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authorJim Mock <jim@FreeBSD.org>2000-06-08 01:56:23 +0000
committerJim Mock <jim@FreeBSD.org>2000-06-08 01:56:23 +0000
commit3302fdee27511966e1ce3851944f6825e1edacfa (patch)
tree15e3b9d19ace3416c5bce8afe1f0fa44ca35dafe
parent352a3da4b5449e2872b5850aec48cc47c7348186 (diff)
downloaddoc-3302fdee27511966e1ce3851944f6825e1edacfa.tar.gz
doc-3302fdee27511966e1ce3851944f6825e1edacfa.zip
Change &ldquo;...&rdquo; to <quote>...</quote> as per a discussion on
-doc. Suggested by: nik
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=7302
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/article.sgml16
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/developers-handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml8
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/developers-handbook/policies/chapter.sgml20
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml42
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml10
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml16
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml32
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml10
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml18
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml108
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml58
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml42
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml34
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml8
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml8
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml4
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml36
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml32
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml20
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml70
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml62
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml56
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml56
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml86
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml14
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml42
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml10
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml16
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml32
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml10
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml18
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml108
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml58
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/internals/chapter.sgml42
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml42
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml34
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml8
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml8
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml4
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml36
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml32
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml20
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml70
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml62
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml56
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml56
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml86
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml14
54 files changed, 883 insertions, 883 deletions
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/article.sgml
index a85ce56ffe..611d7cbf79 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/article.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml,v 1.214 2000/06/02 15:35:18 will Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml,v 1.215 2000/06/05 13:32:27 will Exp $
-->
<chapter id="contrib">
@@ -156,8 +156,8 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Make it possible to upload a list of &ldquo;allowed
- program&rdquo; to BPF, and then block BPF from accepting other
+ <para>Make it possible to upload a list of <quote>allowed
+ program</quote> to BPF, and then block BPF from accepting other
programs. This would allow BPF to be used e.g. for DHCP,
without allowing an attacker to start snooping the local
network.</para>
@@ -482,7 +482,7 @@
<para>An addition or change to the existing source code is a somewhat
trickier affair and depends a lot on how far out of date you are with
the current state of the core FreeBSD development. There is a special
- on-going release of FreeBSD known as &ldquo;FreeBSD-current&rdquo;
+ on-going release of FreeBSD known as <quote>FreeBSD-current</quote>
which is made available in a variety of ways for the convenience of
developers working actively on the system. See <link
linkend="current">Staying current with FreeBSD</link> for more
@@ -497,7 +497,7 @@
<para>Assuming that you can manage to secure fairly up-to-date sources
to base your changes on, the next step is to produce a set of diffs to
send to the FreeBSD maintainers. This is done with the &man.diff.1;
- command, with the &ldquo;context diff&rdquo; form
+ command, with the <quote>context diff</quote> form
being preferred. For example:</para>
<para>
@@ -557,7 +557,7 @@
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
<para>The BSD copyright. This copyright is most preferred due to
- its &ldquo;no strings attached&rdquo; nature and general
+ its <quote>no strings attached</quote> nature and general
attractiveness to commercial enterprises. Far from discouraging
such commercial use, the FreeBSD Project actively encourages such
participation by commercial interests who might eventually be
@@ -565,7 +565,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>The GNU Public License, or &ldquo;GPL&rdquo;. This license is
+ <para>The GNU Public License, or <quote>GPL</quote>. This license is
not quite as popular with us due to the amount of extra effort
demanded of anyone using the code for commercial purposes, but
given the sheer quantity of GPL'd code we currently require
@@ -585,7 +585,7 @@
are always encouraged to make such changes available through their own
channels.</para>
- <para>To place a &ldquo;BSD-style&rdquo; copyright on your work, include
+ <para>To place a <quote>BSD-style</quote> copyright on your work, include
the following text at the very beginning of every source code file you
wish to protect, replacing the text between the <literal>%%</literal>
with the appropriate information.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/developers-handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/developers-handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml
index f80715b6da..c7bb721c09 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/developers-handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/developers-handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml,v 1.21 1999/12/16 16:04:24 cracauer Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml,v 1.22 2000/04/03 02:15:41 chris Exp $
-->
<chapter id="kerneldebug">
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@
<note>
<para>In the following, the term <command>kgdb</command> refers to
- <command>gdb</command> run in &ldquo;kernel debug mode&rdquo;. This
+ <command>gdb</command> run in <quote>kernel debug mode</quote>. This
can be accomplished by either starting the <command>gdb</command> with
the option <option>-k</option>, or by linking and starting it under
the name <command>kgdb</command>. This is not being done by default,
@@ -178,7 +178,7 @@
<listitem>
<para>This is a dump taken from within DDB (see below), hence the
- panic comment &ldquo;because you said to!&rdquo;, and a rather
+ panic comment <quote>because you said to!</quote>, and a rather
long stack trace; the initial reason for going into DDB has been a
page fault trap though.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -203,7 +203,7 @@
dump handy &lt;g&gt;, my kernel has not panicked for a rather long
time.) From looking at the code in source line 403, there is a
high probability that either the pointer access for
- &ldquo;tp&rdquo; was messed up, or the array access was out of
+ <quote>tp</quote> was messed up, or the array access was out of
bounds.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/developers-handbook/policies/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/developers-handbook/policies/chapter.sgml
index 3835571dd6..8e3cb1d5d1 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/developers-handbook/policies/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/developers-handbook/policies/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml,v 1.14 1999/11/15 21:17:20 jesusr Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml,v 1.15 2000/03/25 17:02:35 nbm Exp $
-->
<chapter id="policies">
@@ -64,12 +64,12 @@ MAINTAINER= email-addresses</programlisting>
advantages and drawbacks. No clear winner has emerged.</para>
<para>Since this is the case, after some debate one of these methods has
- been selected as the &ldquo;official&rdquo; method and will be required
+ been selected as the <quote>official</quote> method and will be required
for future imports of software of this kind. Furthermore, it is
strongly suggested that existing contributed software converge on this
model over time, as it has significant advantages over the old method,
including the ability to easily obtain diffs relative to the
- &ldquo;official&rdquo; versions of the source by everyone (even without
+ <quote>official</quote> versions of the source by everyone (even without
cvs access). This will make it significantly easier to return changes
to the primary developers of the contributed software.</para>
@@ -84,9 +84,9 @@ MAINTAINER= email-addresses</programlisting>
<para>Because of some unfortunate design limitations with the RCS file
format and CVS's use of vendor branches, minor, trivial and/or
cosmetic changes are <emphasis>strongly discouraged</emphasis> on
- files that are still tracking the vendor branch. &ldquo;Spelling
- fixes&rdquo; are explicitly included here under the
- &ldquo;cosmetic&rdquo; category and are to be avoided for files with
+ files that are still tracking the vendor branch. <quote>Spelling
+ fixes</quote> are explicitly included here under the
+ <quote>cosmetic</quote> category and are to be avoided for files with
revision 1.1.x.x. The repository bloat impact from a single character
change can be rather dramatic.</para>
</note>
@@ -122,12 +122,12 @@ MAINTAINER= email-addresses</programlisting>
FreeBSD-specific changes as possible. The 'easy-import' tool on
freefall will assist in doing the import, but if there are any doubts on
how to go about it, it is imperative that you ask first and not blunder
- ahead and hope it &ldquo;works out&rdquo;. CVS is not forgiving of
+ ahead and hope it <quote>works out</quote>. CVS is not forgiving of
import accidents and a fair amount of effort is required to back out
major mistakes.</para>
<para>Because of the previously mentioned design limitations with CVS's
- vendor branches, it is required that &ldquo;official&rdquo; patches from
+ vendor branches, it is required that <quote>official</quote> patches from
the vendor be applied to the original distributed sources and the result
re-imported onto the vendor branch again. Official patches should never
be patched into the FreeBSD checked out version and "committed", as this
@@ -350,7 +350,7 @@ obrien@FreeBSD.org - 30 March 1997</programlisting>
well. Any version number after the <replaceable>y</replaceable>
(ie. the third digit) is totally ignored when comparing shared lib
version numbers to decide which library to link with. Given two shared
- libraries that differ only in the &ldquo;micro&rdquo; revision,
+ libraries that differ only in the <quote>micro</quote> revision,
<command>ld.so</command> will link with the higher one. Ie: if you link
with <filename>libfoo.so.3.3.3</filename>, the linker only records
<literal>3.3</literal> in the headers, and will link with anything
@@ -361,7 +361,7 @@ obrien@FreeBSD.org - 30 March 1997</programlisting>
<note>
<para><command>ld.so</command> will always use the highest
- &ldquo;minor&rdquo; revision. Ie: it will use
+ <quote>minor</quote> revision. Ie: it will use
<filename>libc.so.2.2</filename> in preference to
<filename>libc.so.2.0</filename>, even if the program was initially
linked with <filename>libc.so.2.0</filename>.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml
index 438549e67f..2268cea7d6 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml,v 1.23 2000/04/06 20:43:06 gsutter Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml,v 1.24 2000/05/02 22:40:41 unfurl Exp $
-->
<chapter id="advanced-networking">
@@ -23,16 +23,16 @@
<para>For one machine to be able to find another, there must be a
mechanism in place to describe how to get from one to the other. This is
- called Routing. A &ldquo;route&rdquo; is a defined pair of addresses: a
- &ldquo;destination&rdquo; and a &ldquo;gateway&rdquo;. The pair
+ called Routing. A <quote>route</quote> is a defined pair of addresses: a
+ <quote>destination</quote> and a <quote>gateway</quote>. The pair
indicates that if you are trying to get to this
<emphasis>destination</emphasis>, send along through this
<emphasis>gateway</emphasis>. There are three types of destinations:
- individual hosts, subnets, and &ldquo;default&rdquo;. The
- &ldquo;default route&rdquo; is used if none of the other routes apply.
+ individual hosts, subnets, and <quote>default</quote>. The
+ <quote>default route</quote> is used if none of the other routes apply.
We will talk a little bit more about default routes later on. There are
also three types of gateways: individual hosts, interfaces (also called
- &ldquo;links&rdquo;), and ethernet hardware addresses.</para>
+ <quote>links</quote>), and ethernet hardware addresses.</para>
<sect2>
<title>An example</title>
@@ -171,7 +171,7 @@ host2.foobar.com link#1 UC 0 0
interface.</para>
<para>If all known paths fail, the system has one last option: the
- &ldquo;default&rdquo; route. This route is a special type of gateway
+ <quote>default</quote> route. This route is a special type of gateway
route (usually the only one present in the system), and is always
marked with a <literal>c</literal> in the flags field. For hosts on a
local area network, this gateway is set to whatever machine has a
@@ -224,9 +224,9 @@ host2.foobar.com link#1 UC 0 0
</tgroup>
</informaltable>
- <para>A common question is &ldquo;Why (or how) would we set the T1-GW to
+ <para>A common question is <quote>Why (or how) would we set the T1-GW to
be the default gateway for Local1, rather than the ISP server it is
- connected to?&rdquo;.</para>
+ connected to?</quote>.</para>
<para>Remember, since the PPP interface is using an address on the ISP's
local network for your side of the connection, routes for any other
@@ -291,7 +291,7 @@ Local1 (10.20.30.1, 10.9.9.30) --&gt; T1-GW (10.9.9.1)
<para>There is a system (much like the distributed DNS information) that
keeps track of all assigned address-spaces, and defines their point of
- connection to the Internet Backbone. The &ldquo;Backbone&rdquo; are
+ connection to the Internet Backbone. The <quote>Backbone</quote> are
the main trunk lines that carry Internet traffic across the country,
and around the world. Each backbone machine has a copy of a master
set of tables, which direct traffic for a particular network to a
@@ -427,7 +427,7 @@ nfs_client_flags="-n 4"</programlisting>
<para>The last configuration step requires that you create a file
called <filename>/etc/exports</filename>. The exports file
specifies which file systems on your server will be shared
- (a.k.a., &ldquo;exported&rdquo;) and with what clients they will
+ (a.k.a., <quote>exported</quote>) and with what clients they will
be shared. Each line in the file specifies a file system to be
shared. There are a handful of options that can be used in this
file but I will only touch on a few of them. You can find out
@@ -557,7 +557,7 @@ nfs_client_flags="-n 4"</programlisting>
reset the client, because the NFS situation cannot be
resolved.</para>
- <para>Though the &ldquo;correct&rdquo; solution is to get a higher
+ <para>Though the <quote>correct</quote> solution is to get a higher
performance and capacity Ethernet adapter for the FreeBSD system,
there is a simple workaround that will allow satisfactory
operation. If the FreeBSD system is the
@@ -614,9 +614,9 @@ freebox:/sharedfs /project nfs rw,-w=1024 0 0</programlisting>
<para>For anyone who cares, here is what happens when the failure
occurs, which also explains why it is unrecoverable. NFS
- typically works with a &ldquo;block&rdquo; size of 8k (though it
+ typically works with a <quote>block</quote> size of 8k (though it
may do fragments of smaller sizes). Since the maximum Ethernet
- packet is around 1500 bytes, the NFS &ldquo;block&rdquo; gets
+ packet is around 1500 bytes, the NFS <quote>block</quote> gets
split into multiple Ethernet packets, even though it is still a
single unit to the upper-level code, and must be received,
assembled, and <emphasis>acknowledged</emphasis> as a unit. The
@@ -637,7 +637,7 @@ freebox:/sharedfs /project nfs rw,-w=1024 0 0</programlisting>
<para>Overruns may still occur when a high-performance workstations
is slamming data out to a PC system, but with the better cards,
- such overruns are not guaranteed on NFS &ldquo;units&rdquo;. When
+ such overruns are not guaranteed on NFS <quote>units</quote>. When
an overrun occurs, the units affected will be retransmitted, and
there will be a fair chance that they will be received, assembled,
and acknowledged.</para>
@@ -1196,9 +1196,9 @@ ISDN BRI line</programlisting>
<sect4>
<title>Choosing a NIS Domain Name</title>
- <para>This might not be the &ldquo;domainname&rdquo; that you
+ <para>This might not be the <quote>domainname</quote> that you
are used to. It is more accurately called the
- &ldquo;NIS domainname&rdquo;. When a client broadcasts its
+ <quote>NIS domainname</quote>. When a client broadcasts its
requests for info, it includes the name of the NIS domain
that it is part of. This is how multiple servers on one
network can tell which server should answer which request.
@@ -1375,7 +1375,7 @@ nis_yppasswdd_flags=""</programlisting>
<para>Setting up an NIS slave server is even more simple than
setting up the master. Again the <command>ypinit</command>
command helps out a great deal. As in the previous example
- we'll use &ldquo;test-domain&rdquo; as our target NIS
+ we'll use <quote>test-domain</quote> as our target NIS
domainname.</para>
<screen>
@@ -1478,7 +1478,7 @@ Don't forget to update map ypservers on master.example.com.</screen>
use the address of the first one to respond. From that point
on, the client system will direct all of its NIS requests to
that server. <application>Ypbind</application> will
- occasionally &ldquo;ping&rdquo; the server to make sure it is
+ occasionally <quote>ping</quote> the server to make sure it is
still up and running. If it fails to receive a reply to one of
its pings within a reasonable amount of time,
<command>ypbind</command> will mark the domain as unbound and
@@ -1549,7 +1549,7 @@ Don't forget to update map ypservers on master.example.com.</screen>
<para>This path varies depending on the path specified with the
<option>-p</option> option. This file contains entries that
consist of a network specification and a network mask separated
- by white space. Lines starting with &ldquo;#&rdquo; are
+ by white space. Lines starting with <quote>#</quote> are
considered to be comments. A sample securenets file might look
like this:</para>
</note>
@@ -1579,7 +1579,7 @@ Don't forget to update map ypservers on master.example.com.</screen>
<note>
<para>While both of these access control mechanisms provide some
security, they, like the privileged port test, are both
- vulnerable to &ldquo;IP spoofing&rdquo; attacks.</para>
+ vulnerable to <quote>IP spoofing</quote> attacks.</para>
</note>
</sect2>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml
index 4d4478454d..b6c5c3c292 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml,v 1.21 2000/05/06 10:56:51 nik Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml,v 1.22 2000/05/15 00:10:38 joe Exp $
-->
<chapter id="backups">
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@
with 6 drives and 120 tapes in a single cabinet. Tapes are changed
automatically by the unit. Library capacities reach 840+ GB.</para>
- <para>The Exabyte &ldquo;Mammoth&rdquo; model supports 12GB on one tape
+ <para>The Exabyte <quote>Mammoth</quote> model supports 12GB on one tape
(24MB with compression) and costs approximately twice as much as
conventional tape drives.</para>
@@ -327,18 +327,18 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
<sect2>
<title>Do Nothing</title>
- <para>&ldquo;Do nothing&rdquo; is not a computer program, but it is the
+ <para><quote>Do nothing</quote> is not a computer program, but it is the
most widely used backup strategy. There are no initial costs. There
is no backup schedule to follow. Just say no. If something happens
to your data, grin and bear it!</para>
<para>If your time and your data is worth little to nothing, then
- &ldquo;Do nothing&rdquo; is the most suitable backup program for your
+ <quote>Do nothing</quote> is the most suitable backup program for your
computer. But beware, Unix is a useful tool, you may find that within
six months you have a collection of files that are valuable to
you.</para>
- <para>&ldquo;Do nothing&rdquo; is the correct backup method for
+ <para><quote>Do nothing</quote> is the correct backup method for
<filename>/usr/obj</filename> and other directory trees that can be
exactly recreated by your computer. An example is the files that
comprise these handbook pages-they have been generated from
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml
index a430b5584a..65b507e785 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml,v 1.18 2000/04/25 18:31:11 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml,v 1.19 2000/05/19 07:35:46 murray Exp $
-->
<chapter id="basics">
@@ -339,7 +339,7 @@
<command>chsh</command> command. Running <command>chsh</command> will
place you into the editor that is in your <envar>EDITOR</envar>
environment variable; if it is not set, you will be placed in
- <command>vi</command>. Change the &ldquo;Shell:&rdquo; line
+ <command>vi</command>. Change the <quote>Shell:</quote> line
accordingly.</para>
<para>You can also give <command>chsh</command> the
@@ -491,7 +491,7 @@
<para><command>&prompt.user; man -k mail</command></para>
<para>With this command you will be presented with a list of
- commands that have the keyword &ldquo;mail&rdquo; in their
+ commands that have the keyword <quote>mail</quote> in their
descriptions. This is actually functionally equivalent to using
the apropos command.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml
index 8d62f217d8..44ce8ca23b 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml,v 1.20 2000/03/01 17:31:29 chris Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml,v 1.21 2000/03/11 19:38:22 nbm Exp $
-->
<appendix id="bibliography">
@@ -232,7 +232,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Wells, Bill. &ldquo;Writing Serial Drivers for UNIX&rdquo;.
+ <para>Wells, Bill. <quote>Writing Serial Drivers for UNIX</quote>.
<emphasis>Dr. Dobb's Journal</emphasis>. 19(15), December 1994.
pp68-71, 97-99.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -250,7 +250,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Jolitz, William. &ldquo;Porting UNIX to the 386&rdquo;.
+ <para>Jolitz, William. <quote>Porting UNIX to the 386</quote>.
<emphasis>Dr. Dobb's Journal</emphasis>. January 1991-July
1992.</para>
</listitem>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml
index a85ce56ffe..611d7cbf79 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml,v 1.214 2000/06/02 15:35:18 will Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml,v 1.215 2000/06/05 13:32:27 will Exp $
-->
<chapter id="contrib">
@@ -156,8 +156,8 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Make it possible to upload a list of &ldquo;allowed
- program&rdquo; to BPF, and then block BPF from accepting other
+ <para>Make it possible to upload a list of <quote>allowed
+ program</quote> to BPF, and then block BPF from accepting other
programs. This would allow BPF to be used e.g. for DHCP,
without allowing an attacker to start snooping the local
network.</para>
@@ -482,7 +482,7 @@
<para>An addition or change to the existing source code is a somewhat
trickier affair and depends a lot on how far out of date you are with
the current state of the core FreeBSD development. There is a special
- on-going release of FreeBSD known as &ldquo;FreeBSD-current&rdquo;
+ on-going release of FreeBSD known as <quote>FreeBSD-current</quote>
which is made available in a variety of ways for the convenience of
developers working actively on the system. See <link
linkend="current">Staying current with FreeBSD</link> for more
@@ -497,7 +497,7 @@
<para>Assuming that you can manage to secure fairly up-to-date sources
to base your changes on, the next step is to produce a set of diffs to
send to the FreeBSD maintainers. This is done with the &man.diff.1;
- command, with the &ldquo;context diff&rdquo; form
+ command, with the <quote>context diff</quote> form
being preferred. For example:</para>
<para>
@@ -557,7 +557,7 @@
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
<para>The BSD copyright. This copyright is most preferred due to
- its &ldquo;no strings attached&rdquo; nature and general
+ its <quote>no strings attached</quote> nature and general
attractiveness to commercial enterprises. Far from discouraging
such commercial use, the FreeBSD Project actively encourages such
participation by commercial interests who might eventually be
@@ -565,7 +565,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>The GNU Public License, or &ldquo;GPL&rdquo;. This license is
+ <para>The GNU Public License, or <quote>GPL</quote>. This license is
not quite as popular with us due to the amount of extra effort
demanded of anyone using the code for commercial purposes, but
given the sheer quantity of GPL'd code we currently require
@@ -585,7 +585,7 @@
are always encouraged to make such changes available through their own
channels.</para>
- <para>To place a &ldquo;BSD-style&rdquo; copyright on your work, include
+ <para>To place a <quote>BSD-style</quote> copyright on your work, include
the following text at the very beginning of every source code file you
wish to protect, replacing the text between the <literal>%%</literal>
with the appropriate information.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml
index ecbdd35156..009aae8860 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml,v 1.45 2000/05/22 18:13:12 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml,v 1.46 2000/06/07 23:13:33 nik Exp $
-->
<chapter id="cutting-edge">
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@
<title>Staying Current with FreeBSD</title>
<para>As you are reading this, keep in mind that -CURRENT is the
- &ldquo;bleeding edge&rdquo; of FreeBSD development and that if you
+ <quote>bleeding edge</quote> of FreeBSD development and that if you
are new to FreeBSD, you are most likely going to want to think
twice about running it.</para>
@@ -65,7 +65,7 @@
<listitem>
<para>Members of the FreeBSD group who are actively working on
some part of the source tree and for whom keeping
- &ldquo;current&rdquo; is an absolute requirement.</para>
+ <quote>current</quote> is an absolute requirement.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -101,9 +101,9 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>In any way &ldquo;officially supported&rdquo; by us.
+ <para>In any way <quote>officially supported</quote> by us.
We do our best to help people genuinely in one of the 3
- &ldquo;legitimate&rdquo; FreeBSD-CURRENT categories, but we
+ <quote>legitimate</quote> FreeBSD-CURRENT categories, but we
simply <emphasis>do not have the time</emphasis> to provide
tech support for it. This is not because we are mean and
nasty people who do not like helping people out (we would
@@ -179,7 +179,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
<listitem>
<para>Use <command>ftp</command>. The source tree for
- FreeBSD-CURRENT is always &ldquo;exported&rdquo; on:
+ FreeBSD-CURRENT is always <quote>exported</quote> on:
<ulink
url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/">ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/</ulink>.
We also use <command>wu-ftpd</command> which allows
@@ -239,9 +239,9 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
you want to be running -STABLE. This is the tree that -RELEASEs
are branched from when we are putting together a new release. For
example, if you have a copy of 3.4-RELEASE, that is really just a
- &ldquo;snapshot&rdquo; from the -STABLE branch that we put on
+ <quote>snapshot</quote> from the -STABLE branch that we put on
CDROM. In order to get any changes merged into -STABLE after the
- -RELEASE, you need to &ldquo;track&rdquo; the -STABLE
+ -RELEASE, you need to <quote>track</quote> the -STABLE
branch.</para>
<sect3>
@@ -349,7 +349,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
<listitem>
<para>Use <command>ftp</command>. The source tree for
- FreeBSD-STABLE is always &ldquo;exported&rdquo; on:
+ FreeBSD-STABLE is always <quote>exported</quote> on:
<ulink
url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/FreeBSD-stable/">ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/FreeBSD-stable/</ulink></para>
@@ -426,7 +426,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
several times a day on the master CTM machine, any detected changes
being compressed, stamped with a sequence-number and encoded for
transmission over email (in printable ASCII only). Once received,
- these &ldquo;CTM deltas&rdquo; can then be handed to the
+ these <quote>CTM deltas</quote> can then be handed to the
&man.ctm.rmail.1; utility which will automatically decode, verify
and apply the changes to the user's copy of the sources. This
process is far more efficient than <application>CVSup</application>,
@@ -440,7 +440,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
<application>CTM</application> won't do this, and if you wipe some
portion of your source tree out (and don't have it backed up) then
you will have to start from scratch (from the most recent CVS
- &ldquo;base delta&rdquo;) and rebuild it all with CTM or, with
+ <quote>base delta</quote>) and rebuild it all with CTM or, with
anoncvs, simply delete the bad bits and resync.</para>
<para>More information about <application>Anonymous CVS</application>,
@@ -511,7 +511,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
- <para>Since CVS allows one to &ldquo;check out&rdquo; virtually
+ <para>Since CVS allows one to <quote>check out</quote> virtually
any version of the FreeBSD sources that ever existed (or, in
some cases, will exist <!-- smiley -->:-), you need to be
familiar with the revision (<option>-r</option>) flag to
@@ -874,7 +874,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
<para>Each remaining line describes a set of files that the user
wishes to receive. The line begins with the name of a
- &ldquo;collection&rdquo;, a logical grouping of files defined by
+ <quote>collection</quote>, a logical grouping of files defined by
the server. The name of the collection tells the server which
files you want. After the collection name come zero or more
fields, separated by white space. These fields answer the
@@ -915,7 +915,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
<para>The files available via <application>CVSup</application>
are organized into named groups called
- &ldquo;collections&rdquo;. The collections that are
+ <quote>collections</quote>. The collections that are
available are described <link
linkend="cvsup-collec">here</link>. In this example, we
wish to receive the entire main source tree for the FreeBSD
@@ -1186,7 +1186,7 @@ cvs-crypto</programlisting>
<command>cvsup</command> maintain its status files?</para>
<para>The cvsup client maintains certain status files in what
- is called the &ldquo;base&rdquo; directory. These files
+ is called the <quote>base</quote> directory. These files
help <application>CVSup</application> to work more
efficiently, by keeping track of which updates you have
already received. We will use the standard base directory,
@@ -1274,7 +1274,7 @@ cvs-crypto</programlisting>
is of course the name of the supfile you have just created.
Assuming you are running under X11, <command>cvsup</command>
will display a GUI window with some buttons to do the usual
- things. Press the &ldquo;go&rdquo; button, and watch it
+ things. Press the <quote>go</quote> button, and watch it
run.</para>
<para>Since you are updating your actual
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml
index 4bcdeb6a17..24c97212b4 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml,v 1.17 2000/04/03 02:15:38 chris Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml,v 1.18 2000/04/30 22:10:06 nik Exp $
-->
<chapter id="disks">
@@ -521,7 +521,7 @@
system, you may use the <literal>dedicated</literal> mode. Remember
this mode can confuse Microsoft operating systems; however, no damage
will be done by them. IBM's OS/2 however, will
- &ldquo;appropriate&rdquo; any partition it finds which it doesn't
+ <quote>appropriate</quote> any partition it finds which it doesn't
understand.</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rda1 bs=1k count=1</userinput>
@@ -658,7 +658,7 @@ options QUOTA</programlisting>
line:</para>
<programlisting>
-enable_quotas=&ldquo;YES&rdquo;</programlisting>
+enable_quotas=<quote>YES</quote></programlisting>
<para>For finer control over your quota startup, there is an
additional configuration variable available. Normally on bootup,
@@ -672,14 +672,14 @@ enable_quotas=&ldquo;YES&rdquo;</programlisting>
purpose:</para>
<programlisting>
-check_quotas=&ldquo;NO&rdquo;</programlisting>
+check_quotas=<quote>NO</quote></programlisting>
<para>If you are running FreeBSD prior to 3.2-RELEASE, the
configuration is simpler, and consists of only one variable. Set
the following in your <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting>
-check_quotas=&ldquo;YES&rdquo;</programlisting>
+check_quotas=<quote>YES</quote></programlisting>
<para>Finally you will need to edit <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>
to enable disk quotas on a per-file system basis. This is where
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml
index 50ee7da00a..4a90d4b5d9 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml,v 1.42 2000/04/10 12:03:24 phantom Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml,v 1.43 2000/04/17 16:10:31 phantom Exp $
-->
<appendix id="eresources">
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@
means of following the latest developments. Electronic resources are the
best, if not often the only, way stay informed of the latest advances.
Since FreeBSD is a volunteer effort, the user community itself also
- generally serves as a &ldquo;technical support department&rdquo; of sorts,
+ generally serves as a <quote>technical support department</quote> of sorts,
with electronic mail and USENET news being the most effective way of
reaching that community.</para>
@@ -589,7 +589,7 @@ help
<para>This is the mailing list for users of freebsd-current. It
includes warnings about new features coming out in -current that
will affect the users, and instructions on steps that must be
- taken to remain -current. Anyone running &ldquo;current&rdquo;
+ taken to remain -current. Anyone running <quote>current</quote>
must subscribe to this list. This is a technical mailing list
for which strictly technical content is expected.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -620,7 +620,7 @@ help
<para>This mailing list is for the discussion of issues and
projects related to the creation of documentation for FreeBSD.
