sbin/ifconfig lo0 127.0.0.1
- #
- # configure the ethernet card
- /sbin/ifconfig ed0 199.246.76.2 netmask 0xffffff00
- #
- # mount the root filesystem via NFS
- /sbin/mount antares:/DiskLess/rootfs/altair /
- #
- # mount the /usr filesystem via NFS
- /sbin/mount antares:/DiskLess/usr /usr
- #
- /usr/X11R6/bin/XF86_SVGA -query antares -xf86config /etc/XF86Config.altair > /dev/null 2>&1
- #
- # Reboot after X exits
- /sbin/reboot
- #
- # We blew up....
- exit 1
-</pre>
-
-<hr>
-<p>Any comments and ALL questions welcome....</p>
-
-<address>
-Jerry Kendall<br>
-<a href="mailto:jerry@kcis.com">jerry@kcis.com</a>
-</address>
-
-&footer;
-</body>
-</html>
diff --git a/en/tutorials/doc.ftr b/en/tutorials/doc.ftr
deleted file mode 100644
index 5f459de742..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/doc.ftr
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,5 +0,0 @@
-<hr>
-<address>
- <a href="../../mailto.html">www@freebsd.org</a>
-</address>
-
diff --git a/en/tutorials/doc.hdr b/en/tutorials/doc.hdr
deleted file mode 100644
index f5e32a9961..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/doc.hdr
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,14 +0,0 @@
-<IMG SRC="../../gifs/bar.gif" ALT="" WIDTH="565" HEIGHT="33" BORDER=0 usemap="#bar">
-<map name="bar">
-<area shape="rect" coords="1,1,111,31" href="../../index.html" ALT="">
-<area shape="rect" coords="112,11,196,31" href="../../ports/index.html" ALT="">
-<area shape="rect" coords="196,12,257,33" href="../../support.html" ALT="">
-<area shape="rect" coords="256,12,365,33" href="../../docs.html" ALT="">
-<area shape="rect" coords="366,13,424,32" href="../../commercial.html" ALT="">
-<area shape="rect" coords="425,16,475,32" href="../../search.html" ALT="">
-<area shape="rect" coords="477,16,516,33" href="../../index-site.html" ALT="">
-<area shape="rect" coords="516,15,562,33" href="../../index.html" ALT="">
-<area shape="rect" href="../../index.html" coords="0,0,564,32" ALT="">
-</map>
-
-<br clear=all>
diff --git a/en/tutorials/fonts/Makefile b/en/tutorials/fonts/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 260184f87c..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/fonts/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,6 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.4 1997-07-01 05:38:13 max Exp $
-
-DOCS= fonts.docb
-INDEXLINK= fonts.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
diff --git a/en/tutorials/fonts/fonts.docb b/en/tutorials/fonts/fonts.docb
deleted file mode 100644
index 5948268167..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/fonts/fonts.docb
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,723 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: fonts.docb,v 1.1 1997-02-15 18:02:20 jfieber Exp $ -->
-<!-- The FreeBSD Documentation Project -->
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-
-<!-- Recently, I wanted to figure out how to use some additional fonts that
- I had accumulated. I finally figured out *how to do it* from the various
- man pages and documentation. Since it might be of use to other users,
- and I didn't see any reference to this topic in the FAQ or handbook, I
- thought I'd try my hand at a simple cookbook tutorial addressing the
- use of fonts. I have included my unanswered questions at the end of
- the document.
-
- Anyway, here's what I put together. This is my present understanding of
- fonts and how to use them with FreeBSD. I am sure that there are errors or
- misunderstandings, but it contains enough valid information to allow the
- use of additional fonts with Ghostscript, X11 and Groff. This is my first
- attempt to write anything along the lines of a tutorial/FAQ, so I am sure
- it is pretty raw. There are probably better ways to do some of this stuff,
- and I would welcome being corrected.
- -->
-
-<book>
-
-<bookinfo>
-<bookbiblio>
-<title>Fonts and FreeBSD</title>
-<subtitle>A Tutorial</subtitle>
-
-<authorgroup>
-<author>
-<firstname>Dave</firstname>
-<surname>Bodenstab</surname>
-<affiliation>
-<address><email>imdave@synet.net</email></address>
-</affiliation>
-</author>
-</authorgroup>
-
-<pubdate>Wed Aug 7, 1996</pubdate>
-
-<abstract><para>This document contains a description of the various
-font files that may be used with FreeBSD and the syscons driver, X11,
-Ghostscript and Groff. Cookbook examples are provided for switching
-the syscons display to 80x60 mode, and for using type 1 fonts with
-the above application programs.</para></abstract>
-
-</bookbiblio>
-</bookinfo>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Introduction</title>
-
-<para>There are many sources of fonts available, and one might ask
-how they might be used with FreeBSD. The answer can be found by
-carefully searching the documentation for the component that one
-would like to use. This is very time consuming, so this tutorial is
-an attempt to provide a shortcut for others who might be
-interested.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Basic terminology</title>
-
-<para>There are many different font formats and associated font file
-suffixes. A few that will be addressed here are:
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.pfa</>, <filename>.pfb</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Postscript type 1 fonts. The <filename>.pfa</filename> is the
-<emphasis>A</emphasis>scii form and <filename>.pfb</filename> the
-<emphasis>B</emphasis>inary form.</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.afm</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>The font metrics associated with a type 1
-font.</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.pfm</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>The printer font metrics associated with a type 1
-font.</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.ttf</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>A TrueType font</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.fot</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>An indirect reference to a TrueType font (not an
-actual font)</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.fon</>, <filename>.fnt</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Bitmapped screen fonts</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist></para>
-
-<para>The <filename>.fot</filename> file is used by Windows as sort
-of a symbolic link to the actual TrueType font
-(<filename>.ttf</filename>) file. The <filename>.fon</filename> font
-files are also used by Windows. I know of no way to use this font
-format with FreeBSD.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>What font formats can I use?</title>
-
-<para>Which font file format is useful depends on the application
-being used. FreeBSD by itself uses no fonts. Application programs
-and/or drivers may make use of the font files. Here is a small cross
-reference of application/driver to the font type suffixes:</para>
-
-<para>
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term>Driver</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term>syscons</term>
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.fnt</></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Application</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term>Ghostscript</term>
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.pfa</filename>, <filename>.pfb</filename>, <filename>.ttf</filename></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>X11</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.pfa</filename>, <filename>.pfb</filename></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Groff</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.pfa</filename>, <filename>.afm</filename></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Povray</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.ttf</filename></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-<para>The <filename>.fnt</filename> suffix is used quite frequently.
-I suspect that whenever someone wanted to create a specialized font
-file for their application, more often than not they chose this
-suffix. Therefore, it is likely that files with this suffix are not
-all the same format; specifically, the <filename>.fnt</filename>
-files used by syscons under FreeBSD may not be the same format as a
-<filename>.fnt</filename> file one encounters in the MSDOS/Windows
-environment. I have not made any attempt at using other
-<filename>.fnt</filename> files other than those provided with
-FreeBSD.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Setting a virtual console to 80x60 line mode</title>
-
-<para>First, a 8x8 font must be loaded.
-<filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename> should contain the lines:
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting># Choose font 8x8 from /usr/share/syscons/fonts/* (or NO for default)
-font8x8=/usr/share/syscons/fonts/cp437-8x8.fnt</programlisting>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>The command to actually switch the mode is
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</><manvolnum>1</></>:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bash$ <userinput>vidcontrol VGA_80x60</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>Various screen orientated programs, such as
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vi</><manvolnum>1</></>, must be able to
-determine the current screen dimensions. These can be set with
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>stty</><manvolnum>1</></>:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bash$ <userinput>stty crt rows 60 columns 80</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>To make this more seamless, one can embed these commands in the
-startup scripts so it takes place when the system boots. One way to
-do this is:
-<orderedlist>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Modify <filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename> as above</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Add to <filename>/etc/rc.local</filename>:
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>for tty in /dev/ttyv?
-do
- vidcontrol VGA_80x60 &lt;$tty &gt;/dev/null 2&gt;&amp;1
-done</programlisting>
-</informalexample></para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Add to <filename>/etc/profile</filename>:
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>TTYNAME=`basename \`tty\``
-if expr "$TTYNAME" : 'ttyv' &gt;/dev/null
-then
- stty crt rows 60 columns 80
-fi</programlisting>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</orderedlist>
-</para>
-
-<para>References:
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>stty</><manvolnum>1</></>,
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</><manvolnum>1</></>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Using type 1 fonts with X11</title>
-
-<para>X11 can use either the <filename>.pfa</filename> or the
-<filename>.pfb</filename> format fonts. The X11 fonts are located in
-various subdirectories under
-<filename>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts</filename>. Each font file is
-cross referenced to its X11 name by the contents of the
-<filename>fonts.dir</filename> file in each directory.</para>
-
-<para>There is already a directory named <filename>Type1</>. The most
-straight forward way to add a new font is to put it into this
-directory. A better way is to keep all new fonts in a separate
-directory and use a symbolic link to the additional font. This
-allows one to more easily keep track of ones fonts without confusing
-them with the fonts that were originally provided. For
-example:
-<informalexample>
-<screen><lineannotation>Create a directory to contain the font files</>
-bash$ <userinput>mkdir -p /usr/local/share/fonts/type1</>
-bash$ <userinput>cd /usr/local/share/fonts/type1</>
-
-<lineannotation>Place the .pfa, .pfb and .afm files here</>
-<lineannotation>One might want to keep readme files, and other documentation</>
-<lineannotation>for the fonts here also</>
-bash$ <userinput>cp /cdrom/fonts/atm/showboat/showboat.pfb .</>
-bash$ <userinput>cp /cdrom/fonts/atm/showboat/showboat.afm .</>
-
-<lineannotation>Maintain an index to cross reference the fonts</>
-bash$ <userinput>echo showboat - InfoMagic CICA, Dec 1994, /fonts/atm/showboat &gt;&gt;INDEX</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>Now, to use a new font with X11, one must make the font file
-available and update the font name files. The X11 font names look
-like:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>-bitstream-charter-medium-r-normal-xxx-0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1
- | | | | | | | | | | | | \ \
- | | | | | \ \ \ \ \ \ \ +----+- character set
- | | | | \ \ \ \ \ \ \ +- average width
- | | | | \ \ \ \ \ \ +- spacing
- | | | \ \ \ \ \ \ +- vertical res.
- | | | \ \ \ \ \ +- horizontal res.
- | | | \ \ \ \ +- points
- | | | \ \ \ +- pixels
- | | | \ \ \
- foundry family weight slant width additional style</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>A new name needs to be created for each new font. If you have
-some information from the documentation that accompanied the font,
-then it could serve as the basis for creating the name. If there is
-no information, then you can get some idea by using
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>strings</><manvolnum>1</></> on the font
-file. For example:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bash$ <userinput>strings showboat.pfb | more</>
-%!FontType1-1.0: Showboat 001.001
-%%CreationDate: 1/15/91 5:16:03 PM
-%%VMusage: 1024 45747
-% Generated by Fontographer 3.1
-% Showboat
- 1991 by David Rakowski. Alle Rechte Vorbehalten.
-FontDirectory/Showboat known{/Showboat findfont dup/UniqueID known{dup
-/UniqueID get 4962377 eq exch/FontType get 1 eq and}{pop false}ifelse
-{save true}{false}ifelse}{false}ifelse
-12 dict begin
-/FontInfo 9 dict dup begin
- /version (001.001) readonly def
- /FullName (Showboat) readonly def
- /FamilyName (Showboat) readonly def
- /Weight (Medium) readonly def
- /ItalicAngle 0 def
- /isFixedPitch false def
- /UnderlinePosition -106 def
- /UnderlineThickness 16 def
- /Notice (Showboat
- 1991 by David Rakowski. Alle Rechte Vorbehalten.) readonly def
-end readonly def
-/FontName /Showboat def
---stdin--</screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>Using this information, a possible name might be:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>-type1-Showboat-medium-r-normal-decorative-0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>The components of our name are:
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Foundry</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>Lets just name all the new fonts <literal>type1</>.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Family</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>The name of the font.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Weight</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>Normal, bold, medium, semibold, etc. From the
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>strings</><manvolnum>1</></> output
-above, it appears that this font has a weight of
-<emphasis>medium</emphasis>.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Slant</term>
-<listitem>
-<para><emphasis remap=bf>r</emphasis>oman, <emphasis
-remap=bf>i</emphasis>talic, <emphasis remap=bf>o</emphasis>blique,
-etc. Since the <emphasis>ItalicAngle</emphasis> is zero,
-<emphasis>roman</emphasis> will be used.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Width</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>Normal, wide, condensed, extended, etc. Until it can be examined,
-the assumption will be <emphasis>normal</emphasis>.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Additional style</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>Usually omitted, but this will indicate that
-the font contains decorative capital letters.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Spacing</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>proportional or monospaced. <emphasis>Proportional</emphasis>
-is used since <emphasis>isFixedPitch</emphasis> is false.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-<para>All of these names are arbitrary, but one should strive to be
-compatible with the existing conventions. A font is referenced by
-name with possible wild cards by an X11 program, so the name chosen
-should make some sense. One might begin by simply using
-<informalexample>
-<screen>&hellip;-normal-r-normal-&hellip;-p-&hellip;</screen>
-</informalexample>
-as the name, and then use
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>xfontsel</><manvolnum>1</></> to examine it
-and adjust the name based on the appearance of the font.</para>
-
-<para>So, to complete our example:
-<informalexample>
-<screen><lineannotation>Make the font accessible to X11</>
-bash$ <userinput>cd /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Type1</>
-bash$ <userinput>ln -s /usr/local/share/fonts/type1/showboat.pfb .</>
-
-<lineannotation>Edit fonts.dir and fonts.scale, adding the line describing the font
-and incrementing the number of fonts which is found on the first line.</>
-bash$ <userinput>ex fonts.dir
-:1p
-25
-:1c
-26
-.
-:$a
-showboat.pfb -type1-showboat-medium-r-normal-decorative-0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1
-.
-:wq</>
-
-<lineannotation><filename>fonts.scale</> seems to be identical to <filename>fonts.dir</>&hellip;</>
-bash$ <userinput>cp fonts.dir fonts.scale</>
-
-<lineannotation>Tell X11 that things have changed</>
-bash$ <userinput>xset fp rehash</>
-
-<lineannotation>Examine the new font</>
-bash$ <userinput>xfontsel -pattern -type1-*</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>References:
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>xfontsel</><manvolnum>1</></>,
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>xset</><manvolnum>1</></>,
-<citetitle>The X Windows System in a Nutshell</>, <ulink
-URL="http://www.ora.com/">O'Reilly &amp; Associates</ulink>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Using type 1 fonts with Ghostscript</title>
-
-<para>Ghostscript references a font via its <filename>Fontmap</>
-file. This must be modified in a similar way to the X11
-<filename>fonts.dir</filename> file. Ghostscript can use either the
-<filename>.pfa</filename> or the <filename>.pfb</filename> format
-fonts. Using the font from the previous example, here is how to use
-it with Ghostscript:
-<informalexample>
-<screen><lineannotation>Put the font in Ghostscript's font directory</>
-bash$ <userinput>cd /usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts</>
-bash$ <userinput>ln -s /usr/local/share/fonts/type1/showboat.pfb .</>
-
-<lineannotation>Edit Fontmap so Ghostscript knows about the font</>
-bash$ <userinput>cd /usr/local/share/ghostscript/4.01</>
-bash$ <userinput>ex Fontmap
-:$a
-/Showboat (showboat.pfb) ; % From CICA /fonts/atm/showboat
-.
-:wq</>
-
-<lineannotation>Use Ghostscript to examine the font</>
-bash$ <userinput>gs prfont.ps</>
-Aladdin Ghostscript 4.01 (1996-7-10)
-Copyright (C) 1996 Aladdin Enterprises, Menlo Park, CA. All rights
-reserved.
-This software comes with NO WARRANTY: see the file PUBLIC for details.
-Loading Times-Roman font from /usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/tir_____.pfb...
- /1899520 581354 1300084 13826 0 done.
-GS&gt;<userinput>Showboat DoFont</>
-Loading Showboat font from /usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/showboat.pfb...
- 1939688 565415 1300084 16901 0 done.
-&gt;&gt;showpage, press &lt;return&gt; to continue&lt;&lt;
-&gt;&gt;showpage, press &lt;return&gt; to continue&lt;&lt;
-&gt;&gt;showpage, press &lt;return&gt; to continue&lt;&lt;
-GS&gt;<userinput>quit</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>References: <filename>fonts.txt</filename> in the Ghostscript
-4.01 distribution</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Using type 1 fonts with Groff</title>
-
-<para>Now that the new font can be used by both X11 and Ghostscript,
-how can one use the new font with groff? First of all, since we are
-dealing with type 1 postscript fonts, the groff device that is
-applicable is the <emphasis>ps</emphasis> device. A font file must be
-created for each font that groff can use. A groff font name is just
-a file in <filename>/usr/share/groff_font/devps</filename>. With our
-example, the font file could be
-<filename>/usr/share/groff_font/devps/SHOWBOAT</filename>. The file
-must be created using tools provided by groff.</para>
-
-<para>The first tool is <command>afmtodit</>. This is not normally
-installed, so it must be retrieved from the source distribution. I
-found I had to change the first line of the file, so I did:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bash$ <userinput>cp /usr/src/gnu/usr.bin/groff/afmtodit/afmtodit.pl /tmp</>
-bash$ <userinput>ex /tmp/afmtodit.pl
-:1c
-#!/usr/bin/perl -P-
-.
-:wq</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>This tool will create the groff font file from the metrics file
-(<filename>.afm</filename> suffix.) Continuing with our
-example:
-<informalexample>
-<screen><lineannotation>Many <filename>.afm</> files are in Mac format&hellip ^M delimited lines
-We need to convert them to unix style ^J delimited lines</>
-bash$ <userinput>cd /tmp</>
-bash$ <userinput>cat /usr/local/share/fonts/type1/showboat.afm |
- tr '\015' '\012' &gt;showboat.afm</>
-
-<lineannotation>Now create the groff font file</>
-bash$ <userinput>cd /usr/share/groff_font/devps</>
-bash$ <userinput>/tmp/afmtodit.pl -d DESC -e text.enc /tmp/showboat.afm generate/textmap SHOWBOAT</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>The font can now be referenced with the name SHOWBOAT.</para>
-
-<para>If ghostscript is used to drive the printers on the system,
-then nothing more needs to be done. However, if true postscript
-printers are used, then the font must be down loaded to the printer
-in order for the font to be used (unless the printer happens to have
-the showboat font built in or on an accessible font disk.) The final
-step is to create a down loadable font. The <command>pfbtops</> tool
-is used to create the <filename>.pfa</filename> format of the font,
-and the <filename>download</> file is modified to reference the new
-font. The <filename>download</> file must reference the internal
-name of the font. This can easily be determined from the groff font
-file as illustrated:
-<informalexample>
-<screen><lineannotation>Create the <filename>.pfa</> font file</>
-bash$ <userinput>pfbtops /usr/local/share/fonts/type1/showboat.pfb &gt;showboat.pfa</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-Of course, if the <filename>.pfa</filename> file is already
-available, just use a symbolic link to reference it.
-<informalexample>
-<screen><lineannotation>Get the internal font name</>
-bash$ <userinput>fgrep internalname SHOWBOAT</>
-internalname Showboat
-
-<lineannotation>Tell groff that the font must be down loaded</>
-bash$ <userinput>ex download
-:$a
-Showboat showboat.pfa
-.
-:wq</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>To test the font:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bash$ <userinput>cd /tmp</>
-bash$ <userinput>cat &gt;example.t &lt;&lt;EOF
-.sp 5
-.ps 16
-This is an example of the Showboat font:
-.br
-.ps 48
-.vs (\n(.s+2)p
-.sp
-.ft SHOWBOAT
-ABCDEFGHI
-.br
-JKLMNOPQR
-.br
-STUVWXYZ
-.sp
-.ps 16
-.vs (\n(.s+2)p
-.fp 5 SHOWBOAT
-.ft R
-To use it for the first letter of a paragraph, it will look like:
-.sp 50p
-\s(48\f5H\s0\fRere is the first sentence of a paragraph that uses the
-showboat font as its first letter.
-Additional vertical space must be used to allow room for the larger
-letter.
-EOF</>
-bash$ <userinput>groff -Tps example.t &gt;example.ps</>
-
-<lineannotation>To use ghostscript/ghostview</>
-bash$ <userinput>ghostview example.ps</>
-
-<lineannotation>To print it</>
-bash$ <userinput>lpr -Ppostscript example.ps</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>References:
-<filename>/usr/src/gnu/usr.bin/groff/afmtodit/afmtodit.man</filename>,
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>groff_font</><manvolnum>5</></>,
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>groff_char</><manvolnum>5</></>,
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pfbtops</><manvolnum>1</></>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Can TrueType fonts be used?</title>
-
-<para>The TrueType font format is used by Windows, Windows 95,
-Mac's,&hellip It is quite popular and there are a great number of
-fonts available in this format. Unfortunately, there are only two
-applications that I am aware of that can use this format: Ghostscript
-and povray. Ghostscript's support, according to the documentation,
-is rudimentary and the results are likely to be inferior to type 1
-fonts.</para>
-
-<para>However, groff would need a font description file, and I know
-of no tools to construct the metrics from a TrueType font. In
-addition, the font would have to be down loaded to postscript
-printers in the appropriate format, and again, groff cannot handle
-TrueType fonts in this fashion.</para>
-
-<para>X11 has no support for TrueType fonts that I am aware
-of.</para>
-
-<para>The only program that I know of that has the ability to use
-TrueType fonts is povray version 3, but I rather doubt many people
-will be creating documents as a series of raytraced pages!
-:-)</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Where can additional fonts be obtained?</title>
-
-<para>Many fonts are available on the Internet. They are either
-entirely free, or are share-ware. In addition, there are many
-inexpensive CDROMs available that contain many fonts. Some Internet
-locations (as of August 1996) are:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem><para><ulink
-url="ftp://ftp.winsite.com">ftp://ftp.winsite.com</ulink> (Formerly
-CICA)</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para><ulink
-url="http://www.simtel.net/simcgi-bin/dosfind.cgi">http://www.simtel.net/simcgi-bin/dosfind.cgi</ulink></para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para><ulink
-url="ftp://ftp.coast.net/">ftp://ftp.coast.net/</ulink></para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para><ulink
-url="http://af-pc-plloyd.ecel.uwa.edu.au/fonts/index.html">http://af-pc-plloyd.ecel.uwa.edu.au/fonts/index.html</ulink></para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para><ulink
-url="http://www.esselte.com/letraset/index.html">http://www.esselte.com/letraset/index.html</ulink></para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para><ulink
-url="http://www.inil.com/users/elfring/esf.htm">http://www.inil.com/users/elfring/esf.htm</ulink></para></listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist></para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Additional questions</title>
-
-<para>
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>What use are the <filename>.pfm</filename> files?</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Can one generate the <filename>.afm</filename> file from a <filename>.pfa</filename> or <filename>.pfb</filename>?</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>How to generate the groff character mapping files for postscript fonts
-with non-standard character names?</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Can xditview and devX?? devices be setup to access all the new fonts?</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>It would be good to have examples of using TrueType fonts with povray and
-ghostscript.</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-</chapter>
-</book>
diff --git a/en/tutorials/index.sgml b/en/tutorials/index.sgml
deleted file mode 100644
index 086a2e6baf..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/index.sgml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,49 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 3.2//EN" [
-<!ENTITY base CDATA "..">
-<!ENTITY date "$Date: 1997-09-13 04:24:12 $">
-<!ENTITY title "FreeBSD Tutorials">
-<!ENTITY % includes SYSTEM "../includes.sgml"> %includes;
-]>
-<!-- $Id: index.sgml,v 1.15 1997-09-13 04:24:12 jfieber Exp $ -->
-
-<html>
-&header;
-
- <p>Here lie assorted documents on various aspects of FreeBSD,
- FreeBSD software, and hardware. If you have comments or
- would like to contribute a document, please contact us at
- <a href="mailto:freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.ORG">freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org</a>.</p>
-
- <ul>
- <li><a href="newuser/newuser.html">For People New to Both FreeBSD
- <em>and</em> Unix</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="mh/mh.html">An introduction to the MH mail software</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="devel/devel.html">A User's Guide to FreeBSD Programming
- Tools</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="ddwg/ddwg.html">Writing device drivers for FreeBSD</a>
- (<a href="ddwg/ddwg.ps">postscript</a>,
- <a href="ddwg/ddwg-html.tar.gz">gzipd tar file</a>)</li>
-
- <li><a href="ppp/ppp.html">Pedantic PPP primer - IP Aliasing</a>
- (<a href="ppp/ppp.ps">postscript</a>,
- <a href="ppp/ppp-html.tar.gz">gzipd tar file</a>)</li>
-
- <li><a href="multios/multios.html">Using FreeBSD with other operating systems</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="fonts/fonts.html">Fonts and FreeBSD</a></li>
-
- <li><a href="http://www.cypher.net/~black/ipalias.html">IP Aliasing</a></li>
- <li><a href="upgrade/upgrade.html">Upgrading FreeBSD from source</a></li>
- <li><a href="diskformat/diskformat.html">Formatting Media For Use With FreeBSD
-2.2-RELEASE</a></li>
-
- </ul>
-
-
-&footer;
-</body>
-</html>
-
diff --git a/en/tutorials/mh/Makefile b/en/tutorials/mh/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 14a686e6af..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/mh/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,7 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.4 1997-07-01 05:38:13 max Exp $
-
-DOCS= mh.docb
-INDEXLINK= mh.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
-
diff --git a/en/tutorials/mh/mh.docb b/en/tutorials/mh/mh.docb
deleted file mode 100644
index 839f8b7611..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/mh/mh.docb
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,704 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: mh.docb,v 1.2 1997-07-01 21:38:44 max Exp $ -->
-<!-- FreeBSD Documentation Project -->
-
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-<book>
-
-<bookinfo>
-<bookbiblio>
-<title>An MH Primer</title>
-
-<authorgroup>
-<author>
-<firstname>Matt</firstname>
-<surname>Midboe</surname>
-<affiliation>
-<address>
-<email>matt@garply.com</email>
-</address>
-</affiliation>
-</author></authorgroup>
-
-<pubdate>v1.0, 16 January 1996</pubdate>
-
-<abstract><para>This document contains an introduction to using MH on
-FreeBSD</para></abstract>
-
-</bookbiblio>
-</bookinfo>
-
-<chapter id="mhintro">
-<title>Introduction</title>
-
-<para>MH started back in 1977 at the RAND Corporation, where the
-initial philosophies behind MH were developed. MH isn't so much a
-monolithic email program but a philosophy about how best to develop
-tools for reading email. The MH developers have done a great job
-adhering to the <acronym>KISS</> principle: Keep It Simple Stupid.
-Rather than have one large program for reading, sending and handling
-email they have written specialized programs for each part of your
-email life. One might liken MH to the specialization that one finds
-in insects and nature. Each tool in MH does one thing, and does it
-very well.</para>
-
-<para>Beyond just the various tools that one uses to handle their
-email MH has done an excellent job keeping the configuration of each
-of these tools consistent and uniform. In fact, if you are not quite
-sure how something is supposed to work or what the arguments for some
-command are supposed to be then you can generally guess and be right.
-Each MH command is consistent about how it handles reading the
-configuration files and how it takes arguments on the command line.
-One useful thing to remember is that you can always add a
-<option>-help</option> to the command to have it display the options
-for that command.</para>
-
-<para>The first thing that you need to do is to make sure that you have
-installed the MH package on your FreeBSD machine. If you installed
-from CDROM you should be able to execute the following to load mh:
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>pkg_add /cdrom/packages/mh-6.8.3.tgz</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-You will notice that it created a <filename>/usr/local/lib/mh</>
-directory for you as well as adding several binaries to the
-<filename>/usr/local/bin</> directory. If you would prefer to compile
-it yourself then you can anonymous ftp it from <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.ics.uci.edu/">ftp.ics.uci.edu</ulink> or <ulink
-URL="ftp://louie.udel.edu/">louie.udel.edu</ulink>.</para>
-
-<para>This primer is not a full comprehensive explanation of how MH
-works. This is just intended to get you started on the road to
-happier, faster mail reading. You should read the man pages for the
-various commands. Also you might want to read the <ulink
-URL="news:comp.mail.mh">comp.mail.mh</ulink> newsgroup. Also you can
-read the <ulink
-URL="http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/mh-faq/part1/faq.html">FAQ
-for MH</ulink>. The best resource for MH is the O'Reilly and Associates book
-written by Jerry Peek.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Reading Mail</title>
-
-<para>This section covers how to use <command>inc</>,
-<command>show</>, <command>scan</>, <command>next</>,
-<command>prev</>, <command>rmm</>, <command>rmf</>, and
-<command>msgchk</>. One of the best things about MH is the
-consistent interface between programs. A few things to keep in mind
-when using these commands is how to specify message lists. In the
-case of <command>inc</> this doesn't really make any sense but with
-commands like <command>show</> it is useful to know. </para>
-
-<para>A message list can consist of something like <parameter>23 20
-16</> which will act on messages 23, 20 and 16. This is fairly simple
-but you can do more useful things like <parameter>23-30</> which will
-act on all the messages between 23 and 30. You can also specify
-something like <parameter>cur:10</> which will act on the current
-message and the next 9 messages. The <parameter>cur</>,
-<parameter>last</>, and <parameter>first</> messages are special
-messages that refer to the current, last or first message in the
-folder.</para>
-
-
-<sect1 id="inc">
-<title><command>inc</>, <command>msgchk</>&mdash;read in your new email or check it</title>
-
-<para>If you just type in <userinput>inc</> and hit <keycap>return</>
-you will be well on your way to getting started with MH. The first
-time you run <command>inc</> it will setup your account to use all
-the MH defaults and ask you about creating a Mail directory. If you
-have mail waiting to be downloaded you will see something that looks
-like:
-<informalexample>
-<screen> 29 01/15 Doug White Re: Another Failed to boot problem&lt;&lt;On Mon, 15 J
- 30 01/16 "Jordan K. Hubbar Re: FBSD 2.1&lt;&lt;&gt; Do you want a library instead of
- 31 01/16 Bruce Evans Re: location of bad144 table&lt;&lt;&gt;&gt; &gt;It would appea
- 32 01/16 "Jordan K. Hubbar Re: video is up&lt;&lt;&gt; Anyway, mrouted won't run, ev
- 33 01/16 Michael Smith Re: FBSD 2.1&lt;&lt;Nate Williams stands accused of sa</screen>
-</informalexample>
-This is the same thing you will see from a <command>scan</> (see
-<xref linkend="scan">). If you just run <command>inc</> with no
-arguments it will look on your computer for email that is supposed to
-be coming to you.</para>
-
-<para>A lot of people like to use POP for grabbing their email. MH can do
-POP to grab your email. You will need to give <command>inc</> a few command
-line arguments.
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>inc -host mail.pop.org -user <replaceable>username</> -norpop</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-That tells <command>inc</> to go to <parameter>mail.pop.org</> to
-download your email, and that your username on their system is
-<replaceable>username</>. The <option>-norpop</option> option tells
-<command>inc</> to use plain POP3 for downloading your email. MH has
-support for a few different dialects of POP. More than likely you
-will never ever need to use them though. While you can do more
-complex things with inc such as audit files and scan format files
-this will get you going.</para>
-
-<para>The <command>msgchk</> command is used to get information on
-whether or not you have new email. <command>msgchk</> takes the same
-<option>-host</option> and <option>-user</option> options that
-<command>inc</> takes.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1 id="show">
-<title><command>show</>, <command>next</> and <command>prev</>&mdash;displaying and moving through email</title>
-
-<para><command>show</> is to show a letter in your current folder.
-Like <command>inc</>, <command>show</> is a fairly straightforward
-command. If you just type <userinput>show</> and hit <keycap>return</>
-then it displays the current message. You can also give specific
-message numbers to show:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>show 32 45 56</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-This would display message numbers 32, 45 and 56 right after each
-other. Unless you change the default behavior <command>show</>
-basically just does a <command>more</> on the email message.</para>
-
-<para><command>next</> is used to move onto the next message and
-<command>prev</> will go to the previous message. Both commands have
-an implied <command>show</> command so that when you go to the next
-message it automatically displays it.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1 id="scan">
-<title><command>scan</>&mdash;shows you a scan of your messages</title>
-
-<para><command>scan</> will display a brief listing of the messages
-in your current folder. This is an example of what the
-<command>scan</> command will give you.
-<informalexample>
-<screen> 30+ 01/16 "Jordan K. Hubbar Re: FBSD 2.1&lt;&lt;&gt; Do you want a library instead of
- 31 01/16 Bruce Evans Re: location of bad144 table&lt;&lt;&gt;&gt; &gt;It would appea
- 32 01/16 "Jordan K. Hubbar Re: video is up&lt;&lt;&gt; Anyway, mrouted won't run, ev
- 33 01/16 Michael Smith Re: FBSD 2.1&lt;&lt;Nate Williams stands accused of sa</screen>
-</informalexample>
-Like just about everything in MH this display is very configurable.
-This is the typical default display. It gives you the message number,
-the date on the email, the sender, the subject line, and a sentence
-fragment from the very beginning of the email if it can fit it. The
-<literal>+</> means that message is the current message, so if you do
-a <command>show</> it will display that message.</para>
-
-<para>One useful option for scan is the <option>-reverse</option>
-option. This will list your messages with the highest message number
-first and lowest message number last. Another useful option with
-<command>scan</> is to have it read from a file. If you want to scan
-your incoming mailbox on FreeBSD without having to <command>inc</> it
-you can do <command>scan -file
-/var/mail/<replaceable>username</></command>. This can be used with
-any file that is in the <database>mbox</> format.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1 id="rmm">
-<title><command>rmm</> and <command>rmf</>&mdash;remove the current message or folder</title>
-
-<para><command>rmm</> is used to remove a mail message. The default
-is typically to not actually remove the message but to rename the
-file to one that is ignored by the MH commands. You will need to
-through periodically and physically delete the <quote>removed</>
-messages.</para>
-
-<para>The <command>rmf</> command is used to remove folders. This
-doesn't just rename the files but actually removes the from the hard
-drive so you should be careful when you use this command.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1 id="samplereading">
-<title>A typical session of reading with MH</title>
-
-<para>The first thing that you will want to do is <command>inc</>
-your new mail. So at a shell prompt just type in <command>inc</> and
-hit <keycap>return</>.
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>inc</>
-Incorporating new mail into inbox...
-
- 36+ 01/19 "Stephen L. Lange Request...&lt;&lt;Please remove me as contact for pind
- 37 01/19 Matt Thomas Re: kern/950: Two PCI bridge chips fail (multipl
- 38 01/19 "Amancio Hasty Jr Re: FreeBSD and VAT&lt;&lt;&gt;&gt;&gt; Bill Fenner said: &gt; In
-tempest%</screen>
-</informalexample>
-This shows you the new email that has been added to your mailbox. So
-the next thing to do is <command>show</> the email and move around.
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>show</>
-Received: by sashimi.wwa.com (Smail3.1.29.1 #2)
- id m0tdMZ2-001W2UC; Fri, 19 Jan 96 13:33 CST
-Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 13:33:31 -0600 (CST)
-From: "Stephen L. Lange" &lt;stvlange@wwa.com&gt;
-To: matt@garply.com
-Subject: Request...
-Message-Id: &lt;Pine.BSD.3.91.960119133211.824A-100000@sashimi.wwa.com&gt;
-Mime-Version: 1.0
-Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII
-
-
-Please remove me as contact for pindat.com
-
-tempest% <userinput>rmm</>
-tempest% <userinput>next</>
-Received: from localhost (localhost [127.0.0.1]) by whydos.lkg.dec.com (8.6.11/8
-.6.9) with SMTP id RAA24416; Fri, 19 Jan 1996 17:56:48 GMT
-Message-Id: &lt;199601191756.RAA24416@whydos.lkg.dec.com&gt;
-X-Authentication-Warning: whydos.lkg.dec.com: Host localhost didn't use HELO pro
-tocol
-To: hsu@clinet.fi
-Cc: hackers@FreeBSD.org
-Subject: Re: kern/950: Two PCI bridge chips fail (multiple multiport ethernet
- boards)
-In-Reply-To: Your message of "Fri, 19 Jan 1996 00:18:36 +0100."
- &lt;199601182318.AA11772@Sysiphos&gt;
-X-Mailer: exmh version 1.5omega 10/6/94
-Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 17:56:40 +0000
-From: Matt Thomas &lt;matt@lkg.dec.com&gt;
-Sender: owner-hackers@FreeBSD.org
-Precedence: bulk
-
-
-This is due to a typo in pcireg.h (to
-which I am probably the guilty party).</screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>The <command>rmm</> removed the current message and the
-<command>next</> command moved me on to the next message.
-Now if I wanted to look at ten most recent messages so I could read
-one of them here is what I would do:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>scan last:10</>
- 26 01/16 maddy Re: Testing some stuff&lt;&lt;yeah, well, Trinity has
- 27 01/17 Automatic digest NET-HAPPENINGS Digest - 16 Jan 1996 to 17 Jan 19
- 28 01/17 Evans A Criswell Re: Hey dude&lt;&lt;&gt;From matt@tempest.garply.com Tue
- 29 01/16 Karl Heuer need configure/make volunteers&lt;&lt;The FSF is looki
- 30 01/18 Paul Stephanouk Re: [alt.religion.scientology] Raw Meat (humor)&lt;
- 31 01/18 Bill Lenherr Re: Linux NIS Solaris&lt;&lt;--- On Thu, 18 Jan 1996 1
- 34 01/19 John Fieber Re: Stuff for the email section?&lt;&lt;On Fri, 19 Jan
- 35 01/19 support@foo.garpl [garply.com #1138] parlor&lt;&lt;Hello. This is the Ne
- 37+ 01/19 Matt Thomas Re: kern/950: Two PCI bridge chips fail (multipl
- 38 01/19 "Amancio Hasty Jr Re: FreeBSD and VAT&lt;&lt;&gt;&gt;&gt; Bill Fenner said: &gt; In
-tempest%</screen>
-</informalexample>
-Then if I wanted to read message number 27 I would do a
-<userinput>show 27</> and it would be displayed. As you can probably
-tell from this sample session MH is pretty easy to use and looking
-through emails and displaying them is fairly intuitive and easy.
-</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Folders and Mail Searching</title>
-
-<para>Anybody who gets lots of email definitely wants to be able to
-prioritize, stamp, brief, de-brief, and number their emails in a
-variety of different ways. MH can do this better than just about
-anything. One thing that we haven't really talked about is the
-concept of folders. You have undoubtedly come across the folders
-concept using other email programs. MH has folders too. MH can even
-do sub-folders of a folder. One thing you should keep in mind with MH
-is that when you ran <command>inc</> for the first time and it asked
-you if it could create a <filename>Mail</> directory it began storing
-everything in that directory. If you look at that directory you will
-find a directory named <filename>inbox</>. The <filename>inbox</>
-directory houses all of your incoming mail that hasn't been thrown
-anywhere else.</para>
-
-<para>Whenever you create a new folder a new directory is going to be
-created underneath your MH <filename>Mail</> directory, and messages
-in that folder are going to be stored in that directory. When new
-email comes in that new email is thrown into your <filename>inbox</>
-directory with a file name that is equivalent to the message number.
-So even if you didn't have any of the MH tools to read your email you
-could still use standard UNIX commands to munge around in those
-directories and just more your files. It's this simplicity that
-really gives you a lot of power with what you can do with your
-email.</para>
-
-<para>Just as you can use message lists like <parameter>23 16 42</>
-with most MH commands there is a folder option you can specify with
-just about every MH command. If you do a <command>scan +freebsd</> it
-will scan your <filename>freebsd</> folder, and your current folder
-will be changed to <filename>freebsd</>. If you do a <command>show
-+freebsd 23 16 42</>, <command>show</> is going to switch to your
-<filename>freebsd</> folder and display messages 23, 16 and 42. So
-remember that <option>+<replaceable>folder</></> syntax. You will
-need to make sure you use it to make commands process different
-folders. Remember you default folder for mail is <filename>inbox</>
-so doing a <command>folder +inbox</> should always get you back to
-your mail. Of course, in MH's infinite flexibility this can be
-changed but most places have probably left it as
-<command>inbox</>.</para>
-
-
-<sect1>
-<title><command>pick</>&mdash;search email that matches certain criteria</title>
-
-<para><command>pick</> is one of the more complex commands in the MH
-system. So you might want to read the
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pick</><manvolnum>1</></> man page for a
-more thorough understanding. At its simplest level you can do
-something like
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>pick -search pci</>
-15
-42
-55
-56
-57</screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-This will tell <command>pick</> to look through every single line in
-every message in your current folder and tell you which message
-numbers it found the word <literal>pci</> in. You can then
-<command>show</> those messages and read them if you wish or
-<command>rmm</> them. You would have to specify something like
-<command>show 15 42 55-57</> to display them though. A slightly more
-useful thing to do is this:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>pick -search pci -seq pick</>
-5 hits
-tempest% <userinput>show pick</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-This will show you the same messages you just didn't have to work as
-hard to do it. The <option>-seq</option> option is really an
-abbreviation of <option>-sequence</option> and <command>pick</> is
-just a sequence which contains the message numbers that matched. You
-can use sequences with just about any MH command. So you could have
-done an <command>rmm pick</> and all those messages would be removed
-instead. You sequence can be named anything. If you run pick again it
-will overwrite the old sequence if you use the same name.</para>
-
-<para>Doing a <command>pick -search</command> can be a bit more time
-consuming than just searching for message from someone, or to
-someone. So <command>pick</> allows you to use the following
-predefined search criteria:
-
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term><option>-to</option></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>search based upon who the message is to</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term><option>-cc</option></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>search based on who is in the cc list</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term><option>-from</option></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>search for who sent the message</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term><option>-subject</option></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>search for emails with this subject</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term><option>-date</option></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>find emails with a matching dat</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term><option>--<replaceable>component</replaceable></option></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>search for any other component in the header. (i.e.
-<option>--reply-to</> to find all emails with a certain reply-to in
-the header)</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-</variablelist></para>
-
-<para>This allows you to do things like
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>pick -to freebsd-hackers@freebsd.org -seq hackers</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-to get a list of all the email send to the FreeBSD hackers mailing
-list. <command>pick</> also allows you to group these criteria in
-different ways using the following options:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>&hellip; <option>-and</option> &hellip;</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>&hellip; <option>-or</option> &hellip</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><option>-not</option> &hellip;</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><option>-lbrace</option> &hellip; <option>-rbrace</option></para>
-</listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-These commands allow you to do things like
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>pick -to freebsd-hackers -and -cc freebsd-hackers</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-That will grab all the email in your inbox that was sent to
-freebsd-hackers or cc'd to that list. The brace options allow you to
-group search criteria together. This is sometimes very necessary as
-in the following example
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>pick -lbrace -to freebsd-hackers -and
- -not -cc freebsd-questions -rbrace -and -subject pci</></screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>Basically this says <quote>pick (to freebsd-hackers and not cc'd on
-freebsd-questions) and the subject is pci</quote>. It should look through your
-folder and find all messages sent to the freebsd-hackers list that
-aren't cc'd to the freebsd-questions list that contain something on
-pci in the subject line. Ordinarily you might have to worry about
-something called operator precedence. Remember in math how you
-evaluate from left to right and you do multiplication and division
-first and addition and subtraction second? MH has the same type of
-rules for <command>pick</>. It's fairly complex so you might want to study
-the man page. This document is just to help you get acquainted with
-MH.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title><command>folder</>, <command>folders</>, <command>refile</>&mdash;three useful programs for folder maintenance</title>
-
-<para>There are three programs which are primarily just for
-manipulating your folders. The <command>folder</> program is used to
-switch between folders, pack them, and list them. At its simplest
-level you can do a <command>folder +<replaceable>newfolder</></> and
-you will be switched into <replaceable>newfolder</>. From there on
-out all your MH commands like <command>comp</>, <command>repl</>,
-<command>scan</>, and <command>show</> will act on that
-<command>newfolder</> folder.</para>
-
-<para>Sometimes when you are reading and deleting messages you will
-develop <quote>holes</> in your folders. If you do a <command>scan</>
-you might just see messages 34, 35, 36, 43, 55, 56, 57, 80. If you do
-a <command>folder -pack</command> this will renumber all your
-messages so that there are no holes. It doesn't actually delete any
-messages though. So you may need to periodically go through and
-physically delete <command>rmm</>'d messages.</para>
-
-<para>If you need statistics on your folders you can do a
-<command>folders</> or <command>folder -all</command> to list all
-your folders, how many messages they have, what the current message
-is in each one and so on. This line of stats it displays for all your
-folders is the same one you get when you change to a folder with
-<command>folder +foldername</>. A <command>folders</> command looks
-like this:
-<informalexample>
-<screen> Folder # of messages ( range ); cur msg (other files)
- announce has 1 message ( 1- 1).
- drafts has no messages.
- f-hackers has 43 messages ( 1- 43).
- f-questions has 16 messages ( 1- 16).
- inbox+ has 35 messages ( 1- 38); cur= 37.
- lists has 8 messages ( 1- 8).
- netfuture has 1 message ( 1- 1).
- out has 31 messages ( 1- 31).
- personal has 6 messages ( 1- 6).
- todo has 58 messages ( 1- 58); cur= 1.
-
- TOTAL= 199 messages in 13 folders.
-</screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>The <command>refile</> command is what you use to move messages
-between folders. When you do something like <command>refile 23
-+netfuture</> message number 23 is moved into the
-<filename>netfuture</> folder. You could also do something like
-<command>refile 23 +netfuture/latest</> which would put message
-number 23 in a subfolder called <filename>latest</> under the
-<filename>netfuture</> folder. If you want to keep a message in the
-current folder and link it you can do a <command>refile -link 23
-+netfuture</command> which would keep 23 in your current
-<filename>inbox</> but also list in your <filename>netfuture</>
-folder. You are probably beginning to realize some of the really
-powerful things you can do with MH.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Sending Mail</title>
-
-<para>Email is a two way street for most people so you want to be
-able to send something back. The way MH handles sending mail can be a
-bit difficult to follow at first, but it allows for incredible
-flexibility. The first thing MH does is to copy a components file
-into your outgoing email. A components file is basically a skeleton
-email letter with stuff like the To: and Subject: headers already in
-it. You are then sent into your editor where you fill in the header
-information and then type the body of your message below the dashed
-lines in the message. Then to the <command>whatnow</> program. When
-you are at the <prompt>What now?</prompt> prompt you can tell it to
-<command>send</>, <command>list</>, <command>edit</>,
-<command>edit</>, <command>push</>, and <command>quit</>. Most of
-these commands are self-explanatory. So the message sending process
-involves copying a component file, editing your email, and then
-telling the <command>whatnow</> program what to do with your
-email.</para>
-
-
-<sect1>
-<title><command>comp</>, <command>forw</>, <command>reply</>&mdash;compose, forward or reply to a message to someone</title>
-
-<para>The <command>comp</> program has a few useful command line
-options. The most important one to know right now is the
-<option>-editor</option> option. When MH is installed the default
-editor is usually a program called <command>prompter</> which comes
-with MH. It's not a very exciting editor and basically just gets the
-job done. So when you go to compose a message to someone you might
-want to use <command>comp -editor /usr/bin/vi/</> or <command>comp
--editor /usr/local/bin/pico/</> instead. Once you have run
-<emphasis>comp</emphasis> you are in your editor and you see
-something that looks like this:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>To:
-cc:
-Subject:
---------
-</screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>You need to put the person you are sending the mail to after the
-<literal>To:</> line. It works the same way for the other headers
-also, so you would need to put your subject after the
-<literal>Subject:</> line. Then you would just put the body of your
-message after the dashed lines. It may seem a bit simplistic since a
-lot of email programs have special requesters that ask you for this
-information but there really isn't any point to that. Plus this
-really gives you excellent flexibility.
