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authorMurray Stokely <murray@FreeBSD.org>2010-02-01 07:58:16 +0000
committerMurray Stokely <murray@FreeBSD.org>2010-02-01 07:58:16 +0000
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Add a first pass at human edited improvements to the YouTube machine
generated captions for Eric Allman's Internet Mail talk from AsiaBSDCon 2009. Work completed for hire through Amazon Mechanical Turk. Sponsored by: FreeBSD Foundation
Notes
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@@ -0,0 +1,5768 @@
+0:00:01.619,0:00:04.150
+so its time to move on to the next talk
+
+0:00:04.150,0:00:07.160
+this talk has the keynote speech
+
+0:00:07.160,0:00:09.069
+by Eric Allman
+
+0:00:09.069,0:00:11.239
+Chief Science Officer
+
+0:00:11.239,0:00:12.839
+of sendmail
+
+0:00:12.839,0:00:17.639
+and I think that internet mail past present and bit of future
+
+0:00:17.639,0:00:20.759
+I will introduce
+
+0:00:20.759,0:00:22.380
+his biography
+
+0:00:22.380,0:00:27.409
+Eric Allman is the original author of sendmail and
+longtime contributor to partial index
+
+0:00:29.149,0:00:33.870
+he also wrote ending lockroads Ctwelve lock identification
+
+0:00:33.870,0:00:39.530
+beside externa sendmail he has worked with database management
+
+0:00:39.530,0:00:40.490
+systems and
+
+0:00:40.490,0:00:41.679
+and neural
+
+0:00:41.679,0:00:43.159
+network based speech recognition
+
+0:00:43.159,0:00:46.410
+system administration and networking
+
+0:00:46.410,0:00:50.050
+he is chief science officer and co-founder of
+
+0:00:50.050,0:00:50.999
+sendmail
+
+0:00:50.999,0:00:51.509
+incorporated
+
+0:00:51.509,0:00:52.789
+before joining sendmail
+
+0:00:52.789,0:00:54.190
+he served as CEO
+
+0:00:54.190,0:00:55.529
+for Swift
+
+0:00:55.529,0:01:00.620
+incorporated. which is now part of twenty four seven media Inc.
+
+0:01:00.620,0:01:03.490
+he was with the lovern
+
+0:01:03.490,0:01:10.250
+and provided the whole scale research software infrastructure
+for most of the projects at University of Berkeley
+
+0:01:10.250,0:01:12.740
+he has contributed as senior
+
+0:01:12.740,0:01:16.369
+at the international computer science institute
+
+0:01:16.369,0:01:17.909
+to neural network systems and
+
+0:01:17.909,0:01:19.979
+ihe was also part
+
+0:01:19.979,0:01:21.740
+of Ingress
+
+0:01:21.740,0:01:24.300
+invasion of system
+
+0:01:24.300,0:01:28.220
+and only co-authored the advisor for
+
+0:01:28.220,0:01:31.639
+Unix magazine and was a member of
+
+0:01:31.639,0:01:35.150
+the board of directors at Unix association
+
+0:01:35.150,0:01:36.580
+he has currently program chair
+
+0:01:36.580,0:01:37.969
+
+0:01:37.969,0:01:44.260
+for the conference on e-mail and spam and
+member of ACM Queue editorial board
+
+0:01:44.260,0:01:45.739
+and the board of
+
+0:01:45.739,0:01:48.340
+trustee of call performances
+
+0:01:48.340,0:01:53.650
+he holds a Master of science degree in
+computer science from University of California Berkeley
+
+0:01:53.650,0:02:00.650
+so please
+
+0:02:01.480,0:02:08.480
+make sure, can everyone hear me clearly?
+
+0:02:11.559,0:02:13.989
+okay. I'm going to give you a little bit of
+
+0:02:13.989,0:02:15.860
+well actually quite a bit of history about
+
+0:02:15.860,0:02:20.339
+ e-mail and related technologies starting
+really from
+
+0:02:20.339,0:02:22.840
+before the internet existed
+
+0:02:22.840,0:02:27.269
+this talk that I gave a couple of years
+ago and although there's a lot of slides I'm going to
+
+0:02:27.269,0:02:30.459
+try and go through it fairly quickly because the
+more interesting
+
+0:02:30.459,0:02:32.789
+current stuff is
+
+0:02:32.789,0:02:34.909
+towards the end. The current stuff will be
+
+0:02:34.909,0:02:36.729
+some observations about spam
+
+0:02:36.729,0:02:39.949
+ and e-mail security in general
+
+0:02:39.949,0:02:46.359
+and the authentication and reputation which is
+what I've been working on most recently
+
+0:02:46.359,0:02:50.019
+then I'm going to give you some everyone always
+wants to know what I think will be the future
+
+0:02:50.019,0:02:54.849
+of e-mail and I always tell them I don't know
+any better than they do but they insist on
+
+0:02:54.849,0:02:58.239
+having me tell them so I'll come up with a few
+things there
+
+0:02:58.239,0:03:01.189
+I've thrown in some stuff by the way about
+
+0:03:01.189,0:03:04.719
+ some other things that people have asked me
+about here so i'm
+
+0:03:04.719,0:03:07.299
+trying to adjust the talk to be
+
+0:03:07.299,0:03:08.350
+of
+
+0:03:08.350,0:03:09.379
+interest to
+
+0:03:09.379,0:03:12.099
+what people seem to want to hear
+
+0:03:12.099,0:03:16.299
+so first I want to talk about the
+prehistory of
+
+0:03:16.299,0:03:19.349
+of the internet really this is the Arpanet
+
+0:03:19.349,0:03:21.329
+starting from zero hosts
+
+0:03:21.329,0:03:25.819
+on the network to two hundred and thirteen which
+is where the Arpanet
+
+0:03:25.819,0:03:29.769
+peaked out it couldn't go much larger than
+two hundred thirteen because
+
+0:03:29.769,0:03:31.509
+there was only an eight bit
+
+0:03:31.509,0:03:34.329
+host address
+
+0:03:34.329,0:03:37.469
+I
+
+0:03:37.469,0:03:40.799
+I'm going to talk, plotting things on this kind of graph
+
+0:03:40.799,0:03:44.959
+this is date down at the bottom and the number of
+hosts on the side
+
+0:03:44.959,0:03:49.799
+this is a one year scale. I'll keep readjusting the
+scale as we move up
+
+0:03:49.799,0:03:56.799
+otherwise this is just a flat line down at the bottom
+
+0:03:57.469,0:04:04.469
+so yes you can
+
+0:04:05.979,0:04:09.949
+so this is kind of one thing to start of
+the history of e-mail
+
+0:04:09.949,0:04:11.750
+but it turns out this is
+
+0:04:11.750,0:04:15.719
+about an awful lot of things I just want to
+read you a quote
+
+0:04:15.719,0:04:18.160
+that describes this event in December
+
+0:04:18.160,0:04:19.419
+well
+
+0:04:19.419,0:04:22.719
+on December 9, 1968 Dirk Engelbar
+
+0:04:22.719,0:04:25.240
+who by the way who invented the computer mouse
+
+0:04:25.240,0:04:30.080
+and with a group of seventeen researchers
+working with him in the augmentation
+
+0:04:30.080,0:04:34.569
+research center at stanford research institute
+in Menlo Park, California
+
+0:04:34.569,0:04:39.210
+presented a ninety-minute live public demonstration
+of the on-line system nls
+
+0:04:39.210,0:04:42.580
+that they'd been working on since 1962
+
+0:04:42.580,0:04:46.409
+the public presentation was a session of the
+fall short of computer conference hall at
+
+0:04:46.409,0:04:48.850
+the convention center in San francisco
+
+0:04:48.850,0:04:53.090
+and was attended by about one thousand computer
+professionals
+
+0:04:53.090,0:04:54.809
+this was the public
+
+0:04:54.809,0:04:56.949
+debut of the computer mouse
+
+0:04:56.949,0:05:02.399
+but the mouse of the only one of many innovations
+demonstrated that day including hypertext, object
+
+0:05:02.399,0:05:04.400
+address and dynamic file linking
+
+0:05:04.400,0:05:09.569
+as well as shared screen collaboration involving
+two persons of different sites
+
+0:05:09.569,0:05:13.349
+communicating over a network with audio and
+video interface
+
+0:05:13.349,0:05:15.809
+Okay imagine that day
+
+0:05:15.809,0:05:17.350
+no network exists
+
+0:05:17.350,0:05:18.839
+at all
+
+0:05:18.839,0:05:21.169
+and they're doing a remote demo with
+
+0:05:21.169,0:05:22.849
+audio and video
+
+0:05:22.849,0:05:27.929
+they're interacting doing screen sharing
+over the the internet, they're showing off the mouse for
+
+0:05:27.929,0:05:30.380
+the first time that nobody's ever seen
+
+0:05:30.380,0:05:33.259
+and he throws in stuff like hypertext and what not
+
+0:05:33.259,0:05:38.030
+I can only wish I was there that must have been amazing
+
+0:05:38.030,0:05:40.350
+the point I made of course is that
+
+0:05:40.350,0:05:42.550
+back in 1968
+
+0:05:42.550,0:05:48.289
+they were demoing stuff that we only
+recently got on the internet
+
+0:05:48.289,0:05:50.720
+we havent really come that far
+
+0:05:50.720,0:05:54.069
+so in September 1969
+
+0:05:54.069,0:05:56.040
+the first Arpanet
+
+0:05:56.040,0:05:58.080
+was
+
+0:05:58.080,0:06:02.330
+brought up, September second nineteen sixty nine to be
+precise which happens to be my birthday
+
+0:06:02.330,0:06:05.839
+that was a single host at UCLA
+
+0:06:05.839,0:06:10.969
+which is a little odd because you think of most
+networks as having at least two hosts on them
+
+0:06:10.969,0:06:11.610
+but
+
+0:06:11.610,0:06:15.159
+for a while there was actually only one host on the Arpanet
+
+0:06:15.159,0:06:19.650
+this is a very smudged map of the original Arpanet
+
+
+0:06:19.650,0:06:23.710
+they had this thing called the IMP the
+Internet Message Processor
+
+0:06:23.710,0:06:26.219
+which was essentially the routers that
+
+0:06:26.219,0:06:28.729
+
+
+0:06:28.729,0:06:29.780
+but they
+
+0:06:29.780,0:06:31.740
+gather the data around the
+
+0:06:31.740,0:06:35.339
+Arpanet which wasnt particularly difficult
+in this case but
+
+0:06:35.339,0:06:38.860
+it became so later and then a
+
+0:06:38.860,0:06:44.089
+single host which was a sigma 7. this is obviously
+by the way somebody's hand drawn
+
+0:06:44.089,0:06:48.490
+slide that was done with those ink that gets
+easily smudged when you
+
+0:06:48.490,0:06:51.439
+put your inside of your hand on it
+
+0:06:51.439,0:06:54.150
+so fortunately
+
+0:06:54.150,0:06:58.509
+that one host
+a month added at SRI
+
+0:06:58.509,0:07:02.319
+university of California Santa barbara and
+the university of Utah
+
+0:07:02.319,0:07:05.470
+which gave us a map like this
+
+0:07:05.470,0:07:07.870
+so you can see
+
+0:07:07.870,0:07:12.019
+the round things here are the IMPs there's
+four of 'em
+
+0:07:12.019,0:07:14.749
+and each one of them has exactly one host
+
+0:07:14.749,0:07:15.929
+hanging off of it
+
+0:07:15.929,0:07:20.109
+you could have up to four hosts connected to a single IMP
+
+0:07:20.109,0:07:23.209
+so kind of a mini star topology.
+
+0:07:23.209,0:07:27.350
+this is actually very important look at this
+because it's already
+
+0:07:27.350,0:07:29.210
+an arbitrary
+
+0:07:29.210,0:07:36.199
+networks topology. its not a star configuration
+its not a ring configuration
+
+0:07:36.199,0:07:37.669
+its essentially arbitrary
+
+0:07:37.669,0:07:39.049
+hookup
+
+0:07:39.049,0:07:41.030
+and that actually
+
+0:07:41.030,0:07:43.849
+is something that we had
+
+0:07:43.849,0:07:47.080
+that industry had to rediscover as well
+
+0:07:47.080,0:07:48.050
+the other thing
+
+0:07:48.050,0:07:49.979
+that knows is that there is
+
+0:07:49.979,0:07:51.999
+Magnium three sixteen
+
+0:07:51.999,0:07:55.669
+a Sigma 7, an XDS nine fourteen
+
+0:07:55.669,0:07:57.969
+and a PDP ten there were no
+
+0:07:57.969,0:08:01.449
+two identical architectures on the first
+Arpanet
+
+0:08:01.449,0:08:05.309
+it was designed right from the start to
+be headed off tramps
+
+0:08:05.309,0:08:07.229
+this was untrue of
+
+0:08:07.229,0:08:09.449
+any network that you saw
+
+0:08:09.449,0:08:11.259
+ up until
+
+0:08:11.259,0:08:13.100
+ any other network
+
+0:08:13.100,0:08:14.770
+for example
+
+0:08:14.770,0:08:17.749
+microsoft networks always assume you're running
+windows
+
+0:08:17.749,0:08:19.220
+on the program
+
+0:08:19.220,0:08:19.939
+hardware
+
+0:08:19.939,0:08:23.659
+the Arpanet had a totally different view
+
+0:08:23.659,0:08:25.919
+now here's just kind of a humor
+
+0:08:25.919,0:08:28.229
+picture did
+
+0:08:28.229,0:08:32.269
+this is John Pasto sorry it's not very good
+
+0:08:32.269,0:08:33.699
+Steve Carcker
+
+0:08:33.699,0:08:35.540
+and Vint Cert
+
+0:08:35.540,0:08:40.539
+I have no idea what the pickles are
+about
+
+0:08:40.539,0:08:44.500
+but I do think it's interesting that here
+are probably the three people who were
+
+0:08:44.500,0:08:46.470
+but fathers of the internet
+
+0:08:46.470,0:08:48.690
+and they couldn't even get it right
+
+0:08:48.690,0:08:55.690
+they've got outputs connected to outputs and inputs to inputs
+
+0:08:58.030,0:08:59.510
+so wasnt
+
+0:08:59.510,0:09:02.270
+all that long
+
+0:09:02.270,0:09:07.740
+before the network was quite a bit bigger
+this has gone cross country now
+
+0:09:07.740,0:09:09.560
+we should point out
+
+0:09:09.560,0:09:11.350
+these links
+
+0:09:11.350,0:09:14.620
+were really really fast data links
+
+0:09:14.620,0:09:18.830
+fifty six kilobytes per second
+
+0:09:18.830,0:09:22.230
+and they cost a fortune
+
+0:09:22.230,0:09:23.620
+so fact
+
+0:09:23.620,0:09:27.780
+that they started off in one little cluster
+together on the west coast was just to
+
+0:09:27.780,0:09:30.000
+save costs as much as anything
+
+0:09:30.000,0:09:32.310
+but by september they had spread out
+
+0:09:32.310,0:09:34.000
+quite a bit now
+
+0:09:34.000,0:09:35.430
+the Arpanet was designed
+
+0:09:35.430,0:09:36.510
+to
+
+0:09:36.510,0:09:38.880
+share expensive resources
+
+0:09:38.880,0:09:40.040
+so
+
+0:09:40.040,0:09:43.450
+lots of universities wanted to have their
+own computer
+
+0:09:43.450,0:09:45.990
+but computers were too expensive
+
+0:09:45.990,0:09:47.580
+so they could put in
+
+0:09:47.580,0:09:49.830
+ small machines
+
+0:09:49.830,0:09:51.050
+that could
+
+0:09:51.050,0:09:54.149
+you could connect to the larger machines with
+over the net
+
+0:09:54.149,0:09:59.130
+and so the two primary protocols of the time
+were Telnet and FTP
+
+0:09:59.130,0:10:00.660
+e-mail was not
+
+0:10:00.660,0:10:01.960
+even considered
+
+0:10:01.960,0:10:06.960
+in the original design of the Arpanet
+
+0:10:06.960,0:10:10.110
+what do the
+
+0:10:10.110,0:10:11.030
+teams
+
+0:10:11.030,0:10:13.450
+mean the teams in minor. those were
+
+0:10:13.450,0:10:16.580
+they're called tips they were
+
+0:10:16.580,0:10:17.860
+essentially
+
+0:10:17.860,0:10:19.760
+access
+
+0:10:19.760,0:10:22.800
+if you will smart
+
+0:10:22.800,0:10:23.650
+
+
+0:10:23.650,0:10:27.550
+well not very smart notes. they werent actually
+computers they were places you could log in
+
+0:10:27.550,0:10:30.610
+be it just a terminal if you will
+
+0:10:30.610,0:10:32.370
+so you know being an IMP
+
+0:10:32.370,0:10:33.590
+they had no
+
+0:10:33.590,0:10:37.710
+computer there on the network that they could
+log into the other places
+
+0:10:37.710,0:10:40.950
+that's fundamentally it
+
+0:10:40.950,0:10:42.360
+okay
+
+0:10:42.360,0:10:46.620
+so in late nineteen seventy one was one of
+the first network e-mail
+
+0:10:46.620,0:10:50.450
+was sent if you're going to tell first ever
+in all of history
+
+0:10:50.450,0:10:55.340
+it was sent by this guy Ray Thompson who
+was indeed the real father of e-mail
+
+0:10:55.340,0:10:59.850
+people sometimes try and make me out to be
+that but it just isn't true
+
+0:10:59.850,0:11:00.970
+ he really is
+
+0:11:00.970,0:11:01.999
+he was working
+
+0:11:01.999,0:11:03.830
+at
+
+0:11:03.830,0:11:07.630
+Bolt Beranek and Newman which was one of the
+contractors on the Arpanet
+
+0:11:07.630,0:11:10.869
+ the original version was just
+
+0:11:10.869,0:11:15.110
+part of FTP. he did a file transfer
+and the
+
+0:11:15.110,0:11:16.010
+special semantics were
+
+0:11:16.010,0:11:20.050
+it would just depend whatever you had out of
+the end of some fixed file so each person
+
+0:11:20.050,0:11:21.220
+would have an inbox
+
+0:11:21.220,0:11:23.260
+and it would go splat
+
+0:11:23.260,0:11:26.580
+and add your text to the end of their
+
+0:11:26.580,0:11:29.520
+mailbox I don't think it had headers at the top
+
+0:11:29.520,0:11:33.750
+it was in late nineteen seventy one and it
+linked two machines that were creatively named
+
+0:11:33.750,0:11:36.630
+the BBNA and BBNB
+
+0:11:36.630,0:11:41.060
+there they are the first two e-mail notice
+that they're sitting right next to each
+
+0:11:41.060,0:11:41.690
+other
+
+0:11:41.690,0:11:46.900
+the first e-mail was not sent around the world
+or anything like that. it stayed within a single
+
+0:11:46.900,0:11:48.220
+room
+
+0:11:48.220,0:11:53.230
+these are PEP temps by the way
+
+0:11:53.230,0:11:58.820
+just as an aside now really eleven seventy
+one Unix one dot oh came out
+
+0:11:58.820,0:12:02.560
+that was done by these folks Ken thompson
+and Dennis Richie
+
+0:12:02.560,0:12:06.910
+Unix 1.0 wasn't particularly interesting
+from network point of view but
+
+0:12:06.910,0:12:08.399
+we all know what
+
+0:12:08.399,0:12:10.860
+eventually happened to
+
+0:12:10.860,0:12:15.480
+Unix I'm kind of putting this into a historic
+context
+
+0:12:15.480,0:12:20.190
+so let's go to nineteen seventy three it was
+the beginning of a really really exciting
+
+0:12:20.190,0:12:22.390
+time at Berkeley I'm not
+
+0:12:22.390,0:12:23.540
+
+
+0:12:23.540,0:12:27.360
+not entirely because that was the year I entered
+Berkeley but
+
+0:12:27.360,0:12:29.590
+that was one of the reasons
+
+0:12:29.590,0:12:32.120
+and at the same time there were people
+
+0:12:32.120,0:12:36.499
+running around like this guy Bill Joy who had a lot to do with
+
+0:12:36.499,0:12:37.980
+Berkeley NX
+
+0:12:37.980,0:12:41.930
+and this guy who's out there somewhere
+
+0:12:41.930,0:12:44.780
+you cannot have a better picture
+
+0:12:44.780,0:12:50.460
+If I had a picture of him from that your era
+he's actually leaning down next to a truck
+
+0:12:50.460,0:12:51.420
+that said
+
+0:12:51.420,0:12:54.740
+that said weak detection unit on it
+
+0:12:54.740,0:13:00.059
+but it was only a little tiny then so I didn't take that.