The members of this mailing list are collectively referred to as
- &ldquo;The FreeBSD Documentation Project&rdquo;. It is an open
+ <quote>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</quote>. It is an open
list; feel free to join and contribute!</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -801,10 +801,10 @@ help
<listitem>
<para><emphasis>Discussion of
- &ldquo;ports&rdquo;</emphasis></para>
+ <quote>ports</quote></emphasis></para>
- <para>Discussions concerning FreeBSD's &ldquo;ports
- collection&rdquo; (<filename>/usr/ports</filename>), proposed
+ <para>Discussions concerning FreeBSD's <quote>ports
+ collection</quote> (<filename>/usr/ports</filename>), proposed
ports, modifications to ports collection infrastructure and
general coordination efforts. This is a technical mailing list
for which strictly technical content is expected.</para>
@@ -818,7 +818,7 @@ help
<para><emphasis>User questions</emphasis></para>
<para>This is the mailing list for questions about FreeBSD. You
- should not send &ldquo;how to&rdquo; questions to the technical
+ should not send <quote>how to</quote> questions to the technical
lists unless you consider the question to be pretty
technical.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -892,7 +892,7 @@ help
<para>This is the mailing list for users of freebsd-stable. It
includes warnings about new features coming out in -stable that
will affect the users, and instructions on steps that must be
- taken to remain -stable. Anyone running &ldquo;stable&rdquo;
+ taken to remain -stable. Anyone running <quote>stable</quote>
should subscribe to this list. This is a technical mailing list
for which strictly technical content is expected.</para>
</listitem>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml
index 834fd1ec8a..b2f9347a91 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml,v 1.30 2000/01/20 11:29:05 nbm Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml,v 1.31 2000/04/02 19:38:11 chris Exp $
-->
<appendix id="hw">
@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@
<para>I have had fairly good luck building workstation and server
configurations with the following components. I can't guarantee that
you will too, nor that any of the companies here will remain
- &ldquo;best buys&rdquo; forever. I will try, when I can, to keep this
+ <quote>best buys</quote> forever. I will try, when I can, to keep this
list up-to-date but cannot obviously guarantee that it will be at any
given time.</para>
@@ -138,8 +138,8 @@
<title>Disk drives</title>
<para>In this particular game of Russian roulette, I'll make few
- specific recommendations except to say &ldquo;SCSI over IDE whenever
- you can afford it.&rdquo; Even in small desktop configurations, SCSI
+ specific recommendations except to say <quote>SCSI over IDE whenever
+ you can afford it.</quote> Even in small desktop configurations, SCSI
often makes more sense since it allows you to easily migrate drives
from server to desktop as falling drive prices make it economical to
do so. If you have more than one machine to administer then think
@@ -395,8 +395,8 @@
masters, special hardware design to replace the PCI bus
arbiter (appears on Intel Altair board and several other Intel
server group MB's). And of course Intel's official answer,
- move to the Triton chip set, we &ldquo;fixed it
- there&rdquo;.</para>
+ move to the Triton chip set, we <quote>fixed it
+ there</quote>.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -499,8 +499,8 @@
<para>Pentium class machines use different clock speeds for the
various parts of the system. These being the speed of the CPU,
external memory bus, and the PCI bus. It is not always true that
- a &ldquo;faster&rdquo; processor will make a system faster than a
- &ldquo;slower&rdquo; one, due to the various clock speeds used.
+ a <quote>faster</quote> processor will make a system faster than a
+ <quote>slower</quote> one, due to the various clock speeds used.
Below is a table showing the differences:</para>
<informaltable frame="none">
@@ -634,7 +634,7 @@
<para>In 1997, there have been reports of the AMD K6 seg faulting
during heavy compilation. That problem has been fixed in 3Q '97.
- According to reports, K6 chips with date mark &ldquo;9733&rdquo;
+ According to reports, K6 chips with date mark <quote>9733</quote>
or larger (i.e., manufactured in the 33rd week of '97 or later) do
not have this bug.</para>
</sect4>
@@ -737,7 +737,7 @@
<para>Synchronous serial transmission requires that the sender and
receiver share a clock with one another, or that the sender
provide a strobe or other timing signal so that the receiver knows
- when to &ldquo;read&rdquo; the next bit of the data. In most
+ when to <quote>read</quote> the next bit of the data. In most
forms of serial Synchronous communication, if there is no data
available at a given instant to transmit, a fill character must be
sent instead so that data is always being transmitted.
@@ -785,7 +785,7 @@
are sent, with the Least Significant Bit (LSB) being sent first.
Each bit in the transmission is transmitted for exactly the same
amount of time as all of the other bits, and the receiver
- &ldquo;looks&rdquo; at the wire at approximately halfway through
+ <quote>looks</quote> at the wire at approximately halfway through
the period assigned to each bit to determine if the bit is a
<literal>1</literal> or a <literal>0</literal>. For example, if
it takes two seconds to send each bit, the receiver will examine
@@ -795,7 +795,7 @@
so on.</para>
<para>The sender does not know when the receiver has
- &ldquo;looked&rdquo; at the value of the bit. The sender only
+ <quote>looked</quote> at the value of the bit. The sender only
knows when the clock says to begin transmitting the next bit of
the word.</para>
@@ -823,7 +823,7 @@
the new word can be sent as soon as the Stop Bit for the previous
word has been sent.</para>
- <para>Because asynchronous data is &ldquo;self synchronizing&rdquo;,
+ <para>Because asynchronous data is <quote>self synchronizing</quote>,
if there is no data to transmit, the transmission line can be
idle.</para>
</sect4>
@@ -859,7 +859,7 @@
<para>In RS232-C, a value of <literal>1</literal> is called a
<literal>Mark</literal> and a value of <literal>0</literal> is
called a <literal>Space</literal>. When a communication line is
- idle, the line is said to be &ldquo;Marking&rdquo;, or
+ idle, the line is said to be <quote>Marking</quote>, or
transmitting continuous <literal>1</literal> values.</para>
<para>The Start bit always has a value of <literal>0</literal> (a
@@ -921,8 +921,8 @@
sometimes is accepted as a substitute for the ASCII CONTROL-C
character.</para>
- <para>Marks and Spaces are also equivalent to &ldquo;Holes&rdquo;
- and &ldquo;No Holes&rdquo; in paper tape systems.</para>
+ <para>Marks and Spaces are also equivalent to <quote>Holes</quote>
+ and <quote>No Holes</quote> in paper tape systems.</para>
<note>
<para>Breaks cannot be generated from paper tape or from any
@@ -1412,7 +1412,7 @@ INS8250 -&gt; INS8250B
<para>An improved version of the INS8250 using XMOS
technology with various functional flaws corrected. The
INS8250A was used initially in PC clone computers by
- vendors who used &ldquo;clean&rdquo; BIOS designs. Because
+ vendors who used <quote>clean</quote> BIOS designs. Because
of the corrections in the chip, this part could not be
used with a BIOS compatible with the INS8250 or
INS8250B.</para>
@@ -1563,7 +1563,7 @@ INS8250 -&gt; INS8250B
<para>The <replaceable>g</replaceable> is the product grade field.
If an <literal>I</literal> precedes the package-type letter, it
- indicates an &ldquo;industrial&rdquo; grade part, which has
+ indicates an <quote>industrial</quote> grade part, which has
higher specs than a standard part but not as high as Military
Specification (Milspec) component. This is an optional
field.</para>
@@ -1579,7 +1579,7 @@ INS8250 -&gt; INS8250B
<para>Over the years, the 8250, 8250A, 16450 and 16550 have been
licensed or copied by other chip vendors. In the case of the
8250, 8250A and 16450, the exact circuit (the
- &ldquo;megacell&rdquo;) was licensed to many vendors, including
+ <quote>megacell</quote>) was licensed to many vendors, including
Western Digital and Intel. Other vendors reverse-engineered the
part or produced emulations that had similar behavior.</para>
@@ -1600,7 +1600,7 @@ INS8250 -&gt; INS8250B
by this action.</para>
<para>A common misconception is that all parts with
- &ldquo;16550A&rdquo; written on them are identical in performance.
+ <quote>16550A</quote> written on them are identical in performance.
There are differences, and in some cases, outright flaws in most
of these 16550A clones.</para>
@@ -2574,7 +2574,7 @@ INS8250 -&gt; INS8250B
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
- <para>In addition to these &ldquo;dumb&rdquo; UARTs, many vendors
+ <para>In addition to these <quote>dumb</quote> UARTs, many vendors
produce intelligent serial communication boards. This type of
design usually provides a microprocessor that interfaces with
several UARTs, processes and buffers the data, and then alerts the
@@ -2829,7 +2829,7 @@ IRQ 2 3 4 5</programlisting>
handcrafted wire-made jumper covering all three connection points
in the IRQ 3 column would solve the issue, but no. You cannot
duplicate IRQ 3 because the output drivers of each UART are wired
- in a &ldquo;totem pole&rdquo; fashion, so if one of the UARTs
+ in a <quote>totem pole</quote> fashion, so if one of the UARTs
drives IRQ 3, the output signal will not be what you would expect.
Depending on the implementation of the extension board or your
motherboard, the IRQ 3 line will continuously stay up, or always
@@ -2891,7 +2891,7 @@ sio2 at 0x3e8-0x3ef irq 3 flags 0x205 on isa
sio2: type 16550A (multiport master)</screen>
<para>Though <filename>/sys/i386/isa/sio.c</filename> is somewhat
- cryptic with its use of the &ldquo;irq maps&rdquo; array above,
+ cryptic with its use of the <quote>irq maps</quote> array above,
the basic idea is that you observe <literal>0x1</literal> in the
first, third, and fourth place. This means that the corresponding
IRQ was set upon output and cleared after, which is just what we
@@ -3955,7 +3955,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
bus.</emphasis> So, two and not one or three or whatever. Do
yourself a favor and stick to this rule. It will save you endless
grief, because wrong termination has the potential to introduce
- highly mysterious bugs. (Note the &ldquo;potential&rdquo; here;
+ highly mysterious bugs. (Note the <quote>potential</quote> here;
the nastiest part is that it may or may not work.)</para>
<para>A common pitfall is to have an internal (flat) cable in a
@@ -4086,7 +4086,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
connector). Don't do that. It may appear to work if you are
really lucky, but I can almost guarantee that your system will
stop functioning at the most unfortunate moment (this is also
- known as &ldquo;Murphy's law&rdquo;).</para>
+ known as <quote>Murphy's law</quote>).</para>
<para>You might notice that the terminator issue discussed earlier
becomes rather hairy if your bus is not linear. Also, if you have
@@ -4170,7 +4170,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
partitions. Using fdisk you should be able to see all
partitions.</para>
- <para>You might have heard some talk of &ldquo;lying&rdquo; devices?
+ <para>You might have heard some talk of <quote>lying</quote> devices?
Older FreeBSD kernels used to report the geometry of SCSI disks
when booting. An example from one of my systems:</para>
@@ -4297,10 +4297,10 @@ device cd0 at scbus? [the first ever CD-ROM found, no wiring]
them when they match the target ID and LUN specified on the
corresponding bus.</para>
- <para>Wired down devices get &ldquo;first shot&rdquo; at the unit
- numbers so the first non &ldquo;wired down&rdquo; device, is
+ <para>Wired down devices get <quote>first shot</quote> at the unit
+ numbers so the first non <quote>wired down</quote> device, is
allocated the unit number one greater than the highest
- &ldquo;wired down&rdquo; unit number for that kind of device. So,
+ <quote>wired down</quote> unit number for that kind of device. So,
if you had a SCSI tape at target ID 2 it would be configured as
st2, as the tape at target ID 6 is wired down to unit number
1.</para>
@@ -4317,8 +4317,8 @@ device cd0 at scbus? [the first ever CD-ROM found, no wiring]
<para>Below is another example of a kernel config file as used by
FreeBSD version &lt; 2.0.5. The difference with the first example
- is that devices are not &ldquo;wired down&rdquo;. &ldquo;Wired
- down&rdquo; means that you specify which SCSI target belongs to
+ is that devices are not <quote>wired down</quote>. <quote>Wired
+ down</quote> means that you specify which SCSI target belongs to
which device.</para>
<para>A kernel built to the config file below will attach the first
@@ -4356,8 +4356,8 @@ device cd0 #Only need one of these, the code dynamically grows</pro
of a specific type (e.g. sd disks) are found than are configured
in the booting kernel, the system will simply allocate more
devices, incrementing the unit number starting at the last number
- &ldquo;wired down&rdquo;. If there are no &ldquo;wired
- down&rdquo; devices then counting starts at unit 0.</para>
+ <quote>wired down</quote>. If there are no <quote>wired
+ down</quote> devices then counting starts at unit 0.</para>
<para>Use <command>man 4 scsi</command> to check for the latest info
on the SCSI subsystem. For more detailed info on host adapter
@@ -4397,7 +4397,7 @@ options SCSI_DELAY=15 #Be pessimistic about Joe SCSI device</pro
it is a complex standard and implementing things correctly is no
easy task. Some vendors do a better job then others.</para>
- <para>This is exactly where the &ldquo;rogue&rdquo; devices come
+ <para>This is exactly where the <quote>rogue</quote> devices come
into view. Rogues are devices that are recognized by the FreeBSD
kernel as behaving slightly (...) non-standard. Rogue devices are
reported by the kernel when booting. An example for two of my
@@ -4486,14 +4486,14 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: st1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
function is indispensable to take advantage of the device's
inherent parallelism.</para>
- <para>Each I/O request is uniquely identified by a &ldquo;tag&rdquo;
+ <para>Each I/O request is uniquely identified by a <quote>tag</quote>
(hence the name tagged command queuing) and this tag is used by
FreeBSD to see which I/O in the device drivers queue is reported
as complete by the device.</para>
<para>It should be noted however that TCQ requires device driver
- support and that some devices implemented it &ldquo;not quite
- right&rdquo; in their firmware. This problem bit me once, and it
+ support and that some devices implemented it <quote>not quite
+ right</quote> in their firmware. This problem bit me once, and it
leads to highly mysterious problems. In such cases, try to
disable TCQ.</para>
</sect4>
@@ -4667,41 +4667,41 @@ options "TUNE_1542" #dynamic tune of bus DMA speed</programli
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>&ldquo;SCSI: Understanding the Small Computer System
- Interface&rdquo;, written by NCR Corporation. Available from:
+ <para><quote>SCSI: Understanding the Small Computer System
+ Interface</quote>, written by NCR Corporation. Available from:
Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 07632 Phone: (201) 767-5937
ISBN 0-13-796855-8</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>&ldquo;Basics of SCSI&rdquo;, a SCSI tutorial written by
+ <para><quote>Basics of SCSI</quote>, a SCSI tutorial written by
Ancot Corporation Contact Ancot for availability information at:
Phone: (415) 322-5322 Fax: (415) 322-0455</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>&ldquo;SCSI Interconnection Guide Book&rdquo;, an AMP
+ <para><quote>SCSI Interconnection Guide Book</quote>, an AMP
publication (dated 4/93, Catalog 65237) that lists the various
SCSI connectors and suggests cabling schemes. Available from
AMP at (800) 522-6752 or (717) 564-0100</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>&ldquo;Fast Track to SCSI&rdquo;, A Product Guide written by
+ <para><quote>Fast Track to SCSI</quote>, A Product Guide written by
Fujitsu. Available from: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,
07632 Phone: (201) 767-5937 ISBN 0-13-307000-X</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>&ldquo;The SCSI Bench Reference&rdquo;, &ldquo;The SCSI
- Encyclopedia&rdquo;, and the &ldquo;SCSI Tutor&rdquo;, ENDL
+ <para><quote>The SCSI Bench Reference</quote>, <quote>The SCSI
+ Encyclopedia</quote>, and the <quote>SCSI Tutor</quote>, ENDL
Publications, 14426 Black Walnut Court, Saratoga CA, 95070
Phone: (408) 867-6642</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>&ldquo;Zadian SCSI Navigator&rdquo; (quick ref. book) and
- &ldquo;Discover the Power of SCSI&rdquo; (First book along with
+ <para><quote>Zadian SCSI Navigator</quote> (quick ref. book) and
+ <quote>Discover the Power of SCSI</quote> (First book along with
a one-hour video and tutorial book), Zadian Software, Suite 214,
1210 S. Bascom Ave., San Jose, CA 92128, (408) 293-0800</para>
</listitem>
@@ -4776,8 +4776,8 @@ options "TUNE_1542" #dynamic tune of bus DMA speed</programli
can deliver much more bits per rotation than older ones. Today's
top-of-line 5,400RPM drives can sustain a throughput comparable to
7,200RPM drives of one or two model generations ago. The number
- to find on the spec sheet for bandwidth is &ldquo;internal data
- (or transfer) rate&rdquo;. It is usually in megabits/sec so
+ to find on the spec sheet for bandwidth is <quote>internal data
+ (or transfer) rate</quote>. It is usually in megabits/sec so
divide it by 8 and you'll get the rough approximation of how much
megabytes/sec you can get out of the drive.</para>
@@ -4825,8 +4825,8 @@ options "TUNE_1542" #dynamic tune of bus DMA speed</programli
<title>Form factor</title>
<para>Most SCSI drives sold today are of 3.5" form factor. They
- come in two different heights; 1.6" (&ldquo;half-height&rdquo;) or
- 1" (&ldquo;low-profile&rdquo;). The half-height drive is the same
+ come in two different heights; 1.6" (<quote>half-height</quote>) or
+ 1" (<quote>low-profile</quote>). The half-height drive is the same
height as a CD-ROM drive. However, don't forget the spacing rule
mentioned in the previous section. If you have three standard
3.5" drive bays, you will not be able to put three half-height
@@ -4848,7 +4848,7 @@ options "TUNE_1542" #dynamic tune of bus DMA speed</programli
<para>On the other hand, if you need to connect many drives, going
for Fast-wide SCSI may not be a bad idea. That will have the same
max bandwidth as Ultra (narrow) SCSI, while electronically it's
- much easier to get it &ldquo;right&rdquo;. My advice would be: if
+ much easier to get it <quote>right</quote>. My advice would be: if
you want to connect many disks, get wide SCSI drives; they usually
cost a little more but it may save you down the road. (Besides,
if you can't afford the cost difference, you shouldn't be building
@@ -4861,7 +4861,7 @@ options "TUNE_1542" #dynamic tune of bus DMA speed</programli
building a large storage system, get SCA drives and a good SCA
enclosure (dual power supply with at least one extra fan). They
are more electronically sound than 68-pin counterparts because
- there is no &ldquo;stub&rdquo; of the SCSI bus inside the disk
+ there is no <quote>stub</quote> of the SCSI bus inside the disk
canister as in arrays built from 68-pin drives. They are easier
to install too (you just need to screw the drive in the canister,
instead of trying to squeeze in your fingers in a tight place to
@@ -5056,7 +5056,7 @@ options "TUNE_1542" #dynamic tune of bus DMA speed</programli
<para>If you have a SCSI-2 controller, short jumper 6. Otherwise,
the drive behaves are a SCSI-1 device. When operating as a SCSI-1
- device, this drive, &ldquo;locks&rdquo; the SCSI bus during some
+ device, this drive, <quote>locks</quote> the SCSI bus during some
tape operations, including: fsf, rewind, and rewoffl.</para>
<para>If you are using the NCR SCSI controllers, patch the file
@@ -5777,7 +5777,7 @@ scsi -f $2 -s 100 -c "1b 0 0 $cdb3 $cdb4 $cdb5"</programlisting>
not write 60MB (DC600 cartridge) tapes. In order to overwrite 120
and 150 tapes reliably, first erase (<command>mt erase</command>)
the tape. 120 and 150 tapes used a wider track (fewer tracks per
- tape) than 525MB tapes. The &ldquo;extra&rdquo; width of the
+ tape) than 525MB tapes. The <quote>extra</quote> width of the
previous tracks is not overwritten, as a result the new data lies
in a band surrounded on both sides by the previous data unless the
tape have been erased.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml
index 8634d0a3cf..2f2e9adbdd 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml,v 1.40 2000/05/17 02:24:40 chris Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml,v 1.41 2000/05/22 18:44:10 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="install">
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@
supported by FreeBSD. The list of <link
linkend="install-hw">supported hardware</link> should
come in handy here. ;-) It would also be a good idea to make a
- list of any &ldquo;special&rdquo; cards you have installed,
+ list of any <quote>special</quote> cards you have installed,
such as SCSI controllers, ethernet cards, sound cards, etc..
The list should include their IRQs and IO port addresses.</para>
@@ -200,7 +200,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<para>Anyone with network connectivity to your machine can now
chose a media type of FTP and type in
<userinput>ftp://<replaceable>your machine</replaceable></userinput>
- after picking &ldquo;Other&rdquo; in the FTP sites menu during
+ after picking <quote>Other</quote> in the FTP sites menu during
the install.</para>
<note><para>If you choose to enable anonymous FTP during the
@@ -263,7 +263,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<filename>a:\bin\bin.ab</filename>, and so on.</para>
<para>Once you come to the Media screen during the install
- process, select &ldquo;Floppy&rdquo; and you will be prompted
+ process, select <quote>Floppy</quote> and you will be prompted
for the rest.</para>
</sect3>
@@ -357,7 +357,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<command>dial</command> at the
<application>ppp</application> prompt. Otherwise,
you will need to know
- how to dial your ISP using the &ldquo;AT commands&rdquo;
+ how to dial your ISP using the <quote>AT commands</quote>
specific to your modem, as the PPP dialer provides only a very
simple terminal emulator. Please
to the user-ppp <link linkend="userppp">handbook</link> and <ulink
@@ -368,7 +368,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<para>If a hard-wired connection to another FreeBSD (2.0-R or
later) machine is available, you might also consider installing
- over a &ldquo;laplink&rdquo; parallel port cable. The data rate
+ over a <quote>laplink</quote> parallel port cable. The data rate
over the parallel port is much higher than what is typically
possible over a serial line (up to 50kbytes/sec), thus resulting
in a quicker installation.</para>
@@ -404,7 +404,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
copy the FreeBSD distribution files you want onto a server
somewhere and then point the NFS media selection at it.</para>
- <para>If this server supports only &ldquo;privileged port&rdquo;
+ <para>If this server supports only <quote>privileged port</quote>
(as is generally the default for Sun workstations), you will
need to set this option in the Options menu before
installation can proceed.</para>
@@ -425,7 +425,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<para>In FreeBSD's <filename>/etc/exports</filename> file, this
is controlled by the <option>-alldirs</option>. Other NFS
servers may have different conventions. If you are getting
- &ldquo;permission denied&rdquo; messages from the server, then
+ <quote>permission denied</quote> messages from the server, then
it is likely that you do not have this enabled
properly.</para>
</sect4>
@@ -441,7 +441,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<para>If you are installing from an FTP site not listed in this
menu, or are having trouble getting your name server
configured properly, you can also specify a URL to use by
- selecting the choice labeled &ldquo;Other&rdquo; in that menu.
+ selecting the choice labeled <quote>Other</quote> in that menu.
You can also use the IP address of a machine you wish to
install from, so the following would work in the absence of a
name server:</para>
@@ -457,7 +457,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<listitem>
<para>This option will make all FTP transfers
- use &ldquo;Active&rdquo;
+ use <quote>Active</quote>
mode. This will not work through firewalls, but will
often work with older FTP servers that do not support
passive mode. If your connection hangs with passive
@@ -470,7 +470,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<listitem>
<para>This option instructs FreeBSD to use
- &ldquo;Passive&rdquo; mode for all FTP operations.
+ <quote>Passive</quote> mode for all FTP operations.
This allows the user to pass through firewalls
that do not allow incoming connections on random port
addresses.</para>
@@ -480,14 +480,14 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<note>
<para>Active and passive modes are not the same as a
- &ldquo;proxy&rdquo; connection, where a proxy FTP server is
+ <quote>proxy</quote> connection, where a proxy FTP server is
listening and forwarding FTP requests!</para>
</note>
<para>For a proxy FTP server, you should usually give the name
of the server you really want as a part of the username, after
- an &ldquo;@&rdquo; sign. The proxy server then
- &ldquo;fakes&rdquo; the real server. For example, assuming
+ an <quote>@</quote> sign. The proxy server then
+ <quote>fakes</quote> the real server. For example, assuming
you want to install from <hostid
role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid>, using the proxy FTP
server <hostid role="fqdn">foo.bar.com</hostid>, listening on
@@ -539,12 +539,12 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
to be the most confusing or most lacking. Send your comments to
the &a.doc;. It is the objective of the installation program
(sysinstall) to be self-documenting enough that painful
- &ldquo;step-by-step&rdquo; guides are no longer necessary. It may
+ <quote>step-by-step</quote> guides are no longer necessary. It may
take us a little while to reach that objective, but nonetheless,
it is still our objective :-)</para>
- <para>Meanwhile, you may also find the following &ldquo;typical
- installation sequence&rdquo; to be helpful:</para>
+ <para>Meanwhile, you may also find the following <quote>typical
+ installation sequence</quote> to be helpful:</para>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
@@ -676,24 +676,24 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>BusLogic MultiMaster &ldquo;W&rdquo; Series Host Adapters
+ <para>BusLogic MultiMaster <quote>W</quote> Series Host Adapters
including BT-948, BT-958, BT-9580</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>BusLogic MultiMaster &ldquo;C&rdquo; Series Host Adapters
+ <para>BusLogic MultiMaster <quote>C</quote> Series Host Adapters
including BT-946C, BT-956C, BT-956CD, BT-445C, BT-747C,
BT-757C, BT-757CD, BT-545C, BT-540CF</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>BusLogic MultiMaster &ldquo;S&rdquo; Series Host Adapters
+ <para>BusLogic MultiMaster <quote>S</quote> Series Host Adapters
including BT-445S, BT-747S, BT-747D, BT-757S, BT-757D,
BT-545S, BT-542D, BT-742A, BT-542B</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>BusLogic MultiMaster &ldquo;A&rdquo; Series Host Adapters
+ <para>BusLogic MultiMaster <quote>A</quote> Series Host Adapters
including BT-742A, BT-542B</para>
</listitem>
@@ -702,7 +702,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
MultiMaster clones are also supported.</para>
<note>
- <para>BusLogic/Mylex &ldquo;Flashpoint&rdquo; adapters are NOT
+ <para>BusLogic/Mylex <quote>Flashpoint</quote> adapters are NOT
yet supported.</para>
</note>
</listitem>
@@ -778,7 +778,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>NCR5380/NCR53400 (&ldquo;ProAudio Spectrum&rdquo;) SCSI
+ <para>NCR5380/NCR53400 (<quote>ProAudio Spectrum</quote>) SCSI
controller</para>
</listitem>
@@ -908,7 +908,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Accton &ldquo;Cheetah&rdquo; EN1027D (MPX 5030/5038;
+ <para>Accton <quote>Cheetah</quote> EN1027D (MPX 5030/5038;
RealTek 8139 clone?)</para>
</listitem>
@@ -943,8 +943,8 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>VIA Technologies VT3043 &ldquo;Rhine I&rdquo; and
- VT86C100A &ldquo;Rhine II&rdquo; fast ethernet NICs including
+ <para>VIA Technologies VT3043 <quote>Rhine I</quote> and
+ VT86C100A <quote>Rhine II</quote> fast ethernet NICs including
the Hawking Technologies PN102TX and D-Link DFE-530TX</para>
</listitem>
@@ -1333,7 +1333,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Teles S0/16.3 (the &ldquo;c&rdquo; Versions - like 16.3c
+ <para>Teles S0/16.3 (the <quote>c</quote> Versions - like 16.3c
- are unsupported!)</para>
</listitem>
@@ -1405,7 +1405,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<listitem>
<para>Specialix SI/XIO/SX multiport serial cards, with both the
- older SIHOST2.x and the new &ldquo;enhanced&rdquo;
+ older SIHOST2.x and the new <quote>enhanced</quote>
(transputer based, aka JET) host cards; ISA, EISA and PCI are
supported</para>
</listitem>
@@ -1639,7 +1639,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<answer>
<para>Yes. DOS extended partitions are mapped in at the end
- of the other &ldquo;slices&rdquo; in FreeBSD, e.g., your
+ of the other <quote>slices</quote> in FreeBSD, e.g., your
<devicename>D:</devicename> drive might be
<filename>/dev/da0s5</filename>, your
<devicename>E:</devicename> drive,
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml
index 03e088addb..32d77bdbe4 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml,v 1.26 2000/01/31 19:22:16 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml,v 1.27 2000/04/06 20:28:35 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="introduction">
@@ -164,7 +164,7 @@
<listitem>
<para>Demand paged <emphasis>virtual memory</emphasis> and
- &ldquo;merged VM/buffer cache&rdquo; design efficiently
+ <quote>merged VM/buffer cache</quote> design efficiently
satisfies applications with large appetites for memory while
still maintaining interactive response to other users.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -247,7 +247,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Firewalls and NAT (&ldquo;IP masquerading&rdquo;)
+ <para>Firewalls and NAT (<quote>IP masquerading</quote>)
gateways.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -308,7 +308,7 @@
excellent commercial servers provided by X Inside. Unlike an
X terminal, FreeBSD allows many applications to be run
locally, if desired, thus relieving the burden on a central
- server. FreeBSD can even boot &ldquo;diskless&rdquo;, making
+ server. FreeBSD can even boot <quote>diskless</quote>, making
individual workstations even cheaper and easier to
administer.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -340,15 +340,15 @@
<para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.jkh;</emphasis>.</para>
<para>The FreeBSD project had its genesis in the early part of 1993,
- partially as an outgrowth of the &ldquo;Unofficial 386BSD
- Patchkit&rdquo; by the patchkit's last 3 coordinators: Nate
+ partially as an outgrowth of the <quote>Unofficial 386BSD
+ Patchkit</quote> by the patchkit's last 3 coordinators: Nate
Williams, Rod Grimes and myself.</para>
<para>Our original goal was to produce an intermediate snapshot of
386BSD in order to fix a number of problems with it that the
patchkit mechanism just was not capable of solving. Some of you
may remember the early working title for the project being
- &ldquo;386BSD 0.5&rdquo; or &ldquo;386BSD Interim&rdquo; in
+ <quote>386BSD 0.5</quote> or <quote>386BSD Interim</quote> in
reference to that fact.</para>
<para>386BSD was Bill Jolitz's operating system, which had been up
@@ -356,14 +356,14 @@
of neglect. As the patchkit swelled ever more uncomfortably with
each passing day, we were in unanimous agreement that something
had to be done and decided to try and assist Bill by providing
- this interim &ldquo;cleanup&rdquo; snapshot. Those plans came to
+ this interim <quote>cleanup</quote> snapshot. Those plans came to
a rude halt when Bill Jolitz suddenly decided to withdraw his
sanction from the project without any clear indication of what
would be done instead.</para>
<para>It did not take us long to decide that the goal remained
worthwhile, even without Bill's support, and so we adopted the
- name &ldquo;FreeBSD&rdquo;, coined by David Greenman. Our initial
+ name <quote>FreeBSD</quote>, coined by David Greenman. Our initial
objectives were set after consulting with the system's current
users and, once it became clear that the project was on the road
to perhaps even becoming a reality, I contacted Walnut Creek CDROM
@@ -378,7 +378,7 @@
<para>The first CDROM (and general net-wide) distribution was
FreeBSD 1.0, released in December of 1993. This was based on the
- 4.3BSD-Lite (&ldquo;Net/2&rdquo;) tape from U.C. Berkeley, with
+ 4.3BSD-Lite (<quote>Net/2</quote>) tape from U.C. Berkeley, with
many components also provided by 386BSD and the Free Software
Foundation. It was a fairly reasonable success for a first
offering, and we followed it with the highly successful FreeBSD
@@ -388,10 +388,10 @@
on the horizon as Novell and U.C. Berkeley settled their
long-running lawsuit over the legal status of the Berkeley Net/2
tape. A condition of that settlement was U.C. Berkeley's
- concession that large parts of Net/2 were &ldquo;encumbered&rdquo;
+ concession that large parts of Net/2 were <quote>encumbered</quote>
code and the property of Novell, who had in turn acquired it from
AT&amp;T some time previously. What Berkeley got in return was
- Novell's &ldquo;blessing&rdquo; that the 4.4BSD-Lite release, when
+ Novell's <quote>blessing</quote> that the 4.4BSD-Lite release, when
it was finally released, would be declared unencumbered and all
existing Net/2 users would be strongly encouraged to switch. This
included FreeBSD, and the project was given until the end of July
@@ -401,7 +401,7 @@
<para>FreeBSD then set about the arduous task of literally
re-inventing itself from a completely new and rather incomplete
- set of 4.4BSD-Lite bits. The &ldquo;Lite&rdquo; releases were
+ set of 4.4BSD-Lite bits. The <quote>Lite</quote> releases were
light in part because Berkeley's CSRG had removed large chunks of
code required for actually constructing a bootable running system
(due to various legal requirements) and the fact that the Intel
@@ -422,7 +422,7 @@
done on this branch (RELENG_2_1_0).</para>
<para>FreeBSD 2.2 was branched from the development mainline
- (&ldquo;-CURRENT&rdquo;) in November 1996 as the RELENG_2_2
+ (<quote>-CURRENT</quote>) in November 1996 as the RELENG_2_2
branch, and the first full release (2.2.1) was released in April
1997. Further releases along the 2.2 branch were done in the
summer and fall of '97, the last of which (2.2.8) appeared in
@@ -456,7 +456,7 @@
us have a significant investment in the code (and project) and
would certainly not mind a little financial compensation now and
then, but we are definitely not prepared to insist on it. We
- believe that our first and foremost &ldquo;mission&rdquo; is to
+ believe that our first and foremost <quote>mission</quote> is to
provide code to any and all comers, and for whatever purpose, so
that the code gets the widest possible use and provides the widest
possible benefit. This is, I believe, one of the most fundamental
@@ -523,7 +523,7 @@
<para>The <link linkend="staff-committers">committers</link>
are the people who have <emphasis>write</emphasis> access to
the CVS tree, and are thus authorized to make modifications
- to the FreeBSD source (the term &ldquo;committer&rdquo;
+ to the FreeBSD source (the term <quote>committer</quote>
comes from the &man.cvs.1; <command>commit</command>
command, which is used to bring new changes into the CVS
repository). The best way of making submissions for review
@@ -557,9 +557,9 @@
<note>
<para>Most members of the core team are volunteers when it
comes to FreeBSD development and do not benefit from the
- project financially, so &ldquo;commitment&rdquo; should
- also not be misconstrued as meaning &ldquo;guaranteed
- support.&rdquo; The &ldquo;board of directors&rdquo;
+ project financially, so <quote>commitment</quote> should
+ also not be misconstrued as meaning <quote>guaranteed
+ support.</quote> The <quote>board of directors</quote>
analogy above is not actually very accurate, and it may be
more suitable to say that these are the people who gave up
their lives in favor of FreeBSD against their better
@@ -642,7 +642,7 @@
list of ports ranges from http (WWW) servers, to games, languages,
editors and almost everything in between. The entire ports
collection requires approximately 50MB of storage, all ports being
- expressed as &ldquo;deltas&rdquo; to their original sources. This
+ expressed as <quote>deltas</quote> to their original sources. This
makes it much easier for us to update ports, and greatly reduces
the disk space demands made by the older 1.0 ports collection. To
compile a port, you simply change to the directory of the program
@@ -651,7 +651,7 @@
port you build is retrieved dynamically off the CDROM or a local FTP
site, so you need only enough disk space to build the ports you
want. Almost every port is also provided as a pre-compiled
- &ldquo;package&rdquo;, which can be installed with a simple command
+ <quote>package</quote>, which can be installed with a simple command
(pkg_add) by those who do not wish to compile their own ports from
source.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml
index 343b18cfaa..2ada01d765 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml,v 1.24 2000/03/07 13:26:44 nik Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml,v 1.25 2000/04/06 00:07:13 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="kernelconfig">
@@ -112,7 +112,7 @@
will probably be <command>vi</command>, which is too complex to
explain here, but is covered well in many books in the <link
linkend="bibliography">bibliography</link>. However, FreeBSD does
- offer an easier editor called &ldquo;ee&rdquo; which, if you are a
+ offer an easier editor called <quote>ee</quote> which, if you are a
beginner, should be your editor of choice. Feel free to change the
comment lines at the top to reflect your configuration or the
changes you have made to differentiate it from
@@ -394,7 +394,7 @@ options CD9660_ROOT #CD-ROM usable as root, CD9660 required</programli
<programlisting>
options PROCFS #Process filesystem</programlisting>
- <para>The process filesystem. This is a &ldquo;pretend&rdquo;
+ <para>The process filesystem. This is a <quote>pretend</quote>
filesystem mounted on <filename>/proc</filename> which allows
programs like &man.ps.1; to give you more information on what
processes are running.</para>
@@ -767,7 +767,7 @@ device plip # TCP/IP over parallel</programlisting>
<programlisting>
device ppi # Parallel port interface device</programlisting>
- <para>The general-purpose I/O (&ldquo;geek port&rdquo;) + IEEE1284
+ <para>The general-purpose I/O (<quote>geek port</quote>) + IEEE1284
I/O.</para>
<programlisting>
@@ -779,11 +779,11 @@ device ppi # Parallel port interface device</programlisting>