-<informalexample>
-<screen>To:<userinput>freebsd-rave@freebsd.org</>
-cc:
-Subject:<userinput>And on the 8th day God created the FreeBSD core team</>
---------
-<userinput>Wow this is an amazing operating system. Thanks!</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-You can now save this message and exit your editor. You will see the
-<prompt>What now?</> prompt and you can type in
-<userinput>send</> or <userinput>s</> and hit
-<keycap>return</>. Then the freebsd core team will receive their just
-rewards. As I mentioned earlier you can also use other commands, for
-example <command>quit</> if you don't want to send the
-message.</para>
-
-<para>The <command>forw</> command is stunningly similar. The big
-difference being that the message you are forwarding is automatically
-included in the outgoing message. When you run <command>forw</> it
-will forward your current message. You can always tell it to forward
-something else by doing something like <command>forw 23</> and then
-message number 23 will be put in your outgoing message instead of the
-current message. Beyond those small differences <command>forw</>
-functions exactly the same as <command>comp</>. You go through the
-exact same message sending process.</para>
-
-<para>The <command>repl</> command will reply to whatever your
-current message is, unless you give it a different message to reply
-to. <command>repl</> will do its best to go ahead and fill in some of
-the email headers already. So you will notice that the
-<literal>To:</> header already has the address of the recipient in
-there. Also the <literal>Subject:</> line will already be filled in.
-You then go about the normal message composition process and you are
-done. One useful command line option to know here is the
-<option>-cc</option> option. You can use <parameter>all</>,
-<parameter>to</>, <parameter>cc</>, <parameter>me</> after the
-<option>-cc</option> option to have <command>repl</> automatically
-add the various addresses to the cc list in the message. You have
-probably noticed that the original message isn't included. This is
-because most MH setups are configured to do this from the
-start.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title><filename>components</>, and <filename>replcomps</>&mdash;components files for <command>comp</> and <command>repl</></title>
-
-<para>The <filename>components</> file is usually in
-<filename>/usr/local/lib/mh</filename>. You can copy that file into
-your MH Mail directory and edit to contain what you want it to
-contain. It is a fairly basic file. You have various email headers at
-the top, a dashed line and then nothing. The
-<command>comp</command> command just copies this
-<filename>components</> file and then edits it. You can add any
-kind of valid RFC822 header you want. For instance you could have
-something like this in your <filename>components</> file:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>To:
-Fcc: out
-Subject:
-X-Mailer: MH 6.8.3
-X-Home-Page: http://www.freebsd.org/
--------</screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-MH would then copy this components file and throw you into your
-editor. The <filename>components</> file is fairly simple. If you
-wanted to have a signature on those messages you would just put your
-signature in that <filename>components</> file.</para>
-
-<para>The <filename>replcomps</> file is a bit more complex. The default
-<filename>replcomps</> looks like this:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>%(lit)%(formataddr %&lt;{reply-to}%?{from}%?{sender}%?{return-path}%&gt;)\
-%&lt;(nonnull)%(void(width))%(putaddr To: )\n%&gt;\
-%(lit)%(formataddr{to})%(formataddr{cc})%(formataddr(me))\
-%&lt;(nonnull)%(void(width))%(putaddr cc: )\n%&gt;\
-%&lt;{fcc}Fcc: %{fcc}\n%&gt;\
-%&lt;{subject}Subject: Re: %{subject}\n%&gt;\
-%&lt;{date}In-reply-to: Your message of "\
-%&lt;(nodate{date})%{date}%|%(pretty{date})%&gt;."%&lt;{message-id}
- %{message-id}%&gt;\n%&gt;\
---------
-</screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>It's in the same basic format as the <filename>components</> file but
-it contains quite a few extra formatting codes. The
-<literal>%(lit)</> command makes room for the address. The
-<literal>%(formataddr</> is a function that returns a proper email
-address. The next part is <literal>%&lt;</literal> which means if and
-the <literal>{reply-to}</> means the reply-to field in the original
-message. So that might be translated this way:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>%&lt;<emphasis remap=bf>if</emphasis> {reply-to} <emphasis remap=bf>the original message has a reply-to</emphasis>
-then give that to formataddr, %? <emphasis remap=bf>else</emphasis> {from} <emphasis remap=bf>take the
-from address</emphasis>, %? <emphasis remap=bf>else</emphasis> {sender} <emphasis remap=bf>take the sender address</emphasis>, %?
-<emphasis remap=bf>else</emphasis> {return-path} <emphasis remap=bf>take the return-path from the original
-message</emphasis>, %&gt; <emphasis remap=bf>endif</emphasis>.</screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>As you can tell MH formatting can get rather involved. You can
-probably decipher what most of the other functions and variables
-mean. All of the information on writing these format strings is in the
-MH-Format man page. The really nice thing is that once you have built
-your customized <filename>replcomps</> file you won't need to touch it
-again. No other email program really gives you the power and
-flexibility that MH gives you.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-</book>
diff --git a/en/tutorials/multios/Makefile b/en/tutorials/multios/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 8a591510bb..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/multios/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,7 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.4 1997-07-01 05:38:14 max Exp $
-
-DOCS= multios.docb
-INDEXLINK= multios.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
-
diff --git a/en/tutorials/multios/multios.docb b/en/tutorials/multios/multios.docb
deleted file mode 100644
index 6349edaffa..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/multios/multios.docb
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,680 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: multios.docb,v 1.1 1997-03-23 16:27:47 jfieber Exp $ -->
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-<book>
-
-<bookinfo>
-<bookbiblio>
-<title>Installing and Using FreeBSD With Other Operating Systems</title>
-
-<authorgroup>
-<author>
-<firstname>Jay</firstname>
-<surname>Richmond</surname>
-<affiliation>
-<address>
-<email>jayrich@in.net</email>
-</address>
-</affiliation>
-</author>
-</authorgroup>
-
-<pubdate>6 August 1996</pubdate>
-
-<abstract><para>This document discusses how to make FreeBSD coexist
-nicely with other popular operating systems such as Linux, MS-DOS,
-OS/2, and Windows 95. Special thanks to: Annelise Anderson
-<email>andrsn@stanford.edu</email>, Randall Hopper
-<email>rhh@ct.picker.com</email>, and Jordan K. Hubbard
-<email>jkh@time.cdrom.com</email></para></abstract>
-
-</bookbiblio>
-</bookinfo>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Overview</title>
-
-<para>Most people can't fit these operating systems together
-comfortably without having a larger hard disk, so special
-information on large EIDE drives is included. Because there are so
-many combinations of possible operating systems and hard disk
-configurations, the <xref linkend="ch5"> section may be of the most use
-to you. It contains descriptions of specific working computer setups
-that use multiple operating systems.</para>
-
-<para>This document assumes that you have already made room on your
-hard disk for an additional operating system. Any time you
-repartition your hard drive, you run the risk of destroying the data
-on the original partitions. However, if your hard drive is completely
-occupied by DOS, you might find the FIPS utility (included on the
-FreeBSD CD-ROM in the <filename>\TOOLS</filename> directory or via
-<ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools">ftp</ulink>)
-useful. It lets you repartition your hard disk without destroying the
-data already on it. There is also a commercial program available
-called Partition Magic, which lets you size and delete partitions
-without consequence.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="ch2">
-<title>Overview of Boot Managers</title>
-
-<para>These are just brief descriptions of some of the different boot
-managers you may encounter. Depending on your computer setup, you may
-find it useful to use more than one of them on the same
-system.</para>
-
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term>Boot Easy</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>This is the default boot manager used with FreeBSD. It has the
-ability to boot most anything, including BSD, OS/2 (HPFS), Windows 95
-(FAT and FAT32), and Linux. Partitions are selected with the
-function keys.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term>OS/2 Boot Manager</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>This will boot FAT, HPFS, FFS (FreeBSD), and EXT2
-(Linux). It will also boot FAT32 partitions. Partitions are
-selected using arrow keys. The OS/2 Boot Manager is the only one to
-use its own separate partition, unlike the others which use the
-master boot record (MBR). Therefore, it must be installed below the
-1024th cylinder to avoid booting problems. It can boot Linux using
-LILO when it is part of the boot sector, not the MBR. Go to <ulink
-URL="http://www.ssc.com/linux/howto.html">Linux HOWTOs</ulink>
-on the World Wide Web for more information on booting Linux with
-OS/2's boot manager.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term>OS-BS</term>
-
-<listitem> <para>This is an alternative to Boot Easy. It gives you
-more control over the booting process, with the ability to set the
-default partition to boot and the booting timeout. The beta version
-of this programs allows you to boot by selecting the OS with your
-arrow keys. It is included on the FreeBSD CD in the
-<filename>\TOOLS</filename> directory, and via <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools">ftp</ulink>.</para>
-</listitem> </varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term>LILO, or LInux LOader</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>This is a limited boot manager. Will boot FreeBSD, though some
-customization work is required in the LILO configuration file.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-</variablelist>
-
-<note id="fat32"><title>About FAT32</title><para>FAT32 is the replacement to
-the FAT filesystem included in Microsoft's OEM SR2 Beta release,
-which is expected to utilitized on computers pre-loaded with Windows
-95 towards the end of 1996. It converts the normal FAT file system
-and allows you to use smaller cluster sizes for larger hard drives.
-FAT32 also modifies the traditional FAT boot sector and allocation
-table, making it incompatible with some boot managers.</para></note>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="ch3">
-<title>A Typical Installation</title>
-
-<para>Let's say I have two large EIDE hard drives, and I want to
-install FreeBSD, Linux, and Windows 95 on them.</para>
-
-<para>Here's how I might do it using these hard disks:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>/dev/wd0</> (first physical hard disk)</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>/dev/wd1</> (second hard disk)</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-<para>Both disks have 1416 cylinders.</para>
-
-<procedure>
-
-<step><para>I boot from a MS-DOS or Windows 95 boot disk that
-contains the <filename>FDISK.EXE</> utility and make a small 50 meg
-primary partition (35-40 for Windows 95, plus a little breathing
-room) on the first disk. Also create a larger partition on the
-second hard disk for my Windows applications and data.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>I reboot and install Windows 95 (easier said than done)
-on the <filename>C:</> partition.</para> </step>
-
-<step><para>The next thing I do is install Linux. I'm not sure about
-all the distributions of Linux, but slackware includes LILO (see
-<xref linkend="ch2">). When I am partitioning out my hard disk with
-Linux <command>fdisk</command>, I would put all of Linux on the first
-drive (maybe 300 megs for a nice root partition and some swap
-space).</para></step>
-
-<step><para>After I install Linux, and are prompted about installing
-LILO, make SURE that I install it on the boot sector of my root
-Linux partition, not in the MBR (master boot record).</para></step>
-
-<step><para>The remaining hard disk space can go to FreeBSD. I also
-make sure that my FreeBSD root slice does not go beyond the 1024th
-cylinder. (The 1024th cylinder is 528 megs into the disk with our
-hypothetical 720MB disks). I will use the rest of the hard drive
-(about 270 megs) for the <filename>/usr</> and <filename>/</> slices
-if I wish. The rest of the second hard disk (size depends on the
-amount of my Windows application/data partition that I created in
-step 1 can go to the <filename>/usr/src</> slice and swap
-space.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>When viewed with the Windows 95 <command>fdisk</> utility, my hard drives
-should now look something like this:
-<screen>
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-
- Display Partition Information
-
-Current fixed disk drive: 1
-
-Partition Status Type Volume_Label Mbytes System Usage
-C: 1 A PRI DOS 50 FAT** 7%
- 2 A Non-DOS (Linux) 300 43%
-
-Total disk space is 696 Mbytes (1 Mbyte = 1048576 bytes)
-
-Press Esc to continue
-
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-
- Display Partition Information
-
-Current fixed disk drive: 2
-
-Partition Status Type Volume_Label Mbytes System Usage
-D: 1 A PRI DOS 420 FAT** 60%
-
-Total disk space is 696 Mbytes (1 Mbyte = 1048576 bytes)
-
-Press Esc to continue
-
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-</screen>
-** May say FAT16 or FAT32 if you are using the OEM SR2 update.
-See <xref linkend="ch2">).</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Install FreeBSD. I make sure to boot with my first hard
-disk set at <quote>NORMAL</> in the BIOS. If it is not, I'll have
-the enter my true disk geometry at boot time (to get this, boot
-Windows 95 and consult Microsoft Diagnostics (<filename>MSD.EXE</>),
-or check your BIOS) with the parameter <literal>hd0=1416,16,63</>
-where <replaceable>1416</> is the number of cylinders on my hard
-disk, <replaceable>16</> is the number of heads per track, and
-<replaceable>63</> is the number of sectors per track on the
-drive.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>When partitioning out the hard disk, I make sure to install
-Boot Easy on the first disk. I don't worry about the second disk,
-nothing is booting off of it.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>When I reboot, Boot Easy should recognize my three
-bootable partitions as DOS (Windows 95), Linux, and BSD
-(FreeBSD).</para></step>
-
-</procedure>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="ch4">
-<title>Special Considerations</title>
-
-<para>Most operating systems are very picky about where and how they are
-placed on the hard disk. Windows 95 and DOS need to be on the first
-primary partitiin on the first hard disk. OS/2 is the exception. It
-can be installed on the first or second disk in a primary or extended
-partition. If you are not sure, keep the beginning of the bootable
-partitions below the 1024th cylinder.</para>
-
-<para>If you install Windows 95 on an existing BSD system, it will
-<quote>destroy</> the MBR, and you will have to reinstall your
-previous boot manager. Boot Easy can be reinstalled by using the
-BOOTINST.EXE utility included in the \TOOLS directory on the CD-ROM,
-and via <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools">ftp</ulink>. You can
-also re-start the installation process and go to the partition
-editor. From there, mark the FreeBSD partition as bootable,
-select Boot Manager, and then type W to (W)rite out the information
-to the MBR. You can now reboot, and Boot Easy should then
-recognize Windows 95 as DOS.</para>
-
-<para>Please keep in mind that OS/2 can read FAT and HPFS partitions,
-but not FFS (FreeBSD) or EXT2 (Linux) partitions. Likewise, Windows
-95 can only read and write to FAT and FAT32 (see <xref
-linkend="ch2">) partitions. FreeBSD can read most file systems, but
-currently cannot read HPFS partitions. Linux can read HPFS
-partitions, but can't write to them. Recent versions of the Linux
-kernel (2.x) can read and write to Windows 95 VFAT partitions (VFAT
-is what gives Windows 95 long file names - it's pretty much the same
-as FAT). Linux can read and write to most file systems. Got that?
-I hope so.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="ch5">
-<title>Examples</title>
-
-<para><emphasis>(section needs work, please send your example to
-<email>jayrich@in.net</email>)</emphasis>.</para>
-
-<para>FreeBSD+Win95: If you installed FreeBSD after Windows 95, you
-should see <literal>DOS</> on the Boot Easy menu. This is Windows
-95. If you installed Windows 95 after FreeBSD, read <xref
-linkend="ch4"> above. As long as your hard disk does not have 1024
-cylinders you should not have a problem booting. If one of your
-partitions goes beyond the 1024th cylinder however, and you get
-messages like <errorname>invalid system disk</> under DOS (Windows 95)
-and FreeBSD will not boot, try looking for a setting in your BIOS
-called <quote>&gt; 1024 cylinder support</> or <quote>NORMAL/LBA</>
-mode. DOS may need LBA (Logical Block Addressing) in order to boot
-correctly. If the idea of switching BIOS settings every time you
-boot up doesn't appeal to you, you can boot FreeBSD through DOS via
-the <filename>FBSDBOOT.EXE</> utility on the CD (It should find your
-FreeBSD partition and boot it.)</para>
-
-<para>FreeBSD+OS/2+Win95: Nothing new here. OS/2's boot manger
-can boot all of these operating systems, so that shouldn't be a
-problem.</para>
-
-<para>FreeBSD+Linux: You can also use Boot Easy to boot both operating
-systems.</para>
-
-<para>FreeBSD+Linux+Win95: (see <xref linkend="ch3">)</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="sources">
-<title>Other Sources of Help</title>
-
-<para>There are many <ulink
-URL="http://www.ssc.com/linux/howto.html">Linux HOW-TOs</ulink> that
-deal with multiple operating systems on the same hard disk.</para>
-
-<para>The <ulink
-URL="http://sunsite.unc.edu/mdw/HOWTO/mini/Linux+OS2+DOS">Linux+OS/2+DOS
-Mini-HOWTO</ulink> offers help on configuring the OS/2 boot
-manager. The <ulink
-URL="http://www.in.net/~jkatz/win95/Linux-HOWTO.html">Linux-HOWTO</ulink>
-is also helpful.</para>
-
-<para>The <ulink
-URL="http://www.dorsai.org/~dcl/publications/NTLDR_Hacking">NT Loader
-Hacking Guide</ulink> provides good information on multibooting
-Windows NT, '95, and DOS with other operating systems.</para>
-
-<para>And Hale Landis's "How It Works" document pack contains some good info
-on all sorts of disk geometry and booting related topics. Here are a few
-links that might help you find it: <ulink URL="ftp://fission.dt.wdc.com/pub/otherdocs/pc_systems/how_it_works/allhiw.zip">ftp://fission.dt.wdc.com/pub/otherdocs/pc_systems/how_it_works/allhiw.zip</ulink>,
-<ulink URL="http://www.cs.yorku.ca/People/frank/docs/">http://www.cs.yorku.ca/People/frank/docs/</ulink>.</para>
-
-<para>Finally, don't overlook FreeBSD's kernel documentation on the booting
-procedure, available in the kernel source distribution (it unpacks to
-<ulink URL="file:/usr/src/sys/i386/boot/biosboot/README.386BSD">file:/usr/src/sys/i386/boot/biosboot/README.386BSD</ulink>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Technical Details</title>
-
-<para><emphasis>(Contributed by Randall Hopper,
-<email>rhh@ct.picker.com</email>)</emphasis></para>
-
-<para>This section attempts to give you enough basic information
-about your hard disks and the disk booting process so that you can
-troubleshoot most problems you might encounter when getting set up to
-boot several operating systems. It starts in pretty basic terms, so
-you may want to skim down in this section until it begins to look
-unfamiliar and then start reading.</para>
-
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Disk Primer</title>
-
-<para>Three fundamental terms are used to describe the location of
-data on your hard disk: Cylinders, Heads, and Sectors. It's not
-particularly important to know what these terms relate to except to
-know that, together, they identify where data is physically on your
-disk.</para>
-
-<para>Your disk has a particular number of cylinders, number of
-heads, and number of sectors per cylinder-head (a cylinder-head also
-known nown as a track). Collectively this information defines the
-"physical disk geometry" for your hard disk. There are typically 512
-bytes per sector, and 63 sectors per track, with the number of
-cylinders and heads varying widely from disk to disk. Thus you can
-figure the number of bytes of data that'll fit on your own disk by
-calculating: <informalexample><para>(# of cylinders) &times; (#
-heads) &times; (63 sectors/track) &times; (512
-bytes/sect)</></informalexample> For example, on my 1.6 Gig Western
-Digital AC31600 EIDE hard disk,that's: <informalexample><para>(3148
-cyl) &times; (16 heads) &times; (63 sectors/track) &times (512
-bytes/sect)</para></informalexample></para>
-
-<para>which is 1,624,670,208 bytes, or around 1.6 Gig.</para>
-
-<para>You can find out the physical disk geometry (number of
-cylinders, heads, and sectors/track counts) for your hard disks using
-ATAID or other programs off the net. Your hard disk probably came
-with this information as well. Be careful though: if you're using
-BIOS LBA (see <xref linkend="limits">), you can't use just any
-program to get the physical geometry. This is because many programs
-(e.g. <filename>MSD.EXE</> or FreeBSD fdisk) don't identify the
-physical disk geometry; they instead report the
-<firstterm>translated geometry</> (virtual numbers from using LBA).
-Stay tuned for what that means.</para>
-
-<para>One other useful thing about these terms. Given 3
-numbers&mdash;a cylinder number, a head number, and a
-sector-within-track number&mdash;you identify a specific absolute
-sector (a 512 byte block of data) on your disk. Cylinders and Heads
-are numbered up from 0, and Sectors are numbered up from 1.</para>
-
-<para>For those that are interested in more technical details,
-information on disk geometry, boot sectors, BIOSes, etc. can be found
-all over the net. Query Lycos, Yahoo, etc. for <literal>boot
-sector</> or <literal>master boot record</>. Among the useful info
-you'll find are Hale Landis's <citetitle>How It Works</> document
-pack. See the <xref linkend="sources"> section for a few pointers to
-this pack.</para>
-
-<para>Ok, enough terminology. We're talking about booting
-here.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1 id="booting">
-<title>The Booting Process</title>
-
-<para>On the first sector of your disk (Cyl 0, Head 0, Sector 1)
-lives the Master Boot Record (MBR). It contains a map of your disk.
-It identifies up to 4 <firstterm>partitions</>, each of which is a
-contiguous chunk of that disk. FreeBSD calls partitions
-<firstterm>slices</> to avoid confusion with it's own partitions, but
-we won't do that here. Each partition can contain its own operating
-system.</para>
-
-<para>Each partition entry in the MBR has a <firstterm>Partition
-ID</>, a <firstterm>Start Cylinder/Head/Sector</>, and an
-<firstterm>End Cylinder/Head/Sector</>. The Partition ID tells what
-type of partition it is (what OS) and the Start/End tells where it
-is. <xref linkend="tbl-pid"> lists a smattering of some common
-Partition IDs.</para>
-
-<table id="tbl-pid">
-<title>Partition IDs</>
-<tgroup cols="2">
-<thead>
-<row>
-<entry>ID (hex)</entry>
-<entry>Description</entry>
-</row>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<row>
-<entry>01</entry>
-<entry>Primary DOS12 (12-bit FAT)</entry>
-</row>
-
-<row>
-<entry>04</entry>
-<entry>Primary DOS16 (16-bit FAT)</entry>
-</row>
-
-<row>
-<entry>05</entry>
-<entry>Extended DOS</entry>
-</row>
-
-<row>
-<entry>06</entry>
-<entry>Primary big DOS (&gt; 32MB)</entry>
-</row>
-
-<row>
-<entry>0A</entry>
-<entry>OS/2</entry>
-</row>
-
-<row>
-<entry>83</entry>
-<entry>Linux (EXT2FS)</entry>
-</row>
-
-<row>
-<entry>A5</entry>
-<entry>FreeBSD, NetBSD, 386BSD (UFS)</entry>
-</row>
-
-</tbody>
-</tgroup>
-</table>
-
-<para>Note that not all partitions are bootable (e.g. Extended DOS).
-Some are&mdash;some aren't. What makes a partition bootable is the
-configuration of the <firstterm>Partition Boot Sector</> that exists
-at the beginning of each partition.</para>
-
-<para>When you configure your favorite boot manager, it looks up the entries
-in the MBR partition tables of all your hard disks and lets you name the
-entries in that list. Then when you boot, the boot manager is invoked by
-special code in the Master Boot Sector of the first probed hard disk on
-your system. It looks at the MBR partition table entry corresponding to
-the partition choice you made, uses the Start Cylinder/Head/Sector
-information for that partition, loads up the Partition Boot Sector for that
-partition, and gives it control. That Boot Sector for the partition itself
-contains enough information to start loading the operating system on that
-partition.</para>
-
-<para>One thing we just brushed past that's important to know. All of your
-hard disks have MBRs. However, the one that's important is the one on the
-disk that's first probed by the BIOS. If you have only IDE hard disks, its
-the first IDE disk (e.g. primary disk on first controller). Similarly for
-SCSI only systems. If you have both IDE and SCSI hard disks though, the
-IDE disk is typically probed first by the BIOS, so the first IDE disk is
-the first probed disk. The boot manager you will install will be hooked into
-the MBR on this first probed hard disk that we've just described.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1 id="limits">
-<title>Booting Limitations and Warnings</title>
-
-<para>Now the interesting stuff that you need to watch out for.</para>
-
-<sect2>
-<title>The dreaded 1024 cylinder limit and how BIOS LBA helps</title>
-
-<para>The first part of the booting process is all done through the
-BIOS, (if that's a new term to you, the BIOS is a software chip on
-your system motherboard which provides startup code for your
-computer). As such, this first part of the process is subject to the
-limitations of the BIOS interface.</para>
-
-<para>The BIOS interface used to read the hard disk during this period
-(INT 13H, Subfunction 2) allocates 10 bits to the Cylinder Number, 8
-bits to the Head Number, and 6 bits to the Sector Number. This
-restricts users of this interface (i.e. boot managers hooked into
-your disk's MBR as well as OS loaders hooked into the Boot Sectors)
-to the following limits:
-<itemizedlist>
-<listitem><para>1024 cylinders, max</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>256 heads , max</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>64 cylinders, max (actually 63, <literal>0</> isn't
-available)</para></listitem>
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-<para>Now big hard disks have lots of cylinders but not a lot of
-heads, so invariably with big hard disks the number of cylinders is
-greater than 1024. Given this and the BIOS interface as is, you
-can't boot off just anywhere on your hard disk. The boot code (the
-boot manager and the OS loader hooked into all bootable partitions'
-Boot Sectors) has to reside below cylinder 1024. In fact, if your
-hard disk is typical and has 16 heads, this equates to:
-<informalexample>
-<para>1024 cyl/disk &times; 16 heads/disk &times; 63 sect/(cyl-head)
-&times; 512 bytes/sector</para>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>which is around the often-mentioned 528MB limit.</para>
-
-<para>This is where BIOS LBA (Logical Block Addressing) comes in. BIOS LBA
-gives the user of the BIOS API calls access to physical cylinders above
-1024 though the BIOS interfaces by redefining a cylinder. That is, it
-remaps your cylinders and heads, making it appear through the BIOS as
-though the disk has fewer cylinders and more heads than it actually
-does. In other words, it takes advantage of the fact that hard disks have
-relatively few heads and lots of cylinders by shifting the balance between
-number of cylinders and number of heads so that both numbers lie below the
-above-mentioned limits (1024 cylinders, 256 heads).</para>
-
-<para>With BIOS LBA, the hard disk size limitation is virtually
-removed (well, pushed up to 8 Gigabytes anyway). If you have an LBA
-BIOS, you can put FreeBSD or any OS anywhere you want and not hit the
-1024 cylinder limit.</para>
-
-<para>To use my 1.6 Gig Western Digital as an example again, it's
-physical geometry is:
-<informalexample>
-<para>(3148 cyl, 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 512 bytes/sector)</para>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>However, my BIOS LBA remaps this to:
-<informalexample>
-<para>( 787 cyl, 64 heads, 63 sectors/track, 512 bytes/sector)</para>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>giving the same effective size disk, but with cylinder and head
-counts within the BIOS API's range (Incidentally, I have both Linux and
-FreeBSD existing on one of my hard disks above the 1024th physical
-cylinder, and both operating systems boot fine, thanks to BIOS LBA).</para>
-
-</sect2>
-
-<sect2>
-<title>Boot Managers and Disk Allocation</title>
-
-<para>Another gotcha to watch out when installing boot managers is
-allocating space for your boot manager. It's best to be aware of
-this issue up front to save yourself from having to reinstall one or
-more of your OSs.</para>
-
-<para>If you followed the discussion in <xref linkend="booting">
-about the Master Boot Sector (where the MBR is), Partition Boot
-Sectors, and the booting process, you may have been wondering just
-exactly where on your hard disk that nifty boot manager is going to
-live. Well, some boot managers are small enough to fit entirely
-within the Master Boot Sector (Cylinder 0, Head 0, Sector 0) along
-with the partition table. Others need a bit more room and actually
-extend a few sectors past the Master Boot Sector in the Cylinder 0
-Head 0 track, since that's typically free&hellip;typically.</para>
-
-<para>That's the catch. Some operating systems (FreeBSD included) let
-you start their partitions right after the Master Boot Sector at
-Cylinder 0, Head 0, Sector 2 if you want. In fact, if you give
-FreeBSD's sysinstall a disk with an empty chunk up front or the whole
-disk empty, that's where it'll start the FreeBSD partition by default
-(at least it did when I fell into this trap). Then when you go to
-install your boot manager, if it's one that occupies a few extra
-sectors after the MBR, it'll overwrite the front of the first
-partition's data. In the case of FreeBSD, this overwrites the
-disk label, and renders your FreeBSD partition unbootable.</para>
-
-<para>The easy way to avoid this problem (and leave yourself the
-flexibility to try different boot managers later) is just to always
-leave the first full track on your disk unallocated when you
-partition your disk. That is, leave the space from Cylinder 0, Head
-0, Sector 2 through Cylinder 0, Head 0, Sector 63 unallocated, and
-start your first partition at Cylinder 0, Head 1, Sector 1.
-For what it's worth, when you create a DOS partition at the
-front of your disk, DOS leaves this space open by default (this is
-why some boot managers assume it's free). So creating a DOS
-partition up at the front of your disk avoids this problem
-altogether. I like to do this myself, creating 1 Meg DOS partition
-up front, because it also avoids my primary DOS drive letters
-shifting later when I repartition.</para>
-
-<para>For reference, the following boot managers use the
-Master Boot Sector to store their code and data:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>OS-BS 1.35</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Boot Easy</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>LILO</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-<para>These boot managers use a few additional sectors after the
-Master Boot Sector:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>OS-BS 2.0 Beta 8 (sectors 2-5)</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>OS/2's boot manager</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-</sect2>
-
-<sect2>
-<title>What if your machine won't boot?</title>
-
-<para>At some point when installing boot managers, you might leave the
-MBR in a state such that your machine won't boot. This is unlikely,
-but possible when re-FDISKing underneath an already-installed boot
-manager.</para>
-
-<para>If you have a bootable DOS partition on your disk, you can boot
-off a DOS floppy, and run:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>A:\> <userinput>FDISK /MBR</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>to put the original, simple DOS boot code back into the system. You can
-then boot DOS (and DOS only) off the hard drive. Alternatively, just
-re-run your boot manager installation program off a bootable floppy.</para>
-
-</sect2>
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-</book>
diff --git a/en/tutorials/newuser/Makefile b/en/tutorials/newuser/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index d8131087f4..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/newuser/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,7 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.3 1997-07-01 05:38:15 max Exp $
-
-DOCS= newuser.docb
-INDEXLINK= newuser.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
-
diff --git a/en/tutorials/newuser/newuser.docb b/en/tutorials/newuser/newuser.docb
deleted file mode 100644
index 9adefd509b..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/newuser/newuser.docb
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,943 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: newuser.docb,v 1.4 1997-08-15 17:11:49 jfieber Exp $ -->
-<!-- The FreeBSD Documentation Project -->
-
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-<book>
-
-<bookinfo>
-<bookbiblio>
-<title>For People New to Both FreeBSD and Unix</title>
-
-<authorgroup>
-<author>
-<firstname>Annelise</firstname>
-<surname>Anderson</surname>
-<affiliation>
-<address><email>andrsn@andrsn.stanford.edu</email></address>
-</affiliation>
-</author>
-</authorgroup>
-
-<pubdate>August 15, 1997</pubdate>
-
-<abstract><para>Congratulations on installing FreeBSD! This
-introduction is for people new to both FreeBSD
-<emphasis>and</emphasis> Un*x&mdash;so it starts with basics. It
-assumes you're using version 2.0.5 or later of FreeBSD as distributed
-by Walnut Creek or FreeBSD.ORG, your system (for now) has a single
-user (you)&mdash;and you're probably pretty good with DOS/Windows or
-OS/2.</para></abstract>
-
-</bookbiblio>
-</bookinfo>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Logging in and Getting Out</title>
-
-<para>Log in (when you see <systemitem
-class=prompt>login:</systemitem>) as a user you created during
-installation or as <firstterm>root</firstterm>. (Your FreeBSD
-installation will already have an account for root; root can go
-anywhere and do anything, including deleting essential files, so be
-careful!) The symbols % and # in the following stand for the prompt
-(yours may be different), with % indicating an ordinary user and
-# indicating root. </para>
-
-<para>To log out (and get a new <systemitem class=prompt>login:</systemitem> prompt) type
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>exit</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-as often as necessary. Yes, press <keysym>enter</keysym> after
-commands, and remember that Unix is
-case-sensitive&mdash;<command>exit</command>, not
-<command>EXIT</command>.</para>
-
-<para>To shut down the machine type:
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>/sbin/shutdown -h now</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-Or to reboot type
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>/sbin/shutdown -r now</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-or
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>/sbin/reboot</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>You can also reboot with
-<keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>Delete</keycap></keycombo>.
-Give it a little time to do its work. This is equivalent to
-<command>/sbin/reboot</command> in recent releases of FreeBSD, and is
-much, much better than hitting the reset button. You don't want to
-have to reinstall this thing, do you?</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Adding A User with Root Privileges</title>
-
-<para>If you didn't create any users when you installed the system and
-are thus logged in as root, you should probably create a user now with
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>adduser</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-The first time you use adduser, it might ask for some defaults to save. You
-might want to make the default shell csh instead of sh, if it suggests
-sh as the default. Otherwise just press enter to accept each default.
-These defaults are saved in <filename>/etc/adduser.conf</filename>,
-an editable file.</para>
-
-<para>Suppose you create a user <emphasis>jack</emphasis> with
-full name <emphasis>Jack Benimble</emphasis>. Give jack a password
-if security (even kids around who might pound on the keyboard) is an
-issue. When it asks you if you want to invite jack into other
-groups, type <userinput>wheel</userinput>
-<informalexample>
-<screen>Login group is ``jack''. Invite jack into other groups: <userinput>wheel</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-This will make it possible to log in as <emphasis>jack</emphasis> and
-use the <command>su</command> command to become root. Then you won't
-get scolded any more for logging in as root.</para>
-
-<para>You can quit <command>adduser</command> any time by typing
-<keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>C</keycap></keycombo>, and at
-the end you'll have a chance to approve your new user or simply type
-<keycap>n</keycap> for no. You might want to create a
-second new user (jill?) so that when you edit jack's login files,
-you'll have a hot spare in case something goes wrong.</para>
-
-<para>Once you've done this, use <command>exit</command>
-to get back to a login prompt and log in as
-<emphasis>jack</emphasis>. In general, it's a good idea to do as
-much work as possible as an ordinary user who doesn't have the
-power&mdash;and risk&mdash;of root.</para>
-
-<para>If you already created a user and you want the user to be able
-to <command>su</command> to root, you can log in as root
-and edit the file <filename>/etc/group</filename>, adding jack to the
-first line (the group wheel). But first you need to practice
-<command>vi</command>, the text editor--or use the simpler text
-editor, <command>ee</command>, installed on recent version of
-FreeBSD.</para>
-
-<para>To delete a user, use the <command>rmuser</command> command.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Looking Around</title>
-
-<para>Logged in as an ordinary user, look around and try out some
-commands that will access the sources of help and information within
-FreeBSD.</para>
-
-<para>Here are some commands and what they do:
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><command>id</command></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>Tells you who you are!</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>pwd</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Shows you where you are&mdash;the current
-working directory.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>ls</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Lists the files in the current directory.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>ls <option>-F</option></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Lists the files in the current directory with a
-<literal>*</literal> after executables, a <literal>/</literal> after
-directories, and an <literal>@</literal> after symbolic links.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>ls <option>-l</option></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Lists the files in long format&mdash;size,
-date, permissions.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>ls <option>-a</option></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Lists hidden <quote>dot</quote>
-files with the others. If you're root, the<quote>dot</quote> files
-show up without the <option>-a</option> switch.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>cd</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Changes directories. <command>cd
-<parameter>..</parameter></command> backs up one level; note the
-space after <command>cd</command>. <command>cd
-<parameter>/usr/local</parameter></command> goes there. <command>cd
-<parameter>~</parameter></command> goes to the home directory of the
-person logged in&mdash;e.g., <filename>/usr/home/jack</filename>.
-Try <command>cd <parameter>/cdrom</parameter></command>, and then
-<command>ls</command>, to find out if your CDROM is mounted and
-working.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>view <replaceable>filename</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Lets you look at a file (named
-<replaceable>filename</replaceable> without changing it. Try
-<command>view <parameter>/etc/fstab</parameter></command>.
-<command>:q</command> to quit.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>cat <replaceable>filename</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-
-<para>Displays <replaceable>filename</replaceable> on screen. If
-it's too long and you can see only the end of it, press
-<keycap>ScrollLock</keycap> and use the <keycap>up-arrow</keycap> to
-move backward; you can use <keycap>ScrollLock</keycap> with man pages
-too. Press <keycap>ScrollLock</keycap> again to quit scrolling. You
-might want to try <command>cat</command> on some of the dot files in
-your home directory&mdash;<command>cat
-<parameter>.cshrc</parameter></command>, <command>cat
-<parameter>.login</parameter></command>, <command>cat
-<parameter>.profile</parameter></command>.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-
-You'll notice aliases in <filename>.cshrc</filename> for some of the
-<command>ls</command> commands (they're very convenient).
-You can create other aliases by editing <filename>.cshrc</filename>.
-You can make these aliases available to all users on the system by
-putting them in the system-wide csh configuration file,
-<filename>/etc/csh.cshrc</filename>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Getting Help and Information</title>
-
-<para>Here are some useful sources of help.
-<replaceable>Text</replaceable> stands for something of your choice
-that you type in&mdash;usually a command or filename.</para>
-
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><command>apropos <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Everything containing string <replaceable>text</replaceable>
-in the <database>whatis database</database>.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>man <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>The man page for <replaceable>text</replaceable>. The major
-source of documentation for Un*x systems. <command>man
-<parameter>ls</parameter></command> will tell you all the ways to use
-the <command>ls</command> command. Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to
-move through text,
-<keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>b</keycap></keycombo> to go
-back a page, <keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>f</keycap></keycombo> to
-go forward, <keycap>q</keycap> or
-<keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>c</keycap></keycombo> to
-quit.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>which <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Tells you where in the user's path the command
-<replaceable>text</replaceable> is found.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>locate <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>All the paths where the string <replaceable>text</replaceable>
-is found.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>whatis <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Tells you what the command <replaceable>text</replaceable>
-does and its man page. Typing <command>whatis *</command> will tell
-you about all the binaries in the current directory.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>whereis <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Finds the file <replaceable>text</replaceable>, giving its full
-path.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-
-<para>You might want to try using <command>whatis</command> on some
-common useful commands like <command>cat</command>,
-<command>more</command>, <command>grep</command>,
-<command>mv</command>, <command>find</command>,
-<command>tar</command>, <command>chmod</command>,
-<command>chown</command>, <command>date</command>, and
-<command>script</command>. <command>more</command> lets you read a
-page at a time as it does in DOS, e.g., <command>ls -l |
-more</command> or <command>more
-<replaceable>filename</replaceable></command>. The
-<literal>*</literal> works as a wildcard&mdash;e.g., <command>ls
-w*</command> will show you files beginning with
-<literal>w</literal>.</para>
-
-<para>Are some of these not working very well? Both
-<command>locate</command> and <command>whatis</command>
-depend on a database that's rebuilt weekly. If your machine isn't
-going to be left on over the weekend (and running FreeBSD), you might
-want to run the commands for daily, weekly, and monthly maintenance
-now and then. Run them as root and give each one time to finish
-before you start the next one, for now.
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>/etc/daily</userinput>
-<lineannotation>output omitted</lineannotation>
-# <userinput>/etc/weekly</userinput>
-<lineannotation>output omitted</lineannotation>
-# <userinput>/etc/monthly</userinput>
-<lineannotation>output omitted</lineannotation></screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>If you get tired waiting, press
-<keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F2</keycap></keycombo> to get
-another <firstterm>virtual console</firstterm>, and log in again.
-After all, it's a multi-user, multi-tasking system. Nevertheless
-these commands will probably flash messages on your screen while
-they're running; you can type <command>clear</command> at the prompt
-to clear the screen. Once they've run, you might want to look at
-<filename>/var/mail/root</filename> and
-<filename>/var/log/messages</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>Basically running such commands is part of system
-administration&mdash;and as a single user of a Unix system, you're
-your own system administrator. Virtually everything you need to be
-root to do is system administration. Such responsibilities aren't
-covered very well even in those big fat books on Unix, which seem to
-devote a lot of space to pulling down menus in windows managers. You
-might want to get one of the two leading books on systems
-administration, either Evi Nemeth et.al.'s <citetitle>UNIX System
-Administration Handbook</citetitle> (Prentice-Hall, 1995, ISBN
-0-13-15051-7)&mdash;the second edition with the red cover; or
-&AElig;leen Frisch's <citetitle>Essential System
-Administration</citetitle> (O'Reilly &amp; Associates, 1993, ISBN
-0-937175-80-3). I used Nemeth.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Editing Text</title>
-
-<para>To configure your system, you need to edit text files. Most of
-them will be in the <filename>/etc</filename> directory; and you'll
-need to <command>su</command> to root to be able to change them. You
-can use the easy <command>ee</command>, but in the long run the
-text editor <command>vi</command> is worth learning. There's an
-excellent tutorial on vi in
-<filename>/usr/src/contrib/nvi/docs/tutorial</filename> if you have
-that installed; otherwise you can get it by ftp to
-ftp.cdrom.com in the directory
-FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/src/contrib/nvi/docs/tutorial.</para>
-
-<para>Before you edit a
-file, you should probably back it up. Suppose you want to edit
-<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>. You could just use <command>cd
-/etc</command> to get to the <filename>/etc</filename> directory and
-do:
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>cp rc.conf rc.conf.orig</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-This would copy <filename>rc.conf</filename> to
-<filename>rc.conf.orig</filename>, and you could later copy
-<filename>rc.conf.orig</filename> to <emphasis
-remap=tt>rc.conf</emphasis> to recover the original. But even
-better would be moving (renaming) and then copying back:
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>mv rc.conf rc.conf.orig</userinput>
-# <userinput>cp rc.conf.orig rc.conf</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-because the <command>mv</command> command preserves the original date
-and owner of the file. You can now edit
-<filename>rc.conf</filename>. If you want the original back, you'd
-then <userinput>mv rc.conf rc.conf.myedit</userinput>
-(assuming you want to preserve your edited version) and then
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>mv rc.conf.orig rc.conf</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-to put things back the way they were.</para>
-
-<para>To edit a file, type
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>vi <replaceable>filename</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-Move through the text with the arrow keys. <keycap>Esc</keycap> (the
-escape key) puts <command>vi</command> in command mode. Here are some
-commands:
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><command>x</command></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>delete letter the cursor is on</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>dd</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>delete the entire line (even if it wraps on the screen)</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>i</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>insert text at the cursor</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>a</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>insert text after the cursor</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-Once you type <command>i</command> or <command>a</command>, you can enter text.
-<command>Esc</command> puts you back in command mode where you can type
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><command>:w</command></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>to write your changes to disk and continue editing</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>:wq</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to write and quit</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>:q!</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to quit without saving changes</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>/<replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to move the cursor to <replaceable>text</replaceable>;
-<command>/<keycap>Enter</keycap></command> (the enter key) to find
-the next instance of <replaceable>text</replaceable>.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>G</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to go to the end of the file</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command><replaceable>n</replaceable>G</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to go to line <replaceable>n</replaceable> in
-the file, where <replaceable>n</replaceable> is a number</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</><keycap>L</></keycombo></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to redraw the screen</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</><keycap>b</></> and <keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</><keycap>f</></></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>go back
-and forward a screen, as they
-do with <command>more</> and <command>view</>.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-<para>Practice with <command>vi</> in your home directory by creating
-a new file with <command>vi <replaceable>filename</></> and adding
-and deleting text, saving the file, and calling it up again.
-<command>vi</> delivers some surprises because it's really quite
-complex, and sometimes you'll inadvertently issue a command that will
-do something you don't expect. (Some people actually like
-<command>vi</>&mdash;it's more powerful than DOS EDIT&mdash;find out
-about the <command>:r</> command.) Use <keycap>Esc</> one or
-more times to be sure you're in command mode and proceed from there
-when it gives you trouble, save often with <command>:w</>, and
-use <command>:q!</> to get out and start over (from
-your last <command>:w</>) when you need to.</para>
-
-<para>Now you can <command>cd</> to <filename>/etc</filename>,
-<command>su</> to root, use <command>vi</> to edit the file
-<filename>/etc/group</filename>, and add a user to wheel so the user
-has root privileges. Just add a comma and the user's login name to
-the end of the first line in the file, press <keycap>Esc</>, and use
-<command>:wq</> to write the file to disk and quit. Instantly
-effective. (You didn't put a space after the comma, did you?)</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Printing Files from DOS</title>
-
-<para>At this point you probably don't have the printer working, so here's a
-way to create a file from a man page, move it to a floppy, and then
-print it from DOS. Suppose you want to read carefully about changing
-permissions on files (pretty important). You can use the command
-man chmod to read about it. The command
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>man chmod | col -b &gt; chmod.txt</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-will remove formatting codes and send the man page to
-the <filename>chmod.txt</filename> file
-instead of showing it on your screen. Now put a dos-formatted
-diskette in your floppy drive a, <command>su</> to
-root, and type
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>/sbin/mount -t msdos /dev/fd0 /mnt</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-to mount the floppy drive on <filename>/mnt</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>Now (you no longer need to be root, and you can type
-<command>exit</> to get back to being user jack) you can go to the
-directory where you created chmod.txt and copy the file to the floppy
-with:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>% <userinput>cp chmod.txt /mnt</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-and use <command>ls /mnt</command> to get a directory listing of
-<filename>/mnt</filename>, which should show the file
-<filename>chmod.txt</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>You might especially want to make a file from
-<filename>/sbin/dmesg</filename> by typing
-<informalexample>
-<screen>% <userinput>/sbin/dmesg &gt; dmesg.txt</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-and copying <filename>dmesg.txt</filename> to the floppy.
-<command>/sbin/dmesg</command> is the boot log record, and it's
-useful to understand it because it shows what FreeBSD found when it
-booted up. If you ask questions on
-<email>freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.ORG</> or on a USENET
-group&mdash;like <quote>FreeBSD isn't finding my tape drive, what do
-I do?</quote>&mdash;people will want to know what <command>dmesg</>
-has to say.</para>
-
-<para>You can now dismount the floppy drive (as root) to get the disk
-out with
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>/sbin/umount /mnt</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-and reboot to go to DOS. Copy these files to a DOS directory, call
-them up with DOS EDIT, Windows Notepad or Wordpad, or a word processor, make a
-minor change so the file has to be saved, and print as you normally
-would from DOS or Windows. Hope it works! man pages come out best if
-printed with the dos <command>print</> command. (Copying files from
-FreeBSD to a mounted dos partition is in some cases still a little
-risky.)</para>
-
-<para>Getting the printer printing from FreeBSD involves creating an
-appropriate entry in <filename>/etc/printcap</filename> and creating
-a matching spool directory in
-<filename>/var/spool/output</filename>. If your printer is on
-<hardware>lpt0</> (what dos calls <hardware>LPT1</>), you may only
-need to go to <filename>/var/spool/output</filename> and (as root)
-create the directory <filename>lpd</> by typing:
-<command>
-mkdir lpd</command>, if it doesn't already
-exist.