+This was another guy
+
+0:13:00.059,0:13:01.620
+another grad student
+
+0:13:01.620,0:13:05.070
+we always thought he was kind of arrogant because
+
+0:13:05.070,0:13:07.549
+he said his goal was to be
+
+0:13:07.549,0:13:10.600
+the CEO of a major corporation which we thought was
+
+0:13:10.600,0:13:11.769
+not something we could
+
+0:13:11.769,0:13:14.260
+plan for. He is now CEO Google
+
+0:13:14.260,0:13:18.190
+after being CEO novell on
+
+0:13:18.190,0:13:19.100
+well I'm
+
+0:13:19.100,0:13:20.500
+chee had I only
+
+0:13:20.500,0:13:25.120
+gone to his school
+
+0:13:25.120,0:13:27.990
+so as a result of these and a lot of other
+
+0:13:27.990,0:13:32.310
+very creative people that were just a huge number
+of people that ended up at Berkeley all at the
+
+0:13:32.310,0:13:33.119
+same time
+
+0:13:33.119,0:13:36.610
+you seemed to be really excited about this Unix stuff
+
+0:13:36.610,0:13:38.900
+they came up with
+
+0:13:38.900,0:13:40.000
+
+0:13:40.000,0:13:42.310
+what's now known as Berkeley NX
+
+0:13:42.310,0:13:47.350
+so first Bill who did the Berkeley software distributions that were quite literally
+
+0:13:47.350,0:13:49.470
+just a mad tape
+
+0:13:49.470,0:13:50.129
+and
+
+0:13:50.129,0:13:54.030
+because of various licensing reasons the
+best he could do
+
+0:13:54.030,0:13:56.830
+couldn't really even legally label the tape
+
+0:13:56.830,0:14:01.470
+he put a label out that said this is a tape of this
+
+0:14:01.470,0:14:03.070
+and turned it in
+
+0:14:03.070,0:14:08.800
+this is the first Beastie mascot
+drawing. this is out of order. this dint
+
+0:14:08.800,0:14:10.660
+actually come until later
+
+0:14:10.660,0:14:11.660
+this was
+
+0:14:11.660,0:14:16.610
+done by a guy who worked with Sam Lefller
+who was also one of the Berkeley guys
+
+0:14:16.610,0:14:18.730
+at Pixar
+
+0:14:18.730,0:14:20.630
+his name is John Lassiter
+
+0:14:20.630,0:14:24.320
+and as you know he now runs Disney corporation
+
+0:14:24.320,0:14:30.240
+so he owns the original art which is probably
+worth a fortune then
+
+0:14:30.240,0:14:32.430
+so moving along
+
+0:14:32.430,0:14:34.340
+Merkle puzzles
+
+0:14:34.340,0:14:36.270
+now Merkle puzzles
+
+0:14:36.270,0:14:37.390
+probably most of you
+
+0:14:37.390,0:14:40.500
+have never even heard of
+
+0:14:40.500,0:14:42.050
+a guy named Ralph Merkle
+
+0:14:42.050,0:14:44.160
+graduate student at Berkeley
+
+0:14:44.160,0:14:46.070
+submitted a proposal
+
+0:14:46.070,0:14:49.600
+for a paper for CS two forty four
+
+0:14:49.600,0:14:51.910
+which was rejected
+
+0:14:51.910,0:14:53.190
+because it was
+
+0:14:53.190,0:14:55.110
+an obviously absurd idea
+
+0:14:55.110,0:15:00.020
+it was in fact the basis for public key encryption
+
+0:15:00.020,0:15:00.860
+and
+
+0:15:00.860,0:15:02.590
+without public key encryption
+
+0:15:02.590,0:15:08.590
+any kind of authentication and global encryption
+was completely impractical because before
+
+0:15:08.590,0:15:10.710
+that all we had was symmetric keys
+
+0:15:10.710,0:15:13.540
+so if there were
+
+0:15:13.540,0:15:15.239
+n people on the
+
+0:15:15.239,0:15:17.140
+network
+
+0:15:17.140,0:15:20.780
+and you need to exchange with them you needed to squared
+
+0:15:20.780,0:15:22.930
+copies of keys all over the place and that
+
+0:15:22.930,0:15:25.460
+you just couldn't deal with that as n
+got
+
+0:15:25.460,0:15:29.510
+you know to really large numbers like a
+hundred
+
+0:15:29.510,0:15:32.919
+so the other thing was encryption was still
+
+0:15:32.919,0:15:35.690
+classified by the US government as a munition
+
+0:15:35.690,0:15:36.900
+which means it wasnt legal
+
+0:15:36.900,0:15:39.810
+to export it to other countries
+
+0:15:39.810,0:15:44.320
+and even back then there were starting to
+be is substantial amount of international
+
+0:15:44.320,0:15:46.000
+involvement with
+
+0:15:46.000,0:15:49.220
+Unix and other such systems
+
+0:15:49.220,0:15:50.020
+so
+
+0:15:50.020,0:15:52.100
+in
+
+0:15:52.100,0:15:56.600
+April of seventy seven the RSA algorithm was finally
+published. this of course is the
+
+0:15:56.600,0:15:58.670
+one that everyone knows about as the work
+
+0:15:58.670,0:15:59.640
+is directly
+
+0:15:59.640,0:16:04.440
+based on Merkle's work
+
+0:16:04.440,0:16:06.890
+so I think 1977
+
+0:16:06.890,0:16:10.440
+as we see that the networks gotten quite
+a bit larger
+
+0:16:10.440,0:16:12.280
+ this was
+
+0:16:12.280,0:16:15.490
+pretty close to its peak I think
+
+0:16:15.490,0:16:16.839
+ actually still its bigger
+
+0:16:16.839,0:16:21.030
+the pink loans and pink sounds
+
+0:16:21.030,0:16:21.980
+by the way
+
+0:16:21.980,0:16:24.179
+when i say different architectures
+
+0:16:24.179,0:16:26.030
+sixteen bit words
+
+0:16:26.030,0:16:30.190
+thirty six bit words sixty bit words
+
+0:16:30.190,0:16:31.149
+
+
+0:16:31.149,0:16:33.040
+what else do I have
+
+0:16:33.040,0:16:37.209
+up here? just all kinds of things are even some machines
+that have
+
+0:16:37.209,0:16:39.970
+twenty bit words ten bit bytes
+
+0:16:39.970,0:16:42.690
+and somehow they've managed to make that work
+
+0:16:42.690,0:16:45.290
+theres a couple of interesting things on here they have
+
+0:16:45.290,0:16:48.679
+so satellite links to hawaii and to
+
+0:16:48.679,0:16:51.030
+norway
+
+0:16:51.030,0:16:54.589
+and so the the network had gone international
+
+0:16:54.589,0:16:55.450
+sort of
+
+0:16:55.450,0:16:57.010
+I say sort of because
+
+0:16:57.010,0:16:59.610
+ it was going to a US
+
+0:16:59.610,0:17:02.160
+ air force base I think in
+
+0:17:02.160,0:17:04.220
+norway so
+
+0:17:04.220,0:17:06.949
+was still considered a military thing at that
+point
+
+0:17:06.949,0:17:08.070
+so
+
+0:17:08.070,0:17:14.450
+the non-US citizens werent supposed to have
+access to it
+
+0:17:14.450,0:17:16.919
+UUCP got published
+
+0:17:16.919,0:17:19.589
+in nineteen seventy eight
+
+0:17:19.589,0:17:20.939
+it brought
+
+0:17:20.939,0:17:25.539
+network access of the sort to universities
+that didn't have to darker contracts which were
+
+0:17:25.539,0:17:27.000
+I've hard to get
+
+0:17:27.000,0:17:30.990
+and by the way getting an Arpanet link was
+very expensive so you pretty much
+
+0:17:30.990,0:17:37.190
+needed to have a darker sponsor which
+is to be able to afford it
+
+0:17:37.190,0:17:43.340
+in may of nineteen seventy eight the
+first ever spent was sent on the
+
+0:17:43.340,0:17:46.489
+Arpanet. at the time it was a deck salesman
+and
+
+0:17:46.489,0:17:49.300
+I'll tell you more about what he did
+
+0:17:49.300,0:17:51.809
+ shortly
+
+0:17:51.809,0:17:54.000
+late nineteen seventy nine
+
+0:17:54.000,0:17:56.090
+was the appearance of Usenet
+
+0:17:56.090,0:17:58.980
+which was based originally on UUCP although
+
+0:17:58.980,0:18:00.890
+could easily work over the Arpanet
+
+0:18:00.890,0:18:05.520
+this made it was the predecessor of
+what we would now call forums and blogs and
+
+0:18:05.520,0:18:06.570
+things like that
+
+0:18:06.570,0:18:12.440
+but most importantly it made flame words possible
+
+0:18:12.440,0:18:14.240
+and then
+
+0:18:14.240,0:18:15.200
+finally
+
+0:18:15.200,0:18:21.140
+in September nineteen seventy nine UCB
+got an Arpanet nose. they actually had the one before
+
+0:18:21.140,0:18:24.190
+but it had then shut down because the
+
+0:18:24.190,0:18:26.410
+the guy who ran it
+
+0:18:26.410,0:18:30.170
+was told that he had failed to demonstrate
+that his
+
+0:18:30.170,0:18:34.380
+ research was going to enable them to build
+smarter bombs
+
+0:18:34.380,0:18:36.240
+literally i saw the letter
+
+0:18:36.240,0:18:38.049
+but by
+
+0:18:38.049,0:18:38.909
+this point
+
+0:18:38.909,0:18:41.600
+the group I was working on INGREs
+
+0:18:41.600,0:18:43.990
+got that link
+
+0:18:43.990,0:18:46.250
+we were database management
+
+0:18:46.250,0:18:50.500
+system and of course the government was very
+interested in data bases
+
+0:18:50.500,0:18:54.500
+and in particular distributed databases
+
+0:18:54.500,0:18:56.760
+we din't have a very big
+
+0:18:56.760,0:19:00.360
+grap so we had a whopping ninety six hundred
+baud
+
+0:19:00.360,0:19:05.960
+link to the Arpanet. this is for all of campus
+
+0:19:05.960,0:19:07.029
+actually it was for
+
+0:19:07.029,0:19:09.309
+CS division
+
+0:19:09.309,0:19:11.550
+which was not all of campus but
+
+0:19:11.550,0:19:13.659
+you know the folks some of the departments
+
+0:19:13.659,0:19:15.640
+didn't have a clue what a network was
+
+0:19:15.640,0:19:18.880
+but everyone in the CS division wanted
+
+0:19:18.880,0:19:20.000
+
+
+0:19:20.000,0:19:21.700
+access to the Arpanet
+
+0:19:21.700,0:19:26.750
+of course because it was the newest shiny bling thing
+to have and everyone
+
+0:19:26.750,0:19:27.719
+had to get there
+
+0:19:27.719,0:19:29.880
+well we had a PDP-11
+
+0:19:29.880,0:19:34.570
+that really could handle that many simultaneous
+logins much less
+
+0:19:34.570,0:19:38.150
+the ports that were expensive at the time
+
+0:19:38.150,0:19:42.390
+to put this into perspective we had a PDP-11 seventy
+that had a one point five micro
+
+0:19:42.390,0:19:46.660
+second cycle time so substantially less than one minute
+
+0:19:46.660,0:19:48.990
+the sixteen-bit word and we have
+
+0:19:48.990,0:19:52.669
+a lot of memory we had a 196K of memory
+
+0:19:52.669,0:19:54.780
+on the system
+
+0:19:54.780,0:19:55.910
+we would have to put
+
+0:19:55.910,0:19:58.990
+a DH-11 ports
+
+0:19:58.990,0:19:59.730
+another
+
+0:19:59.730,0:20:05.200
+this is a port multiplex where you get sixteen words
+cost about forty seven hundred dollars so
+
+0:20:05.200,0:20:06.960
+about three hundred dollars
+
+0:20:06.960,0:20:10.410
+per port which doesn't sound like much
+but remember
+
+0:20:10.410,0:20:14.340
+that's like a thousand dollars per port today
+
+0:20:14.340,0:20:15.590
+so
+
+0:20:15.590,0:20:16.840
+well I have to show off
+
+0:20:16.840,0:20:20.890
+some things this is a PDP 11 seventy.this
+is what computers are supposed to look like
+
+0:20:20.890,0:20:22.880
+ unlike what they are today
+
+0:20:22.880,0:20:25.610
+they had switches and lights and
+
+0:20:25.610,0:20:32.610
+all kinds of cool things and dials. Ah it was great so
+
+0:20:33.300,0:20:34.670
+we had
+
+0:20:34.670,0:20:37.120
+ we were what we're able to do was
+
+0:20:37.120,0:20:41.040
+release two TT white ports three hundred
+baud TT white ports
+
+0:20:41.040,0:20:44.790
+to be shared among everyone in the computer
+science division
+
+0:20:44.790,0:20:47.140
+at Berkeley
+
+0:20:47.140,0:20:49.950
+ probably about
+
+0:20:49.950,0:20:51.920
+fifty people well
+
+0:20:51.920,0:20:54.149
+ forty professors. there were
+
+0:20:54.149,0:20:57.280
+other students but we just said no you know
+
+0:20:57.280,0:20:58.250
+still
+
+0:20:58.250,0:21:00.640
+can't handle it can't possibly do that
+
+0:21:00.640,0:21:03.440
+ but professors could have their
+
+0:21:03.440,0:21:05.400
+computer
+
+0:21:05.400,0:21:08.010
+terminal sorry in their office
+
+0:21:08.010,0:21:11.470
+and they had a line that ran into the-mail room
+and there was a plug board
+
+0:21:11.470,0:21:12.140
+he could
+
+0:21:12.140,0:21:16.170
+put in the patch code between your office
+and whatever computer you want to have access
+
+0:21:16.170,0:21:18.370
+to and there were two those
+
+0:21:18.370,0:21:22.040
+for the Arpanet machine which was the
+machine I was
+
+0:21:22.040,0:21:23.040
+working on then
+
+0:21:23.040,0:21:26.770
+and of course people would come along
+they want access to the Arpanet. they just
+
+0:21:26.770,0:21:27.289
+unplug
+
+0:21:27.289,0:21:31.020
+one of the cables that was in there and plug in theirs
+
+0:21:31.020,0:21:35.010
+there were professors having screaming matches
+at each other in the hallways and it
+
+0:21:35.010,0:21:37.960
+probably came to fisticuffs at some point
+
+0:21:37.960,0:21:42.340
+and of course they all came to me and wanted
+me to fix the problem
+
+0:21:42.340,0:21:47.029
+I wasn't it and I don't know how they thought
+I was going to fix the problem
+
+0:21:47.029,0:21:51.960
+which I was an undergraduate then I don't know how they
+thought I was gonna fix the problem. What I did however was
+observe what they really wanted was not access to the
+
+0:21:51.960,0:21:53.490
+Arpanet like FTP and
+
+0:21:53.490,0:21:54.880
+Telnet
+
+0:21:54.880,0:21:55.920
+what they want
+
+0:21:55.920,0:21:58.970
+was e-mail.Email was the killer rap
+
+0:21:58.970,0:22:00.750
+even back then
+
+0:22:00.750,0:22:05.270
+we had something called Berknet that linked our
+internal machines
+
+0:22:05.270,0:22:09.300
+using RS two thirty two lines of ninety
+six hundred baud this is written by
+
+0:22:09.300,0:22:13.860
+a guy named Eric Schmidt yes the very same Eric Schmidt
+who is now CEO of google and he's a better
+
+0:22:13.860,0:22:17.500
+CEO than he is a coder
+
+0:22:17.500,0:22:20.640
+but it worked
+
+0:22:20.640,0:22:25.440
+as it turns out we also had a UUCP connection
+which ran from the main department machine
+