<programlisting>
# PCI Ethernet NICs.
-device de # DEC/Intel DC21x4x (&ldquo;Tulip&rdquo;)
+device de # DEC/Intel DC21x4x (<quote>Tulip</quote>)
device fxp # Intel EtherExpress PRO/100B (82557, 82558)
-device tx # SMC 9432TX (83c170 &ldquo;EPIC&rdquo;)
-device vx # 3Com 3c590, 3c595 (&ldquo;Vortex&rdquo;)
-device wx # Intel Gigabit Ethernet Card (&ldquo;Wiseman&rdquo;)</programlisting>
+device tx # SMC 9432TX (83c170 <quote>EPIC</quote>)
+device vx # 3Com 3c590, 3c595 (<quote>Vortex</quote>)
+device wx # Intel Gigabit Ethernet Card (<quote>Wiseman</quote>)</programlisting>
<para>Various PCI network card drivers. Comment out or remove any of
these not present in your system.</para>
@@ -803,13 +803,13 @@ device miibus # MII bus support</programlisting>
<programlisting>
device dc # DEC/Intel 21143 and various workalikes
device rl # RealTek 8129/8139
-device sf # Adaptec AIC-6915 (&ldquo;Starfire&rdquo;)
+device sf # Adaptec AIC-6915 (<quote>Starfire</quote>)
device sis # Silicon Integrated Systems SiS 900/SiS 7016
device ste # Sundance ST201 (D-Link DFE-550TX)
device tl # Texas Instruments ThunderLAN
device vr # VIA Rhine, Rhine II
device wb # Winbond W89C840F
-device xl # 3Com 3c90x (&ldquo;Boomerang&rdquo;, &ldquo;Cyclone&rdquo;)</programlisting>
+device xl # 3Com 3c90x (<quote>Boomerang</quote>, <quote>Cyclone</quote>)</programlisting>
<para>Drivers that use the MII bus controller code.</para>
@@ -888,7 +888,7 @@ pseudo-device tun # Packet tunnel.</programlisting>
<programlisting><anchor id="kernelconfig-ptys">
pseudo-device pty # Pseudo-ttys (telnet etc)</programlisting>
- <para>This is a &ldquo;pseudo-terminal&rdquo; or simulated login port.
+ <para>This is a <quote>pseudo-terminal</quote> or simulated login port.
It is used by incoming <command>telnet</command> and
<command>rlogin</command> sessions,
<application>xterm</application>, and some other applications such
@@ -900,7 +900,7 @@ pseudo-device pty # Pseudo-ttys (telnet etc)</programlisting>
up to a maximum of 256.</para>
<programlisting>
-pseudo-device md # Memory &ldquo;disks&rdquo;</programlisting>
+pseudo-device md # Memory <quote>disks</quote></programlisting>
<para>Memory disk pseudo-devices.</para>
@@ -934,7 +934,7 @@ pseudo-device bpf # Berkeley packet filter</programlisting>
#device ohci # OHCI PCI-&gt;USB interface
#device usb # USB Bus (required)
#device ugen # Generic
-#device uhid # &ldquo;Human Interface Devices&rdquo;
+#device uhid # <quote>Human Interface Devices</quote>
#device ukbd # Keyboard
#device ulpt # Printer
#device umass # Disks/Mass storage - Requires scbus and da
@@ -955,7 +955,7 @@ pseudo-device bpf # Berkeley packet filter</programlisting>
<title>Making Device Nodes</title>
<para>Almost every device in the kernel has a corresponding
- &ldquo;node&rdquo; entry in the <filename>/dev</filename> directory.
+ <quote>node</quote> entry in the <filename>/dev</filename> directory.
These nodes look like regular files, but are actually special
entries into the kernel which programs use to access the device.
The shell script <filename>/dev/MAKEDEV</filename>, which is
@@ -976,7 +976,7 @@ device acd0</programlisting>
<filename>acd0</filename> in the <filename>/dev</filename>
directory, possibly followed by a letter, such as
<literal>c</literal>, or preceded by the letter
- <literal>r</literal>, which means a &ldquo;raw&rdquo; device. It
+ <literal>r</literal>, which means a <quote>raw</quote> device. It
turns out that those files are not there, so I must change to the
<filename>/dev</filename> directory and type:</para>
@@ -1086,13 +1086,13 @@ device acd0</programlisting>
Also, as soon as possible, move the working kernel to the
proper <filename>kernel</filename> location or commands such
as &man.ps.1; will not work properly. The proper command to
- &ldquo;unlock&rdquo; the kernel file that
+ <quote>unlock</quote> the kernel file that
<command>make</command> installs (in order to move another
kernel back permanently) is:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>chflags noschg /kernel</userinput></screen>
- <para>And, if you want to &ldquo;lock&rdquo; your new kernel
+ <para>And, if you want to <quote>lock</quote> your new kernel
into place, or any file for that matter, so that it cannot
be moved or tampered with:</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml
index f80715b6da..c7bb721c09 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml,v 1.21 1999/12/16 16:04:24 cracauer Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml,v 1.22 2000/04/03 02:15:41 chris Exp $
-->
<chapter id="kerneldebug">
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@
<note>
<para>In the following, the term <command>kgdb</command> refers to
- <command>gdb</command> run in &ldquo;kernel debug mode&rdquo;. This
+ <command>gdb</command> run in <quote>kernel debug mode</quote>. This
can be accomplished by either starting the <command>gdb</command> with
the option <option>-k</option>, or by linking and starting it under
the name <command>kgdb</command>. This is not being done by default,
@@ -178,7 +178,7 @@
<listitem>
<para>This is a dump taken from within DDB (see below), hence the
- panic comment &ldquo;because you said to!&rdquo;, and a rather
+ panic comment <quote>because you said to!</quote>, and a rather
long stack trace; the initial reason for going into DDB has been a
page fault trap though.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -203,7 +203,7 @@
dump handy &lt;g&gt;, my kernel has not panicked for a rather long
time.) From looking at the code in source line 403, there is a
high probability that either the pointer access for
- &ldquo;tp&rdquo; was messed up, or the array access was out of
+ <quote>tp</quote> was messed up, or the array access was out of
bounds.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml
index f39d90a1e6..71e0e85ab3 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml,v 1.13 1999/11/07 01:54:49 chris Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml,v 1.14 1999/12/11 06:04:35 chris Exp $
-->
<chapter id="kernelopts">
@@ -20,8 +20,8 @@
<para>The use of kernel options is basically described in the <link
linkend="kernelconfig-options">kernel configuration</link> section.
- There's also an explanation of &ldquo;historic&rdquo; and
- &ldquo;new-style&rdquo; options. The ultimate goal is to eventually
+ There's also an explanation of <quote>historic</quote> and
+ <quote>new-style</quote> options. The ultimate goal is to eventually
turn all the supported options in the kernel into new-style ones, so for
people who correctly did a <command>make depend</command> in their
kernel compile directory after running
@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@
code.</para>
<para>People familiar with the C language will immediately recognize that
- everything could be counted as a &ldquo;config option&rdquo; where there
+ everything could be counted as a <quote>config option</quote> where there
is at least a single <literal>#ifdef</literal> referencing it...
However, it's unlikely that many people would put</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml
index d29eb004d5..f7d9341dd1 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml,v 1.34 2000/04/10 17:27:51 phantom Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml,v 1.35 2000/04/16 22:10:20 ache Exp $
-->
<chapter id="l10n">
@@ -813,7 +813,7 @@ XkbOptions "grp:caps_toggle"</programlisting>
available via <literal>Shift+CapsLock</literal> (in LAT mode
only).</para>
- <para>If you have &ldquo;Windows&rdquo; keys on your keyboard,
+ <para>If you have <quote>Windows</quote> keys on your keyboard,
and notice that some non-alphabetical keys are mapped
incorrectly in RUS mode, add the following line in your
<filename>XF86Config</filename> file:</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml
index fc4c161153..11581bcb92 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml,v 1.28 2000/03/23 01:32:00 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml,v 1.29 2000/04/30 22:33:03 nik Exp $
-->
<chapter id="linuxemu">
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@
<para>At this point, you may be asking yourself why exactly, does
FreeBSD need to be able to run Linux binaries? The answer to that
question is quite simple. Many companies and developers develop
- only for Linux, since it is the latest &ldquo;hot thing&rdquo; in
+ only for Linux, since it is the latest <quote>hot thing</quote> in
the computing world. That leaves the rest of us FreeBSD users
bugging these same companies and developers to put out native
FreeBSD versions of their applications. The problem is, that most
@@ -58,12 +58,12 @@
configuration.</para>
<para>The Linux binary compatibility is now done via a KLD object
- (&ldquo;Kernel LoaDable object&rdquo;), so it can be installed
- &ldquo;on-the-fly&rdquo; without having to reboot. You will,
+ (<quote>Kernel LoaDable object</quote>), so it can be installed
+ <quote>on-the-fly</quote> without having to reboot. You will,
however, need to have the following in
<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
- <programlisting>linux_enable=&ldquo;YES&rdquo;</programlisting>
+ <programlisting>linux_enable=<quote>YES</quote></programlisting>
<para>This, in turn, triggers the following action in
<filename>/etc/rc.i386</filename>:</para>
@@ -119,11 +119,11 @@ Id Refs Address Size Name
<sect3 id="linuxemu-libs-manually">
<title>Installing libraries manually</title>
- <para>If you do not have the &ldquo;ports&rdquo; collection
+ <para>If you do not have the <quote>ports</quote> collection
installed, you can install the libraries by hand instead. You
will need the Linux shared libraries that the program depends on
and the runtime linker. Also, you will need to create a
- &ldquo;shadow root&rdquo; directory,
+ <quote>shadow root</quote> directory,
<filename>/compat/linux</filename>, for Linux libraries on your
FreeBSD system. Any shared libraries opened by Linux programs
run under FreeBSD will look in this tree first. So, if a Linux
@@ -231,7 +231,7 @@ libc.so.4 (DLL Jump 4.5pl26) =&gt; /lib/libc.so.4.6.29</screen>
<title>Installing Linux ELF binaries</title>
<para>ELF binaries sometimes require an extra step of
- &ldquo;branding&rdquo;. If you attempt to run an unbranded ELF
+ <quote>branding</quote>. If you attempt to run an unbranded ELF
binary, you will get an error message like the following;</para>
<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>./my-linux-elf-binary</userinput>
@@ -316,12 +316,12 @@ multi on</programlisting>
<title>Obtaining your Mathematica Password</title>
<para>Before you can run Mathematica you will have to obtain a
- password from Wolfram that corresponds to your &ldquo;machine
- ID&rdquo;.</para>
+ password from Wolfram that corresponds to your <quote>machine
+ ID</quote>.</para>
<para>Once you have installed the Linux compatibility runtime
libraries and unpacked Mathematica you can obtain the
- &ldquo;machine ID&rdquo; by running the program
+ <quote>machine ID</quote> by running the program
<command>mathinfo</command> in the Install directory. This
machine ID is based solely on the MAC address of your first
ethernet card.</para>
@@ -331,7 +331,7 @@ multi on</programlisting>
disco.example.com 7115-70839-20412</screen>
<para>When you register with Wolfram, either by email, phone or fax,
- you will give them the &ldquo;machine ID&rdquo; and they will
+ you will give them the <quote>machine ID</quote> and they will
respond with a corresponding password consisting of groups of
numbers. You can then enter this information when you attempt to
run Mathematica for the first time exactly as you would for any
@@ -646,8 +646,8 @@ export PATH</programlisting>
<sect2>
<title>How Does It Work?</title>
- <para>FreeBSD has an abstraction called an &ldquo;execution class
- loader&rdquo;. This is a wedge into the &man.execve.2; system
+ <para>FreeBSD has an abstraction called an <quote>execution class
+ loader</quote>. This is a wedge into the &man.execve.2; system
call.</para>
<para>What happens is that FreeBSD has a list of loaders, instead of
@@ -663,8 +663,8 @@ export PATH</programlisting>
&man.execve.2; call returned a failure, and the shell attempted to
start executing it as shell commands.</para>
- <para>The assumption was a default of &ldquo;whatever the current
- shell is&rdquo;.</para>
+ <para>The assumption was a default of <quote>whatever the current
+ shell is</quote>.</para>
<para>Later, a hack was made for &man.sh.1; to examine the first two
characters, and if they were <literal>:\n</literal>, then it
@@ -760,14 +760,14 @@ export PATH</programlisting>
implementation, not an emulation. There is no emulator (or
simulator, to cut off the next question) involved.</para>
- <para>So why is it sometimes called &ldquo;Linux emulation&rdquo;?
+ <para>So why is it sometimes called <quote>Linux emulation</quote>?
To make it hard to sell FreeBSD! <!-- smiley -->8-). Really, it
is because the historical implementation was done at a time when
there was really no word other than that to describe what was
going on; saying that FreeBSD ran Linux binaries was not true, if
you did not compile the code in or load a module, and there needed
to be a word to describe what was being loaded&mdash;hence
- &ldquo;the Linux emulator&rdquo;.</para>
+ <quote>the Linux emulator</quote>.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
</chapter>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml
index e9031664d9..b22ff63815 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml,v 1.16 1999/12/17 20:10:29 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml,v 1.17 1999/12/22 20:06:59 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="mail">
@@ -49,9 +49,9 @@
<application>mail</application>, and GUI programs such as
<application>balsa</application>,
<application>xfmail</application> to name a few, and something
- more &ldquo;sophisticated&rdquo; like a WWW browser. These
+ more <quote>sophisticated</quote> like a WWW browser. These
programs simply pass off the email transactions to the local <link
- linkend="mail-host">&ldquo;mailhost&rdquo;</link>, either by
+ linkend="mail-host"><quote>mailhost</quote></link>, either by
calling one of the <link linkend="mail-mta">server daemons</link>
available or delivering it over TCP.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -182,7 +182,7 @@ domain foo.bar.edu</programlisting>
into your <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename>. However, make
sure that the search order does not go beyond the
- &ldquo;boundary between local and public administration&rdquo;,
+ <quote>boundary between local and public administration</quote>,
as RFC 1535 calls it.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
@@ -197,7 +197,7 @@ domain foo.bar.edu</programlisting>
<para>This is answered in the sendmail FAQ as follows:</para>
<programlisting>
-* I am getting &ldquo;Local configuration error&rdquo; messages, such as:
+* I am getting <quote>Local configuration error</quote> messages, such as:
553 relay.domain.net config error: mail loops back to myself
554 &lt;user@domain.net&gt;... Local configuration error
@@ -208,13 +208,13 @@ You have asked mail to the domain (e.g., domain.net) to be
forwarded to a specific host (in this case, relay.domain.net)
by using an MX record, but the relay machine does not recognize
itself as domain.net. Add domain.net to /etc/sendmail.cw
-(if you are using FEATURE(use_cw_file)) or add &ldquo;Cw domain.net&rdquo;
+(if you are using FEATURE(use_cw_file)) or add <quote>Cw domain.net</quote>
to /etc/sendmail.cf.</programlisting>
<para>The sendmail FAQ is in
<filename>/usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail</filename> and is
recommended reading if you want to do any
- &ldquo;tweaking&rdquo; of your mail setup.</para>
+ <quote>tweaking</quote> of your mail setup.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
@@ -249,8 +249,8 @@ bigco.com. MX 10 bigco.com.
<command>sendmail</command> will automatically deliver it to the
secondary MX site, i.e., your Internet provider. The secondary MX
site will try every
- (<literal>sendmail_flags = &ldquo;-bd -q15m&rdquo;</literal> in
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> ) 15 minutes to connect to
+ (<literal>sendmail_flags = -bd -q15m</literal> in
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>) 15 minutes to connect to
your host to deliver the mail to the primary MX site.</para>
<para>You might want to use something like this as a login
@@ -282,7 +282,7 @@ bigco.com. MX 10 bigco.com.
&gt; Is there a command that would initiate sendmail to send all the mails
&gt; now? The user has not root-privileges on our machine of course.
-In the &ldquo;privacy flags&rdquo; section of sendmail.cf, there is a
+In the <quote>privacy flags</quote> section of sendmail.cf, there is a
definition Opgoaway,restrictqrun
Remove restrictqrun to allow non-root users to start the queue processing.
@@ -295,10 +295,10 @@ OwTrue
That way a remote site will deliver straight to you, without trying
the customer connection. You then send to your customer. Only works for
-&ldquo;hosts&rdquo;, so you need to get your customer to name their mail
-machine &ldquo;customer.com&rdquo; as well as
-&ldquo;hostname.customer.com&rdquo; in the DNS. Just put an A record in
-the DNS for &ldquo;customer.com&rdquo;.</programlisting>
+<quote>hosts</quote>, so you need to get your customer to name their mail
+machine <quote>customer.com</quote> as well as
+<quote>hostname.customer.com</quote> in the DNS. Just put an A record in
+the DNS for <quote>customer.com</quote>.</programlisting>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
</qandaset>
@@ -408,9 +408,9 @@ freefall MX 20 who.cdrom.com</programlisting>
<sect2 id="mail-domain">
<title>Mail for your Domain</title>
- <para>In order to set up a &ldquo;mailhost&rdquo; (a.k.a., mail
+ <para>In order to set up a <quote>mailhost</quote> (a.k.a., mail
server) you need to have any mail sent to various workstations
- directed to it. Basically, you want to &ldquo;hijack&rdquo; any
+ directed to it. Basically, you want to <quote>hijack</quote> any
mail for your domain (in this case <hostid
role="fqdn">*.FreeBSD.org</hostid>) and divert it to your mail
server so your users can check their mail via POP or directly on
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml
index 3835571dd6..8e3cb1d5d1 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml,v 1.14 1999/11/15 21:17:20 jesusr Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml,v 1.15 2000/03/25 17:02:35 nbm Exp $
-->
<chapter id="policies">
@@ -64,12 +64,12 @@ MAINTAINER= email-addresses</programlisting>
advantages and drawbacks. No clear winner has emerged.</para>
<para>Since this is the case, after some debate one of these methods has
- been selected as the &ldquo;official&rdquo; method and will be required
+ been selected as the <quote>official</quote> method and will be required
for future imports of software of this kind. Furthermore, it is
strongly suggested that existing contributed software converge on this
model over time, as it has significant advantages over the old method,
including the ability to easily obtain diffs relative to the
- &ldquo;official&rdquo; versions of the source by everyone (even without
+ <quote>official</quote> versions of the source by everyone (even without
cvs access). This will make it significantly easier to return changes
to the primary developers of the contributed software.</para>
@@ -84,9 +84,9 @@ MAINTAINER= email-addresses</programlisting>
<para>Because of some unfortunate design limitations with the RCS file
format and CVS's use of vendor branches, minor, trivial and/or
cosmetic changes are <emphasis>strongly discouraged</emphasis> on
- files that are still tracking the vendor branch. &ldquo;Spelling
- fixes&rdquo; are explicitly included here under the
- &ldquo;cosmetic&rdquo; category and are to be avoided for files with
+ files that are still tracking the vendor branch. <quote>Spelling
+ fixes</quote> are explicitly included here under the
+ <quote>cosmetic</quote> category and are to be avoided for files with
revision 1.1.x.x. The repository bloat impact from a single character
change can be rather dramatic.</para>
</note>
@@ -122,12 +122,12 @@ MAINTAINER= email-addresses</programlisting>
FreeBSD-specific changes as possible. The 'easy-import' tool on
freefall will assist in doing the import, but if there are any doubts on
how to go about it, it is imperative that you ask first and not blunder
- ahead and hope it &ldquo;works out&rdquo;. CVS is not forgiving of
+ ahead and hope it <quote>works out</quote>. CVS is not forgiving of
import accidents and a fair amount of effort is required to back out
major mistakes.</para>
<para>Because of the previously mentioned design limitations with CVS's
- vendor branches, it is required that &ldquo;official&rdquo; patches from
+ vendor branches, it is required that <quote>official</quote> patches from
the vendor be applied to the original distributed sources and the result
re-imported onto the vendor branch again. Official patches should never
be patched into the FreeBSD checked out version and "committed", as this
@@ -350,7 +350,7 @@ obrien@FreeBSD.org - 30 March 1997</programlisting>
well. Any version number after the <replaceable>y</replaceable>
(ie. the third digit) is totally ignored when comparing shared lib
version numbers to decide which library to link with. Given two shared
- libraries that differ only in the &ldquo;micro&rdquo; revision,
+ libraries that differ only in the <quote>micro</quote> revision,
<command>ld.so</command> will link with the higher one. Ie: if you link
with <filename>libfoo.so.3.3.3</filename>, the linker only records
<literal>3.3</literal> in the headers, and will link with anything
@@ -361,7 +361,7 @@ obrien@FreeBSD.org - 30 March 1997</programlisting>
<note>
<para><command>ld.so</command> will always use the highest
- &ldquo;minor&rdquo; revision. Ie: it will use
+ <quote>minor</quote> revision. Ie: it will use
<filename>libc.so.2.2</filename> in preference to
<filename>libc.so.2.0</filename>, even if the program was initially
linked with <filename>libc.so.2.0</filename>.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml
index 4495528aad..0baaa3dd97 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml,v 1.106 2000/06/03 21:15:04 asmodai Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml,v 1.107 2000/06/04 21:58:02 ache Exp $
-->
<chapter id="ports">
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@
Occasionally, you might be lucky enough to find that the program you
want compiles cleanly on your system, install everything into all
the right directories, and run flawlessly
- &ldquo;out-of-the-box&rdquo;, but this behavior is somewhat rare.
+ <quote>out-of-the-box</quote>, but this behavior is somewhat rare.