-Then the printer should respond if it's turned on when the system is
-booted, and lp or lpr should send a file to the printer. Whether or
-not the file actually prints depends on configuring it, which is
-covered in the <ulink
-URL="http://www.freebsd.org/handbook/handbook.html">FreeBSD
-handbook.</></para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Other Useful Commands</title>
-
-<para>
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><command>df</></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>shows file space and mounted systems.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>ps aux</></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>shows processes running. <command>ps ax</> is a narrower form.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>rm <replaceable>filename</></></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>remove <replaceable>filename</>.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>rm -R <replaceable>dir</></></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>removes a directory <replaceable>dir</> and all
-subdirectories&mdash;careful!</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>ls -R</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>lists files in the current
-directory and all subdirectories;
-I used a variant, <command>ls -AFR &gt; where.txt</command>,
-to get a list of all
-the files in <filename>/</filename> and (separately)
-<filename>/usr</filename> before I found better
-ways to find files.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>passwd</></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to change user's password (or root's password)</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>man hier</></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>man page on the Unix file system</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist></para>
-
-<para>Use <command>find</> to locate filename in <filename>/usr</filename>
-or any of its subdirectories with
-<informalexample>
-<screen>% <userinput>find /usr -name "<replaceable>filename</>"</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-You can use <literal>*</literal> as a wildcard in
-<parameter>"<replaceable>filename</>"</> (which should be in
-quotes). If you tell find to search in <filename>/</filename>
-instead of <filename>/usr</filename> it will look for the file(s) on
-all mounted file systems, including the CDROM and the dos
-partition.</para>
-
-<para>An excellent book that explains Unix commands and utilities is
-Abrahams &amp; Larson, <citetitle>Unix for the Impatient</citetitle>
-(2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, 1996). There's also a lot of Unix
-information on the Internet. Try the <ulink
-URL="http://www.eecs.nwu.edu/unix.html">Unix Reference
-Desk</ulink>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Next Steps</title>
-
-<para>You should now have the tools you need to get around and edit
-files, so you can get everything up and running. There is a great
-deal of information in the FreeBSD handbook (which is probably on
-your hard drive) and <ulink URL="http://www.freebsd.org/">FreeBSD's
-web site</ulink>. A wide variety of packages and ports are on the
-<ulink URL="http://www.cdrom.com/">Walnut Creek</ulink> CDROM as well
-as the web site. The handbook tells you more about how to use them
-(get the package if it exists, with <command>pkg_add
-/cdrom/packages/All/<replaceable>packagename</></>,
-where <replaceable>packagename</replaceable> is the filename of the
-package). The cdrom has lists of the packages and ports with brief
-descriptions in <filename>cdrom/packages/index</filename>,
-<filename>cdrom/packages/index.txt</filename>, and
-<filename>cdrom/ports/index</filename>, with fuller descriptions in
-<filename>/cdrom/ports/*/*/pkg/DESCR</filename>, where the
-<literal>*</literal>s represent subdirectories of kinds of programs
-and program names respectively.</para>
-
-<para>If you find the handbook too sophisticated (what with
-<command>lndir</> and all) on installing ports from the cdrom,
-here's what usually works:</para>
-
-<para>Find the port you want, say <command>kermit</>. There will be
-a directory for it on the cdrom. Copy the subdirectory to
-<filename>/usr/local</filename> (a good place for software you add
-that should be available to all users) with:
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>cp -R /cdrom/ports/comm/kermit /usr/local</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-This should result in a <filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename>
-subdirectory that has all the files that the
-<command>kermit</command> subdirectory on the CDROM has.</para>
-
-<para>Next, create the directory <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>
-if it doesn't already exist using <command>mkdir</>. Now check
-check <filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename> for a
-file with a name that indicates it's the port you want. Copy that
-file to <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>; in recent versions
-you can skip this step, as FreeBSD will do it for you.
-In the case of <command>kermit</>, there is no
-distfile.</para>
-
-<para>Then <command>cd</> to the subdirectory of
-<filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename> that has the file
-<filename>Makefile</>. Type
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>make all install</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>During this process the port will ftp to get any compressed
-files it needs that it didn't find on the cdrom or in
-<filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>. If you don't have your
-network running yet and there was no file for the port in
-<filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename>, you will have to get
-the distfile using another machine and copy it to
-<filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> from a floppy or your dos
-partition. Read <filename>Makefile</> (with <command>cat</> or
-<command>more</> or <command>view</>) to find out where to go (the
-master distribution site) to get the file and what its name is. Its
-name will be truncated when downloaded to DOS, and after you get it
-into <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> you'll have to rename
-it (with the <command>mv</> command) to its original name so it can
-be found. (Use binary file transfers!) Then go back to
-<filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename>, find the directory with
-<filename>Makefile</>, and type <command>make all install</>.</para>
-
-<para>The other thing that happens when installing ports or packages
-is that some other program is needed. If the installation stops with
-a message <errorname>can't find unzip</errorname> or whatever, you
-might need to install the package or port for unzip before you
-continue.</para>
-
-<para>Once it's installed type <command>rehash</> to make FreeBSD
-reread the files in the path so it knows what's there. (If you get a
-lot of <errorname>path not found</> messages when you use
-<command>whereis</> or which, you might want to make additions to the
-list of directories in the path statement in
-<filename>.cshrc</filename> in your home directory. The path
-statement in Unix does the same kind of work it does in DOS, except
-the current directory is not (by default) in the path for security
-reasons; if the command you want is in the directory you're in, you
-need to type <filename>./</filename> before the command to make it
-work; no space after the slash.)</para>
-
-<para>You might want to get the most recent version of Netscape from
-their <ulink URL="ftp://ftp.netscape.com">ftp site</ulink>. (Netscape
-requires the X Window System.) There's now a FreeBSD version, so look
-around carefully. Just use <command>gunzip
-<replaceable>filename</></> and <command>tar xvf
-<replaceable>filename</></> on it, move the binary to
-<filename>/usr/local/bin</filename> or some other place binaries are
-kept, <command>rehash</>, and then put the following lines in
-<filename>.cshrc</filename> in each user's home directory or (easier)
-in <filename>/etc/csh.cshrc</filename>, the system-wide csh start-up
-file:
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>setenv XKEYSYMDB /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XKeysymDB
-setenv XNLSPATH /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/nls</>
-</informalexample>
-This assumes that the file <filename>XKeysymDB</> and the directory
-<filename>nls</> are in <filename>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11</filename>; if
-they're not, find them and put them there.</para>
-
-<para>If you originally got Netscape as a port using the CDROM (or
-ftp), don't replace <filename>/usr/local/bin/netscape</filename> with
-the new netscape binary; this is just a shell script that sets up the
-environmental variables for you. Instead rename the new binary to
-<filename>netscape.bin</filename> and replace the old binary, which
-is <filename>/usr/local/lib/netscape/netscape.bin</filename>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-
-<title>Your Working Environment</title>
-
-<para>Your shell is the most important part of your working environment.
-In DOS, the usual shell is command.com. The shell is what interprets
-the commands you type on the command line, and thus communicates with
-the rest of the operating system. You can also write shell
-scripts, which are like DOS batch files: a series of commands to be
-run without your intervention.</para>
-
-<para>Two shells come installed with FreeBSD: csh and sh. csh is good for
-command-line work, but scripts should be written with sh (or bash). You can
-find out what shell you have by typing <command>echo $SHELL</command>.</para>
-
-<para>The csh shell is okay, but tcsh does everything csh does and more. It
-It allows you to recall commands with the arrow keys and edit them.
-It has tab-key completion
-of filenames (csh uses the escape key), and it lets you switch to the
-directory you were last in with <command>cd -</command>. It's also much
-easier to alter your prompt with tcsh. It makes life a lot easier.</para>
-
-<para>Here are the three steps for installing a new shell:</para>
-
-<para> 1. Install the shell as a port or a package, just as you
-would any other port or package. Use <command>rehash</command> and
-<command>which tcsh</command> (assuming you're installing tcsh) to
-make sure it got installed.</para>
-
-<para> 2. As root, edit <filename>/etc/shells</filename>, adding
-a line in the file for the new shell, in this case /usr/local/bin/tcsh,
-and save the file. (Some ports may do this for you.)</para>
-
-<para> 3. Use the <command>chsh</command> command to change your shell to
-tcsh permanently, or type <command>tcsh</command> at the prompt to
-change your shell without logging in again.</para>
-
-<para><emphasis>Note: It can be dangerous to change root's shell</emphasis>
-to something other than sh or csh on early versions of FreeBSD and many
-other versions of Unix; you may not have a working shell when the system
-puts you into single user mode. The solution is to use <command>su -m</command>
-to become root, which will give you the tcsh as root, because the shell is part
-of the environment. You can make this permanent by adding it to your
-<filename>.tcshrc</filename> file as an alias with <programlisting>alias su su -m.</></para>
-
-<para>When tcsh starts up, it will read the
-<filename>/etc/csh.cshrc</filename> and <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename>
-files, as does csh. It will also read the
-<filename>.login</filename> file in your home directory and the
-<filename>.cshrc</filename>
-file as well, unless you provide a <filename>.tcshrc</filename>
-file. This you can do by simply copying <filename>.cshrc</filename>
-to <filename>.tcshrc</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>Now that you've installed tcsh, you can adjust your prompt. You can
-find the details in the manual page for tcsh, but here is a line to
-put in your <filename>.tcshrc</filename> that will tell you how many
-commands you have typed, what time it is, and what directory you are in.
-It also produces a <literal>></literal> if you're an ordinary user and
-a <literal>#</literal> if you're root, but tsch will do that in any
-case:</para>
-<para>
- set prompt = "%h %t %~ %# "</para>
-
-<para>This should go in the same place as the existing set prompt line
-if there is one, or under "if($?prompt) then" if not.
-Comment out the old line; you can always switch back to it if you prefer
-it. Don't forget the spaces and quotes. You can get the <filename>.tcshrc</filename> reread by typing <command>source .tcshrc</command>.</para>
-
-<para>You can get a listing of other environmental variables that
-have been set by typing <command>env</command> at the prompt. The
-result will show you your default editor, pager, and terminal type,
-among possibly many others. A useful command if you log in from a
-remote location and can't run a program because the terminal isn't
-capable is
-<command>setenv TERM vt100</command>.</para>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Other</title>
-
-<para>As root, you can dismount the CDROM with <command>/sbin/umount
-/cdrom</>, take it out of the drive, insert another one, and mount it
-with <command>/sbin/mount_cd9660 /dev/cd0a /cdrom</> assuming
-<hardware>cd0a</> is the device name for your CDROM drive. The
-most recent versions of FreeBSD let you mount the cdrom with just
-<command>/sbin/mount /cdrom</command>.</para>
-
-<para>Using the live file system&mdash;the second of FreeBSD's CDROM
-disks&mdash;is useful if you've got limited space. What is on the
-live file system varies from release to release. You might try
-playing games from the cdrom. This
-involves using <command>lndir</>, which gets installed with the X
-Window System, to tell the program(s) where to find the necessary
-files, because they're in the <filename>/cdrom</filename> file system
-instead of in <filename>/usr</filename> and its subdirectories, which
-is where they're expected to be. Read <command>man lndir</>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Comments Welcome</title>
-
-<para>If you use this guide I'd be interested in knowing where it was
-unclear and what was left out that you think should be included, and
-if it was helpful. My thanks to Eugene W. Stark, professor of
-computer science at SUNY-Stony Brook, and John Fieber for helpful
-comments.</para>
-
-<para>Annelise Anderson, <email>andrsn@andrsn.stanford.edu</></para>
-
-</chapter>
-</book>
diff --git a/en/tutorials/ppp/Makefile b/en/tutorials/ppp/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 76ead715ae..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/ppp/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,6 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.2 1997-07-01 05:38:16 max Exp $
-
-DOC= ppp
-SRCS= ppp.sgml
-
-.include <bsd.sgml.mk>
diff --git a/en/tutorials/ppp/ppp.sgml b/en/tutorials/ppp/ppp.sgml
deleted file mode 100644
index 8edeb42750..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/ppp/ppp.sgml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,1736 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE linuxdoc PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD linuxdoc//EN">
-<!-- $Id: ppp.sgml,v 1.3 1997-01-21 05:49:54 jkh Exp $ -->
-
-<article>
-
-<title>PPP - Pedantic PPP Primer
-<author>Maintainer: Steve Sims <tt><htmlurl
-url="mailto:SimsS@IBM.NET"
- name="&lt;SimsS@IBM.NET&gt;"></tt>
-
-<date>$Date: 1997-01-21 05:49:54 $
-<abstract>
-This is a step-by-step guide for configuring FreeBSD systems to act as
-a dial-up router/gateway in a Local Area Environment. All entries may
-be assumed to be relevant to FreeBSD 2.2+, unless otherwise noted.
-</abstract>
-
-<toc>
-
-<sect>
-<heading>Overview:</heading>
-<p>The User-Mode PPP dialer in FreeBSD Version 2.2 (also known as:
-<it>"IIJ-PPP"</it> ) now supports Packet Aliasing for dial up
-connections to the Internet. This feature, also known as
-"<IT/Masquerading/", "<IT/IP Aliasing/", or "<IT/Network Address
-Translation/", allows a FreeBSD system to act as a dial- on-demand
-router between an Ethernet-based Local Area Network and an Internet
-Service Provider. Systems on the LAN can use the FreeBSD system to
-forward information between the Internet by means of a single
-dial-connection.
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Purpose of this Guide.</heading>
-<p>
-This guide explains how to:
-<itemize>
-<item>Configure the FreeBSD system to support dial-out connections,
-<item>Share a dial-out connection with other systems in a network,
-<item>Configure Windows platforms to use the FreeBSD system as a gateway to the Internet.
-</itemize>
-<p>
-While the focus of this guide is to assist in configuring IP Aliasing,
-it also includes specific examples of the configuration steps necessary
-to configure and install each individual component; each section stands
-alone and may be used to assist in the configuration of various aspects
-of FreeBSD internetworking.
-</sect>
-
-<sect>
-<heading>Building the Local Area Network</heading>
-
-<p> While the ppp program can, and usually is, be configured to provide
-services to <em/only/ the local FreeBSD box it can also be used to serve as a
-"Gateway" (or "router") between other LAN-connected resources and the Internet or
-other Dial-Up service.
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Typical Network Topology</heading>
-
-<p>This guide assumes a typical Local Area Network lashed together as
-follows:
-<verb>
-+---------+ ----&gt; Dial-Up Internet Connection
-| FreeBSD | \ (i.e.: NetCom, AOL, AT&amp;T, EarthLink,
-etc)
-| |--------
-| "Curly" |
-| |
-+----+----+
- |
-|----+-------------+-------------+----| &lt;-- Ethernet Network
- | | |
- | | |
-+----+----+ +----+----+ +----+----+
-| | | | | |
-| Win95 | | WFW | | WinNT |
-| "Larry" | | "Moe" | | "Shemp" |
-| | | | | |
-+---------+ +---------+ +---------+
-</verb>
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Assumptions about the Local Area Network</heading>
-
-<p>Some specific assumptions about this sample network are:
-
-<p>Three workstations and a Server are connected with Ethernet
-cabling:
-<itemize>
-<item>a FreeBSD Server ("Curly") with an NE-2000 adapter configured as
-'ed0'
-<item>a Windows-95 workstation ("Larry") with Microsoft's "native"
-32-bit TCP/IP drivers
-<item>a Windows for Workgroups workstation ("Moe") with Microsoft's
-16-bit TCP/IP extensions
-<item>a Windows NT workstation ("Shemp") with Microsoft's "native"
-32-bit TCP/IP drivers
-</itemize>
-
-<p>The IP Addresses on the Ethernet side of this sample LAN have been
-
-taken from the pool of "reserved" addresses proposed in RFC-1597.
-IP addresses are assigned as follows:
-<verb>Name IP Address
-"Curly" 192.168.1.1 # The FreeBSD box
-"Larry" 192.168.1.2 # The Win'95 box
-"Moe" 192.168.1.3 # The WfW box
-"Shemp" 192.168.1.4 # The Windows NT box
-</VERB>
-
-<p>This guide assumes that the modem on the FreeBSD box is connected
-to the first serial port ('<tt>/dev/cuaa0</tt>' or '<tt>COM1:</tt>' in
-DOS-terms).
-
-<p>Finally, we'll also assume that your Internet Service Provider (ISP)
-automatically provides the IP addresses of both your PPP/FreeBSD side
-as well as the ISP's side. (i.e.: Dynamic IP Addresses on both ends
-of the link.) Specific details for configuring the Dial-Out side of
-PPP will be addressed in Section 2, "Configuring the FreeBSD System".
-</sect>
-
-<sect>
-<heading>FreeBSD System Configuration</heading>
-
-<p>There are three basic pieces of information that must be known to
-the FreeBSD box before you can proceed with integrating the sample
-Local Area Network:
-
-<itemize>
-<item>The Host Name of the FreeBSD system; in our example it's "Curly",
-<item>The Network configuration,
-<item>The <tt>/etc/hosts</tt> file (which lists the names and IP addresses of
-the other systems in your network)
-</itemize>
-
-<p>If you performed the installation of FreeBSD over a network
-connection some of this information may already be configured into
-your FreeBSD system.
-
-<p>Even if you believe that the FreeBSD system was properly configured
-when it was installed you should at least verify each of these bits of
-information to prevent trouble in subsequent steps.
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Verifying the FreeBSD Host Name</heading>
-
-<p>It's possible that the FreeBSD host name was specified and saved
-when the system was initially installed. To verify that it was, enter
-the following command at a prompt:<p>
-<tscreen><verb>
-# hostname
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>The name of the host FreeBSD system will be displayed on a single
-line. If the name looks correct (this is very subjective :-) skip
-ahead to Section 3.2, "Verifying the Ethernet Interface
-Configuration".
-
-<p>For example, in our sample network, we would see 'curly.my.domain'
-as a result of the `hostname` command if the name had been set
-correctly during, or after, installation. (At this point, don't worry
-too much about the ".my.domain" part, we'll sort this out later. The
-important part is the name up to the first dot.)
-
-<p>If a host name wasn't specified when FreeBSD was installed you'll
-probably see 'myname.my.domain` as a response. You'll need to edit
-<tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> to set the name of the machine.
-
-<sect2><heading>Configuring the FreeBSD Host Name</heading>
-
-<p><em><bf>Reminder: You must be logged in as 'root' to edit the
-system configuration files!</bf></em>
-
-<em><bf>CAUTION: If you mangle the system configuration files,
-chances are your system WILL NOT BOOT correctly! Be careful!</bf></em>
-
-<p>The configuration file that specifies the FreeBSD system's host
-name when the system boots is in <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>. Use the
-default text editor ('<tt/ee/') to edit this file.
-
-<p>Logged in as user 'root' load <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> into the
-editor with the following command:
-<tscreen><verb>
-# ee /etc/sysconfig
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>Using the arrow keys, scroll down until you find the line that
-specifies the host name of the FreeBSD system. By default, this
-section says:
-<tscreen><verb>
----
-# Set to the name of your host - this is pretty important!
-hostname=myname.my.domain
----
-</verb></tscreen>
-Change this section to say (in our example):
-<tscreen><verb>
----
-# Set to the name of your host - this is pretty important!
-hostname=curly.my.domain
----
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-Once the change to the host name has been made, press the 'Esc' key to
-access the command menu. Select "leave editor" and make sure to
-specify "save changes" when prompted.
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Verifying the Ethernet Interface Configuration</heading>
-
-<p>To reiterate our basic assumption, this guide assumes that the
-Ethernet Interface in the FreeBSD system is named '<tt/ed0/'. This is
-the default for NE-1000, NE-2000, WD/SMC models 8003, 8013 and Elite
-Ultra (8216) network adapters.
-
-<p>Other models of network adapters may have different device names in
-FreeBSD. Check the FAQ for specifics about your network adapter. If
-you're not sure of the device name of your adapter, check the FreeBSD
-FAQ to determine the device name for the card you have and substitute
-that name (i.e.: '<tt/de0/', '<tt/zp0/', or similar) in the following
-steps.
-
-<p>As was the case with the host name, the configuration for the
-FreeBSD system's Ethernet Interface may have been specified when the
-system was installed.
-
-To display the configuration for the interfaces in your
-FreeBSD system (Ethernet and others), enter the following command:
-<tscreen><verb>
-# ifconfig -a
-</verb></tscreen>
-(In layman's terms: "Show me the <BF/I/nter<BF/F/ace <BF/CONFIG/uration
-for my network devices.")
-
-<p>An example:
-<tscreen><verb>
-# ifconfig -a
- ed0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu
-1500
- inet 192.168.1.1 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.1.255
- ether 01:02:03:04:05:06
- lp0: flags=8810&lt;POINTOPOINT,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
- tun0: flags=8050&lt;POINTOPOINT,RUNNING, MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
- sl0: flags=c010&lt;POINTOPOINT,LINK2,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 552
- ppp0: flags=8010&lt;POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
- lo0: flags=8049&lt;UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 16384
- inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000
-# _
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>In this example, the following devices were displayed:<p>
-<tt/ed0:/ The Ethernet Interface<p>
-<tt/lp0:/ The Parallel Port Interface (ignored in this guide)<p>
-<tt/tun0:/ The "tunnel" device; <em/This is the one user-mode ppp uses!/<p>
-<tt/sl0:/ The SL/IP device (ignored in this guide)<p>
-<tt/ppp0:/ Another PPP device (for kernel ppp; ignored in this guide)<p>
-<tt/lo0:/ The "Loopback" device (ignored in this guide)<p>
-
-In this example, the 'ed0' device is up and running. The key
-indicators are:
-<enum>
-<item>Its status is "<tt/UP/",
-<item>It has an Internet ("<tt/inet/") address, (in this case, 192.168.1.1)
-<item>It has a valid Subnet Mask ("netmask"; 0xffffff00 is the same as
-255.255.255.0), and
-<item>It has a valid broadcast address (in this case, 192.168.1.255).
-</enum>
-
-<p>If the line for the Ethernet card had shown something similar to:
-<tscreen><verb>
-ed0: flags=8802&lt;BROADCAST,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
- ether 01:02:03:04:05:06
-</verb></tscreen>
-then the Ethernet card hasn't been configured yet.
-
-<p>If the configuration for the Ethernet interface is correct you can
-skip forward to Section 3.4, "Creating the list of other LAN hosts".
-Otherwise, proceed with the next section.
-<sect2>
-<heading>Configuring your Ethernet Interface</heading>
-
-<p><em><bf>Reminder: You must be logged in as 'root' to edit the
-system configuration files!</bf></em>
-
-<em><bf>CAUTION: If you mangle the system configuration files,
-chances are your system WILL NOT BOOT correctly! Be careful!</bf></em>
-
-<p>The configuration file that specifies settings for the network
-interfaces when the system boots is in <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>. Use
-the default text editor ('ee') to edit this file.
-
-<p>Logged in as user 'root' load <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> into the
-editor with the following command:
-<p>
-<tt> # ee /etc/sysconfig</tt>
-<p>
-About 100 lines from the top of <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> is the section
-that describes which network interfaces should be activated when the
-system boots. In the default configuration file the specific line
-that controls this is:
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-network_interfaces="lo0"
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>You'll need to amend this line to tell FreeBSD that you want to add
-another device, namely the '<tt/ed0/' device. Change this line to
-read:
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-network_interfaces="lo0 ed0"
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>(Note the space between the definition for the loopback device
-("lo0")
-and the Ethernet device ("<tt/ed0/")!
-
-<p><em><bf> Reminder: If your Ethernet card isn't named '<tt/ed0/', specify
-the correct device name here instead.</bf></em>
-
-<p>If you performed the installation of FreeBSD over a network
-connection then the '<tt/network_interfaces=/' line may already
-include a reference to your Ethernet adapter. If it is, verify that
-it is the correct device name.
-
-<p>Specify the Interface Settings for the Ethernet device
-('<tt/ed0/'):
-
-<p>Beneath the line that specifies which interfaces should be
-activated are the lines that specify the actual settings for each
-interface. In the default <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> file is a single
-line that says:
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-ifconfig_lo0="inet localhost"
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>You'll need to add another line after that to specify the settings
-for your '<tt/ed0/' device.
-
-<p>If you performed the installation of FreeBSD over a network
-connection then there may already be an '<tt>ifconfig_ed0=</tt>' line
-after the loopback definition. If so, verify that it has the correct
-values.
-
-<p>For our sample configuration we'll insert a line immediately after
-the loopback device definition that says:
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-ifconfig_ed0="inet 192.168.1.1 netmask 255.255.255.0"
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>When you've finished editing <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> to specify and
-configure the network interfaces the section should look really close
-to:
-
-<tscreen><verb>
----
-network_interfaces="lo0 ed0"
-ifconfig_lo0="inet localhost"
-ifconfig_ed0="inet 192.168.1.1 netmask 0xffffff00"
----
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>Once all of the necessary changes to <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> have
-been made, press the 'Esc' key to invoke the control menu. Select
-"leave editor" and be sure to select "save changes" when prompted.
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Enabling Packet Forwarding</heading>
-
-<p>By default the FreeBSD system will not forward IP packets between
-various network interfaces. In other words, routing functions (also
-known as gateway functions) are disabled.
-
-<p>If your intent is to use a FreeBSD system as stand-alone Internet
-workstation and not as a gateway between LAN nodes and your ISP you
-should skip forward to Section 3.4, "Creating the List of Other
-LAN Hosts".
-
-<p>If you intend for the PPP program to service the local FreeBSD box
-as well as LAN workstations (as a router) you'll need to enable IP
-forwarding.
-
-<p>To enable IP Packet forwarding you'll need to edit the
-<tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> file.
-Load this file into your editor with the following command:
-<tscreen><verb>
-# ee /etc/sysconfig
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>About 250 lines down from the top of the file will be the
-configuration
-section which controls IP forwarding, which will look like:
-<tscreen><verb>
-=====
-# If you want this host to be a gateway, set to YES.
-gateway=NO
-=====
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>Change this line to read:
-<tscreen><verb>
-=====
-# If you want this host to be a gateway, set to YES.
-gateway=YES
-=====
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-and exit the editor (saving the changes!).
-
-<p><em><bf>NOTE: This line may already be set to '<tt/gateway=YES/' if IP
-forwarding was enabled when the FreeBSD system was installed.</bf></em>
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Creating the List of other LAN Hosts(<tt>/etc/hosts</tt>)</heading>
-
-<p>The final step in configuring the LAN side of the FreeBSD system is
-to create a list of the names and TCP/IP addresses of the various
-systems that are connected to the Local Area Network. This list is
-stored in the '<tt>/etc/hosts</tt>' file.
-
-<p>The default version of this file has only a single host name
-listing in it: the name and address of the loopback device ('lo0').
-By networking convention, this device is always named "localhost" and
-always has an IP address of 127.0.0.1. (See the interface
-configuration example in Section 3.2.)
-
-<p>To edit the <tt>/etc/hosts</tt> file enter the following command:
-<tscreen><verb> # ee /etc/hosts </verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>Scroll all the way to the bottom of the file (paying attention to
-the comments along the way; there's some good information there!) and
-enter (assuming our sample network) the following IP addresses and
-host names:
-<tscreen><verb>
-192.168.1.1 curly curly.my.domain # FreeBSD System
-192.168.1.2 larry larry.my.domain # Windows '95 System
-192.168.1.3 moe moe.my.domain # Windows for Workgroups
-System
-192.168.1.4 shemp shemp.my.domain # Windows NT System
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>(No changes are needed to the line for the '<tt>127.0.0.1
-localhost</tt>' entry.)
-
-<p>Once you've entered these lines, press the 'Esc' key to invoke the
-control menu. Select "leave editor" and be sure to select "save
-changes" when prompted.
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Testing the FreeBSD system</heading>
-
-<p>Congratulations! Once you've made it to this point, the FreeBSD
-system is configured as a network-connected UNIX system! If you made
-any changes to the <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> file you should probably
-re-boot your FreeBSD system. This will accomplish two important
-objectives:
-<itemize>
-<item>Allow the changes to the interface configurations to be applied, and
-<item>Verify that the system restarts without any glaring configuration errors.
-</itemize>
-
-Once the system has been rebooted you should test the network
-interfaces.
-<p>
-<sect2>
-<heading>Verifying the operation of the loopback device</heading>
-
-<p>To verify that the loopback device is configured correctly, log in as
-'root' and enter:
-<tscreen><verb>
-# ping localhost
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>You should see:
-<tscreen><verb>
-# ping localhost
-PING localhost.my.domain. (127.0.0.1): 56 data bytes
-64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=0.219 ms
-64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=255 time=0.287 ms
-64 bytes from 127.0.0.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=255 time=0.214 m
-[...]
-</verb></tscreen>
-messages scroll by until you hit Ctrl-C to stop the madness.
-
-<sect2>
-<heading>Verifying the operation of the Ethernet Device</heading>
-
-<p>To verify that the Ethernet device is configured correctly, enter:
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-# ping curly
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-You should see:
-<tscreen><verb>
-# ping curly
-PING curly.my.domain. (192.168.1.1): 56 data bytes
-64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=255 time=0.219 ms
-64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=255 time=0.200 ms
-64 bytes from 192.168.1.1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=255 time=0.187 ms
-[...]
-</verb></tscreen>
-messages.
-
-<p>One important thing to look at in these two examples is that the
-names (loopback and curly) correctly correlate to their IP addresses
-(127.0.0.1 and 192.168.1.1). This verifies that the
-<tt>/etc/hosts</tt> files is correct.
-
-<p>If the IP address for "curly" isn't 192.168.1.1 or the address for
-"localhost" isn't 127.0.0.1, return to Section 3.4 and review your
-entries in '<tt>/etc/hosts</tt>'.
-
-<p>If the names and addresses are indicated correctly in the result of
-the ping command but there are errors displayed then something is
-amiss with the interface configuration(s). Return to Section 3.1 and
-verify everything again.
-
-<p>If everything here checks out, proceed with the next section.
-</sect>
-
-<sect>
-<heading>Configuring the PPP Dial-Out Connection</heading>
-<p>There are two basic modes of operation of the ppp driver:
-"Interactive" and "Automatic".
-
-In Interactive mode you:<p>
-<itemize>
-<item>Manually establish a connection to your ISP,
-<item>Browse, surf, transfer files and mail, etc...,
-<item>Manually disconnect from your ISP.
-</itemize>
-
-<p>In Automatic mode, the PPP program silently watches what goes on
-inside the FreeBSD system and automagically connects and disconnects
-with your ISP as required to make the Internet a seamless element of
-your network.
-
-<p>In this section we'll address the configuration(s) for both modes
-with emphasis on configuring your `ppp` environment to operate in
-"Automatic" mode.
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Backing up the original PPP configuration files</heading>
-
-<p>Before making any changes to the files which are used by PPP you
-should make a copy of the default files that were created when the
-FreeBSD system was installed.
-
-Log in as the 'root' user and perform the following steps:
-
-Change to the '<tt>/etc</tt> directory:
-<p><tt># cd /etc</tt>
-
-Make a backup copy the original files in the 'ppp' directory:
-<p><tt># cp -R ppp ppp.ORIGINAL</TT>
-
-<p>You should now be able to see both a '<tt>ppp</tt>' and a
-'<tt>ppp.ORIGINAL</tt>' subdirectory
-in the '<tt>/etc</tt>' directory.
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Create your own PPP configuration files</heading>
-
-<p>By default, the FreeBSD installation process creates a number of
-sample configuration files in the /etc/ppp directory. Please take
-some time to review these files; they were derived from working
-systems and represent the features and capabilities of the PPP
-program.
-
-<p>I <em/strongly/ encourage you to learn from these sample files and
-apply them to your own configuration as necessary.
-
-<p>For detailed information about the `ppp` program, read the ppp
-manpage:
-<tscreen><verb>
-# man ppp
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>For detailed information about the `chat` scripting language used by
-the PPP dialer, read the chat manpage:
-<tscreen><verb>
-# man chat
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>The remainder of this section describes the recommended contents of
-the PPP configuration files.
-
-<sect2>
-<heading>The '<tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</tt>' file</heading>
-
-<p>The '<tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</tt>' file contains the information and
-settings required to set up a dial-out PPP connection. More than one
-configuration may be contained in this file. The FreeBSD handbook
-(XXX URL? XXX) describes the contents and syntax of this file in
-detail.
-
-<p>This section will describe only the minimal configuration to get a
-dial-out connection working.
-
-<p>Below is the /etc/ppp/ppp.conf file that we'll be using to provide a
-dial-out Internet gateway for our example LAN:
-<tscreen><verb>
-################################################################
-# PPP Configuration File ('/etc/ppp/ppp.conf')
-#
-# Default settings; These are always executed always when PPP
-# is invoked and apply to all system configurations.
-################################################################
-default:
-set device /dev/cuaa0
-set speed 57600
-disable pred1
-deny pred1
-disable lqr
-deny lqr
-set dial "ABORT BUSY ABORT NO\\sCARRIER TIMEOUT 5 \"\" ATE1Q0M0
-OK-AT-OK\\dATDT\\T TIMEOUT 40 CONNECT"
-set redial 3 10
-#
-#
-################################################################
-#
-# For interactive mode use this configuration:
-#
-# Invoke with `ppp -alias interactive`
-#
-################################################################
-interactive:
-set authname Your_User_ID_On_Remote_System
-set authkey Your_Password_On_Remote_System
-set phone 1-800-123-4567
-set timeout 300
-set openmode active
-accept chap
-#
-################################################################
-#
-# For demand-dial (automatic) mode we'll use this configuration:
-#
-# Invoke with: 'ppp -auto -alias demand'
-#
-################################################################
-demand:
-set authname Your_User_ID_On_Remote_System
-set authkey Your_Password_On_Remote_System
-set phone 1-800-123-4567
-set timeout 300
-set openmode active
-accept chap
-set ifaddr 127.1.1.1/0 127.2.2.2/0 255.255.255.0
-add 0 0 127.2.2.2
-################################################################
-# End of /etc/ppp/ppp.conf
-</verb></tscreen>
-This file, taken verbatim from a working system, has three relevant
-configuration sections:
-
-<sect3>
-<heading>The "<tt>default</tt>" Section</heading>
-
-<p>The '<tt>default:</tt>' section contains the values and settings
-used by every other section in the file. Essentially, this section is
-implicitly added to the configuration lines to each other section.
-
-<p>This is a good place to put "global defaults" applicable to all
-dial-up sessions; especially modem settings and dialing prefixes which
-typically don't change based on which destination system you're
-connecting to.
-
-<p>Following are the descriptions of each line in the "default" section
-of the sample '<tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</tt>' file:
-<tscreen><verb>
-set device /dev/cuaa0
-</verb></tscreen>
-This statement informs the PPP program that it should use the first
-serial port.
-Under FreeBSD the '<tt>/dev/cuaa0</tt>' device is the same port that's
-known as "<tt>COM1:</tt>" under DOS, Windows, Windows 95, etc....
-
-<p>If your modem is on <tt>COM2:</tt> you should specify
-'<tt>/dev/cua01</tt>; <tt>COM3:</tt> would be '<tt>/dev/cua02</tt>'.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set speed 57600
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-This line sets the transmit and receive speed for the connection
-between the serial port and the modem. While the modem used for this
-configuration is only a 28.8 device, setting this value to 57600 lets
-the serial link run at a higher rate to accommodate higher throughput
-as a result of the data compression built into late-model modems.
-
-If you have trouble communicating with your modem, try setting this
-value to 38400 or even as low as 19200.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-disable pred1
-deny pred1
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-These two lines disable the "CCP/Predictor type 1" compression
-features of the PPP program. The current version of `ppp` supports
-data compression in accordance with draft Internet standards.
-Unfortunately many ISPs use equipment that does not support this
-capability. Since most modems try to perform on-the-fly compression
-anyway you're probably not losing much performance by disabling this
-feature on the FreeBSD side and denying the remote side from forcing
-it on you.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-disable lqr
-deny lqr
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-These two lines control the "Line Quality Reporting" functions which
-are part of the complete Point-to-Point (PPP) protocol specification.
-(See RFC-1989 for details.)
-
-The first line, "disable lqr", instructs the PPP program to not
-attempt to report line quality status to the device on the remote end.
-
-The second line, "deny lqr", instructs the PPP program to deny any
-attempts by the remote end to reports line quality.
-
-As most modern dial-up modems have automatic error correction and
-detection and LQR reporting is not fully implemented in many vendor's
-products it's generally a safe bet to include these two lines in the
-default configuration.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set dial "ABORT BUSY ABORT NO\\sCARRIER TIMEOUT 5 \"\" ATE1Q0M0
-OK-AT-OK\\dATDT\\T TIMEOUT 40 CONNECT"
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<em>NOTE: (This statement should appear on a single line; ignore any
-line wrapping that may appear in this document.)</em>
-
-This line instructs the PPP program how to dial the modem and
-specifies some rudimentary guidelines for doing so:
-<itemize>
-<item>Attempts to dial should fail if the modem returns a "BUSY" result code,
-<item>Attempts to dial should also fail if the modem returns a "NO CARRIER" result code,
-<item>The PPP program should expect each of the following events to complete within a
-5-second timeout period:
-<itemize>
-<item>The PPP program will initially expect nothing (specified above
-by the \"\" portion of the statement) from the modem <item>The program
-will send the modem initialization string "ATE1Q0M0" to the modem and
-await a response of "OK". If a response is not received, the program
-should send an attention command to the modem ("AT") and look again
-for a response of "OK", <item>The program should delay for one second
-(specified by the "\\d" part of the statement, and send the dialing
-string to the modem. The "ATDT" portion of the statement is the
-standard modem prefix to dial using tone-dialing; if you do not have
-touch-tone service on your local phone line, replace the "ATDT" with
-"ATDP". The "\\T" string is a placeholder for the actual phone number
-(which will be automatically inserted as specified by the "set dial
-123-4567").
-</itemize>
-<item>Finally, before a (maximum) timeout of 40 seconds, the PPP
-program should expect to see a "CONNECT" result code returned from the
-modem.
-</itemize>
-
-A failure at any point in this dialog will be interpreted as a dialing
-failure and the PPP program will fail to connect.
-
-(For a detailed description of the mini-scripting language used by the
-PPP dialer, refer to the "chat" manpage.)
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set redial 3 10
-</verb></tscreen>
-This line specifies that if a dial connection cannot immediately be made
-the PPP program should retry (up to 3 times if necessary) with a delay of 10 seconds
-between redialing attempts.
-
-<sect3>
-<heading>The "<tt>interactive</tt>" Section</heading>
-
-<p>The '<tt>interactive:</tt>' section contains the values and
-settings used to set up an "interactive" PPP session with a specific
-remote system. Settings in this section will have the lines included
-in the "default" section included automatically.
-
-<p>The example cited in this section of the guide presumes that you'll
-be connecting to a remote system that understands how to authenticate
-a user without any fancy scripting language. That is, this sample
-uses the CHAP protocol to set up the connection.
-
-<p>A good rule of thumb is that if the Windows '95 dialer can set up a
-connection by just clicking the "Connect" button this sample
-configuration should work OK.
-
-<p>If, on the other hand, when you connect to your ISP using Microsoft
-Windows '95 Dial-Up Networking you need to resort to using the "Dial
-Up Scripting Tool" from the Microsoft Plus! pack or you have to select
-"Bring up a terminal windows after dialing" in the Windows '95
-connection options then you'll need to look at the sample PPP
-configuration files and the ppp manpage for examples of "expect /
-response" scripting to make your ISP connection.
-
-<p>Or even better, find an ISP who knows how to provide PAP or CHAP
-authentication!
-
-<p>The configuration examples shown here have been successfully used to
-connect to:
-<itemize>
-<item>Various Shiva LanRovers
-<item>The IBM Network (<url url="http://www.ibm.net">)
-<item>AT&amp;T WorldNet (<url url="http://att.com/worldnet">)
-<item>Erol's (<url url="http://www.erols.com">)
-</itemize>
-
-Following are descriptions for each line in the "interactive" section
-of the sample '<tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</tt>' file:
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set authname Your_User_ID_On_Remote_System
-</verb></tscreen>
-This line specifies the name you would use to log in to the remote
-system.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set authkey Your_Password_On_Remote_System
-</verb></tscreen>
-This is the password you'd use to log in to the remote system.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set phone 1-800-123-4567
-</verb></tscreen>
-This is the phone number of the remote system. If you're inside a PBX
-you can
-prepend '<tt>9, </tt>' to the number here.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set timeout 300
-</verb></tscreen>
-This tells the PPP program that it should automatically hang up the
-phone if no data has
-be exchanged for 300 seconds (5 minutes). You may wish to tailor this
-number to your
-specific requirements.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set openmode active
-</verb></tscreen>
-This tells the PPP program that once the modems are connected it
-should immediately attempt to negotiate the connection. Some remote
-sites do this automatically, some don't. This instructs your side of
-the link to take the initiative and try to set up the connection.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-accept chap
-</verb></tscreen>
-This tells the PPP program to use the "Challenge-Handshake
-Authentication Protocol" to authenticate you. The values exchanged
-between the local and remote side for UserID and password are taken
-from the 'authname' and 'authkey' entries above.
-
-<sect3>
-<heading>The "<tt>demand</tt>" Section</heading>
-
-<p>The "<tt>demand</tt>" section contains the values and settings used
-to set up a "Dial-on-demand" PPP session with a specific remote
-system. Settings in this section will also have the lines included in
-the "default" section included automatically.
-
-<p>Except for the last two lines in this section it is identical to
-the configuration section which defines the "interactive"
-configuration.
-
-<p>As noted in Paragraph ???, the examples cited in this section of
-the guide presume that you'll be connecting to a remote system that
-understands how to use the CHAP protocol to set up the connection.
-
-<p>Following are descriptions for each line in the "demand" section of
-the sample '<tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</tt>' file:
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set authname Your_User_ID_On_Remote_System
-</verb></tscreen>
-This line specifies the name you would use to log in to the remote
-system.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set authkey Your_Password_On_Remote_System
-</verb></tscreen>
-This is the password you'd use to log in to the remote system.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set phone 1-800-123-4567
-</verb></tscreen>
-This is the phone number of the remote system.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set timeout 300
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-This tells the PPP program that it should automatically hang up the
-phone if no data has be exchanged for 300 seconds (5 minutes). You
-may wish to tailor this number to your specific requirements.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set openmode active
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-This tells the PPP program that once the modems are connected it
-should immediately attempt to negotiate the connection. Some remote
-sites do this automatically, some don't. This instructs your side of
-the link to take the initiative and try to set up the connection.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-accept chap
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-This tells the PPP program to use the "Challenge-Handshake
-Authentication Protocol" to authenticate you. The values exchanged
-between the local and remote side for UserID and password are taken
-from the 'authname' and 'authkey' entries above.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-set ifaddr 127.1.1.1/0 127.2.2.2/0 255.255.255.0
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-This command sets up a pair of "fake" IP addresses for the local and
-remote sides of the PPP link. It instructs the PPP program to create
-an IP address of 127.1.1.1 for the local side of the '<tt/tun0/'
-(tunnel) device (refer back to section ?? for a description of this
-device) and 127.2.2.2 for the remote side. Appending '<tt>/0</tt>' to
-each address tells the PPP program that zero of the bits that make up
-these addresses are significant and can (in fact, must!) be negotiated
-between the local and remote systems when the link is established.
-The 255.255.255.0 string tells the PPP program what Subnet mask to
-apply to these pseudo-interfaces.
-
-<p>Remember, we've assumed that your ISP provides the IP addresses for
-both ends of the link! If your ISP assigned you a specific IP address
-that you should use on your side when configuring your system, enter
-that IP address here <em/instead/ of <tt>127.1.1.1</tt>.
-
-Conversly, if your ISP gave you a specific IP address that he uses on
-his end you should enter that IP address here <em/instead/ of
-<tt>127.2.2.2</tt>.
-
-In both cases, it's probably a good idea to leave the '<tt>/0</tt>' on
-the end of each address. This gives the PPP program the opportunity
-to change the address(es) of the link if it <em/has/ to.
-
-<tscreen><verb>
-add 0 0 127.2.2.2
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-This last line tells the PPP program that it should add a default
-route for IP traffic that points to the (fake) IP address of the ISP's
-system.
-
-<em><bf>Note: If you used an ISP-specified address instead of
-<tt>127.2.2.2</tt> on the preceeding line, use the same number here
-instead of <tt>127.2.2.2</tt></bf></em>.
-
-<p>By adding this "fake" route for IP traffic, the PPP program can,
-while idle:
-<itemize>
-<item>Accept packets that FreeBSD doesn't already know how to forward,
-<item>Establish a connection to the ISP "<em/on-the-fly/",
-<item>Reconfigure the IP addresses of the local and remote side of the link,
-<item>Forward packets between your workstation and the ISP.
-</itemize>
-automatically!
-
-<p>Once the number of seconds specified by the timeout value in the
-"default" section have elapsed without any TCP/IP traffic the PPP
-program will automatically close the dial-up connection and the
-process will begin again.
-
-<sect2>
-<heading>The '<tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</tt>' file</heading>
-
-<p>The other file needed to complete the PPP configuration is found in
-'<tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</tt>'. This file contains instructions for
-the PPP program on what actions to take after a dial-up link is
-established.
-
-In the case of dial-on-demand configurations the PPP program will need
-to delete the default route that was created to the fake IP address of
-the remote side (127.2.2.2 in our example in the previous section) and
-install a new default route that points the actual IP address of the
-remote end (discovered during the dial-up connection setup).
-
-A representative '<tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</tt>' file:
-<tscreen><verb>
-#########################################################################=
-
-# PPP Link Up File ('/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup')
-#
-# This file is checked after PPP establishes a network connection.
-#
-# This file is searched in the following order.
-#
-# 1) First, the IP address assigned to us is searched and
-# the associated command(s) are executed.
-#
-# 2) If the IP Address is not found, then the label name specified at
-
-# PPP startup time is searched and the associated command(s)
-# are executed.
-#
-# 3) If neither of the above are found then commands under the label
-# 'MYADDR:' are executed.
-#
-#########################################################################=
-
-#
-# This section is used for the "demand" configuration in
-# /etc/ppp/ppp.conf:
-demand:
- delete ALL
- add 0 0 HISADDR
-#
-# All other configurations in /etc/ppp/ppp.conf use this:
-#
-MYADDR:
- add 0 0 HISADDR
-########################################################################
-# End of /etc/ppp/ppp.linkup
-</verb></tscreen>
-Notice that there is a section in this file named "demand:", identical
-to the configuration name used in the '<tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</tt>'
-file. This section instructs the PPP program that once a link is
-established using this configuration, it must:
-<enum>
- <item>Remove any IP routing information that the PPP program has created
- <item>Add a default route the remote end's actual address.
-</enum>
-
-<p>It's critical that those configurations in
-'<tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</tt>' which include the '<tt/set ifaddr/' and
-'<tt/add 0 0/' statements (i.e.: those configurations used for
-Dial-on-Demand configurations) execute the "delete ALL" and "add 0 0
-HISADDR" commands in <tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</tt>.
-
-<p><em><bf>This is the mechanism that controls the actual on-demand
-configuration of the link.</bf></em>
-
-<p>All configurations not explicitly named in
-<tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</tt> will use whatever commands are in the
-"MYADDR:" section of the file. This is where non-Demand-Dial
-configurations (such as our "interactive:" sample) will fall through
-to. This section simply adds a default route to the ISP's IP address
-(at the remote end).
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>IP Aliasing</heading>
-
-<p>All of the configuration steps described thus far are relevant to
-any FreeBSD system which will be used to connect to an ISP via dial-up
-connection.
-
-<p>If your sole objective in reading this guide is to connect your
-FreeBSD box to the Internet using dial-out ppp you can proceed to
-Section 6, "Testing the Network".
-
-One very attractive feature of the PPP program in on-demand mode is
-its ability to route IP traffic between other systems on the Local
-Area Network automatically. This feature is known by various names,
-"<em/IP Aliasing/", "<em/Network Address Translation/", "<em/Address
-Masquerading/" or "<em/Transparent Proxying/".
-
-<p>Regardless of the terminology used, this mode is not, however,
-automatic. If the PPP program is started normally then the program
-will not forward packets between LAN interface(s) and the dial-out
-connection. In effect, only the FreeBSD system is connected to the
-ISP; other workstations cannot "share" the same connection.
-
-For example, if the program is started with either of the following
-command lines:
-<p><tt># ppp interactive (Interactive mode)</tt><p> or
-<p><tt># ppp -auto demand (Dial-on-Demand mode)</tt>
-<p>then the system will function as an Internet-connected workstation
-<em/only/ for the
-FreeBSD box.