+0:22:25.440,0:22:25.690
+which
+
+0:22:25.690,0:22:30.680
+was a VAX OM 780 call Ernie CoVAX
+
+0:22:30.680,0:22:32.860
+and so I wrote something called deliver mail
+
+0:22:32.860,0:22:34.380
+deliver mail was just
+
+0:22:34.380,0:22:37.000
+a quick hack to forward
+
+0:22:37.000,0:22:41.610
+messages between networks it dint have time to
+anything like fixing headers or
+
+0:22:41.610,0:22:42.900
+anything like that
+
+0:22:42.900,0:22:45.740
+so it was a disaster in some sense waiting to happen
+
+0:22:45.740,0:22:51.290
+well it got the professors off of my back
+so as far as I was concerned it was a success
+
+0:22:51.290,0:22:53.359
+It got released in four
+
+0:22:53.359,0:22:54.520
+point zero what
+
+0:22:54.520,0:22:58.140
+is now four zero BSD which is four BSD at the time
+
+0:22:58.140,0:23:03.230
+in 1980 and much to my shock it turned out to be
+very popular Berkeley
+
+0:23:03.230,0:23:06.190
+was not unique lots and lots of places
+
+0:23:06.190,0:23:11.150
+have this problem
+
+0:23:11.150,0:23:15.700
+and so there is deliver mail on the chart
+now you can see this is
+
+0:23:15.700,0:23:16.870
+pretty much
+
+0:23:16.870,0:23:20.880
+toward the end of the the Arpanet era
+
+0:23:20.880,0:23:22.520
+the Arpanet
+
+0:23:22.520,0:23:23.680
+geographically now looks
+
+0:23:23.680,0:23:24.620
+like this
+
+0:23:24.620,0:23:28.240
+the circles by the way were exploded in the other
+
+0:23:28.240,0:23:31.110
+material that I had but I dint want to
+
+0:23:31.110,0:23:32.500
+give you all of that but
+
+0:23:32.500,0:23:35.190
+there is several satellite link now
+
+0:23:35.190,0:23:36.269
+
+
+0:23:36.269,0:23:40.279
+there's a direct satellite link to London thats
+still at Hawaii link
+
+0:23:40.279,0:23:41.300
+and so forth
+
+0:23:41.300,0:23:43.429
+if you look carefully you will see the
+
+0:23:43.429,0:23:45.120
+main
+
+0:23:45.120,0:23:46.840
+university
+
+0:23:46.840,0:23:53.840
+military and military contractors sites
+
+0:23:58.450,0:24:03.810
+thats all of them. Sizemo I don't
+know if sizemo had an Arpanet link I don't think
+
+0:24:03.810,0:24:07.990
+they did although they could have
+
+0:24:07.990,0:24:10.880
+it would have been in here somewhere so
+
+0:24:10.880,0:24:13.899
+
+0:24:13.899,0:24:16.410
+I think that came later
+
+0:24:16.410,0:24:17.760
+let's put it this way
+
+0:24:17.760,0:24:22.800
+we Berkeley ended up being the gateway between
+the UUCP and the Arpanet
+
+0:24:22.800,0:24:27.080
+cos it didn't take people long to figure out
+a route-mail
+
+0:24:27.080,0:24:30.770
+you're there you had to do it manually but
+it could be done
+
+0:24:30.770,0:24:34.300
+I will have a comment about that later
+
+0:24:34.300,0:24:36.640
+so let's continue on to the next phase
+
+0:24:36.640,0:24:40.090
+by nineteen eighty one through nineteen eighty eight
+
+0:24:40.090,0:24:43.790
+this goes from two hundred thirteen hosts
+that were on
+
+0:24:43.790,0:24:48.320
+the Arpanet to thirty three thousand
+hosts in seven years
+
+0:24:48.320,0:24:53.460
+so we'll start with our usual graph
+
+0:24:53.460,0:24:58.180
+this was when I started first putting SMTP on a sendmail
+
+0:24:58.180,0:25:02.590
+worked on sendmail before because things
+like header writing
+
+0:25:02.590,0:25:06.810
+was becoming a real problem. you couldn't reply to addresses.
+everyone you had to be
+
+0:25:06.810,0:25:09.000
+to be a guru in order to
+
+0:25:09.000,0:25:14.330
+figure out how to address things there
+was even an entire book
+
+0:25:14.330,0:25:15.590
+put up
+
+0:25:15.590,0:25:16.910
+that described
+
+0:25:16.910,0:25:19.570
+how to do addressing
+
+0:25:19.570,0:25:21.070
+but
+
+0:25:21.070,0:25:22.769
+Berkeley got a contract
+
+0:25:22.769,0:25:25.140
+to do the
+
+0:25:25.140,0:25:26.390
+base
+
+0:25:26.390,0:25:31.090
+platform operating system platform to support darker
+research they had all of these
+
+0:25:31.090,0:25:33.720
+diverse machines
+
+0:25:33.720,0:25:37.700
+but they discovered that that made it really
+hard for research projects to share work with
+
+0:25:37.700,0:25:41.920
+each other so they decided that there would
+be a standard platform it would be the VAX
+
+0:25:41.920,0:25:43.259
+eleven seven eighty
+
+0:25:43.259,0:25:45.260
+running Berkeley Unix
+
+0:25:45.260,0:25:48.039
+and one of things they needed was an SMTP server
+
+0:25:48.039,0:25:50.780
+is by the way I havent said anything about
+
+0:25:50.780,0:25:56.350
+SMTP being published it wasn't published
+and I was working on up very early drafts
+
+0:25:56.350,0:26:02.100
+ and what happened was Bill Joy asked me
+random data base not sendmail
+
+0:26:02.100,0:26:03.990
+Bill Joy came up to me and said
+
+0:26:03.990,0:26:06.470
+you know would you do this
+
+0:26:06.470,0:26:07.630
+and
+
+0:26:07.630,0:26:14.300
+in a moment of weakness said sure how hard
+can it be
+
+0:26:14.300,0:26:17.840
+twenty five years later I'm telling you who
+it is
+
+0:26:17.840,0:26:20.570
+harder than it looks
+
+0:26:20.570,0:26:21.900
+and
+
+0:26:21.900,0:26:23.340
+few months later
+
+0:26:23.340,0:26:28.149
+4.1a which was tecnically test
+release
+
+0:26:28.149,0:26:30.290
+came out with sendmail
+
+0:26:30.290,0:26:31.849
+SMTP which also have
+
+0:26:31.849,0:26:33.770
+the first networks that
+
+0:26:33.770,0:26:35.160
+so
+
+0:26:35.160,0:26:37.130
+this is
+
+0:26:37.130,0:26:39.570
+Berkeley Unix on the internet
+
+0:26:39.570,0:26:42.230
+except the internet doesn't exist yet
+
+0:26:42.230,0:26:47.620
+sort of exists. there is this test platform but the
+world still using arpanet
+
+0:26:47.620,0:26:53.120
+finally about a year after I started implementing
+SMTP the specs were
+
+0:26:53.120,0:26:53.940
+published
+
+0:26:53.940,0:26:55.650
+after
+
+0:26:55.650,0:26:57.220
+it's been shipped
+
+0:26:57.220,0:27:01.940
+its an internet tradition
+by the way
+
+0:27:01.940,0:27:04.290
+January first nineteen eighty three
+
+0:27:04.290,0:27:08.530
+was the flag day it was just called the flag day
+
+0:27:08.530,0:27:10.470
+that was the day that
+
+0:27:10.470,0:27:12.800
+the government said we're going to turn off
+
+0:27:12.800,0:27:14.580
+the arpanet
+
+0:27:14.580,0:27:17.200
+and they literally just said
+
+0:27:17.200,0:27:19.620
+we're going to send out a message into all the IMPs
+
+0:27:19.620,0:27:21.940
+to stop forwarding packets
+
+0:27:21.940,0:27:24.809
+and if you're not on the internet by then
+
+0:27:24.809,0:27:27.480
+you're going to lose your network connectivity
+
+0:27:27.480,0:27:31.470
+and there were a whole bunch of people who
+said yeah yeah they're bluffing and guess what
+
+0:27:31.470,0:27:34.180
+they lost their network connectivity
+
+0:27:34.180,0:27:36.460
+but Berkeley was there we didn't
+
+0:27:36.460,0:27:37.269
+so
+
+0:27:37.269,0:27:39.520
+that was cool
+
+0:27:39.520,0:27:44.659
+in September of eighty three the same year
+a four-point two BSD shipped
+
+0:27:44.659,0:27:47.190
+this was kind of the basis for
+
+0:27:47.190,0:27:50.030
+at least from the user interface
+
+0:27:50.030,0:27:53.390
+was the basis for
+
+0:27:53.390,0:27:55.420
+Unix as we know it today
+
+0:27:55.420,0:27:57.910
+so it had all the network and
+
+0:27:57.910,0:27:59.190
+stuff and
+
+0:27:59.190,0:28:00.370
+at that point
+
+0:28:00.370,0:28:04.910
+we were able to track down John Lasetter and
+have him do an update
+
+0:28:04.910,0:28:08.830
+and does it seem much more important at the
+time so
+
+0:28:08.830,0:28:11.910
+heres Beastie in color with the attractive green
+
+0:28:11.910,0:28:17.890
+tennis shoes and so forth
+
+0:28:17.890,0:28:20.890
+once again for historic context I have to
+
+0:28:20.890,0:28:22.400
+run in some things
+
+0:28:22.400,0:28:26.670
+in eighty five there was a company actually
+did some more research it was originally called
+
+0:28:26.670,0:28:31.300
+control video corporation changed his name
+to quantum computer services
+
+0:28:31.300,0:28:36.980
+an year later that changed its name to
+America online
+
+0:28:36.980,0:28:40.210
+they had the walled garden they had an e-mail
+
+0:28:40.210,0:28:44.470
+only among other AOL subscribers they
+weren't connected to the internet
+
+0:28:44.470,0:28:45.720
+in any
+
+0:28:45.720,0:28:49.030
+any sense
+
+0:28:49.030,0:28:50.810
+this is really important
+
+0:28:50.810,0:28:55.720
+may nineteen eighty seven a guy named Rick
+Adams who worked in sizemo
+
+0:28:55.720,0:28:59.440
+went off and started the first commercialized PE
+
+0:28:59.440,0:29:05.500
+there was apparently another one that started
+on exactly the same day so the two people
+
+0:29:05.500,0:29:07.830
+get to fight each other over who was first
+
+0:29:07.830,0:29:11.500
+the difference is that UUNET turned into one of
+the largest peices
+
+0:29:11.500,0:29:15.100
+in the world and the other one didn't
+
+0:29:15.100,0:29:16.549
+so
+
+0:29:16.549,0:29:18.669
+this was the first time that you could
+
+0:29:18.669,0:29:21.470
+get access to the internet without being
+
+0:29:21.470,0:29:24.490
+a government
+
+0:29:24.490,0:29:25.610
+government-sponsored
+
+0:29:25.610,0:29:29.860
+so that's a big deal
+
+0:29:29.860,0:29:34.460
+so of next chunk of history we'll take from
+eighty eight to ninety three at this point
+
+0:29:34.460,0:29:35.940
+I'm going in about
+
+0:29:35.940,0:29:37.340
+ten x
+
+0:29:37.340,0:29:40.320
+both on the internet just in progress graphs
+
+0:29:40.320,0:29:42.130
+pretty clear
+
+0:29:42.130,0:29:43.570
+so
+
+0:29:43.570,0:29:48.549
+this was kind of the first security incidents
+on the internet the internet worm
+
+0:29:48.549,0:29:52.140
+It was written by Grampston in a Harvard and who
+
+0:29:52.140,0:29:56.620
+probably should have flunked out because he
+didn't understand commentary growth
+
+0:29:56.620,0:29:59.670
+and he really thought that this thing would run
+
+0:29:59.670,0:30:03.390
+quietly on the internet and first of
+all there was a bug in his
+
+0:30:03.390,0:30:04.380
+program
+
+0:30:04.380,0:30:07.410
+so it didn't kill itself off as it was supposed
+to and
+
+0:30:07.410,0:30:11.900
+he didn't understand that if each machine infects 4 machines
+
+0:30:11.900,0:30:13.580
+thats a really large
+
+0:30:13.580,0:30:15.200
+power not
+
+0:30:15.200,0:30:17.680
+not a small one
+
+0:30:17.680,0:30:23.470
+but it did make people start to think for
+the first time about
+
+0:30:23.470,0:30:30.000
+security on the internet up until the internet had
+been kind of
+
+0:30:30.000,0:30:31.739
+a very collegiate
+
+0:30:31.739,0:30:32.420
+atmosphere
+
+0:30:32.420,0:30:37.360
+you had to be to be on the internet you had to
+be a researcher to get on it
+
+0:30:37.360,0:30:41.409
+if you wanted an account on somebody else's
+machine to be good all you do is they can
+
+0:30:41.409,0:30:45.070
+I had an account and go sure give you an
+account
+
+0:30:45.070,0:30:48.529
+so security dint seem all that important but
+
+0:30:48.529,0:30:49.669
+this made it clear that
+
+0:30:49.669,0:30:53.890
+it was
+
+0:30:53.890,0:30:59.690
+March nineteen eighty nine in fact exactly
+twenty years ago this past Friday two days
+
+0:30:59.690,0:31:01.070
+ago
+
+0:31:01.070,0:31:03.510
+Tim Berners-Lee proposed what
+
+0:31:03.510,0:31:06.030
+we now know as the world wide web
+
+0:31:06.030,0:31:10.740
+he did a prototype browser that was published
+in October
+
+0:31:10.740,0:31:12.799
+of nineteen ninety
+
+0:31:12.799,0:31:17.649
+and but that one kind of disappeared it
+was more concerned
+
+0:31:17.649,0:31:18.779
+research
+
+0:31:18.779,0:31:21.440
+organization in switzerland
+
+0:31:21.440,0:31:23.330
+so there's Tim
+
+0:31:23.330,0:31:27.299
+I think that was not
+
+0:31:27.299,0:31:33.820
+contemporary. I think he had more hair when he
+proposed it
+
+0:31:33.820,0:31:36.720
+okay
+
+0:31:36.720,0:31:39.320
+we had the internet
+
+0:31:39.320,0:31:41.100
+and that allowed
+
+0:31:41.100,0:31:41.840
+non
+
+0:31:41.840,0:31:44.630
+government people to get access to the net
+
+0:31:44.630,0:31:49.780
+but the backbone of the internet was still run
+by the national science foundation getting transferred
+
+0:31:49.780,0:31:50.480
+from
+
+0:31:50.480,0:31:52.310
+ the military
+
+0:31:52.310,0:31:54.460
+over to
+
+0:31:54.460,0:31:58.200
+non military government funding but it
+was still
+
+0:31:58.200,0:31:59.530
+funded
+
+0:31:59.530,0:32:06.530
+and their rules that an acceptable use policy
+that said no commercial traffic
+
+0:32:07.160,0:32:09.370
+so UUNET customers could
+
+0:32:09.370,0:32:13.660
+run commercial traffic to each other but they
+could write to other people. there wasnt any chance
+
+0:32:13.660,0:32:17.800
+that would run over these wires
+
+0:32:17.800,0:32:18.670
+that effectively said
+
+0:32:18.670,0:32:23.830
+you can't use the the internet for commercial
+purposes at all
+
+0:32:23.830,0:32:24.649
+CIX
+
+0:32:24.649,0:32:30.430
+which then stood for commercial internet
+exchange was where the various
+
+0:32:30.430,0:32:34.690
+largish ISP were started to be regional.