Most of the time, you find yourself needing to make modifications in
order to get the program to work. This is where the FreeBSD Ports
collection comes to the rescue.</para>
@@ -52,7 +52,7 @@
<para>The first thing that should be explained
when it comes to the Ports collection is what is actually meant
- by a &ldquo;skeleton&rdquo;. In a nutshell, a port skeleton is a
+ by a <quote>skeleton</quote>. In a nutshell, a port skeleton is a
minimal set of files that are needed for a program to compile and
install cleanly on FreeBSD. Each port skeleton includes:</para>
@@ -84,9 +84,9 @@
contains patches to make the program compile and install on
your FreeBSD system. Patches are basically small files that
specify changes to particular files. They are in plain text
- format, and basically say &ldquo;Remove line 10&rdquo; or
- &ldquo;Change line 26 to this ...&rdquo;. Patches are also
- known as &ldquo;diffs&rdquo; because they are generated by the
+ format, and basically say <quote>Remove line 10</quote> or
+ <quote>Change line 26 to this ...</quote>. Patches are also
+ known as <quote>diffs</quote> because they are generated by the
<application>diff</application> program.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -133,8 +133,8 @@
<para>Another method is to use the <command>whereis</command>
command. To use <command>whereis</command>, simply type
- &ldquo;<command>whereis &lt;program you want to
- install&gt;&rdquo;</command> at the prompt, and if it is found on
+ <quote><command>whereis &lt;program you want to
+ install&gt;</command></quote> at the prompt, and if it is found on
your system, you will be told where it is, like so:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>whereis xchat</userinput>
@@ -149,7 +149,7 @@ xchat: /usr/ports/irc/xchat
feature, you will need to be in the
<filename>/usr/ports</filename> directory. Once in that
directory, run <command>make search key=program-name</command>
- where &ldquo;program-name&rdquo; is the name of the program you
+ where <quote>program-name</quote> is the name of the program you
want to find. For example, if you were looking for xchat:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>
@@ -165,7 +165,7 @@ R-deps: XFree86-3.3.5 gettext-0.10.35 giflib-4.1.0 glib-1.2.6 gtk-1.2.6 imlib-1.
png-1.0.3 tiff-3.5.1</screen>
<para>The part of the output you want to pay particular attention
- to is the &ldquo;Path:&rdquo; line, since that tells you where to
+ to is the <quote>Path:</quote> line, since that tells you where to
find it. The other information provided is not needed in order
to install the port directly, so it will not be covered
here.</para>
@@ -370,8 +370,8 @@ Receiving xchat-1.3.8.tar.bz2 (305543 bytes): 100%
<answer>
<para>Ah, you must be thinking of the serial ports on the back
- of your computer. We are using &ldquo;port&rdquo; here to
- mean the result of &ldquo;porting&rdquo; a program from one
+ of your computer. We are using <quote>port</quote> here to
+ mean the result of <quote>porting</quote> a program from one
version of UNIX to another.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
@@ -458,9 +458,9 @@ Receiving xchat-1.3.8.tar.bz2 (305543 bytes): 100%
<answer>
<para>A patch is a small file that specifies how to go from
one version of a file to another. It contains plain text,
- and basically says things like &ldquo;delete line 23&rdquo;,
- &ldquo;add these two lines after line 468&rdquo;, or
- &ldquo;change line 197 to this&rdquo;. They are also known
+ and basically says things like <quote>delete line 23</quote>,
+ <quote>add these two lines after line 468</quote>, or
+ <quote>change line 197 to this</quote>. They are also known
as diffs because they are generated by the
<application>diff</application> program.</para>
</answer>
@@ -865,8 +865,8 @@ arcade game.</screen>
<answer>
<para>No, the problem is that some of the ports need to ask
- you questions that we cannot answer for you (eg &ldquo;Do
- you want to print on A4 or US letter sized paper?&rdquo;)
+ you questions that we cannot answer for you (eg <quote>Do
+ you want to print on A4 or US letter sized paper?</quote>)
and they need to have someone on hand to answer
them.</para>
</answer>
@@ -946,8 +946,8 @@ arcade game.</screen>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>Fix it! The <link linkend="porting">&ldquo;how to make a
- port&rdquo;</link> section should help you do this.</para>
+ <para>Fix it! The <link linkend="porting"><quote>how to make a
+ port</quote></link> section should help you do this.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -965,14 +965,14 @@ arcade game.</screen>
<listitem>
<para>Forget about it. This is the easiest route&mdash;very
- few ports can be classified as &ldquo;essential&rdquo;. There's
+ few ports can be classified as <quote>essential</quote>. There's
also a good chance any problems will be fixed in the next
version when the port is updated.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Grab the package from an ftp site near you. The
- &ldquo;master&rdquo; package collection is on <hostid
+ <quote>master</quote> package collection is on <hostid
role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid> in the <ulink
URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/packages/">packages
directory</ulink>, but be sure to check your local mirror
@@ -1143,7 +1143,7 @@ asami@cs.berkeley.edu</programlisting>
<title><filename>PLIST</filename></title>
<para>This file lists all the files installed by the port. It is
- also called the &ldquo;packing list&rdquo; because the package is
+ also called the <quote>packing list</quote> because the package is
generated by packing the files listed here. The pathnames are
relative to the installation prefix (usually
<filename>/usr/local</filename> or
@@ -1310,7 +1310,7 @@ lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
<para>We will look at your port, get back to you if necessary, and put
it in the tree. Your name will also appear in the list of
- &ldquo;Additional FreeBSD contributors&rdquo; on the FreeBSD
+ <quote>Additional FreeBSD contributors</quote> on the FreeBSD
Handbook and other files. Isn't that great?!? <!-- smiley
-->:-)</para>
</sect3>
@@ -1436,7 +1436,7 @@ lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
target in your <filename>Makefile</filename>.</para>
<note>
- <para>The &ldquo;main&rdquo; targets (e.g.,
+ <para>The <quote>main</quote> targets (e.g.,
<maketarget>extract</maketarget>,
<maketarget>configure</maketarget>, etc.) do nothing more than
make sure all the stages up to that one are completed and call
@@ -1470,7 +1470,7 @@ lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
<para>If you cannot find somewhere convenient and reliable to put the
distfile (if you are a FreeBSD committer, you can just put it in
your <filename>public_html/</filename> directory on
- <hostid>freefall</hostid>), we can &ldquo;house&rdquo; it ourselves
+ <hostid>freefall</hostid>), we can <quote>house</quote> it ourselves
by putting it on
<filename>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/LOCAL_PORTS/</filename>
as the last resort. Please refer to this location as
@@ -1509,7 +1509,7 @@ lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
to compile or install, you should take a look at one of Larry Wall's
classic <application>Configure</application> scripts and perhaps do
something similar yourself. The goal of the new ports collection is
- to make each port as &ldquo;plug-and-play&rdquo; as possible for the
+ to make each port as <quote>plug-and-play</quote> as possible for the
end-user while using a minimum of disk space.</para>
<note>
@@ -1558,7 +1558,7 @@ lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
<para>If your port requires user input to build, configure or install,
then set <makevar>IS_INTERACTIVE</makevar> in your Makefile. This
- will allow &ldquo;overnight builds&rdquo; to skip your port if the
+ will allow <quote>overnight builds</quote> to skip your port if the
user sets the variable <envar>BATCH</envar> in his environment (and
if the user sets the variable <envar>INTERACTIVE</envar>, then
<emphasis>only</emphasis> those ports requiring interaction are
@@ -1886,7 +1886,7 @@ RUN_DEPENDS= ${PREFIX}/etc/innd:${PORTSDIR}/news/inn \
ports tree to build and install it if it is not found.</para>
<note>
- <para>&ldquo;build&rdquo; here means everything from extracting to
+ <para><quote>build</quote> here means everything from extracting to
compilation. The dependency is checked from within the
<maketarget>extract</maketarget> target. The
<replaceable>target</replaceable> part can be omitted if it is
@@ -2804,7 +2804,7 @@ diff -u -r1.15 PLIST
<title><filename>REQ</filename></title>
<para>If your port needs to determine if it should install or not, you
- can create a <filename>pkg/REQ</filename> &ldquo;requirements&rdquo;
+ can create a <filename>pkg/REQ</filename> <quote>requirements</quote>
script. It will be invoked automatically at
installation/deinstallation time to determine whether or not
installation/deinstallation should proceed.</para>
@@ -2956,7 +2956,7 @@ PLIST_SUB= OCTAVE_VERSION=${OCTAVE_VERSION}</programlisting>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>If the port has a &ldquo;do not sell for profit&rdquo; type of
+ <para>If the port has a <quote>do not sell for profit</quote> type of
license, set the variable <makevar>NO_CDROM</makevar> to a string
describing the reason why. We will make sure such ports will not go
into the CD-ROM come release time. The distfile and package will
@@ -2974,7 +2974,7 @@ PLIST_SUB= OCTAVE_VERSION=${OCTAVE_VERSION}</programlisting>
<listitem>
<para>If the port has legal restrictions on who can use it (e.g.,
- crypto stuff) or has a &ldquo;no commercial use&rdquo; license,
+ crypto stuff) or has a <quote>no commercial use</quote> license,
set the variable <makevar>RESTRICTED</makevar> to be the string
describing the reason why. For such ports, the distfiles/packages
will not be available even from our ftp sites.</para>
@@ -3617,7 +3617,7 @@ post-install:
<note>
<para>Note that 2.2-STABLE sometimes identifies itself as
- &ldquo;2.2.5-STABLE&rdquo; after the 2.2.5-RELEASE. The pattern
+ <quote>2.2.5-STABLE</quote> after the 2.2.5-RELEASE. The pattern
used to be year followed by the month, but we decided to change it
to a more straightforward major/minor system starting from 2.2.
This is because the parallel development on several branches made
@@ -3704,13 +3704,13 @@ post-install:
<row>
<entry><makevar>LOCALBASE</makevar></entry>
- <entry>The base of the &ldquo;local&rdquo; tree (e.g.,
+ <entry>The base of the <quote>local</quote> tree (e.g.,
<literal>/usr/local/</literal>)</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry><makevar>X11BASE</makevar></entry>
- <entry>The base of the &ldquo;X11&rdquo; tree (e.g.,
+ <entry>The base of the <quote>X11</quote> tree (e.g.,
<literal>/usr/X11R6</literal>)</entry>
</row>
@@ -3943,7 +3943,7 @@ post-install:
the rules governing
<filename>/usr</filename> pretty much apply to
<filename>/usr/local</filename> too. The exception are ports
- dealing with USENET &ldquo;news&rdquo;. They may use
+ dealing with USENET <quote>news</quote>. They may use
<filename><makevar>PREFIX</makevar>/news</filename> as a destination
for their files.</para>
</sect3>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml
index 85f0bda83e..487122c66c 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml,v 1.22 2000/03/18 18:38:56 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml,v 1.23 2000/04/10 13:34:34 brian Exp $
-->
<chapter id="ppp-and-slip">
@@ -399,7 +399,7 @@ nameserver <replaceable>y.y.y.y</replaceable></programlisting>
<listitem>
<para>Identifies an entry for a provider called
- &ldquo;provider&rdquo;.</para>
+ <quote>provider</quote>.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -435,7 +435,7 @@ protocol: ppp</screen>
<para>You will need to alter this script to suit your own
needs. When you write this script for the first time,
- you should enable &ldquo;chat&rdquo; logging to ensure
+ you should enable <quote>chat</quote> logging to ensure
that the conversation is going as expected.</para>
<para>If you are using PAP or CHAP, there will be no login
@@ -468,7 +468,7 @@ protocol: ppp</screen>
their gateway (the machine to which you connect). If
your ISP hasn't given you a gateway address, use <hostid
role="netmask">10.0.0.2/0</hostid>. If you need to use
- a &ldquo;guessed&rdquo; address, make sure that you
+ a <quote>guessed</quote> address, make sure that you
create an entry in
<filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename> as per the
instructions for <link linkend="userppp-dynamicIP">PPP
@@ -522,7 +522,7 @@ protocol: ppp</screen>
<para>If your service provider does not assign static IP
addresses, <command>ppp</command> can be configured to
negotiate the local and remote addresses. This is done by
- &ldquo;guessing&rdquo; an IP address and allowing
+ <quote>guessing</quote> an IP address and allowing
<command>ppp</command> to set it up correctly using the IP
Configuration Protocol (IPCP) after connecting. The
<filename>ppp.conf</filename> configuration is the same as
@@ -617,7 +617,7 @@ protocol: ppp</screen>
<filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup.sample</filename> for a
detailed example.</para>
- <para>Version 2 of PPP introduces &ldquo;sticky routes&rdquo;.
+ <para>Version 2 of PPP introduces <quote>sticky routes</quote>.
Any <literal>add</literal> or <literal>delete</literal> lines
that contain <literal>MYADDR</literal> or
<literal>HISADDR</literal> will be remembered, and any time
@@ -947,7 +947,7 @@ set nbns 203.14.100.5</programlisting>
an issue here as passwords, although being sent as plain text
with PAP, are being transmitted down a serial line only.
There's not much room for crackers to
- &ldquo;eavesdrop&rdquo;.</para>
+ <quote>eavesdrop</quote>.</para>
<para>Referring back to the <link linkend="userppp-staticIP">PPP
and Static IP addresses</link> or <link
@@ -971,7 +971,7 @@ set nbns 203.14.100.5</programlisting>
<listitem>
<para>Your ISP will not normally require that you log into
the server if you're using PAP or CHAP. You must
- therefore disable your &ldquo;set login&rdquo;
+ therefore disable your <quote>set login</quote>
string.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -1113,7 +1113,7 @@ sendmail_flags="-bd"</programlisting>
4 !bg sendmail -bd -q30m</programlisting>
<para>If you don't like this, it is possible to set up a
- &ldquo;dfilter&rdquo; to block SMTP traffic. Refer to the
+ <quote>dfilter</quote> to block SMTP traffic. Refer to the
sample files for further details.</para>
<para>Now the only thing left to do is reboot the machine.</para>
@@ -1241,13 +1241,13 @@ sendmail_flags="-bd"</programlisting>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>As a &ldquo;client&rdquo;, i.e., you want to connect your
+ <para>As a <quote>client</quote>, i.e., you want to connect your
machine to the outside world via a PPP serial connection or
modem line.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>as a &ldquo;server&rdquo;, i.e. your machine is located on
+ <para>as a <quote>server</quote>, i.e. your machine is located on
the network and used to connect other computers using
PPP.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -1859,7 +1859,7 @@ pseudo-device sl 1</programlisting>
says:</para>
<programlisting>
-hostname=&ldquo;myname.my.domain&rdquo;</programlisting>
+hostname=<quote>myname.my.domain</quote></programlisting>
<para>You should give it your full Internet
hostname.</para>
@@ -1875,7 +1875,7 @@ network_interfaces="lo0"</programlisting>
<para>to:</para>
<programlisting>
-network_interfaces=&ldquo;lo0 sl0&rdquo;</programlisting>
+network_interfaces=<quote>lo0 sl0</quote></programlisting>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -1891,12 +1891,12 @@ ifconfig_sl0="inet ${hostname} slip-gateway netmask 0xffffff00 up"</programlisti
line:</para>
<programlisting>
-defaultrouter=&ldquo;NO&rdquo;</programlisting>
+defaultrouter=<quote>NO</quote></programlisting>
<para>to:</para>
<programlisting>
-defaultrouter=&ldquo;slip-gateway&rdquo;</programlisting>
+defaultrouter=<quote>slip-gateway</quote></programlisting>
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
</step>
@@ -2034,8 +2034,8 @@ sl0: flags=10&lt;POINTOPOINT&gt;
<listitem>
<para>Also, <command>netstat -r</command> will give the
- routing table, in case you get the &ldquo;no route to
- host&rdquo; messages from ping. Mine looks like:</para>
+ routing table, in case you get the <quote>no route to
+ host</quote> messages from ping. Mine looks like:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>netstat -r</userinput>
Routing tables
@@ -2194,7 +2194,7 @@ sl1* 296 &lt;Link&gt; 0 0 0 0
<command>netstat -i</command>'s output indicate that there are
two SLIP interfaces built into the kernel. (The asterisks after
the <literal>sl0</literal> and <literal>sl1</literal> indicate
- that the interfaces are &ldquo;down&rdquo;.)</para>
+ that the interfaces are <quote>down</quote>.)</para>
<para>However, FreeBSD's default kernels do not come configured
to forward packets (ie, your FreeBSD machine will not act as a
@@ -2305,7 +2305,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
<listitem>
<para><option>noicmp</option> &mdash; disable ICMP packets
- (so any &ldquo;ping&rdquo; packets will be dropped instead
+ (so any <quote>ping</quote> packets will be dropped instead
of using up your bandwidth)</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -2320,8 +2320,8 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
<para>Your choice of local and remote addresses for your SLIP
links depends on whether you are going to dedicate a TCP/IP
- subnet or if you are going to use &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo; on
- your SLIP server (it is not &ldquo;true&rdquo; proxy ARP, but
+ subnet or if you are going to use <quote>proxy ARP</quote> on
+ your SLIP server (it is not <quote>true</quote> proxy ARP, but
that is the terminology used in this document to describe it).
If you are not sure which method to select or how to assign IP
addresses, please refer to the TCP/IP books referenced in the
@@ -2339,7 +2339,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
your other routers to inform them about your SLIP server's
route to the SLIP subnet.</para>
- <para>Otherwise, if you will use the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;
+ <para>Otherwise, if you will use the <quote>proxy ARP</quote>
method, you will need to assign your SLIP client's IP
addresses out of your SLIP server's Ethernet subnet, and you
will also need to adjust your
@@ -2373,7 +2373,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
with the local and remote addresses and network mask of the
SLIP interface.</para>
- <para>If you have decided to use the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;
+ <para>If you have decided to use the <quote>proxy ARP</quote>
method (instead of using a separate subnet for your SLIP
clients), your <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename>
file will need to look something like this:</para>
@@ -2404,7 +2404,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
<para>When using the example above, be sure to replace the
Ethernet MAC address (<hostid
role="mac">00:11:22:33:44:55</hostid>) with the MAC address of
- your system's Ethernet card, or your &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;
+ your system's Ethernet card, or your <quote>proxy ARP</quote>
will definitely not work! You can discover your SLIP server's
Ethernet MAC address by looking at the results of running
<command>netstat -i</command>; the second line of the output
@@ -2425,7 +2425,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
<para>When you create
<filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename> and
<filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename>, the
- &ldquo;execute&rdquo; bit (ie, <command>chmod 755
+ <quote>execute</quote> bit (ie, <command>chmod 755
/etc/sliphome/slip.login /etc/sliphome/slip.logout</command>)
must be set, or <command>sliplogin</command> will be unable
to execute it.</para>
@@ -2436,8 +2436,8 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
<title><filename>slip.logout</filename> Configuration</title>
<para><filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename> is not
- strictly needed (unless you are implementing &ldquo;proxy
- ARP&rdquo;), but if you decide to create it, this is an
+ strictly needed (unless you are implementing <quote>proxy
+ ARP</quote>), but if you decide to create it, this is an
example of a basic
<filename>slip.logout</filename> script:</para>
@@ -2454,7 +2454,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
#
/sbin/ifconfig sl$1 down</programlisting>
- <para>If you are using &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;, you will want to
+ <para>If you are using <quote>proxy ARP</quote>, you will want to
have <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename> remove the
ARP entry for the SLIP client:</para>
@@ -2474,7 +2474,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
/usr/sbin/arp -d $5</programlisting>
<para>The <command>arp -d &#36;5</command> removes the ARP entry
- that the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;
+ that the <quote>proxy ARP</quote>
<filename>slip.login</filename> added when the SLIP client
logged in.</para>
@@ -2488,7 +2488,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
<sect3>
<title>Routing Considerations</title>
- <para>If you are not using the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo; method for
+ <para>If you are not using the <quote>proxy ARP</quote> method for
routing packets between your SLIP clients and the rest of your
network (and perhaps the Internet), you will probably either
have to add static routes to your closest default router(s) to
@@ -2525,7 +2525,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
GateD anonymous ftp site</ulink>; I believe the current version
as of this writing is
<filename>gated-R3_5Alpha_8.tar.Z</filename>, which includes
- support for FreeBSD &ldquo;out-of-the-box&rdquo;. Complete
+ support for FreeBSD <quote>out-of-the-box</quote>. Complete
information and documentation on <command>gated</command> is
available on the Web starting at <ulink
url="http://www.gated.merit.edu/">the Merit GateD
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml
index 37d45e05a4..8400b1bf22 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml,v 1.25 2000/04/30 22:26:03 nik Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml,v 1.26 2000/05/17 19:55:22 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="printing">
@@ -164,8 +164,8 @@
see <link linkend="printing-advanced-network-net-if">Printers With
Networked Data Stream Interaces</link>.</para>
- <para>Although this section is called &ldquo;Simple Printer
- Setup&rdquo;, it is actually fairly complex. Getting the printer
+ <para>Although this section is called <quote>Simple Printer
+ Setup</quote>, it is actually fairly complex. Getting the printer
to work with your computer and the LPD spooler is the hardest
part. The advanced options like header pages and accounting are
fairly easy once you get the printer working.</para>
@@ -210,7 +210,7 @@
configuration exceedingly simple.</para>
<para>Parallel interfaces are sometimes known as
- &ldquo;Centronics&rdquo; interfaces, named after the
+ <quote>Centronics</quote> interfaces, named after the
connector type on the printer.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -262,8 +262,8 @@
instructions that came with the printer, the computer, or both
should give you complete guidance.</para>
- <para>If you are unsure what the &ldquo;proper serial
- cable&rdquo; is, you may wish to try one of the following
+ <para>If you are unsure what the <quote>proper serial
+ cable</quote> is, you may wish to try one of the following
alternatives:</para>
<itemizedlist>
@@ -272,7 +272,7 @@
of the connector on one end of the cable straight through
to its corresponding pin of the connector on the other
end. This type of cable is also known as a
- &ldquo;DTE-to-DCE&rdquo; cable.</para>
+ <quote>DTE-to-DCE</quote> cable.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -280,7 +280,7 @@
pins straight through, swaps others (send data to receive
data, for example), and shorts some internally in each
connector hood. This type of cable is also known as a
- &ldquo;DTE-to-DTE&rdquo; cable.</para>
+ <quote>DTE-to-DTE</quote> cable.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -299,7 +299,7 @@
and the printer can support. Choose 7 or 8 data bits; none,
even, or odd parity; and 1 or 2 stop bits. Also choose a flow
control protocol: either none, or XON/XOFF (also known as
- &ldquo;in-band&rdquo; or &ldquo;software&rdquo;) flow control.
+ <quote>in-band</quote> or <quote>software</quote>) flow control.
Remember these settings for the software configuration that
follows.</para>
</sect4>
@@ -1319,7 +1319,7 @@ $%&amp;'()*+,-./01234567
<para>Section <link linkend="printing-advanced-filters">How Filters
Work</link>, tries to give an overview of a filter's role in the
printing process. You should read this section to get an
- understanding of what is happening &ldquo;under the hood&rdquo;
+ understanding of what is happening <quote>under the hood</quote>
when LPD uses filters. This knowledge could help you anticipate
and debug problems you might encounter as you install more and
more filters on each of your printers.</para>
@@ -1901,8 +1901,8 @@ exit 2</programlisting>
publishing program), but will never print plot files. You could
install a Printerleaf conversion filter under the
<literal>gf</literal> capability and then educate your users that
- <command>lpr -g</command> mean &ldquo;print Printerleaf
- files.&rdquo;</para>
+ <command>lpr -g</command> mean <quote>print Printerleaf
+ files.</quote></para>
</sect4>
<sect4>
@@ -2337,7 +2337,7 @@ exit 0</programlisting>
<para>In the <link linkend="printing-simple">Simple Printer
Setup</link>, we turned off header pages by specifying
- <literal>sh</literal> (meaning &ldquo;suppress header&rdquo;) in the
+ <literal>sh</literal> (meaning <quote>suppress header</quote>) in the
<filename>/etc/printcap</filename> file. To enable header pages for
a printer, just remove the <literal>sh</literal> capability.</para>
@@ -2480,7 +2480,7 @@ rose:kelly Job: outline Date: Sun Sep 17 11:07:51 1995</programlisting>
accounting, and it is not provided with any <emphasis>user or
host</emphasis> information or an accounting file, so it has no
idea whom to charge for printer use. It is also not enough to just
- &ldquo;add one page&rdquo; to the text filter or any of the
+ <quote>add one page</quote> to the text filter or any of the
conversion filters (which do have user and host information) since
users can suppress header pages with <command>lpr -h</command>.
They could still be charged for header pages they did not print.
@@ -2681,7 +2681,7 @@ done
Work</link>).</para>
<para>As we have mentioned before, the above scheme, though fairly
- simple, disables the &ldquo;suppress header page&rdquo; option (the
+ simple, disables the <quote>suppress header page</quote> option (the
<option>-h</option> option) to <command>lpr</command>. If users
wanted to save a tree (or a few pennies, if you charge for header
pages), they would not be able to do so, since every filter's going
@@ -2739,7 +2739,7 @@ done
<listitem>
<para>It might support a data stream network connection. In this
- case, you &ldquo;attach&rdquo; the printer to one host on the
+ case, you <quote>attach</quote> the printer to one host on the
network by making that host responsible for spooling jobs and
sending them to the printer. Section <link
linkend="printing-advanced-network-net-if">Printers with
@@ -3271,7 +3271,7 @@ boo/minfree</userinput></screen>
printers from their own departmental systems. If you would
rather allow them to use <emphasis>only</emphasis> your
printers and not your compute resources, you can give them
- &ldquo;token&rdquo; accounts, with no home directory and a
+ <quote>token</quote> accounts, with no home directory and a
useless shell like <filename>/usr/bin/false</filename>.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -3323,7 +3323,7 @@ boo/minfree</userinput></screen>
printers. Like disk quotas, the accounting is immediate. You can
prevent users from printing when their account goes in the red,
and might provide a way for users to check and adjust their
- &ldquo;print quotas.&rdquo; But this method requires some database
+ <quote>print quotas.</quote> But this method requires some database
code to track users and their quotas.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -3653,7 +3653,7 @@ total 337.00 154 $ 6.74</screen>
<title>Checking Jobs</title>
<para>When you print with &man.lpr.1;, the data you wish to print is put
- together in a package called a &ldquo;print job&rdquo;, which is sent
+ together in a package called a <quote>print job</quote>, which is sent
to the LPD spooling system. Each printer has a queue of jobs, and
your job waits in that queue along with other jobs from yourself and
from other users. The printer prints those jobs in a first-come,
@@ -3676,8 +3676,8 @@ active kelly 9 /etc/host.conf, /etc/hosts.equiv 88 bytes
3rd mary 11 ... 78519 bytes</screen>
<para>This shows three jobs in the queue for <literal>bamboo</literal>.
- The first job, submitted by user kelly, got assigned &ldquo;job
- number&rdquo; 9. Every job for a printer gets a unique job number.
+ The first job, submitted by user kelly, got assigned <quote>job
+ number</quote> 9. Every job for a printer gets a unique job number.
Most of the time you can ignore the job number, but you will need it
if you want to cancel the job; see section <link
linkend="printing-lprm">Removing Jobs</link> for details.</para>
@@ -3685,7 +3685,7 @@ active kelly 9 /etc/host.conf, /etc/hosts.equiv 88 bytes
<para>Job number nine consists of two files; multiple files given on the
&man.lpr.1; command line are treated as part of a single job. It
is the currently active job (note the word <literal>active</literal>
- under the &ldquo;Rank&rdquo; column), which means the printer should
+ under the <quote>Rank</quote> column), which means the printer should
be currently printing that job. The second job consists of data
passed as the standard input to the &man.lpr.1; command. The third
job came from user <username>mary</username>; it is a much larger
@@ -4285,8 +4285,8 @@ cfA013rose dequeued
have learned just about everything there is to know about the LPD
spooling system that comes with FreeBSD. You can probably appreciate
many of its shortcomings, which naturally leads to the question:
- &ldquo;What other spooling systems are out there (and work with
- FreeBSD)?&rdquo;</para>
+ <quote>What other spooling systems are out there (and work with
+ FreeBSD)?</quote></para>
<para>Unfortunately, I have located only <emphasis>two</emphasis>
alternatives&mdash;and they are almost identical to each other! They
@@ -4340,8 +4340,8 @@ cfA013rose dequeued
<term>LPRng</term>
<listitem>
- <para>LPRng, which purportedly means &ldquo;LPR: the Next
- Generation&rdquo; is a complete rewrite of PLP. Patrick Powell
+ <para>LPRng, which purportedly means <quote>LPR: the Next
+ Generation</quote> is a complete rewrite of PLP. Patrick Powell
and Justin Mason (the principal maintainer of PLP) collaborated to
make LPRng. The main site for LPRng is <ulink
url="ftp://dickory.sdsu.edu/pub/LPRng/">ftp://dickory.sdsu.edu/pub/LPRng/</ulink>.</para>
@@ -4397,7 +4397,7 @@ exit 2</programlisting>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term>It produced the &ldquo;staircase effect.&rdquo;</term>
+ <term>It produced the <quote>staircase effect.</quote></term>
<listitem>
<para>You got the following on paper:</para>
@@ -4522,7 +4522,7 @@ teak|hp|laserjet|Hewlett Packard LaserJet 3Si:\
<para>The printer never advanced a line. All of the lines of
text were printed on top of each other on one line.</para>
- <para>This problem is the &ldquo;opposite&rdquo; of the
+ <para>This problem is the <quote>opposite</quote> of the
staircase effect, described above, and is much rarer.
Somewhere, the LF characters that FreeBSD uses to end a line
are being treated as CR characters to return the print
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml
index c6ff707515..0222980a24 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml,v 1.29 2000/04/26 19:25:05 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml,v 1.30 2000/05/23 22:46:03 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="security">
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@
<para>Security is a function that begins and ends with the system
administrator. While all BSD UNIX multi-user systems have some
inherent security, the job of building and maintaining additional
- security mechanisms to keep those users &ldquo;honest&rdquo; is
+ security mechanisms to keep those users <quote>honest</quote> is
probably one of the single largest undertakings of the sysadmin.
Machines are only as secure as you make them, and security concerns
are ever competing with the human necessity for convenience. UNIX
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@
internetworked, security becomes an ever bigger issue.</para>
<para>Security is best implemented through a layered
- &ldquo;onion&rdquo; approach. In a nutshell, what you want to do is
+ <quote>onion</quote> approach. In a nutshell, what you want to do is
to create as many layers of security as are convenient and then
carefully monitor the system for intrusions. You do not want to
overbuild your security or you will interefere with the detection
@@ -128,7 +128,7 @@
off the hole the hacker found to break in in the first place.</para>
<para>Security remedies should always be implemented with a
- multi-layered &ldquo;onion peel&rdquo; approach and can be
+ multi-layered <quote>onion peel</quote> approach and can be
categorized as follows:</para>
<orderedlist>
@@ -606,15 +606,15 @@
The idea here is to prevent saturation attacks from outside your
LAN, not so much to protect internal services from network-based
root compromise. Always configure an exclusive firewall, i.e.,
- &ldquo;firewall everything <emphasis>except</emphasis> ports A, B,
- C, D, and M-Z&rdquo;. This way you can firewall off all of your
+ <quote>firewall everything <emphasis>except</emphasis> ports A, B,
+ C, D, and M-Z</quote>. This way you can firewall off all of your
low ports except for certain specific services such as
<application>named</application> (if you are primary for a zone),
<application>ntalkd</application>,
<application>sendmail</application>, and other internet-accessible
services. If you try to configure the firewall the other way
&ndash; as an inclusive or permissive firewall, there is a good
- chance that you will forget to &ldquo;close&rdquo; a couple of
+ chance that you will forget to <quote>close</quote> a couple of
services or that you will add a new internal service and forget
to update the firewall. You can still open up the high-numbered
port range on the firewall to allow permissive-like operation
@@ -746,13 +746,13 @@
their account. It seems obvious that these passwords need to be
known only to the user and the actual operating system. In
order to keep these passwords secret, they are encrypted with
- what is known as a &ldquo;one-way hash&rdquo;, that is, they can
+ what is known as a <quote>one-way hash</quote>, that is, they can
only be easily encrypted but not decrypted. In other words, what
we told you a moment ago was obvious is not even true: the
operating system itself does not <emphasis>really</emphasis> know
the password. It only knows the <emphasis>encrypted</emphasis>
form of the password. The only way to get the
- &ldquo;plain-text&rdquo; password is by a brute force search of the
+ <quote>plain-text</quote> password is by a brute force search of the
space of possible passwords.</para>
<para>Unfortunately the only secure way to encrypt passwords when
@@ -823,16 +823,16 @@ lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 15 Mar 19 06:56 libcrypt_p.a -&gt; libdescrypt_p.a</s
<para>There are three different sorts of passwords which we will talk
about in the discussion below. The first is your usual UNIX-style or
- Kerberos password; we will call this a &ldquo;UNIX password&rdquo;.