-
-To start the PPP program as a gateway between LAN resources and the
-Internet, one of the following command lines would be used instead:
-<p><tt># ppp -alias interactive (Interactive mode)</tt><p> or
-<p><tt># ppp -auto -alias demand (Dial-on-Demand mode)</tt>
-<p>Keep this in mind if you intend to proceed with Section 5,
-"Configuring Windows Systems".
-</sect>
-
-<sect>
-<heading>Configuring Windows Systems</heading>
-
-<p>As indicated in Section 1, our example network consists of a
-FreeBSD system ("Curly") which acts as a gateway (or router) between a
-Local Area Network consisting of two different flavors of Windows
-Workstations. In order for the LAN nodes to use Curly as a router
-they need to be properly configured. Note that this section does not
-explain how to configure the Windows workstations for Dial-Up
-networking. If you need a good explanation of that procedure, I
-recommend <url url="http://www.aladdin.co.uk/techweb">.
-
-<sect1>
-<heading> Configuring Windows 95</heading>
-
-<p>Configuring Windows 95 to act as an attached resource on your LAN
-is relatively simple. The Windows 95 network configuration must be
-slightly modified to use the FreeBSD system as the default gateway to
-the ISP. Perform the following steps:
-
-<p><bf>Create the Windows 95 "hosts" file:</bf>
-
-<p>In order to connect to the other TCP/IP systems on the LAN you'll
-need to create an identical copy of the "hosts" file that you
-installed on the FreeBSD system in Section 3.4.
-<itemize>
-<item>Click the "Start" button; select "Run..."; enter "notepad
-\WINDOWS\HOSTS" (without the quotes) and click "OK"
-<item>In the editor, enter the addresses and system names from the hosts
-file shown in Section 3.4.
-<item>When finished editing, close the notepad application (making sure
-that you save the file!).
-</itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Configure the Windows 95 TCP/IP Network Configuation
-settings</bf>:
-<itemize>
-<item>Click the "Start" button on the taskbar; select "Settings" and
-"Control Panel".
-<item>Double-click the "Network" icon to open it.<p>
-The settings for all Network Elements are displayed.
-<item>With the "Configuration" tab selected, scroll down the list of
-installed components and highlight the "TCP/IP-><em/YourInterfaceType/" line
-(where "<em/YourInterfaceType/" is the name or type of Ethernet adapter in your system).
-<p>If TCP/IP is not listed in the list of installed network
-components, click the "Add" button and install it before proceeding.
-<p>(Hint: "Add | Protocol | Microsoft | TCP/IP | OK")
-<item>Click on the "Properties" button to display a list of the
-settings associated with the TCP component.
-</itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Configure the IP Address Information:</bf>
-<itemize>
-<item>Click the "IP Address" tab
-<item>Click the "Specify an IP address" radio button.
- <p>(In our example LAN the Windows 95 system is the one we've called "Larry".)
-<item>In the "IP Address" field enter "192.168.1.2".
-<item>Enter 255.255.255.0 in the "Subnet Mask" field.
-</itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Configure the Gateway information:</bf>
-<itemize>
-<item>Click on the "Gateway" tab
-<p>For our example network the FreeBSD box will be acting as our
-gateway to the Internet (routing packets between the Ethernet LAN and
-the PPP dial-up connection. Enter the IP address of the FreeBSD
-Ethernet interface, 192.168.1.1, in the "New gateway" field and click
-the "Add" button. If any other gateways are defined in the "Installed
-gateways" list you may wish to consider removing them.
-</itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Configure the DNS Information:</bf>
-
-<p>This guide assumes that your Internet Service Provider has given
-you a list of Domain Name Servers (or "DNS Servers") that you should
-use. If you wish to run a DNS server on your local FreeBSD system,
-refer to Section 6, "Exercise for the Interested Student" for tips on
-setting up DNS on your FreeBSD system.
-
-<itemize>
-<item>Click the "DNS Configuration" tab
-<item>Make sure that the "Enable DNS" radio button is selected.
-<p>(If this button is not selected only the entries that
-we put in the host file(s) will be available and your Net-Surfing
-will not work as you expect!)
-<item>In the "Host" field enter the name of the Windows 95 box, in this
-case: "Larry".
-<item>In the "Domain" field enter the name of our local network, in this
-case: "my.domain"
-<item>In the "DNS Server Search Order" section, enter the IP address
-of the DNS server(s) that your ISP provided, clicking the "Add" button
-after every address is entered. Repeat this step as many times as
-necessary to add all of the addresses that your ISP provided.
-</itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Other Windows 95 TCP/IP options:</bf>
-
-<p>For our purposes the settings under the "Advanced", "WINS
-Configuration" and "Bindings" tabs are not necessary.
-
-<p>If you wish to use the Windows Internet Naming Service ("WINS")
-your attention is invited to <url url="http://www.localnet.org"> for
-more information about WINS settings, specifically regarding sharing
-files transparently across the Internet.
-
-<p><bf>Mopping up:</bf>
-<itemize>
-<item>Click on the "OK" button to close the TCP/IP Properties window.
-<item>Click on the "OK" button to close the Network Control Panel.
-<item>Reboot your computer if prompted to do so.
-</itemize>
-
-<p> That's it!
-<sect1>
-<heading>Configuring Windows NT</heading>
-
-<p>Configuring Windows NT to act as a LAN resource is also relatively
-straightforward. The procedures for configuring Windows NT are
-similar to Windows 95 with minor exceptions in the user interface.
-
-<p>The steps shown here are appropriate for a Windows NT 4.0
-Workstation, but the principles are the same for NT 3.5x. You may
-wish to refer to the "Configuring Windows for Workgroups" section if
-you're configuring Windows NT 3.5<it/x/, since the user interface is
-the same for NT 3.5 and WfW.
-
-<p>Perform the following steps:
-
-<p><bf>Create the Windows NT "hosts" file:</bf>
-
-<p>In order to connect to the other TCP/IP systems on the LAN you'll
-need to create an identical copy of the "hosts" file that you
-installed on the FreeBSD system in Section 3.4
-<itemize>
-<item>Click the "Start" button; select "Run..."; enter "notepad
-\WINDOWS\SYSTEM\DRIVERS\ETC\HOSTS" (without the quotes) and click
-"OK"
-<item>In the editor, enter the addresses and system names from Section
-3.4.
-<item>When finished editing, close the notepad application (making sure
-that you save the file!).
-</itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Configure the Windows NT TCP/IP Network Configuation
-settings</bf>:
-<itemize>
-<item>Click the "Start" button on the taskbar; select "Settings" and
-"Control Panel".
-<item>Double-click the "Network" icon to open it.
-<item>With the "Identification" tab selected, verify the "Computer Name"
-and "Workgroup" fields. In this example we'll use "Shemp" for the name
-and "Stooges" for the workgroup. Click the "Change" button and amend
-these entries as necessary.
-<item>Select the "Protocols" tab.
-
-<p>The installed Network Protocols will be displayed. There may be a
-number of protocols listed but the one of interest to this guide is
-the "TCP/IP Protocol". If "TCP/IP Protocol" is not listed, click the
-"Add" button to load it.
-<p>(Hint: "Add | TCP/IP Protocol | OK") <item>Highlight "TCP/IP
-Protocol" and click the "Properties" button.
-<p>Tabs for specifying various settings for TCP/IP will be displayed.
- </itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Configuring the IP Address:</bf>
-
-<p>Make sure that the Ethernet Interface is shown in the "Adapter"
-box; if not, scroll through the list of adapters until the correct
-interface is shown.
-<itemize>
-<item>Click the "Specify an IP address" radio button to enable the three
-text boxes.
-<p>In our example LAN the Windows NT system is the one we've called
-"Shemp"
-<item>In the "IP Address" field enter "192.168.1.4".
-<item>Enter 255.255.255.0 in the "Subnet Mask" field.
-</itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Configure the Gateway information:</bf>
-
-<p>For our example network the FreeBSD box will be acting as our gateway
-to the Internet (routing packets between the Ethernet LAN and the PPP dial-up
-connection.
-<itemize>
-<item>Enter the IP address of the FreeBSD Ethernet interface,
-192.168.1.1, in the "New gateway" field and click the "Add" button.
-<p>If any other gateways are defined in the "Installed gateways" list
-you may wish to consider removing them.
-</itemize>
-<p><bf>Configuring DNS:</bf>
-<p>Again, this guide assumes that your Internet Service Provider has
-given you a list of Domain Name Servers (or "DNS Servers") that you
-should use.
-
-If you wish to run a DNS server on your local FreeBSD system, refer to
-Section 6, "Exercise for the Interested Student" for tips on setting
-up DNS on your FreeBSD system.
-<itemize>
-<item>Click the "DNS" tab
-<item>In the "Host Name" field enter the name of the Windows NT box, in
-this case: "Shemp".
-<item>In the "Domain" field enter the name of our local network, in this
-case: "my.domain"
-<item>In the "DNS Server Search Order" section, enter the IP address of
-the DNS server that your ISP provided, clicking the "Add" button after
-every address is entered. Repeat this step as many times as necessary
-to add all of the addresses that your ISP provided.
-</itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Other Windows NT TCP/IP options:</bf>
-
-<p>For our purposes the settings under the "WINS Address" and
-"Routing" tabs are not used.
-
-<p>If you wish to use the Windows Internet Naming Service ("WINS")
-your attention is invited to <url url="http://www.localnet.org"> for
-more information about WINS settings, specifically regarding sharing
-files transparently across the Internet.
-
-<p><bf>Mopping up:</bf>
-<itemize>
-<item>Click on the "OK" button to close the TCP/IP Properties section.
-
-<item>Click on the "Close" button to close the Network Control Panel.
-
-<item>Restart your computer if prompted to do so.
-</itemize>
-
-<p>That's it!
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Configuring Windows for Workgroups</heading>
-
-<p>Configuring Windows for Workgroups to act as a network client
-requires that the Microsoft TCP/IP-32 driver diskette has been
-installed on the workstation. The TCP/IP drivers are not included
-with the WfW CD or diskettes; if you need a copy they're available at
-<url url="ftp://ftp.microsoft.com:/peropsys/windows/public/tcpip">.
-
-<p>Once the TCP/IP drivers have been loaded, perform the following
-steps:
-
-<p><bf>Create the Windows for Workgroups "hosts" file:</bf>
-
-<p>In order to connect to the other TCP/IP systems on the LAN you'll
-need to create an identical copy of the "hosts" file that you
-installed on the FreeBSD system in Section 3.4.
-<itemize>
-<item>In Program Manager, click the "File" button; select "Run"; and
-enter: "notepad \WINDOWS\HOSTS" (without the quotes) and click "OK"
-<item>In the editor, enter the addresses and system names from the hosts
-file shown in Section 3.4.
-<item>When finished editing, close the notepad application (making sure
-that you save the file!).
-</itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Configure the Windows 95 TCP/IP Network Configuation
-settings</bf>
-<itemize>
-<item>In the main window of Program Manager, open the "Network" group by
-double-clicking the icon.
-<item>Double click on the "Network Setup" icon.
-<item>In the "Network Drivers Box" double-click the "Microsoft
-TCP/IP-32" entry.
-</itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Configure the Windows for Workgroups IP Address:</bf> <p>Ensure
-the correct Ethernet Interface is selected in the "Adapter" list. If
-not, scroll down until it is displayed and select it by clicking on
-it.
-<itemize>
-<item>Ensure that the "Enable Automatic DHCP Configuration" check box is
-blank. If it is checked, click it to remove the "X".
-<item>In our example LAN the Windows for Workgroups system is the one
-we've called "Moe"; in the "IP Address" field enter "192.168.1.3".
-<item>Enter 255.255.255.0 in the "Subnet Mask" field.
-</itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Configure the Gateway information:</bf>
-
-<p>For our example network the FreeBSD box will be acting as our
-gateway to the Internet (routing packets between the Ethernet LAN and
-the PPP dial-up connection).
-<itemize>
-<item>Enter the IP address of the FreeBSD system, 192.168.1.1, in the
-"Default Gateway" field.
-</itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Configuring DNS:</bf>
-
-<p>Again, this guide assumes that your Internet Service Provider has
-given you a list of Domain Name Servers (or "DNS Servers") that you
-should use. If you wish to run a DNS server on your local FreeBSD
-system, refer to Section 6, "Exercise for the Interested Student" for
-tips on setting up DNS on your FreeBSD system.
-<itemize>
-<item>Click the "DNS" button.
-<item>In the "Host Name" field enter the name of the Windows for
-Workgroups box, in this case: "Moe".
-<item>In the "Domain" field enter the name of our local network, in this
-case: "my.domain"
-<item>In the "Domain Name Service (DNS) Search Order" section, enter the
-IP address of the DNS server that your ISP provided, clicking the "Add"
-button after each address is entered. Repeat this step as many times as
-necessary to add all of the addresses that your ISP provided.
-<item>Click on the "OK" button to close the DNS Configuration window.
-
-</itemize>
-
-<p><bf>Mopping up:</bf>
-<itemize>
-<item>Click on the "OK" button to close the TCP/IP Configuration window.
-
-<item>Click on the "OK" button to close the Network Setup window.
-<item>Reboot your computer if prompted.
-</itemize>
-
-<p>That's it!
-
-<sect>
-<heading>Testing the Network</heading>
-
-<p> Once you've completed that appropriate tasks above you should have
-a functioning PPP gateway to the Internet.
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Testing the Dial-Up link:</heading>
-
-<p> The first thing to test is that the connection is being made
-between your modem and the ISP.
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Testing the Ethernet LAN</heading>
-
-<p> *** TBD ***
-</sect>
-
-<sect>
-<heading>Exercises for the Interested Student</heading>
-
-<p>
-<sect1>
-<heading>Creating a mini-DNS system</heading>
-
-<p>While managing a Domain Name Service (DNS) hierarchy can be a black
-art, it is possible to set up a Mini-DNS server on the FreeBSD system
-that also acts as your gateway to your ISP.
-
-<p>Building on the files in <tt>/etc/namedb</tt> when the FreeBSD
-system was installed it's possible to create a name server that is
-both authoritative for the example network shown here as well as a
-front-door to the Internet DNS architecture.
-
-<p>In this minimal DNS configuration, only three files are necessary:
-<tscreen><verb>
-/etc/namedb/named.boot
-/etc/namedb/named.root
-/etc/namedb/mydomain.db
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>The <tt>/etc/namedb/named.root</tt> file is automatically installed
-as part of the FreeBSD base installation; the other two files must be
-created manually.
-
-<sect2>
-<heading>The <tt>/etc/namedb/named.boot</tt> file</heading>
-<p>The <tt>/etc/namedb/named.boot</tt> file controls the startup
-settings of the DNS server.
-Esentially, it tells the Name Server:
-<enum>
-<item>Where to find configuration files,
-<item>What "domain names" it's responsible for, and
-<item>Where to find other DNS servers.
-</enum>
-
-<p>Using the '<tt/ee/' editor, create a
-<tt>/etc/namedb/named.boot</tt> with the following contents:
-<tscreen><verb>
-; boot file for mini-name server
-
-directory /etc/namedb
-
-; type domain source host/file backup file
-
-cache . named.root
-primary my.domain. mydomain.db
-</verb></tscreen>
-<p>Lines that begin with a semi-colon are comments. The significant
-lines in this file are:
-<itemize>
-<item><tt>directory /etc/namedb</tt>
-<p>Tells the Name Server where to find the configuration files
-referenced in the remaining sections of the
-'<tt>/etc/namedb/named.boot</tt>' file.
-<item><tt>cache . named.root</tt>
-<p>Tells the Name Server that the list of "Top-Level" DNS servers for
-the Internet can be found in a file called '<tt>named.root</tt>'.
-(This file is included in the base installation and its
-contents are not described in this document.)
-<item><tt>primary my.domain. mydomain.db</tt>
-<p>Tells the Name Server that it will be "authoritative" for a DNS
-domain called "my.domain" and that a list of names and IP addresses
-for the systems in "my.domain" (the local network)
-can be found in a file named '<tt>mydomain.db</tt>'.
-</itemize>
-<p>Once the <tt>/etc/namedb/named.boot</tt> file has been created and
-saved, proceed to the next section to create the
-<tt>/etc/namedb/mydomain.db</tt> file.
-
-<sect2>
-<heading>The <tt>/etc/namedb/mydomain.db</tt> file</heading>
-
-<p>The <tt>/etc/namedb/mydomain.db</tt> file lists the names and IP
-addresses of <em/every/ system in the Local Area Network.
-
-<p><em>For a detailed description of the statements used in this file,
-refer to the <tt/named/ manpage.</em>
-
-<p>The <tt>/etc/namedb/mydomain.db</tt> file for our minimal DNS
-server has the following contents:
-<tscreen><verb>
-@ IN SOA my.domain. root.my.domain. (
- 961230 ; Serial
- 3600 ; Refresh
- 300 ; Retry
- 3600000 ; Expire
- 3600 ) ; Minimum
- IN NS curly.my.domain.
-
-curly.my.domain. IN A 192.168.1.1 # The FreeBSD box
-larry.my.domain. IN A 192.168.1.2 # The Win'95 box
-moe.my.domain. IN A 192.168.1.3 # The WfW box
-shemp.my.domain. IN A 192.168.1.4 # The Windows NT box
-
-$ORIGIN 1.168.192.IN-ADDR.ARPA
- IN NS curly.my.domain.
-1 IN PTR curly.my.domain.
-2 IN PTR larry.my.domain.
-3 IN PTR moe.my.domain.
-4 IN PTR shemp.my.domain.
-
-$ORIGIN 0.0.127.IN-ADDR.ARPA
- IN NS curly.my.domain.
-1 IN PTR localhost.my.domain.
-</verb></tscreen>
-<p>In simple terms, this file declares that the local DNS server is:
-<itemize>
-<item>The Start of Authority for ("SOA") for a domain called
-'my.domain',
-<item>The Name Server ("NS") for 'my.domain',
-<item>Responsible for the reverse-mapping for all IP addresses that
-start with '192.168.1.' and
-'127.0.0.' ("$ORIGIN ...")
-</itemize>
-
-<p>To add workstation entries to this file you'll need to add two
-lines for each system; one in the top section where the name(s) are
-mapped into Internet Addresses ("IN A"), and another line that maps
-the addresses back into names in the <tt>$ORIGIN
-1.168.192.IN-ADDR.ARPA</tt> section.
-
-<sect2>
-<heading>Starting the DNS Server</heading>
-
-<p>By default the DNS server ('<tt>/usr/sbin/named</tt>') is not
-started when the system boots. You can modify this behavior by
-changing a single line in '<tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>' as follows:
-
-<p> Using the '<tt/ee/' editor, load <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>. Scroll
-down approximately 200 lines until you come to the section that says:
-<tscreen><verb>
----
-# Set to appropriate flags for named, if you have a full-time
-# connection to the Internet.
-# For most hosts, flags should be "-b /etc/namedb/named.boot"
-namedflags="NO"
----
-</verb></tscreen>
-Change this section to read:
-<tscreen><verb>
----
-# Set to appropriate flags for named, if you have a full-time
-# connection to the Internet.
-# For most hosts, flags should be "-b /etc/namedb/named.boot"
-namedflags="-b /etc/namedb/named.boot"
----
-</verb></tscreen>
-Save the file and reboot.
-
-Alternatively, start the Name Server daemon by entering the following
-command:
-<tscreen><verb>
-# named -b /etc/namedb/named.boot
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<p>Whenever you modify any of the files in <tt>/etc/namedb</tt> you'll
-need to kick-start the Name Server process to make it pick up the
-modifications. This is performed with the following system command:
-<tscreen><verb>
-# kill -HUP `cat /var/run/named.pid`
-</verb></tscreen>
-
-<sect1>
-<heading>Playing with PPP filters</heading>
-
-<p>The PPP program has the ability to apply selected filtering rules
-to the traffic it routes. While this is not nearly as secure as a
-formal firewall it does provide some access control as to how the link
-is used.
-
-<p>('<tt>man ipfw</tt>' for information on setting up a more secure
-FreeBSD system.)
-
-<p>The complete documentation for the various filters and rules under
-PPP are availabe in the PPP manpage.
-
-<p>There are four distinct classes of rules which may be applied to
-the PPP program:
-<itemize>
-<item><tt/afilter/ - Access Counter (or "Keep Alive") filters
-<p>These control which events are ignored by the <tt/set timeout=/
-statement in the configuration file.
-<item><tt/dfilter/ - Dialing filters
-<p>These filtering rules control which events are ignored by the
-demand-dial mode of PPP.
-<item><tt/ifilter/ - Input filters
-<p>Control whether incoming packets should be discarded or passed into
-the system.
-<item><tt/ofilter/ - Output filters
-<p>Control whether outgoing packets should be discarded or passed into
-the system.
-</itemize>
-<p>
-
-What follows is a snippet from an operating system which provides a
-good foundation for "normal" Internet operations while preventing PPP
-from pumping <em/all/ data over the dial-up connection. Comments
-briefly describe the logic of each rule set:
-<tscreen><verb>
-#
-# KeepAlive filters
-# Don't keep Alive with ICMP,DNS and RIP packet
-#
- set afilter 0 deny icmp
- set afilter 1 deny udp src eq 53
- set afilter 2 deny udp dst eq 53
- set afilter 3 deny udp src eq 520
- set afilter 4 deny udp dst eq 520
- set afilter 5 permit 0/0 0/0
-#
-# Dial Filters:
-# Note: ICMP will trigger a dial-out in this configuration!
-#
- set dfilter 0 permit 0/0 0/0
-#
-# Allow ident packet pass through
-#
- set ifilter 0 permit tcp dst eq 113
- set ofilter 0 permit tcp src eq 113
-#
-# Allow telnet connection to the Internet
-#
- set ifilter 1 permit tcp src eq 23 estab
- set ofilter 1 permit tcp dst eq 23
-#
-# Allow ftp access to the Internet
-#
- set ifilter 2 permit tcp src eq 21 estab
- set ofilter 2 permit tcp dst eq 21
- set ifilter 3 permit tcp src eq 20 dst gt 1023
- set ofilter 3 permit tcp dst eq 20
-#
-# Allow access to DNS lookups
-#
- set ifilter 4 permit udp src eq 53
- set ofilter 4 permit udp dst eq 53
-#
-# Allow DNS Zone Transfers
-#
- set ifilter 5 permit tcp src eq 53
- set ofilter 5 permit tcp dst eq 53
-#
-# Allow access from/to local network
-#
- set ifilter 6 permit 0/0 192.168.1.0/24
- set ofilter 6 permit 192.168.1.0/24 0/0
-#
-# Allow ping and traceroute response
-#
- set ifilter 7 permit icmp
- set ofilter 7 permit icmp
- set ifilter 8 permit udp dst gt 33433
- set ofilter 9 permit udp dst gt 33433
-#
-# Allow cvsup
-#
- set ifilter 9 permit tcp src eq 5998
- set ofilter 9 permit tcp dst eq 5998
- set ifilter 10 permit tcp src eq 5999
- set ofilter 10 permit tcp dst eq 5999
-#
-# Allow NTP for Time Synchronization
-#
- set ifilter 11 permit tcp src eq 123 dst eq 123
- set ofilter 11 permit tcp src eq 123 dst eq 123
- set ifilter 12 permit udp src eq 123 dst eq 123
- set ofilter 12 permit udp src eq 123 dst eq 123
-#
-# SMTP'd be a good idea!
-#
- set ifilter 13 permit tcp src eq 25
- set ofilter 13 permit tcp dst eq 25
-#
-#
-# We use a lot of `whois`, let's pass that
-#
- set ifilter 14 permit tcp src eq 43
- set ofilter 14 permit tcp dst eq 43
- set ifilter 15 permit udp src eq 43
- set ofilter 15 permit udp dst eq 43
-#
-# If none of above rules matches, then packet is blocked.
-#-------
-</verb></tscreen>
-<p>Up to 20 distinct filtering rules can be applied to each class of
-filter. Rules in each class are number sequentially from 0 to 20
-<em/but none of the rules for a particular filter class take affect
-until ruleset '0' is defined!/
-
-<p>If you choose <em/not/ to use Filtering Rules in the PPP
-configuration then <em/ALL/ traffic will be permitted both into and
-out of your system while it's connected to your ISP.
-
-If you decide that you want to implement filtering rules, add the
-above lines to your <tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</tt> file in either the
-"default:", "demand:", or "interactive:" section (or all of them - the
-choice is yours).
-
-</sect>
-
-</article>
-
diff --git a/en/tutorials/upgrade/Makefile b/en/tutorials/upgrade/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index f751bbe481..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/upgrade/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,6 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.1 1997-06-25 16:57:01 jfieber Exp $
-DOCS= upgrade.docb
-INDEXLINK= upgrade.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
-
diff --git a/en/tutorials/upgrade/upgrade.docb b/en/tutorials/upgrade/upgrade.docb
deleted file mode 100644
index 6ec62e4b0a..0000000000
--- a/en/tutorials/upgrade/upgrade.docb
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,758 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: upgrade.docb,v 1.2 1997-09-14 03:53:16 jfieber Exp $ -->
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-
-<book>
- <bookinfo>
- <bookbiblio>
- <title/<quote>Making the world</quote> your own/
-
- <authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname/Nik/
- <surname/Clayton/
- <affiliation>
- <address><email/Nik.Clayton@iii.co.uk/</address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </authorgroup>
-
- <pubdate>$Date: 1997-09-14 03:53:16 $</pubdate>
- </bookbiblio>
- </bookinfo>
-
- <preface>
- <title/Overview/
-
- <para>This document assumes that you have downloaded a version of the
- FreeBSD source code and placed it in <filename>/usr/src</filename>. This
- might be the latest version from the -current development branch, or
- perhaps you're just tracking -stable. Either way, you have the source
- code and now need to update your system.</para>
-
- <para>There are a number of steps to perform to do this, and a few
- pitfalls to avoid along the way. This document takes you through
- those necessary steps one by one.</para>
-
- <warning>
- <title>Take a backup</title>
-
- <para>I cannot stress highly enough how important it is to take a backup
- of your system <emphasis>before</emphasis> you do this. While remaking
- the world is (as long as you follow these instructions) an easy task to
- do, there will inevitably be times when you make mistakes, or when
- mistakes made by others in the source tree render your system
- unbootable.</para>
-
- <para>Make sure you've taken a backup. And have a fixit floppy to
- hand. I've never needed to use them, and, touch wood, I never will,
- but it's always better to be safe than sorry.</para>
- </warning>
-
- <note>
- <title>2.1.7 specific</title>
-
- <para>This document was written and tested with FreeBSD
- 2.1.7-RELEASE. That was a while ago (at the time of writing
- 2.2.5-RELEASE is perhaps 30 days away. Most of the information pertains
- to all versions of FreeBSD greater than 2.1. Where there are specific
- differences between versions (and where I'm aware of them) I'll note
- them. If you know of a difference between different versions that
- impacts on this document, please let me know.</para>
- </note>
- </preface>
-
- <chapter>
- <title>Check <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename></title>
-
- <para>Examine the file <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>. This contains
- some default defines for <command/make/, which will be used when you
- rebuild the source. They're also used every time you use <command/make/,
- so it's a good idea to make sure they're set to something sensible for
- your system.</para>
-
- <para>Everything is, by default, commented out. Uncomment those entries
- that look useful. For a typical user (not a developer), you'll probably
- want to uncomment the CFLAGS and NOPROFILE definitions. If your machine
- has a floating point unit (386DX, 486DX, Pentium and up class machines)
- then you can also uncomment the HAVE_FPU line.</para>
-
- <!-- XXX the definitions above should be wrapped in appropriate DocBook
- markup. Don't know what it is yet, though -->
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter>
- <title/Get the system to single user mode/
-
- <para>You want to compile the system in single user mode. Apart from the
- obvious benefit of making things go slightly faster, re-making the system
- will touch a lot of important system files, all the standard system
- binaries, libraries, include files and so on. Try to change these on a
- running system and you're asking for trouble.</para>
-
- <para>As the superuser, you can execute
-
- <informalexample>
-<screen><prompt/#/ <userinput/shutdown now/</screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- from a running system, which will drop it to single user mode.</para>
-
- <para>Alternatively, reboot the system, and at the boot prompt, enter the
- <option>-s</option> flag. The system will then boot single user. At the
- shell prompt you should then run
-
- <informalexample>
-<screen><prompt/#/ <userinput/fsck -p/
-<prompt/#/ <userinput>mount -u /</userinput>
-<prompt/#/ <userinput/mount -a -t ufs/
-<prompt/#/ <userinput/swapon -a/</screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- which check the filesystems, remounts <filename>/</filename> read/write,
- mounts all the other UFS filesystems referenced in
- <filename>/etc/fstbab</filename> and then turns swapping on.</para>
-
- <para>For extra speed, you can also do
-
- <informalexample>
- <screen><prompt/#/ <userinput/mount -u -o async -t ufs -a/</screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- which remounts all your UFS filesystems for asynchronous access. The
- trade off is that if the power suddenly fails while the system is being
- rebuilt you are more likely to suffer from filesystem corruption.</para>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter>
- <title/Recompile the source/
-
- <para>In general, this is as simple as
-
- <informalexample>
-<screen><prompt/#/ <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
-<prompt/#/ <userinput>make world 2>&1 | tee /var/tmp/mw.out</userinput></screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- which will re-make the world, storing a copy of all the STDOUT and STDERR
- messages in <filename>/var/tmp/mw.out</filename>. It's important to use
- <filename>/var/tmp</filename>, as plain <filename>/tmp</filename> is
- generally cleared out when you reboot, and you want this output to stay
- around for a while.</para>
-
- <note>
- <title><filename>/bin/sh</filename> specific</title>
-
- <para>The <quote>2>&1</quote> construct is specific to the
- <filename>/bin/sh</filename> shell. Under <filename>/bin/csh</filename>
- you could use
-
- <informalexample>
-<screen><prompt/#/ <userinput>make world |& tee /var/tmp/mw.out</userinput>
-</screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- </para>
-
- <para>Other shells have their own constructs to do the same
- thing.</para>
-
- <para>Alternatively, if you don't care to use shell redirection, you
- could use <command>script</command> to save a copy of all the
- output.</para>
-
- <informalexample>
- <screen><prompt/#/ <userinput>script /var/tmp/mw.out</userinput>
-Script started, output file is /var/tmp/mw.out
-<prompt/#/ <userinput/make world/
-<emphasis>&hellip; compile, compile, compile &hellip;</emphasis>
-<prompt/#/ <userinput/exit/
-Script done, &hellip;
- </screen>
- </informalexample>
- </note>
-
- <para>Then go and make yourself several cups of tea. Remaking the world is
- a long process. One of our servers, a 200Mhz P6 with fairly
- run-of-the-mill SCSI disks, 64MB RAM and 256MB swap it takes a shade
- under two hours to complete.</para>
-
- <para>One of the 32MB (128MB swap), P133 machines takes about 5
- hours.</para>
-
- <para>The only caveat I am aware of is that (at least the last few times I
- tried it with 2.1.5), <command/make world/ expected the <quote/dict/
- distribution set to be installed. Otherwise it dies.</para>
-
- <para>Which means, whenever I have to install a new machine, I generally
- download the <quote/bin/, <quote/src/ and <quote/dict/ distributions, and
- install them. I then make the world to get everything else.</para>
-
- <para>This may have changed up to 2.1.7. I unfortunately do not have the
- spare machines to test it.</para>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter>
- <title/Build and populate a new root directory somewhere safe/
-
- <para>Remaking the world will not update certain directories (in
- particular, <filename>/etc</filename>, <filename>/var</filename> and
- <filename>/usr</filename>) with new or changed configuration files. This
- is something you have to do by hand, eyeball, and judicious use of the
- <command/diff/ command.</para>
-
- <sect1>
- <title>Backup your existing <filename>/etc</filename></title>
-
- <para>Although, in theory, nothing's going to touch this directory
- automatically, it's always better to be sure. So copy your existing
- <filename>/etc</filename> directory somewhere safe. Something like
-
- <informalexample>
-<screen><prompt/#/ <userinput>cp -rp /etc /etc.old</userinput></screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- will do the trick (<option>-r</option> does a recursive copy,
- <option>-p</option> preserves times, ownerships on files and
- suchlike).</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1>
- <title/Build a dummy root/
-
- <para>You need to build a dummy set of directories to install the new
- <filename>/etc</filename> and other files into. I generally choose to
- put this dummy dir in <filename>/var/tmp/root</filename>, and there are
- a number of subdirectories required under this as well. So execute
-
- <informalexample>
- <screen><prompt/#/ <userinput>mkdir /var/tmp/root</userinput>
-<prompt/#/ <userinput>mtree -deU -f /usr/src/etc/mtree/BSD.root.dist -p /var/tmp/root/</userinput>
-<prompt/#/ <userinput>mtree -deU -f /usr/src/etc/mtree/BSD.var.dist -p /var/tmp/root/var/</userinput>
-<prompt/#/ <userinput>mtree -deU -f /usr/src/etc/mtree/BSD.usr.dist -p /var/tmp/root/usr/</userinput></screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- which will build the necessary directory structure.</para>
-
- <para>A lot of these subdirs are extraneous, but you can ignore them
- for the time being, they'll be removed in the next
- step.</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1>
- <title/Install the updated files/
-
- <para>Now that the directory tree has been built, you have to install
- the new files from <filename>/usr/src/etc</filename> into it.
-
- <informalexample>
-<screen><prompt/#/ <userinput>cd /usr/src/etc</userinput>
-<prompt/#/ <userinput>make DESTDIR=/var/tmp/root distribution</userinput></screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- This will leave several redundant empty directories scattered
- around, cluttering up your <command/ls/ output. The simplest way
- to get rid of them is to do
-
- <informalexample>
- <screen><prompt/#/ <userinput>cd /var/tmp/root</userinput>
-<prompt/#/ <userinput>find -d . -type d | /usr/bin/perl -lne \
- 'opendir(D,$_);@f=readdir(D);rmdir if $#f != 1;closedir(D);'</userinput></screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- which does a depth first search, examines each directory, and if the
- number of files in that directory is 2 ('1' is not a typo in the
- script) i.e., '.' and '..' then it removes the
- directory.</para>
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter>
- <title>Merge in the changed files from
- <filename>/var/tmp/root/*</filename></title>
-
- <para><filename>/var/tmp/root</filename> now contains all the files that
- should be placed in appropriate locations below
- <filename>/</filename>. You now have to go through each of these files,
- determining how they differ with your existing files. This is not a task
- that can be automated (at the moment).</para>
-
- <para>Note that some of the files that will have been installed in
- <filename>/var/tmp/root</filename> have a leading '.'. Make sure you use
- <command/ls -a/ to catch them.</para>
-
- <para>The simplest way to do this is to use the <command/diff/ command to
- compare the two files. Use either the <option>-c</option> for the context
- output format, or <option>-u</option> for the unified output format. I
- find it easier to read context diffs.</para>
-
- <para>For example,
-
- <informalexample>
-<screen><prompt/#/ <userinput>diff -c /etc/shells /var/tmp/root/etc/shells</userinput></screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- will show you the differences between your
- <filename>/etc/shells</filename> file and the new
- <filename>/etc/shells</filename> file. Use these to decide whether to
- merge in changes that you've made or whether to copy over your old
- file.</para>
-
- <para>When it comes to <filename>/var/tmp/root/dev</filename>, you should
- just copy over the <filename/MAKEDEV/ file. You may need to examine and
- update <filename/MAKEDEV.local/ if you previously had to customise it for
- your local environment.</para>
-
- <para>You will use those scripts a little later to update your
- <filename>/dev</filename> directory.</para>
-
- <para>Here is a (probably incomplete) list of files that you will
- probably want to merge or copy by hand.
-
- <informaltable>
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry/Copy/
- <entry/Merge/
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry/<emphasis/<filename/passwd///
- <entry/<filename/inetd.conf//
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/<emphasis/<filename/master.passwd///
- <entry/<emphasis/<filename/login.access///
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/<emphasis/<filename/pwd.db///
- <entry/<filename/printcap//
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/<emphasis/<filename/spwd.db///
- <entry/<filename/remote//
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/<emphasis/<filename/group///
- <entry/<filename/services//
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/<filename/aliases/ (nb: run <command/newaliases/)/
- <entry/<emphasis/<filename/shells///
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/<filename/crontab//
- <entry/<emphasis/<filename/ttys///
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/<filename/csh.*//
- <entry/<filename/fbtab//
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/<filename/dumpdates//
- <entry/<filename/exports//
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/<emphasis/<filename/fstab///
- <entry/<emphasis/<filename/sysconfig///
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/<filename/host//
- <entry/<filename/rc.local//
- </row>
-
- <row/<entry/<filename/magic///
-
- <row><entry><filename>namedb/*</filename></entry></row>
-
- <row><entry><filename>ppp/*</filename></entry></row>
-
- <row/<entry/<filename/profile///
-
- <row/<entry/<filename/resolv.conf///
-
- <row/<entry/<filename/ntp.*///
-
- <row/<entry/<filename/start_if.*///
-
- <row/<entry/<filename/XF86*///
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable></para>
-
- <para>That is not an exhaustive list, and changes to FreeBSD in the future
- may necessitate moving files from the <emphasis/Copy/ column to the
- <emphasis/Merge/ column. But you get the idea.</para>
-
- <para>Those filenames shown in <emphasis/emphasised type/ are vital to
- the correct running of the system. Be extra sure that they are present
- and correct before you reboot.</para>
-
- <note>
- <title><filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and
- <filename>/etc/rc.network</filename></title>
-
- <para>Starting with FreeBSD 2.2.2-RELEASE,
- <filename/sysconfig/ has been renamed to <filename/rc.conf/, and
- <filename/netstart/ has been renamed to <filename/rc.network/.</para>
- </note>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter>
- <title>Update <filename>/dev</filename></title>
-
- <para>For safety's sake, this is a multistep process. You should already
- have copied in the <filename/MAKEDEV/ script to
- <filename>/dev</filename>. Do the following,
-
- <informalexample>
-<screen><prompt/#/ <userinput>ls -la /dev > /var/tmp/dev1.out</userinput>
-<prompt/#/ <userinput>ls -la /var/tmp/root/dev > /var/tmp/dev2.out</userinput>
-</screen></informalexample></para>
-
- <para>This gives you a reference for when things go wrong&hellip; Run a
- quick diff over these two files to see if anything's missing. If you use
- slices in your disk partitioning (which may not be necessary on a
- <quote>dangerously dedicated</quote> disk) then these slices have almost
- certainly not been made.</para>
-
- <para>Note down the devices that exist in <filename/dev1.out/ and not
- <filename/dev2.out/, and the necessary commands to remake them.</para>
-
- <para>Now do,
-
- <informalexample>
-<screen><prompt/#/ <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
-<prompt/#/ <userinput>sh MAKEDEV all</userinput>
-</screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- This will generate all the standard devices. You must now do whatever's
- necessary to recreate devices that you noticed as missing in the previous
- step. For my setup, that involved doing
-
- <informalexample>
-<screen><prompt/#/ <userinput>sh MAKEDEV sd0s1a</userinput>
-<prompt/#/ <userinput>sh MAKEDEV sd1s1a</userinput>
-</screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- to create the slice entries on my two disks. Your circumstances may
- vary. If at all in doubt, make sure you have a handy boot and fixit
- floppy, and a very recent backup of your system.</para>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter>
- <title/Set the timezone/
-
- <para>If you didn't copy over the <filename/localtime/ file from your old
- <filename>/etc</filename> (which is probably a good idea, you may as well
- generate it fresh), run <command/tzsetup/ (in
- <filename>/usr/sbin</filename>) to set your timezone.</para>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter>
- <title/Compiling a new kernel/
-
- <para>To take full advantage of your new system you should recompile the
- kernel. This is practically a necessity, as certain memory structures may
- have changed, and programs like <command/ps/ and <command/top/ will fail
- to work until the kernel and source code versions are the same.</para>
-
- <para>Follow the handbook instructions for compiling a new kernel. If you
- have previously built a custom kernel then carefully examine the
- <filename/LINT/ config file to see if there are any new options which you
- should take advantage of.</para>
-
- <para>A previous version of this document suggested rebooting before
- rebuilding the kernel. This is wrong because: </para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>Commands like <command/ps/, <command/ifconfig/ and
- <command/sysctl/ may fail. This could leave your machine unable to
- connect to the network.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>Basic utilities like <command/mount/ could fail,
- making it impossible to mount <filename>/</filename>,
- <filename>/usr</filename> and so on. This is unlikely if you're
- tracking a -stable candidate, but more likely if you're tracking
- -current during a large merge.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>For these reasons, it is always best to rebuild and install a
- new kernel before rebooting.</para>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter>
- <title/Rebooting/
-
- <para>You're now done. After you've verified that everything appears to be
- in the right place (pay particular attention to the <emphasis/emphasised/
- files listed earlier), you can reboot the system. A simple
- <command/fastboot/ should do it.</para>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter>
- <title>That's it</title>
-
- <para>You should now have successfully upgraded your FreeBSD system.
- Congratulations. It's likely that over the next few days you'll notice
- little oddities that don't work as expected, or small upgrades you've
- forgotten to do. Something I missed for several days was that
- <filename>/etc/magic</filename> was missing. It was only when I went to
- run <command/file/ that I realised. A quick <command/make install/ in
- <filename>/usr/src/usr.bin/file</filename> sorted that one out.</para>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter>
- <title/Questions?/
-
- <sect1>
- <title/Do I need to re-make the world for every change?/
-
- <para>There's no easy answer to this one, as it depends on the nature of
- the change. For example, I've just run CVSup, and it's shown the
- following files as being updated since I last ran it;</para>
-
- <informalexample>
-<screen><filename>src/games/cribbage/instr.c</filename>
-<filename>src/games/sail/pl_main.c</filename>
-<filename>src/release/sysinstall/config.c</filename>
-<filename>src/release/sysinstall/media.c</filename>
-<filename>src/share/mk/bsd.port.mk</filename></screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- <para>There's nothing in there that I'd re-make the world for. I'd go to
- the appropriate sub-directories and <command/make all install/, and
- that's about it. But if something major changed, like, say,
- <filename>src/lib/libc/stdlib</filename> then I'd probably either
- re-make the world, or at least those parts of it that are statically
- linked (as well as anything else I might have added that's statically
- linked).</para>
-
- <para>At the end of the day, it's your call. You might be happy
- re-making the world every fortnight say, and let changes accumulate
- over that fortnight. Or you might want to re-make just those things
- that have changed, and are confident you can spot all the
- dependencies.</para>
-
- <para>And, of course, this all depends on how often you want to upgrade,
- and whether you are tracking -stable, a release candidate (2.2 at the
- time of writing), or -current.</para>
-
- <para>In any case, it's always worthwhile to subscribe to the relevant
- mailing lists, depending on which version of FreeBSD you are staying up
- to date with. Not only will this give you a <quote/heads up/ of
- forthcoming changes, but it also means you'll see problems other people
- might be having making the world, and lets you learn from their
- problems.</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1>
- <title>My compile failed with lots of signal 12 (or other signal number)
- errors</title>
-
- <para>This is normally indicative of hardware problems. (Re)making the
- world is an effective way to stress test your hardware, and will
- frequently throw up memory problems. These normally manifest themselves
- as the compiler mysteriously dieing on receipt of strange
- signals.</para>
-
- <para>A sure indicator of this is if you can restart the make and it
- dies at a different point in the process.</para>
-
- <para>In this instance there is little you can do except start swapping
- around the components in your machine to determine which one is
- failing.</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1>
- <title>Can I remove <filename>/usr/obj</filename> when I've
- finished?</title>
-
- <para>That depends on how you want to make the world on future
- occasions.</para>
-
- <para><filename>/usr/obj</filename> contains all the object files
- that were produced during the compilation phase. Normally, one of the
- first steps in the <quote/make world/ process is to remove this
- directory and start afresh. In this case, keeping
- <filename>/usr/obj</filename> around after you've finished makes
- little sense, and will free up a large chunk of disk space (currently
- about 150MB).</para>
-
- <para>However, if you know what you're doing you can have <quote/make
- world/ skip this step. This will make subsequent builds run much
- faster, since most of sources will not need to be recompiled. The flip
- side of this is that subtle dependency problems can creep in, causing
- your build to fail in odd ways. This frequently generates noise on the
- FreeBSD mailing lists, when one person complains that their build has
- failed, not realising that it's because they've tried to cut
- corners.</para>
-
- <para>If you want to live dangerously then make the world, passing the
- <quote/NOCLEAN/ definition to make, like this;
-
- <informalexample>
- <screen><prompt/#/ <userinput>make -DNOCLEAN world</userinput></screen>
- </informalexample>
- </para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1>
- <title>My compile failed with a particular error, which I've now
- fixed. Do I need to remake the world (and lose the result of the
- previous build) or can I continue from where I left off?</title>
-
- <para>This depends on how far through the process you got before you
- found a problem.</para>
-
- <para><emphasis>In general</emphasis> (and this is not a hard and fast
- rule) the <quote>make world</quote> process builds new copies
- essential tools (such as <command>gcc</command>, and
- <command>make</command>) and the system libraries. These tools and
- libraries are then installed. The new tools and libraries are then
- used to rebuild themselves, and are installed again. The entire system
- (now including regular user programs, such as <command>ls</command> or
- <command>grep</command>) is then rebuilt with the new system
- files.</para>
-
- <para>If you're at the last state, and you know it (because you've
- looked through the output that you were storing) then you can (fairly
- safely) do
-
- <informalexample>
- <screen><emphasis>&hellip; fix the problem &hellip;</emphasis>
-<prompt/#/ <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
-<prompt/#/ <userinput/make -DNOCLEAN all/
- </screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- which will not undo the work of the previous <quote>make
- world</quote>.</para>
-
- <para>If you see the message
-
-<screen>
---------------------------------------------------------------
- Building everything..
---------------------------------------------------------------
-</screen>
-
- in the <quote>make world</quote> output then it's probably fairly safe
- to do so.</para>
-
- <para>If you don't see that message, or you're not sure, then it's always
- better to be safe than sorry, and restart the build from
- scratch.</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1>
- <title/Can I use one machine as a <emphasis/master/ to upgrade lots of
- machines?/
-
- <para>People often ask on the FreeBSD mailing lists whether they can do
- all the compiling on one machine, and then use the results of that
- compile to <command/make install/ on to other machines around the
- network.</para>
-
- <para>This is not something I've done. However, in a message to
- questions@freebsd.org, Antonio Bemfica suggested the following
- approach:</para>
-
-<screen>
-Date: Thu, 20 Feb 1997 14:05:01 -0400 (AST)
-From: Antonio Bemfica &lt;bemfica@militzer.me.tuns.ca&gt;
-To: freebsd-questions@freebsd.org
-Message-ID: &lt;Pine.BSI.3.94.970220135725.245C-100000@militzer.me.tuns.ca&gt;
-
-Josef Karthauser asked:
-
-&gt; Has anybody got a good method for upgrading machines on a network
-
-First make world, etc. on your main machine
-Second, mount / and /usr from the remote machine:
-
-main_machine% mount remote_machine:/ /mnt
-main_machine% mount remote_machine:/usr /mnt/usr
-
-Third, do a 'make install' with /mnt as the destination:
-
-main_machine% make install DESTDIR=/mnt
-
-Repeat for every other remote machine on your network. It works fine
-for me.
-
-Antonio
-</screen>
-
- <para>Which sounds interesting. Note that, of course, you will not
- upgrade the target machines <filename>/etc</filename> directory (and
- others as outlined above) by doing this.</para>
-
- <note>
- <title>2.2.2-RELEASE and up</title>
-
- <para>My FreeBSD 2.2.2-RELEASE system shows a <quote>reinstall</quote>
- target in <filename>/usr/src/Makefile</filename>. The comment for
- this includes:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
-# reinstall
-#
-# If you have a build server, you can NFS mount the source and obj directories
-# and do a 'make reinstall' on the *client* to install new binaries from the
-# most recent server build.