+there was one on the west coast and one
+
+0:32:34.690,0:32:37.760
+on the east coast and one of the southeast
+and
+
+0:32:37.760,0:32:38.890
+so forth said
+
+0:32:38.890,0:32:42.300
+we're all going to run wires together into one room
+
+0:32:42.300,0:32:46.070
+we're going to put a big router there and we're
+going to be able to exchange traffic with us
+
+0:32:46.070,0:32:48.960
+without ever going over an SF net
+
+0:32:48.960,0:32:52.769
+because we're not allowed commercial traffic
+and they essentially said cut the government
+
+0:32:52.769,0:32:57.539
+out of the equation which was great as that's what
+the government wanted anyway
+
+0:32:57.539,0:32:58.250
+so
+
+0:32:58.250,0:33:03.450
+ nineteen ninety one July was the first
+time he could really use the internet for
+
+0:33:03.450,0:33:07.340
+anything commercial
+
+0:33:07.340,0:33:13.529
+nineteen ninety two a multi-purpose internet
+mail extensions was published a USENET
+
+0:33:13.529,0:33:14.300
+conference
+
+0:33:14.300,0:33:16.470
+
+
+0:33:16.470,0:33:21.110
+and this allowed embedding something other
+than plain text
+
+0:33:21.110,0:33:21.850
+into
+
+0:33:21.850,0:33:25.310
+e-mail messages notably at the time it was
+used for
+
+0:33:25.310,0:33:27.700
+ pictures or graphs and
+
+0:33:27.700,0:33:30.130
+things like that there was discussion about
+maybe
+
+0:33:30.130,0:33:31.690
+maybe some day we could
+
+0:33:31.690,0:33:36.960
+do sound and possibly way way way in the distant future
+we may be able to think about video but
+
+0:33:36.960,0:33:41.450
+it was really just pictures
+
+0:33:41.450,0:33:46.300
+okay nineteen ninety three through ninety six is
+taking us from one point three million to
+
+0:33:46.300,0:33:49.639
+to almost thirteen million
+
+0:33:49.639,0:33:51.420
+
+0:33:51.420,0:33:55.549
+February of ninety three NCSA mosaic was released this is the national center
+
+0:33:55.549,0:33:59.350
+for super computer applications at the university
+of Illinois
+
+0:33:59.350,0:34:00.620
+champane urbana
+
+0:34:00.620,0:34:02.800
+it's the first broadly used
+
+0:34:02.800,0:34:05.429
+browser and in fact
+
+0:34:05.429,0:34:07.360
+was the direct descendant
+
+0:34:07.360,0:34:08.960
+sorry the
+
+0:34:08.960,0:34:10.440
+direct parent of
+
+0:34:10.440,0:34:12.099
+netscape
+
+0:34:12.099,0:34:19.099
+and mozilla and so forth all kind
+of goes back to NCSA mosaic
+
+0:34:19.739,0:34:21.450
+now sendmail had been
+
+0:34:21.450,0:34:26.149
+I had abandoned sendmail for a number
+of years because I've gone to work for start-up
+
+0:34:26.149,0:34:26.659
+and
+
+0:34:26.659,0:34:30.719
+they seem to want action work on what I was
+being paid for
+
+0:34:30.719,0:34:32.369
+and
+
+0:34:32.369,0:34:34.109
+Sendmail had diverged
+
+0:34:34.109,0:34:38.489
+and so there were many versions of it. some of them
+had some good ideas some of them some not
+
+0:34:38.489,0:34:39.519
+so good
+
+0:34:39.519,0:34:40.869
+ideas
+
+0:34:40.869,0:34:43.219
+every vendor
+
+0:34:43.219,0:34:47.449
+like Deck and HP and IBM and so forthhad their own
+
+0:34:47.449,0:34:49.449
+proprietary version of sendmail
+
+0:34:49.449,0:34:53.509
+and you couldnt really share things between them and
+I came along and I came
+
+0:34:53.509,0:34:55.809
+back to the university
+
+0:34:55.809,0:34:59.249
+first a lot of these things and that a lot
+of other things all of these things is the
+
+0:34:59.249,0:35:00.599
+sendmail eight which is
+
+0:35:00.599,0:35:01.980
+the sendmail which
+
+0:35:01.980,0:35:05.319
+pretty much still exists to this day
+
+0:35:05.319,0:35:06.719
+
+
+0:35:06.719,0:35:07.699
+that was
+
+0:35:07.699,0:35:10.289
+way more successful than I had
+
+0:35:10.289,0:35:10.989
+anticipated
+
+0:35:10.989,0:35:12.439
+and
+
+0:35:12.439,0:35:14.450
+ that turned into a problem
+
+0:35:14.450,0:35:16.249
+later as we'll see
+
+0:35:16.249,0:35:17.539
+Netscape was founded
+
+0:35:17.539,0:35:19.209
+in nineteen ninety four
+
+0:35:19.209,0:35:24.680
+ Mark Reasen was one of the principles
+in that and he essentially left
+
+0:35:24.680,0:35:31.539
+NCSA took the source code with him and co
+founded the company
+
+0:35:31.539,0:35:38.539
+the green code spam anyone remember the greencode spam?
+
+0:35:38.630,0:35:39.700
+now I mentioned
+
+0:35:39.700,0:35:41.829
+there was the first spam
+
+0:35:41.829,0:35:43.429
+earlier
+
+0:35:43.429,0:35:46.859
+but it wasnt really a spam
+
+0:35:46.859,0:35:50.299
+as i said the network previously largely cooperative
+
+0:35:50.299,0:35:53.039
+you know had flame wars but they were
+
+0:35:53.039,0:35:54.259
+mostly innocent
+
+0:35:54.259,0:35:55.779
+could be dealt with
+
+0:35:55.779,0:36:00.379
+turns out that spam was not new. the first electronically
+
+0:36:00.379,0:36:01.210
+transmitted
+
+0:36:01.210,0:36:03.239
+commercial
+
+0:36:03.239,0:36:04.049
+message
+
+0:36:04.049,0:36:07.959
+was in September thirteenth nineteen oh four
+
+0:36:07.959,0:36:10.309
+using the telegraph
+
+0:36:10.309,0:36:15.699
+so advertisers had figured out this new
+technology was going to be someplace they
+
+0:36:15.699,0:36:18.569
+could thrive
+
+0:36:18.569,0:36:19.789
+the first
+
+0:36:19.789,0:36:22.869
+e-mail spam was this DEC salesman
+
+0:36:22.869,0:36:25.700
+who DEC had released a new
+
+0:36:25.700,0:36:27.979
+part of the computer and decided that
+
+0:36:27.979,0:36:31.109
+he really want all of its customers to know
+about this
+
+0:36:31.109,0:36:31.929
+so he sent
+
+0:36:31.929,0:36:33.619
+an e-mail message
+
+0:36:33.619,0:36:36.059
+with copying every single customer
+
+0:36:36.059,0:36:37.230
+did he had
+
+0:36:37.230,0:36:41.259
+well it turns out the-mail programs of the
+time they thought about having
+
+0:36:41.259,0:36:45.309
+you know three or four may be ten recipients
+on a message
+
+0:36:45.309,0:36:47.409
+not a thousand
+
+0:36:47.409,0:36:50.170
+and so it broke the-mail system broke
+
+0:36:50.170,0:36:51.859
+all kinds of things
+
+0:36:51.859,0:36:53.769
+but I don't really cannot this is the first
+
+0:36:53.769,0:36:57.109
+spam because he said gee I didn't know
+
+0:36:57.109,0:36:58.749
+he apologized
+
+0:36:58.749,0:37:02.630
+well he wasn't trying to do anything malicious.
+he genuinely thought that
+
+0:37:02.630,0:37:05.939
+his customers would want to know about this
+new machine
+
+0:37:05.939,0:37:09.359
+there is also a nineteen eighty eight a chain letter
+
+0:37:09.359,0:37:11.589
+called make money fast it was
+
+0:37:11.589,0:37:13.619
+a pyramid scheme
+
+0:37:13.619,0:37:14.760
+But it wasnt
+
+0:37:14.760,0:37:17.219
+really technically a spam either
+
+0:37:17.219,0:37:21.109
+but we're definitely seeing the greed
+is good attitude coming to
+
+0:37:21.109,0:37:22.900
+the internet much to do
+
+0:37:22.900,0:37:24.829
+disgust of a lot of us
+
+0:37:24.829,0:37:29.219
+and they call a nation was two lawyers and
+from Texas Canter and siegel
+
+0:37:29.219,0:37:31.070
+who
+
+0:37:31.070,0:37:34.369
+advertise in technically Usenet not
+
+0:37:34.369,0:37:35.389
+not e-mail
+
+0:37:35.389,0:37:37.309
+they sent every single
+
+0:37:37.309,0:37:38.319
+news group
+
+0:37:38.319,0:37:40.469
+the same posting
+
+0:37:40.469,0:37:46.009
+offering to sign people up for a price for
+the green card lottery which was so people
+
+0:37:46.009,0:37:48.109
+non-residents could work in the US
+
+0:37:48.109,0:37:52.249
+they didn't tell you that you could sign yourself
+up for free
+
+0:37:52.249,0:37:57.890
+but if you gave them money they'd be happy to
+do for you what you could do for free
+
+0:37:57.890,0:38:02.590
+and they were completely unapologetic about
+this they said wait a minute here we have
+
+0:38:02.590,0:38:03.279
+the right
+
+0:38:03.279,0:38:04.240
+to do this
+
+0:38:04.240,0:38:06.339
+they even published a book
+
+0:38:06.339,0:38:08.959
+on how to spam
+
+0:38:08.959,0:38:11.689
+and they made a ton of money off of that book too
+
+0:38:11.689,0:38:15.979
+ I believe that brought them this far by
+the way and have
+
+0:38:15.979,0:38:19.639
+gone into
+
+0:38:19.639,0:38:21.419
+you know
+
+0:38:21.419,0:38:24.259
+very long
+
+0:38:24.259,0:38:27.209
+
+
+0:38:27.209,0:38:31.559
+April nineteen ninety four Webcaller was the
+first full text
+
+0:38:31.559,0:38:33.069
+webcaller
+
+0:38:33.069,0:38:38.929
+and was the beginning of search engines as
+we know them today
+
+0:38:38.929,0:38:40.579
+the first
+
+0:38:40.579,0:38:44.929
+well this is pseudo liar as good a time as
+virus was an e-mail message that went around
+
+0:38:44.929,0:38:46.109
+saying
+
+0:38:46.109,0:38:47.409
+it's
+
+0:38:47.409,0:38:50.300
+the subject was good times it said
+
+0:38:50.300,0:38:52.759
+there's a virus running around the network
+
+0:38:52.759,0:38:56.439
+if you even open that message
+
+0:38:56.439,0:39:02.119
+it will trash your machine you know the message because
+it has the subject good times
+
+0:39:02.119,0:39:05.589
+forward this to everyone you know
+
+0:39:05.589,0:39:08.080
+the warning was itself
+
+0:39:08.080,0:39:09.150
+the virus
+
+0:39:09.150,0:39:12.329
+and it was tremendously effective I had to
+spend
+
+0:39:12.329,0:39:15.299
+about two days calming down people about this
+
+0:39:15.299,0:39:16.629
+just saying no
+
+0:39:16.629,0:39:21.259
+don't forward it
+
+0:39:21.259,0:39:23.359
+the
+
+0:39:23.359,0:39:25.089
+as I have said so
+
+0:39:25.089,0:39:27.359
+earlier sendmail eight was very very
+
+0:39:27.359,0:39:28.550
+successful
+
+0:39:28.550,0:39:32.799
+so successful that I really couldn't support
+it myself anymore
+
+0:39:32.799,0:39:34.679
+just because untenable so
+
+0:39:34.679,0:39:41.639
+I formed a sendmail consortium was which was
+a group of volunteers that helped do this in '95
+
+0:39:41.639,0:39:47.029
+and later ninety five SMIME was published
+this was the first attempt to do
+
+0:39:47.029,0:39:49.879
+but it actually wasn't the first it was the
+
+0:39:49.879,0:39:52.869
+best known to this day attempt to do
+
+0:39:52.869,0:39:54.729
+encryption and authentication in email
+
+0:39:54.729,0:39:57.450
+ that
+
+0:39:57.450,0:39:59.249
+back book was published
+
+0:39:59.249,0:40:02.420
+I don't remember
+
+0:40:02.420,0:40:07.499
+exactly when but it was in ninety four
+
+0:40:07.499,0:40:11.549
+right in this time frame
+
+0:40:11.549,0:40:17.160
+this is ninety six to two thousand
+from about thirty million two hundred nine
+
+0:40:17.160,0:40:19.779
+million hosts
+
+0:40:19.779,0:40:24.979
+Hotmail was founded. I thought this was insane
+at the time which is why I dont
+
+0:40:24.979,0:40:27.209
+you know I'm not filthy rich right now
+
+0:40:27.209,0:40:28.519
+hotmail
+
+0:40:28.519,0:40:33.950
+it had access to the internet so I said well
+of course you've already got a mailbox they
+
+0:40:33.950,0:40:36.089
+gave you free-mail boxes
+
+0:40:36.089,0:40:37.269
+and it took off
+
+0:40:37.269,0:40:41.159
+like mad it was crazy
+
+0:40:41.159,0:40:42.569
+in
+
+0:40:42.569,0:40:44.329
+ninety seven
+
+0:40:44.329,0:40:48.369
+microsoft said hey wait a minute maybe this
+internet thing isn't going to go away after
+
+0:40:48.369,0:40:49.079
+all
+
+0:40:49.079,0:40:50.809
+and we should get in on it
+
+0:40:50.809,0:40:53.609
+and so they put a very bad
+
+0:40:53.609,0:40:55.799
+SMTP gateway into exchange
+
+0:40:55.799,0:40:59.260
+they slapped the network onto their existing
+
+0:40:59.260,0:41:01.049
+worker tools which
+
+0:41:01.049,0:41:04.070
+were not designed for a hostile environment
+at all
+
+0:41:04.070,0:41:07.689
+they did no consideration whatsoever of securing
+
+0:41:07.689,0:41:12.349
+and just dropped a huge number of people on
+the internet
+
+0:41:12.349,0:41:14.779
+essentially naked and unprotected
+
+0:41:14.779,0:41:16.010
+and we're still
+
+0:41:16.010,0:41:18.160
+dealing with this to this day
+
+0:41:18.160,0:41:19.780
+ the only thing that was
+
+0:41:19.780,0:41:24.079
+impressive about this was microsoft
+in a very short period of time was able to
+
+0:41:24.079,0:41:26.209
+completely redefine the company
+
+0:41:26.209,0:41:28.410
+as an internet company and
+
+0:41:28.410,0:41:32.059
+much faster than anyone had thought possible
+
+0:41:32.059,0:41:33.799
+Yahoo was founded in
+
+0:41:33.799,0:41:36.409
+October ninety seven
+
+0:41:36.409,0:41:37.869
+we all know about that
+
+0:41:37.869,0:41:40.549
+a microsoft acquired hot mail
+
+0:41:40.549,0:41:45.289
+they were able to do it as fast as they wanted
+the rumor
+
+0:41:45.289,0:41:48.609
+unconfirmed is that they paid four hundred
+million dollars
+
+0:41:48.609,0:41:55.609
+for this company that was barely over a year
+old and had something like ten employees
+
+0:41:59.089,0:42:00.689
+quite a coop
+
+0:42:00.689,0:42:05.299
+in March of ninety eight I and a friend of mine
+co-founded sendmail Inc.