+ Kerberos password; we will call this a <quote>UNIX password</quote>.
The second sort is the one-time password which is generated by the
S/Key <command>key</command> program and accepted by the
<command>keyinit</command> program and the login prompt; we will
- call this a &ldquo;one-time password&rdquo;. The final sort of
+ call this a <quote>one-time password</quote>. The final sort of
password is the secret password which you give to the
<command>key</command> program (and sometimes the
<command>keyinit</command> program) which it uses to generate
- one-time passwords; we will call it a &ldquo;secret password&rdquo;
- or just unqualified &ldquo;password&rdquo;.</para>
+ one-time passwords; we will call it a <quote>secret password</quote>
+ or just unqualified <quote>password</quote>.</para>
<para>The secret password does not have anything to do with your UNIX
password; they can be the same but this is not reccomended. S/Key
@@ -844,9 +844,9 @@ lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 15 Mar 19 06:56 libcrypt_p.a -&gt; libdescrypt_p.a</s
<para>Besides the password, there are two other pieces of data that
are important to S/Key. One is what is known as the
- &ldquo;seed&rdquo; or &ldquo;key&rdquo; and consists of two letters
- and five digits. The other is what is called the &ldquo;iteration
- count&rdquo; and is a number between 1 and 100. S/Key creates the
+ <quote>seed</quote> or <quote>key</quote> and consists of two letters
+ and five digits. The other is what is called the <quote>iteration
+ count</quote> and is a number between 1 and 100. S/Key creates the
one-time password by concatenating the seed and the secret password,
then applying the MD4 hash as many times as specified by the
iteration count and turning the result into six short English words.
@@ -911,7 +911,7 @@ DEFY CLUB PRO NASH LACE SOFT</screen>
<para>At the <prompt>Enter secret password:</prompt> prompt you
should enter a password or phrase. Remember, this is not the
password that you will use to login with, this is used to generate
- your one-time login keys. The &ldquo;ID&rdquo; line gives the
+ your one-time login keys. The <quote>ID</quote> line gives the
parameters of your particular S/Key instance; your login name, the
iteration count, and seed. When logging in with S/Key, the system
will remember these parameters and present them back to you so you
@@ -1175,7 +1175,7 @@ ARC.NASA.GOV trident.arc.nasa.gov</screen>
<para>The first line names the realm in which this system works. The
other lines contain realm/host entries. The first item on a line is a
realm, and the second is a host in that realm that is acting as a
- &ldquo;key distribution centre&rdquo;. The words <literal>admin
+ <quote>key distribution centre</quote>. The words <literal>admin
server</literal> following a hosts name means that host also
provides an administrative database server. For further explanation
of these terms, please consult the Kerberos man pages.</para>
@@ -1572,7 +1572,7 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
<note>
<para>People often think that having a firewall between your
- internal network and the &ldquo;Big Bad Internet&rdquo; will solve all
+ internal network and the <quote>Big Bad Internet</quote> will solve all
your security problems. It may help, but a poorly setup firewall
system is more of a security risk than not having one at all. A
firewall can add another layer of security to your systems, but it
@@ -1626,8 +1626,8 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
obeyed. The rule action could be to drop the packet, to forward the
packet, or even to send an ICMP message back to the originator.
Only the first match counts, as the rules are searched in order.
- Hence, the list of rules can be referred to as a &ldquo;rule
- chain&rdquo;.</para>
+ Hence, the list of rules can be referred to as a <quote>rule
+ chain</quote>.</para>
<para>The packet matching criteria varies depending on the software
used, but typically you can specify rules which depend on the source
@@ -1652,7 +1652,7 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
<para>Proxy servers are normally more secure than normal servers, and
often have a wider variety of authentication mechanisms available,
- including &ldquo;one-shot&rdquo; password systems so that even if
+ including <quote>one-shot</quote> password systems so that even if
someone manages to discover what password you used, they will not be
able to use it to gain access to your systems as the password
instantly expires. As they do not actually give users access to the
@@ -1963,8 +1963,8 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
192.216.222) to be matched.
<option><replaceable>mask-pattern</replaceable></option> is an IP
address which will be logically AND'ed with the address given. The
- keyword <literal>any</literal> may be used to specify &ldquo;any IP
- address&rdquo;.</para>
+ keyword <literal>any</literal> may be used to specify <quote>any IP
+ address</quote>.</para>
<para>The port numbers to be blocked are specified as:
@@ -2330,7 +2330,7 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
crypto sources from <hostid
role="fqdn">internat.FreeBSD.org</hostid> (the International
Crypto Repository) or an international mirror site, will build a
- version of OpenSSL which includes the &ldquo;native&rdquo; OpenSSL
+ version of OpenSSL which includes the <quote>native</quote> OpenSSL
implementation of
RSA, but does not include IDEA, because the latter is restricted
in certain locations elsewhere in the world. In the future a more
@@ -2350,12 +2350,12 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
the standard OpenSSL RSA code may not be used in the USA, and has been
removed from the version of OpenSSL carried on USA mirror sites.
The RSA patent is due to expire on September 20, 2000, at which
- time it is intended to add the &ldquo;full&rdquo; RSA code back to
+ time it is intended to add the <quote>full</quote> RSA code back to
the USA version of OpenSSL.</para>
<para>However (and fortunately), the RSA patent holder (<ulink
url="http://www.rsasecurity.com/">RSA Security</ulink>, has
- provided a &ldquo;RSA reference implementation&rdquo; toolkit
+ provided a <quote>RSA reference implementation</quote> toolkit
(RSAREF) which is available for <emphasis>certain classes of
use</emphasis>, including <emphasis>non-commercial use</emphasis>
(see the RSAREF license for their definition of
@@ -2371,7 +2371,7 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
terms.</para>
<para> The RSAREF implementation is inferior to the
- &ldquo;native&rdquo OpenSSL implementation (it is much slower,
+ <quote>native</quote> OpenSSL implementation (it is much slower,
and cannot be used with keys larger than 1024 bits). If you are not
located in the USA then you are doing yourself a disadvantage by
using RSAREF.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml
index 20891636d2..5edffa56cb 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml,v 1.16 2000/03/11 19:38:37 nbm Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml,v 1.17 2000/04/03 04:36:10 unfurl Exp $
-->
<chapter id="serialcomms">
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@
<para>UNIX has always had support for serial communications. In fact,
the very first UNIX machines relied on serial lines for user input
and output. Things have changed a lot from the days when the average
- &ldquo;terminal&rdquo; consisted of a 10-character-per-second serial
+ <quote>terminal</quote> consisted of a 10-character-per-second serial
printer and a keyboard. This chapter will cover some of the ways in
which FreeBSD uses serial communications.</para>
</sect1>
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@
<para>When you change the settings to this device, the settings are in
effect until the device is closed. When it is reopened, it goes back to
the default set. To make changes to the default set, you can open and
- adjust the settings of the &ldquo;initial state&rdquo; device. For
+ adjust the settings of the <quote>initial state</quote> device. For
example, to turn on <acronym>CLOCAL</acronym> mode, 8 bits, and
<emphasis>XON/XOFF</emphasis> flow control by default for ttyd5,
do:</para>
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@
liking, though.</para>
<para>You can also prevent certain settings from being changed by an
- application by making adjustments to the &ldquo;lock state&rdquo;
+ application by making adjustments to the <quote>lock state</quote>
device. For example, to lock the speed of <filename>ttyd5</filename> to
57600 bps, do</para>
@@ -123,7 +123,7 @@
<para>Dumb terminals are specialized pieces of hardware that let you
connect to computers over serial lines. They are called
- &ldquo;dumb&rdquo; because they have only enough computational power
+ <quote>dumb</quote> because they have only enough computational power
to display, send, and receive text. You cannot run any programs on
them. It is the computer to which you connect them that has all the
power to run text editors, compilers, email, games, and so
@@ -215,9 +215,9 @@
<title>Null-modem cables</title>
<para>A null-modem cable passes some signals straight through, like
- &ldquo;signal ground,&rdquo; but switches other signals. For
- example, the &ldquo;send data&rdquo; pin on one end goes to the
- &ldquo;receive data&rdquo; pin on the other end.</para>
+ <quote>signal ground,</quote> but switches other signals. For
+ example, the <quote>send data</quote> pin on one end goes to the
+ <quote>receive data</quote> pin on the other end.</para>
<para>If you like making your own cables, here is a table showing a
recommended way to construct a null-modem cable for use with
@@ -315,8 +315,8 @@
<title>Standard RS-232C Cables</title>
<para>A standard serial cable passes all the RS-232C signals
- straight-through. That is, the &ldquo;send data&rdquo; pin on one
- end of the cable goes to the &ldquo;send data&rdquo; pin on the
+ straight-through. That is, the <quote>send data</quote> pin on one
+ end of the cable goes to the <quote>send data</quote> pin on the
other end. This is the type of cable to connect a modem to your
FreeBSD system, and the type of cable needed for some
terminals.</para>
@@ -430,12 +430,12 @@
</step>
<step>
- <para>Set the port to &ldquo;on.&rdquo;</para>
+ <para>Set the port to <quote>on.</quote></para>
</step>
<step>
<para>Specify whether the port should be
- &ldquo;secure.&rdquo;</para>
+ <quote>secure.</quote></para>
</step>
<step>
@@ -598,7 +598,7 @@ ttyd5 "/usr/libexec/getty std.19200" vt100 on</programlisting>
optional <literal>window</literal> specifier, but we will ignore
that). The last field tells whether the port is secure.</para>
- <para>What does &ldquo;secure&rdquo; mean?</para>
+ <para>What does <quote>secure</quote> mean?</para>
<para>It means that the root account (or any account with a user ID of
0) may login on the port. Insecure ports do not allow root to
@@ -625,7 +625,7 @@ ttyd5 "/usr/libexec/getty std.19200" vt100 on</programlisting>
<para>Which should you use?</para>
- <para>Just use &ldquo;insecure.&rdquo; Use &ldquo;insecure&rdquo;
+ <para>Just use <quote>insecure.</quote> Use <quote>insecure</quote>
<emphasis>even</emphasis> for terminals <emphasis>not</emphasis> in
public user areas or behind locked doors. It is quite easy to login
and use <command>su</command> if you need superuser
@@ -734,8 +734,8 @@ ttyd5 "/usr/libexec/getty std.19200" vt100 on insecure # Guest bathroom</pro
<listitem>
<para>Switch the terminal (or the terminal emulation software)
- from &ldquo;half duplex&rdquo; or &ldquo;local echo&rdquo; to
- &ldquo;full duplex.&rdquo;</para>
+ from <quote>half duplex</quote> or <quote>local echo</quote> to
+ <quote>full duplex.</quote></para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
@@ -825,10 +825,10 @@ ttyd5 "/usr/libexec/getty std.19200" vt100 on insecure # Guest bathroom</pro
good reference.</para>
<para>When talking about communications data rates, the author does
- not use the term &ldquo;baud&rdquo;. Baud refers to the number of
+ not use the term <quote>baud</quote>. Baud refers to the number of
electrical state transitions that may be made in a period of time,
- while &ldquo;bps&rdquo; (bits per second) is the
- &ldquo;correct&rdquo; term to use (at least it does not seem to
+ while <quote>bps</quote> (bits per second) is the
+ <quote>correct</quote> term to use (at least it does not seem to
bother the curmudgeons quite a much).</para>
</sect3>
@@ -996,7 +996,7 @@ ttyd5 "/usr/libexec/getty std.19200" vt100 on insecure # Guest bathroom</pro
ports, known in the PC-DOS world as <devicename>COM1:</devicename>,
<devicename>COM2:</devicename>, <devicename>COM3:</devicename>, and
<devicename>COM4:</devicename>. FreeBSD can presently also handle
- &ldquo;dumb&rdquo; multiport serial interface cards, such as the Boca
+ <quote>dumb</quote> multiport serial interface cards, such as the Boca
Board 1008 and 2016 (please see the manual page &man.sio.4; for kernel
configuration information if you have a multiport serial card). The
default kernel only looks for the standard COM ports, though.</para>
@@ -1027,9 +1027,9 @@ sio3: type 16550A</screen>
system.</para>
<para>Please see the BSD System Manager's Manual chapter on
- &ldquo;Building Berkeley Kernels with Config&rdquo; [the source for
+ <quote>Building Berkeley Kernels with Config</quote> [the source for
which is in <filename>/usr/src/share/doc/smm</filename>] and
- &ldquo;FreeBSD Configuration Options&rdquo; [in
+ <quote>FreeBSD Configuration Options</quote> [in
<filename>/sys/conf/options</filename> and in
<filename>/sys/<replaceable>arch</replaceable>/conf/options.<replaceable>arch</replaceable></filename>,
with <emphasis>arch</emphasis> for example being
@@ -1080,8 +1080,8 @@ device sio3 at isa? port "IO_COM4" tty irq 9 vector siointr</programlisting>
</note>
<para>When you are finished adjusting the kernel configuration file, use
- the program <command>config</command> as documented in &ldquo;Building
- Berkeley Kernels with Config&rdquo; and the
+ the program <command>config</command> as documented in <quote>Building
+ Berkeley Kernels with Config</quote> and the
&man.config.8; manual page to prepare a kernel building directory,
then build, install, and test the new kernel.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -1089,8 +1089,8 @@ device sio3 at isa? port "IO_COM4" tty irq 9 vector siointr</programlisting>
<sect2>
<title>Device Special Files</title>
- <para>Most devices in the kernel are accessed through &ldquo;device
- special files&rdquo;, which are located in the
+ <para>Most devices in the kernel are accessed through <quote>device
+ special files</quote>, which are located in the
<filename>/dev</filename> directory. The <devicename>sio</devicename>
devices are accessed through the
<filename>/dev/ttyd<replaceable>?</replaceable></filename> (dial-in)
@@ -1191,12 +1191,12 @@ crw-rw---- 1 uucp dialer 28, 193 Feb 15 14:38 /dev/cual01</screen>
assumed that they know they should press the
<literal>&lt;Enter&gt;</literal> key until they see a recognizable
prompt. If the data rates do not match, <command>getty</command> sees
- anything the user types as &ldquo;junk&rdquo;, tries going to the next
+ anything the user types as <quote>junk</quote>, tries going to the next
speed and gives the <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt again. This
procedure can continue ad nauseum, but normally only takes a keystroke
or two before the user sees a good prompt. Obviously, this login
sequence does not look as clean as the former
- &ldquo;locked-speed&rdquo; method, but a user on a low-speed
+ <quote>locked-speed</quote> method, but a user on a low-speed
connection should receive better interactive response from full-screen
programs.</para>
@@ -1274,10 +1274,10 @@ uq|V19200|High Speed Modem at 19200,8-bit:\
(for a V.32bis connection), then cycles through 9600 bps (for
V.32), 2400 bps, 1200 bps, 300 bps, and back to 19.2 Kbps.
Communications rate cycling is implemented with the
- <literal>nx=</literal> (&ldquo;next table&rdquo;) capability.
- Each of the lines uses a <literal>tc=</literal> (&ldquo;table
- continuation&rdquo;) entry to pick up the rest of the
- &ldquo;standard&rdquo; settings for a particular data rate.</para>
+ <literal>nx=</literal> (<quote>next table</quote>) capability.
+ Each of the lines uses a <literal>tc=</literal> (<quote>table
+ continuation</quote>) entry to pick up the rest of the
+ <quote>standard</quote> settings for a particular data rate.</para>
<para>If you have a 28.8 Kbps modem and/or you want to take
advantage of compression on a 14.4 Kbps modem, you need to use a
@@ -1302,7 +1302,7 @@ vq|VH57600|Very High Speed Modem at 57600,8-bit:\
<para>If you have a slow CPU or a heavily loaded system and you do
not have 16550A-based serial ports, you may receive sio
- &ldquo;silo&rdquo; errors at 57.6 Kbps.</para>
+ <quote>silo</quote> errors at 57.6 Kbps.</para>
</sect4>
</sect3>
@@ -1387,7 +1387,7 @@ ttyd0 "/usr/libexec/getty std.19200" dialup on</programlisting>
<para>In a matching-speed configuration, your
<filename>ttys</filename> entry needs to reference the appropriate
- beginning &ldquo;auto-baud&rdquo; (sic) entry in
+ beginning <quote>auto-baud</quote> (sic) entry in
<filename>/etc/gettytab</filename>. For example, if you added the
above suggested entry for a matching-speed modem that starts at
19.2 Kbps (the <filename>gettytab</filename> entry containing the
@@ -1782,7 +1782,7 @@ AT&amp;B2&amp;W</programlisting>
<sect2 id="direct-at">
<title>How am I expected to enter these AT commands?</title>
- <para>Make what is called a &ldquo;direct&rdquo; entry in your
+ <para>Make what is called a <quote>direct</quote> entry in your
<filename>/etc/remote</filename> file. For example, if your modem is
hooked up to the first serial port, <filename>/dev/cuaa0</filename>,
then put in the following line:</para>
@@ -1828,7 +1828,7 @@ pn=\@</programlisting>
<sect2>
<title>How can I dial a phone number on the command line?</title>
- <para>Put what is called a &ldquo;generic&rdquo; entry in your
+ <para>Put what is called a <quote>generic</quote> entry in your
<filename>/etc/remote</filename> file. For example:</para>
<programlisting>
@@ -1918,11 +1918,11 @@ big-university 5551114</programlisting>
<sect2>
<title>Why do I have to hit CTRL+P twice to send CTRL+P once?</title>
- <para>CTRL+P is the default &ldquo;force&rdquo; character, used to tell
+ <para>CTRL+P is the default <quote>force</quote> character, used to tell
<command>tip</command> that the next character is literal data. You
can set the force character to any other character with the
- <command>~s</command> escape, which means &ldquo;set a
- variable.&rdquo;</para>
+ <command>~s</command> escape, which means <quote>set a
+ variable.</quote></para>
<para>Type
<command>~sforce=<replaceable>single-char</replaceable></command>
@@ -1946,7 +1946,7 @@ force=&lt;single-char&gt;</programlisting>
<title>Suddenly everything I type is in UPPER CASE??</title>
<para>You must have pressed CTRL+A, <command>tip</command>'s
- &ldquo;raise character,&rdquo; specially designed for people with
+ <quote>raise character,</quote> specially designed for people with
broken caps-lock keys. Use <command>~s</command> as above and set the
variable <literal>raisechar</literal> to something reasonable. In
fact, you can set it to the same as the force character, if you never
@@ -2076,13 +2076,13 @@ raisechar=^^</programlisting>
on how to do this.</para>
<tip>
- <para>Setting the keyboard to &ldquo;Not installed&rdquo; in the
+ <para>Setting the keyboard to <quote>Not installed</quote> in the
BIOS setup does <emphasis>not</emphasis> mean that you will not
be able to use your keyboard. All this does is tell the BIOS
not to probe for a keyboard at power-on so that it will not
complain if the keyboard is not plugged in. You can leave the
- keyboard plugged in even with this flag set to &ldquo;Not
- installed&rdquo; and the keyboard will still work.</para>
+ keyboard plugged in even with this flag set to <quote>Not
+ installed</quote> and the keyboard will still work.</para>
</tip>
<note>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml
index 0ef31311eb..a0ac0c009e 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml,v 1.121 2000/05/26 15:21:38 jwd Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml,v 1.122 2000/05/27 02:07:00 billf Exp $
-->
<!--
@@ -18,8 +18,8 @@
<sect1 id="staff-core">
<title>The FreeBSD Core Team</title>
- <para>The FreeBSD core team constitutes the project's &ldquo;Board of
- Directors&rdquo;, responsible for deciding the project's overall goals
+ <para>The FreeBSD core team constitutes the project's <quote>Board of
+ Directors</quote>, responsible for deciding the project's overall goals
and direction as well as managing <link linkend="staff-who">specific
areas</link> of the FreeBSD project landscape.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml
index 090af3974f..71f22c7765 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml,v 1.9 2000/03/21 07:27:21 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml,v 1.10 2000/03/21 07:52:43 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="x11">
@@ -325,13 +325,13 @@
<row>
<entry><filename>Xlk98.tgz</filename></entry>
- <entry>The &ldquo;link kit&rdquo; for building servers,
+ <entry>The <quote>link kit</quote> for building servers,
Japanese PC98 version.</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry><filename>Xlkit.tgz</filename></entry>
- <entry>The &ldquo;link kit&rdquo; for building servers,
+ <entry>The <quote>link kit</quote> for building servers,
normal PC architecture.</entry>
</row>
@@ -647,8 +647,8 @@ Password:
<para>You do not need to uncompress the font files, but if you
do, you must run <command>mkfontdir</command> in the
corresponding font directory, otherwise your server will abort
- with the message &ldquo;could not open default font
- `fixed'&rdquo;.</para>
+ with the message <quote>could not open default font
+ `fixed'</quote>.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
@@ -718,8 +718,8 @@ ttyv3 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 off secure</screen>
<para>How do you decide what your hardware is? The manufacturer
should tell you, but very often the information you get about
- your display board and monitor is pitiful; &ldquo;Super VGA
- board with 76 Hz refresh rate and 16,777,216 colors&rdquo;.
+ your display board and monitor is pitiful; <quote>Super VGA
+ board with 76 Hz refresh rate and 16,777,216 colors</quote>.
This tells you the maximum pixel depth (24 bits &ndash; - the
number of colors is 2(pixel depth)), but it doesn't tell you
anything else about the display board.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml
index 438549e67f..2268cea7d6 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml,v 1.23 2000/04/06 20:43:06 gsutter Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking/chapter.sgml,v 1.24 2000/05/02 22:40:41 unfurl Exp $
-->
<chapter id="advanced-networking">
@@ -23,16 +23,16 @@
<para>For one machine to be able to find another, there must be a
mechanism in place to describe how to get from one to the other. This is
- called Routing. A &ldquo;route&rdquo; is a defined pair of addresses: a
- &ldquo;destination&rdquo; and a &ldquo;gateway&rdquo;. The pair
+ called Routing. A <quote>route</quote> is a defined pair of addresses: a
+ <quote>destination</quote> and a <quote>gateway</quote>. The pair
indicates that if you are trying to get to this
<emphasis>destination</emphasis>, send along through this
<emphasis>gateway</emphasis>. There are three types of destinations:
- individual hosts, subnets, and &ldquo;default&rdquo;. The
- &ldquo;default route&rdquo; is used if none of the other routes apply.
+ individual hosts, subnets, and <quote>default</quote>. The
+ <quote>default route</quote> is used if none of the other routes apply.
We will talk a little bit more about default routes later on. There are
also three types of gateways: individual hosts, interfaces (also called
- &ldquo;links&rdquo;), and ethernet hardware addresses.</para>
+ <quote>links</quote>), and ethernet hardware addresses.</para>
<sect2>
<title>An example</title>
@@ -171,7 +171,7 @@ host2.foobar.com link#1 UC 0 0
interface.</para>
<para>If all known paths fail, the system has one last option: the
- &ldquo;default&rdquo; route. This route is a special type of gateway
+ <quote>default</quote> route. This route is a special type of gateway
route (usually the only one present in the system), and is always
marked with a <literal>c</literal> in the flags field. For hosts on a
local area network, this gateway is set to whatever machine has a
@@ -224,9 +224,9 @@ host2.foobar.com link#1 UC 0 0
</tgroup>
</informaltable>
- <para>A common question is &ldquo;Why (or how) would we set the T1-GW to
+ <para>A common question is <quote>Why (or how) would we set the T1-GW to
be the default gateway for Local1, rather than the ISP server it is
- connected to?&rdquo;.</para>
+ connected to?</quote>.</para>
<para>Remember, since the PPP interface is using an address on the ISP's
local network for your side of the connection, routes for any other
@@ -291,7 +291,7 @@ Local1 (10.20.30.1, 10.9.9.30) --&gt; T1-GW (10.9.9.1)
<para>There is a system (much like the distributed DNS information) that
keeps track of all assigned address-spaces, and defines their point of
- connection to the Internet Backbone. The &ldquo;Backbone&rdquo; are
+ connection to the Internet Backbone. The <quote>Backbone</quote> are
the main trunk lines that carry Internet traffic across the country,
and around the world. Each backbone machine has a copy of a master
set of tables, which direct traffic for a particular network to a
@@ -427,7 +427,7 @@ nfs_client_flags="-n 4"</programlisting>
<para>The last configuration step requires that you create a file
called <filename>/etc/exports</filename>. The exports file
specifies which file systems on your server will be shared
- (a.k.a., &ldquo;exported&rdquo;) and with what clients they will
+ (a.k.a., <quote>exported</quote>) and with what clients they will
be shared. Each line in the file specifies a file system to be
shared. There are a handful of options that can be used in this
file but I will only touch on a few of them. You can find out
@@ -557,7 +557,7 @@ nfs_client_flags="-n 4"</programlisting>
reset the client, because the NFS situation cannot be
resolved.</para>
- <para>Though the &ldquo;correct&rdquo; solution is to get a higher
+ <para>Though the <quote>correct</quote> solution is to get a higher
performance and capacity Ethernet adapter for the FreeBSD system,
there is a simple workaround that will allow satisfactory
operation. If the FreeBSD system is the
@@ -614,9 +614,9 @@ freebox:/sharedfs /project nfs rw,-w=1024 0 0</programlisting>
<para>For anyone who cares, here is what happens when the failure
occurs, which also explains why it is unrecoverable. NFS
- typically works with a &ldquo;block&rdquo; size of 8k (though it
+ typically works with a <quote>block</quote> size of 8k (though it
may do fragments of smaller sizes). Since the maximum Ethernet
- packet is around 1500 bytes, the NFS &ldquo;block&rdquo; gets
+ packet is around 1500 bytes, the NFS <quote>block</quote> gets
split into multiple Ethernet packets, even though it is still a
single unit to the upper-level code, and must be received,
assembled, and <emphasis>acknowledged</emphasis> as a unit. The
@@ -637,7 +637,7 @@ freebox:/sharedfs /project nfs rw,-w=1024 0 0</programlisting>
<para>Overruns may still occur when a high-performance workstations
is slamming data out to a PC system, but with the better cards,
- such overruns are not guaranteed on NFS &ldquo;units&rdquo;. When
+ such overruns are not guaranteed on NFS <quote>units</quote>. When
an overrun occurs, the units affected will be retransmitted, and
there will be a fair chance that they will be received, assembled,
and acknowledged.</para>
@@ -1196,9 +1196,9 @@ ISDN BRI line</programlisting>
<sect4>
<title>Choosing a NIS Domain Name</title>
- <para>This might not be the &ldquo;domainname&rdquo; that you
+ <para>This might not be the <quote>domainname</quote> that you
are used to. It is more accurately called the
- &ldquo;NIS domainname&rdquo;. When a client broadcasts its
+ <quote>NIS domainname</quote>. When a client broadcasts its
requests for info, it includes the name of the NIS domain
that it is part of. This is how multiple servers on one
network can tell which server should answer which request.
@@ -1375,7 +1375,7 @@ nis_yppasswdd_flags=""</programlisting>
<para>Setting up an NIS slave server is even more simple than
setting up the master. Again the <command>ypinit</command>
command helps out a great deal. As in the previous example
- we'll use &ldquo;test-domain&rdquo; as our target NIS
+ we'll use <quote>test-domain</quote> as our target NIS
domainname.</para>
<screen>
@@ -1478,7 +1478,7 @@ Don't forget to update map ypservers on master.example.com.</screen>
use the address of the first one to respond. From that point
on, the client system will direct all of its NIS requests to
that server. <application>Ypbind</application> will
- occasionally &ldquo;ping&rdquo; the server to make sure it is
+ occasionally <quote>ping</quote> the server to make sure it is
still up and running. If it fails to receive a reply to one of
its pings within a reasonable amount of time,
<command>ypbind</command> will mark the domain as unbound and
@@ -1549,7 +1549,7 @@ Don't forget to update map ypservers on master.example.com.</screen>
<para>This path varies depending on the path specified with the
<option>-p</option> option. This file contains entries that
consist of a network specification and a network mask separated
- by white space. Lines starting with &ldquo;#&rdquo; are
+ by white space. Lines starting with <quote>#</quote> are
considered to be comments. A sample securenets file might look
like this:</para>
</note>
@@ -1579,7 +1579,7 @@ Don't forget to update map ypservers on master.example.com.</screen>
<note>
<para>While both of these access control mechanisms provide some
security, they, like the privileged port test, are both
- vulnerable to &ldquo;IP spoofing&rdquo; attacks.</para>
+ vulnerable to <quote>IP spoofing</quote> attacks.</para>
</note>
</sect2>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml
index 4d4478454d..b6c5c3c292 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml,v 1.21 2000/05/06 10:56:51 nik Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/backups/chapter.sgml,v 1.22 2000/05/15 00:10:38 joe Exp $
-->
<chapter id="backups">
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@
with 6 drives and 120 tapes in a single cabinet. Tapes are changed
automatically by the unit. Library capacities reach 840+ GB.</para>
- <para>The Exabyte &ldquo;Mammoth&rdquo; model supports 12GB on one tape
+ <para>The Exabyte <quote>Mammoth</quote> model supports 12GB on one tape
(24MB with compression) and costs approximately twice as much as
conventional tape drives.</para>
@@ -327,18 +327,18 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
<sect2>
<title>Do Nothing</title>
- <para>&ldquo;Do nothing&rdquo; is not a computer program, but it is the
+ <para><quote>Do nothing</quote> is not a computer program, but it is the
most widely used backup strategy. There are no initial costs. There
is no backup schedule to follow. Just say no. If something happens
to your data, grin and bear it!</para>
<para>If your time and your data is worth little to nothing, then
- &ldquo;Do nothing&rdquo; is the most suitable backup program for your
+ <quote>Do nothing</quote> is the most suitable backup program for your
computer. But beware, Unix is a useful tool, you may find that within
six months you have a collection of files that are valuable to
you.</para>
- <para>&ldquo;Do nothing&rdquo; is the correct backup method for
+ <para><quote>Do nothing</quote> is the correct backup method for
<filename>/usr/obj</filename> and other directory trees that can be
exactly recreated by your computer. An example is the files that
comprise these handbook pages-they have been generated from
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml
index a430b5584a..65b507e785 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml,v 1.18 2000/04/25 18:31:11 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/basics/chapter.sgml,v 1.19 2000/05/19 07:35:46 murray Exp $
-->
<chapter id="basics">
@@ -339,7 +339,7 @@
<command>chsh</command> command. Running <command>chsh</command> will
place you into the editor that is in your <envar>EDITOR</envar>
environment variable; if it is not set, you will be placed in
- <command>vi</command>. Change the &ldquo;Shell:&rdquo; line
+ <command>vi</command>. Change the <quote>Shell:</quote> line
accordingly.</para>
<para>You can also give <command>chsh</command> the
@@ -491,7 +491,7 @@
<para><command>&prompt.user; man -k mail</command></para>
<para>With this command you will be presented with a list of
- commands that have the keyword &ldquo;mail&rdquo; in their
+ commands that have the keyword <quote>mail</quote> in their
descriptions. This is actually functionally equivalent to using
the apropos command.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml
index 8d62f217d8..44ce8ca23b 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml,v 1.20 2000/03/01 17:31:29 chris Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography/chapter.sgml,v 1.21 2000/03/11 19:38:22 nbm Exp $
-->
<appendix id="bibliography">
@@ -232,7 +232,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Wells, Bill. &ldquo;Writing Serial Drivers for UNIX&rdquo;.