- </programlisting>
-
- <para>I have no idea how well this works, or whether it is present in
- earlier versions of FreeBSD. I mention it here for
- completeness.</para>
- </note>
- </sect1>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter>
- <title>Contributors</title>
-
- <para>The following people have contributed to this document in some form
- or another. Either by directly suggesting alterations and improvements,
- or by their messages to the FreeBSD mailing lists, from which I have
- shamelessly cribbed information. My thanks to them.</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Kees Jan Koster, &lt;<ulink url="mailto:kjk1@ukc.ac.uk">kjk1@ukc.ac.uk</ulink>&gt;</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>A Joseph Kosy, &lt;<ulink url="mailto:koshy@india.hp.com">koshy@india.hp.com</ulink>&gt;</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Greg Lehey, &lt;<ulink url="mailto:grog@lemis.com">grog@lemis.com</ulink>&gt;</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Wes Peters, &lt;<ulink
- url="mailto:softweyr@xmission.com">softweyr@xmission.com</ulink>&gt;</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Joseph Stein, &lt;<ulink url="mailto:joes@joes.users.spiritone.com">joes@joes.users.spiritone.com</ulink>&gt;</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </chapter>
-</book>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/fonts/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/fonts/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 260184f87c..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/fonts/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,6 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.4 1997-07-01 05:38:13 max Exp $
-
-DOCS= fonts.docb
-INDEXLINK= fonts.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/fonts/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/fonts/article.sgml
deleted file mode 100644
index 4d46efb511..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/fonts/article.sgml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,723 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: article.sgml,v 1.1 1997-02-15 18:02:20 jfieber Exp $ -->
-<!-- The FreeBSD Documentation Project -->
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-
-<!-- Recently, I wanted to figure out how to use some additional fonts that
- I had accumulated. I finally figured out *how to do it* from the various
- man pages and documentation. Since it might be of use to other users,
- and I didn't see any reference to this topic in the FAQ or handbook, I
- thought I'd try my hand at a simple cookbook tutorial addressing the
- use of fonts. I have included my unanswered questions at the end of
- the document.
-
- Anyway, here's what I put together. This is my present understanding of
- fonts and how to use them with FreeBSD. I am sure that there are errors or
- misunderstandings, but it contains enough valid information to allow the
- use of additional fonts with Ghostscript, X11 and Groff. This is my first
- attempt to write anything along the lines of a tutorial/FAQ, so I am sure
- it is pretty raw. There are probably better ways to do some of this stuff,
- and I would welcome being corrected.
- -->
-
-<book>
-
-<bookinfo>
-<bookbiblio>
-<title>Fonts and FreeBSD</title>
-<subtitle>A Tutorial</subtitle>
-
-<authorgroup>
-<author>
-<firstname>Dave</firstname>
-<surname>Bodenstab</surname>
-<affiliation>
-<address><email>imdave@synet.net</email></address>
-</affiliation>
-</author>
-</authorgroup>
-
-<pubdate>Wed Aug 7, 1996</pubdate>
-
-<abstract><para>This document contains a description of the various
-font files that may be used with FreeBSD and the syscons driver, X11,
-Ghostscript and Groff. Cookbook examples are provided for switching
-the syscons display to 80x60 mode, and for using type 1 fonts with
-the above application programs.</para></abstract>
-
-</bookbiblio>
-</bookinfo>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Introduction</title>
-
-<para>There are many sources of fonts available, and one might ask
-how they might be used with FreeBSD. The answer can be found by
-carefully searching the documentation for the component that one
-would like to use. This is very time consuming, so this tutorial is
-an attempt to provide a shortcut for others who might be
-interested.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Basic terminology</title>
-
-<para>There are many different font formats and associated font file
-suffixes. A few that will be addressed here are:
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.pfa</>, <filename>.pfb</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Postscript type 1 fonts. The <filename>.pfa</filename> is the
-<emphasis>A</emphasis>scii form and <filename>.pfb</filename> the
-<emphasis>B</emphasis>inary form.</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.afm</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>The font metrics associated with a type 1
-font.</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.pfm</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>The printer font metrics associated with a type 1
-font.</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.ttf</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>A TrueType font</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.fot</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>An indirect reference to a TrueType font (not an
-actual font)</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.fon</>, <filename>.fnt</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Bitmapped screen fonts</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist></para>
-
-<para>The <filename>.fot</filename> file is used by Windows as sort
-of a symbolic link to the actual TrueType font
-(<filename>.ttf</filename>) file. The <filename>.fon</filename> font
-files are also used by Windows. I know of no way to use this font
-format with FreeBSD.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>What font formats can I use?</title>
-
-<para>Which font file format is useful depends on the application
-being used. FreeBSD by itself uses no fonts. Application programs
-and/or drivers may make use of the font files. Here is a small cross
-reference of application/driver to the font type suffixes:</para>
-
-<para>
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term>Driver</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term>syscons</term>
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.fnt</></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Application</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term>Ghostscript</term>
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.pfa</filename>, <filename>.pfb</filename>, <filename>.ttf</filename></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>X11</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.pfa</filename>, <filename>.pfb</filename></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Groff</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.pfa</filename>, <filename>.afm</filename></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Povray</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.ttf</filename></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-<para>The <filename>.fnt</filename> suffix is used quite frequently.
-I suspect that whenever someone wanted to create a specialized font
-file for their application, more often than not they chose this
-suffix. Therefore, it is likely that files with this suffix are not
-all the same format; specifically, the <filename>.fnt</filename>
-files used by syscons under FreeBSD may not be the same format as a
-<filename>.fnt</filename> file one encounters in the MSDOS/Windows
-environment. I have not made any attempt at using other
-<filename>.fnt</filename> files other than those provided with
-FreeBSD.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Setting a virtual console to 80x60 line mode</title>
-
-<para>First, a 8x8 font must be loaded.
-<filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename> should contain the lines:
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting># Choose font 8x8 from /usr/share/syscons/fonts/* (or NO for default)
-font8x8=/usr/share/syscons/fonts/cp437-8x8.fnt</programlisting>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>The command to actually switch the mode is
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</><manvolnum>1</></>:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bash$ <userinput>vidcontrol VGA_80x60</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>Various screen orientated programs, such as
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vi</><manvolnum>1</></>, must be able to
-determine the current screen dimensions. These can be set with
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>stty</><manvolnum>1</></>:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bash$ <userinput>stty crt rows 60 columns 80</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>To make this more seamless, one can embed these commands in the
-startup scripts so it takes place when the system boots. One way to
-do this is:
-<orderedlist>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Modify <filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename> as above</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Add to <filename>/etc/rc.local</filename>:
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>for tty in /dev/ttyv?
-do
- vidcontrol VGA_80x60 &lt;$tty &gt;/dev/null 2&gt;&amp;1
-done</programlisting>
-</informalexample></para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Add to <filename>/etc/profile</filename>:
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>TTYNAME=`basename \`tty\``
-if expr "$TTYNAME" : 'ttyv' &gt;/dev/null
-then
- stty crt rows 60 columns 80
-fi</programlisting>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</orderedlist>
-</para>
-
-<para>References:
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>stty</><manvolnum>1</></>,
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</><manvolnum>1</></>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Using type 1 fonts with X11</title>
-
-<para>X11 can use either the <filename>.pfa</filename> or the
-<filename>.pfb</filename> format fonts. The X11 fonts are located in
-various subdirectories under
-<filename>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts</filename>. Each font file is
-cross referenced to its X11 name by the contents of the
-<filename>fonts.dir</filename> file in each directory.</para>
-
-<para>There is already a directory named <filename>Type1</>. The most
-straight forward way to add a new font is to put it into this
-directory. A better way is to keep all new fonts in a separate
-directory and use a symbolic link to the additional font. This
-allows one to more easily keep track of ones fonts without confusing
-them with the fonts that were originally provided. For
-example:
-<informalexample>
-<screen><lineannotation>Create a directory to contain the font files</>
-bash$ <userinput>mkdir -p /usr/local/share/fonts/type1</>
-bash$ <userinput>cd /usr/local/share/fonts/type1</>
-
-<lineannotation>Place the .pfa, .pfb and .afm files here</>
-<lineannotation>One might want to keep readme files, and other documentation</>
-<lineannotation>for the fonts here also</>
-bash$ <userinput>cp /cdrom/fonts/atm/showboat/showboat.pfb .</>
-bash$ <userinput>cp /cdrom/fonts/atm/showboat/showboat.afm .</>
-
-<lineannotation>Maintain an index to cross reference the fonts</>
-bash$ <userinput>echo showboat - InfoMagic CICA, Dec 1994, /fonts/atm/showboat &gt;&gt;INDEX</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>Now, to use a new font with X11, one must make the font file
-available and update the font name files. The X11 font names look
-like:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>-bitstream-charter-medium-r-normal-xxx-0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1
- | | | | | | | | | | | | \ \
- | | | | | \ \ \ \ \ \ \ +----+- character set
- | | | | \ \ \ \ \ \ \ +- average width
- | | | | \ \ \ \ \ \ +- spacing
- | | | \ \ \ \ \ \ +- vertical res.
- | | | \ \ \ \ \ +- horizontal res.
- | | | \ \ \ \ +- points
- | | | \ \ \ +- pixels
- | | | \ \ \
- foundry family weight slant width additional style</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>A new name needs to be created for each new font. If you have
-some information from the documentation that accompanied the font,
-then it could serve as the basis for creating the name. If there is
-no information, then you can get some idea by using
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>strings</><manvolnum>1</></> on the font
-file. For example:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bash$ <userinput>strings showboat.pfb | more</>
-%!FontType1-1.0: Showboat 001.001
-%%CreationDate: 1/15/91 5:16:03 PM
-%%VMusage: 1024 45747
-% Generated by Fontographer 3.1
-% Showboat
- 1991 by David Rakowski. Alle Rechte Vorbehalten.
-FontDirectory/Showboat known{/Showboat findfont dup/UniqueID known{dup
-/UniqueID get 4962377 eq exch/FontType get 1 eq and}{pop false}ifelse
-{save true}{false}ifelse}{false}ifelse
-12 dict begin
-/FontInfo 9 dict dup begin
- /version (001.001) readonly def
- /FullName (Showboat) readonly def
- /FamilyName (Showboat) readonly def
- /Weight (Medium) readonly def
- /ItalicAngle 0 def
- /isFixedPitch false def
- /UnderlinePosition -106 def
- /UnderlineThickness 16 def
- /Notice (Showboat
- 1991 by David Rakowski. Alle Rechte Vorbehalten.) readonly def
-end readonly def
-/FontName /Showboat def
---stdin--</screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>Using this information, a possible name might be:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>-type1-Showboat-medium-r-normal-decorative-0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>The components of our name are:
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Foundry</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>Lets just name all the new fonts <literal>type1</>.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Family</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>The name of the font.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Weight</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>Normal, bold, medium, semibold, etc. From the
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>strings</><manvolnum>1</></> output
-above, it appears that this font has a weight of
-<emphasis>medium</emphasis>.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Slant</term>
-<listitem>
-<para><emphasis remap=bf>r</emphasis>oman, <emphasis
-remap=bf>i</emphasis>talic, <emphasis remap=bf>o</emphasis>blique,
-etc. Since the <emphasis>ItalicAngle</emphasis> is zero,
-<emphasis>roman</emphasis> will be used.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Width</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>Normal, wide, condensed, extended, etc. Until it can be examined,
-the assumption will be <emphasis>normal</emphasis>.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Additional style</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>Usually omitted, but this will indicate that
-the font contains decorative capital letters.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Spacing</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>proportional or monospaced. <emphasis>Proportional</emphasis>
-is used since <emphasis>isFixedPitch</emphasis> is false.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-<para>All of these names are arbitrary, but one should strive to be
-compatible with the existing conventions. A font is referenced by
-name with possible wild cards by an X11 program, so the name chosen
-should make some sense. One might begin by simply using
-<informalexample>
-<screen>&hellip;-normal-r-normal-&hellip;-p-&hellip;</screen>
-</informalexample>
-as the name, and then use
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>xfontsel</><manvolnum>1</></> to examine it
-and adjust the name based on the appearance of the font.</para>
-
-<para>So, to complete our example:
-<informalexample>
-<screen><lineannotation>Make the font accessible to X11</>
-bash$ <userinput>cd /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/Type1</>
-bash$ <userinput>ln -s /usr/local/share/fonts/type1/showboat.pfb .</>
-
-<lineannotation>Edit fonts.dir and fonts.scale, adding the line describing the font
-and incrementing the number of fonts which is found on the first line.</>
-bash$ <userinput>ex fonts.dir
-:1p
-25
-:1c
-26
-.
-:$a
-showboat.pfb -type1-showboat-medium-r-normal-decorative-0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1
-.
-:wq</>
-
-<lineannotation><filename>fonts.scale</> seems to be identical to <filename>fonts.dir</>&hellip;</>
-bash$ <userinput>cp fonts.dir fonts.scale</>
-
-<lineannotation>Tell X11 that things have changed</>
-bash$ <userinput>xset fp rehash</>
-
-<lineannotation>Examine the new font</>
-bash$ <userinput>xfontsel -pattern -type1-*</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>References:
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>xfontsel</><manvolnum>1</></>,
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>xset</><manvolnum>1</></>,
-<citetitle>The X Windows System in a Nutshell</>, <ulink
-URL="http://www.ora.com/">O'Reilly &amp; Associates</ulink>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Using type 1 fonts with Ghostscript</title>
-
-<para>Ghostscript references a font via its <filename>Fontmap</>
-file. This must be modified in a similar way to the X11
-<filename>fonts.dir</filename> file. Ghostscript can use either the
-<filename>.pfa</filename> or the <filename>.pfb</filename> format
-fonts. Using the font from the previous example, here is how to use
-it with Ghostscript:
-<informalexample>
-<screen><lineannotation>Put the font in Ghostscript's font directory</>
-bash$ <userinput>cd /usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts</>
-bash$ <userinput>ln -s /usr/local/share/fonts/type1/showboat.pfb .</>
-
-<lineannotation>Edit Fontmap so Ghostscript knows about the font</>
-bash$ <userinput>cd /usr/local/share/ghostscript/4.01</>
-bash$ <userinput>ex Fontmap
-:$a
-/Showboat (showboat.pfb) ; % From CICA /fonts/atm/showboat
-.
-:wq</>
-
-<lineannotation>Use Ghostscript to examine the font</>
-bash$ <userinput>gs prfont.ps</>
-Aladdin Ghostscript 4.01 (1996-7-10)
-Copyright (C) 1996 Aladdin Enterprises, Menlo Park, CA. All rights
-reserved.
-This software comes with NO WARRANTY: see the file PUBLIC for details.
-Loading Times-Roman font from /usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/tir_____.pfb...
- /1899520 581354 1300084 13826 0 done.
-GS&gt;<userinput>Showboat DoFont</>
-Loading Showboat font from /usr/local/share/ghostscript/fonts/showboat.pfb...
- 1939688 565415 1300084 16901 0 done.
-&gt;&gt;showpage, press &lt;return&gt; to continue&lt;&lt;
-&gt;&gt;showpage, press &lt;return&gt; to continue&lt;&lt;
-&gt;&gt;showpage, press &lt;return&gt; to continue&lt;&lt;
-GS&gt;<userinput>quit</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>References: <filename>fonts.txt</filename> in the Ghostscript
-4.01 distribution</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Using type 1 fonts with Groff</title>
-
-<para>Now that the new font can be used by both X11 and Ghostscript,
-how can one use the new font with groff? First of all, since we are
-dealing with type 1 postscript fonts, the groff device that is
-applicable is the <emphasis>ps</emphasis> device. A font file must be
-created for each font that groff can use. A groff font name is just
-a file in <filename>/usr/share/groff_font/devps</filename>. With our
-example, the font file could be
-<filename>/usr/share/groff_font/devps/SHOWBOAT</filename>. The file
-must be created using tools provided by groff.</para>
-
-<para>The first tool is <command>afmtodit</>. This is not normally
-installed, so it must be retrieved from the source distribution. I
-found I had to change the first line of the file, so I did:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bash$ <userinput>cp /usr/src/gnu/usr.bin/groff/afmtodit/afmtodit.pl /tmp</>
-bash$ <userinput>ex /tmp/afmtodit.pl
-:1c
-#!/usr/bin/perl -P-
-.
-:wq</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>This tool will create the groff font file from the metrics file
-(<filename>.afm</filename> suffix.) Continuing with our
-example:
-<informalexample>
-<screen><lineannotation>Many <filename>.afm</> files are in Mac format&hellip ^M delimited lines
-We need to convert them to unix style ^J delimited lines</>
-bash$ <userinput>cd /tmp</>
-bash$ <userinput>cat /usr/local/share/fonts/type1/showboat.afm |
- tr '\015' '\012' &gt;showboat.afm</>
-
-<lineannotation>Now create the groff font file</>
-bash$ <userinput>cd /usr/share/groff_font/devps</>
-bash$ <userinput>/tmp/afmtodit.pl -d DESC -e text.enc /tmp/showboat.afm generate/textmap SHOWBOAT</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>The font can now be referenced with the name SHOWBOAT.</para>
-
-<para>If ghostscript is used to drive the printers on the system,
-then nothing more needs to be done. However, if true postscript
-printers are used, then the font must be down loaded to the printer
-in order for the font to be used (unless the printer happens to have
-the showboat font built in or on an accessible font disk.) The final
-step is to create a down loadable font. The <command>pfbtops</> tool
-is used to create the <filename>.pfa</filename> format of the font,
-and the <filename>download</> file is modified to reference the new
-font. The <filename>download</> file must reference the internal
-name of the font. This can easily be determined from the groff font
-file as illustrated:
-<informalexample>
-<screen><lineannotation>Create the <filename>.pfa</> font file</>
-bash$ <userinput>pfbtops /usr/local/share/fonts/type1/showboat.pfb &gt;showboat.pfa</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-Of course, if the <filename>.pfa</filename> file is already
-available, just use a symbolic link to reference it.
-<informalexample>
-<screen><lineannotation>Get the internal font name</>
-bash$ <userinput>fgrep internalname SHOWBOAT</>
-internalname Showboat
-
-<lineannotation>Tell groff that the font must be down loaded</>
-bash$ <userinput>ex download
-:$a
-Showboat showboat.pfa
-.
-:wq</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>To test the font:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bash$ <userinput>cd /tmp</>
-bash$ <userinput>cat &gt;example.t &lt;&lt;EOF
-.sp 5
-.ps 16
-This is an example of the Showboat font:
-.br
-.ps 48
-.vs (\n(.s+2)p
-.sp
-.ft SHOWBOAT
-ABCDEFGHI
-.br
-JKLMNOPQR
-.br
-STUVWXYZ
-.sp
-.ps 16
-.vs (\n(.s+2)p
-.fp 5 SHOWBOAT
-.ft R
-To use it for the first letter of a paragraph, it will look like:
-.sp 50p
-\s(48\f5H\s0\fRere is the first sentence of a paragraph that uses the
-showboat font as its first letter.
-Additional vertical space must be used to allow room for the larger
-letter.
-EOF</>
-bash$ <userinput>groff -Tps example.t &gt;example.ps</>
-
-<lineannotation>To use ghostscript/ghostview</>
-bash$ <userinput>ghostview example.ps</>
-
-<lineannotation>To print it</>
-bash$ <userinput>lpr -Ppostscript example.ps</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>References:
-<filename>/usr/src/gnu/usr.bin/groff/afmtodit/afmtodit.man</filename>,
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>groff_font</><manvolnum>5</></>,
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>groff_char</><manvolnum>5</></>,
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pfbtops</><manvolnum>1</></>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Can TrueType fonts be used?</title>
-
-<para>The TrueType font format is used by Windows, Windows 95,
-Mac's,&hellip It is quite popular and there are a great number of
-fonts available in this format. Unfortunately, there are only two
-applications that I am aware of that can use this format: Ghostscript
-and povray. Ghostscript's support, according to the documentation,
-is rudimentary and the results are likely to be inferior to type 1
-fonts.</para>
-
-<para>However, groff would need a font description file, and I know
-of no tools to construct the metrics from a TrueType font. In
-addition, the font would have to be down loaded to postscript
-printers in the appropriate format, and again, groff cannot handle
-TrueType fonts in this fashion.</para>
-
-<para>X11 has no support for TrueType fonts that I am aware
-of.</para>
-
-<para>The only program that I know of that has the ability to use
-TrueType fonts is povray version 3, but I rather doubt many people
-will be creating documents as a series of raytraced pages!
-:-)</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Where can additional fonts be obtained?</title>
-
-<para>Many fonts are available on the Internet. They are either
-entirely free, or are share-ware. In addition, there are many
-inexpensive CDROMs available that contain many fonts. Some Internet
-locations (as of August 1996) are:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem><para><ulink
-url="ftp://ftp.winsite.com">ftp://ftp.winsite.com</ulink> (Formerly
-CICA)</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para><ulink
-url="http://www.simtel.net/simcgi-bin/dosfind.cgi">http://www.simtel.net/simcgi-bin/dosfind.cgi</ulink></para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para><ulink
-url="ftp://ftp.coast.net/">ftp://ftp.coast.net/</ulink></para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para><ulink
-url="http://af-pc-plloyd.ecel.uwa.edu.au/fonts/index.html">http://af-pc-plloyd.ecel.uwa.edu.au/fonts/index.html</ulink></para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para><ulink
-url="http://www.esselte.com/letraset/index.html">http://www.esselte.com/letraset/index.html</ulink></para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para><ulink
-url="http://www.inil.com/users/elfring/esf.htm">http://www.inil.com/users/elfring/esf.htm</ulink></para></listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist></para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Additional questions</title>
-
-<para>
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>What use are the <filename>.pfm</filename> files?</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Can one generate the <filename>.afm</filename> file from a <filename>.pfa</filename> or <filename>.pfb</filename>?</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>How to generate the groff character mapping files for postscript fonts
-with non-standard character names?</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Can xditview and devX?? devices be setup to access all the new fonts?</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>It would be good to have examples of using TrueType fonts with povray and
-ghostscript.</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-</chapter>
-</book>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/formatting-media/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/formatting-media/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 158bc4d801..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/formatting-media/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,7 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.1 1997-09-13 04:24:23 jfieber Exp $
-
-DOCS= diskformat.docb
-INDEXLINK= diskformat.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
-
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/formatting-media/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/formatting-media/article.sgml
deleted file mode 100644
index 96f12cc1a4..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/formatting-media/article.sgml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,418 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-<!-- $Id: article.sgml,v 1.3 1997-09-20 05:34:02 jfieber Exp $ -->
-<book>
-
-<bookinfo>
-<bookbiblio>
-<title>Formatting Media For Use With FreeBSD 2.2-RELEASE</title>
-<subtitle>A Tutorial</subtitle>
-
-<authorgroup>
-<author>
-<firstname>Doug</firstname>
-<surname>White</surname>
-<affiliation>
-<address><email>dwhite@resnet.uoregon.edu</email></address>
-</affiliation>
-</author>
-</authorgroup>
-
-<pubdate>March 1997</pubdate>
-<abstract><para>This document describes how to slice, partition, and
-format hard disk drives and similar media for use with FreeBSD. The
-examples given have been tested under FreeBSD 2.2-GAMMA and may work
-for other releases. </para>
-</abstract>
-</bookbiblio>
-</bookinfo>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Introduction & Definitions</title>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Overview</title>
-<para>Successfully adding disks to an existing system is the mark of an
-experienced system administrator. Slicing, partitioning, and adding
-disks requires a careful dance of proper command and name syntax. One
-slipped finger and an entire disk could disappear in seconds. This
-document is written in an attempt to simplify this process and avoid
-accidents. Thankfully, enhancements to existing tools (notably
-sysinstall) have greatly improved this process in recent releases of
-FreeBSD. </para>
-
-<para>There are two possible modes of disk formatting:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem><para><firstterm>compatibility mode</firstterm>: Arranging a
-disk so that it has a slice table for use with other operating
-systems.</para> </listitem>
-
-<listitem><para><firstterm>dangerously dedicated mode</firstterm>:
-Formatting a disk with no slice table. This makes the process of
-adding disks easier, however non-FreeBSD operating systems may not
-accept the disk. </para> </listitem>
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-<para>For most cases, dedicated mode is the easiest to set up and use
-in existing systems, as a new disk is usually dedicated entirely to
-FreeBSD. However, compatibility mode insures optimum interoperability
-with future installations at a cost of increased complexity.</para>
-
-<para>In addition to selecting the mode, two methods of slicing the
-disk are available. One is using the system installation tool
-<command>/stand/sysinstall</command>. 2.1.7-RELEASE and later
-versions of <command>sysinstall</command> contain code to ease setup
-of disks during normal system operation, mainly allowing access to the
-Label and Partition editors and a Write feature which will update just
-the selected disk and slice without affecting other disks. The other
-method is running the tools manually from a root command line. For
-dangerously dedicated mode, only three or four commands are involved
-while <command>sysinstall</command> requires some manipulation.</para>
-</sect1>
-<sect1>
-<title>Definitions</title>
-
-<para>UNIX disk management over the centuries has invented many new
-definitions for old words. The following glossary covers the
-definitions used in this document and (hopefully) for FreeBSD in
-general. </para>
-
-<!-- I'm tempted to use GLOSSARY here but will resort to a list for
-now. -->
-
-<itemizedlist>
-<listitem><para>compatibility mode: Arranging a disk so that it has a slice
-table for use with other operating systems. Oppose dangerously
-dedicated mode.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>dangerously dedicated mode: Formatting a disk with no slice
-table. This makes the process of adding disks easier, however
-non-FreeBSD operating systems may not accept the disk. Oppose
-compatibility mode.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>disk: A circular disc, covered with magnetic or similarly
-manipulable material, spun by a motor under a head. Data is stored on
-the disk by changing the pattern of magnetism on the disc, which can
-be later read. Hard disks, CD-ROMs, Magneto-optical,and Zip/Jaz
-removables are examples of disks.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>slice: A division of a disk. Up to four slices are permitted on one
-disk in the PC standard. Slices are composed of contiguous sectors.
-Slices are recorded in a <quote>slice table</quote> used by the system BIOS to
-locate bootable partitions. The slice table is usually called the
-Partition Table in DOS parlance. Maintained by the fdisk utility.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>partition: A division of a slice. Usually used in reference
-to divisions of the FreeBSD slice of a disk. Each filesystem and swap
-area on a disk resides in a partition. Maintained using the disklabel
-utility.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>sector: Smallest subdivision of a disk. One sector usually
-represents 512 bytes of data.</para></listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Warnings & Pitfalls</title>
-
-<para>Building disks is not something to take lightly. It is quite possible
-to destroy the contents of other disks in your system if the proper
-precautions are not taken.</para>
-
-<para><emphasis>Check your work carefully.</> It is very simple to destroy
-the incorrect disk when working with these commands. When
-in doubt consult the kernel boot output for the proper device.</para>
-
-<para>Needless to say, we are not responsible for any damage to any data
-or hardware that you may experience. You work at your own risk!</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Zip, Jaz, and Other Removables</title>
-
-<para>Removable disks can be formatted in the same way as normal hard
-disks. It is essential to have the disk drive connected to the system
-and a disk placed in the drive during startup, so the kernel can
-determine the drive's geometry. Check the <command>dmesg</command>
-output and make sure your device and the disk's size is listed. If
-the kernel reports
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-Can't get the size
-</screen>
-</informalexample>
-then the disk was not in the drive. In this case, you will need to restart the
-machine before attempting to format disks.
-</para>
-</sect1>
-
-</chapter>
-<chapter>
-<title>Formatting Disks in Dedicated Mode</title>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Introduction</title>
-
-<para>This section details how to make disks that are totally dedicated to
-FreeBSD. Remember, dedicated mode disks cannot be booted by the PC
-architecture.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-<sect1>
-<title>Making Dedicated Mode Disks using Sysinstall</title>
-
-<para><command>/stand/sysinstall</command>, the system installation
-utility, has been expanded in recent versions to make the process of
-dividing disks properly a less tiring affair. The fdisk and disklabel
-editors built into sysinstall are GUI tools that remove much of the
-confusion from slicing disks. For FreeBSD versions 2.1.7 and later,
-this is perhaps the simplest way to slice disks.</para>
-
-<orderedlist>
-<listitem><para>Start sysinstall as root by typing
-<informalexample>
-<screen><userinput>/stand/sysinstall</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-from the command prompt.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Index</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Partition</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select the disk to edit with arrow keys and
-<keycap>SPACE</keycap>.</para>
-</listitem>
-<listitem><para>If you are using this entire disk for FreeBSD, select
-<command>A</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>When asked:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-Do you want to do this with a true partition entry so as to remain
-cooperative with any future possible operating systems on the
-drive(s)?
-</screen>
-</informalexample>answer <command>No</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>When asked if you still want to do this, answer
-<command>Yes</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Write</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>When warned about Writing on installed systems, answer
-<command>Yes</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para><command>Quit</command>the FDISK Editor and
-<keycap>ESCAPE</keycap> back to the Index menu.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Label</command> from the Index
-menu.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Label as desired. For a single partition, enter
-<command>C</command> to Create a partition, accept the
-default size, partition type Filesystem, and a mountpoint (which isn't
-used).</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Enter <command>W</command> when done and confirm to
-continue. The filesystem will be newfs'd for you, unless you select
-otherwise (for news partitions you'll want to do this!). You'll get
-the error:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>Error mounting /mnt/dev/wd2s1e on /mnt/blah : No such file or directory </screen>
-</informalexample>
-Ignore.
-</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Exit out by repeatedly pressing <keycap>ESCAPE</keycap>.</para></listitem>
-</orderedlist>
-
-</sect1>
-<sect1>
-<title>Making Dedicated Mode Disks Using the Command Line</title>
-
-
-<para>Execute the following commands, replacing wd2 with the disk
-name. Lines beginning with # are comments. </para>
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-<userinput>
- dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd2 count=2
- disklabel /dev/rwd2 | disklabel -B -R -r wd2 /dev/stdin
- # We only want one partition, so using slice 'c' should be fine:
- newfs /dev/rwd2c
-</userinput>
-</screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para> If you need to edit the disklabel to create multiple
-partitions (such as swap), use the following: </para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-<userinput>
- dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd2 count=2
- disklabel /dev/r$d > /tmp/label
- # Edit disklabel to add partitions:
- vi /tmp/label
- disklabel -B -R -r wd2 /tmp/label
- # newfs partitions appropriately
-</userinput>
-</screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>Your disk is now ready for use.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Making Compatibility Mode Disks</title>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Introduction</title>
-<para>The command line is the easiest way to make dedicated disks, and
-the worst way to make compatibility disks. The command-line fdisk
-utility requires higher math skills and an in-depth understanding of
-the slice table, which is more than most people want to deal with.
-Use sysinstall for compatibility disks, as described below.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-<sect1>
-
-<title>Making Compatibility Mode Disks Using Sysinstall</title>
-
-<orderedlist>
-<listitem><para>Start sysinstall as root by typing
-<informalexample>
-<screen><userinput>/stand/sysinstall</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-from the command prompt.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Index</command>.</para> </listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Partition</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select the disk to edit with arrow keys and
-<keycap>SPACE</keycap>.
-</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>If you are using this entire disk for FreeBSD, select
-<command>A</command>.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>When asked:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-Do you want to do this with a true partition entry so as to remain
-cooperative with any future possible operating systems on the
-drive(s)?
-</screen>
-</informalexample> answer <command>yes</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Write</command>.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>When asked to install the boot manager, select None with
-<keycap>SPACE</keycap> then hit <keycap>ENTER</keycap> for OK.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para><command>Quit</command> the FDISK Editor.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>You'll be asked about the boot manager, select
-<command>None</command>
-again. </para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Select <command>Label</command> from the Index
-menu.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Label as desired. For a single partition, accept the
-default size, type filesystem, and a mountpoint (which isn't
-used).</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>The filesystem will be newfs'd for you, unless you select otherwise (for news partitions you'll want to do this!). You'll get the error:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-Error mounting /mnt/dev/wd2s1e on /mnt/blah : No such file or directory </screen>
-</informalexample>
-Ignore.
-</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Exit out by repeatedly pressing <keycap>ESCAPE</keycap>.</para></listitem>
-</orderedlist>
-
-<para>Your new disk is now ready for use.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Other Disk Operations</title>
-<sect1>
-<title>Adding Swap Space</title>
-
-<para>As a system grows, it's need for swap space can also grow.
-Although adding swap space to existing disks is very difficult, a new
-disk can be partitioned with additional swap space. </para>
-
-<para>To add swap space when adding a disk to a system:
-<orderedlist>
-<listitem><para>When partitioning the disk, edit the disklabel and
-allocate the amount of swap space to add in partition `b' and the
-remainder in another partition, such as `a' or `e'. The size is given
-in 512 byte blocks. </para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>When newfsing the drive, do NOT newfs the `c'
-partition. Instead, newfs the partition where the non-swap space
-lies.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Add an entry to <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> as follows:
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>
-/dev/wd0b none swap sw 0 0
-</programlisting>
-</informalexample>
-Change /dev/wd0b to the device of the newly added
-space.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>To make the new space immediately available, use the
-<command>swapon</command> command.
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-<userinput>
-$ swapon /dev/sd0b
-</userinput>
-swapon: added /dev/sd0b as swap space
-</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para></listitem>
-</orderedlist>
-</para>
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Copying the Contents of Disks</title>
-<!-- Should have specific tag -->
-<para>Submitted By: Renaud Waldura (<email>renaud@softway.com</email>) </para>
-
-<para>To move file from your original base disk to the fresh new one,
-do:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>
-<userinput>
-mount /dev/wd2 /mnt
-pax -r -w -p e /usr/home /mnt
-umount /mnt
-rm -rf /usr/home/*
-mount /dev/wd2 /usr/home
-</userinput>
-</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Credits</title>
-
-
-
-<para>The author would like to thank the following individuals for
-their contributions to this project:
-<itemizedlist>
-<listitem><para>Darryl Okahata
-(<email>darrylo@hpnmhjw.sr.hp.com</email>) for his
-simple dedicated mode setup documentation which I have used repeatedly
-on freebsd-questions.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Jordan Hubbard
-(<email>jkh@freebsd.org</email>) for making
-sysinstall useful for this type of task.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>John Fieber
-(<email>jfieber@indiana.edu</email>) for making
-information and examples of the DocBook DTD on which this document is
-based.</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>Greg Lehey (<email>grog@freebsd.org</email>) for checking my
-work and pointing out inaccuracies, as well as miscellaneous support.
-</para></listitem>
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-
-
-</book>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mh/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mh/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 14a686e6af..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mh/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,7 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.4 1997-07-01 05:38:13 max Exp $
-
-DOCS= mh.docb
-INDEXLINK= mh.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
-
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mh/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mh/article.sgml
deleted file mode 100644
index 3c33cf92ea..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mh/article.sgml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,704 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: article.sgml,v 1.2 1997-07-01 21:38:44 max Exp $ -->
-<!-- FreeBSD Documentation Project -->
-
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-<book>
-
-<bookinfo>
-<bookbiblio>
-<title>An MH Primer</title>
-
-<authorgroup>
-<author>
-<firstname>Matt</firstname>
-<surname>Midboe</surname>
-<affiliation>
-<address>
-<email>matt@garply.com</email>
-</address>
-</affiliation>
-</author></authorgroup>
-
-<pubdate>v1.0, 16 January 1996</pubdate>
-
-<abstract><para>This document contains an introduction to using MH on
-FreeBSD</para></abstract>
-
-</bookbiblio>
-</bookinfo>
-
-<chapter id="mhintro">
-<title>Introduction</title>
-
-<para>MH started back in 1977 at the RAND Corporation, where the
-initial philosophies behind MH were developed. MH isn't so much a
-monolithic email program but a philosophy about how best to develop
-tools for reading email. The MH developers have done a great job
-adhering to the <acronym>KISS</> principle: Keep It Simple Stupid.
-Rather than have one large program for reading, sending and handling
-email they have written specialized programs for each part of your
-email life. One might liken MH to the specialization that one finds
-in insects and nature. Each tool in MH does one thing, and does it
-very well.</para>
-
-<para>Beyond just the various tools that one uses to handle their
-email MH has done an excellent job keeping the configuration of each
-of these tools consistent and uniform. In fact, if you are not quite
-sure how something is supposed to work or what the arguments for some
-command are supposed to be then you can generally guess and be right.
-Each MH command is consistent about how it handles reading the
-configuration files and how it takes arguments on the command line.
-One useful thing to remember is that you can always add a
-<option>-help</option> to the command to have it display the options
-for that command.</para>
-
-<para>The first thing that you need to do is to make sure that you have
-installed the MH package on your FreeBSD machine. If you installed
-from CDROM you should be able to execute the following to load mh:
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>pkg_add /cdrom/packages/mh-6.8.3.tgz</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-You will notice that it created a <filename>/usr/local/lib/mh</>
-directory for you as well as adding several binaries to the
-<filename>/usr/local/bin</> directory. If you would prefer to compile
-it yourself then you can anonymous ftp it from <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.ics.uci.edu/">ftp.ics.uci.edu</ulink> or <ulink
-URL="ftp://louie.udel.edu/">louie.udel.edu</ulink>.</para>
-
-<para>This primer is not a full comprehensive explanation of how MH
-works. This is just intended to get you started on the road to
-happier, faster mail reading. You should read the man pages for the
-various commands. Also you might want to read the <ulink
-URL="news:comp.mail.mh">comp.mail.mh</ulink> newsgroup. Also you can
-read the <ulink
-URL="http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/mh-faq/part1/faq.html">FAQ
-for MH</ulink>. The best resource for MH is the O'Reilly and Associates book
-written by Jerry Peek.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Reading Mail</title>
-
-<para>This section covers how to use <command>inc</>,
-<command>show</>, <command>scan</>, <command>next</>,
-<command>prev</>, <command>rmm</>, <command>rmf</>, and
-<command>msgchk</>. One of the best things about MH is the
-consistent interface between programs. A few things to keep in mind
-when using these commands is how to specify message lists. In the
-case of <command>inc</> this doesn't really make any sense but with
-commands like <command>show</> it is useful to know. </para>
-
-<para>A message list can consist of something like <parameter>23 20
-16</> which will act on messages 23, 20 and 16. This is fairly simple
-but you can do more useful things like <parameter>23-30</> which will
-act on all the messages between 23 and 30. You can also specify
-something like <parameter>cur:10</> which will act on the current
-message and the next 9 messages. The <parameter>cur</>,
-<parameter>last</>, and <parameter>first</> messages are special
-messages that refer to the current, last or first message in the
-folder.</para>
-
-
-<sect1 id="inc">
-<title><command>inc</>, <command>msgchk</>&mdash;read in your new email or check it</title>
-
-<para>If you just type in <userinput>inc</> and hit <keycap>return</>
-you will be well on your way to getting started with MH. The first
-time you run <command>inc</> it will setup your account to use all
-the MH defaults and ask you about creating a Mail directory. If you
-have mail waiting to be downloaded you will see something that looks
-like:
-<informalexample>
-<screen> 29 01/15 Doug White Re: Another Failed to boot problem&lt;&lt;On Mon, 15 J
- 30 01/16 "Jordan K. Hubbar Re: FBSD 2.1&lt;&lt;&gt; Do you want a library instead of
- 31 01/16 Bruce Evans Re: location of bad144 table&lt;&lt;&gt;&gt; &gt;It would appea
- 32 01/16 "Jordan K. Hubbar Re: video is up&lt;&lt;&gt; Anyway, mrouted won't run, ev
- 33 01/16 Michael Smith Re: FBSD 2.1&lt;&lt;Nate Williams stands accused of sa</screen>
-</informalexample>
-This is the same thing you will see from a <command>scan</> (see
-<xref linkend="scan">). If you just run <command>inc</> with no
-arguments it will look on your computer for email that is supposed to
-be coming to you.</para>
-
-<para>A lot of people like to use POP for grabbing their email. MH can do
-POP to grab your email. You will need to give <command>inc</> a few command
-line arguments.
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>inc -host mail.pop.org -user <replaceable>username</> -norpop</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-That tells <command>inc</> to go to <parameter>mail.pop.org</> to
-download your email, and that your username on their system is
-<replaceable>username</>. The <option>-norpop</option> option tells
-<command>inc</> to use plain POP3 for downloading your email. MH has
-support for a few different dialects of POP. More than likely you
-will never ever need to use them though. While you can do more
-complex things with inc such as audit files and scan format files
-this will get you going.</para>
-
-<para>The <command>msgchk</> command is used to get information on
-whether or not you have new email. <command>msgchk</> takes the same
-<option>-host</option> and <option>-user</option> options that
-<command>inc</> takes.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1 id="show">
-<title><command>show</>, <command>next</> and <command>prev</>&mdash;displaying and moving through email</title>
-
-<para><command>show</> is to show a letter in your current folder.
-Like <command>inc</>, <command>show</> is a fairly straightforward
-command. If you just type <userinput>show</> and hit <keycap>return</>
-then it displays the current message. You can also give specific
-message numbers to show:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>show 32 45 56</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-This would display message numbers 32, 45 and 56 right after each
-other. Unless you change the default behavior <command>show</>
-basically just does a <command>more</> on the email message.</para>
-
-<para><command>next</> is used to move onto the next message and
-<command>prev</> will go to the previous message. Both commands have
-an implied <command>show</> command so that when you go to the next
-message it automatically displays it.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1 id="scan">
-<title><command>scan</>&mdash;shows you a scan of your messages</title>
-
-<para><command>scan</> will display a brief listing of the messages
-in your current folder. This is an example of what the
-<command>scan</> command will give you.
-<informalexample>
-<screen> 30+ 01/16 "Jordan K. Hubbar Re: FBSD 2.1&lt;&lt;&gt; Do you want a library instead of
- 31 01/16 Bruce Evans Re: location of bad144 table&lt;&lt;&gt;&gt; &gt;It would appea
- 32 01/16 "Jordan K. Hubbar Re: video is up&lt;&lt;&gt; Anyway, mrouted won't run, ev
- 33 01/16 Michael Smith Re: FBSD 2.1&lt;&lt;Nate Williams stands accused of sa</screen>
-</informalexample>
-Like just about everything in MH this display is very configurable.
-This is the typical default display. It gives you the message number,
-the date on the email, the sender, the subject line, and a sentence
-fragment from the very beginning of the email if it can fit it. The
-<literal>+</> means that message is the current message, so if you do
-a <command>show</> it will display that message.</para>
-
-<para>One useful option for scan is the <option>-reverse</option>
-option. This will list your messages with the highest message number
-first and lowest message number last. Another useful option with
-<command>scan</> is to have it read from a file. If you want to scan
-your incoming mailbox on FreeBSD without having to <command>inc</> it
-you can do <command>scan -file
-/var/mail/<replaceable>username</></command>. This can be used with
-any file that is in the <database>mbox</> format.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1 id="rmm">
-<title><command>rmm</> and <command>rmf</>&mdash;remove the current message or folder</title>
-
-<para><command>rmm</> is used to remove a mail message. The default
-is typically to not actually remove the message but to rename the
-file to one that is ignored by the MH commands. You will need to
-through periodically and physically delete the <quote>removed</>
-messages.</para>
-
-<para>The <command>rmf</> command is used to remove folders. This
-doesn't just rename the files but actually removes the from the hard
-drive so you should be careful when you use this command.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1 id="samplereading">
-<title>A typical session of reading with MH</title>
-
-<para>The first thing that you will want to do is <command>inc</>
-your new mail. So at a shell prompt just type in <command>inc</> and
-hit <keycap>return</>.
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>inc</>
-Incorporating new mail into inbox...
-
- 36+ 01/19 "Stephen L. Lange Request...&lt;&lt;Please remove me as contact for pind
- 37 01/19 Matt Thomas Re: kern/950: Two PCI bridge chips fail (multipl
- 38 01/19 "Amancio Hasty Jr Re: FreeBSD and VAT&lt;&lt;&gt;&gt;&gt; Bill Fenner said: &gt; In
-tempest%</screen>
-</informalexample>
-This shows you the new email that has been added to your mailbox. So
-the next thing to do is <command>show</> the email and move around.
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>show</>
-Received: by sashimi.wwa.com (Smail3.1.29.1 #2)
- id m0tdMZ2-001W2UC; Fri, 19 Jan 96 13:33 CST
-Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 13:33:31 -0600 (CST)
-From: "Stephen L. Lange" &lt;stvlange@wwa.com&gt;
-To: matt@garply.com
-Subject: Request...
-Message-Id: &lt;Pine.BSD.3.91.960119133211.824A-100000@sashimi.wwa.com&gt;
-Mime-Version: 1.0
-Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=US-ASCII
-
-
-Please remove me as contact for pindat.com
-
-tempest% <userinput>rmm</>
-tempest% <userinput>next</>
-Received: from localhost (localhost [127.0.0.1]) by whydos.lkg.dec.com (8.6.11/8
-.6.9) with SMTP id RAA24416; Fri, 19 Jan 1996 17:56:48 GMT
-Message-Id: &lt;199601191756.RAA24416@whydos.lkg.dec.com&gt;
-X-Authentication-Warning: whydos.lkg.dec.com: Host localhost didn't use HELO pro
-tocol
-To: hsu@clinet.fi
-Cc: hackers@FreeBSD.org
-Subject: Re: kern/950: Two PCI bridge chips fail (multiple multiport ethernet
- boards)
-In-Reply-To: Your message of "Fri, 19 Jan 1996 00:18:36 +0100."
- &lt;199601182318.AA11772@Sysiphos&gt;
-X-Mailer: exmh version 1.5omega 10/6/94
-Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 17:56:40 +0000
-From: Matt Thomas &lt;matt@lkg.dec.com&gt;
-Sender: owner-hackers@FreeBSD.org
-Precedence: bulk
-
-
-This is due to a typo in pcireg.h (to
-which I am probably the guilty party).</screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>The <command>rmm</> removed the current message and the
-<command>next</> command moved me on to the next message.
-Now if I wanted to look at ten most recent messages so I could read
-one of them here is what I would do:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>scan last:10</>
- 26 01/16 maddy Re: Testing some stuff&lt;&lt;yeah, well, Trinity has
- 27 01/17 Automatic digest NET-HAPPENINGS Digest - 16 Jan 1996 to 17 Jan 19
- 28 01/17 Evans A Criswell Re: Hey dude&lt;&lt;&gt;From matt@tempest.garply.com Tue
- 29 01/16 Karl Heuer need configure/make volunteers&lt;&lt;The FSF is looki
- 30 01/18 Paul Stephanouk Re: [alt.religion.scientology] Raw Meat (humor)&lt;
- 31 01/18 Bill Lenherr Re: Linux NIS Solaris&lt;&lt;--- On Thu, 18 Jan 1996 1
- 34 01/19 John Fieber Re: Stuff for the email section?&lt;&lt;On Fri, 19 Jan
- 35 01/19 support@foo.garpl [garply.com #1138] parlor&lt;&lt;Hello. This is the Ne
- 37+ 01/19 Matt Thomas Re: kern/950: Two PCI bridge chips fail (multipl
- 38 01/19 "Amancio Hasty Jr Re: FreeBSD and VAT&lt;&lt;&gt;&gt;&gt; Bill Fenner said: &gt; In
-tempest%</screen>
-</informalexample>
-Then if I wanted to read message number 27 I would do a
-<userinput>show 27</> and it would be displayed. As you can probably
-tell from this sample session MH is pretty easy to use and looking
-through emails and displaying them is fairly intuitive and easy.