+
+0:42:05.299,0:42:06.420
+sendmail
+
+0:42:06.420,0:42:08.759
+even with the help of the consortium
+
+0:42:08.759,0:42:13.179
+was still stuck with research problems and
+so we said we can commercialize this
+
+0:42:13.179,0:42:15.649
+here's a very well read picture of the
+
+0:42:15.649,0:42:17.160
+ initial
+
+0:42:17.160,0:42:24.160
+ people in the company and two of us
+are still there
+
+0:42:24.630,0:42:30.329
+now into the virus era March of ninety
+nine Melissa there was an outlook
+
+0:42:30.329,0:42:31.809
+ macrovirus
+
+0:42:31.809,0:42:34.740
+was a hypersoft
+was really kind of
+
+0:42:34.740,0:42:38.929
+a worm as much as it was a virus
+
+0:42:38.929,0:42:44.699
+in January two thousand the
+government finally relaxed the encryption policy
+
+0:42:44.699,0:42:45.630
+finally admitted it
+
+0:42:45.630,0:42:49.710
+that everyone outside the US had encryption
+anyway
+
+0:42:49.710,0:42:53.439
+and so we might as well be able to play in
+the game
+
+0:42:53.439,0:42:54.859
+with the rest of the world
+
+0:42:54.859,0:42:57.079
+we immediately put
+
+0:42:57.079,0:43:02.449
+encryption TLS encryption into sendmail
+all in fact we've already had it implemented
+
+0:43:02.449,0:43:04.239
+but we couldn't release it
+
+0:43:04.239,0:43:05.420
+and so
+
+0:43:05.420,0:43:07.419
+this came out we
+
+0:43:07.419,0:43:13.909
+pushed out the version that already had
+TLS
+
+0:43:13.909,0:43:19.489
+what we wanted to do was had the government
+changed its mind we had to be too late
+
+0:43:19.489,0:43:24.150
+so we dot to that really fast but they didn't change their
+minds but the they may have changed
+
+0:43:24.150,0:43:27.329
+not change their mind because they've realized
+it was
+
+0:43:27.329,0:43:31.069
+two weeks later it's too late
+
+0:43:31.069,0:43:33.920
+in March of two thousand we
+
+0:43:33.920,0:43:35.570
+released an interface called milter
+
+0:43:35.570,0:43:36.919
+this is
+
+0:43:36.919,0:43:39.110
+a way to do
+
+0:43:39.110,0:43:42.429
+plugins into sendmail that allow you to do email filtering
+
+0:43:42.429,0:43:45.279
+was specifically designed for anti-spam
+
+0:43:45.279,0:43:52.199
+the MTA market changed a lot back then or
+essentially not the market
+
+0:43:52.199,0:43:55.819
+the world had been about reliability and
+
+0:43:55.819,0:43:56.450
+getting
+
+0:43:56.450,0:43:59.279
+mail from A to B without losing it
+
+0:43:59.279,0:44:04.399
+and around here was when spam was getting
+so bad people said no we need to do is not
+
+0:44:04.399,0:44:05.209
+forward
+
+0:44:05.209,0:44:06.119
+anything that
+
+0:44:06.119,0:44:07.779
+might be
+
+0:44:07.779,0:44:10.319
+problematic
+
+0:44:10.319,0:44:11.469
+and
+
+0:44:11.469,0:44:12.339
+April
+
+0:44:12.339,0:44:18.019
+two thousand the i love you virus this is a
+visual basic virus he had to
+
+0:44:18.019,0:44:22.659
+click on it but it's turns out that people
+couldn't resist clicking on
+
+0:44:22.659,0:44:27.209
+a text thats called I love you
+
+0:44:27.209,0:44:31.069
+they were sad what can I say
+
+0:44:31.069,0:44:33.260
+two thousand one to the Present
+
+0:44:33.260,0:44:35.699
+well we've gone from that
+
+0:44:35.699,0:44:38.229
+hundred ten thousand roughly up to
+
+0:44:38.229,0:44:40.299
+about four hundred forty million
+
+0:44:40.299,0:44:45.709
+well as of the last survey I could find
+
+0:44:45.709,0:44:49.239
+
+
+0:44:49.239,0:44:55.019
+well let's see let's start off with an unequivocal
+the virus it was kind of one of the symbols
+
+0:44:55.019,0:44:57.760
+up postfix which was a competitor to
+
+0:44:57.760,0:45:00.359
+sendmail was released
+
+0:45:00.359,0:45:03.819
+postfix was actually really good
+
+0:45:03.819,0:45:09.249
+alternative and Lisa and I when he was writing
+postfix we would exchange a lot of email
+
+0:45:09.249,0:45:12.979
+talking but I talked with him at one point
+before it was released
+
+0:45:12.979,0:45:17.829
+ and taken surely say much longer than
+he expected
+
+0:45:17.829,0:45:20.929
+I said i asked him how the-mail was going and
+he said
+
+0:45:20.929,0:45:24.590
+well its taken longer than I thought that's
+that's harder than it looks isn't it
+
+0:45:24.590,0:45:28.869
+the it's been an exercise in humility
+
+0:45:28.869,0:45:32.219
+so you think that I hate him because he's
+
+0:45:32.219,0:45:33.589
+competitor of send mail but
+
+0:45:33.589,0:45:36.349
+no hes one of the good guys
+
+0:45:36.349,0:45:41.899
+the SPR project which was one of the first
+attempt to do e-mail authentification
+
+0:45:41.899,0:45:44.819
+in one sense or another start up
+
+0:45:44.819,0:45:45.560
+in
+
+0:45:45.560,0:45:48.159
+oh three
+
+0:45:48.159,0:45:53.130
+also you know oh three was the Sobig.F virus.
+It was the largest
+
+0:45:53.130,0:45:53.930
+attack
+
+0:45:53.930,0:45:58.279
+on today using something called .div files
+program information files
+
+0:45:58.279,0:46:00.549
+as attachment
+
+0:46:00.549,0:46:04.509
+it was significant because it contained
+it's own SMTP engine
+
+0:46:04.509,0:46:05.909
+up until then
+
+0:46:05.909,0:46:06.869
+things have been
+
+0:46:06.869,0:46:12.769
+piggybacking on exchange so submitting
+mail as though you were users submnitting from
+
+0:46:12.769,0:46:13.280
+outlook
+
+0:46:13.280,0:46:14.399
+this one
+
+0:46:14.399,0:46:15.290
+had
+
+0:46:15.290,0:46:18.479
+SMTP engine optimized for
+
+0:46:18.479,0:46:20.239
+sending out trash
+
+0:46:20.239,0:46:27.239
+It had adaptive context so it kept changing itself
+so it was harder to find fingerprints and self-destructed
+
+0:46:27.459,0:46:30.159
+on a particular day. so something
+
+0:46:30.159,0:46:32.509
+automated to just kind of disappear
+
+0:46:32.509,0:46:33.579
+on one day
+
+0:46:33.579,0:46:36.379
+I don't think anybody knows why
+
+0:46:36.379,0:46:40.910
+all sort working on domain keys which is a another
+
+0:46:40.910,0:46:45.920
+technology for the authentication.I'll talk
+about that SPF later
+
+0:46:45.920,0:46:51.239
+the MyDoom virus came out it was even
+ spread faster was even bigger than
+
+0:46:51.239,0:46:52.329
+sobig
+
+0:46:52.329,0:46:53.539
+
+
+0:46:53.539,0:46:57.479
+it's big innovation was that it used network as
+
+0:46:57.479,0:46:59.139
+well as e-mail
+
+0:46:59.139,0:47:03.979
+and it was specifically designed to infect
+machines to use them as spam engine so arguably
+
+0:47:03.979,0:47:08.709
+this was the beginning of Zombie farms
+
+0:47:08.709,0:47:10.959
+In February
+
+0:47:10.959,0:47:14.490
+oh four microsoft announces sender id which was
+
+0:47:14.490,0:47:17.249
+really kind of SPF with
+
+0:47:17.249,0:47:19.379
+synthetic sure
+
+0:47:19.379,0:47:24.239
+and in December of four DKIM work began. DKIM was
+
+0:47:24.239,0:47:26.330
+an extension of the domain keys
+
+0:47:26.330,0:47:30.130
+there were some experience with domain keys
+we realize that there were some things that
+
+0:47:30.130,0:47:31.640
+needed too
+0:47:31.640,0:47:35.079
+have improved and so far I was very much involved
+in the DKIM work
+
+0:47:35.079,0:47:37.059
+ so that's
+
+0:47:37.059,0:47:41.219
+unfortunately the five years I've been working
+on this stuff now
+
+0:47:41.219,0:47:43.059
+and
+
+0:47:43.059,0:47:44.270
+oh seven
+
+0:47:44.270,0:47:47.969
+the actual DKIM based signin spec was
+
+0:47:47.969,0:47:50.900
+released much to our relief
+
+0:47:50.900,0:47:52.109
+different tack
+
+0:47:52.109,0:47:55.830
+ some of the early RCs for EAI were published
+
+0:47:55.830,0:47:58.239
+ and
+
+0:47:58.239,0:48:02.389
+toward the end of last year EAI's email
+address
+
+0:48:02.389,0:48:04.939
+e-mail address
+
+0:48:04.939,0:48:06.319
+internationalization
+
+0:48:06.319,0:48:09.759
+and the idea is you been able to send around
+
+0:48:09.759,0:48:14.779
+txt in Japanese and so forth there
+were hacks even have domain names in Japanese
+
+0:48:14.779,0:48:17.160
+but you couldnt have an e-mail
+
+0:48:17.160,0:48:17.919
+address
+
+0:48:17.919,0:48:19.009
+in Japanese
+
+0:48:19.009,0:48:20.149
+the EAI says
+
+0:48:20.149,0:48:21.880
+we want it to be
+
+0:48:21.880,0:48:24.259
+completely hundred percent international as
+a whole
+
+0:48:24.259,0:48:26.249
+all through e-mail
+
+0:48:26.249,0:48:28.380
+a good thing
+
+0:48:28.380,0:48:33.439
+ a lot of people dont realize
+that the venerable RC twenty twenty
+
+0:48:33.439,0:48:35.619
+one and twenty two which
+
+0:48:35.619,0:48:39.899
+were the other internal specs for years were
+actually just recently
+
+0:48:39.899,0:48:40.409
+updated
+
+0:48:40.409,0:48:44.709
+so the new numbers you have to memorize are
+fifty three twenty one in fifty three twenty
+
+0:48:44.709,0:48:47.640
+two
+
+0:48:47.640,0:48:48.319
+this
+
+0:48:48.319,0:48:51.310
+I was the latest map that I could find so
+this
+
+0:48:51.310,0:48:54.300
+pretty old back in nineteen ninety nine bill
+cheswick
+
+0:48:54.300,0:48:55.589
+produced this
+
+0:48:55.589,0:48:57.999
+this does not show the hosts
+
+0:48:57.999,0:49:00.769
+on the internet this shows the ISPs
+
+0:49:00.769,0:49:03.489
+on the internet
+
+0:49:03.489,0:49:06.779
+and I won't go into any more detail
+
+0:49:06.779,0:49:09.079
+and I don't recall what the
+
+0:49:09.079,0:49:10.409
+calling yes
+
+0:49:10.409,0:49:11.719
+so
+
+0:49:11.719,0:49:13.339
+let me get into this this year
+
+0:49:13.339,0:49:14.590
+
+
+0:49:14.590,0:49:18.529
+probably messaging spam security and authentication
+
+0:49:18.529,0:49:23.519
+so lets talk about spamming a little.
+I wasnt going to talk about spamming but
+
+0:49:23.519,0:49:28.629
+ever since I got here people in asking
+me about it so there's still a lot of interest about it
+
+0:49:28.629,0:49:29.979
+obviously
+
+0:49:29.979,0:49:33.599
+the stand is arguably an economic issue the cost
+
+0:49:33.599,0:49:34.899
+to send
+
+0:49:34.899,0:49:40.429
+a message is far lower than the cost to receive
+it
+
+0:49:40.429,0:49:42.160
+if this were true of
+
+0:49:42.160,0:49:44.759
+physical junk mail
+
+0:49:44.759,0:49:49.100
+then adump mail truck would come up to my house every
+day and just dump all the junk mail
+
+0:49:49.100,0:49:51.269
+off on my lawn
+
+0:49:51.269,0:49:53.559
+but it's not fortunately
+
+0:49:53.559,0:49:57.150
+notice that that possible misuse isnt necessarily
+about
+
+0:49:57.150,0:49:59.819
+dollars or yen or anything like that
+
+0:49:59.819,0:50:04.199
+it's not currency it can be things like CPU time memory usage
+
+0:50:04.199,0:50:06.519
+human time etc
+
+0:50:06.519,0:50:09.530
+notice that every single thing we try to do
+
+0:50:09.530,0:50:12.440
+to protect ourselves from spam until this
+point
+
+0:50:12.440,0:50:16.049
+has increased the cost to the receiver
+
+0:50:16.049,0:50:20.239
+so as we put inmore and more antispam security what actually
+
+0:50:20.239,0:50:21.479
+move this function
+
+0:50:21.479,0:50:24.479
+to be more advantageous for the spammer
+
+0:50:24.479,0:50:27.839
+its a little strange
+
+0:50:27.839,0:50:29.690
+now there are a bunch of
+
+0:50:29.690,0:50:30.570
+possible approaches
+
+0:50:30.570,0:50:32.989
+there is of course
+
+0:50:32.989,0:50:35.519
+content filtering which is what
+
+0:50:35.519,0:50:40.129
+people normally do for example ninety days
+and filters and so forth this is getting
+
+0:50:40.129,0:50:44.299
+pretty close to its limits and it doesn't
+fix the crossfire
+
+0:50:44.299,0:50:49.060
+epostage which is what you really do
+use some kind of money you can
+
+0:50:49.060,0:50:52.449
+attach it to each message
+
+0:50:52.449,0:50:53.919
+unfortunately needed any
+
+0:50:53.919,0:50:58.559
+pretty huge infrastructure to do all that
+payment processing and
+
+0:50:58.559,0:51:01.169
+that's there's a lot of bickering on how to
+do that
+
+0:51:01.169,0:51:04.099
+and acceptance problems. people don't
+
+0:51:04.099,0:51:08.649
+but it's always been afraid i refuse to pay anything
+to send a message that
+
+0:51:08.649,0:51:10.909
+we're going to ask you to do
+
+0:51:10.909,0:51:12.400
+a tenth of a cent
+
+0:51:12.400,0:51:18.709
+hundredth of the cent promotes per message.