+ <para>Wells, Bill. <quote>Writing Serial Drivers for UNIX</quote>.
<emphasis>Dr. Dobb's Journal</emphasis>. 19(15), December 1994.
pp68-71, 97-99.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -250,7 +250,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Jolitz, William. &ldquo;Porting UNIX to the 386&rdquo;.
+ <para>Jolitz, William. <quote>Porting UNIX to the 386</quote>.
<emphasis>Dr. Dobb's Journal</emphasis>. January 1991-July
1992.</para>
</listitem>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml
index a85ce56ffe..611d7cbf79 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml,v 1.214 2000/06/02 15:35:18 will Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/contrib/chapter.sgml,v 1.215 2000/06/05 13:32:27 will Exp $
-->
<chapter id="contrib">
@@ -156,8 +156,8 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Make it possible to upload a list of &ldquo;allowed
- program&rdquo; to BPF, and then block BPF from accepting other
+ <para>Make it possible to upload a list of <quote>allowed
+ program</quote> to BPF, and then block BPF from accepting other
programs. This would allow BPF to be used e.g. for DHCP,
without allowing an attacker to start snooping the local
network.</para>
@@ -482,7 +482,7 @@
<para>An addition or change to the existing source code is a somewhat
trickier affair and depends a lot on how far out of date you are with
the current state of the core FreeBSD development. There is a special
- on-going release of FreeBSD known as &ldquo;FreeBSD-current&rdquo;
+ on-going release of FreeBSD known as <quote>FreeBSD-current</quote>
which is made available in a variety of ways for the convenience of
developers working actively on the system. See <link
linkend="current">Staying current with FreeBSD</link> for more
@@ -497,7 +497,7 @@
<para>Assuming that you can manage to secure fairly up-to-date sources
to base your changes on, the next step is to produce a set of diffs to
send to the FreeBSD maintainers. This is done with the &man.diff.1;
- command, with the &ldquo;context diff&rdquo; form
+ command, with the <quote>context diff</quote> form
being preferred. For example:</para>
<para>
@@ -557,7 +557,7 @@
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
<para>The BSD copyright. This copyright is most preferred due to
- its &ldquo;no strings attached&rdquo; nature and general
+ its <quote>no strings attached</quote> nature and general
attractiveness to commercial enterprises. Far from discouraging
such commercial use, the FreeBSD Project actively encourages such
participation by commercial interests who might eventually be
@@ -565,7 +565,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>The GNU Public License, or &ldquo;GPL&rdquo;. This license is
+ <para>The GNU Public License, or <quote>GPL</quote>. This license is
not quite as popular with us due to the amount of extra effort
demanded of anyone using the code for commercial purposes, but
given the sheer quantity of GPL'd code we currently require
@@ -585,7 +585,7 @@
are always encouraged to make such changes available through their own
channels.</para>
- <para>To place a &ldquo;BSD-style&rdquo; copyright on your work, include
+ <para>To place a <quote>BSD-style</quote> copyright on your work, include
the following text at the very beginning of every source code file you
wish to protect, replacing the text between the <literal>%%</literal>
with the appropriate information.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml
index ecbdd35156..009aae8860 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml,v 1.45 2000/05/22 18:13:12 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/cutting-edge/chapter.sgml,v 1.46 2000/06/07 23:13:33 nik Exp $
-->
<chapter id="cutting-edge">
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@
<title>Staying Current with FreeBSD</title>
<para>As you are reading this, keep in mind that -CURRENT is the
- &ldquo;bleeding edge&rdquo; of FreeBSD development and that if you
+ <quote>bleeding edge</quote> of FreeBSD development and that if you
are new to FreeBSD, you are most likely going to want to think
twice about running it.</para>
@@ -65,7 +65,7 @@
<listitem>
<para>Members of the FreeBSD group who are actively working on
some part of the source tree and for whom keeping
- &ldquo;current&rdquo; is an absolute requirement.</para>
+ <quote>current</quote> is an absolute requirement.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -101,9 +101,9 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>In any way &ldquo;officially supported&rdquo; by us.
+ <para>In any way <quote>officially supported</quote> by us.
We do our best to help people genuinely in one of the 3
- &ldquo;legitimate&rdquo; FreeBSD-CURRENT categories, but we
+ <quote>legitimate</quote> FreeBSD-CURRENT categories, but we
simply <emphasis>do not have the time</emphasis> to provide
tech support for it. This is not because we are mean and
nasty people who do not like helping people out (we would
@@ -179,7 +179,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
<listitem>
<para>Use <command>ftp</command>. The source tree for
- FreeBSD-CURRENT is always &ldquo;exported&rdquo; on:
+ FreeBSD-CURRENT is always <quote>exported</quote> on:
<ulink
url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/">ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/</ulink>.
We also use <command>wu-ftpd</command> which allows
@@ -239,9 +239,9 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
you want to be running -STABLE. This is the tree that -RELEASEs
are branched from when we are putting together a new release. For
example, if you have a copy of 3.4-RELEASE, that is really just a
- &ldquo;snapshot&rdquo; from the -STABLE branch that we put on
+ <quote>snapshot</quote> from the -STABLE branch that we put on
CDROM. In order to get any changes merged into -STABLE after the
- -RELEASE, you need to &ldquo;track&rdquo; the -STABLE
+ -RELEASE, you need to <quote>track</quote> the -STABLE
branch.</para>
<sect3>
@@ -349,7 +349,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
<listitem>
<para>Use <command>ftp</command>. The source tree for
- FreeBSD-STABLE is always &ldquo;exported&rdquo; on:
+ FreeBSD-STABLE is always <quote>exported</quote> on:
<ulink
url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/FreeBSD-stable/">ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/FreeBSD-stable/</ulink></para>
@@ -426,7 +426,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
several times a day on the master CTM machine, any detected changes
being compressed, stamped with a sequence-number and encoded for
transmission over email (in printable ASCII only). Once received,
- these &ldquo;CTM deltas&rdquo; can then be handed to the
+ these <quote>CTM deltas</quote> can then be handed to the
&man.ctm.rmail.1; utility which will automatically decode, verify
and apply the changes to the user's copy of the sources. This
process is far more efficient than <application>CVSup</application>,
@@ -440,7 +440,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
<application>CTM</application> won't do this, and if you wipe some
portion of your source tree out (and don't have it backed up) then
you will have to start from scratch (from the most recent CVS
- &ldquo;base delta&rdquo;) and rebuild it all with CTM or, with
+ <quote>base delta</quote>) and rebuild it all with CTM or, with
anoncvs, simply delete the bad bits and resync.</para>
<para>More information about <application>Anonymous CVS</application>,
@@ -511,7 +511,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
- <para>Since CVS allows one to &ldquo;check out&rdquo; virtually
+ <para>Since CVS allows one to <quote>check out</quote> virtually
any version of the FreeBSD sources that ever existed (or, in
some cases, will exist <!-- smiley -->:-), you need to be
familiar with the revision (<option>-r</option>) flag to
@@ -874,7 +874,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
<para>Each remaining line describes a set of files that the user
wishes to receive. The line begins with the name of a
- &ldquo;collection&rdquo;, a logical grouping of files defined by
+ <quote>collection</quote>, a logical grouping of files defined by
the server. The name of the collection tells the server which
files you want. After the collection name come zero or more
fields, separated by white space. These fields answer the
@@ -915,7 +915,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CVSup/cvsupit.tgz</userinput></scr
<para>The files available via <application>CVSup</application>
are organized into named groups called
- &ldquo;collections&rdquo;. The collections that are
+ <quote>collections</quote>. The collections that are
available are described <link
linkend="cvsup-collec">here</link>. In this example, we
wish to receive the entire main source tree for the FreeBSD
@@ -1186,7 +1186,7 @@ cvs-crypto</programlisting>
<command>cvsup</command> maintain its status files?</para>
<para>The cvsup client maintains certain status files in what
- is called the &ldquo;base&rdquo; directory. These files
+ is called the <quote>base</quote> directory. These files
help <application>CVSup</application> to work more
efficiently, by keeping track of which updates you have
already received. We will use the standard base directory,
@@ -1274,7 +1274,7 @@ cvs-crypto</programlisting>
is of course the name of the supfile you have just created.
Assuming you are running under X11, <command>cvsup</command>
will display a GUI window with some buttons to do the usual
- things. Press the &ldquo;go&rdquo; button, and watch it
+ things. Press the <quote>go</quote> button, and watch it
run.</para>
<para>Since you are updating your actual
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml
index 4bcdeb6a17..24c97212b4 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml,v 1.17 2000/04/03 02:15:38 chris Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/disks/chapter.sgml,v 1.18 2000/04/30 22:10:06 nik Exp $
-->
<chapter id="disks">
@@ -521,7 +521,7 @@
system, you may use the <literal>dedicated</literal> mode. Remember
this mode can confuse Microsoft operating systems; however, no damage
will be done by them. IBM's OS/2 however, will
- &ldquo;appropriate&rdquo; any partition it finds which it doesn't
+ <quote>appropriate</quote> any partition it finds which it doesn't
understand.</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rda1 bs=1k count=1</userinput>
@@ -658,7 +658,7 @@ options QUOTA</programlisting>
line:</para>
<programlisting>
-enable_quotas=&ldquo;YES&rdquo;</programlisting>
+enable_quotas=<quote>YES</quote></programlisting>
<para>For finer control over your quota startup, there is an
additional configuration variable available. Normally on bootup,
@@ -672,14 +672,14 @@ enable_quotas=&ldquo;YES&rdquo;</programlisting>
purpose:</para>
<programlisting>
-check_quotas=&ldquo;NO&rdquo;</programlisting>
+check_quotas=<quote>NO</quote></programlisting>
<para>If you are running FreeBSD prior to 3.2-RELEASE, the
configuration is simpler, and consists of only one variable. Set
the following in your <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting>
-check_quotas=&ldquo;YES&rdquo;</programlisting>
+check_quotas=<quote>YES</quote></programlisting>
<para>Finally you will need to edit <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>
to enable disk quotas on a per-file system basis. This is where
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml
index 50ee7da00a..4a90d4b5d9 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml,v 1.42 2000/04/10 12:03:24 phantom Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/eresources/chapter.sgml,v 1.43 2000/04/17 16:10:31 phantom Exp $
-->
<appendix id="eresources">
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@
means of following the latest developments. Electronic resources are the
best, if not often the only, way stay informed of the latest advances.
Since FreeBSD is a volunteer effort, the user community itself also
- generally serves as a &ldquo;technical support department&rdquo; of sorts,
+ generally serves as a <quote>technical support department</quote> of sorts,
with electronic mail and USENET news being the most effective way of
reaching that community.</para>
@@ -589,7 +589,7 @@ help
<para>This is the mailing list for users of freebsd-current. It
includes warnings about new features coming out in -current that
will affect the users, and instructions on steps that must be
- taken to remain -current. Anyone running &ldquo;current&rdquo;
+ taken to remain -current. Anyone running <quote>current</quote>
must subscribe to this list. This is a technical mailing list
for which strictly technical content is expected.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -620,7 +620,7 @@ help
<para>This mailing list is for the discussion of issues and
projects related to the creation of documentation for FreeBSD.
The members of this mailing list are collectively referred to as
- &ldquo;The FreeBSD Documentation Project&rdquo;. It is an open
+ <quote>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</quote>. It is an open
list; feel free to join and contribute!</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -801,10 +801,10 @@ help
<listitem>
<para><emphasis>Discussion of
- &ldquo;ports&rdquo;</emphasis></para>
+ <quote>ports</quote></emphasis></para>
- <para>Discussions concerning FreeBSD's &ldquo;ports
- collection&rdquo; (<filename>/usr/ports</filename>), proposed
+ <para>Discussions concerning FreeBSD's <quote>ports
+ collection</quote> (<filename>/usr/ports</filename>), proposed
ports, modifications to ports collection infrastructure and
general coordination efforts. This is a technical mailing list
for which strictly technical content is expected.</para>
@@ -818,7 +818,7 @@ help
<para><emphasis>User questions</emphasis></para>
<para>This is the mailing list for questions about FreeBSD. You
- should not send &ldquo;how to&rdquo; questions to the technical
+ should not send <quote>how to</quote> questions to the technical
lists unless you consider the question to be pretty
technical.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -892,7 +892,7 @@ help
<para>This is the mailing list for users of freebsd-stable. It
includes warnings about new features coming out in -stable that
will affect the users, and instructions on steps that must be
- taken to remain -stable. Anyone running &ldquo;stable&rdquo;
+ taken to remain -stable. Anyone running <quote>stable</quote>
should subscribe to this list. This is a technical mailing list
for which strictly technical content is expected.</para>
</listitem>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml
index 834fd1ec8a..b2f9347a91 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml,v 1.30 2000/01/20 11:29:05 nbm Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/hw/chapter.sgml,v 1.31 2000/04/02 19:38:11 chris Exp $
-->
<appendix id="hw">
@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@
<para>I have had fairly good luck building workstation and server
configurations with the following components. I can't guarantee that
you will too, nor that any of the companies here will remain
- &ldquo;best buys&rdquo; forever. I will try, when I can, to keep this
+ <quote>best buys</quote> forever. I will try, when I can, to keep this
list up-to-date but cannot obviously guarantee that it will be at any
given time.</para>
@@ -138,8 +138,8 @@
<title>Disk drives</title>
<para>In this particular game of Russian roulette, I'll make few
- specific recommendations except to say &ldquo;SCSI over IDE whenever
- you can afford it.&rdquo; Even in small desktop configurations, SCSI
+ specific recommendations except to say <quote>SCSI over IDE whenever
+ you can afford it.</quote> Even in small desktop configurations, SCSI
often makes more sense since it allows you to easily migrate drives
from server to desktop as falling drive prices make it economical to
do so. If you have more than one machine to administer then think
@@ -395,8 +395,8 @@
masters, special hardware design to replace the PCI bus
arbiter (appears on Intel Altair board and several other Intel
server group MB's). And of course Intel's official answer,
- move to the Triton chip set, we &ldquo;fixed it
- there&rdquo;.</para>
+ move to the Triton chip set, we <quote>fixed it
+ there</quote>.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -499,8 +499,8 @@
<para>Pentium class machines use different clock speeds for the
various parts of the system. These being the speed of the CPU,
external memory bus, and the PCI bus. It is not always true that
- a &ldquo;faster&rdquo; processor will make a system faster than a
- &ldquo;slower&rdquo; one, due to the various clock speeds used.
+ a <quote>faster</quote> processor will make a system faster than a
+ <quote>slower</quote> one, due to the various clock speeds used.
Below is a table showing the differences:</para>
<informaltable frame="none">
@@ -634,7 +634,7 @@
<para>In 1997, there have been reports of the AMD K6 seg faulting
during heavy compilation. That problem has been fixed in 3Q '97.
- According to reports, K6 chips with date mark &ldquo;9733&rdquo;
+ According to reports, K6 chips with date mark <quote>9733</quote>
or larger (i.e., manufactured in the 33rd week of '97 or later) do
not have this bug.</para>
</sect4>
@@ -737,7 +737,7 @@
<para>Synchronous serial transmission requires that the sender and
receiver share a clock with one another, or that the sender
provide a strobe or other timing signal so that the receiver knows
- when to &ldquo;read&rdquo; the next bit of the data. In most
+ when to <quote>read</quote> the next bit of the data. In most
forms of serial Synchronous communication, if there is no data
available at a given instant to transmit, a fill character must be
sent instead so that data is always being transmitted.
@@ -785,7 +785,7 @@
are sent, with the Least Significant Bit (LSB) being sent first.
Each bit in the transmission is transmitted for exactly the same
amount of time as all of the other bits, and the receiver
- &ldquo;looks&rdquo; at the wire at approximately halfway through
+ <quote>looks</quote> at the wire at approximately halfway through
the period assigned to each bit to determine if the bit is a
<literal>1</literal> or a <literal>0</literal>. For example, if
it takes two seconds to send each bit, the receiver will examine
@@ -795,7 +795,7 @@
so on.</para>
<para>The sender does not know when the receiver has
- &ldquo;looked&rdquo; at the value of the bit. The sender only
+ <quote>looked</quote> at the value of the bit. The sender only
knows when the clock says to begin transmitting the next bit of
the word.</para>
@@ -823,7 +823,7 @@
the new word can be sent as soon as the Stop Bit for the previous
word has been sent.</para>
- <para>Because asynchronous data is &ldquo;self synchronizing&rdquo;,
+ <para>Because asynchronous data is <quote>self synchronizing</quote>,
if there is no data to transmit, the transmission line can be
idle.</para>
</sect4>
@@ -859,7 +859,7 @@
<para>In RS232-C, a value of <literal>1</literal> is called a
<literal>Mark</literal> and a value of <literal>0</literal> is
called a <literal>Space</literal>. When a communication line is
- idle, the line is said to be &ldquo;Marking&rdquo;, or
+ idle, the line is said to be <quote>Marking</quote>, or
transmitting continuous <literal>1</literal> values.</para>
<para>The Start bit always has a value of <literal>0</literal> (a
@@ -921,8 +921,8 @@
sometimes is accepted as a substitute for the ASCII CONTROL-C
character.</para>
- <para>Marks and Spaces are also equivalent to &ldquo;Holes&rdquo;
- and &ldquo;No Holes&rdquo; in paper tape systems.</para>
+ <para>Marks and Spaces are also equivalent to <quote>Holes</quote>
+ and <quote>No Holes</quote> in paper tape systems.</para>
<note>
<para>Breaks cannot be generated from paper tape or from any
@@ -1412,7 +1412,7 @@ INS8250 -&gt; INS8250B
<para>An improved version of the INS8250 using XMOS
technology with various functional flaws corrected. The
INS8250A was used initially in PC clone computers by
- vendors who used &ldquo;clean&rdquo; BIOS designs. Because
+ vendors who used <quote>clean</quote> BIOS designs. Because
of the corrections in the chip, this part could not be
used with a BIOS compatible with the INS8250 or
INS8250B.</para>
@@ -1563,7 +1563,7 @@ INS8250 -&gt; INS8250B
<para>The <replaceable>g</replaceable> is the product grade field.
If an <literal>I</literal> precedes the package-type letter, it
- indicates an &ldquo;industrial&rdquo; grade part, which has
+ indicates an <quote>industrial</quote> grade part, which has
higher specs than a standard part but not as high as Military
Specification (Milspec) component. This is an optional
field.</para>
@@ -1579,7 +1579,7 @@ INS8250 -&gt; INS8250B
<para>Over the years, the 8250, 8250A, 16450 and 16550 have been
licensed or copied by other chip vendors. In the case of the
8250, 8250A and 16450, the exact circuit (the
- &ldquo;megacell&rdquo;) was licensed to many vendors, including
+ <quote>megacell</quote>) was licensed to many vendors, including
Western Digital and Intel. Other vendors reverse-engineered the
part or produced emulations that had similar behavior.</para>
@@ -1600,7 +1600,7 @@ INS8250 -&gt; INS8250B
by this action.</para>
<para>A common misconception is that all parts with
- &ldquo;16550A&rdquo; written on them are identical in performance.
+ <quote>16550A</quote> written on them are identical in performance.
There are differences, and in some cases, outright flaws in most
of these 16550A clones.</para>
@@ -2574,7 +2574,7 @@ INS8250 -&gt; INS8250B
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
- <para>In addition to these &ldquo;dumb&rdquo; UARTs, many vendors
+ <para>In addition to these <quote>dumb</quote> UARTs, many vendors
produce intelligent serial communication boards. This type of
design usually provides a microprocessor that interfaces with
several UARTs, processes and buffers the data, and then alerts the
@@ -2829,7 +2829,7 @@ IRQ 2 3 4 5</programlisting>
handcrafted wire-made jumper covering all three connection points
in the IRQ 3 column would solve the issue, but no. You cannot
duplicate IRQ 3 because the output drivers of each UART are wired
- in a &ldquo;totem pole&rdquo; fashion, so if one of the UARTs
+ in a <quote>totem pole</quote> fashion, so if one of the UARTs
drives IRQ 3, the output signal will not be what you would expect.
Depending on the implementation of the extension board or your
motherboard, the IRQ 3 line will continuously stay up, or always
@@ -2891,7 +2891,7 @@ sio2 at 0x3e8-0x3ef irq 3 flags 0x205 on isa
sio2: type 16550A (multiport master)</screen>
<para>Though <filename>/sys/i386/isa/sio.c</filename> is somewhat
- cryptic with its use of the &ldquo;irq maps&rdquo; array above,
+ cryptic with its use of the <quote>irq maps</quote> array above,
the basic idea is that you observe <literal>0x1</literal> in the
first, third, and fourth place. This means that the corresponding
IRQ was set upon output and cleared after, which is just what we
@@ -3955,7 +3955,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
bus.</emphasis> So, two and not one or three or whatever. Do
yourself a favor and stick to this rule. It will save you endless
grief, because wrong termination has the potential to introduce
- highly mysterious bugs. (Note the &ldquo;potential&rdquo; here;
+ highly mysterious bugs. (Note the <quote>potential</quote> here;
the nastiest part is that it may or may not work.)</para>
<para>A common pitfall is to have an internal (flat) cable in a
@@ -4086,7 +4086,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
connector). Don't do that. It may appear to work if you are
really lucky, but I can almost guarantee that your system will
stop functioning at the most unfortunate moment (this is also
- known as &ldquo;Murphy's law&rdquo;).</para>
+ known as <quote>Murphy's law</quote>).</para>
<para>You might notice that the terminator issue discussed earlier
becomes rather hairy if your bus is not linear. Also, if you have
@@ -4170,7 +4170,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
partitions. Using fdisk you should be able to see all
partitions.</para>
- <para>You might have heard some talk of &ldquo;lying&rdquo; devices?
+ <para>You might have heard some talk of <quote>lying</quote> devices?
Older FreeBSD kernels used to report the geometry of SCSI disks
when booting. An example from one of my systems:</para>
@@ -4297,10 +4297,10 @@ device cd0 at scbus? [the first ever CD-ROM found, no wiring]
them when they match the target ID and LUN specified on the
corresponding bus.</para>
- <para>Wired down devices get &ldquo;first shot&rdquo; at the unit
- numbers so the first non &ldquo;wired down&rdquo; device, is
+ <para>Wired down devices get <quote>first shot</quote> at the unit
+ numbers so the first non <quote>wired down</quote> device, is
allocated the unit number one greater than the highest
- &ldquo;wired down&rdquo; unit number for that kind of device. So,
+ <quote>wired down</quote> unit number for that kind of device. So,
if you had a SCSI tape at target ID 2 it would be configured as
st2, as the tape at target ID 6 is wired down to unit number
1.</para>
@@ -4317,8 +4317,8 @@ device cd0 at scbus? [the first ever CD-ROM found, no wiring]
<para>Below is another example of a kernel config file as used by
FreeBSD version &lt; 2.0.5. The difference with the first example
- is that devices are not &ldquo;wired down&rdquo;. &ldquo;Wired
- down&rdquo; means that you specify which SCSI target belongs to
+ is that devices are not <quote>wired down</quote>. <quote>Wired
+ down</quote> means that you specify which SCSI target belongs to
which device.</para>
<para>A kernel built to the config file below will attach the first
@@ -4356,8 +4356,8 @@ device cd0 #Only need one of these, the code dynamically grows</pro
of a specific type (e.g. sd disks) are found than are configured
in the booting kernel, the system will simply allocate more
devices, incrementing the unit number starting at the last number
- &ldquo;wired down&rdquo;. If there are no &ldquo;wired
- down&rdquo; devices then counting starts at unit 0.</para>
+ <quote>wired down</quote>. If there are no <quote>wired
+ down</quote> devices then counting starts at unit 0.</para>
<para>Use <command>man 4 scsi</command> to check for the latest info
on the SCSI subsystem. For more detailed info on host adapter
@@ -4397,7 +4397,7 @@ options SCSI_DELAY=15 #Be pessimistic about Joe SCSI device</pro
it is a complex standard and implementing things correctly is no
easy task. Some vendors do a better job then others.</para>
- <para>This is exactly where the &ldquo;rogue&rdquo; devices come
+ <para>This is exactly where the <quote>rogue</quote> devices come
into view. Rogues are devices that are recognized by the FreeBSD
kernel as behaving slightly (...) non-standard. Rogue devices are
reported by the kernel when booting. An example for two of my
@@ -4486,14 +4486,14 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: st1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
function is indispensable to take advantage of the device's
inherent parallelism.</para>
- <para>Each I/O request is uniquely identified by a &ldquo;tag&rdquo;
+ <para>Each I/O request is uniquely identified by a <quote>tag</quote>
(hence the name tagged command queuing) and this tag is used by
FreeBSD to see which I/O in the device drivers queue is reported
as complete by the device.</para>
<para>It should be noted however that TCQ requires device driver
- support and that some devices implemented it &ldquo;not quite
- right&rdquo; in their firmware. This problem bit me once, and it
+ support and that some devices implemented it <quote>not quite
+ right</quote> in their firmware. This problem bit me once, and it
leads to highly mysterious problems. In such cases, try to
disable TCQ.</para>
</sect4>
@@ -4667,41 +4667,41 @@ options "TUNE_1542" #dynamic tune of bus DMA speed</programli
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>&ldquo;SCSI: Understanding the Small Computer System
- Interface&rdquo;, written by NCR Corporation. Available from:
+ <para><quote>SCSI: Understanding the Small Computer System
+ Interface</quote>, written by NCR Corporation. Available from:
Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 07632 Phone: (201) 767-5937
ISBN 0-13-796855-8</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>&ldquo;Basics of SCSI&rdquo;, a SCSI tutorial written by
+ <para><quote>Basics of SCSI</quote>, a SCSI tutorial written by
Ancot Corporation Contact Ancot for availability information at:
Phone: (415) 322-5322 Fax: (415) 322-0455</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>&ldquo;SCSI Interconnection Guide Book&rdquo;, an AMP
+ <para><quote>SCSI Interconnection Guide Book</quote>, an AMP
publication (dated 4/93, Catalog 65237) that lists the various
SCSI connectors and suggests cabling schemes. Available from
AMP at (800) 522-6752 or (717) 564-0100</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>&ldquo;Fast Track to SCSI&rdquo;, A Product Guide written by
+ <para><quote>Fast Track to SCSI</quote>, A Product Guide written by
Fujitsu. Available from: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,
07632 Phone: (201) 767-5937 ISBN 0-13-307000-X</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>&ldquo;The SCSI Bench Reference&rdquo;, &ldquo;The SCSI
- Encyclopedia&rdquo;, and the &ldquo;SCSI Tutor&rdquo;, ENDL
+ <para><quote>The SCSI Bench Reference</quote>, <quote>The SCSI
+ Encyclopedia</quote>, and the <quote>SCSI Tutor</quote>, ENDL
Publications, 14426 Black Walnut Court, Saratoga CA, 95070
Phone: (408) 867-6642</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>&ldquo;Zadian SCSI Navigator&rdquo; (quick ref. book) and
- &ldquo;Discover the Power of SCSI&rdquo; (First book along with
+ <para><quote>Zadian SCSI Navigator</quote> (quick ref. book) and
+ <quote>Discover the Power of SCSI</quote> (First book along with
a one-hour video and tutorial book), Zadian Software, Suite 214,
1210 S. Bascom Ave., San Jose, CA 92128, (408) 293-0800</para>
</listitem>
@@ -4776,8 +4776,8 @@ options "TUNE_1542" #dynamic tune of bus DMA speed</programli
can deliver much more bits per rotation than older ones. Today's
top-of-line 5,400RPM drives can sustain a throughput comparable to
7,200RPM drives of one or two model generations ago. The number
- to find on the spec sheet for bandwidth is &ldquo;internal data
- (or transfer) rate&rdquo;. It is usually in megabits/sec so
+ to find on the spec sheet for bandwidth is <quote>internal data
+ (or transfer) rate</quote>. It is usually in megabits/sec so
divide it by 8 and you'll get the rough approximation of how much
megabytes/sec you can get out of the drive.</para>
@@ -4825,8 +4825,8 @@ options "TUNE_1542" #dynamic tune of bus DMA speed</programli
<title>Form factor</title>
<para>Most SCSI drives sold today are of 3.5" form factor. They
- come in two different heights; 1.6" (&ldquo;half-height&rdquo;) or
- 1" (&ldquo;low-profile&rdquo;). The half-height drive is the same
+ come in two different heights; 1.6" (<quote>half-height</quote>) or
+ 1" (<quote>low-profile</quote>). The half-height drive is the same
height as a CD-ROM drive. However, don't forget the spacing rule
mentioned in the previous section. If you have three standard
3.5" drive bays, you will not be able to put three half-height
@@ -4848,7 +4848,7 @@ options "TUNE_1542" #dynamic tune of bus DMA speed</programli
<para>On the other hand, if you need to connect many drives, going
for Fast-wide SCSI may not be a bad idea. That will have the same
max bandwidth as Ultra (narrow) SCSI, while electronically it's
- much easier to get it &ldquo;right&rdquo;. My advice would be: if
+ much easier to get it <quote>right</quote>. My advice would be: if
you want to connect many disks, get wide SCSI drives; they usually
cost a little more but it may save you down the road. (Besides,
if you can't afford the cost difference, you shouldn't be building
@@ -4861,7 +4861,7 @@ options "TUNE_1542" #dynamic tune of bus DMA speed</programli
building a large storage system, get SCA drives and a good SCA
enclosure (dual power supply with at least one extra fan). They
are more electronically sound than 68-pin counterparts because
- there is no &ldquo;stub&rdquo; of the SCSI bus inside the disk
+ there is no <quote>stub</quote> of the SCSI bus inside the disk
canister as in arrays built from 68-pin drives. They are easier
to install too (you just need to screw the drive in the canister,
instead of trying to squeeze in your fingers in a tight place to
@@ -5056,7 +5056,7 @@ options "TUNE_1542" #dynamic tune of bus DMA speed</programli
<para>If you have a SCSI-2 controller, short jumper 6. Otherwise,
the drive behaves are a SCSI-1 device. When operating as a SCSI-1
- device, this drive, &ldquo;locks&rdquo; the SCSI bus during some
+ device, this drive, <quote>locks</quote> the SCSI bus during some
tape operations, including: fsf, rewind, and rewoffl.</para>
<para>If you are using the NCR SCSI controllers, patch the file
@@ -5777,7 +5777,7 @@ scsi -f $2 -s 100 -c "1b 0 0 $cdb3 $cdb4 $cdb5"</programlisting>
not write 60MB (DC600 cartridge) tapes. In order to overwrite 120
and 150 tapes reliably, first erase (<command>mt erase</command>)
the tape. 120 and 150 tapes used a wider track (fewer tracks per
- tape) than 525MB tapes. The &ldquo;extra&rdquo; width of the
+ tape) than 525MB tapes. The <quote>extra</quote> width of the
previous tracks is not overwritten, as a result the new data lies
in a band surrounded on both sides by the previous data unless the
tape have been erased.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml
index 8634d0a3cf..2f2e9adbdd 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml,v 1.40 2000/05/17 02:24:40 chris Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml,v 1.41 2000/05/22 18:44:10 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="install">
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@
supported by FreeBSD. The list of <link
linkend="install-hw">supported hardware</link> should
come in handy here. ;-) It would also be a good idea to make a
- list of any &ldquo;special&rdquo; cards you have installed,
+ list of any <quote>special</quote> cards you have installed,
such as SCSI controllers, ethernet cards, sound cards, etc..