-</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Folders and Mail Searching</title>
-
-<para>Anybody who gets lots of email definitely wants to be able to
-prioritize, stamp, brief, de-brief, and number their emails in a
-variety of different ways. MH can do this better than just about
-anything. One thing that we haven't really talked about is the
-concept of folders. You have undoubtedly come across the folders
-concept using other email programs. MH has folders too. MH can even
-do sub-folders of a folder. One thing you should keep in mind with MH
-is that when you ran <command>inc</> for the first time and it asked
-you if it could create a <filename>Mail</> directory it began storing
-everything in that directory. If you look at that directory you will
-find a directory named <filename>inbox</>. The <filename>inbox</>
-directory houses all of your incoming mail that hasn't been thrown
-anywhere else.</para>
-
-<para>Whenever you create a new folder a new directory is going to be
-created underneath your MH <filename>Mail</> directory, and messages
-in that folder are going to be stored in that directory. When new
-email comes in that new email is thrown into your <filename>inbox</>
-directory with a file name that is equivalent to the message number.
-So even if you didn't have any of the MH tools to read your email you
-could still use standard UNIX commands to munge around in those
-directories and just more your files. It's this simplicity that
-really gives you a lot of power with what you can do with your
-email.</para>
-
-<para>Just as you can use message lists like <parameter>23 16 42</>
-with most MH commands there is a folder option you can specify with
-just about every MH command. If you do a <command>scan +freebsd</> it
-will scan your <filename>freebsd</> folder, and your current folder
-will be changed to <filename>freebsd</>. If you do a <command>show
-+freebsd 23 16 42</>, <command>show</> is going to switch to your
-<filename>freebsd</> folder and display messages 23, 16 and 42. So
-remember that <option>+<replaceable>folder</></> syntax. You will
-need to make sure you use it to make commands process different
-folders. Remember you default folder for mail is <filename>inbox</>
-so doing a <command>folder +inbox</> should always get you back to
-your mail. Of course, in MH's infinite flexibility this can be
-changed but most places have probably left it as
-<command>inbox</>.</para>
-
-
-<sect1>
-<title><command>pick</>&mdash;search email that matches certain criteria</title>
-
-<para><command>pick</> is one of the more complex commands in the MH
-system. So you might want to read the
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pick</><manvolnum>1</></> man page for a
-more thorough understanding. At its simplest level you can do
-something like
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>pick -search pci</>
-15
-42
-55
-56
-57</screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-This will tell <command>pick</> to look through every single line in
-every message in your current folder and tell you which message
-numbers it found the word <literal>pci</> in. You can then
-<command>show</> those messages and read them if you wish or
-<command>rmm</> them. You would have to specify something like
-<command>show 15 42 55-57</> to display them though. A slightly more
-useful thing to do is this:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>pick -search pci -seq pick</>
-5 hits
-tempest% <userinput>show pick</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-This will show you the same messages you just didn't have to work as
-hard to do it. The <option>-seq</option> option is really an
-abbreviation of <option>-sequence</option> and <command>pick</> is
-just a sequence which contains the message numbers that matched. You
-can use sequences with just about any MH command. So you could have
-done an <command>rmm pick</> and all those messages would be removed
-instead. You sequence can be named anything. If you run pick again it
-will overwrite the old sequence if you use the same name.</para>
-
-<para>Doing a <command>pick -search</command> can be a bit more time
-consuming than just searching for message from someone, or to
-someone. So <command>pick</> allows you to use the following
-predefined search criteria:
-
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term><option>-to</option></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>search based upon who the message is to</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term><option>-cc</option></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>search based on who is in the cc list</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term><option>-from</option></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>search for who sent the message</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term><option>-subject</option></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>search for emails with this subject</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term><option>-date</option></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>find emails with a matching dat</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term><option>--<replaceable>component</replaceable></option></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>search for any other component in the header. (i.e.
-<option>--reply-to</> to find all emails with a certain reply-to in
-the header)</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-</variablelist></para>
-
-<para>This allows you to do things like
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>pick -to freebsd-hackers@freebsd.org -seq hackers</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-to get a list of all the email send to the FreeBSD hackers mailing
-list. <command>pick</> also allows you to group these criteria in
-different ways using the following options:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>&hellip; <option>-and</option> &hellip;</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>&hellip; <option>-or</option> &hellip</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><option>-not</option> &hellip;</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><option>-lbrace</option> &hellip; <option>-rbrace</option></para>
-</listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-These commands allow you to do things like
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>pick -to freebsd-hackers -and -cc freebsd-hackers</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-That will grab all the email in your inbox that was sent to
-freebsd-hackers or cc'd to that list. The brace options allow you to
-group search criteria together. This is sometimes very necessary as
-in the following example
-<informalexample>
-<screen>tempest% <userinput>pick -lbrace -to freebsd-hackers -and
- -not -cc freebsd-questions -rbrace -and -subject pci</></screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>Basically this says <quote>pick (to freebsd-hackers and not cc'd on
-freebsd-questions) and the subject is pci</quote>. It should look through your
-folder and find all messages sent to the freebsd-hackers list that
-aren't cc'd to the freebsd-questions list that contain something on
-pci in the subject line. Ordinarily you might have to worry about
-something called operator precedence. Remember in math how you
-evaluate from left to right and you do multiplication and division
-first and addition and subtraction second? MH has the same type of
-rules for <command>pick</>. It's fairly complex so you might want to study
-the man page. This document is just to help you get acquainted with
-MH.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title><command>folder</>, <command>folders</>, <command>refile</>&mdash;three useful programs for folder maintenance</title>
-
-<para>There are three programs which are primarily just for
-manipulating your folders. The <command>folder</> program is used to
-switch between folders, pack them, and list them. At its simplest
-level you can do a <command>folder +<replaceable>newfolder</></> and
-you will be switched into <replaceable>newfolder</>. From there on
-out all your MH commands like <command>comp</>, <command>repl</>,
-<command>scan</>, and <command>show</> will act on that
-<command>newfolder</> folder.</para>
-
-<para>Sometimes when you are reading and deleting messages you will
-develop <quote>holes</> in your folders. If you do a <command>scan</>
-you might just see messages 34, 35, 36, 43, 55, 56, 57, 80. If you do
-a <command>folder -pack</command> this will renumber all your
-messages so that there are no holes. It doesn't actually delete any
-messages though. So you may need to periodically go through and
-physically delete <command>rmm</>'d messages.</para>
-
-<para>If you need statistics on your folders you can do a
-<command>folders</> or <command>folder -all</command> to list all
-your folders, how many messages they have, what the current message
-is in each one and so on. This line of stats it displays for all your
-folders is the same one you get when you change to a folder with
-<command>folder +foldername</>. A <command>folders</> command looks
-like this:
-<informalexample>
-<screen> Folder # of messages ( range ); cur msg (other files)
- announce has 1 message ( 1- 1).
- drafts has no messages.
- f-hackers has 43 messages ( 1- 43).
- f-questions has 16 messages ( 1- 16).
- inbox+ has 35 messages ( 1- 38); cur= 37.
- lists has 8 messages ( 1- 8).
- netfuture has 1 message ( 1- 1).
- out has 31 messages ( 1- 31).
- personal has 6 messages ( 1- 6).
- todo has 58 messages ( 1- 58); cur= 1.
-
- TOTAL= 199 messages in 13 folders.
-</screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>The <command>refile</> command is what you use to move messages
-between folders. When you do something like <command>refile 23
-+netfuture</> message number 23 is moved into the
-<filename>netfuture</> folder. You could also do something like
-<command>refile 23 +netfuture/latest</> which would put message
-number 23 in a subfolder called <filename>latest</> under the
-<filename>netfuture</> folder. If you want to keep a message in the
-current folder and link it you can do a <command>refile -link 23
-+netfuture</command> which would keep 23 in your current
-<filename>inbox</> but also list in your <filename>netfuture</>
-folder. You are probably beginning to realize some of the really
-powerful things you can do with MH.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Sending Mail</title>
-
-<para>Email is a two way street for most people so you want to be
-able to send something back. The way MH handles sending mail can be a
-bit difficult to follow at first, but it allows for incredible
-flexibility. The first thing MH does is to copy a components file
-into your outgoing email. A components file is basically a skeleton
-email letter with stuff like the To: and Subject: headers already in
-it. You are then sent into your editor where you fill in the header
-information and then type the body of your message below the dashed
-lines in the message. Then to the <command>whatnow</> program. When
-you are at the <prompt>What now?</prompt> prompt you can tell it to
-<command>send</>, <command>list</>, <command>edit</>,
-<command>edit</>, <command>push</>, and <command>quit</>. Most of
-these commands are self-explanatory. So the message sending process
-involves copying a component file, editing your email, and then
-telling the <command>whatnow</> program what to do with your
-email.</para>
-
-
-<sect1>
-<title><command>comp</>, <command>forw</>, <command>reply</>&mdash;compose, forward or reply to a message to someone</title>
-
-<para>The <command>comp</> program has a few useful command line
-options. The most important one to know right now is the
-<option>-editor</option> option. When MH is installed the default
-editor is usually a program called <command>prompter</> which comes
-with MH. It's not a very exciting editor and basically just gets the
-job done. So when you go to compose a message to someone you might
-want to use <command>comp -editor /usr/bin/vi/</> or <command>comp
--editor /usr/local/bin/pico/</> instead. Once you have run
-<emphasis>comp</emphasis> you are in your editor and you see
-something that looks like this:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>To:
-cc:
-Subject:
---------
-</screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>You need to put the person you are sending the mail to after the
-<literal>To:</> line. It works the same way for the other headers
-also, so you would need to put your subject after the
-<literal>Subject:</> line. Then you would just put the body of your
-message after the dashed lines. It may seem a bit simplistic since a
-lot of email programs have special requesters that ask you for this
-information but there really isn't any point to that. Plus this
-really gives you excellent flexibility.
-<informalexample>
-<screen>To:<userinput>freebsd-rave@freebsd.org</>
-cc:
-Subject:<userinput>And on the 8th day God created the FreeBSD core team</>
---------
-<userinput>Wow this is an amazing operating system. Thanks!</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-You can now save this message and exit your editor. You will see the
-<prompt>What now?</> prompt and you can type in
-<userinput>send</> or <userinput>s</> and hit
-<keycap>return</>. Then the freebsd core team will receive their just
-rewards. As I mentioned earlier you can also use other commands, for
-example <command>quit</> if you don't want to send the
-message.</para>
-
-<para>The <command>forw</> command is stunningly similar. The big
-difference being that the message you are forwarding is automatically
-included in the outgoing message. When you run <command>forw</> it
-will forward your current message. You can always tell it to forward
-something else by doing something like <command>forw 23</> and then
-message number 23 will be put in your outgoing message instead of the
-current message. Beyond those small differences <command>forw</>
-functions exactly the same as <command>comp</>. You go through the
-exact same message sending process.</para>
-
-<para>The <command>repl</> command will reply to whatever your
-current message is, unless you give it a different message to reply
-to. <command>repl</> will do its best to go ahead and fill in some of
-the email headers already. So you will notice that the
-<literal>To:</> header already has the address of the recipient in
-there. Also the <literal>Subject:</> line will already be filled in.
-You then go about the normal message composition process and you are
-done. One useful command line option to know here is the
-<option>-cc</option> option. You can use <parameter>all</>,
-<parameter>to</>, <parameter>cc</>, <parameter>me</> after the
-<option>-cc</option> option to have <command>repl</> automatically
-add the various addresses to the cc list in the message. You have
-probably noticed that the original message isn't included. This is
-because most MH setups are configured to do this from the
-start.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title><filename>components</>, and <filename>replcomps</>&mdash;components files for <command>comp</> and <command>repl</></title>
-
-<para>The <filename>components</> file is usually in
-<filename>/usr/local/lib/mh</filename>. You can copy that file into
-your MH Mail directory and edit to contain what you want it to
-contain. It is a fairly basic file. You have various email headers at
-the top, a dashed line and then nothing. The
-<command>comp</command> command just copies this
-<filename>components</> file and then edits it. You can add any
-kind of valid RFC822 header you want. For instance you could have
-something like this in your <filename>components</> file:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>To:
-Fcc: out
-Subject:
-X-Mailer: MH 6.8.3
-X-Home-Page: http://www.freebsd.org/
--------</screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-MH would then copy this components file and throw you into your
-editor. The <filename>components</> file is fairly simple. If you
-wanted to have a signature on those messages you would just put your
-signature in that <filename>components</> file.</para>
-
-<para>The <filename>replcomps</> file is a bit more complex. The default
-<filename>replcomps</> looks like this:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>%(lit)%(formataddr %&lt;{reply-to}%?{from}%?{sender}%?{return-path}%&gt;)\
-%&lt;(nonnull)%(void(width))%(putaddr To: )\n%&gt;\
-%(lit)%(formataddr{to})%(formataddr{cc})%(formataddr(me))\
-%&lt;(nonnull)%(void(width))%(putaddr cc: )\n%&gt;\
-%&lt;{fcc}Fcc: %{fcc}\n%&gt;\
-%&lt;{subject}Subject: Re: %{subject}\n%&gt;\
-%&lt;{date}In-reply-to: Your message of "\
-%&lt;(nodate{date})%{date}%|%(pretty{date})%&gt;."%&lt;{message-id}
- %{message-id}%&gt;\n%&gt;\
---------
-</screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>It's in the same basic format as the <filename>components</> file but
-it contains quite a few extra formatting codes. The
-<literal>%(lit)</> command makes room for the address. The
-<literal>%(formataddr</> is a function that returns a proper email
-address. The next part is <literal>%&lt;</literal> which means if and
-the <literal>{reply-to}</> means the reply-to field in the original
-message. So that might be translated this way:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>%&lt;<emphasis remap=bf>if</emphasis> {reply-to} <emphasis remap=bf>the original message has a reply-to</emphasis>
-then give that to formataddr, %? <emphasis remap=bf>else</emphasis> {from} <emphasis remap=bf>take the
-from address</emphasis>, %? <emphasis remap=bf>else</emphasis> {sender} <emphasis remap=bf>take the sender address</emphasis>, %?
-<emphasis remap=bf>else</emphasis> {return-path} <emphasis remap=bf>take the return-path from the original
-message</emphasis>, %&gt; <emphasis remap=bf>endif</emphasis>.</screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>As you can tell MH formatting can get rather involved. You can
-probably decipher what most of the other functions and variables
-mean. All of the information on writing these format strings is in the
-MH-Format man page. The really nice thing is that once you have built
-your customized <filename>replcomps</> file you won't need to touch it
-again. No other email program really gives you the power and
-flexibility that MH gives you.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-</book>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/multi-os/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/multi-os/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 8a591510bb..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/multi-os/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,7 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.4 1997-07-01 05:38:14 max Exp $
-
-DOCS= multios.docb
-INDEXLINK= multios.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
-
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/multi-os/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/multi-os/article.sgml
deleted file mode 100644
index e7b1d68d68..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/multi-os/article.sgml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,680 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: article.sgml,v 1.1 1997-03-23 16:27:47 jfieber Exp $ -->
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-<book>
-
-<bookinfo>
-<bookbiblio>
-<title>Installing and Using FreeBSD With Other Operating Systems</title>
-
-<authorgroup>
-<author>
-<firstname>Jay</firstname>
-<surname>Richmond</surname>
-<affiliation>
-<address>
-<email>jayrich@in.net</email>
-</address>
-</affiliation>
-</author>
-</authorgroup>
-
-<pubdate>6 August 1996</pubdate>
-
-<abstract><para>This document discusses how to make FreeBSD coexist
-nicely with other popular operating systems such as Linux, MS-DOS,
-OS/2, and Windows 95. Special thanks to: Annelise Anderson
-<email>andrsn@stanford.edu</email>, Randall Hopper
-<email>rhh@ct.picker.com</email>, and Jordan K. Hubbard
-<email>jkh@time.cdrom.com</email></para></abstract>
-
-</bookbiblio>
-</bookinfo>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Overview</title>
-
-<para>Most people can't fit these operating systems together
-comfortably without having a larger hard disk, so special
-information on large EIDE drives is included. Because there are so
-many combinations of possible operating systems and hard disk
-configurations, the <xref linkend="ch5"> section may be of the most use
-to you. It contains descriptions of specific working computer setups
-that use multiple operating systems.</para>
-
-<para>This document assumes that you have already made room on your
-hard disk for an additional operating system. Any time you
-repartition your hard drive, you run the risk of destroying the data
-on the original partitions. However, if your hard drive is completely
-occupied by DOS, you might find the FIPS utility (included on the
-FreeBSD CD-ROM in the <filename>\TOOLS</filename> directory or via
-<ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools">ftp</ulink>)
-useful. It lets you repartition your hard disk without destroying the
-data already on it. There is also a commercial program available
-called Partition Magic, which lets you size and delete partitions
-without consequence.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="ch2">
-<title>Overview of Boot Managers</title>
-
-<para>These are just brief descriptions of some of the different boot
-managers you may encounter. Depending on your computer setup, you may
-find it useful to use more than one of them on the same
-system.</para>
-
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term>Boot Easy</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>This is the default boot manager used with FreeBSD. It has the
-ability to boot most anything, including BSD, OS/2 (HPFS), Windows 95
-(FAT and FAT32), and Linux. Partitions are selected with the
-function keys.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term>OS/2 Boot Manager</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>This will boot FAT, HPFS, FFS (FreeBSD), and EXT2
-(Linux). It will also boot FAT32 partitions. Partitions are
-selected using arrow keys. The OS/2 Boot Manager is the only one to
-use its own separate partition, unlike the others which use the
-master boot record (MBR). Therefore, it must be installed below the
-1024th cylinder to avoid booting problems. It can boot Linux using
-LILO when it is part of the boot sector, not the MBR. Go to <ulink
-URL="http://www.ssc.com/linux/howto.html">Linux HOWTOs</ulink>
-on the World Wide Web for more information on booting Linux with
-OS/2's boot manager.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term>OS-BS</term>
-
-<listitem> <para>This is an alternative to Boot Easy. It gives you
-more control over the booting process, with the ability to set the
-default partition to boot and the booting timeout. The beta version
-of this programs allows you to boot by selecting the OS with your
-arrow keys. It is included on the FreeBSD CD in the
-<filename>\TOOLS</filename> directory, and via <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools">ftp</ulink>.</para>
-</listitem> </varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry>
-<term>LILO, or LInux LOader</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>This is a limited boot manager. Will boot FreeBSD, though some
-customization work is required in the LILO configuration file.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-</variablelist>
-
-<note id="fat32"><title>About FAT32</title><para>FAT32 is the replacement to
-the FAT filesystem included in Microsoft's OEM SR2 Beta release,
-which is expected to utilitized on computers pre-loaded with Windows
-95 towards the end of 1996. It converts the normal FAT file system
-and allows you to use smaller cluster sizes for larger hard drives.
-FAT32 also modifies the traditional FAT boot sector and allocation
-table, making it incompatible with some boot managers.</para></note>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="ch3">
-<title>A Typical Installation</title>
-
-<para>Let's say I have two large EIDE hard drives, and I want to
-install FreeBSD, Linux, and Windows 95 on them.</para>
-
-<para>Here's how I might do it using these hard disks:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>/dev/wd0</> (first physical hard disk)</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>/dev/wd1</> (second hard disk)</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-<para>Both disks have 1416 cylinders.</para>
-
-<procedure>
-
-<step><para>I boot from a MS-DOS or Windows 95 boot disk that
-contains the <filename>FDISK.EXE</> utility and make a small 50 meg
-primary partition (35-40 for Windows 95, plus a little breathing
-room) on the first disk. Also create a larger partition on the
-second hard disk for my Windows applications and data.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>I reboot and install Windows 95 (easier said than done)
-on the <filename>C:</> partition.</para> </step>
-
-<step><para>The next thing I do is install Linux. I'm not sure about
-all the distributions of Linux, but slackware includes LILO (see
-<xref linkend="ch2">). When I am partitioning out my hard disk with
-Linux <command>fdisk</command>, I would put all of Linux on the first
-drive (maybe 300 megs for a nice root partition and some swap
-space).</para></step>
-
-<step><para>After I install Linux, and are prompted about installing
-LILO, make SURE that I install it on the boot sector of my root
-Linux partition, not in the MBR (master boot record).</para></step>
-
-<step><para>The remaining hard disk space can go to FreeBSD. I also
-make sure that my FreeBSD root slice does not go beyond the 1024th
-cylinder. (The 1024th cylinder is 528 megs into the disk with our
-hypothetical 720MB disks). I will use the rest of the hard drive
-(about 270 megs) for the <filename>/usr</> and <filename>/</> slices
-if I wish. The rest of the second hard disk (size depends on the
-amount of my Windows application/data partition that I created in
-step 1 can go to the <filename>/usr/src</> slice and swap
-space.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>When viewed with the Windows 95 <command>fdisk</> utility, my hard drives
-should now look something like this:
-<screen>
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-
- Display Partition Information
-
-Current fixed disk drive: 1
-
-Partition Status Type Volume_Label Mbytes System Usage
-C: 1 A PRI DOS 50 FAT** 7%
- 2 A Non-DOS (Linux) 300 43%
-
-Total disk space is 696 Mbytes (1 Mbyte = 1048576 bytes)
-
-Press Esc to continue
-
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-
- Display Partition Information
-
-Current fixed disk drive: 2
-
-Partition Status Type Volume_Label Mbytes System Usage
-D: 1 A PRI DOS 420 FAT** 60%
-
-Total disk space is 696 Mbytes (1 Mbyte = 1048576 bytes)
-
-Press Esc to continue
-
----------------------------------------------------------------------
-</screen>
-** May say FAT16 or FAT32 if you are using the OEM SR2 update.
-See <xref linkend="ch2">).</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Install FreeBSD. I make sure to boot with my first hard
-disk set at <quote>NORMAL</> in the BIOS. If it is not, I'll have
-the enter my true disk geometry at boot time (to get this, boot
-Windows 95 and consult Microsoft Diagnostics (<filename>MSD.EXE</>),
-or check your BIOS) with the parameter <literal>hd0=1416,16,63</>
-where <replaceable>1416</> is the number of cylinders on my hard
-disk, <replaceable>16</> is the number of heads per track, and
-<replaceable>63</> is the number of sectors per track on the
-drive.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>When partitioning out the hard disk, I make sure to install
-Boot Easy on the first disk. I don't worry about the second disk,
-nothing is booting off of it.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>When I reboot, Boot Easy should recognize my three
-bootable partitions as DOS (Windows 95), Linux, and BSD
-(FreeBSD).</para></step>
-
-</procedure>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="ch4">
-<title>Special Considerations</title>
-
-<para>Most operating systems are very picky about where and how they are
-placed on the hard disk. Windows 95 and DOS need to be on the first
-primary partitiin on the first hard disk. OS/2 is the exception. It
-can be installed on the first or second disk in a primary or extended
-partition. If you are not sure, keep the beginning of the bootable
-partitions below the 1024th cylinder.</para>
-
-<para>If you install Windows 95 on an existing BSD system, it will
-<quote>destroy</> the MBR, and you will have to reinstall your
-previous boot manager. Boot Easy can be reinstalled by using the
-BOOTINST.EXE utility included in the \TOOLS directory on the CD-ROM,
-and via <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools">ftp</ulink>. You can
-also re-start the installation process and go to the partition
-editor. From there, mark the FreeBSD partition as bootable,
-select Boot Manager, and then type W to (W)rite out the information
-to the MBR. You can now reboot, and Boot Easy should then
-recognize Windows 95 as DOS.</para>
-
-<para>Please keep in mind that OS/2 can read FAT and HPFS partitions,
-but not FFS (FreeBSD) or EXT2 (Linux) partitions. Likewise, Windows
-95 can only read and write to FAT and FAT32 (see <xref
-linkend="ch2">) partitions. FreeBSD can read most file systems, but
-currently cannot read HPFS partitions. Linux can read HPFS
-partitions, but can't write to them. Recent versions of the Linux
-kernel (2.x) can read and write to Windows 95 VFAT partitions (VFAT
-is what gives Windows 95 long file names - it's pretty much the same
-as FAT). Linux can read and write to most file systems. Got that?
-I hope so.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="ch5">
-<title>Examples</title>
-
-<para><emphasis>(section needs work, please send your example to
-<email>jayrich@in.net</email>)</emphasis>.</para>
-
-<para>FreeBSD+Win95: If you installed FreeBSD after Windows 95, you
-should see <literal>DOS</> on the Boot Easy menu. This is Windows
-95. If you installed Windows 95 after FreeBSD, read <xref
-linkend="ch4"> above. As long as your hard disk does not have 1024
-cylinders you should not have a problem booting. If one of your
-partitions goes beyond the 1024th cylinder however, and you get
-messages like <errorname>invalid system disk</> under DOS (Windows 95)
-and FreeBSD will not boot, try looking for a setting in your BIOS
-called <quote>&gt; 1024 cylinder support</> or <quote>NORMAL/LBA</>
-mode. DOS may need LBA (Logical Block Addressing) in order to boot
-correctly. If the idea of switching BIOS settings every time you
-boot up doesn't appeal to you, you can boot FreeBSD through DOS via
-the <filename>FBSDBOOT.EXE</> utility on the CD (It should find your
-FreeBSD partition and boot it.)</para>
-
-<para>FreeBSD+OS/2+Win95: Nothing new here. OS/2's boot manger
-can boot all of these operating systems, so that shouldn't be a
-problem.</para>
-
-<para>FreeBSD+Linux: You can also use Boot Easy to boot both operating
-systems.</para>
-
-<para>FreeBSD+Linux+Win95: (see <xref linkend="ch3">)</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="sources">
-<title>Other Sources of Help</title>
-
-<para>There are many <ulink
-URL="http://www.ssc.com/linux/howto.html">Linux HOW-TOs</ulink> that
-deal with multiple operating systems on the same hard disk.</para>
-
-<para>The <ulink
-URL="http://sunsite.unc.edu/mdw/HOWTO/mini/Linux+OS2+DOS">Linux+OS/2+DOS
-Mini-HOWTO</ulink> offers help on configuring the OS/2 boot
-manager. The <ulink
-URL="http://www.in.net/~jkatz/win95/Linux-HOWTO.html">Linux-HOWTO</ulink>
-is also helpful.</para>
-
-<para>The <ulink
-URL="http://www.dorsai.org/~dcl/publications/NTLDR_Hacking">NT Loader
-Hacking Guide</ulink> provides good information on multibooting
-Windows NT, '95, and DOS with other operating systems.</para>
-
-<para>And Hale Landis's "How It Works" document pack contains some good info
-on all sorts of disk geometry and booting related topics. Here are a few
-links that might help you find it: <ulink URL="ftp://fission.dt.wdc.com/pub/otherdocs/pc_systems/how_it_works/allhiw.zip">ftp://fission.dt.wdc.com/pub/otherdocs/pc_systems/how_it_works/allhiw.zip</ulink>,
-<ulink URL="http://www.cs.yorku.ca/People/frank/docs/">http://www.cs.yorku.ca/People/frank/docs/</ulink>.</para>
-
-<para>Finally, don't overlook FreeBSD's kernel documentation on the booting
-procedure, available in the kernel source distribution (it unpacks to
-<ulink URL="file:/usr/src/sys/i386/boot/biosboot/README.386BSD">file:/usr/src/sys/i386/boot/biosboot/README.386BSD</ulink>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Technical Details</title>
-
-<para><emphasis>(Contributed by Randall Hopper,
-<email>rhh@ct.picker.com</email>)</emphasis></para>
-
-<para>This section attempts to give you enough basic information
-about your hard disks and the disk booting process so that you can
-troubleshoot most problems you might encounter when getting set up to
-boot several operating systems. It starts in pretty basic terms, so
-you may want to skim down in this section until it begins to look
-unfamiliar and then start reading.</para>
-
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Disk Primer</title>
-
-<para>Three fundamental terms are used to describe the location of
-data on your hard disk: Cylinders, Heads, and Sectors. It's not
-particularly important to know what these terms relate to except to
-know that, together, they identify where data is physically on your
-disk.</para>
-
-<para>Your disk has a particular number of cylinders, number of
-heads, and number of sectors per cylinder-head (a cylinder-head also
-known nown as a track). Collectively this information defines the
-"physical disk geometry" for your hard disk. There are typically 512
-bytes per sector, and 63 sectors per track, with the number of
-cylinders and heads varying widely from disk to disk. Thus you can
-figure the number of bytes of data that'll fit on your own disk by
-calculating: <informalexample><para>(# of cylinders) &times; (#
-heads) &times; (63 sectors/track) &times; (512
-bytes/sect)</></informalexample> For example, on my 1.6 Gig Western
-Digital AC31600 EIDE hard disk,that's: <informalexample><para>(3148
-cyl) &times; (16 heads) &times; (63 sectors/track) &times (512
-bytes/sect)</para></informalexample></para>
-
-<para>which is 1,624,670,208 bytes, or around 1.6 Gig.</para>
-
-<para>You can find out the physical disk geometry (number of
-cylinders, heads, and sectors/track counts) for your hard disks using
-ATAID or other programs off the net. Your hard disk probably came
-with this information as well. Be careful though: if you're using
-BIOS LBA (see <xref linkend="limits">), you can't use just any
-program to get the physical geometry. This is because many programs
-(e.g. <filename>MSD.EXE</> or FreeBSD fdisk) don't identify the
-physical disk geometry; they instead report the
-<firstterm>translated geometry</> (virtual numbers from using LBA).
-Stay tuned for what that means.</para>
-
-<para>One other useful thing about these terms. Given 3
-numbers&mdash;a cylinder number, a head number, and a
-sector-within-track number&mdash;you identify a specific absolute
-sector (a 512 byte block of data) on your disk. Cylinders and Heads
-are numbered up from 0, and Sectors are numbered up from 1.</para>
-
-<para>For those that are interested in more technical details,
-information on disk geometry, boot sectors, BIOSes, etc. can be found
-all over the net. Query Lycos, Yahoo, etc. for <literal>boot
-sector</> or <literal>master boot record</>. Among the useful info
-you'll find are Hale Landis's <citetitle>How It Works</> document
-pack. See the <xref linkend="sources"> section for a few pointers to
-this pack.</para>
-
-<para>Ok, enough terminology. We're talking about booting
-here.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1 id="booting">
-<title>The Booting Process</title>
-
-<para>On the first sector of your disk (Cyl 0, Head 0, Sector 1)
-lives the Master Boot Record (MBR). It contains a map of your disk.
-It identifies up to 4 <firstterm>partitions</>, each of which is a
-contiguous chunk of that disk. FreeBSD calls partitions
-<firstterm>slices</> to avoid confusion with it's own partitions, but
-we won't do that here. Each partition can contain its own operating
-system.</para>
-
-<para>Each partition entry in the MBR has a <firstterm>Partition
-ID</>, a <firstterm>Start Cylinder/Head/Sector</>, and an
-<firstterm>End Cylinder/Head/Sector</>. The Partition ID tells what
-type of partition it is (what OS) and the Start/End tells where it
-is. <xref linkend="tbl-pid"> lists a smattering of some common
-Partition IDs.</para>
-
-<table id="tbl-pid">
-<title>Partition IDs</>
-<tgroup cols="2">
-<thead>
-<row>
-<entry>ID (hex)</entry>
-<entry>Description</entry>
-</row>
-</thead>
-
-<tbody>
-<row>
-<entry>01</entry>
-<entry>Primary DOS12 (12-bit FAT)</entry>
-</row>
-
-<row>
-<entry>04</entry>
-<entry>Primary DOS16 (16-bit FAT)</entry>
-</row>
-
-<row>
-<entry>05</entry>
-<entry>Extended DOS</entry>
-</row>
-
-<row>
-<entry>06</entry>
-<entry>Primary big DOS (&gt; 32MB)</entry>
-</row>
-
-<row>
-<entry>0A</entry>
-<entry>OS/2</entry>
-</row>
-
-<row>
-<entry>83</entry>
-<entry>Linux (EXT2FS)</entry>
-</row>
-
-<row>
-<entry>A5</entry>
-<entry>FreeBSD, NetBSD, 386BSD (UFS)</entry>
-</row>
-
-</tbody>
-</tgroup>
-</table>
-
-<para>Note that not all partitions are bootable (e.g. Extended DOS).
-Some are&mdash;some aren't. What makes a partition bootable is the
-configuration of the <firstterm>Partition Boot Sector</> that exists
-at the beginning of each partition.</para>
-
-<para>When you configure your favorite boot manager, it looks up the entries
-in the MBR partition tables of all your hard disks and lets you name the
-entries in that list. Then when you boot, the boot manager is invoked by
-special code in the Master Boot Sector of the first probed hard disk on
-your system. It looks at the MBR partition table entry corresponding to
-the partition choice you made, uses the Start Cylinder/Head/Sector
-information for that partition, loads up the Partition Boot Sector for that
-partition, and gives it control. That Boot Sector for the partition itself
-contains enough information to start loading the operating system on that
-partition.</para>
-
-<para>One thing we just brushed past that's important to know. All of your
-hard disks have MBRs. However, the one that's important is the one on the
-disk that's first probed by the BIOS. If you have only IDE hard disks, its
-the first IDE disk (e.g. primary disk on first controller). Similarly for
-SCSI only systems. If you have both IDE and SCSI hard disks though, the
-IDE disk is typically probed first by the BIOS, so the first IDE disk is
-the first probed disk. The boot manager you will install will be hooked into
-the MBR on this first probed hard disk that we've just described.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1 id="limits">
-<title>Booting Limitations and Warnings</title>
-
-<para>Now the interesting stuff that you need to watch out for.</para>
-
-<sect2>
-<title>The dreaded 1024 cylinder limit and how BIOS LBA helps</title>
-
-<para>The first part of the booting process is all done through the
-BIOS, (if that's a new term to you, the BIOS is a software chip on
-your system motherboard which provides startup code for your
-computer). As such, this first part of the process is subject to the
-limitations of the BIOS interface.</para>
-
-<para>The BIOS interface used to read the hard disk during this period
-(INT 13H, Subfunction 2) allocates 10 bits to the Cylinder Number, 8
-bits to the Head Number, and 6 bits to the Sector Number. This
-restricts users of this interface (i.e. boot managers hooked into
-your disk's MBR as well as OS loaders hooked into the Boot Sectors)
-to the following limits:
-<itemizedlist>
-<listitem><para>1024 cylinders, max</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>256 heads , max</para></listitem>
-<listitem><para>64 cylinders, max (actually 63, <literal>0</> isn't
-available)</para></listitem>
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-<para>Now big hard disks have lots of cylinders but not a lot of
-heads, so invariably with big hard disks the number of cylinders is
-greater than 1024. Given this and the BIOS interface as is, you
-can't boot off just anywhere on your hard disk. The boot code (the
-boot manager and the OS loader hooked into all bootable partitions'
-Boot Sectors) has to reside below cylinder 1024. In fact, if your
-hard disk is typical and has 16 heads, this equates to:
-<informalexample>
-<para>1024 cyl/disk &times; 16 heads/disk &times; 63 sect/(cyl-head)
-&times; 512 bytes/sector</para>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>which is around the often-mentioned 528MB limit.</para>
-
-<para>This is where BIOS LBA (Logical Block Addressing) comes in. BIOS LBA
-gives the user of the BIOS API calls access to physical cylinders above
-1024 though the BIOS interfaces by redefining a cylinder. That is, it
-remaps your cylinders and heads, making it appear through the BIOS as
-though the disk has fewer cylinders and more heads than it actually
-does. In other words, it takes advantage of the fact that hard disks have
-relatively few heads and lots of cylinders by shifting the balance between
-number of cylinders and number of heads so that both numbers lie below the
-above-mentioned limits (1024 cylinders, 256 heads).</para>
-
-<para>With BIOS LBA, the hard disk size limitation is virtually
-removed (well, pushed up to 8 Gigabytes anyway). If you have an LBA
-BIOS, you can put FreeBSD or any OS anywhere you want and not hit the
-1024 cylinder limit.</para>
-
-<para>To use my 1.6 Gig Western Digital as an example again, it's
-physical geometry is:
-<informalexample>
-<para>(3148 cyl, 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 512 bytes/sector)</para>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>However, my BIOS LBA remaps this to:
-<informalexample>
-<para>( 787 cyl, 64 heads, 63 sectors/track, 512 bytes/sector)</para>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>giving the same effective size disk, but with cylinder and head
-counts within the BIOS API's range (Incidentally, I have both Linux and
-FreeBSD existing on one of my hard disks above the 1024th physical
-cylinder, and both operating systems boot fine, thanks to BIOS LBA).</para>
-
-</sect2>
-
-<sect2>
-<title>Boot Managers and Disk Allocation</title>
-
-<para>Another gotcha to watch out when installing boot managers is
-allocating space for your boot manager. It's best to be aware of
-this issue up front to save yourself from having to reinstall one or
-more of your OSs.</para>
-
-<para>If you followed the discussion in <xref linkend="booting">
-about the Master Boot Sector (where the MBR is), Partition Boot
-Sectors, and the booting process, you may have been wondering just
-exactly where on your hard disk that nifty boot manager is going to
-live. Well, some boot managers are small enough to fit entirely
-within the Master Boot Sector (Cylinder 0, Head 0, Sector 0) along
-with the partition table. Others need a bit more room and actually
-extend a few sectors past the Master Boot Sector in the Cylinder 0
-Head 0 track, since that's typically free&hellip;typically.</para>
-
-<para>That's the catch. Some operating systems (FreeBSD included) let
-you start their partitions right after the Master Boot Sector at
-Cylinder 0, Head 0, Sector 2 if you want. In fact, if you give
-FreeBSD's sysinstall a disk with an empty chunk up front or the whole
-disk empty, that's where it'll start the FreeBSD partition by default
-(at least it did when I fell into this trap). Then when you go to
-install your boot manager, if it's one that occupies a few extra
-sectors after the MBR, it'll overwrite the front of the first
-partition's data. In the case of FreeBSD, this overwrites the
-disk label, and renders your FreeBSD partition unbootable.</para>
-
-<para>The easy way to avoid this problem (and leave yourself the
-flexibility to try different boot managers later) is just to always
-leave the first full track on your disk unallocated when you
-partition your disk. That is, leave the space from Cylinder 0, Head
-0, Sector 2 through Cylinder 0, Head 0, Sector 63 unallocated, and
-start your first partition at Cylinder 0, Head 1, Sector 1.
-For what it's worth, when you create a DOS partition at the
-front of your disk, DOS leaves this space open by default (this is
-why some boot managers assume it's free). So creating a DOS
-partition up at the front of your disk avoids this problem
-altogether. I like to do this myself, creating 1 Meg DOS partition
-up front, because it also avoids my primary DOS drive letters
-shifting later when I repartition.</para>
-
-<para>For reference, the following boot managers use the
-Master Boot Sector to store their code and data:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>OS-BS 1.35</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Boot Easy</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>LILO</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-<para>These boot managers use a few additional sectors after the
-Master Boot Sector:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>OS-BS 2.0 Beta 8 (sectors 2-5)</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>OS/2's boot manager</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-</sect2>
-
-<sect2>
-<title>What if your machine won't boot?</title>
-
-<para>At some point when installing boot managers, you might leave the
-MBR in a state such that your machine won't boot. This is unlikely,
-but possible when re-FDISKing underneath an already-installed boot
-manager.</para>
-
-<para>If you have a bootable DOS partition on your disk, you can boot
-off a DOS floppy, and run:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>A:\> <userinput>FDISK /MBR</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>to put the original, simple DOS boot code back into the system. You can
-then boot DOS (and DOS only) off the hard drive. Alternatively, just
-re-run your boot manager installation program off a bootable floppy.</para>
-
-</sect2>
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-</book>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index d8131087f4..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,7 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.3 1997-07-01 05:38:15 max Exp $
-
-DOCS= newuser.docb
-INDEXLINK= newuser.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
-
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml
deleted file mode 100644
index 67568b5590..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,943 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: article.sgml,v 1.4 1997-08-15 17:11:49 jfieber Exp $ -->
-<!-- The FreeBSD Documentation Project -->
-
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-<book>
-
-<bookinfo>
-<bookbiblio>
-<title>For People New to Both FreeBSD and Unix</title>
-
-<authorgroup>
-<author>
-<firstname>Annelise</firstname>
-<surname>Anderson</surname>
-<affiliation>
-<address><email>andrsn@andrsn.stanford.edu</email></address>
-</affiliation>
-</author>
-</authorgroup>
-
-<pubdate>August 15, 1997</pubdate>
-
-<abstract><para>Congratulations on installing FreeBSD! This
-introduction is for people new to both FreeBSD
-<emphasis>and</emphasis> Un*x&mdash;so it starts with basics. It
-assumes you're using version 2.0.5 or later of FreeBSD as distributed
-by Walnut Creek or FreeBSD.ORG, your system (for now) has a single
-user (you)&mdash;and you're probably pretty good with DOS/Windows or
-OS/2.</para></abstract>
-
-</bookbiblio>
-</bookinfo>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Logging in and Getting Out</title>
-
-<para>Log in (when you see <systemitem
-class=prompt>login:</systemitem>) as a user you created during
-installation or as <firstterm>root</firstterm>. (Your FreeBSD
-installation will already have an account for root; root can go
-anywhere and do anything, including deleting essential files, so be
-careful!) The symbols % and # in the following stand for the prompt
-(yours may be different), with % indicating an ordinary user and
-# indicating root. </para>
-
-<para>To log out (and get a new <systemitem class=prompt>login:</systemitem> prompt) type
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>exit</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-as often as necessary. Yes, press <keysym>enter</keysym> after
-commands, and remember that Unix is
-case-sensitive&mdash;<command>exit</command>, not
-<command>EXIT</command>.</para>
-
-<para>To shut down the machine type:
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>/sbin/shutdown -h now</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-Or to reboot type
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>/sbin/shutdown -r now</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-or
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>/sbin/reboot</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>You can also reboot with
-<keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>Delete</keycap></keycombo>.
-Give it a little time to do its work. This is equivalent to
-<command>/sbin/reboot</command> in recent releases of FreeBSD, and is
-much, much better than hitting the reset button. You don't want to
-have to reinstall this thing, do you?</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Adding A User with Root Privileges</title>
-
-<para>If you didn't create any users when you installed the system and
-are thus logged in as root, you should probably create a user now with
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>adduser</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-The first time you use adduser, it might ask for some defaults to save. You
-might want to make the default shell csh instead of sh, if it suggests
-sh as the default. Otherwise just press enter to accept each default.
-These defaults are saved in <filename>/etc/adduser.conf</filename>,
-an editable file.</para>
-
-<para>Suppose you create a user <emphasis>jack</emphasis> with
-full name <emphasis>Jack Benimble</emphasis>. Give jack a password
-if security (even kids around who might pound on the keyboard) is an
-issue. When it asks you if you want to invite jack into other
-groups, type <userinput>wheel</userinput>
-<informalexample>
-<screen>Login group is ``jack''. Invite jack into other groups: <userinput>wheel</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-This will make it possible to log in as <emphasis>jack</emphasis> and
-use the <command>su</command> command to become root. Then you won't
-get scolded any more for logging in as root.</para>
-
-<para>You can quit <command>adduser</command> any time by typing
-<keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>C</keycap></keycombo>, and at
-the end you'll have a chance to approve your new user or simply type
-<keycap>n</keycap> for no. You might want to create a
-second new user (jill?) so that when you edit jack's login files,
-you'll have a hot spare in case something goes wrong.</para>
-
-<para>Once you've done this, use <command>exit</command>
-to get back to a login prompt and log in as
-<emphasis>jack</emphasis>. In general, it's a good idea to do as
-much work as possible as an ordinary user who doesn't have the
-power&mdash;and risk&mdash;of root.</para>
-
-<para>If you already created a user and you want the user to be able
-to <command>su</command> to root, you can log in as root
-and edit the file <filename>/etc/group</filename>, adding jack to the
-first line (the group wheel). But first you need to practice
-<command>vi</command>, the text editor--or use the simpler text
-editor, <command>ee</command>, installed on recent version of
-FreeBSD.</para>
-
-<para>To delete a user, use the <command>rmuser</command> command.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Looking Around</title>
-
-<para>Logged in as an ordinary user, look around and try out some
-commands that will access the sources of help and information within
-FreeBSD.</para>
-
-<para>Here are some commands and what they do:
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><command>id</command></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>Tells you who you are!</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>pwd</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Shows you where you are&mdash;the current
-working directory.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>ls</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Lists the files in the current directory.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>ls <option>-F</option></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Lists the files in the current directory with a
-<literal>*</literal> after executables, a <literal>/</literal> after
-directories, and an <literal>@</literal> after symbolic links.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>ls <option>-l</option></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Lists the files in long format&mdash;size,
-date, permissions.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>ls <option>-a</option></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Lists hidden <quote>dot</quote>
-files with the others. If you're root, the<quote>dot</quote> files
-show up without the <option>-a</option> switch.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>cd</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Changes directories. <command>cd
-<parameter>..</parameter></command> backs up one level; note the
-space after <command>cd</command>. <command>cd
-<parameter>/usr/local</parameter></command> goes there. <command>cd
-<parameter>~</parameter></command> goes to the home directory of the
-person logged in&mdash;e.g., <filename>/usr/home/jack</filename>.
-Try <command>cd <parameter>/cdrom</parameter></command>, and then
-<command>ls</command>, to find out if your CDROM is mounted and
-working.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>view <replaceable>filename</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Lets you look at a file (named
-<replaceable>filename</replaceable> without changing it. Try
-<command>view <parameter>/etc/fstab</parameter></command>.
-<command>:q</command> to quit.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>cat <replaceable>filename</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-
-<para>Displays <replaceable>filename</replaceable> on screen. If
-it's too long and you can see only the end of it, press
-<keycap>ScrollLock</keycap> and use the <keycap>up-arrow</keycap> to
-move backward; you can use <keycap>ScrollLock</keycap> with man pages
-too. Press <keycap>ScrollLock</keycap> again to quit scrolling. You
-might want to try <command>cat</command> on some of the dot files in
-your home directory&mdash;<command>cat
-<parameter>.cshrc</parameter></command>, <command>cat
-<parameter>.login</parameter></command>, <command>cat
-<parameter>.profile</parameter></command>.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-
-You'll notice aliases in <filename>.cshrc</filename> for some of the
-<command>ls</command> commands (they're very convenient).
-You can create other aliases by editing <filename>.cshrc</filename>.
-You can make these aliases available to all users on the system by
-putting them in the system-wide csh configuration file,
-<filename>/etc/csh.cshrc</filename>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Getting Help and Information</title>
-
-<para>Here are some useful sources of help.
-<replaceable>Text</replaceable> stands for something of your choice
-that you type in&mdash;usually a command or filename.</para>
-
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><command>apropos <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Everything containing string <replaceable>text</replaceable>
-in the <database>whatis database</database>.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>man <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>The man page for <replaceable>text</replaceable>. The major
-source of documentation for Un*x systems. <command>man
-<parameter>ls</parameter></command> will tell you all the ways to use
-the <command>ls</command> command. Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to
-move through text,
-<keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>b</keycap></keycombo> to go
-back a page, <keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>f</keycap></keycombo> to
-go forward, <keycap>q</keycap> or
-<keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>c</keycap></keycombo> to
-quit.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>which <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Tells you where in the user's path the command
-<replaceable>text</replaceable> is found.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>locate <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>All the paths where the string <replaceable>text</replaceable>
-is found.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>whatis <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Tells you what the command <replaceable>text</replaceable>
-does and its man page. Typing <command>whatis *</command> will tell
-you about all the binaries in the current directory.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>whereis <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Finds the file <replaceable>text</replaceable>, giving its full
-path.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-
-<para>You might want to try using <command>whatis</command> on some
-common useful commands like <command>cat</command>,
-<command>more</command>, <command>grep</command>,
-<command>mv</command>, <command>find</command>,
-<command>tar</command>, <command>chmod</command>,
-<command>chown</command>, <command>date</command>, and
-<command>script</command>. <command>more</command> lets you read a
-page at a time as it does in DOS, e.g., <command>ls -l |
-more</command> or <command>more
-<replaceable>filename</replaceable></command>. The
-<literal>*</literal> works as a wildcard&mdash;e.g., <command>ls
-w*</command> will show you files beginning with
-<literal>w</literal>.</para>
-
-<para>Are some of these not working very well? Both
-<command>locate</command> and <command>whatis</command>
-depend on a database that's rebuilt weekly. If your machine isn't
-going to be left on over the weekend (and running FreeBSD), you might
-want to run the commands for daily, weekly, and monthly maintenance
-now and then. Run them as root and give each one time to finish
-before you start the next one, for now.