+no no its too expensive. I can't afford it
+
+0:51:18.709,0:51:23.479
+that's a legitimate concerns about some elements
+that sort of thing they're work around
+
+0:51:23.479,0:51:24.999
+challenge response is
+
+0:51:24.999,0:51:26.350
+popular
+
+0:51:26.350,0:51:31.020
+when you get mail from someone the never talked
+to before you send them back challenge if they
+
+0:51:31.020,0:51:35.739
+would respond there's a human
+being on the other hand what the bill through
+
+0:51:35.739,0:51:37.039
+unfortunately a lot of
+
+0:51:37.039,0:51:37.650
+people
+
+0:51:37.650,0:51:41.319
+get the challenges are spam and never replied
+
+0:51:41.319,0:51:47.049
+five thousand scale well it's particularly
+bad for
+
+0:51:47.049,0:51:50.350
+automated systems that are trying to send out mail
+like your bank
+
+0:51:50.350,0:51:52.430
+sending your bank statements
+
+0:51:52.430,0:51:54.599
+just don't respond well to that
+
+0:51:54.599,0:51:56.239
+challenge response
+
+0:51:56.239,0:51:58.230
+havshcash is
+
+0:51:58.230,0:52:01.179
+technique to do CPU
+
+0:52:01.179,0:52:02.270
+using time
+
+0:52:02.270,0:52:04.469
+CPU time memory
+
+0:52:04.469,0:52:05.199
+whatever
+
+0:52:05.199,0:52:10.180
+it's completely useless for Zombie farms because
+they're not burning their own resources they're
+
+0:52:10.180,0:52:10.680
+burning
+
+0:52:10.680,0:52:14.099
+some victims resources so what's the point
+
+0:52:14.099,0:52:18.829
+graylisting is where you get a message from
+somebody that you never seen before you
+
+0:52:18.829,0:52:21.559
+do a temporary failure on it
+
+0:52:21.559,0:52:26.249
+and wait for them to come back is there is
+generally don't have a cue as a cue is
+
+0:52:26.249,0:52:27.259
+expensive
+
+0:52:27.259,0:52:30.469
+but it turns out they don't actually have
+to have a cue because they don't change
+
+0:52:30.469,0:52:33.079
+the message very much that isn't it
+
+0:52:33.079,0:52:36.989
+he trying these things multiple times are
+going back to keep track of what happened
+
+0:52:36.989,0:52:41.549
+before you just try multiple times if three
+copies of their message gets through all the betterf
+
+0:52:41.549,0:52:44.779
+that
+
+0:52:44.779,0:52:48.130
+and on of course authentication that this
+is the
+
+0:52:48.130,0:52:51.379
+if we know who actually sent the message
+
+0:52:51.379,0:52:54.099
+maybe we can hunt down and kill them
+
+0:52:54.099,0:52:54.750
+the
+
+0:52:54.750,0:52:56.539
+
+
+0:52:56.539,0:52:58.019
+maybe not kill them
+
+0:52:58.019,0:53:00.049
+there's something a little less
+
+0:53:00.049,0:53:05.600
+that is insufficient by itself people go how
+well what authenticated that's good right
+
+0:53:05.600,0:53:09.499
+well spammer can authenticate
+as themselves
+
+0:53:09.499,0:53:16.499
+so you're saying it's authenticate it doesn't
+mean it's still something you dont want to read
+
+0:53:16.529,0:53:17.519
+so
+
+0:53:17.519,0:53:19.749
+let me just talk about fish in the little
+bit
+
+0:53:19.749,0:53:22.750
+fishing and spamming are not quite the same
+thing although there's often
+
+0:53:22.750,0:53:24.459
+a lot of overlap
+
+0:53:24.459,0:53:28.679
+fishing is trying to track some money into
+giving up some cards had a private information
+
+0:53:28.679,0:53:33.939
+too often to get a bank account information
+or older than he needed to identity theft
+
+0:53:33.939,0:53:37.599
+it's not limited to do e-mail and it's not
+
+0:53:37.599,0:53:42.220
+the nigerian or four nineteen spam was working
+in physical mail
+
+0:53:42.220,0:53:45.699
+long before it hit the-mail I have personally
+receive
+
+0:53:45.699,0:53:47.859
+those badly typed
+
+0:53:47.859,0:53:48.849
+letters
+
+0:53:48.849,0:53:54.720
+that were exactly of four elections than I
+am and nigerian dictator in these to get
+
+0:53:54.720,0:54:01.099
+a hundred million dollars out and you've been
+identified as the trustworthy dot dot dot
+
+0:54:01.099,0:54:05.430
+pranksters have been preying on the elderly
+as long as there have been elderly
+
+0:54:05.430,0:54:09.029
+ so for none of this is new
+
+0:54:09.029,0:54:10.170
+that's true
+
+0:54:10.170,0:54:14.859
+basic forms of vision was one call your shop
+and fishing which is really just
+
+0:54:14.859,0:54:19.759
+send out these things to enough people I hope
+in some ways to promote the body
+
+0:54:19.759,0:54:22.669
+which works by the way unfortunately
+
+0:54:22.669,0:54:27.589
+are there still people think you can get something
+for nothing
+
+0:54:27.589,0:54:30.079
+well what's being called spear fishing
+
+0:54:30.079,0:54:31.890
+he is actually pretty bad
+
+0:54:31.890,0:54:37.259
+this is where they actually spend a fair amount
+of time researching an individual
+
+0:54:37.259,0:54:39.889
+they do a custom-made
+
+0:54:39.889,0:54:40.939
+message
+
+0:54:40.939,0:54:47.120
+I have received some of these things that
+for example claim to be from the IRS saying that
+
+0:54:47.120,0:54:48.369
+so no I didn't
+
+0:54:48.369,0:54:52.130
+something earlier about this them
+
+0:54:52.130,0:54:53.339
+some of them
+
+0:54:53.339,0:54:58.469
+with some of our forms somewhere and it has
+leader urgent that we contact some so immediately
+
+0:54:58.469,0:54:59.230
+or else
+
+0:54:59.230,0:55:00.859
+then the forced
+
+0:55:00.859,0:55:01.979
+we're actually were
+
+0:55:01.979,0:55:04.479
+forced to freeze all of our bank accounts
+
+0:55:04.479,0:55:09.670
+and so forth they know who I am and also with the company
+
+0:55:09.670,0:55:12.959
+not a thing that people will do it is %uh
+
+0:55:12.959,0:55:14.649
+people throw away
+
+0:55:14.649,0:55:18.269
+but bank saying some things that have the
+last four digits of your account number on
+
+0:55:18.269,0:55:18.759
+it
+
+0:55:18.759,0:55:22.189
+which is perfectly safe because they don't
+have a whole credit card number
+
+0:55:22.189,0:55:23.900
+well I'm wrong that right
+
+0:55:23.900,0:55:26.060
+all that out dumpster no I didn't
+
+0:55:26.060,0:55:29.189
+they send you a letter claiming to be from
+your
+
+0:55:29.189,0:55:30.980
+%uh credit card prior
+
+0:55:30.980,0:55:35.570
+they have the last four digits of your account
+number to give you exactly the same information
+
+0:55:35.570,0:55:36.770
+that you're legitimate
+
+0:55:36.770,0:55:40.389
+credit card company would
+
+0:55:40.389,0:55:41.239
+and
+
+0:55:41.239,0:55:43.159
+that's a lot easier to trickpeople
+
+0:55:43.159,0:55:46.819
+they can't stand significant money
+
+0:55:46.819,0:55:49.329
+talking to someone
+
+0:55:49.329,0:55:51.849
+so up
+
+0:55:51.849,0:55:54.549
+one other thing about the fishing know which
+is
+
+0:55:54.549,0:55:58.690
+but the cracker what I just described attackers
+lot of harvard be
+
+0:55:58.690,0:56:00.480
+pretend to be someone you trust
+
+0:56:00.480,0:56:05.160
+an authentication can actually help with that
+if it claims to be from one bank and would
+
+0:56:05.160,0:56:06.799
+not from my bank
+
+0:56:06.799,0:56:11.089
+and we're done
+
+0:56:11.089,0:56:11.900
+
+
+0:56:11.900,0:56:15.399
+there's really two forms of authentication
+
+0:56:15.399,0:56:16.859
+and the standards
+
+0:56:16.859,0:56:20.839
+I'm not stand ready an FBI forms of half days
+
+0:56:20.839,0:56:22.620
+plus which is where where you look
+
+0:56:22.620,0:56:25.539
+our message across to you whose sending
+
+0:56:25.539,0:56:29.579
+they're sending the message to you and is
+it possible that they would be sending a message
+
+0:56:29.579,0:56:31.799
+claiming to be from my bank
+
+0:56:31.799,0:56:34.420
+they were signature base which is where you
+do
+
+0:56:34.420,0:56:38.599
+he's public encryption to do put digital signature
+on the message
+
+0:56:38.599,0:56:41.380
+I mean there are these
+
+0:56:41.380,0:56:46.129
+authenticate users a lot of the key domains
+because of the key management problems
+
+0:56:46.129,0:56:49.950
+and wboth of them can authenticate malicious
+messages so this
+
+0:56:49.950,0:56:52.549
+not perfect
+
+0:56:52.549,0:56:56.200
+it did him in
+
+0:56:56.200,0:56:57.970
+potentially the cold war
+
+0:56:57.970,0:56:59.869
+consistently if we could get
+
+0:56:59.869,0:57:01.319
+Bob the entire network
+
+0:57:01.319,0:57:03.449
+to never mind your message
+
+0:57:03.449,0:57:09.049
+I wish probably can happen in hundred years
+or so
+
+0:57:09.049,0:57:13.589
+I didn't get a talk show on this you know
+who wants to be the first person sons message
+
+0:57:13.589,0:57:14.389
+well
+
+0:57:14.389,0:57:16.969
+we expected the recipients would want that
+
+0:57:16.969,0:57:21.100
+because they want to protect themselves but
+it turns out has been descenders like the banks
+
+0:57:21.100,0:57:24.069
+they have really really been pushing us
+
+0:57:24.069,0:57:27.529
+plus some of the forward looking
+
+0:57:27.529,0:57:28.670
+places like google
+
+0:57:28.670,0:57:34.499
+have been using DKIMand of the SP
+up for some time
+
+0:57:34.499,0:57:35.800
+one important thing
+
+0:57:35.800,0:57:37.359
+for a transition period
+
+0:57:37.359,0:57:39.169
+you have to
+
+0:57:39.169,0:57:41.859
+allow unsigned mail to come in
+
+0:57:41.859,0:57:43.790
+because that's the way it's always been
+
+0:57:43.790,0:57:46.520
+and he can't just bring the world that we've
+moved in
+
+0:57:46.520,0:57:48.070
+we will never have
+
+0:57:48.070,0:57:52.769
+another flag day on the internet like that
+and just can't happen at this point
+
+0:57:52.769,0:57:58.709
+so what you'd like is for a the banks and
+to be able to somehow tell you I signed all
+
+0:57:58.709,0:58:00.939
+my message is so if you
+
+0:58:00.939,0:58:05.889
+but if you get an unsigned message that claims
+to be for me it's not for me
+
+0:58:05.889,0:58:10.229
+interior up argument signed in paris is eight
+the SP
+
+0:58:10.229,0:58:12.890
+and this is very controversial and still
+
+0:58:12.890,0:58:16.199
+stuck in the working group
+
+0:58:16.199,0:58:19.880
+I want to emphasize that
+
+0:58:19.880,0:58:21.799
+evacuations is not
+
+0:58:21.799,0:58:24.639
+because members can authenticate
+
+0:58:24.639,0:58:30.609
+and we can't leave it to humans either because
+of things like cousin domains
+
+0:58:30.609,0:58:34.989
+but he had a ebay-biling was a famous one
+that was not associate with
+
+0:58:34.989,0:58:36.699
+the bay in any way
+
+0:58:36.699,0:58:39.689
+and was trying to frighten people
+
+0:58:39.689,0:58:42.299
+so let me talk a little bit about the camera
+
+0:58:42.299,0:58:45.149
+which is what I've been working on mostly
+
+0:58:45.149,0:58:47.959
+I just wanted to specifications
+
+0:58:47.959,0:58:48.980
+one is the
+
+0:58:48.980,0:58:54.929
+the signature at the base standards which tells
+how to sign and verified message
+
+0:58:54.929,0:58:56.840
+I've heard a lot of work and the other one
+
+0:58:56.840,0:59:02.090
+no one is the sign in practices which is how
+to interpret on science messages on that one
+
+0:59:02.090,0:59:04.989
+has gotten laid down in the works
+
+0:59:04.989,0:59:06.529
+and at this point on
+
+0:59:06.529,0:59:08.939
+I walked away from it because
+
+0:59:08.939,0:59:10.129
+that's amazing
+
+0:59:10.129,0:59:13.049
+how many hours people can spend arguing about
+
+0:59:13.049,0:59:14.719
+the meaning of
+
+0:59:14.719,0:59:19.359
+relatively simple words
+
+0:59:19.359,0:59:21.439
+the way you can get away with it
+
+0:59:21.439,0:59:28.299
+is to use other DMS to destroy your
+public he's since policies can indeed be public
+
+0:59:28.299,0:59:31.599
+you are rich off of this exist in the world
+war
+
+0:59:31.599,0:59:34.479
+distributed database to get the keys out
+
+0:59:34.479,0:59:37.490
+this is a little unusual because normally
+
+0:59:37.490,0:59:40.349
+you don't have something that is so simple
+to this
+
+0:59:40.349,0:59:45.430
+we do not by the way he serves we don't have
+a assigning tree or anything like that it's
+
+0:59:45.430,0:59:47.469
+just to keep pair
+
+0:59:47.469,0:59:49.119
+because if you're asking
+
+0:59:49.119,0:59:53.269
+the purported sendmail to give you the republican
+or
+
+0:59:53.269,0:59:54.639
+reported sender
+
+0:59:54.639,0:59:56.199
+to give them
+
+0:59:56.199,1:00:00.109
+their home and he give you their publication
+
+1:00:00.109,1:00:01.309
+I mean
+
+1:00:01.309,1:00:03.299
+presumably contrast that
+
+1:00:03.299,1:00:04.369
+presumably
+
+1:00:04.369,1:00:05.809
+now there are people who
+
+1:00:05.809,1:00:07.709
+would like to put searche
+
+1:00:07.709,1:00:11.749
+and investigators social security that probably
+will go through some point
+
+1:00:11.749,1:00:14.339
+ but it probably won't be necessary
+
+1:00:14.339,1:00:17.729
+with the the
+
+1:00:17.729,1:00:18.729
+I'm
+
+1:00:18.729,1:00:23.079
+possibility of theft of keys is one of the
+nice ones is
+
+1:00:23.079,1:00:25.799
+if you get mail
+
+1:00:25.799,1:00:30.900
+they signed from a domain you don't know about
+how do you know that that's a good omen were
+
+1:00:30.900,1:00:33.940
+not while reputation which I've got to
+
+1:00:33.940,1:00:37.079
+is the major approach but if you had
+
+1:00:37.079,1:00:42.549
+it's signed by someone that has served so
+the key itself was signed by someone else
+
+1:00:42.549,1:00:45.799
+you could ask is that
+
+1:00:45.799,1:00:49.890
+and that gives you some of the reputation
+is called of
+
+1:00:49.890,1:00:52.640
+%uh accreditation
+
+1:00:52.640,1:00:56.269
+and it sort of gives you the poor man's her
+accreditation
+
+1:00:56.269,1:00:59.619
+%uh they're also of course the places that
+wants to
+
+1:00:59.619,1:01:04.219
+I was moved towards first because they can't
+make a living so on
+
+1:01:04.219,1:01:07.979
+as they think this is a fine idea is building
+
+1:01:07.979,1:01:11.319
+what was the
+
+1:01:11.319,1:01:16.079
+it really did do it obviously would
+
+1:01:16.079,1:01:19.109
+that's that's
+
+1:01:19.109,1:01:21.219
+what's the response
+
+1:01:21.219,1:01:23.069
+there is nobody there
+
+1:01:23.069,1:01:24.739
+yes
+
+1:01:24.739,1:01:27.230
+the you have built into your browser
+
+1:01:27.230,1:01:30.910
+Obama assures jurors that are prosperous should
+say
+
+1:01:30.910,1:01:33.779
+sonya forties that are trusted
+
+1:01:33.779,1:01:39.469
+it because you believe that they're not going
+to start really signing one ski
+
+1:01:39.469,1:01:40.640
+exactly the same thing
+
+1:01:40.640,1:01:43.479
+think for a minute
+
+1:01:43.479,1:01:46.130
+the quality the city
+
+1:01:46.130,1:01:49.159
+yeah
+
+1:01:49.159,1:01:50.469
+the
+
+1:01:50.469,1:01:56.160
+you can first of all a matter of places that
+would actually
+
+1:01:56.160,1:02:00.349
+make sure that you are legitimate but you
+at least have a mailing address that really
+
+1:02:00.349,1:02:01.529
+works
+
+1:02:01.529,1:02:06.219
+that the people who claimed on the company
+actually exists
+
+1:02:06.219,1:02:09.799
+simple things like that and somebody could
+make a fair amount of money
+
+1:02:09.799,1:02:13.069
+the in certifying agency that
+
+1:02:13.069,1:02:14.429
+this is your views
+
+1:02:14.429,1:02:19.169
+to sign anything where they had check you
+out for
+
+1:02:19.169,1:02:22.599
+they and there are places that do that for
+the world as well but you're right some of
+
+1:02:22.599,1:02:23.449
+them are
+
+1:02:23.449,1:02:27.459
+in a tent lots of course inside turkey
+
+1:02:27.459,1:02:30.619
+sometimes it's not that expensive
+
+1:02:30.619,1:02:33.099
+%um
+
+1:02:33.099,1:02:37.799
+an hour to talk about signing practices unfortunately
+it's got water down to the point where our
+
+1:02:37.799,1:02:44.039
+in my opinion it's not terribly useful in
+or
+
+1:02:44.039,1:02:49.049
+so we're at the station is the usual way you
+deal with that
+
+1:02:49.049,1:02:50.130
+the message too
+