The list should include their IRQs and IO port addresses.</para>
@@ -200,7 +200,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<para>Anyone with network connectivity to your machine can now
chose a media type of FTP and type in
<userinput>ftp://<replaceable>your machine</replaceable></userinput>
- after picking &ldquo;Other&rdquo; in the FTP sites menu during
+ after picking <quote>Other</quote> in the FTP sites menu during
the install.</para>
<note><para>If you choose to enable anonymous FTP during the
@@ -263,7 +263,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<filename>a:\bin\bin.ab</filename>, and so on.</para>
<para>Once you come to the Media screen during the install
- process, select &ldquo;Floppy&rdquo; and you will be prompted
+ process, select <quote>Floppy</quote> and you will be prompted
for the rest.</para>
</sect3>
@@ -357,7 +357,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<command>dial</command> at the
<application>ppp</application> prompt. Otherwise,
you will need to know
- how to dial your ISP using the &ldquo;AT commands&rdquo;
+ how to dial your ISP using the <quote>AT commands</quote>
specific to your modem, as the PPP dialer provides only a very
simple terminal emulator. Please
to the user-ppp <link linkend="userppp">handbook</link> and <ulink
@@ -368,7 +368,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<para>If a hard-wired connection to another FreeBSD (2.0-R or
later) machine is available, you might also consider installing
- over a &ldquo;laplink&rdquo; parallel port cable. The data rate
+ over a <quote>laplink</quote> parallel port cable. The data rate
over the parallel port is much higher than what is typically
possible over a serial line (up to 50kbytes/sec), thus resulting
in a quicker installation.</para>
@@ -404,7 +404,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
copy the FreeBSD distribution files you want onto a server
somewhere and then point the NFS media selection at it.</para>
- <para>If this server supports only &ldquo;privileged port&rdquo;
+ <para>If this server supports only <quote>privileged port</quote>
(as is generally the default for Sun workstations), you will
need to set this option in the Options menu before
installation can proceed.</para>
@@ -425,7 +425,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<para>In FreeBSD's <filename>/etc/exports</filename> file, this
is controlled by the <option>-alldirs</option>. Other NFS
servers may have different conventions. If you are getting
- &ldquo;permission denied&rdquo; messages from the server, then
+ <quote>permission denied</quote> messages from the server, then
it is likely that you do not have this enabled
properly.</para>
</sect4>
@@ -441,7 +441,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<para>If you are installing from an FTP site not listed in this
menu, or are having trouble getting your name server
configured properly, you can also specify a URL to use by
- selecting the choice labeled &ldquo;Other&rdquo; in that menu.
+ selecting the choice labeled <quote>Other</quote> in that menu.
You can also use the IP address of a machine you wish to
install from, so the following would work in the absence of a
name server:</para>
@@ -457,7 +457,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<listitem>
<para>This option will make all FTP transfers
- use &ldquo;Active&rdquo;
+ use <quote>Active</quote>
mode. This will not work through firewalls, but will
often work with older FTP servers that do not support
passive mode. If your connection hangs with passive
@@ -470,7 +470,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<listitem>
<para>This option instructs FreeBSD to use
- &ldquo;Passive&rdquo; mode for all FTP operations.
+ <quote>Passive</quote> mode for all FTP operations.
This allows the user to pass through firewalls
that do not allow incoming connections on random port
addresses.</para>
@@ -480,14 +480,14 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<note>
<para>Active and passive modes are not the same as a
- &ldquo;proxy&rdquo; connection, where a proxy FTP server is
+ <quote>proxy</quote> connection, where a proxy FTP server is
listening and forwarding FTP requests!</para>
</note>
<para>For a proxy FTP server, you should usually give the name
of the server you really want as a part of the username, after
- an &ldquo;@&rdquo; sign. The proxy server then
- &ldquo;fakes&rdquo; the real server. For example, assuming
+ an <quote>@</quote> sign. The proxy server then
+ <quote>fakes</quote> the real server. For example, assuming
you want to install from <hostid
role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid>, using the proxy FTP
server <hostid role="fqdn">foo.bar.com</hostid>, listening on
@@ -539,12 +539,12 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
to be the most confusing or most lacking. Send your comments to
the &a.doc;. It is the objective of the installation program
(sysinstall) to be self-documenting enough that painful
- &ldquo;step-by-step&rdquo; guides are no longer necessary. It may
+ <quote>step-by-step</quote> guides are no longer necessary. It may
take us a little while to reach that objective, but nonetheless,
it is still our objective :-)</para>
- <para>Meanwhile, you may also find the following &ldquo;typical
- installation sequence&rdquo; to be helpful:</para>
+ <para>Meanwhile, you may also find the following <quote>typical
+ installation sequence</quote> to be helpful:</para>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
@@ -676,24 +676,24 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>BusLogic MultiMaster &ldquo;W&rdquo; Series Host Adapters
+ <para>BusLogic MultiMaster <quote>W</quote> Series Host Adapters
including BT-948, BT-958, BT-9580</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>BusLogic MultiMaster &ldquo;C&rdquo; Series Host Adapters
+ <para>BusLogic MultiMaster <quote>C</quote> Series Host Adapters
including BT-946C, BT-956C, BT-956CD, BT-445C, BT-747C,
BT-757C, BT-757CD, BT-545C, BT-540CF</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>BusLogic MultiMaster &ldquo;S&rdquo; Series Host Adapters
+ <para>BusLogic MultiMaster <quote>S</quote> Series Host Adapters
including BT-445S, BT-747S, BT-747D, BT-757S, BT-757D,
BT-545S, BT-542D, BT-742A, BT-542B</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>BusLogic MultiMaster &ldquo;A&rdquo; Series Host Adapters
+ <para>BusLogic MultiMaster <quote>A</quote> Series Host Adapters
including BT-742A, BT-542B</para>
</listitem>
@@ -702,7 +702,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
MultiMaster clones are also supported.</para>
<note>
- <para>BusLogic/Mylex &ldquo;Flashpoint&rdquo; adapters are NOT
+ <para>BusLogic/Mylex <quote>Flashpoint</quote> adapters are NOT
yet supported.</para>
</note>
</listitem>
@@ -778,7 +778,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>NCR5380/NCR53400 (&ldquo;ProAudio Spectrum&rdquo;) SCSI
+ <para>NCR5380/NCR53400 (<quote>ProAudio Spectrum</quote>) SCSI
controller</para>
</listitem>
@@ -908,7 +908,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Accton &ldquo;Cheetah&rdquo; EN1027D (MPX 5030/5038;
+ <para>Accton <quote>Cheetah</quote> EN1027D (MPX 5030/5038;
RealTek 8139 clone?)</para>
</listitem>
@@ -943,8 +943,8 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>VIA Technologies VT3043 &ldquo;Rhine I&rdquo; and
- VT86C100A &ldquo;Rhine II&rdquo; fast ethernet NICs including
+ <para>VIA Technologies VT3043 <quote>Rhine I</quote> and
+ VT86C100A <quote>Rhine II</quote> fast ethernet NICs including
the Hawking Technologies PN102TX and D-Link DFE-530TX</para>
</listitem>
@@ -1333,7 +1333,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Teles S0/16.3 (the &ldquo;c&rdquo; Versions - like 16.3c
+ <para>Teles S0/16.3 (the <quote>c</quote> Versions - like 16.3c
- are unsupported!)</para>
</listitem>
@@ -1405,7 +1405,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<listitem>
<para>Specialix SI/XIO/SX multiport serial cards, with both the
- older SIHOST2.x and the new &ldquo;enhanced&rdquo;
+ older SIHOST2.x and the new <quote>enhanced</quote>
(transputer based, aka JET) host cards; ISA, EISA and PCI are
supported</para>
</listitem>
@@ -1639,7 +1639,7 @@ ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
<answer>
<para>Yes. DOS extended partitions are mapped in at the end
- of the other &ldquo;slices&rdquo; in FreeBSD, e.g., your
+ of the other <quote>slices</quote> in FreeBSD, e.g., your
<devicename>D:</devicename> drive might be
<filename>/dev/da0s5</filename>, your
<devicename>E:</devicename> drive,
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/internals/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/internals/chapter.sgml
index b7a7d3fbeb..feb3ee10b1 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/internals/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/internals/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/internals/chapter.sgml,v 1.19 2000/04/03 02:15:40 chris Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/internals/chapter.sgml,v 1.20 2000/04/30 22:30:44 nik Exp $
-->
<chapter id="internals">
@@ -102,7 +102,7 @@
signals -MEMR (Memory Read), -MEMW (Memory Write), -IOR (I/O Read), and
-IOW (I/O Write).</para>
- <para>The 8237 DMA is known as a &ldquo;fly-by&rdquo; DMA controller.
+ <para>The 8237 DMA is known as a <quote>fly-by</quote> DMA controller.
This means that the data being moved from one location to another does
not pass through the DMA chip and is not stored in the DMA chip.
Subsequently, the DMA can only transfer data between an I/O port and a
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@
<note>
<para>The 8237 does allow two channels to be connected together to allow
- memory-to-memory DMA operations in a non-&ldquo;fly-by&rdquo; mode,
+ memory-to-memory DMA operations in a non-<quote>fly-by</quote> mode,
but nobody in the PC industry uses this scarce resource this way since
it is faster to move data between memory locations using the
CPU.</para>
@@ -154,7 +154,7 @@
read something from memory that is not in the internal processor cache
or pipeline.</para>
- <para>Now that the DMA &ldquo;is in charge&rdquo;, the DMA activates its
+ <para>Now that the DMA <quote>is in charge</quote>, the DMA activates its
-MEMR, -MEMW, -IOR, -IOW output signals, and the address outputs from
the DMA are set to 0x3456, which will be used to direct the byte that
is about to transferred to a specific memory location.</para>
@@ -239,7 +239,7 @@
address to be read to or written from. Whenever a DMA channel is
active, the contents of that latch are written to the address bus and
kept there until the DMA operation for the channel ends. IBM called
- these latches &ldquo;Page Registers&rdquo;.</para>
+ these latches <quote>Page Registers</quote>.</para>
<para>So for our example above, the DMA would put the 0x3456 part of the
address on the bus, and the Page Register for DMA channel 2 would put
@@ -254,8 +254,8 @@
The results of letting this happen are probably not intended.</para>
<note>
- <para>&ldquo;Physical&rdquo; 64K boundaries should not be confused
- with 8086-mode 64K &ldquo;Segments&rdquo;, which are created by
+ <para><quote>Physical</quote> 64K boundaries should not be confused
+ with 8086-mode 64K <quote>Segments</quote>, which are created by
mathematically adding a segment register with an offset register.
Page Registers have no address overlap and are mathematically OR-ed
together.</para>
@@ -280,8 +280,8 @@
peripheral, the data must be first copied from where it resides into a
buffer located below 16Meg, and then the DMA can copy the data from
the buffer to the hardware. In FreeBSD, these reserved buffers are
- called &ldquo;Bounce Buffers&rdquo;. In the MS-DOS world, they are
- sometimes called &ldquo;Smart Buffers&rdquo;.</para>
+ called <quote>Bounce Buffers</quote>. In the MS-DOS world, they are
+ sometimes called <quote>Smart Buffers</quote>.</para>
<note>
<para>A new implementation of the 8237, called the 82374, allows 16
@@ -345,8 +345,8 @@
<para>This mechanism allows a DMA channel to request the bus, but
then the attached peripheral device is responsible for placing
the addressing information on the bus instead of the DMA. This
- is also used to implement a technique known as &ldquo;Bus
- Mastering&rdquo;.</para>
+ is also used to implement a technique known as <quote>Bus
+ Mastering</quote>.</para>
<para>When a DMA channel in Cascade Mode receives control of the
bus, the DMA does not place addresses and I/O control signals on
@@ -395,7 +395,7 @@
<para>The Dynamic RAM used in all PCs for main memory must be
accessed frequently to keep the bits stored in the components
- &ldquo;charged&rdquo;. Dynamic RAM essentially consists of
+ <quote>charged</quote>. Dynamic RAM essentially consists of
millions of capacitors with each one holding one bit of data.
These capacitors are charged with power to represent a
<literal>1</literal> or drained to represent a
@@ -409,7 +409,7 @@
refresh memory, the contents of memory will become corrupted in
just a few milliseconds.</para>
- <para>Since memory read and write cycles &ldquo;count&rdquo; as
+ <para>Since memory read and write cycles <quote>count</quote> as
refresh cycles (a dynamic RAM refresh cycle is actually an
incomplete memory read cycle), as long as the peripheral
controller continues reading or writing data to sequential
@@ -435,8 +435,8 @@
DMA is writing when doing input operations.</para>
<para>This technique is frequently used on audio devices that have
- small or no hardware &ldquo;sample&rdquo; buffers. There is
- additional CPU overhead to manage this &ldquo;circular&rdquo;
+ small or no hardware <quote>sample</quote> buffers. There is
+ additional CPU overhead to manage this <quote>circular</quote>
buffer, but in some cases this may be the only way to eliminate
the latency that occurs when the DMA counter reaches zero and
the DMA stops transfers until it is reprogrammed.</para>
@@ -449,7 +449,7 @@
<title>Programming the DMA</title>
<para>The DMA channel that is to be programmed should always be
- &ldquo;masked&rdquo; before loading any settings. This is because the
+ <quote>masked</quote> before loading any settings. This is because the
hardware might unexpectedly assert the DRQ for that channel, and the
DMA might respond, even though not all of the parameters have been
loaded or updated.</para>
@@ -468,7 +468,7 @@
the DMA and is accessed through a different set of I/O ports.</para>
<para>Once all the settings are ready, the DMA channel can be un-masked.
- That DMA channel is now considered to be &ldquo;armed&rdquo;, and will
+ That DMA channel is now considered to be <quote>armed</quote>, and will
respond when the DRQ line for that channel is asserted.</para>
<para>Refer to a hardware data book for precise programming details for
@@ -1409,8 +1409,8 @@
the page is being allocated for.</para>
<para>Additionally, a page may be held with a reference count or locked
- with a busy count. The VM system also implements an &ldquo;ultimate
- locked&rdquo; state for a page using the PG_BUSY bit in the page's
+ with a busy count. The VM system also implements an <quote>ultimate
+ locked</quote> state for a page using the PG_BUSY bit in the page's
flags.</para>
<para>In general terms, each of the paging queues operates in a LRU
@@ -1451,7 +1451,7 @@
<title>The unified buffer
cache&mdash;<literal>vm_object_t</literal></title>
- <para>FreeBSD implements the idea of a generic &ldquo;VM object&rdquo;.
+ <para>FreeBSD implements the idea of a generic <quote>VM object</quote>.
VM objects can be associated with backing store of various
types&mdash;unbacked, swap-backed, physical device-backed, or
file-backed storage. Since the filesystem uses the same VM objects to
@@ -1610,7 +1610,7 @@ makeoptions COPTFLAGS="-O2 -pipe"</programlisting>
<para>Second, configure sufficient swap. You should have a swap
partition configured on each physical disk, up to four, even on your
- &ldquo;work&rdquo; disks. You should have at least 2x the swap space
+ <quote>work</quote> disks. You should have at least 2x the swap space
as you have main memory, and possibly even more if you do not have a
lot of memory. You should also size your swap partition based on the
maximum memory configuration you ever intend to put on the machine so
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml
index 03e088addb..32d77bdbe4 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml,v 1.26 2000/01/31 19:22:16 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/introduction/chapter.sgml,v 1.27 2000/04/06 20:28:35 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="introduction">
@@ -164,7 +164,7 @@
<listitem>
<para>Demand paged <emphasis>virtual memory</emphasis> and
- &ldquo;merged VM/buffer cache&rdquo; design efficiently
+ <quote>merged VM/buffer cache</quote> design efficiently
satisfies applications with large appetites for memory while
still maintaining interactive response to other users.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -247,7 +247,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Firewalls and NAT (&ldquo;IP masquerading&rdquo;)
+ <para>Firewalls and NAT (<quote>IP masquerading</quote>)
gateways.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -308,7 +308,7 @@
excellent commercial servers provided by X Inside. Unlike an
X terminal, FreeBSD allows many applications to be run
locally, if desired, thus relieving the burden on a central
- server. FreeBSD can even boot &ldquo;diskless&rdquo;, making
+ server. FreeBSD can even boot <quote>diskless</quote>, making
individual workstations even cheaper and easier to
administer.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -340,15 +340,15 @@
<para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.jkh;</emphasis>.</para>
<para>The FreeBSD project had its genesis in the early part of 1993,
- partially as an outgrowth of the &ldquo;Unofficial 386BSD
- Patchkit&rdquo; by the patchkit's last 3 coordinators: Nate
+ partially as an outgrowth of the <quote>Unofficial 386BSD
+ Patchkit</quote> by the patchkit's last 3 coordinators: Nate
Williams, Rod Grimes and myself.</para>
<para>Our original goal was to produce an intermediate snapshot of
386BSD in order to fix a number of problems with it that the
patchkit mechanism just was not capable of solving. Some of you
may remember the early working title for the project being
- &ldquo;386BSD 0.5&rdquo; or &ldquo;386BSD Interim&rdquo; in
+ <quote>386BSD 0.5</quote> or <quote>386BSD Interim</quote> in
reference to that fact.</para>
<para>386BSD was Bill Jolitz's operating system, which had been up
@@ -356,14 +356,14 @@
of neglect. As the patchkit swelled ever more uncomfortably with
each passing day, we were in unanimous agreement that something
had to be done and decided to try and assist Bill by providing
- this interim &ldquo;cleanup&rdquo; snapshot. Those plans came to
+ this interim <quote>cleanup</quote> snapshot. Those plans came to
a rude halt when Bill Jolitz suddenly decided to withdraw his
sanction from the project without any clear indication of what
would be done instead.</para>
<para>It did not take us long to decide that the goal remained
worthwhile, even without Bill's support, and so we adopted the
- name &ldquo;FreeBSD&rdquo;, coined by David Greenman. Our initial
+ name <quote>FreeBSD</quote>, coined by David Greenman. Our initial
objectives were set after consulting with the system's current
users and, once it became clear that the project was on the road
to perhaps even becoming a reality, I contacted Walnut Creek CDROM
@@ -378,7 +378,7 @@
<para>The first CDROM (and general net-wide) distribution was
FreeBSD 1.0, released in December of 1993. This was based on the
- 4.3BSD-Lite (&ldquo;Net/2&rdquo;) tape from U.C. Berkeley, with
+ 4.3BSD-Lite (<quote>Net/2</quote>) tape from U.C. Berkeley, with
many components also provided by 386BSD and the Free Software
Foundation. It was a fairly reasonable success for a first
offering, and we followed it with the highly successful FreeBSD
@@ -388,10 +388,10 @@
on the horizon as Novell and U.C. Berkeley settled their
long-running lawsuit over the legal status of the Berkeley Net/2
tape. A condition of that settlement was U.C. Berkeley's
- concession that large parts of Net/2 were &ldquo;encumbered&rdquo;
+ concession that large parts of Net/2 were <quote>encumbered</quote>
code and the property of Novell, who had in turn acquired it from
AT&amp;T some time previously. What Berkeley got in return was
- Novell's &ldquo;blessing&rdquo; that the 4.4BSD-Lite release, when
+ Novell's <quote>blessing</quote> that the 4.4BSD-Lite release, when
it was finally released, would be declared unencumbered and all
existing Net/2 users would be strongly encouraged to switch. This
included FreeBSD, and the project was given until the end of July
@@ -401,7 +401,7 @@
<para>FreeBSD then set about the arduous task of literally
re-inventing itself from a completely new and rather incomplete
- set of 4.4BSD-Lite bits. The &ldquo;Lite&rdquo; releases were
+ set of 4.4BSD-Lite bits. The <quote>Lite</quote> releases were
light in part because Berkeley's CSRG had removed large chunks of
code required for actually constructing a bootable running system
(due to various legal requirements) and the fact that the Intel
@@ -422,7 +422,7 @@
done on this branch (RELENG_2_1_0).</para>
<para>FreeBSD 2.2 was branched from the development mainline
- (&ldquo;-CURRENT&rdquo;) in November 1996 as the RELENG_2_2
+ (<quote>-CURRENT</quote>) in November 1996 as the RELENG_2_2
branch, and the first full release (2.2.1) was released in April
1997. Further releases along the 2.2 branch were done in the
summer and fall of '97, the last of which (2.2.8) appeared in
@@ -456,7 +456,7 @@
us have a significant investment in the code (and project) and
would certainly not mind a little financial compensation now and
then, but we are definitely not prepared to insist on it. We
- believe that our first and foremost &ldquo;mission&rdquo; is to
+ believe that our first and foremost <quote>mission</quote> is to
provide code to any and all comers, and for whatever purpose, so
that the code gets the widest possible use and provides the widest
possible benefit. This is, I believe, one of the most fundamental
@@ -523,7 +523,7 @@
<para>The <link linkend="staff-committers">committers</link>
are the people who have <emphasis>write</emphasis> access to
the CVS tree, and are thus authorized to make modifications
- to the FreeBSD source (the term &ldquo;committer&rdquo;
+ to the FreeBSD source (the term <quote>committer</quote>
comes from the &man.cvs.1; <command>commit</command>
command, which is used to bring new changes into the CVS
repository). The best way of making submissions for review
@@ -557,9 +557,9 @@
<note>
<para>Most members of the core team are volunteers when it
comes to FreeBSD development and do not benefit from the
- project financially, so &ldquo;commitment&rdquo; should
- also not be misconstrued as meaning &ldquo;guaranteed
- support.&rdquo; The &ldquo;board of directors&rdquo;
+ project financially, so <quote>commitment</quote> should
+ also not be misconstrued as meaning <quote>guaranteed
+ support.</quote> The <quote>board of directors</quote>
analogy above is not actually very accurate, and it may be
more suitable to say that these are the people who gave up
their lives in favor of FreeBSD against their better
@@ -642,7 +642,7 @@
list of ports ranges from http (WWW) servers, to games, languages,
editors and almost everything in between. The entire ports
collection requires approximately 50MB of storage, all ports being
- expressed as &ldquo;deltas&rdquo; to their original sources. This
+ expressed as <quote>deltas</quote> to their original sources. This
makes it much easier for us to update ports, and greatly reduces
the disk space demands made by the older 1.0 ports collection. To
compile a port, you simply change to the directory of the program
@@ -651,7 +651,7 @@
port you build is retrieved dynamically off the CDROM or a local FTP
site, so you need only enough disk space to build the ports you
want. Almost every port is also provided as a pre-compiled
- &ldquo;package&rdquo;, which can be installed with a simple command
+ <quote>package</quote>, which can be installed with a simple command
(pkg_add) by those who do not wish to compile their own ports from
source.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml
index 343b18cfaa..2ada01d765 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml,v 1.24 2000/03/07 13:26:44 nik Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml,v 1.25 2000/04/06 00:07:13 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="kernelconfig">
@@ -112,7 +112,7 @@
will probably be <command>vi</command>, which is too complex to
explain here, but is covered well in many books in the <link
linkend="bibliography">bibliography</link>. However, FreeBSD does
- offer an easier editor called &ldquo;ee&rdquo; which, if you are a
+ offer an easier editor called <quote>ee</quote> which, if you are a
beginner, should be your editor of choice. Feel free to change the
comment lines at the top to reflect your configuration or the
changes you have made to differentiate it from
@@ -394,7 +394,7 @@ options CD9660_ROOT #CD-ROM usable as root, CD9660 required</programli
<programlisting>
options PROCFS #Process filesystem</programlisting>
- <para>The process filesystem. This is a &ldquo;pretend&rdquo;
+ <para>The process filesystem. This is a <quote>pretend</quote>
filesystem mounted on <filename>/proc</filename> which allows
programs like &man.ps.1; to give you more information on what
processes are running.</para>
@@ -767,7 +767,7 @@ device plip # TCP/IP over parallel</programlisting>
<programlisting>
device ppi # Parallel port interface device</programlisting>
- <para>The general-purpose I/O (&ldquo;geek port&rdquo;) + IEEE1284
+ <para>The general-purpose I/O (<quote>geek port</quote>) + IEEE1284
I/O.</para>
<programlisting>
@@ -779,11 +779,11 @@ device ppi # Parallel port interface device</programlisting>
<programlisting>
# PCI Ethernet NICs.
-device de # DEC/Intel DC21x4x (&ldquo;Tulip&rdquo;)
+device de # DEC/Intel DC21x4x (<quote>Tulip</quote>)
device fxp # Intel EtherExpress PRO/100B (82557, 82558)
-device tx # SMC 9432TX (83c170 &ldquo;EPIC&rdquo;)
-device vx # 3Com 3c590, 3c595 (&ldquo;Vortex&rdquo;)
-device wx # Intel Gigabit Ethernet Card (&ldquo;Wiseman&rdquo;)</programlisting>
+device tx # SMC 9432TX (83c170 <quote>EPIC</quote>)
+device vx # 3Com 3c590, 3c595 (<quote>Vortex</quote>)
+device wx # Intel Gigabit Ethernet Card (<quote>Wiseman</quote>)</programlisting>
<para>Various PCI network card drivers. Comment out or remove any of
these not present in your system.</para>
@@ -803,13 +803,13 @@ device miibus # MII bus support</programlisting>
<programlisting>
device dc # DEC/Intel 21143 and various workalikes
device rl # RealTek 8129/8139
-device sf # Adaptec AIC-6915 (&ldquo;Starfire&rdquo;)
+device sf # Adaptec AIC-6915 (<quote>Starfire</quote>)
device sis # Silicon Integrated Systems SiS 900/SiS 7016
device ste # Sundance ST201 (D-Link DFE-550TX)
device tl # Texas Instruments ThunderLAN
device vr # VIA Rhine, Rhine II
device wb # Winbond W89C840F
-device xl # 3Com 3c90x (&ldquo;Boomerang&rdquo;, &ldquo;Cyclone&rdquo;)</programlisting>
+device xl # 3Com 3c90x (<quote>Boomerang</quote>, <quote>Cyclone</quote>)</programlisting>
<para>Drivers that use the MII bus controller code.</para>
@@ -888,7 +888,7 @@ pseudo-device tun # Packet tunnel.</programlisting>
<programlisting><anchor id="kernelconfig-ptys">
pseudo-device pty # Pseudo-ttys (telnet etc)</programlisting>
- <para>This is a &ldquo;pseudo-terminal&rdquo; or simulated login port.
+ <para>This is a <quote>pseudo-terminal</quote> or simulated login port.