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>/etc/daily</userinput>
-<lineannotation>output omitted</lineannotation>
-# <userinput>/etc/weekly</userinput>
-<lineannotation>output omitted</lineannotation>
-# <userinput>/etc/monthly</userinput>
-<lineannotation>output omitted</lineannotation></screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>If you get tired waiting, press
-<keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F2</keycap></keycombo> to get
-another <firstterm>virtual console</firstterm>, and log in again.
-After all, it's a multi-user, multi-tasking system. Nevertheless
-these commands will probably flash messages on your screen while
-they're running; you can type <command>clear</command> at the prompt
-to clear the screen. Once they've run, you might want to look at
-<filename>/var/mail/root</filename> and
-<filename>/var/log/messages</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>Basically running such commands is part of system
-administration&mdash;and as a single user of a Unix system, you're
-your own system administrator. Virtually everything you need to be
-root to do is system administration. Such responsibilities aren't
-covered very well even in those big fat books on Unix, which seem to
-devote a lot of space to pulling down menus in windows managers. You
-might want to get one of the two leading books on systems
-administration, either Evi Nemeth et.al.'s <citetitle>UNIX System
-Administration Handbook</citetitle> (Prentice-Hall, 1995, ISBN
-0-13-15051-7)&mdash;the second edition with the red cover; or
-&AElig;leen Frisch's <citetitle>Essential System
-Administration</citetitle> (O'Reilly &amp; Associates, 1993, ISBN
-0-937175-80-3). I used Nemeth.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Editing Text</title>
-
-<para>To configure your system, you need to edit text files. Most of
-them will be in the <filename>/etc</filename> directory; and you'll
-need to <command>su</command> to root to be able to change them. You
-can use the easy <command>ee</command>, but in the long run the
-text editor <command>vi</command> is worth learning. There's an
-excellent tutorial on vi in
-<filename>/usr/src/contrib/nvi/docs/tutorial</filename> if you have
-that installed; otherwise you can get it by ftp to
-ftp.cdrom.com in the directory
-FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/src/contrib/nvi/docs/tutorial.</para>
-
-<para>Before you edit a
-file, you should probably back it up. Suppose you want to edit
-<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>. You could just use <command>cd
-/etc</command> to get to the <filename>/etc</filename> directory and
-do:
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>cp rc.conf rc.conf.orig</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-This would copy <filename>rc.conf</filename> to
-<filename>rc.conf.orig</filename>, and you could later copy
-<filename>rc.conf.orig</filename> to <emphasis
-remap=tt>rc.conf</emphasis> to recover the original. But even
-better would be moving (renaming) and then copying back:
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>mv rc.conf rc.conf.orig</userinput>
-# <userinput>cp rc.conf.orig rc.conf</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-because the <command>mv</command> command preserves the original date
-and owner of the file. You can now edit
-<filename>rc.conf</filename>. If you want the original back, you'd
-then <userinput>mv rc.conf rc.conf.myedit</userinput>
-(assuming you want to preserve your edited version) and then
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>mv rc.conf.orig rc.conf</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-to put things back the way they were.</para>
-
-<para>To edit a file, type
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>vi <replaceable>filename</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-Move through the text with the arrow keys. <keycap>Esc</keycap> (the
-escape key) puts <command>vi</command> in command mode. Here are some
-commands:
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><command>x</command></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>delete letter the cursor is on</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>dd</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>delete the entire line (even if it wraps on the screen)</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>i</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>insert text at the cursor</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>a</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>insert text after the cursor</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-Once you type <command>i</command> or <command>a</command>, you can enter text.
-<command>Esc</command> puts you back in command mode where you can type
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><command>:w</command></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>to write your changes to disk and continue editing</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>:wq</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to write and quit</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>:q!</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to quit without saving changes</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>/<replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to move the cursor to <replaceable>text</replaceable>;
-<command>/<keycap>Enter</keycap></command> (the enter key) to find
-the next instance of <replaceable>text</replaceable>.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>G</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to go to the end of the file</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command><replaceable>n</replaceable>G</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to go to line <replaceable>n</replaceable> in
-the file, where <replaceable>n</replaceable> is a number</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</><keycap>L</></keycombo></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to redraw the screen</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</><keycap>b</></> and <keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</><keycap>f</></></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>go back
-and forward a screen, as they
-do with <command>more</> and <command>view</>.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-<para>Practice with <command>vi</> in your home directory by creating
-a new file with <command>vi <replaceable>filename</></> and adding
-and deleting text, saving the file, and calling it up again.
-<command>vi</> delivers some surprises because it's really quite
-complex, and sometimes you'll inadvertently issue a command that will
-do something you don't expect. (Some people actually like
-<command>vi</>&mdash;it's more powerful than DOS EDIT&mdash;find out
-about the <command>:r</> command.) Use <keycap>Esc</> one or
-more times to be sure you're in command mode and proceed from there
-when it gives you trouble, save often with <command>:w</>, and
-use <command>:q!</> to get out and start over (from
-your last <command>:w</>) when you need to.</para>
-
-<para>Now you can <command>cd</> to <filename>/etc</filename>,
-<command>su</> to root, use <command>vi</> to edit the file
-<filename>/etc/group</filename>, and add a user to wheel so the user
-has root privileges. Just add a comma and the user's login name to
-the end of the first line in the file, press <keycap>Esc</>, and use
-<command>:wq</> to write the file to disk and quit. Instantly
-effective. (You didn't put a space after the comma, did you?)</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Printing Files from DOS</title>
-
-<para>At this point you probably don't have the printer working, so here's a
-way to create a file from a man page, move it to a floppy, and then
-print it from DOS. Suppose you want to read carefully about changing
-permissions on files (pretty important). You can use the command
-man chmod to read about it. The command
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>man chmod | col -b &gt; chmod.txt</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-will remove formatting codes and send the man page to
-the <filename>chmod.txt</filename> file
-instead of showing it on your screen. Now put a dos-formatted
-diskette in your floppy drive a, <command>su</> to
-root, and type
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>/sbin/mount -t msdos /dev/fd0 /mnt</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-to mount the floppy drive on <filename>/mnt</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>Now (you no longer need to be root, and you can type
-<command>exit</> to get back to being user jack) you can go to the
-directory where you created chmod.txt and copy the file to the floppy
-with:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>% <userinput>cp chmod.txt /mnt</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-and use <command>ls /mnt</command> to get a directory listing of
-<filename>/mnt</filename>, which should show the file
-<filename>chmod.txt</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>You might especially want to make a file from
-<filename>/sbin/dmesg</filename> by typing
-<informalexample>
-<screen>% <userinput>/sbin/dmesg &gt; dmesg.txt</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-and copying <filename>dmesg.txt</filename> to the floppy.
-<command>/sbin/dmesg</command> is the boot log record, and it's
-useful to understand it because it shows what FreeBSD found when it
-booted up. If you ask questions on
-<email>freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.ORG</> or on a USENET
-group&mdash;like <quote>FreeBSD isn't finding my tape drive, what do
-I do?</quote>&mdash;people will want to know what <command>dmesg</>
-has to say.</para>
-
-<para>You can now dismount the floppy drive (as root) to get the disk
-out with
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>/sbin/umount /mnt</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-and reboot to go to DOS. Copy these files to a DOS directory, call
-them up with DOS EDIT, Windows Notepad or Wordpad, or a word processor, make a
-minor change so the file has to be saved, and print as you normally
-would from DOS or Windows. Hope it works! man pages come out best if
-printed with the dos <command>print</> command. (Copying files from
-FreeBSD to a mounted dos partition is in some cases still a little
-risky.)</para>
-
-<para>Getting the printer printing from FreeBSD involves creating an
-appropriate entry in <filename>/etc/printcap</filename> and creating
-a matching spool directory in
-<filename>/var/spool/output</filename>. If your printer is on
-<hardware>lpt0</> (what dos calls <hardware>LPT1</>), you may only
-need to go to <filename>/var/spool/output</filename> and (as root)
-create the directory <filename>lpd</> by typing:
-<command>
-mkdir lpd</command>, if it doesn't already
-exist.
-Then the printer should respond if it's turned on when the system is
-booted, and lp or lpr should send a file to the printer. Whether or
-not the file actually prints depends on configuring it, which is
-covered in the <ulink
-URL="http://www.freebsd.org/handbook/handbook.html">FreeBSD
-handbook.</></para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Other Useful Commands</title>
-
-<para>
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><command>df</></term>
-<listitem>
-<para>shows file space and mounted systems.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>ps aux</></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>shows processes running. <command>ps ax</> is a narrower form.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>rm <replaceable>filename</></></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>remove <replaceable>filename</>.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>rm -R <replaceable>dir</></></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>removes a directory <replaceable>dir</> and all
-subdirectories&mdash;careful!</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>ls -R</command></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>lists files in the current
-directory and all subdirectories;
-I used a variant, <command>ls -AFR &gt; where.txt</command>,
-to get a list of all
-the files in <filename>/</filename> and (separately)
-<filename>/usr</filename> before I found better
-ways to find files.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>passwd</></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>to change user's password (or root's password)</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><command>man hier</></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>man page on the Unix file system</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist></para>
-
-<para>Use <command>find</> to locate filename in <filename>/usr</filename>
-or any of its subdirectories with
-<informalexample>
-<screen>% <userinput>find /usr -name "<replaceable>filename</>"</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-You can use <literal>*</literal> as a wildcard in
-<parameter>"<replaceable>filename</>"</> (which should be in
-quotes). If you tell find to search in <filename>/</filename>
-instead of <filename>/usr</filename> it will look for the file(s) on
-all mounted file systems, including the CDROM and the dos
-partition.</para>
-
-<para>An excellent book that explains Unix commands and utilities is
-Abrahams &amp; Larson, <citetitle>Unix for the Impatient</citetitle>
-(2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, 1996). There's also a lot of Unix
-information on the Internet. Try the <ulink
-URL="http://www.eecs.nwu.edu/unix.html">Unix Reference
-Desk</ulink>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Next Steps</title>
-
-<para>You should now have the tools you need to get around and edit
-files, so you can get everything up and running. There is a great
-deal of information in the FreeBSD handbook (which is probably on
-your hard drive) and <ulink URL="http://www.freebsd.org/">FreeBSD's
-web site</ulink>. A wide variety of packages and ports are on the
-<ulink URL="http://www.cdrom.com/">Walnut Creek</ulink> CDROM as well
-as the web site. The handbook tells you more about how to use them
-(get the package if it exists, with <command>pkg_add
-/cdrom/packages/All/<replaceable>packagename</></>,
-where <replaceable>packagename</replaceable> is the filename of the
-package). The cdrom has lists of the packages and ports with brief
-descriptions in <filename>cdrom/packages/index</filename>,
-<filename>cdrom/packages/index.txt</filename>, and
-<filename>cdrom/ports/index</filename>, with fuller descriptions in
-<filename>/cdrom/ports/*/*/pkg/DESCR</filename>, where the
-<literal>*</literal>s represent subdirectories of kinds of programs
-and program names respectively.</para>
-
-<para>If you find the handbook too sophisticated (what with
-<command>lndir</> and all) on installing ports from the cdrom,
-here's what usually works:</para>
-
-<para>Find the port you want, say <command>kermit</>. There will be
-a directory for it on the cdrom. Copy the subdirectory to
-<filename>/usr/local</filename> (a good place for software you add
-that should be available to all users) with:
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>cp -R /cdrom/ports/comm/kermit /usr/local</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-This should result in a <filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename>
-subdirectory that has all the files that the
-<command>kermit</command> subdirectory on the CDROM has.</para>
-
-<para>Next, create the directory <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>
-if it doesn't already exist using <command>mkdir</>. Now check
-check <filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename> for a
-file with a name that indicates it's the port you want. Copy that
-file to <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>; in recent versions
-you can skip this step, as FreeBSD will do it for you.
-In the case of <command>kermit</>, there is no
-distfile.</para>
-
-<para>Then <command>cd</> to the subdirectory of
-<filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename> that has the file
-<filename>Makefile</>. Type
-<informalexample>
-<screen># <userinput>make all install</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>During this process the port will ftp to get any compressed
-files it needs that it didn't find on the cdrom or in
-<filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>. If you don't have your
-network running yet and there was no file for the port in
-<filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename>, you will have to get
-the distfile using another machine and copy it to
-<filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> from a floppy or your dos
-partition. Read <filename>Makefile</> (with <command>cat</> or
-<command>more</> or <command>view</>) to find out where to go (the
-master distribution site) to get the file and what its name is. Its
-name will be truncated when downloaded to DOS, and after you get it
-into <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> you'll have to rename
-it (with the <command>mv</> command) to its original name so it can
-be found. (Use binary file transfers!) Then go back to
-<filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename>, find the directory with
-<filename>Makefile</>, and type <command>make all install</>.</para>
-
-<para>The other thing that happens when installing ports or packages
-is that some other program is needed. If the installation stops with
-a message <errorname>can't find unzip</errorname> or whatever, you
-might need to install the package or port for unzip before you
-continue.</para>
-
-<para>Once it's installed type <command>rehash</> to make FreeBSD
-reread the files in the path so it knows what's there. (If you get a
-lot of <errorname>path not found</> messages when you use
-<command>whereis</> or which, you might want to make additions to the
-list of directories in the path statement in
-<filename>.cshrc</filename> in your home directory. The path
-statement in Unix does the same kind of work it does in DOS, except
-the current directory is not (by default) in the path for security
-reasons; if the command you want is in the directory you're in, you
-need to type <filename>./</filename> before the command to make it
-work; no space after the slash.)</para>
-
-<para>You might want to get the most recent version of Netscape from
-their <ulink URL="ftp://ftp.netscape.com">ftp site</ulink>. (Netscape
-requires the X Window System.) There's now a FreeBSD version, so look
-around carefully. Just use <command>gunzip
-<replaceable>filename</></> and <command>tar xvf
-<replaceable>filename</></> on it, move the binary to
-<filename>/usr/local/bin</filename> or some other place binaries are
-kept, <command>rehash</>, and then put the following lines in
-<filename>.cshrc</filename> in each user's home directory or (easier)
-in <filename>/etc/csh.cshrc</filename>, the system-wide csh start-up
-file:
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>setenv XKEYSYMDB /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XKeysymDB
-setenv XNLSPATH /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/nls</>
-</informalexample>
-This assumes that the file <filename>XKeysymDB</> and the directory
-<filename>nls</> are in <filename>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11</filename>; if
-they're not, find them and put them there.</para>
-
-<para>If you originally got Netscape as a port using the CDROM (or
-ftp), don't replace <filename>/usr/local/bin/netscape</filename> with
-the new netscape binary; this is just a shell script that sets up the
-environmental variables for you. Instead rename the new binary to
-<filename>netscape.bin</filename> and replace the old binary, which
-is <filename>/usr/local/lib/netscape/netscape.bin</filename>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-
-<title>Your Working Environment</title>
-
-<para>Your shell is the most important part of your working environment.
-In DOS, the usual shell is command.com. The shell is what interprets
-the commands you type on the command line, and thus communicates with
-the rest of the operating system. You can also write shell
-scripts, which are like DOS batch files: a series of commands to be
-run without your intervention.</para>
-
-<para>Two shells come installed with FreeBSD: csh and sh. csh is good for
-command-line work, but scripts should be written with sh (or bash). You can
-find out what shell you have by typing <command>echo $SHELL</command>.</para>
-
-<para>The csh shell is okay, but tcsh does everything csh does and more. It
-It allows you to recall commands with the arrow keys and edit them.
-It has tab-key completion
-of filenames (csh uses the escape key), and it lets you switch to the
-directory you were last in with <command>cd -</command>. It's also much
-easier to alter your prompt with tcsh. It makes life a lot easier.</para>
-
-<para>Here are the three steps for installing a new shell:</para>
-
-<para> 1. Install the shell as a port or a package, just as you
-would any other port or package. Use <command>rehash</command> and
-<command>which tcsh</command> (assuming you're installing tcsh) to
-make sure it got installed.</para>
-
-<para> 2. As root, edit <filename>/etc/shells</filename>, adding
-a line in the file for the new shell, in this case /usr/local/bin/tcsh,
-and save the file. (Some ports may do this for you.)</para>
-
-<para> 3. Use the <command>chsh</command> command to change your shell to
-tcsh permanently, or type <command>tcsh</command> at the prompt to
-change your shell without logging in again.</para>
-
-<para><emphasis>Note: It can be dangerous to change root's shell</emphasis>
-to something other than sh or csh on early versions of FreeBSD and many
-other versions of Unix; you may not have a working shell when the system
-puts you into single user mode. The solution is to use <command>su -m</command>
-to become root, which will give you the tcsh as root, because the shell is part
-of the environment. You can make this permanent by adding it to your
-<filename>.tcshrc</filename> file as an alias with <programlisting>alias su su -m.</></para>
-
-<para>When tcsh starts up, it will read the
-<filename>/etc/csh.cshrc</filename> and <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename>
-files, as does csh. It will also read the
-<filename>.login</filename> file in your home directory and the
-<filename>.cshrc</filename>
-file as well, unless you provide a <filename>.tcshrc</filename>
-file. This you can do by simply copying <filename>.cshrc</filename>
-to <filename>.tcshrc</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>Now that you've installed tcsh, you can adjust your prompt. You can
-find the details in the manual page for tcsh, but here is a line to
-put in your <filename>.tcshrc</filename> that will tell you how many
-commands you have typed, what time it is, and what directory you are in.
-It also produces a <literal>></literal> if you're an ordinary user and
-a <literal>#</literal> if you're root, but tsch will do that in any
-case:</para>
-<para>
- set prompt = "%h %t %~ %# "</para>
-
-<para>This should go in the same place as the existing set prompt line
-if there is one, or under "if($?prompt) then" if not.
-Comment out the old line; you can always switch back to it if you prefer
-it. Don't forget the spaces and quotes. You can get the <filename>.tcshrc</filename> reread by typing <command>source .tcshrc</command>.</para>
-
-<para>You can get a listing of other environmental variables that
-have been set by typing <command>env</command> at the prompt. The
-result will show you your default editor, pager, and terminal type,
-among possibly many others. A useful command if you log in from a
-remote location and can't run a program because the terminal isn't
-capable is
-<command>setenv TERM vt100</command>.</para>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Other</title>
-
-<para>As root, you can dismount the CDROM with <command>/sbin/umount
-/cdrom</>, take it out of the drive, insert another one, and mount it
-with <command>/sbin/mount_cd9660 /dev/cd0a /cdrom</> assuming
-<hardware>cd0a</> is the device name for your CDROM drive. The
-most recent versions of FreeBSD let you mount the cdrom with just
-<command>/sbin/mount /cdrom</command>.</para>
-
-<para>Using the live file system&mdash;the second of FreeBSD's CDROM
-disks&mdash;is useful if you've got limited space. What is on the
-live file system varies from release to release. You might try
-playing games from the cdrom. This
-involves using <command>lndir</>, which gets installed with the X
-Window System, to tell the program(s) where to find the necessary
-files, because they're in the <filename>/cdrom</filename> file system
-instead of in <filename>/usr</filename> and its subdirectories, which
-is where they're expected to be. Read <command>man lndir</>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Comments Welcome</title>
-
-<para>If you use this guide I'd be interested in knowing where it was
-unclear and what was left out that you think should be included, and
-if it was helpful. My thanks to Eugene W. Stark, professor of
-computer science at SUNY-Stony Brook, and John Fieber for helpful
-comments.</para>
-
-<para>Annelise Anderson, <email>andrsn@andrsn.stanford.edu</></para>
-
-</chapter>
-</book>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/programming-tools/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/programming-tools/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 72c7507f01..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/programming-tools/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,7 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.4 1997-07-01 05:38:11 max Exp $
-
-DOCS= devel.docb
-INDEXLINK= devel.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
-
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/programming-tools/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/programming-tools/article.sgml
deleted file mode 100644
index addd185ee8..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/programming-tools/article.sgml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,1835 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: article.sgml,v 1.3 1997-08-17 17:33:49 jfieber Exp $ -->
-<!-- The FreeBSD Documentation Project -->
-
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-<book>
-<bookinfo>
-<bookbiblio>
-<title>A User's Guide to FreeBSD Programming Tools</title>
-
-<authorgroup>
-<author>
-<firstname>James</firstname>
-<surname>Raynard</surname>
-<affiliation>
-<address>
-<email>jraynard@freebsd.org</email>
-</address>
-</affiliation>
-</author></authorgroup>
-
-<pubdate>August 17, 1997</pubdate>
-
-<copyright>
-<year>1997</year>
-<holder>James Raynard</holder>
-</copyright>
-
-<abstract><para>This document is an introduction to using some of the programming
-tools supplied with FreeBSD, although much of it will be applicable to
-many other versions of Unix. It does <emphasis>not</emphasis> attempt to describe
-coding in any detail. Most of the document assumes little or no
-previous programming knowledge, although it is hoped that most
-programmers will find something of value in it</para></abstract>
-</bookbiblio>
-</bookinfo>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Introduction<anchor id=foo></title>
-
-<para>FreeBSD offers an excellent development environment. Compilers
-for C, C++, and Fortran and an assembler come with the basic system,
-not to mention a Perl interpreter and classic Unix tools such as
-<command>sed</> and <command>awk</>. If that is not enough, there are
-many more compilers and interpreters in the Ports collection. FreeBSD
-is very compatible with standards such as <acronym>POSIX</> and
-<acronym>ANSI</> C, as well with its own BSD heritage, so it is
-possible to write applications that will compile and run with little
-or no modification on a wide range of platforms.</para>
-
-<para>However, all this power can be rather overwhelming at first if
-you've never written programs on a Unix platform before. This
-document aims to help you get up and running, without getting too
-deeply into more advanced topics. The intention is that this document
-should give you enough of the basics to be able to make some sense of
-the documentation.</para>
-
-<para>Most of the document requires little or no knowledge of
-programming, although it does assume a basic competence with using
-Unix and a willingness to learn!</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Introduction to Programming</title>
-
-<para>A program is a set of instructions that tell the computer to do
-various things; sometimes the instruction it has to perform depends
-on what happened when it performed a previous instruction. This
-section gives an overview of the two main ways in which you can give
-these instructions, or <quote>commands</quote> as they are usually
-called. One way uses an <firstterm>interpreter</>, the other a
-<firstterm>compiler</>. As human languages are too difficult for a
-computer to understand in an unambiguous way, commands are usually
-written in one or other languages specially designed for the
-purpose.</para>
-
-
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Interpreters</title>
-
-<para>With an interpreter, the language comes as an environment, where you
-type in commands at a prompt and the environment executes them for
-you. For more complicated programs, you can type the commands into a
-file and get the interpreter to load the file and execute the commands
-in it. If anything goes wrong, many interpreters will drop you into a
-debugger to help you track down the problem.</para>
-
-<para>The advantage of this is that you can see the results of your
-commands immediately, and mistakes can be corrected readily. The
-biggest disadvantage comes when you want to share your programs with
-someone. They must have the same interpreter, or you must have some
-way of giving it to them, and they need to understand how to use it.
-Also users may not appreciate being thrown into a debugger if they
-press the wrong key! From a performance point of view, interpreters
-can use up a lot of memory, and generally do not generate code as
-efficiently as compilers.</para>
-
-<para>In my opinion, interpreted languages are the best way to start
-if you have not done any programming before. This kind of environment
-is typically found with languages like Lisp, Smalltalk, Perl and
-Basic. It could also be argued that the Unix shell (<command>sh</>,
-<command>csh</>) is itself an interpreter, and many people do in fact
-write shell <quote>scripts</quote> to help with various
-<quote>housekeeping</> tasks on their machine. Indeed, part of the
-original Unix philosophy was to provide lots of small utility
-programs that could be linked together in shell scripts to perform
-useful tasks.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Interpreters available with FreeBSD</title>
-
-<para>Here is a list of interpreters that are available as <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/">FreeBSD
-packages</ulink>, with a brief discussion of some of the more popular
-interpreted languages. </para>
-
-<para>To get one of these packages, all you need to do is to click on
-the hotlink for the package, then run
-<screen>$ <userinput>pkg_add <replaceable>package name</></userinput></screen>
-</para>
-
-<para>as root. Obviously, you will need to have a fully functional FreeBSD
-2.1.0 or later system for the package to work!</para>
-
-<para>
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><acronym>BASIC</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Short for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction
-Code. Developed in the 1950s for teaching University students to
-program and provided with every self-respecting personal computer in
-the 1980s, <acronym>BASIC</> has been the first programming language
-for many programmers. It's also the foundation for <trademark>Visual
-Basic</>.</para>
-
-<para>The <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/bwbasic-2.10.tgz">Bywater
-Basic Interpreter</ulink> and the <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/pbasic-2.0.tgz">Phil
-Cockroft's Basic Interpreter</ulink> (formerly Rabbit Basic) are
-available as FreeBSD <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/">FreeBSD
-packages</ulink></para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Lisp</term>
-<listitem><para>A language that was developed in the late 1950s as an alternative to
-the <quote>number-crunching</quote> languages that were popular at the time.
-Instead of being based on numbers, Lisp is based on lists; in fact
-the name is short for <quote>List Processing</quote>. Very popular in AI
-(Artificial Intelligence) circles.</para>
-
-<para>Lisp is an extremely powerful and sophisticated language, but
-can be rather large and unwieldy. </para>
-
-<para>FreeBSD has <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/gcl-2.0.tgz">GNU
-Common Lisp</ulink> available as a package.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Perl</term>
-<listitem><para>Very popular with system administrators for writing
-scripts; also often used on World Wide Web servers for writing <acronym>CGI</>
-scripts.</para>
-
-<para>Version 4, which is probably still the most widely-used
-version, comes with FreeBSD; the newer <ulink
-URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/perl-5.001.tgz">Perl
-Version 5</ulink> is available as a package.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Scheme</term>
-<listitem><para>A dialect of Lisp that is rather more compact and
-cleaner than Common Lisp. Popular in Universities as it is simple
-enough to teach to undergraduates as a first language, while it has a
-high enough level of abstraction to be used in research work.</para>
-
-<para>FreeBSD has packages of the
-<ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/elk-3.0.tgz">Elk Scheme Interpreter</ulink>, the
-<ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/mit-scheme-7.3.tgz">MIT Scheme Interpreter</ulink> and the
-<ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/scm-4e1.tgz">SCM Scheme Interpreter</ulink>.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Icon</term>
-<listitem><para><ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/icon-9.0.tgz">The Icon Programming Language</ulink>.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Logo</term>
-<listitem><para><ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/ucblogo-3.3.tgz">Brian Harvey's LOGO Interpreter</ulink>.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Python</term>
-<listitem><para><ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/python-1.2">The Python Object-Oriented Programming Language</ulink></para>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Compilers</title>
-
-<para>Compilers are rather different. First of all, you write your
-code in a file (or files) using an editor. You then run the compiler
-and see if it accepts your program. If it did not compile, grit your
-teeth and go back to the editor; if it did compile and gave you a
-program, you can run it either at a shell command prompt or in a
-debugger to see if it works properly.<footnote><para>If you run it in
-the shell, you may get a core dump.</para></footnote></para>
-
-<para>Obviously, this is not quite as direct as using an interpreter.
-However it allows you to do a lot of things which are very difficult
-or even impossible with an interpreter, such as writing code which
-interacts closely with the operating system&mdash;or even writing
-your own operating system! It's also useful if you need to write very
-efficient code, as the compiler can take its time and optimise the
-code, which would not be acceptable in an interpreter. And
-distributing a program written for a compiler is usually more
-straightforward than one written for an interpreter&mdash;you can just
-give them a copy of the executable, assuming they have the same
-operating system as you.</para>
-
-<para>Compiled languages include Pascal, C and C++. C and C++ are rather
-unforgiving languages, and best suited to more experienced
-programmers; Pascal, on the other hand, was designed as an educational
-language, and is quite a good language to start with. Unfortunately,
-FreeBSD doesn't have any Pascal support, except for a Pascal-to-C
-converter in the ports.</para>
-
-<para>As the edit-compile-run-debug cycle is rather tedious when
-using separate programs, many commercial compiler makers have
-produced Integrated Development Environments (<acronym>IDE</acronym>s
-for short). FreeBSD does not have an <acronym>IDE</> as such; however
-it is possible to use Emacs for this purpose. This is discussed in
-<xref linkend="emacs">.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Compiling with <command>cc</command></title>
-
-<para>This section deals only with the GNU compiler for C and C++,
-since that comes with the base FreeBSD system. It can be invoked by
-either <command>cc</> or <command>gcc</>. The details of producing a
-program with an interpreter vary considerably between interpreters,
-and are usually well covered in the documentation and on-line help
-for the interpreter.</para>
-
-<para>Once you've written your masterpiece, the next step is to convert it
-into something that will (hopefully!) run on FreeBSD. This usually
-involves several steps, each of which is done by a separate
-program.</para>
-
-<procedure>
-<step><para>Pre-process your source code to remove comments and do other
-tricks like expanding macros in C.
-</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Check the syntax of your code to see if you have obeyed the
-rules of the language. If you have not, it will complain!
-</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Convert the source code into assembly
-language&mdash;this is very close to machine code, but still
-understandable by humans. Allegedly.<footnote><para>To be strictly
-accurate, <command>cc</> converts the source code into its own,
-machine-independent <firstterm>p-code</> instead of assembly language
-at this stage.</para></footnote></para></step>
-
-<step><para>Convert the assembly language into machine
-code&mdash;yep, we are talking bits and bytes, ones and zeros
-here.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Check that you have used things like functions and global
-variables in a consistent way. For example, if you have called a
-non-existent function, it will complain.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>If you are trying to produce an executable from several
-source code files, work out how to fit them all together.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Work out how to produce something that the system's run-time
-loader will be able to load into memory and run.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Finally, write the executable on the file
-system.</para></step>
-
-</procedure>
-
-<para>The word <firstterm>compiling</> is often used to refer to just
-steps 1 to 4&mdash;the others are referred to as
-<firstterm>linking</>. Sometimes step 1 is referred to as
-<firstterm>pre-processing</> and steps 3-4 as
-<firstterm>assembling</>.</para>
-
-<para>Fortunately, almost all this detail is hidden from you, as
-<command>cc</> is a front end that manages calling all these programs
-with the right arguments for you; simply typing
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc foobar.c</></screen></para>
-
-<para>will cause <filename>foobar.c</> to be compiled by all the
-steps above. If you have more than one file to compile, just do
-something like
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc foo.c bar.c</></screen>
-</para>
-
-<para>Note that the syntax checking is just that&mdash;checking the
-syntax. It will not check for any logical mistakes you may have made,
-like putting the program into an infinite loop, or using a bubble
-sort when you meant to use a binary sort.<footnote><para>In case you
-didn't know, a binary sort is an efficient way of sorting things into
-order and a bubble sort isn't.</para></footnote></para>
-
-<para>There are lots and lots of options for <command>cc</>, which
-are all in the man page. Here are a few of the most important ones,
-with examples of how to use them.</para>
-
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term><option>-o <replaceable>filename</replaceable></></term>
-
-<listitem><para>The output name of the file. If you do not use this
-option, <command>cc</> will produce an executable called
-<filename>a.out</>.<footnote><para>The reasons for this are buried in
-the mists of history.</para></footnote></para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc foobar.c</> <lineannotation>executable is <filename>a.out</></>
-$ <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c</> <lineannotation>executable is <filename>foobar</></></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-c</option></term>
-<listitem><para>Just compile the file, do not link it. Useful for toy
-programs where you just want to check the syntax, or if you are using
-a <filename>Makefile</filename>.</para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -c foobar.c</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>This will produce an <firstterm>object file</> (not an
-executable) called <filename>foobar.o</filename>. This can be linked
-together with other object files into an executable.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-g</option></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Create a debug version of the executable. This makes
-the compiler put information into the executable about which line of
-which source file corresponds to which function call. A debugger can
-use this information to show the source code as you step through the
-program, which is <emphasis>very</emphasis> useful; the disadvantage
-is that all this extra information makes the program much bigger.
-Normally, you compile with <option>-g</option> while you are
-developing a program and then compile a <quote>release
-version</quote> without <option>-g</option> when you're satisfied it
-works properly.</para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -g foobar.c</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>This will produce a debug version of the
-program.<footnote><para>Note, we didn't use the <option>-o</option>
-flag to specify the executable name, so we will get an executable
-called <filename>a.out</filename>. Producing a debug version called
-<filename>foobar</filename> is left as an exercise for the
-reader!</para></footnote></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-O</option></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Create an optimised version of the executable. The
-compiler performs various clever tricks to try and produce an
-executable that runs faster than normal. You can add a number after
-the <option>-O</option> to specify a higher level of optimisation,
-but this often exposes bugs in the compiler's optimiser. For
-instance, the version of <command>cc</command> that comes with the
-2.1.0 release of FreeBSD is known to produce bad code with the
-<option>-O2</option> option in some circumstances.</para>
-
-<para>Optimisation is usually only turned on when compiling a release
-version.</para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -O -o foobar foobar.c</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>This will produce an optimised version of
-<filename>foobar</filename>.</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-
-<para>The following three flags will force <command>cc</command> to
-check that your code complies to the relevant international standard,
-often referred to as the <acronym>ANSI</acronym> standard, though
-strictly speaking it is an <acronym>ISO</acronym> standard.</para>
-
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-Wall</option></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Enable all the warnings which the authors of
-<command>cc</command> believe are worthwhile. Despite the name, it
-will not enable all the warnings <command>cc</command> is capable
-of.</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-ansi</option></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Turn off most, but not all, of the non-<acronym>ANSI</>&nbsp;C
-features provided by <command>cc</command>. Despite the name, it does
-not guarantee strictly that your code will comply to the
-standard.</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-pedantic</option></term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Turn off <emphasis>all</emphasis>
-<command>cc</command>'s non-<acronym>ANSI</>&nbsp;C features.</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-
-<para>Without these flags, <command>cc</command> will allow you to
-use some of its non-standard extensions to the standard. Some of
-these are very useful, but will not work with other compilers&mdash;in
-fact, one of the main aims of the standard is to allow people to
-write code that will work with any compiler on any system. This is
-known as <firstterm>portable code</firstterm>.</para>
-
-<para>Generally, you should try to make your code as portable as
-possible, as otherwise you may have to completely re-write the
-program later to get it to work somewhere else&mdash;and who knows
-what you may be using in a few years time?</para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -Wall -ansi -pedantic -o foobar foobar.c</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>This will produce an executable <filename>foobar</filename>
-after checking <filename>foobar.c</filename> for standard
-compliance.</para>
-
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry><term><option>-l<replaceable>library</replaceable></option></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Specify a function library to be used during when
-linking.</para>
-
-<para>The most common example of this is when compiling a program that
-uses some of the mathematical functions in C. Unlike most other
-platforms, these are in a separate library from the standard C one
-and you have to tell the compiler to add it.</para>
-
-<para>The rule is that if the library is called
-<filename>lib<replaceable>something</replaceable>.a</filename>, you
-give <command>cc</command> the argument
-<option>-l<replaceable>something</replaceable></option>. For example,
-the math library is <filename>libm.a</filename>, so you give
-<command>cc</command> the argument <option>-lm</option>. A common
-<quote>gotcha</quote> with the math library is that it has to be the
-last library on the command line.</para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c -lm</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>This will link the math library functions into
-<filename>foobar</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>If you are compiling C++ code, you need to add
-<option>-lg++</option>, or <option>-lstdc++</option> if you are using
-FreeBSD 2.2 or later, to the command line argument to link the C++
-library functions. Alternatively, you can run <command>c++</command>
-instead of <command>cc</command>, which does this for you.
-<command>c++</command> can also be invoked as <command>g++</command>
-on FreeBSD.</para>
-
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.cc -lg++</userinput> <lineannotation>For FreeBSD 2.1.6 and earlier</>
-$ <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.cc -lstdc++</userinput> <lineannotation>For FreeBSD 2.2 and later</>
-$ <userinput>c++ -o foobar foobar.cc</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-
-<para>Each of these will both produce an executable
-<filename>foobar</filename> from the C++ source file
-<filename>foobar.cc</filename>. Note that, on Unix systems, C++
-source files traditionally end in <filename>.C</filename>,
-<filename>.cxx</filename> or <filename>.cc</filename>, rather than
-the <trademark>MS-DOS</trademark> style <filename>.cpp</filename>
-(which was already used for something else). <command>gcc</command>
-used to rely on this to work out what kind of compiler to use on the
-source file; however, this restriction no longer applies, so you may
-now call your C++ files <filename>.cpp</filename> with
-impunity!</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Common <command>cc</command> Queries and Problems</title>
-
-<para>Q. I am trying to write a program which uses the
-<function>sin()</function> function and I get an error like this.
-What does it mean?
-<informalexample>
-<screen>/var/tmp/cc0143941.o: Undefined symbol `_sin' referenced from text segment</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>A. When using mathematical functions like
-<function>sin()</function>, you have to tell <command>cc</command> to
-link in the math library, like so:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c -lm</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>Q. All right, I wrote this simple program to practice using
-<option>-lm</option>. All it does is raise 2.1 to the power of 6.
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;
-
-int main() {
- float f;
-
- f = pow(2.1, 6);
- printf("2.1 ^ 6 = %f\n", f);
- return 0;
-}</programlisting>
-</informalexample>
-and I compiled it as:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc temp.c -lm</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-like you said I should, but I get this when I run it:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>./a.out</userinput>
-2.1 ^ 6 = 1023.000000</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>This is <emphasis>not</emphasis> the right answer! What is
-going on?</para>
-
-<para>A. When the compiler sees you call a function, it checks if it
-has already seen a prototype for it. If it has not, it assumes the
-function returns an <type>int</type>, which is
-definitely not what you want here.</para>
-
-<para>Q. So how do I fix this?</para>
-
-<para>A. The prototypes for the mathematical functions are in
-<filename>math.h</filename>. If you include this file, the compiler
-will be able to find the prototype and it will stop doing strange
-things to your calculation!
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>#include &lt;math.h&gt;
-#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;
-
-int main() {
-...</programlisting>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>After recompiling it as you did before, run it:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>./a.out</userinput>
-2.1 ^ 6 = 85.766121</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>If you are using any of the mathematical functions,
-<emphasis>always</emphasis> include <filename>math.h</filename> and
-remember to link in the math library.</para>
-
-<para>Q. I compiled a file called <filename>foobar.c</filename> and I
-cannot find an executable called <filename>foobar</filename>. Where's
-it gone?</para>
-
-<para>A. Remember, <command>cc</command> will call the executable
-<filename>a.out</filename> unless you tell it differently. Use the
-<option>-o&nbsp;<replaceable>filename</replaceable></option> option:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>Q. OK, I have an executable called <filename>foobar</filename>,
-I can see it when I run <command>ls</command>, but when I type in
-<command>foobar</command> at the command prompt it tells me there is
-no such file. Why can it not find it?</para>
-
-<para>A. Unlike <trademark>MS-DOS</trademark>, Unix does not look in the
-current directory when it is trying to find out which executable you
-want it to run, unless you tell it to. Either type
-<command>./foobar</command>, which means <quote>run the file called
-<filename>foobar</filename> in the current directory</quote>, or
-change your <systemitem class=environvar>PATH</systemitem>
-environment variable so that it looks something like
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:.</screen>
-</informalexample>
-The dot at the end means <quote>look in the current directory if it is not in
-any of the others</quote>.</para>
-
-<para>Q. I called my executable <filename>test</filename>, but
-nothing happens when I run it. What is going on?</para>
-
-<para>A. Most Unix systems have a program called
-<command>test</command> in <filename>/usr/bin</filename> and the
-shell is picking that one up before it gets to checking the current
-directory. Either type:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>$ <userinput>./test</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-or choose a better name for your program!</para>
-
-<para>Q. I compiled my program and it seemed to run all right at
-first, then there was an error and it said something about <errorname>core
-dumped</errorname>. What does that mean?</para>
-
-<para>A. The name <firstterm>core dump</firstterm> dates back to the
-very early days of Unix, when the machines used core memory for
-storing data. Basically, if the program failed under certain
-conditions, the system would write the contents of core memory to
-disk in a file called <filename>core</filename>, which the programmer
-could then pore over to find out what went wrong.</para>
-
-<para>Q. Fascinating stuff, but what I am supposed to do now?</para>
-
-<para>A. Use <command>gdb</command> to analyse the core (see <xref
-linkend="debugging">).</para>
-
-<para>Q. When my program dumped core, it said something about a
-<errorname>segmentation fault</errorname>. What's that?</para>
-
-<para>A. This basically means that your program tried to perform some sort
-of illegal operation on memory; Unix is designed to protect the
-operating system and other programs from rogue programs.</para>
-
-<para>Common causes for this are:
-<itemizedlist>
-<listitem><para>Trying to write to a <symbol>NULL</symbol> pointer, eg
-<programlisting>char *foo = NULL;
-strcpy(foo, "bang!");</programlisting>
-</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Using a pointer that hasn't been initialised, eg
-<programlisting>char *foo;
-strcpy(foo, "bang!");</programlisting>
-The pointer will have some random value that, with luck,
-will point into an area of memory that isn't available to
-your program and the kernel will kill your program before
-it can do any damage. If you're unlucky, it'll point
-somewhere inside your own program and corrupt one of your
-data structures, causing the program to fail
-mysteriously.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Trying to access past the end of an array, eg
-<programlisting>int bar[20];
-bar[27] = 6;</programlisting></para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para> Trying to store something in read-only memory, eg
-<programlisting>char *foo = "My string";
-strcpy(foo, "bang!");</programlisting>
-Unix compilers often put string literals like
-<literal>"My string"</literal> into
-read-only areas of memory.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Doing naughty things with
-<function>malloc()</function> and <function>free()</function>, eg
-<programlisting>char bar[80];
-free(bar);</programlisting>
-or
-<programlisting>char *foo = malloc(27);
-free(foo);
-free(foo);</programlisting>
-</para></listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist></para>
-
-<para>Making one of these mistakes will not always lead to an
-error, but they are always bad practice. Some systems and
-compilers are more tolerant than others, which is why programs
-that ran well on one system can crash when you try them on an
-another.</para>
-
-<para>Q. Sometimes when I get a core dump it says <errorname>bus
-error</errorname>. It says in my Unix book that this means a hardware
-problem, but the computer still seems to be working. Is this
-true?</para>
-
-<para>A. No, fortunately not (unless of course you really do have a hardware
-problem&hellip;). This is usually another way of saying that you
-accessed memory in a way you shouldn't have.</para>
-
-<para>Q. This dumping core business sounds as though it could be quite
-useful, if I can make it happen when I want to. Can I do this, or
-do I have to wait until there's an error?</para>
-
-<para>A. Yes, just go to another console or xterm, do
-<screen>$ <userinput>ps</userinput></screen>
-to find out the process ID of your program, and do
-<screen>$ <userinput>kill -ABRT <replaceable>pid</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-where <parameter><replaceable>pid</replaceable></parameter> is the
-process ID you looked up.</para>
-
-<para>This is useful if your program has got stuck in an infinite
-loop, for instance. If your program happens to trap
-<symbol>SIGABRT</symbol>, there are several other signals which have
-a similar effect.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Make</title>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>What is <command>make</command>?</title>
-
-<para>When you're working on a simple program with only one or two source
-files, typing in
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc file1.c file2.c</userinput></screen>
-is not too bad, but it quickly becomes very tedious when there are
-several files&mdash;and it can take a while to compile, too.</para>
-
-<para>One way to get around this is to use object files and only recompile
-the source file if the source code has changed. So we could have
-something like:
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc file1.o file2.o</userinput> &hellip; <userinput>file37.c</userinput> &hellip</screen>
-if we'd changed <filename>file37.c</filename>, but not any of the
-others, since the last time we compiled. This may speed up the
-compilation quite a bit, but doesn't solve the typing
-problem.</para>
-
-<para>Or we could write a shell script to solve the typing problem, but it
-would have to re-compile everything, making it very inefficient on a
-large project.</para>
-
-<para>What happens if we have hundreds of source files lying about? What if
-we're working in a team with other people who forget to tell us when
-they've changed one of their source files that we use?</para>
-
-<para>Perhaps we could put the two solutions together and write something
-like a shell script that would contain some kind of magic rule saying
-when a source file needs compiling. Now all we need now is a program
-that can understand these rules, as it's a bit too complicated for the
-shell.</para>
-
-<para>This program is called <command>make</command>. It reads in a
-file, called a <firstterm>makefile</firstterm>, that tells it how
-different files depend on each other, and works out which files need
-to be re-compiled and which ones don't. For example, a rule could say
-something like <quote>if <filename>fromboz.o</filename> is older than
-<filename>fromboz.c</filename>, that means someone must have changed
-<filename>fromboz.c</filename>, so it needs to be
-re-compiled.</quote> The makefile also has rules telling make
-<emphasis>how</emphasis> to re-compile the source file, making it a
-much more powerful tool.</para>
-
-<para>Makefiles are typically kept in the same directory as the
-source they apply to, and can be called
-<filename>makefile</filename>, <filename>Makefile</filename> or
-<filename>MAKEFILE</filename>. Most programmers use the name
-<filename>Makefile</filename>, as this puts it near the top of a
-directory listing, where it can easily be seen.<footnote><para>They
-don't use the <filename>MAKEFILE</filename> form as block capitals
-are often used for documentation files like
-<filename>README</filename>.</para></footnote></para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Example of using <command>make</command></title>
-
-<para>Here's a very simple make file:
-<programlisting>foo: foo.c
- cc -o foo foo.c</programlisting>
-It consists of two lines, a dependency line and a creation line.</para>
-
-<para>The dependency line here consists of the name of the program
-(known as the <firstterm>target</firstterm>), followed by a colon,
-then whitespace, then the name of the source file. When
-<command>make</command> reads this line, it looks to see if
-<filename>foo</filename> exists; if it exists, it compares the time
-<filename>foo</filename> was last modified to the time
-<filename>foo.c</filename> was last modified. If
-<filename>foo</filename> does not exist, or is older than
-<filename>foo.c</filename>, it then looks at the creation line to
-find out what to do. In other words, this is the rule for working out
-when <filename>foo.c</filename> needs to be re-compiled.</para>
-
-<para>The creation line starts with a <token>tab</token> (press the
-<keycap>tab</keycap> key) and then the command you would type to
-create <filename>foo</filename> if you were doing it at a command
-prompt. If <filename>foo</filename> is out of date, or does not
-exist, <command>make</command> then executes this command to create
-it. In other words, this is the rule which tells make how to
-re-compile <filename>foo.c</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>So, when you type <userinput>make</userinput>, it will make
-sure that <filename>foo</filename> is up to date with respect to your
-latest changes to <filename>foo.c</filename>. This principle can be
-extended to <filename>Makefile</filename>s with hundreds of
-targets&mdash;in fact, on FreeBSD, it is possible to compile the
-entire operating system just by typing <userinput>make
-world</userinput> in the appropriate directory!</para>
-
-<para>Another useful property of makefiles is that the targets don't have
-to be programs. For instance, we could have a make file that looks
-like this:
-<programlisting>foo: foo.c
- cc -o foo foo.c
-
-install:
- cp foo /home/me</programlisting></para>
-
-<para>We can tell make which target we want to make by typing:
-<screen>$ <userinput>make <replaceable>target</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-<command>make</command> will then only look at that target and ignore any
-others. For example, if we type <userinput>make foo</userinput> with the
-makefile above, make will ignore the <action>install</action> target.</para>
-
-<para>If we just type <userinput>make</userinput> on its own, make
-will always look at the first target and then stop without looking at
-any others. So if we typed <userinput>make</userinput> here, it will
-just go to the <action>foo</action> target, re-compile
-<filename>foo</filename> if necessary, and then stop without going on
-to the <action>install</action> target.</para>
-
-<para>Notice that the <action>install</action> target doesn't
-actually depend on anything! This means that the command on the
-following line is always executed when we try to make that target by
-typing <userinput>make install</userinput>. In this case, it will
-copy <filename>foo</filename> into the user's home directory. This is
-often used by application makefiles, so that the application can be
-installed in the correct directory when it has been correctly
-compiled.</para>
-
-<para>This is a slightly confusing subject to try and explain. If you
-don't quite understand how <command>make</command> works, the best
-thing to do is to write a simple program like <quote>hello
-world</quote> and a make file like the one above and experiment. Then
-progress to using more than one source file, or having the source
-file include a header file. The <command>touch</command> command is
-very useful here&mdash;it changes the date on a file without you
-having to edit it.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>FreeBSD Makefiles</title>
-
-<para>Makefiles can be rather complicated to write. Fortunately,
-BSD-based systems like FreeBSD come with some very powerful ones as
-part of the system. One very good example of this is the FreeBSD
-ports system. Here's the essential part of a typical ports
-<filename>Makefile</filename>:
-<programlisting>MASTER_SITES= ftp://freefall.cdrom.com/pub/FreeBSD/LOCAL_PORTS/
-DISTFILES= scheme-microcode+dist-7.3-freebsd.tgz
-
-.include &lt;bsd.port.mk&gt;</programlisting></para>
-
-<para>Now, if we go to the directory for this port and type
-<userinput>make</userinput>, the following happens:</para>
-
-<procedure>
-<step><para>A check is made to see if the source code for this port is
-already on the system.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>If it isn't, an FTP connection to the URL in
-<symbol>MASTER_SITES</symbol> is set up to download the
-source.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>The checksum for the source is calculated and compared it with
-one for a known, good, copy of the source. This is to make sure that
-the source was not corrupted while in transit.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Any changes required to make the source work on FreeBSD are
-applied&mdash;this is known as <firstterm>patching</firstterm>.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>Any special configuration needed for the source is done.