+1:02:50.130,1:02:54.059
+I threw it out of the message comes from the
+bagel in dakar
+
+1:02:54.059,1:02:59.069
+okay because I've gotten their public he is
+verify is so important step in mathematics
+
+1:02:59.069,1:03:00.370
+and cruel
+
+1:03:00.370,1:03:01.709
+provable
+
+1:03:01.709,1:03:08.359
+Joe I want to talk to he made a one dot com
+don't believe them go on record on that one
+
+1:03:08.359,1:03:13.869
+and the usual approach his reputation what
+we know about you being the one dot com
+
+1:03:13.869,1:03:15.029
+that reputation
+
+1:03:15.029,1:03:17.179
+it's been around for a long time
+
+1:03:17.179,1:03:19.689
+in the form of diana's black homeless
+
+1:03:19.689,1:03:26.249
+as only negative reputation can say but it
+remains good of the comoros a that
+
+1:03:26.249,1:03:28.049
+and of course
+
+1:03:28.049,1:03:32.639
+bad guys are switching around like he addresses
+all time so
+
+1:03:32.639,1:03:35.429
+those lists are always tell
+
+1:03:35.429,1:03:37.959
+so in fact
+
+1:03:37.959,1:03:38.599
+helpful
+
+1:03:38.599,1:03:42.480
+but it's not actually all that great the main
+event he gives you his
+
+1:03:42.480,1:03:45.109
+they a black hole
+
+1:03:45.109,1:03:47.170
+huge address bases that are
+
+1:03:47.170,1:03:48.729
+%um
+
+1:03:48.729,1:03:51.519
+for example dialogue but he
+
+1:03:51.519,1:03:52.459
+don't love
+
+1:03:52.459,1:03:56.430
+like the address this thing know nobody should
+ever be sending
+
+1:03:56.430,1:04:00.280
+mail from those demands that don't go through
+their providers mail services and that action
+
+1:04:00.280,1:04:02.599
+does help a lot
+
+1:04:02.599,1:04:06.380
+positive reputation on the other hand is really
+hard to do
+
+1:04:06.380,1:04:11.149
+our because it breaks the world as we know
+it
+
+1:04:11.149,1:04:16.049
+so right now there has been some sense a presumption
+of innocence
+
+1:04:16.049,1:04:20.239
+when you receive email from so that you've
+never seen it before well it might be would
+
+1:04:20.239,1:04:21.829
+you let me go
+
+1:04:21.829,1:04:22.889
+Spanish actor
+
+1:04:22.889,1:04:26.159
+so for but it might be legitimate
+
+1:04:26.159,1:04:30.729
+if you go to a world where you looked out
+and say well if they have no
+
+1:04:30.729,1:04:32.579
+known reputation
+
+1:04:32.579,1:04:36.549
+there is probably bad think it's probably
+a stammer as the jury
+
+1:04:36.549,1:04:37.849
+you know thousand
+
+1:04:37.849,1:04:40.359
+I can remember what the
+
+1:04:40.359,1:04:42.409
+number is ours
+
+1:04:42.409,1:04:44.569
+thousands of new domain stumble
+
+1:04:44.569,1:04:46.199
+online every day
+
+1:04:46.199,1:04:49.749
+first anniversary exists only for a day or
+so and then they go away
+
+1:04:49.749,1:04:53.369
+to send a lot of the middle of the day
+
+1:04:53.369,1:04:54.289
+so
+
+1:04:54.289,1:04:58.099
+how does does a small player join the club
+
+1:04:58.099,1:05:04.229
+without having a positive reputation to begin
+with the legitimate small player
+
+1:05:04.229,1:05:05.829
+this is
+
+1:05:05.829,1:05:08.989
+still a months old pro
+
+1:05:08.989,1:05:11.849
+we may end up going to a closed society
+
+1:05:11.849,1:05:14.920
+if you don't have somebody to introduce to
+you
+
+1:05:14.920,1:05:15.529
+then
+
+1:05:15.529,1:05:17.599
+you can't get your mail for
+
+1:05:17.599,1:05:22.619
+%uh this is actually been true in human society
+for a long long time so it's not the end of
+
+1:05:22.619,1:05:26.279
+the world but it does have some
+
+1:05:26.279,1:05:28.199
+unfortunate
+
+1:05:28.199,1:05:31.480
+implications and there's going to have to
+be exceptions sales tax
+
+1:05:31.480,1:05:38.480
+anything that Tom foley is going to want to
+reject mail from people that heard of before
+
+1:05:38.749,1:05:42.300
+about I will point out challenge responses
+of a chance to
+
+1:05:42.300,1:05:45.019
+this is to create a closed society
+
+1:05:45.019,1:05:46.679
+we have a
+
+1:05:46.679,1:05:48.519
+attacks in their house
+
+1:05:48.519,1:05:52.359
+if you will a proven true test to try and
+see if there's a human being on the other
+
+1:05:52.359,1:05:54.199
+end of the line
+
+1:05:54.199,1:05:57.229
+as a lot of places that would love to do it
+credit nation
+
+1:05:57.229,1:05:58.889
+which is where they'll say
+
+1:05:58.889,1:06:01.039
+how about for you
+
+1:06:01.039,1:06:02.949
+for a fee
+
+1:06:02.949,1:06:04.850
+even having the base of money
+
+1:06:04.850,1:06:08.339
+does have value because they have to give
+it credit card number
+
+1:06:08.339,1:06:11.270
+and it has to go through the crack of service
+in your
+
+1:06:11.270,1:06:12.339
+essentially
+
+1:06:12.339,1:06:13.880
+one emerging off the
+
+1:06:13.880,1:06:16.309
+credit cards
+
+1:06:16.309,1:06:18.609
+companies work on reputation
+
+1:06:18.609,1:06:19.869
+well I don't know
+
+1:06:19.869,1:06:21.399
+the possibility
+
+1:06:21.399,1:06:23.439
+the likelihood of of
+
+1:06:23.439,1:06:29.269
+stolen credit cards
+
+1:06:29.269,1:06:32.189
+what a lot of people say it as well you know
+we
+
+1:06:32.189,1:06:33.989
+why don't we just
+
+1:06:33.989,1:06:37.919
+here's another media messages
+
+1:06:37.919,1:06:43.209
+yes well as a messenger who doesn't have spent
+all that's why I did it get
+
+1:06:43.209,1:06:48.619
+message is pretty much every day from so and
+so sexy teenage foxy girls
+
+1:06:48.619,1:06:51.369
+morning to get it wrong with me
+
+1:06:51.369,1:06:53.409
+collins then as it's called
+
+1:06:53.409,1:06:56.640
+on is has been a problem for a while it is
+doing that
+
+1:06:56.640,1:06:58.939
+yeah
+
+1:06:58.939,1:07:00.280
+authentication helps
+
+1:07:00.280,1:07:04.279
+but it's just too easy to get
+
+1:07:04.279,1:07:08.169
+all social networking storage tank was the
+problem will just use
+
+1:07:08.169,1:07:09.499
+social networking
+
+1:07:09.499,1:07:11.619
+and use that for all or up
+
+1:07:11.619,1:07:15.299
+e-mail and in so you've got to be a friend
+of mine
+
+1:07:15.299,1:07:19.829
+well it turns out has recently there's been
+a lot of publicity
+
+1:07:19.829,1:07:22.209
+of worms in virus is that going to
+
+1:07:22.209,1:07:24.939
+%uh my face and facebook and
+
+1:07:24.939,1:07:28.609
+what not an issue
+
+1:07:28.609,1:07:31.649
+you are you will accidentally
+
+1:07:31.649,1:07:33.929
+sanders down to your friends
+
+1:07:33.929,1:07:36.599
+it would generally comes from you
+
+1:07:36.599,1:07:37.529
+and so they
+
+1:07:37.529,1:07:41.479
+are more likely to trust you so what is actually
+almost
+
+1:07:41.479,1:07:43.099
+works
+
+1:07:43.099,1:07:43.790
+them
+
+1:07:43.790,1:07:46.219
+the male staffer
+
+1:07:46.219,1:07:48.519
+and it's this
+
+1:07:48.519,1:07:51.109
+on internet telephony spam spam over internet
+
+1:07:51.109,1:07:52.339
+it taught me
+
+1:07:52.339,1:07:55.469
+on his was just placed a growth industry
+
+1:07:55.469,1:07:57.919
+I wish is going to get
+
+1:07:57.919,1:07:59.139
+unbelievably bad
+
+1:07:59.139,1:08:00.449
+sometime soon
+
+1:08:00.449,1:08:05.529
+so some speculations on the future here that
+these are speculations my opinion
+
+1:08:05.529,1:08:09.819
+I can't justify the runway
+
+1:08:09.819,1:08:11.149
+miss first term
+
+1:08:11.149,1:08:12.839
+I think we will get
+
+1:08:12.839,1:08:14.739
+some authenticated mail out there
+
+1:08:14.739,1:08:18.789
+%uh there will be some center reputation and
+we'll roll
+
+1:08:18.789,1:08:22.079
+with time it will grow as quickly as i'd like
+
+1:08:22.079,1:08:23.509
+they've done it will
+
+1:08:23.509,1:08:25.439
+happen and it will start to grow
+
+1:08:25.439,1:08:27.859
+and it will be useful in only
+
+1:08:27.859,1:08:31.710
+because when you can get of not people
+
+1:08:31.710,1:08:34.119
+authenticated and they have good reputation
+
+1:08:34.119,1:08:39.489
+the probability that the other male is then
+goes us the and actually
+
+1:08:39.489,1:08:41.960
+tarnoff use them filters sensitivity
+
+1:08:41.960,1:08:44.079
+so if you will it will be a
+
+1:08:44.079,1:08:46.759
+well why didn't he was around
+
+1:08:46.759,1:08:50.770
+existence of them soldiers not something that
+is this by itself
+
+1:08:50.770,1:08:55.000
+all we will see movement toward e-mail address
+internationalization once again is going to
+
+1:08:55.000,1:08:56.529
+be relatively slow
+
+1:08:56.529,1:09:01.689
+the reason for that is because there's a part
+of our problem not which is downgrading
+
+1:09:01.689,1:09:02.880
+a message for men
+
+1:09:02.880,1:09:04.659
+in our national life
+
+1:09:04.659,1:09:05.900
+mel which by the way
+
+1:09:05.900,1:09:08.849
+what they're looking at it saying we're going
+to use you sheila tate
+
+1:09:08.849,1:09:12.000
+for everything we're talking to declare the
+characters that we just
+
+1:09:12.000,1:09:13.730
+he issued yesterday
+
+1:09:13.730,1:09:16.619
+with low vision done years ago
+
+1:09:16.619,1:09:17.819
+Bob that
+
+1:09:17.819,1:09:22.809
+taking AZT a great message and downgrading
+them soon ask the message it is
+
+1:09:22.809,1:09:24.420
+almost impossible
+
+1:09:24.420,1:09:25.690
+and I did
+
+1:09:25.690,1:09:27.099
+and that's important
+
+1:09:27.099,1:09:32.889
+the daylights tensions in to send them all
+and release them yet
+
+1:09:32.889,1:09:37.249
+try to do the downgrading and finally came
+to the conclusion that there's certain things
+
+1:09:37.249,1:09:39.139
+we just have to guess
+
+1:09:39.139,1:09:41.989
+and you might not guess right all the time
+
+1:09:41.989,1:09:43.830
+so my inclination to say
+
+1:09:43.830,1:09:47.589
+I will not allow downgrading
+
+1:09:47.589,1:09:52.139
+the FAA on the message will bounce back me
+up set down great message to begin with that
+
+1:09:52.139,1:09:56.360
+will slow adoption
+
+1:09:56.360,1:10:00.719
+the people young people in particular are
+moving off of us and to keep this now we're
+
+1:10:00.719,1:10:05.199
+going into things like playing on people's
+walls and facebook
+
+1:10:05.199,1:10:07.250
+polymarker warnings investigating
+
+1:10:07.250,1:10:12.659
+so forth that is going to continue
+
+1:10:12.659,1:10:15.679
+take pot
+
+1:10:15.679,1:10:17.340
+a lot of people say
+
+1:10:17.340,1:10:19.250
+partially because people them
+
+1:10:19.250,1:10:22.510
+moving on to these things that are said to
+be is that
+
+1:10:22.510,1:10:24.340
+but I think that indeed he is dead
+
+1:10:24.340,1:10:26.010
+what would that send to AP
+
+1:10:26.010,1:10:28.280
+as and he's not going away
+
+1:10:28.280,1:10:30.860
+a lot of reasons
+
+1:10:30.860,1:10:34.860
+are some things that could be dealt with this
+one of the big proposals is to switch from
+
+1:10:34.860,1:10:37.059
+a portion or all of the-mail where
+
+1:10:37.059,1:10:38.380
+the center
+
+1:10:38.380,1:10:39.830
+connects to the recipient
+
+1:10:39.830,1:10:41.420
+this year's the male take it
+
+1:10:41.420,1:10:43.159
+to uphold
+
+1:10:43.159,1:10:47.649
+model where the recipient just sends a short
+message to have male for you here and then
+
+1:10:47.649,1:10:48.789
+the
+
+1:10:48.789,1:10:49.880
+recipient
+
+1:10:49.880,1:10:51.159
+polls back for it
+
+1:10:51.159,1:10:53.219
+when it's convenient for them to do so
+
+1:10:53.219,1:10:55.909
+that does show that the cost function
+
+1:10:55.909,1:10:57.699
+so the %uh
+
+1:10:57.699,1:11:00.020
+the center actually has to
+
+1:11:00.020,1:11:01.210
+have some of
+
+1:11:01.210,1:11:04.900
+infrastructure there they have to be prepared
+to use the word was mail
+
+1:11:04.900,1:11:09.110
+that's not true
+
+1:11:09.110,1:11:12.399
+he's still going to be in the essence the
+structure I think
+
+1:11:12.399,1:11:16.869
+the essentially is a sensible and can do almost
+anything with the exceptions it's going to
+
+1:11:16.869,1:11:17.890
+be good enough
+
+1:11:17.890,1:11:19.780
+for a long time
+
+1:11:19.780,1:11:20.789
+I think
+
+1:11:20.789,1:11:26.360
+in the medium term we will succeed in getting
+the GSA absolutely everywhere
+
+1:11:26.360,1:11:30.689
+that's about the only people who have to ask
+the e-mail will be
+
+1:11:30.689,1:11:34.979
+the people who listen to peace are rich and
+other pressures and they can't go out and
+
+1:11:34.979,1:11:36.620
+upgrade the
+
+1:11:36.620,1:11:40.760
+of so I I'm pretty optimistic on that
+
+1:11:40.760,1:11:41.920
+and
+
+1:11:41.920,1:11:44.900
+most e-mail is going to end up being opposed
+to the providers
+
+1:11:44.900,1:11:48.039
+it's gotten so much harder to run in this
+juror
+
+1:11:48.039,1:11:51.440
+now than it was twenty years ago or ten years
+ago were you
+
+1:11:51.440,1:11:53.760
+five years ago for a lot of reasons
+
+1:11:53.760,1:11:56.419
+the gallery reasons for example
+
+1:11:56.419,1:12:01.670
+there's a lot of new laws that apply to the
+mail and retention and so forth
+
+1:12:01.670,1:12:06.440
+you really don't want to push that off onto
+somebody else who can worry about it so
+
+1:12:06.440,1:12:09.790
+lots of companies for example who used to
+run the romanovs jurors
+
+1:12:09.790,1:12:12.089
+are moving to jeanette
+
+1:12:12.089,1:12:13.230
+and I think you'll see
+
+1:12:13.230,1:12:15.239
+more of that I think you'll see a lot
+
+1:12:15.239,1:12:16.169
+more of that
+
+1:12:16.169,1:12:17.989
+I don't think we'll get to the
+
+1:12:17.989,1:12:21.489
+place where there are three companies in the
+entire world that
+
+1:12:21.489,1:12:23.400
+have-mailboxes
+
+1:12:23.400,1:12:26.920
+although there would actually be certain advantages
+to that
+
+1:12:26.920,1:12:29.270
+they won't get any more like that but
+
+1:12:29.270,1:12:32.459
+of small companies
+
+1:12:32.459,1:12:37.729
+don't want to deal with that
+
+1:12:37.729,1:12:39.639
+so some larger thoughts
+
+1:12:39.639,1:12:45.449
+%uh casual messaging well and he continued
+to move away from essence few days now
+
+1:12:45.449,1:12:48.440
+you see more and more start going through
+this book
+
+1:12:48.440,1:12:50.300
+%um %um
+
+1:12:50.300,1:12:52.969
+more and more self-government arrangements
+again
+
+1:12:52.969,1:12:55.129
+people forty eight
+
+1:12:55.129,1:12:57.189
+instant gratification
+
+1:12:57.189,1:13:00.440
+and I am give somebody a man told us
+
+1:13:00.440,1:13:03.869
+he also sits there with mobile usage and
+
+1:13:03.869,1:13:07.770
+is there anyone in this room who is not secure
+and one of these
+
+1:13:07.770,1:13:12.189
+anyone who wants to admit that their letter
+I didn't think so
+
+1:13:12.189,1:13:15.360
+I e-mail is not going to die
+
+1:13:15.360,1:13:16.329
+on this
+
+1:13:16.329,1:13:18.610
+been predicted that that's just not true
+
+1:13:18.610,1:13:20.420
+it's to us into business
+
+1:13:20.420,1:13:24.980
+it's to a lawsuit in places where you can
+really yes and water message
+
+1:13:24.980,1:13:27.760
+you have to think about what you're saying
+
+1:13:27.760,1:13:29.149
+for the standard
+
+1:13:29.149,1:13:31.949
+%uh it's the if you got
+
+1:13:31.949,1:13:34.709
+security and regulatory issues up
+
+1:13:34.709,1:13:37.949
+there are real problems with instant message
+in
+
+1:13:37.949,1:13:43.110
+one of the things is it totally artificial
+is that tax to have some us
+
+1:13:43.110,1:13:47.349
+I saw a lot of money in a light two cents
+attacks
+
+1:13:47.349,1:13:49.360
+constant so companies as euro
+
+1:13:49.360,1:13:54.329
+to do that effectively zero when they put
+this cost on it and they're making
+
+1:13:54.329,1:13:55.230
+fortune
+
+1:13:55.230,1:13:56.400
+off of that
+
+1:13:56.400,1:14:00.320
+and that will be enough people say I don't
+want to pay a tenth of a cent for e-mail but
+
+1:14:00.320,1:14:01.549
+there will end soon
+
+1:14:01.549,1:14:04.000
+the two sides for anathema us
+
+1:14:04.000,1:14:05.820
+this is crazy
+
+1:14:05.820,1:14:07.489
+I'm hoping that won't go away
+
+1:14:07.489,1:14:11.260
+the other thing is that as you get into the
+business world were more you're dealing with
+
+1:14:11.260,1:14:12.909
+people across time zones
+
+1:14:12.909,1:14:14.510
+%uh when you're a hacker
+
+1:14:14.510,1:14:16.810
+and you're up around the clock ticking away
+
+1:14:16.810,1:14:21.410
+that's not such a big deal but when we start
+to get into the more conventional world actually
+
+1:14:21.410,1:14:22.489
+kind of the monarchy
+
+1:14:22.489,1:14:24.190
+and you get married you have kids
+
+1:14:24.190,1:14:25.239
+he started
+
+1:14:25.239,1:14:28.679
+go on to a more conventional schedule
+
+1:14:28.679,1:14:30.079
+that distinction
+
+1:14:30.079,1:14:31.370
+that's what you know
+
+1:14:31.370,1:14:32.760
+he's investigating
+
+1:14:32.760,1:14:38.780
+and even voice he's going to be were it's
+already boring as it were and more than that
+
+1:14:38.780,1:14:41.270
+I actually were talking about that
+
+1:14:41.270,1:14:44.019
+of little bit in the last one
+
+1:14:44.019,1:14:48.900
+and I think there's a lot of very interesting
+work to be done again the computer human interface
+
+1:14:48.900,1:14:49.949
+of the-mail
+
+1:14:49.949,1:14:51.589
+right now the-mail
+
+1:14:51.589,1:14:54.479
+but e-mails started off as a in box here
+
+1:14:54.479,1:14:56.489
+carol millhouse you go through them
+
+1:14:56.489,1:15:00.639
+it's gotten to the point where it's sort of
+like it down secretary him to sort out the
+
+1:15:00.639,1:15:01.550
+junk mail
+
+1:15:01.550,1:15:02.959
+and give you the rest of it
+
+1:15:02.959,1:15:06.670
+e-mails should be news of new York should
+say he messaging
+
+1:15:06.670,1:15:08.380
+is there any light eight
+
+1:15:08.380,1:15:10.409
+really the executive and then
+
+1:15:10.409,1:15:13.810
+who knows what it is you're doing can deal
+with
+
+1:15:13.810,1:15:18.030
+and that is so rotten that stuff that you
+actually cancer this stuff
+
+1:15:18.030,1:15:18.849
+where is not
+
+1:15:18.849,1:15:20.400
+a difficult time
+
+1:15:20.400,1:15:24.840
+who can sort of the things into an order and
+say this is the most important thing for you
+
+1:15:24.840,1:15:27.300
+to deal with right now
+
+1:15:27.300,1:15:30.880
+your mind you know when someone for meeting
+is coming up
+
+1:15:30.880,1:15:31.980
+who will
+
+1:15:31.980,1:15:33.020
+you know when
+
+1:15:33.020,1:15:37.319
+you call a meeting and people have responded
+will go off and and
+
+1:15:37.319,1:15:38.340
+do you know about it
+
+1:15:38.340,1:15:40.260
+et cetera et cetera
+
+1:15:40.260,1:15:45.389
+there's a huge amount of work that can happen
+here
+
+1:15:45.389,1:15:49.479
+what scares me is unified message in almost
+a month or
+
+1:15:49.479,1:15:52.969
+too many messaging services in applications
+out there
+
+1:15:52.969,1:15:55.919
+well I think there's too much
+
+1:15:55.919,1:15:58.330
+overlap and there's not enough compatibility
+
+1:15:58.330,1:16:00.989
+I want to show you a little chart that I made
+up
+
+1:16:00.989,1:16:02.560
+just lost couple days
+
+1:16:02.560,1:16:09.560
+all of the services in applications on the
+stars are ones by personal use
+
+1:16:10.520,1:16:15.219
+just run through this week or two
+
+1:16:15.219,1:16:17.110
+we start with haiti and it
+
+1:16:17.110,1:16:20.599
+originally started out as an ally and application
+
+1:16:20.599,1:16:26.719
+it does I am really does that somehow some
+lawyers roosevelt for Israel
+
+1:16:26.719,1:16:32.040
+bosses from the board life where I think also
+for him or whatever it does have its own address
+
+1:16:32.040,1:16:33.800
+book
+
+1:16:33.800,1:16:35.409
+the hum
+
+1:16:35.409,1:16:36.729
+right
+
+1:16:36.729,1:16:40.110
+on or is it was designed originally as a up
+
+1:16:40.110,1:16:41.739
+of course acquisitions
+
+1:16:41.739,1:16:43.630
+but it's not a all right and wrong headed
+
+1:16:43.630,1:16:45.509
+it's kind of a deal now
+
+1:16:45.509,1:16:50.729
+it will called for him
+
+1:16:50.729,1:16:52.169
+%um
+
+1:16:52.169,1:16:54.489
+for additional money
+
+1:16:54.489,1:16:56.460
+you can't do that by definition is that
+
+1:16:56.460,1:16:59.199
+for additional monies was time for a little
+
+1:16:59.199,1:17:00.540
+in the case
+
+1:17:00.540,1:17:02.339
+money changes hands
+
+1:17:02.339,1:17:07.219
+you know that's a nice for income in or outgoing
+calls so I am
+
+1:17:07.219,1:17:09.460
+outgoing start flying but no in coming
+
+1:17:09.460,1:17:11.840
+strike one
+
+1:17:11.840,1:17:17.899
+well lawyers which was up from seoul a couple
+of days ago was called grand central
+
+1:17:17.899,1:17:21.169
+%uh harris
+
+1:17:21.169,1:17:22.420
+mister President
+
+1:17:22.420,1:17:27.710
+for its part is not but the no three there
+is that there are other this who was talk
+
+1:17:27.710,1:17:29.070
+as well
+
+1:17:29.070,1:17:33.210
+and so in some sense is closely related so
+that's kind of the US
+
+1:17:33.210,1:17:35.570
+because unless the masses those two boys
+
+1:17:35.570,1:17:39.340
+it doesn't invade year old yes
+
+1:17:39.340,1:17:40.409
+bobbie
+
+1:17:40.409,1:17:44.269
+that's a incoming calls
+
+1:17:44.269,1:17:46.680
+in fact that's the whole point
+
+1:17:46.680,1:17:48.999
+who was
+
+1:17:48.999,1:17:50.870
+you can do and how going
+
+1:17:50.870,1:17:57.239
+calls in the US yet to take action if you
+want to do international outgoing calls
+
+1:17:57.239,1:18:02.139
+%um
+
+1:18:02.139,1:18:04.469
+he did not have a call for him
+
+1:18:04.469,1:18:09.530
+no that's what it was designed to do and recently
+he can actually called for not just to of
+
+1:18:09.530,1:18:13.089
+regular phone number on what's called a PSA
+and
+
+1:18:13.089,1:18:15.709
+up
+
+1:18:15.709,1:18:18.769
+public's something telephone network
+
+1:18:18.769,1:18:20.020
+%um
+
+1:18:20.020,1:18:22.329
+sorry I should know that
+
+1:18:22.329,1:18:24.020
+so that's what you have
+
+1:18:24.020,1:18:27.879
+that kind of remark you're no longer couldn't
+find it
+
+1:18:27.879,1:18:32.469
+it can also go to portland numbers in Texas
+I don't want to count and there's no way to
+
+1:18:32.469,1:18:34.709
+call him from a regular telephone
+
+1:18:34.709,1:18:38.040
+but in fact when some told him for it to you
+so
+
+1:18:38.040,1:18:39.119
+%uh which is
+
+1:18:39.119,1:18:40.639
+what I'm using
+
+1:18:40.639,1:18:42.929
+well let me get to
+
+1:18:42.929,1:18:47.960
+brought boris is a service of had for a while
+it's just the four okay
+
+1:18:47.960,1:18:48.989
+sir I was
+
+1:18:48.989,1:18:50.090
+I did
+
+1:18:50.090,1:18:51.889
+only those boys
+
+1:18:51.889,1:18:56.260
+okay does have an incoming calls
+
+1:18:56.260,1:19:00.619
+and of course you always get more on that
+and also I said that number of local number
+
+1:19:00.619,1:19:04.369
+in the UK which were inspired Tony birtley
+
+1:19:04.369,1:19:07.419
+on for a very serious sewers some for anything
+
+1:19:07.419,1:19:11.099
+you can see there
+
+1:19:11.099,1:19:12.520
+and it does
+
+1:19:12.520,1:19:15.090
+coming up phone calls
+
+1:19:15.090,1:19:19.900
+yes well I just heard plan was recently if
+they saw
+
+1:19:19.900,1:19:23.190
+I'm I have it on this mission here
+
+1:19:23.190,1:19:25.769
+it's got I am still has some thoughts
+
+1:19:25.769,1:19:27.239
+it's not for us
+
+1:19:27.239,1:19:30.000
+but it does have video
+
+1:19:30.000,1:19:33.429
+for additional not even to incoming and outgoing
+calls
+
+1:19:33.429,1:19:36.480
+but those are three
+
+1:19:36.480,1:19:39.969
+except for incoming board calls
+
+1:19:39.969,1:19:43.789
+so that's kind of another thing he can do
+cole porter N
+
+1:19:43.789,1:19:45.599
+it does have a voice-mail
+
+1:19:45.599,1:19:49.479
+the and why everything here is that it's all
+a matter of book
+
+1:19:49.479,1:19:54.020
+which by the way are in general not integrated
+with one another so you have to have
+
+1:19:54.020,1:19:56.590
+one address
+
+1:19:56.590,1:19:58.849
+contacted you want to have happen
+
+1:19:58.849,1:20:01.849
+five or six for a and return address book
+
+1:20:01.849,1:20:06.360
+and of course I shall I use primarily because
+then you scream saying
+
+1:20:06.360,1:20:08.280
+to know about my mom
+
+1:20:08.280,1:20:12.000
+when she has a problem and I don't want to
+drive up your house
+
+1:20:12.000,1:20:16.300
+%uh on by will go into all of these details
+is the know
+
+1:20:16.300,1:20:19.810
+there's almost no immigration on adverse book
+which is a disaster
+
+1:20:19.810,1:20:22.869
+these things overlap in major ways
+
+1:20:22.869,1:20:23.909
+I've got it
+
+1:20:23.909,1:20:27.479
+a google voice number now that came forward
+
+1:20:27.479,1:20:31.599
+sue my laptop live on the road but it also
+brings it home
+
+1:20:31.599,1:20:35.299
+ but I don't have a way to get that UK
+number
+
+1:20:35.299,1:20:38.269
+to follow me around even though i'd like to
+
+1:20:38.269,1:20:41.500
+it's like a person getting immigration going
+
+1:20:41.500,1:20:42.719
+properly out
+
+1:20:42.719,1:20:44.720
+and what you have today is
+
+1:20:44.720,1:20:46.700
+in the mind message in
+
+1:20:46.700,1:20:48.229
+you have any clothes
+
+1:20:48.229,1:20:49.669
+of this
+
+1:20:49.669,1:20:52.889
+where they were were around in the day
+
+1:20:52.889,1:20:53.879
+don't know
+
+1:20:53.879,1:20:55.250
+that's where you know
+
+1:20:55.250,1:20:58.319
+peres would look like that was an original
+e-mail
+
+1:20:58.319,1:21:00.650
+are a real legitimate email address
+
+1:21:00.650,1:21:02.399
+yeah
+
+1:21:02.399,1:21:07.110
+I didn't forget percent couldn't figure out how to
+put that in there
+
+1:21:07.110,1:21:08.860
+ that
+
+1:21:08.860,1:21:10.880
+it could be from Texas
+
+1:21:10.880,1:21:14.279
+
+
+1:21:14.279,1:21:17.330
+I I'm going to talk him into it
+
+1:21:17.330,1:21:21.670
+some groups who is advertising here if you're
+interested in the e-mail message in
+
+1:21:21.670,1:21:26.000
+the conference on the melody spam is coming
+up in July and mountain view
+
+1:21:26.000,1:21:29.480
+take a look at the web site
+
+1:21:29.480,1:21:36.480
+thank you very much and are there any questions
+
+1:21:37.139,1:21:38.820
+I answered everything
+
+1:21:38.820,1:21:40.329
+a lot of so-called
+
+1:21:40.329,1:21:46.760
+you're so long
+
+1:21:46.760,1:21:48.090
+okay what is without doubt
+
+1:21:48.090,1:21:51.320
+a little early for policy then I will be around
+
+1:21:51.320,1:21:52.599
+on the rest of the day
+
+1:21:52.599,1:21:54.960
+a few
+
+1:21:54.960,1:22:01.960
+what they're asking thing also
+
+1:22:05.650,1:22:06.760
+the IRS
+
+1:22:06.760,1:22:11.679
+I was not something I was doing I started
+off with the initial design
+
+1:22:11.679,1:22:12.979
+of parents
+
+1:22:12.979,1:22:15.010
+how close are slim
+
+1:22:15.010,1:22:16.280
+was working on it
+
+1:22:16.280,1:22:18.280
+ we concluded
+
+1:22:18.280,1:22:19.840
+at the company
+
+1:22:19.840,1:22:24.079
+that sent a text was not going to be
+
+1:22:24.079,1:22:28.349
+significantly better than postfix and it
+certainly wasn't going to be ready anytime
+
+1:22:28.349,1:22:29.789
+since close as eight
+
+1:22:29.789,1:22:31.520
+great voter
+
+1:22:31.520,1:22:33.059
+ but hes very
+
+1:22:33.059,1:22:35.020
+careful
+
+1:22:35.020,1:22:36.219
+that means he's not
+
+1:22:36.219,1:22:38.199
+really all that clear
+
+1:22:38.199,1:22:41.090
+and so we look at it and said
+
+1:22:41.090,1:22:45.840
+worth it to us to do this he is remanded
+
+1:22:45.840,1:22:48.300
+and there on the line
+
+1:22:48.300,1:22:52.210
+I think it's insider and she a one-dot or
+her
+
+1:22:52.210,1:22:52.980
+the
+
+1:22:52.980,1:22:55.820
+and ETA one dot org I don't remember
+
+1:22:55.820,1:22:58.610
+which and so you can download it but I don't
+know about
+
+1:22:58.610,1:23:02.510
+certainly he's working on that now
+
+1:23:02.510,1:23:06.989
+as I just said by the way I'm working on some
+stuff in sendmail eight mostly stuff like
+
+1:23:06.989,1:23:11.739
+the IRS tensions what I don't know when or
+if that's going to get released
+
+1:23:11.739,1:23:15.179
+why is not a priority for the company right
+now
+
+1:23:15.179,1:23:16.139
+and
+
+1:23:16.139,1:23:20.189
+all of them so I'm hoping to do is to a private
+release outflow
+
+1:23:20.189,1:23:23.230
+do not use this under any circumstances
+
+1:23:23.230,1:23:24.869
+et cetera kind of
+
+1:23:24.869,1:23:25.840
+release
+
+1:23:25.840,1:23:32.840
+but we'll see
+
+1:23:36.409,1:23:43.409
+so the question is who owns the market
+
+1:23:54.820,1:23:57.309
+that so there's two things there one it is
+
+1:23:57.309,1:23:59.830
+don't have any steps on all what
+
+1:23:59.830,1:24:02.109
+it's often e-mail servers are using
+
+1:24:02.109,1:24:05.860
+that information there used to be some
+places that
+
+1:24:05.860,1:24:08.079
+did and publish it for free
+
+1:24:08.079,1:24:09.460
+but they have started
+
+1:24:09.460,1:24:10.320
+charging money for it
+
+1:24:10.320,1:24:12.670
+a lot of money for
+
+1:24:12.670,1:24:13.650
+and I'm so
+
+1:24:13.650,1:24:19.800
+so I don't have anything really recent but
+from what I can determine piecing together
+
+1:24:19.800,1:24:22.750
+on sendmail is still the largest
+
+1:24:22.750,1:24:25.690
+and she a in terms of America
+
+1:24:25.690,1:24:28.449
+numbers out there are leave of
+
+1:24:28.449,1:24:30.460
+microsoft number two
+
+1:24:30.460,1:24:32.239
+what is
+
+1:24:32.239,1:24:33.980
+senate although it is a problem
+
+1:24:33.980,1:24:35.210
+thirty percent
+
+1:24:35.210,1:24:39.219
+something like that in my interest also around
+
+1:24:39.219,1:24:39.720
+of
+
+1:24:39.720,1:24:42.739
+maybe twenty percent of that everyone else
+breaks up the
+
+1:24:42.739,1:24:45.029
+fifty percent so
+
+1:24:45.029,1:24:47.070
+on the other hand but
+
+1:24:47.070,1:24:48.919
+I'm afraid that's
+
+1:24:48.919,1:24:52.350
+speculative speculation and tribulations
+
+1:24:52.350,1:24:53.350
+%um
+
+1:24:53.350,1:24:56.599
+the second question is can we use in essence
+you're doing
+
+1:24:56.599,1:24:59.729
+well we're just MTV's to improve the situation
+
+1:24:59.729,1:25:02.709
+yes i'd love to do that
+
+1:25:02.709,1:25:07.319
+there was a time when that would have been
+easier for me when
+
+1:25:07.319,1:25:12.029
+when really seventy percent of the network
+according to send mail and they mostly upgraded
+
+1:25:12.029,1:25:13.840
+fairly quickly
+
+1:25:13.840,1:25:17.860
+I no longer have that kind of leverage
+
+1:25:17.860,1:25:22.530
+people have gotten much more reluctant to
+upgrade the rail sir
+
+1:25:22.530,1:25:26.099
+now I can't talk the visa into doing it
+too
+
+1:25:26.099,1:25:28.380
+then we might actually have something
+
+1:25:28.380,1:25:35.380
+we were in a state like utah microsoft int doing it
+ yeah that's likely
+
+1:25:37.010,1:25:39.489
+the window of opportunity could be close
+
+1:25:39.489,1:25:41.889
+and once again I would love to do that
+
+1:25:41.889,1:25:44.050
+but he is just not
+
+1:25:44.050,1:25:47.739
+I I I do work for commercial companies not
+
+1:25:47.739,1:25:51.949
+reasonable for them to pay me to do that right
+now it's not a priority
+
+1:25:51.949,1:25:54.260
+and so I can't do it on my own
+
+1:25:54.260,1:25:56.190
+that would like
+
+1:25:56.190,1:26:00.500
+I am doing some stuff on my own but there
+are limits to what I can do a very old and
+
+1:26:00.500,1:26:02.709
+I was twenty five years ago
+
+1:26:02.709,1:26:05.829
+so that and can no longer pull those all nighters
+
+1:26:05.829,1:26:09.109
+every night for a week
+
+1:26:09.109,1:26:16.109
+any other questions
+
+1:26:16.859,1:26:20.900
+silence all right
+
+1:26:20.900,1:26:21.480
+thank you very much