-(Many Unix program distributions try to work out which version of
-Unix they are being compiled on and which optional Unix features are
-present&mdash;this is where they are given the information in the
-FreeBSD ports scenario).</para></step>
-
-<step><para>The source code for the program is compiled. In effect,
-we change to the directory where the source was unpacked and do
-<command>make</command>&mdash;the program's own make file has the
-necessary information to build the program.</para></step>
-
-<step><para>We now have a compiled version of the program. If we
-wish, we can test it now; when we feel confident about the program,
-we can type <userinput>make install</userinput>. This will cause the
-program and any supporting files it needs to be copied into the
-correct location; an entry is also made into a <database>package
-database</database>, so that the port can easily be uninstalled later
-if we change our mind about it.</para></step>
-
-</procedure>
-
-<para>Now I think you'll agree that's rather impressive for a four
-line script!</para>
-
-<para>The secret lies in the last line, which tells
-<command>make</command> to look in the system makefile called
-<filename>bsd.port.mk</filename>. It's easy to overlook this line,
-but this is where all the clever stuff comes from&mdash;someone has
-written a makefile that tells <command>make</command> to do all the
-things above (plus a couple of other things I didn't mention,
-including handling any errors that may occur) and anyone can get
-access to that just by putting a single line in their own make
-file!</para>
-
-<para>If you want to have a look at these system makefiles, they're
-in <filename>/usr/share/mk</filename>, but it's probably best to wait
-until you've had a bit of practice with makefiles, as they are very
-complicated (and if you do look at them, make sure you have a flask
-of strong coffee handy!)</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>More advanced uses of <command>make</command></title>
-
-<para><command>Make</command> is a very powerful tool, and can do much
-more than the simple example above shows. Unfortunately, there are
-several different versions of <command>make</command>, and they all
-differ considerably. The best way to learn what they can do is
-probably to read the documentation&mdash;hopefully this introduction will
-have given you a base from which you can do this.</para>
-
-<para>The version of make that comes with FreeBSD is the <application>Berkeley
-make</application>; there is a tutorial for it in
-<filename>/usr/share/doc/psd/12.make</filename>. To view it, do
-<screen>$ <userinput>zmore paper.ascii.gz</userinput></screen>
-in that directory.</para>
-
-<para>Many applications in the ports use <application>GNU
-make</application>, which has a very good set of <quote>info</quote>
-pages. If you have installed any of these ports, <application>GNU
-make</application> will automatically have been installed as
-<command>gmake</command>. It's also available as a port and package
-in its own right.</para>
-
-<para>To view the info pages for <application>GNU make</application>,
-you will have to edit the <filename>dir</filename> file in the
-<filename>/usr/local/info</filename> directory to add an entry for
-it. This involves adding a line like
-<programlisting> * Make: (make). The GNU Make utility.</programlisting>
-to the file. Once you have done this, you can type
-<userinput>info</userinput> and then select
-<guimenuitem>make</guimenuitem> from the menu (or in
-<application>Emacs</application>, do <userinput>C-h
-i</userinput>).</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="debugging">
-<title>Debugging</title>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>The Debugger</title>
-
-<para>The debugger that comes with FreeBSD is called
-<command>gdb</command> (<application>GNU
-debugger</application>). You start it up by typing
-<screen>$ <userinput>gdb <replaceable>progname</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-although most people prefer to run it inside
-<application>Emacs</application>. You can do this by:
-<screen><userinput>M-x gdb RET <replaceable>progname</replaceable> RET</userinput></screen></para>
-
-<para>Using a debugger allows you to run the program under more
-controlled circumstances. Typically, you can step through the program
-a line at a time, inspect the value of variables, change them, tell
-the debugger to run up to a certain point and then stop, and so on.
-You can even attach to a program that's already running, or load a
-core file to investigate why the program crashed. It's even possible
-to debug the kernel, though that's a little trickier than the user
-applications we'll be discussing in this section.</para>
-
-<para><command>gdb</command> has quite good on-line help, as well as
-a set of info pages, so this section will concentrate on a few of the
-basic commands.</para>
-
-<para>Finally, if you find its text-based command-prompt style
-off-putting, there's a graphical front-end for it <ulink
-URL="http://www.freebsd.org/ports/devel.html">xxgdb</ulink>
-in the ports collection.</para>
-
-<para>This section is intended to be an introduction to using
-<command>gdb</command> and does not cover specialised topics such as
-debugging the kernel.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Running a program in the debugger</title>
-
-<para>You'll need to have compiled the program with the
-<option>-g</option> option to get the most out of using
-<command>gdb</command>. It will work without, but you'll only see the
-name of the function you're in, instead of the source code. If you
-see a line like:
-<screen>&hellip; (no debugging symbols found) &hellip;</screen>when
-<command>gdb</command> starts up, you'll know that the program wasn't
-compiled with the <option>-g</option> option.</para>
-
-<para>At the <command>gdb</command> prompt, type <userinput>break
-main</userinput>. This will tell the debugger to skip over the
-preliminary set-up code in the program and start at the beginning of
-your code. Now type <userinput>run</userinput> to start the
-program&mdash;it will start at the beginning of the set-up code and
-then get stopped by the debugger when it calls
-<function>main()</function>. (If you've ever wondered where
-<function>main()</function> gets called from, now you know!).</para>
-
-<para>You can now step through the program, a line at a time, by
-pressing <command>n</command>. If you get to a function call, you can
-step into it by pressing <command>s</command>. Once you're in a
-function call, you can return from stepping into a function call by
-pressing <command>f</command>. You can also use <command>up</command> and
-<command>down</command> to take a quick look at the caller.</para>
-
-<para>Here's a simple example of how to spot a mistake in a program
-with <command>gdb</command>. This is our program (with a deliberate
-mistake):
-<programlisting>#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;
-
-int bazz(int anint);
-
-main() {
- int i;
-
- printf("This is my program\n");
- bazz(i);
- return 0;
-}
-
-int bazz(int anint) {
- printf("You gave me %d\n", anint);
- return anint;
-}</programlisting>
-</para>
-
-<para>This program sets <symbol>i</symbol> to be <literal>5</literal>
-and passes it to a function <function>bazz()</function> which prints
-out the number we gave it.</para>
-
-<para>When we compile and run the program we get
-<screen>$ <userinput>cc -g -o temp temp.c</userinput>
-$ <userinput>./temp</userinput>
-This is my program
-anint = 4231</screen></para>
-
-<para>That wasn't what we expected! Time to see what's going
-on!<screen>$ <userinput>gdb temp</userinput>
-GDB is free software and you are welcome to distribute copies of it
- under certain conditions; type "show copying" to see the conditions.
-There is absolutely no warranty for GDB; type "show warranty" for details.
-GDB 4.13 (i386-unknown-freebsd), Copyright 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
-(gdb) <userinput>break main</> <lineannotation>Skip the set-up code</>
-Breakpoint 1 at 0x160f: file temp.c, line 9. <lineannotation><command>gdb</command> puts breakpoint at <function>main()</></>
-(gdb) <userinput>run</> <lineannotation>Run as far as <function>main()</></>
-Starting program: /home/james/tmp/temp <lineannotation>Program starts running</>
-
-Breakpoint 1, main () at temp.c:9 <lineannotation><command>gdb</command> stops at <function>main()</></>
-(gdb) <userinput>n</> <lineannotation>Go to next line</>
-This is my program <lineannotation>Program prints out</>
-(gdb) <userinput>s</> <lineannotation>step into <function>bazz()</></>
-bazz (anint=4231) at temp.c:17 <lineannotation><command>gdb</command> displays stack frame</>
-(gdb)</screen></para>
-
-
-<para>Hang on a minute! How did <symbol>anint</symbol> get to be
-<literal>4231</literal>? Didn't we set it to be <literal>5</literal>
-in <function>main()</function>? Let's move up to
-<function>main()</function> and have a look.</para>
-
-<para><screen>(gdb) <userinput>up</> <lineannotation>Move up call stack</>
-#1 0x1625 in main () at temp.c:11 <lineannotation><command>gdb</command> displays stack frame</>
-(gdb) <userinput>p i</> <lineannotation>Show us the value of <symbol>i</></>
-$1 = 4231 <lineannotation><command>gdb</command> displays <literal>4231</></></screen>
-Oh dear! Looking at the code, we forgot to initialise
-<symbol>i</symbol>. We meant to put
-<programlisting><lineannotation>&hellip;</>
-main() {
- int i;
-
- i = 5;
- printf("This is my program\n");
-<lineannotation>&hellip</></programlisting>
-but we left the <literal>i=5;</literal> line out. As we didn't
-initialise <symbol>i</symbol>, it had whatever number happened to be
-in that area of memory when the program ran, which in this case
-happened to be <literal>4231</literal>.</para>
-
-<note><para><command>gdb</command> displays the stack frame
-every time we go into or out of a function, even if we're using
-<command>up</command> and <command>down</command> to move around the
-call stack. This shows the name of the function and the values of
-its arguments, which helps us keep track of where we are and what's
-going on. (The stack is a storage area where the program stores
-information about the arguments passed to functions and where to go
-when it returns from a function call).</para></note>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Examining a core file</title>
-
-<para>A core file is basically a file which contains the complete
-state of the process when it crashed. In <quote>the good old
-days</quote>, programmers had to print out hex listings of core files
-and sweat over machine code manuals, but now life is a bit easier.
-Incidentally, under FreeBSD and other 4.4BSD systems, a core file is
-called <filename><replaceable>progname</>.core</> instead of just
-<filename>core</filename>, to make it clearer which program a core
-file belongs to.</para>
-
-<para>To examine a core file, start up <command>gdb</command> in the
-usual way. Instead of typing <command>break</command> or
-<command>run</command>, type
-<screen>(gdb) <userinput>core <replaceable>progname</replaceable>.core</userinput></screen>
-If you're not in the same directory as the core file, you'll have to
-do <userinput>dir /path/to/core/file</userinput> first.</para>
-
-<para>You should see something like this:
-<screen>$ <userinput>gdb a.out</userinput>
-GDB is free software and you are welcome to distribute copies of it
- under certain conditions; type "show copying" to see the conditions.
-There is absolutely no warranty for GDB; type "show warranty" for details.
-GDB 4.13 (i386-unknown-freebsd), Copyright 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
-(gdb) <userinput>core a.out.core</userinput>
-Core was generated by `a.out'.
-Program terminated with signal 11, Segmentation fault.
-Cannot access memory at address 0x7020796d.
-#0 0x164a in bazz (anint=0x5) at temp.c:17
-(gdb)</screen></para>
-
-<para>In this case, the program was called
-<filename>a.out</filename>, so the core file is called
-<filename>a.out.core</filename>. We can see that the program crashed
-due to trying to access an area in memory that was not available to
-it in a function called <function>bazz</function>.</para>
-
-<para>Sometimes it's useful to be able to see how a function was
-called, as the problem could have occurred a long way up the call
-stack in a complex program. The <command>bt</command> command causes
-<command>gdb</command> to print out a back-trace of the call
-stack:
-<screen>(gdb) <userinput>bt</userinput>
-#0 0x164a in bazz (anint=0x5) at temp.c:17
-#1 0xefbfd888 in end ()
-#2 0x162c in main () at temp.c:11
-(gdb)</screen>The <function>end()</function> function is called when
-a program crashes; in this case, the <function>bazz()</function>
-function was called from <function>main()</function>.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Attaching to a running program</title>
-
-<para>One of the neatest features about <command>gdb</command> is
-that it can attach to a program that's already running. Of course,
-that assumes you have sufficient permissions to do so. A common
-problem is when you are stepping through a program that forks, and
-you want to trace the child, but the debugger will only let you trace
-the parent.</para>
-
-<para>What you do is start up another <command>gdb</command>, use
-<command>ps</command> to find the process ID for the child, and
-do<screen>(gdb) <userinput>attach <replaceable>pid</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-in <command>gdb</command>, and then debug as usual.</para>
-
-<para><quote>That's all very well,</quote> you're probably thinking,
-<quote>but by the time I've done that, the child process will be over
-the hill and far away</quote>. Fear not, gentle reader, here's how to
-do it (courtesy of the <command>gdb</command> info pages):
-<screen><lineannotation>&hellip</lineannotation>
-if ((pid = fork()) < 0) /* _Always_ check this */
- error();
-else if (pid == 0) { /* child */
- int PauseMode = 1;
-
- while (PauseMode)
- sleep(10); /* Wait until someone attaches to us */
- <lineannotation>&hellip</lineannotation>
-} else { /* parent */
- <lineannotation>&hellip</lineannotation></screen>
-Now all you have to do is attach to the child, set
-<symbol>PauseMode</symbol> to <literal>0</literal>, and
-wait for the <function>sleep()</function> call to return!</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter id="emacs">
-<title>Using Emacs as a Development Environment</title>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Emacs</title>
-
-<para>Unfortunately, Unix systems don't come with the kind of
-everything-you-ever-wanted-and-lots-more-you-didn't-in-one-gigantic-package
-integrated development environments that other systems
-have.<footnote><para>At least, not unless you pay out very large sums
-of money.</para></footnote> However, it is possible to set up your
-own environment. It may not be as pretty, and it may not be quite as
-integrated, but you can set it up the way you want it. And it's free.
-And you have the source to it.</para>
-
-<para>The key to it all is Emacs. Now there are some people who
-loathe it, but many who love it. If you're one of the former, I'm
-afraid this section will hold little of interest to you. Also, you'll
-need a fair amount of memory to run it&mdash;I'd recommend 8MB in
-text mode and 16MB in X as the bare minimum to get reasonable
-performance.</para>
-
-<para>Emacs is basically a highly customisable editor&mdash;indeed,
-it has been customised to the point where it's more like an operating
-system than an editor! Many developers and sysadmins do in fact
-spend practically all their time working inside Emacs, leaving it
-only to log out.</para>
-
-<para>It's impossible even to summarise everything Emacs can do here, but
-here are some of the features of interest to developers:
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem><para>Very powerful editor, allowing search-and-replace on
-both strings and regular expressions (patterns), jumping to start/end
-of block expression, etc, etc.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Pull-down menus and online help.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Language-dependent syntax highlighting and
-indentation.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Completely customisable.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>You can compile and debug programs within
-Emacs.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>On a compilation error, you can jump to the offending
-line of source code.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Friendly-ish front-end to the <command>info</command>
-program used for reading GNU hypertext documentation, including the
-documentation on Emacs itself.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Friendly front-end to <command>gdb</command>,
-allowing you to look at the source code as you step through your
-program.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>You can read Usenet news and mail while your program
-is compiling.</para></listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>And doubtless many more that I've overlooked.</para>
-
-<para>Emacs can be installed on FreeBSD using <ulink
-URL="http://www.freebsd.org/ports/editors">the Emacs
-port</ulink>.</para>
-
-<para>Once it's installed, start it up and do <userinput>C-h
-t</userinput> to read an Emacs tutorial&mdash;that means hold down
-the <keycap>control</keycap> key, press <keycap>h</keycap>, let go of
-the <keycap>control</keycap> key, and then press <keycap>t</keycap>.
-(Alternatively, you can you use the mouse to select <guimenuitem>Emacs
-Tutorial</guimenuitem> from the <guimenu>Help</guimenu> menu).</para>
-
-<para>Although Emacs does have menus, it's well worth learning the
-key bindings, as it's much quicker when you're editing something to
-press a couple of keys than to try and find the mouse and then click
-on the right place. And, when you're talking to seasoned Emacs users,
-you'll find they often casually throw around expressions like
-<quote><literal>M-x replace-s RET foo RET bar RET</literal></quote>
-so it's useful to know what they mean. And in any case, Emacs has far
-too many useful functions for them to all fit on the menu
-bars.</para>
-
-<para>Fortunately, it's quite easy to pick up the key-bindings, as
-they're displayed next to the menu item. My advice is to use the
-menu item for, say, opening a file until you understand how it works
-and feel confident with it, then try doing C-x C-f. When you're happy
-with that, move on to another menu command.</para>
-
-<para>If you can't remember what a particular combination of keys
-does, select <guimenuitem>Describe Key</guimenuitem> from the
-<guimenu>Help</guimenu> menu and type it in&mdash;Emacs will tell you
-what it does. You can also use the <guimenuitem>Command
-Apropos</guimenuitem> menu item to find out all the commands which
-contain a particular word in them, with the key binding next to
-it.</para>
-
-<para>By the way, the expression above means hold down the
-<keysym>Meta</keysym> key, press <keysym>x</keysym>, release the
-<keysym>Meta</keysym> key, type <userinput>replace-s</userinput>
-(short for <literal>replace-string</literal>&mdash;another feature of
-Emacs is that you can abbreviate commands), press the
-<keysym>return</keysym> key, type <userinput>foo</userinput> (the
-string you want replaced), press the <keysym>return</keysym> key,
-type bar (the string you want to replace <literal>foo</literal> with)
-and press <keysym>return</keysym> again. Emacs will then do the
-search-and-replace operation you've just requested.</para>
-
-<para>If you're wondering what on earth the <keysym>Meta</keysym> key
-is, it's a special key that many Unix workstations have.
-Unfortunately, PC's don't have one, so it's usually the
-<keycap>alt</keycap> key (or if you're unlucky, the <keysym>escape</keysym>
-key).</para>
-
-<para>Oh, and to get out of Emacs, do <command>C-x C-c</command>
-(that means hold down the <keysym>control</keysym> key, press
-<keysym>c</keysym>, press <keysym>x</keysym> and release the
-<keysym>control</keysym> key). If you have any unsaved files open,
-Emacs will ask you if you want to save them. (Ignore the bit in the
-documentation where it says <command>C-z</command> is the usual way
-to leave Emacs&mdash;that leaves Emacs hanging around in the
-background, and is only really useful if you're on a system which
-doesn't have virtual terminals).</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Configuring Emacs</title>
-
-<para>Emacs does many wonderful things; some of them are built in,
-some of them need to be configured.</para>
-
-<para>Instead of using a proprietary macro language for
-configuration, Emacs uses a version of Lisp specially adapted for
-editors, known as Emacs Lisp. This can be quite useful if you want to
-go on and learn something like Common Lisp, as it's considerably
-smaller than Common Lisp (although still quite big!).</para>
-
-<para>The best way to learn Emacs Lisp is to download the <ulink
-URL="ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu:pub/gnu/elisp-manual-19-2.4.tar.gz">Emacs
-Tutorial</ulink></para>
-
-<para>However, there's no need to actually know any Lisp to get
-started with configuring Emacs, as I've included a sample
-<filename>.emacs</filename> file, which should be enough to get you
-started. Just copy it into your home directory and restart Emacs if
-it's already running; it will read the commands from the file and
-(hopefully) give you a useful basic setup.</para>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>A sample <filename>.emacs</filename> file</title>
-
-<para>Unfortunately, there's far too much here to explain it in detail;
-however there are one or two points worth mentioning.</para>
-
-<para>
-<itemizedlist>
-
-<listitem><para>Everything beginning with a <literal>;</> is a
-comment and is ignored by Emacs.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>In the first line, the
-<literal>-*-&nbsp;Emacs-Lisp&nbsp;-*-</literal> is so that we can
-edit the <filename>.emacs</filename> file itself within Emacs and get
-all the fancy features for editing Emacs Lisp. Emacs usually tries to
-guess this based on the filename, and may not get it right for
-<filename>.emacs</filename>. </para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>The <keysym>tab</keysym> key is bound to an
-indentation function in some modes, so when you press the tab key, it
-will indent the current line of code. If you want to put a
-<token>tab</token> character in whatever you're writing, hold the
-<keysym>control</keysym> key down while you're pressing the
-<keysym>tab</keysym> key.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>This file supports syntax highlighting for C, C++,
-Perl, Lisp and Scheme, by guessing the language from the
-filename.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Emacs already has a pre-defined function called
-<function>next-error</function>. In a compilation output window, this
-allows you to move from one compilation error to the next by doing
-<command>M-n</command>; we define a complementary function,
-<function>previous-error</function>, that allows you to go to a
-previous error by doing <command>M-p</command>. The nicest feature of
-all is that <command>C-c C-c</command> will open up the source file
-in which the error occurred and jump to the appropriate
-line.</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para> We enable Emacs's ability to act as a server, so
-that if you're doing something outside Emacs and you want to edit a
-file, you can just type in
-<screen>$ <userinput>emacsclient <replaceable>filename</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-and then you can edit the file in your Emacs!<footnote><para>Many
-Emacs users set their <systemitem
-class=environvar>EDITOR</systemitem> environment to
-<literal>emacsclient</literal> so this happens every time they need
-to edit a file.</para></footnote></para></listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-</para>
-
-<example>
-<title>A sample <filename>.emacs</filename> file</title>
-<screen>;; -*-Emacs-Lisp-*-
-
-;; This file is designed to be re-evaled; use the variable first-time
-;; to avoid any problems with this.
-(defvar first-time t
- "Flag signifying this is the first time that .emacs has been evaled")
-
-;; Meta
-(global-set-key "\M- " 'set-mark-command)
-(global-set-key "\M-\C-h" 'backward-kill-word)
-(global-set-key "\M-\C-r" 'query-replace)
-(global-set-key "\M-r" 'replace-string)
-(global-set-key "\M-g" 'goto-line)
-(global-set-key "\M-h" 'help-command)
-
-;; Function keys
-(global-set-key [f1] 'manual-entry)
-(global-set-key [f2] 'info)
-(global-set-key [f3] 'repeat-complex-command)
-(global-set-key [f4] 'advertised-undo)
-(global-set-key [f5] 'eval-current-buffer)
-(global-set-key [f6] 'buffer-menu)
-(global-set-key [f7] 'other-window)
-(global-set-key [f8] 'find-file)
-(global-set-key [f9] 'save-buffer)
-(global-set-key [f10] 'next-error)
-(global-set-key [f11] 'compile)
-(global-set-key [f12] 'grep)
-(global-set-key [C-f1] 'compile)
-(global-set-key [C-f2] 'grep)
-(global-set-key [C-f3] 'next-error)
-(global-set-key [C-f4] 'previous-error)
-(global-set-key [C-f5] 'display-faces)
-(global-set-key [C-f8] 'dired)
-(global-set-key [C-f10] 'kill-compilation)
-
-;; Keypad bindings
-(global-set-key [up] "\C-p")
-(global-set-key [down] "\C-n")
-(global-set-key [left] "\C-b")
-(global-set-key [right] "\C-f")
-(global-set-key [home] "\C-a")
-(global-set-key [end] "\C-e")
-(global-set-key [prior] "\M-v")
-(global-set-key [next] "\C-v")
-(global-set-key [C-up] "\M-\C-b")
-(global-set-key [C-down] "\M-\C-f")
-(global-set-key [C-left] "\M-b")
-(global-set-key [C-right] "\M-f")
-(global-set-key [C-home] "\M-&lt;")
-(global-set-key [C-end] "\M-&gt;")
-(global-set-key [C-prior] "\M-&lt;")
-(global-set-key [C-next] "\M-&gt;")
-
-;; Mouse
-(global-set-key [mouse-3] 'imenu)
-
-;; Misc
-(global-set-key [C-tab] "\C-q\t") ; Control tab quotes a tab.
-(setq backup-by-copying-when-mismatch t)
-
-;; Treat 'y' or &lt;CR&gt; as yes, 'n' as no.
-(fset 'yes-or-no-p 'y-or-n-p)
- (define-key query-replace-map [return] 'act)
- (define-key query-replace-map [?\C-m] 'act)
-
-;; Load packages
-(require 'desktop)
-(require 'tar-mode)
-
-;; Pretty diff mode
-(autoload 'ediff-buffers "ediff" "Intelligent Emacs interface to diff" t)
-(autoload 'ediff-files "ediff" "Intelligent Emacs interface to diff" t)
-(autoload 'ediff-files-remote "ediff"
- "Intelligent Emacs interface to diff") </screen>
-
-<screen>(if first-time
- (setq auto-mode-alist
- (append '(("\\.cpp$" . c++-mode)
- ("\\.hpp$" . c++-mode)
- ("\\.lsp$" . lisp-mode)
- ("\\.scm$" . scheme-mode)
- ("\\.pl$" . perl-mode)
- ) auto-mode-alist)))
-
-;; Auto font lock mode
-(defvar font-lock-auto-mode-list
- (list 'c-mode 'c++-mode 'c++-c-mode 'emacs-lisp-mode 'lisp-mode 'perl-mode 'scheme-mode)
- "List of modes to always start in font-lock-mode")
-
-(defvar font-lock-mode-keyword-alist
- '((c++-c-mode . c-font-lock-keywords)
- (perl-mode . perl-font-lock-keywords))
- "Associations between modes and keywords")
-
-(defun font-lock-auto-mode-select ()
- "Automatically select font-lock-mode if the current major mode is
-in font-lock-auto-mode-list"
- (if (memq major-mode font-lock-auto-mode-list)
- (progn
- (font-lock-mode t))
- )
- )
-
-(global-set-key [M-f1] 'font-lock-fontify-buffer)
-
-;; New dabbrev stuff
-;(require 'new-dabbrev)
-(setq dabbrev-always-check-other-buffers t)
-(setq dabbrev-abbrev-char-regexp "\\sw\\|\\s_")
-(add-hook 'emacs-lisp-mode-hook
- '(lambda ()
- (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-fold-search) nil)
- (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-replace) nil)))
-(add-hook 'c-mode-hook
- '(lambda ()
- (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-fold-search) nil)
- (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-replace) nil)))
-(add-hook 'text-mode-hook
- '(lambda ()
- (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-fold-search) t)
- (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-replace) t)))
-
-;; C++ and C mode...
-(defun my-c++-mode-hook ()
- (setq tab-width 4)
- (define-key c++-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
- (define-key c++-mode-map "\C-ce" 'c-comment-edit)
- (setq c++-auto-hungry-initial-state 'none)
- (setq c++-delete-function 'backward-delete-char)
- (setq c++-tab-always-indent t)
- (setq c-indent-level 4)
- (setq c-continued-statement-offset 4)
- (setq c++-empty-arglist-indent 4))
-
-(defun my-c-mode-hook ()
- (setq tab-width 4)
- (define-key c-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
- (define-key c-mode-map "\C-ce" 'c-comment-edit)
- (setq c-auto-hungry-initial-state 'none)
- (setq c-delete-function 'backward-delete-char)
- (setq c-tab-always-indent t)
-;; BSD-ish indentation style
- (setq c-indent-level 4)
- (setq c-continued-statement-offset 4)
- (setq c-brace-offset -4)
- (setq c-argdecl-indent 0)
- (setq c-label-offset -4))
-
-;; Perl mode
-(defun my-perl-mode-hook ()
- (setq tab-width 4)
- (define-key c++-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
- (setq perl-indent-level 4)
- (setq perl-continued-statement-offset 4))
-
-;; Scheme mode...
-(defun my-scheme-mode-hook ()
- (define-key scheme-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent))
-
-;; Emacs-Lisp mode...
-(defun my-lisp-mode-hook ()
- (define-key lisp-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
- (define-key lisp-mode-map "\C-i" 'lisp-indent-line)
- (define-key lisp-mode-map "\C-j" 'eval-print-last-sexp))
-
-;; Add all of the hooks...
-(add-hook 'c++-mode-hook 'my-c++-mode-hook)
-(add-hook 'c-mode-hook 'my-c-mode-hook)
-(add-hook 'scheme-mode-hook 'my-scheme-mode-hook)
-(add-hook 'emacs-lisp-mode-hook 'my-lisp-mode-hook)
-(add-hook 'lisp-mode-hook 'my-lisp-mode-hook)
-(add-hook 'perl-mode-hook 'my-perl-mode-hook)
-
-;; Complement to next-error
-(defun previous-error (n)
- "Visit previous compilation error message and corresponding source code."
- (interactive "p")
- (next-error (- n)))</screen>
-
-<screen>;; Misc...
-(transient-mark-mode 1)
-(setq mark-even-if-inactive t)
-(setq visible-bell nil)
-(setq next-line-add-newlines nil)
-(setq compile-command "make")
-(setq suggest-key-bindings nil)
-(put 'eval-expression 'disabled nil)
-(put 'narrow-to-region 'disabled nil)
-(put 'set-goal-column 'disabled nil)
-
-;; Elisp archive searching
-(autoload 'format-lisp-code-directory "lispdir" nil t)
-(autoload 'lisp-dir-apropos "lispdir" nil t)
-(autoload 'lisp-dir-retrieve "lispdir" nil t)
-(autoload 'lisp-dir-verify "lispdir" nil t)
-
-;; Font lock mode
-(defun my-make-face (face colour &amp;optional bold)
- "Create a face from a colour and optionally make it bold"
- (make-face face)
- (copy-face 'default face)
- (set-face-foreground face colour)
- (if bold (make-face-bold face))
- )
-
-(if (eq window-system 'x)
- (progn
- (my-make-face 'blue "blue")
- (my-make-face 'red "red")
- (my-make-face 'green "dark green")
- (setq font-lock-comment-face 'blue)
- (setq font-lock-string-face 'bold)
- (setq font-lock-type-face 'bold)
- (setq font-lock-keyword-face 'bold)
- (setq font-lock-function-name-face 'red)
- (setq font-lock-doc-string-face 'green)
- (add-hook 'find-file-hooks 'font-lock-auto-mode-select)
-
- (setq baud-rate 1000000)
- (global-set-key "\C-cmm" 'menu-bar-mode)
- (global-set-key "\C-cms" 'scroll-bar-mode)
- (global-set-key [backspace] 'backward-delete-char)
- ; (global-set-key [delete] 'delete-char)
- (standard-display-european t)
- (load-library "iso-transl")))
-
-;; X11 or PC using direct screen writes
-(if window-system
- (progn
- ;; (global-set-key [M-f1] 'hilit-repaint-command)
- ;; (global-set-key [M-f2] [?\C-u M-f1])
- (setq hilit-mode-enable-list
- '(not text-mode c-mode c++-mode emacs-lisp-mode lisp-mode
- scheme-mode)
- hilit-auto-highlight nil
- hilit-auto-rehighlight 'visible
- hilit-inhibit-hooks nil
- hilit-inhibit-rebinding t)
- (require 'hilit19)
- (require 'paren))
- (setq baud-rate 2400) ; For slow serial connections
- )
-
-;; TTY type terminal
-(if (and (not window-system)
- (not (equal system-type 'ms-dos)))
- (progn
- (if first-time
- (progn
- (keyboard-translate ?\C-h ?\C-?)
- (keyboard-translate ?\C-? ?\C-h)))))
-
-;; Under UNIX
-(if (not (equal system-type 'ms-dos))
- (progn
- (if first-time
- (server-start))))
-
-;; Add any face changes here
-(add-hook 'term-setup-hook 'my-term-setup-hook)
-(defun my-term-setup-hook ()
- (if (eq window-system 'pc)
- (progn
-;; (set-face-background 'default "red")
- )))
-
-;; Restore the "desktop" - do this as late as possible
-(if first-time
- (progn
- (desktop-load-default)
- (desktop-read)))
-
-;; Indicate that this file has been read at least once
-(setq first-time nil)
-
-;; No need to debug anything now
-(setq debug-on-error nil)
-
-;; All done
-(message "All done, %s%s" (user-login-name) ".")
-</screen>
-</example>
-
-</sect1>
-
-<sect1>
-<title>Extending the Range of Languages Emacs Understands</title>
-
-<para>Now, this is all very well if you only want to program in the
-languages already catered for in the <filename>.emacs</filename> file
-(C, C++, Perl, Lisp and Scheme), but what happens if a new language
-called <quote>whizbang</quote> comes out, full of exciting
-features?</para>
-
-<para>The first thing to do is find out if whizbang
-comes with any files that tell Emacs about the language. These
-usually end in <filename>.el</filename>, short for <quote>Emacs
-Lisp</quote>. For example, if whizbang is a FreeBSD
-port, we can locate these files by doing
-<screen>$ <userinput>find /usr/ports/lang/whizbang -name "*.el" -print</userinput></screen>
-and install them by copying them into the Emacs site Lisp directory. On
-FreeBSD 2.1.0-RELEASE, this is
-<filename>/usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>So for example, if the output from the find command was
-<screen>/usr/ports/lang/whizbang/work/misc/whizbang.el</screen>
-we would do
-<screen>$ <userinput>cp /usr/ports/lang/whizbang/work/misc/whizbang.el /usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp</userinput></screen>
-</para>
-
-<para>Next, we need to decide what extension whizbang source files
-have. Let's say for the sake of argument that they all end in
-<filename>.wiz</filename>. We need to add an entry to our
-<filename>.emacs</filename> file to make sure Emacs will be able to
-use the information in <filename>whizbang.el</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>Find the <symbol>auto-mode-alist entry</symbol> in
-<filename>.emacs</filename> and add a line for whizbang, such
-as:
-<programlisting><lineannotation>&hellip;</>
-("\\.lsp$" . lisp-mode)
-("\\.wiz$" . whizbang-mode)
-("\\.scm$" . scheme-mode)
-<lineannotation>&hellip;</></programlisting>
-This means that Emacs will automatically go into
-<function>whizbang-mode</function> when you edit a file ending in
-<filename>.wiz</filename>.</para>
-
-<para>Just below this, you'll find the
-<symbol>font-lock-auto-mode-list</symbol> entry. Add
-<function>whizbang-mode</function> to it like so:
-<programlisting>;; Auto font lock mode
-(defvar font-lock-auto-mode-list
- (list 'c-mode 'c++-mode 'c++-c-mode 'emacs-lisp-mode 'whizbang-mode 'lisp-mode 'perl-mode 'scheme-mode)
- "List of modes to always start in font-lock-mode")</programlisting>
-This means that Emacs will always enable
-<function>font-lock-mode</function> (ie syntax highlighting) when
-editing a <filename>.wiz</filename> file.</para>
-
-<para>And that's all that's needed. If there's anything else you want
-done automatically when you open up a <filename>.wiz</filename> file,
-you can add a <function>whizbang-mode hook</function> (see
-<function>my-scheme-mode-hook</function> for a simple example that
-adds <function>auto-indent</function>).</para>
-
-</sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Further Reading</title>
-
-<itemizedlist>
-<listitem><para>Brian Harvey and Matthew Wright
-<emphasis>Simply Scheme</emphasis>
-MIT 1994.<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-262-08226-8</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Randall Schwartz
-<emphasis>Learning Perl</emphasis>
-O'Reilly 1993<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 1-56592-042-2</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Patrick Henry Winston and Berthold Klaus Paul Horn
-<emphasis>Lisp (3rd Edition)</emphasis>
-Addison-Wesley 1989<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-201-08319-1</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Brian W. Kernighan and Rob Pike
-<emphasis>The Unix Programming Environment</emphasis>
-Prentice-Hall 1984<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-13-937681-X</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie
-<emphasis>The C Programming Language (2nd Edition)</emphasis>
-Prentice-Hall 1988<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-13-110362-8</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>Bjarne Stroustrup
-<emphasis>The C++ Programming Language</emphasis>
-Addison-Wesley 1991<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-201-53992-6</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>W. Richard Stevens
-<emphasis>Advanced Programming in the Unix Environment</emphasis>
-Addison-Wesley 1992<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-201-56317-7</para></listitem>
-
-<listitem><para>W. Richard Stevens
-<emphasis>Unix Network Programming</emphasis>
-Prentice-Hall 1990<!-- <br> -->
-ISBN 0-13-949876-1</para></listitem>
-
-</itemizedlist>
-
-</chapter>
-</book>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/fonts/Makefile b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/fonts/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 260184f87c..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/fonts/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,6 +0,0 @@
-# $Id: Makefile,v 1.4 1997-07-01 05:38:13 max Exp $
-
-DOCS= fonts.docb
-INDEXLINK= fonts.html
-
-.include "../../web.mk"
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/fonts/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/fonts/article.sgml
deleted file mode 100644
index 4d46efb511..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/articles/fonts/article.sgml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,723 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: article.sgml,v 1.1 1997-02-15 18:02:20 jfieber Exp $ -->
-<!-- The FreeBSD Documentation Project -->
-<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
-
-<!-- Recently, I wanted to figure out how to use some additional fonts that
- I had accumulated. I finally figured out *how to do it* from the various
- man pages and documentation. Since it might be of use to other users,
- and I didn't see any reference to this topic in the FAQ or handbook, I
- thought I'd try my hand at a simple cookbook tutorial addressing the
- use of fonts. I have included my unanswered questions at the end of
- the document.
-
- Anyway, here's what I put together. This is my present understanding of
- fonts and how to use them with FreeBSD. I am sure that there are errors or
- misunderstandings, but it contains enough valid information to allow the
- use of additional fonts with Ghostscript, X11 and Groff. This is my first
- attempt to write anything along the lines of a tutorial/FAQ, so I am sure
- it is pretty raw. There are probably better ways to do some of this stuff,
- and I would welcome being corrected.
- -->
-
-<book>
-
-<bookinfo>
-<bookbiblio>
-<title>Fonts and FreeBSD</title>
-<subtitle>A Tutorial</subtitle>
-
-<authorgroup>
-<author>
-<firstname>Dave</firstname>
-<surname>Bodenstab</surname>
-<affiliation>
-<address><email>imdave@synet.net</email></address>
-</affiliation>
-</author>
-</authorgroup>
-
-<pubdate>Wed Aug 7, 1996</pubdate>
-
-<abstract><para>This document contains a description of the various
-font files that may be used with FreeBSD and the syscons driver, X11,
-Ghostscript and Groff. Cookbook examples are provided for switching
-the syscons display to 80x60 mode, and for using type 1 fonts with
-the above application programs.</para></abstract>
-
-</bookbiblio>
-</bookinfo>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Introduction</title>
-
-<para>There are many sources of fonts available, and one might ask
-how they might be used with FreeBSD. The answer can be found by
-carefully searching the documentation for the component that one
-would like to use. This is very time consuming, so this tutorial is
-an attempt to provide a shortcut for others who might be
-interested.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Basic terminology</title>
-
-<para>There are many different font formats and associated font file
-suffixes. A few that will be addressed here are:
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.pfa</>, <filename>.pfb</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Postscript type 1 fonts. The <filename>.pfa</filename> is the
-<emphasis>A</emphasis>scii form and <filename>.pfb</filename> the
-<emphasis>B</emphasis>inary form.</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.afm</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>The font metrics associated with a type 1
-font.</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.pfm</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>The printer font metrics associated with a type 1
-font.</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.ttf</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>A TrueType font</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.fot</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>An indirect reference to a TrueType font (not an
-actual font)</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term><filename>.fon</>, <filename>.fnt</></term>
-
-<listitem><para>Bitmapped screen fonts</para></listitem>
-
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist></para>
-
-<para>The <filename>.fot</filename> file is used by Windows as sort
-of a symbolic link to the actual TrueType font
-(<filename>.ttf</filename>) file. The <filename>.fon</filename> font
-files are also used by Windows. I know of no way to use this font
-format with FreeBSD.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>What font formats can I use?</title>
-
-<para>Which font file format is useful depends on the application
-being used. FreeBSD by itself uses no fonts. Application programs
-and/or drivers may make use of the font files. Here is a small cross
-reference of application/driver to the font type suffixes:</para>
-
-<para>
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term>Driver</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term>syscons</term>
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.fnt</></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Application</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>
-<variablelist>
-<varlistentry><term>Ghostscript</term>
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.pfa</filename>, <filename>.pfb</filename>, <filename>.ttf</filename></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>X11</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.pfa</filename>, <filename>.pfb</filename></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Groff</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.pfa</filename>, <filename>.afm</filename></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Povray</term>
-
-<listitem>
-<para><filename>.ttf</filename></para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-</listitem>
-</varlistentry>
-</variablelist>
-</para>
-
-<para>The <filename>.fnt</filename> suffix is used quite frequently.
-I suspect that whenever someone wanted to create a specialized font
-file for their application, more often than not they chose this
-suffix. Therefore, it is likely that files with this suffix are not
-all the same format; specifically, the <filename>.fnt</filename>
-files used by syscons under FreeBSD may not be the same format as a
-<filename>.fnt</filename> file one encounters in the MSDOS/Windows
-environment. I have not made any attempt at using other
-<filename>.fnt</filename> files other than those provided with
-FreeBSD.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Setting a virtual console to 80x60 line mode</title>
-
-<para>First, a 8x8 font must be loaded.
-<filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename> should contain the lines:
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting># Choose font 8x8 from /usr/share/syscons/fonts/* (or NO for default)
-font8x8=/usr/share/syscons/fonts/cp437-8x8.fnt</programlisting>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>The command to actually switch the mode is
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</><manvolnum>1</></>:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bash$ <userinput>vidcontrol VGA_80x60</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>Various screen orientated programs, such as
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vi</><manvolnum>1</></>, must be able to
-determine the current screen dimensions. These can be set with
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>stty</><manvolnum>1</></>:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bash$ <userinput>stty crt rows 60 columns 80</userinput></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>To make this more seamless, one can embed these commands in the
-startup scripts so it takes place when the system boots. One way to
-do this is:
-<orderedlist>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Modify <filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename> as above</para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Add to <filename>/etc/rc.local</filename>:
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>for tty in /dev/ttyv?
-do
- vidcontrol VGA_80x60 &lt;$tty &gt;/dev/null 2&gt;&amp;1
-done</programlisting>
-</informalexample></para>
-</listitem>
-
-<listitem>
-<para>Add to <filename>/etc/profile</filename>:
-<informalexample>
-<programlisting>TTYNAME=`basename \`tty\``
-if expr "$TTYNAME" : 'ttyv' &gt;/dev/null
-then
- stty crt rows 60 columns 80
-fi</programlisting>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-</listitem>
-
-</orderedlist>
-</para>
-
-<para>References:
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>stty</><manvolnum>1</></>,
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</><manvolnum>1</></>.</para>
-
-</chapter>
-
-<chapter>
-<title>Using type 1 fonts with X11</title>
-
-<para>X11 can use either the <filename>.pfa</filename> or the
-<filename>.pfb</filename> format fonts. The X11 fonts are located in
-various subdirectories under
-<filename>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts</filename>. Each font file is
-cross referenced to its X11 name by the contents of the
-<filename>fonts.dir</filename> file in each directory.</para>
-
-<para>There is already a directory named <filename>Type1</>. The most
-straight forward way to add a new font is to put it into this
-directory. A better way is to keep all new fonts in a separate
-directory and use a symbolic link to the additional font. This
-allows one to more easily keep track of ones fonts without confusing
-them with the fonts that were originally provided. For
-example:
-<informalexample>
-<screen><lineannotation>Create a directory to contain the font files</>
-bash$ <userinput>mkdir -p /usr/local/share/fonts/type1</>
-bash$ <userinput>cd /usr/local/share/fonts/type1</>
-
-<lineannotation>Place the .pfa, .pfb and .afm files here</>
-<lineannotation>One might want to keep readme files, and other documentation</>
-<lineannotation>for the fonts here also</>
-bash$ <userinput>cp /cdrom/fonts/atm/showboat/showboat.pfb .</>
-bash$ <userinput>cp /cdrom/fonts/atm/showboat/showboat.afm .</>
-
-<lineannotation>Maintain an index to cross reference the fonts</>
-bash$ <userinput>echo showboat - InfoMagic CICA, Dec 1994, /fonts/atm/showboat &gt;&gt;INDEX</></screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>Now, to use a new font with X11, one must make the font file
-available and update the font name files. The X11 font names look
-like:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>-bitstream-charter-medium-r-normal-xxx-0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1
- | | | | | | | | | | | | \ \
- | | | | | \ \ \ \ \ \ \ +----+- character set
- | | | | \ \ \ \ \ \ \ +- average width
- | | | | \ \ \ \ \ \ +- spacing
- | | | \ \ \ \ \ \ +- vertical res.
- | | | \ \ \ \ \ +- horizontal res.
- | | | \ \ \ \ +- points
- | | | \ \ \ +- pixels
- | | | \ \ \
- foundry family weight slant width additional style</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>A new name needs to be created for each new font. If you have
-some information from the documentation that accompanied the font,
-then it could serve as the basis for creating the name. If there is
-no information, then you can get some idea by using
-<citerefentry><refentrytitle>strings</><manvolnum>1</></> on the font
-file. For example:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>bash$ <userinput>strings showboat.pfb | more</>
-%!FontType1-1.0: Showboat 001.001
-%%CreationDate: 1/15/91 5:16:03 PM
-%%VMusage: 1024 45747
-% Generated by Fontographer 3.1
-% Showboat
- 1991 by David Rakowski. Alle Rechte Vorbehalten.
-FontDirectory/Showboat known{/Showboat findfont dup/UniqueID known{dup
-/UniqueID get 4962377 eq exch/FontType get 1 eq and}{pop false}ifelse
-{save true}{false}ifelse}{false}ifelse
-12 dict begin
-/FontInfo 9 dict dup begin
- /version (001.001) readonly def
- /FullName (Showboat) readonly def
- /FamilyName (Showboat) readonly def
- /Weight (Medium) readonly def
- /ItalicAngle 0 def
- /isFixedPitch false def
- /UnderlinePosition -106 def
- /UnderlineThickness 16 def
- /Notice (Showboat
- 1991 by David Rakowski. Alle Rechte Vorbehalten.) readonly def
-end readonly def
-/FontName /Showboat def
---stdin--</screen>
-</informalexample></para>
-
-<para>Using this information, a possible name might be:
-<informalexample>
-<screen>-type1-Showboat-medium-r-normal-decorative-0-0-0-0-p-0-iso8859-1</screen>
-</informalexample>
-</para>
-
-<para>The components of our name are:
-<variablelist>
-
-<varlistentry><term>Foundry</term>
-<listitem>
-<para>Lets just name all the new fonts <literal>type1</>.</para>
-</listitem>
-</varl