It is used by incoming <command>telnet</command> and
<command>rlogin</command> sessions,
<application>xterm</application>, and some other applications such
@@ -900,7 +900,7 @@ pseudo-device pty # Pseudo-ttys (telnet etc)</programlisting>
up to a maximum of 256.</para>
<programlisting>
-pseudo-device md # Memory &ldquo;disks&rdquo;</programlisting>
+pseudo-device md # Memory <quote>disks</quote></programlisting>
<para>Memory disk pseudo-devices.</para>
@@ -934,7 +934,7 @@ pseudo-device bpf # Berkeley packet filter</programlisting>
#device ohci # OHCI PCI-&gt;USB interface
#device usb # USB Bus (required)
#device ugen # Generic
-#device uhid # &ldquo;Human Interface Devices&rdquo;
+#device uhid # <quote>Human Interface Devices</quote>
#device ukbd # Keyboard
#device ulpt # Printer
#device umass # Disks/Mass storage - Requires scbus and da
@@ -955,7 +955,7 @@ pseudo-device bpf # Berkeley packet filter</programlisting>
<title>Making Device Nodes</title>
<para>Almost every device in the kernel has a corresponding
- &ldquo;node&rdquo; entry in the <filename>/dev</filename> directory.
+ <quote>node</quote> entry in the <filename>/dev</filename> directory.
These nodes look like regular files, but are actually special
entries into the kernel which programs use to access the device.
The shell script <filename>/dev/MAKEDEV</filename>, which is
@@ -976,7 +976,7 @@ device acd0</programlisting>
<filename>acd0</filename> in the <filename>/dev</filename>
directory, possibly followed by a letter, such as
<literal>c</literal>, or preceded by the letter
- <literal>r</literal>, which means a &ldquo;raw&rdquo; device. It
+ <literal>r</literal>, which means a <quote>raw</quote> device. It
turns out that those files are not there, so I must change to the
<filename>/dev</filename> directory and type:</para>
@@ -1086,13 +1086,13 @@ device acd0</programlisting>
Also, as soon as possible, move the working kernel to the
proper <filename>kernel</filename> location or commands such
as &man.ps.1; will not work properly. The proper command to
- &ldquo;unlock&rdquo; the kernel file that
+ <quote>unlock</quote> the kernel file that
<command>make</command> installs (in order to move another
kernel back permanently) is:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>chflags noschg /kernel</userinput></screen>
- <para>And, if you want to &ldquo;lock&rdquo; your new kernel
+ <para>And, if you want to <quote>lock</quote> your new kernel
into place, or any file for that matter, so that it cannot
be moved or tampered with:</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml
index f80715b6da..c7bb721c09 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml,v 1.21 1999/12/16 16:04:24 cracauer Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kerneldebug/chapter.sgml,v 1.22 2000/04/03 02:15:41 chris Exp $
-->
<chapter id="kerneldebug">
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@
<note>
<para>In the following, the term <command>kgdb</command> refers to
- <command>gdb</command> run in &ldquo;kernel debug mode&rdquo;. This
+ <command>gdb</command> run in <quote>kernel debug mode</quote>. This
can be accomplished by either starting the <command>gdb</command> with
the option <option>-k</option>, or by linking and starting it under
the name <command>kgdb</command>. This is not being done by default,
@@ -178,7 +178,7 @@
<listitem>
<para>This is a dump taken from within DDB (see below), hence the
- panic comment &ldquo;because you said to!&rdquo;, and a rather
+ panic comment <quote>because you said to!</quote>, and a rather
long stack trace; the initial reason for going into DDB has been a
page fault trap though.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -203,7 +203,7 @@
dump handy &lt;g&gt;, my kernel has not panicked for a rather long
time.) From looking at the code in source line 403, there is a
high probability that either the pointer access for
- &ldquo;tp&rdquo; was messed up, or the array access was out of
+ <quote>tp</quote> was messed up, or the array access was out of
bounds.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml
index f39d90a1e6..71e0e85ab3 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml,v 1.13 1999/11/07 01:54:49 chris Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/kernelopts/chapter.sgml,v 1.14 1999/12/11 06:04:35 chris Exp $
-->
<chapter id="kernelopts">
@@ -20,8 +20,8 @@
<para>The use of kernel options is basically described in the <link
linkend="kernelconfig-options">kernel configuration</link> section.
- There's also an explanation of &ldquo;historic&rdquo; and
- &ldquo;new-style&rdquo; options. The ultimate goal is to eventually
+ There's also an explanation of <quote>historic</quote> and
+ <quote>new-style</quote> options. The ultimate goal is to eventually
turn all the supported options in the kernel into new-style ones, so for
people who correctly did a <command>make depend</command> in their
kernel compile directory after running
@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@
code.</para>
<para>People familiar with the C language will immediately recognize that
- everything could be counted as a &ldquo;config option&rdquo; where there
+ everything could be counted as a <quote>config option</quote> where there
is at least a single <literal>#ifdef</literal> referencing it...
However, it's unlikely that many people would put</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml
index d29eb004d5..f7d9341dd1 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml,v 1.34 2000/04/10 17:27:51 phantom Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml,v 1.35 2000/04/16 22:10:20 ache Exp $
-->
<chapter id="l10n">
@@ -813,7 +813,7 @@ XkbOptions "grp:caps_toggle"</programlisting>
available via <literal>Shift+CapsLock</literal> (in LAT mode
only).</para>
- <para>If you have &ldquo;Windows&rdquo; keys on your keyboard,
+ <para>If you have <quote>Windows</quote> keys on your keyboard,
and notice that some non-alphabetical keys are mapped
incorrectly in RUS mode, add the following line in your
<filename>XF86Config</filename> file:</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml
index fc4c161153..11581bcb92 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml,v 1.28 2000/03/23 01:32:00 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml,v 1.29 2000/04/30 22:33:03 nik Exp $
-->
<chapter id="linuxemu">
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@
<para>At this point, you may be asking yourself why exactly, does
FreeBSD need to be able to run Linux binaries? The answer to that
question is quite simple. Many companies and developers develop
- only for Linux, since it is the latest &ldquo;hot thing&rdquo; in
+ only for Linux, since it is the latest <quote>hot thing</quote> in
the computing world. That leaves the rest of us FreeBSD users
bugging these same companies and developers to put out native
FreeBSD versions of their applications. The problem is, that most
@@ -58,12 +58,12 @@
configuration.</para>
<para>The Linux binary compatibility is now done via a KLD object
- (&ldquo;Kernel LoaDable object&rdquo;), so it can be installed
- &ldquo;on-the-fly&rdquo; without having to reboot. You will,
+ (<quote>Kernel LoaDable object</quote>), so it can be installed
+ <quote>on-the-fly</quote> without having to reboot. You will,
however, need to have the following in
<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
- <programlisting>linux_enable=&ldquo;YES&rdquo;</programlisting>
+ <programlisting>linux_enable=<quote>YES</quote></programlisting>
<para>This, in turn, triggers the following action in
<filename>/etc/rc.i386</filename>:</para>
@@ -119,11 +119,11 @@ Id Refs Address Size Name
<sect3 id="linuxemu-libs-manually">
<title>Installing libraries manually</title>
- <para>If you do not have the &ldquo;ports&rdquo; collection
+ <para>If you do not have the <quote>ports</quote> collection
installed, you can install the libraries by hand instead. You
will need the Linux shared libraries that the program depends on
and the runtime linker. Also, you will need to create a
- &ldquo;shadow root&rdquo; directory,
+ <quote>shadow root</quote> directory,
<filename>/compat/linux</filename>, for Linux libraries on your
FreeBSD system. Any shared libraries opened by Linux programs
run under FreeBSD will look in this tree first. So, if a Linux
@@ -231,7 +231,7 @@ libc.so.4 (DLL Jump 4.5pl26) =&gt; /lib/libc.so.4.6.29</screen>
<title>Installing Linux ELF binaries</title>
<para>ELF binaries sometimes require an extra step of
- &ldquo;branding&rdquo;. If you attempt to run an unbranded ELF
+ <quote>branding</quote>. If you attempt to run an unbranded ELF
binary, you will get an error message like the following;</para>
<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>./my-linux-elf-binary</userinput>
@@ -316,12 +316,12 @@ multi on</programlisting>
<title>Obtaining your Mathematica Password</title>
<para>Before you can run Mathematica you will have to obtain a
- password from Wolfram that corresponds to your &ldquo;machine
- ID&rdquo;.</para>
+ password from Wolfram that corresponds to your <quote>machine
+ ID</quote>.</para>
<para>Once you have installed the Linux compatibility runtime
libraries and unpacked Mathematica you can obtain the
- &ldquo;machine ID&rdquo; by running the program
+ <quote>machine ID</quote> by running the program
<command>mathinfo</command> in the Install directory. This
machine ID is based solely on the MAC address of your first
ethernet card.</para>
@@ -331,7 +331,7 @@ multi on</programlisting>
disco.example.com 7115-70839-20412</screen>
<para>When you register with Wolfram, either by email, phone or fax,
- you will give them the &ldquo;machine ID&rdquo; and they will
+ you will give them the <quote>machine ID</quote> and they will
respond with a corresponding password consisting of groups of
numbers. You can then enter this information when you attempt to
run Mathematica for the first time exactly as you would for any
@@ -646,8 +646,8 @@ export PATH</programlisting>
<sect2>
<title>How Does It Work?</title>
- <para>FreeBSD has an abstraction called an &ldquo;execution class
- loader&rdquo;. This is a wedge into the &man.execve.2; system
+ <para>FreeBSD has an abstraction called an <quote>execution class
+ loader</quote>. This is a wedge into the &man.execve.2; system
call.</para>
<para>What happens is that FreeBSD has a list of loaders, instead of
@@ -663,8 +663,8 @@ export PATH</programlisting>
&man.execve.2; call returned a failure, and the shell attempted to
start executing it as shell commands.</para>
- <para>The assumption was a default of &ldquo;whatever the current
- shell is&rdquo;.</para>
+ <para>The assumption was a default of <quote>whatever the current
+ shell is</quote>.</para>
<para>Later, a hack was made for &man.sh.1; to examine the first two
characters, and if they were <literal>:\n</literal>, then it
@@ -760,14 +760,14 @@ export PATH</programlisting>
implementation, not an emulation. There is no emulator (or
simulator, to cut off the next question) involved.</para>
- <para>So why is it sometimes called &ldquo;Linux emulation&rdquo;?
+ <para>So why is it sometimes called <quote>Linux emulation</quote>?
To make it hard to sell FreeBSD! <!-- smiley -->8-). Really, it
is because the historical implementation was done at a time when
there was really no word other than that to describe what was
going on; saying that FreeBSD ran Linux binaries was not true, if
you did not compile the code in or load a module, and there needed
to be a word to describe what was being loaded&mdash;hence
- &ldquo;the Linux emulator&rdquo;.</para>
+ <quote>the Linux emulator</quote>.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
</chapter>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml
index e9031664d9..b22ff63815 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml,v 1.16 1999/12/17 20:10:29 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml,v 1.17 1999/12/22 20:06:59 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="mail">
@@ -49,9 +49,9 @@
<application>mail</application>, and GUI programs such as
<application>balsa</application>,
<application>xfmail</application> to name a few, and something
- more &ldquo;sophisticated&rdquo; like a WWW browser. These
+ more <quote>sophisticated</quote> like a WWW browser. These
programs simply pass off the email transactions to the local <link
- linkend="mail-host">&ldquo;mailhost&rdquo;</link>, either by
+ linkend="mail-host"><quote>mailhost</quote></link>, either by
calling one of the <link linkend="mail-mta">server daemons</link>
available or delivering it over TCP.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -182,7 +182,7 @@ domain foo.bar.edu</programlisting>
into your <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename>. However, make
sure that the search order does not go beyond the
- &ldquo;boundary between local and public administration&rdquo;,
+ <quote>boundary between local and public administration</quote>,
as RFC 1535 calls it.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
@@ -197,7 +197,7 @@ domain foo.bar.edu</programlisting>
<para>This is answered in the sendmail FAQ as follows:</para>
<programlisting>
-* I am getting &ldquo;Local configuration error&rdquo; messages, such as:
+* I am getting <quote>Local configuration error</quote> messages, such as:
553 relay.domain.net config error: mail loops back to myself
554 &lt;user@domain.net&gt;... Local configuration error
@@ -208,13 +208,13 @@ You have asked mail to the domain (e.g., domain.net) to be
forwarded to a specific host (in this case, relay.domain.net)
by using an MX record, but the relay machine does not recognize
itself as domain.net. Add domain.net to /etc/sendmail.cw
-(if you are using FEATURE(use_cw_file)) or add &ldquo;Cw domain.net&rdquo;
+(if you are using FEATURE(use_cw_file)) or add <quote>Cw domain.net</quote>
to /etc/sendmail.cf.</programlisting>
<para>The sendmail FAQ is in
<filename>/usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail</filename> and is
recommended reading if you want to do any
- &ldquo;tweaking&rdquo; of your mail setup.</para>
+ <quote>tweaking</quote> of your mail setup.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
@@ -249,8 +249,8 @@ bigco.com. MX 10 bigco.com.
<command>sendmail</command> will automatically deliver it to the
secondary MX site, i.e., your Internet provider. The secondary MX
site will try every
- (<literal>sendmail_flags = &ldquo;-bd -q15m&rdquo;</literal> in
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> ) 15 minutes to connect to
+ (<literal>sendmail_flags = -bd -q15m</literal> in
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>) 15 minutes to connect to
your host to deliver the mail to the primary MX site.</para>
<para>You might want to use something like this as a login
@@ -282,7 +282,7 @@ bigco.com. MX 10 bigco.com.
&gt; Is there a command that would initiate sendmail to send all the mails
&gt; now? The user has not root-privileges on our machine of course.
-In the &ldquo;privacy flags&rdquo; section of sendmail.cf, there is a
+In the <quote>privacy flags</quote> section of sendmail.cf, there is a
definition Opgoaway,restrictqrun
Remove restrictqrun to allow non-root users to start the queue processing.
@@ -295,10 +295,10 @@ OwTrue
That way a remote site will deliver straight to you, without trying
the customer connection. You then send to your customer. Only works for
-&ldquo;hosts&rdquo;, so you need to get your customer to name their mail
-machine &ldquo;customer.com&rdquo; as well as
-&ldquo;hostname.customer.com&rdquo; in the DNS. Just put an A record in
-the DNS for &ldquo;customer.com&rdquo;.</programlisting>
+<quote>hosts</quote>, so you need to get your customer to name their mail
+machine <quote>customer.com</quote> as well as
+<quote>hostname.customer.com</quote> in the DNS. Just put an A record in
+the DNS for <quote>customer.com</quote>.</programlisting>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
</qandaset>
@@ -408,9 +408,9 @@ freefall MX 20 who.cdrom.com</programlisting>
<sect2 id="mail-domain">
<title>Mail for your Domain</title>
- <para>In order to set up a &ldquo;mailhost&rdquo; (a.k.a., mail
+ <para>In order to set up a <quote>mailhost</quote> (a.k.a., mail
server) you need to have any mail sent to various workstations
- directed to it. Basically, you want to &ldquo;hijack&rdquo; any
+ directed to it. Basically, you want to <quote>hijack</quote> any
mail for your domain (in this case <hostid
role="fqdn">*.FreeBSD.org</hostid>) and divert it to your mail
server so your users can check their mail via POP or directly on
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml
index 3835571dd6..8e3cb1d5d1 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml,v 1.14 1999/11/15 21:17:20 jesusr Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/policies/chapter.sgml,v 1.15 2000/03/25 17:02:35 nbm Exp $
-->
<chapter id="policies">
@@ -64,12 +64,12 @@ MAINTAINER= email-addresses</programlisting>
advantages and drawbacks. No clear winner has emerged.</para>
<para>Since this is the case, after some debate one of these methods has
- been selected as the &ldquo;official&rdquo; method and will be required
+ been selected as the <quote>official</quote> method and will be required
for future imports of software of this kind. Furthermore, it is
strongly suggested that existing contributed software converge on this
model over time, as it has significant advantages over the old method,
including the ability to easily obtain diffs relative to the
- &ldquo;official&rdquo; versions of the source by everyone (even without
+ <quote>official</quote> versions of the source by everyone (even without
cvs access). This will make it significantly easier to return changes
to the primary developers of the contributed software.</para>
@@ -84,9 +84,9 @@ MAINTAINER= email-addresses</programlisting>
<para>Because of some unfortunate design limitations with the RCS file
format and CVS's use of vendor branches, minor, trivial and/or
cosmetic changes are <emphasis>strongly discouraged</emphasis> on
- files that are still tracking the vendor branch. &ldquo;Spelling
- fixes&rdquo; are explicitly included here under the
- &ldquo;cosmetic&rdquo; category and are to be avoided for files with
+ files that are still tracking the vendor branch. <quote>Spelling
+ fixes</quote> are explicitly included here under the
+ <quote>cosmetic</quote> category and are to be avoided for files with
revision 1.1.x.x. The repository bloat impact from a single character
change can be rather dramatic.</para>
</note>
@@ -122,12 +122,12 @@ MAINTAINER= email-addresses</programlisting>
FreeBSD-specific changes as possible. The 'easy-import' tool on
freefall will assist in doing the import, but if there are any doubts on
how to go about it, it is imperative that you ask first and not blunder
- ahead and hope it &ldquo;works out&rdquo;. CVS is not forgiving of
+ ahead and hope it <quote>works out</quote>. CVS is not forgiving of
import accidents and a fair amount of effort is required to back out
major mistakes.</para>
<para>Because of the previously mentioned design limitations with CVS's
- vendor branches, it is required that &ldquo;official&rdquo; patches from
+ vendor branches, it is required that <quote>official</quote> patches from
the vendor be applied to the original distributed sources and the result
re-imported onto the vendor branch again. Official patches should never
be patched into the FreeBSD checked out version and "committed", as this
@@ -350,7 +350,7 @@ obrien@FreeBSD.org - 30 March 1997</programlisting>
well. Any version number after the <replaceable>y</replaceable>
(ie. the third digit) is totally ignored when comparing shared lib
version numbers to decide which library to link with. Given two shared
- libraries that differ only in the &ldquo;micro&rdquo; revision,
+ libraries that differ only in the <quote>micro</quote> revision,
<command>ld.so</command> will link with the higher one. Ie: if you link
with <filename>libfoo.so.3.3.3</filename>, the linker only records
<literal>3.3</literal> in the headers, and will link with anything
@@ -361,7 +361,7 @@ obrien@FreeBSD.org - 30 March 1997</programlisting>
<note>
<para><command>ld.so</command> will always use the highest
- &ldquo;minor&rdquo; revision. Ie: it will use
+ <quote>minor</quote> revision. Ie: it will use
<filename>libc.so.2.2</filename> in preference to
<filename>libc.so.2.0</filename>, even if the program was initially
linked with <filename>libc.so.2.0</filename>.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml
index 4495528aad..0baaa3dd97 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml,v 1.106 2000/06/03 21:15:04 asmodai Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml,v 1.107 2000/06/04 21:58:02 ache Exp $
-->
<chapter id="ports">
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@
Occasionally, you might be lucky enough to find that the program you
want compiles cleanly on your system, install everything into all
the right directories, and run flawlessly
- &ldquo;out-of-the-box&rdquo;, but this behavior is somewhat rare.
+ <quote>out-of-the-box</quote>, but this behavior is somewhat rare.
Most of the time, you find yourself needing to make modifications in
order to get the program to work. This is where the FreeBSD Ports
collection comes to the rescue.</para>
@@ -52,7 +52,7 @@
<para>The first thing that should be explained
when it comes to the Ports collection is what is actually meant
- by a &ldquo;skeleton&rdquo;. In a nutshell, a port skeleton is a
+ by a <quote>skeleton</quote>. In a nutshell, a port skeleton is a
minimal set of files that are needed for a program to compile and
install cleanly on FreeBSD. Each port skeleton includes:</para>
@@ -84,9 +84,9 @@
contains patches to make the program compile and install on
your FreeBSD system. Patches are basically small files that
specify changes to particular files. They are in plain text
- format, and basically say &ldquo;Remove line 10&rdquo; or
- &ldquo;Change line 26 to this ...&rdquo;. Patches are also
- known as &ldquo;diffs&rdquo; because they are generated by the
+ format, and basically say <quote>Remove line 10</quote> or
+ <quote>Change line 26 to this ...</quote>. Patches are also
+ known as <quote>diffs</quote> because they are generated by the
<application>diff</application> program.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -133,8 +133,8 @@
<para>Another method is to use the <command>whereis</command>
command. To use <command>whereis</command>, simply type
- &ldquo;<command>whereis &lt;program you want to
- install&gt;&rdquo;</command> at the prompt, and if it is found on
+ <quote><command>whereis &lt;program you want to
+ install&gt;</command></quote> at the prompt, and if it is found on
your system, you will be told where it is, like so:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>whereis xchat</userinput>
@@ -149,7 +149,7 @@ xchat: /usr/ports/irc/xchat
feature, you will need to be in the
<filename>/usr/ports</filename> directory. Once in that
directory, run <command>make search key=program-name</command>
- where &ldquo;program-name&rdquo; is the name of the program you
+ where <quote>program-name</quote> is the name of the program you
want to find. For example, if you were looking for xchat:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>
@@ -165,7 +165,7 @@ R-deps: XFree86-3.3.5 gettext-0.10.35 giflib-4.1.0 glib-1.2.6 gtk-1.2.6 imlib-1.
png-1.0.3 tiff-3.5.1</screen>
<para>The part of the output you want to pay particular attention
- to is the &ldquo;Path:&rdquo; line, since that tells you where to
+ to is the <quote>Path:</quote> line, since that tells you where to
find it. The other information provided is not needed in order
to install the port directly, so it will not be covered
here.</para>
@@ -370,8 +370,8 @@ Receiving xchat-1.3.8.tar.bz2 (305543 bytes): 100%
<answer>
<para>Ah, you must be thinking of the serial ports on the back
- of your computer. We are using &ldquo;port&rdquo; here to
- mean the result of &ldquo;porting&rdquo; a program from one
+ of your computer. We are using <quote>port</quote> here to
+ mean the result of <quote>porting</quote> a program from one
version of UNIX to another.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
@@ -458,9 +458,9 @@ Receiving xchat-1.3.8.tar.bz2 (305543 bytes): 100%
<answer>
<para>A patch is a small file that specifies how to go from
one version of a file to another. It contains plain text,
- and basically says things like &ldquo;delete line 23&rdquo;,
- &ldquo;add these two lines after line 468&rdquo;, or
- &ldquo;change line 197 to this&rdquo;. They are also known
+ and basically says things like <quote>delete line 23</quote>,
+ <quote>add these two lines after line 468</quote>, or
+ <quote>change line 197 to this</quote>. They are also known
as diffs because they are generated by the
<application>diff</application> program.</para>
</answer>
@@ -865,8 +865,8 @@ arcade game.</screen>
<answer>
<para>No, the problem is that some of the ports need to ask
- you questions that we cannot answer for you (eg &ldquo;Do
- you want to print on A4 or US letter sized paper?&rdquo;)
+ you questions that we cannot answer for you (eg <quote>Do
+ you want to print on A4 or US letter sized paper?</quote>)
and they need to have someone on hand to answer
them.</para>
</answer>
@@ -946,8 +946,8 @@ arcade game.</screen>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>Fix it! The <link linkend="porting">&ldquo;how to make a
- port&rdquo;</link> section should help you do this.</para>
+ <para>Fix it! The <link linkend="porting"><quote>how to make a
+ port</quote></link> section should help you do this.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -965,14 +965,14 @@ arcade game.</screen>
<listitem>
<para>Forget about it. This is the easiest route&mdash;very
- few ports can be classified as &ldquo;essential&rdquo;. There's
+ few ports can be classified as <quote>essential</quote>. There's
also a good chance any problems will be fixed in the next
version when the port is updated.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>Grab the package from an ftp site near you. The
- &ldquo;master&rdquo; package collection is on <hostid
+ <quote>master</quote> package collection is on <hostid
role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid> in the <ulink
URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/packages/">packages
directory</ulink>, but be sure to check your local mirror
@@ -1143,7 +1143,7 @@ asami@cs.berkeley.edu</programlisting>
<title><filename>PLIST</filename></title>
<para>This file lists all the files installed by the port. It is
- also called the &ldquo;packing list&rdquo; because the package is
+ also called the <quote>packing list</quote> because the package is
generated by packing the files listed here. The pathnames are
relative to the installation prefix (usually
<filename>/usr/local</filename> or
@@ -1310,7 +1310,7 @@ lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
<para>We will look at your port, get back to you if necessary, and put
it in the tree. Your name will also appear in the list of
- &ldquo;Additional FreeBSD contributors&rdquo; on the FreeBSD
+ <quote>Additional FreeBSD contributors</quote> on the FreeBSD
Handbook and other files. Isn't that great?!? <!-- smiley
-->:-)</para>
</sect3>
@@ -1436,7 +1436,7 @@ lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
target in your <filename>Makefile</filename>.</para>
<note>
- <para>The &ldquo;main&rdquo; targets (e.g.,
+ <para>The <quote>main</quote> targets (e.g.,
<maketarget>extract</maketarget>,
<maketarget>configure</maketarget>, etc.) do nothing more than
make sure all the stages up to that one are completed and call
@@ -1470,7 +1470,7 @@ lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
<para>If you cannot find somewhere convenient and reliable to put the
distfile (if you are a FreeBSD committer, you can just put it in
your <filename>public_html/</filename> directory on
- <hostid>freefall</hostid>), we can &ldquo;house&rdquo; it ourselves
+ <hostid>freefall</hostid>), we can <quote>house</quote> it ourselves
by putting it on
<filename>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/LOCAL_PORTS/</filename>
as the last resort. Please refer to this location as
@@ -1509,7 +1509,7 @@ lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
to compile or install, you should take a look at one of Larry Wall's
classic <application>Configure</application> scripts and perhaps do
something similar yourself. The goal of the new ports collection is
- to make each port as &ldquo;plug-and-play&rdquo; as possible for the
+ to make each port as <quote>plug-and-play</quote> as possible for the
end-user while using a minimum of disk space.</para>
<note>
@@ -1558,7 +1558,7 @@ lib/X11/oneko/mouse.xpm
<para>If your port requires user input to build, configure or install,
then set <makevar>IS_INTERACTIVE</makevar> in your Makefile. This
- will allow &ldquo;overnight builds&rdquo; to skip your port if the
+ will allow <quote>overnight builds</quote> to skip your port if the
user sets the variable <envar>BATCH</envar> in his environment (and
if the user sets the variable <envar>INTERACTIVE</envar>, then
<emphasis>only</emphasis> those ports requiring interaction are
@@ -1886,7 +1886,7 @@ RUN_DEPENDS= ${PREFIX}/etc/innd:${PORTSDIR}/news/inn \
ports tree to build and install it if it is not found.</para>
<note>
- <para>&ldquo;build&rdquo; here means everything from extracting to
+ <para><quote>build</quote> here means everything from extracting to
compilation. The dependency is checked from within the
<maketarget>extract</maketarget> target. The
<replaceable>target</replaceable> part can be omitted if it is
@@ -2804,7 +2804,7 @@ diff -u -r1.15 PLIST
<title><filename>REQ</filename></title>
<para>If your port needs to determine if it should install or not, you
- can create a <filename>pkg/REQ</filename> &ldquo;requirements&rdquo;
+ can create a <filename>pkg/REQ</filename> <quote>requirements</quote>
script. It will be invoked automatically at
installation/deinstallation time to determine whether or not
installation/deinstallation should proceed.</para>
@@ -2956,7 +2956,7 @@ PLIST_SUB= OCTAVE_VERSION=${OCTAVE_VERSION}</programlisting>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>If the port has a &ldquo;do not sell for profit&rdquo; type of
+ <para>If the port has a <quote>do not sell for profit</quote> type of
license, set the variable <makevar>NO_CDROM</makevar> to a string
describing the reason why. We will make sure such ports will not go
into the CD-ROM come release time. The distfile and package will
@@ -2974,7 +2974,7 @@ PLIST_SUB= OCTAVE_VERSION=${OCTAVE_VERSION}</programlisting>
<listitem>
<para>If the port has legal restrictions on who can use it (e.g.,
- crypto stuff) or has a &ldquo;no commercial use&rdquo; license,
+ crypto stuff) or has a <quote>no commercial use</quote> license,
set the variable <makevar>RESTRICTED</makevar> to be the string
describing the reason why. For such ports, the distfiles/packages
will not be available even from our ftp sites.</para>
@@ -3617,7 +3617,7 @@ post-install:
<note>
<para>Note that 2.2-STABLE sometimes identifies itself as
- &ldquo;2.2.5-STABLE&rdquo; after the 2.2.5-RELEASE. The pattern
+ <quote>2.2.5-STABLE</quote> after the 2.2.5-RELEASE. The pattern
used to be year followed by the month, but we decided to change it
to a more straightforward major/minor system starting from 2.2.
This is because the parallel development on several branches made
@@ -3704,13 +3704,13 @@ post-install:
<row>
<entry><makevar>LOCALBASE</makevar></entry>
- <entry>The base of the &ldquo;local&rdquo; tree (e.g.,
+ <entry>The base of the <quote>local</quote> tree (e.g.,
<literal>/usr/local/</literal>)</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry><makevar>X11BASE</makevar></entry>
- <entry>The base of the &ldquo;X11&rdquo; tree (e.g.,
+ <entry>The base of the <quote>X11</quote> tree (e.g.,
<literal>/usr/X11R6</literal>)</entry>
</row>
@@ -3943,7 +3943,7 @@ post-install:
the rules governing
<filename>/usr</filename> pretty much apply to
<filename>/usr/local</filename> too. The exception are ports
- dealing with USENET &ldquo;news&rdquo;. They may use
+ dealing with USENET <quote>news</quote>. They may use
<filename><makevar>PREFIX</makevar>/news</filename> as a destination
for their files.</para>
</sect3>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml
index 85f0bda83e..487122c66c 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml,v 1.22 2000/03/18 18:38:56 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml,v 1.23 2000/04/10 13:34:34 brian Exp $
-->
<chapter id="ppp-and-slip">
@@ -399,7 +399,7 @@ nameserver <replaceable>y.y.y.y</replaceable></programlisting>
<listitem>
<para>Identifies an entry for a provider called
- &ldquo;provider&rdquo;.</para>
+ <quote>provider</quote>.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -435,7 +435,7 @@ protocol: ppp</screen>
<para>You will need to alter this script to suit your own
needs. When you write this script for the first time,
- you should enable &ldquo;chat&rdquo; logging to ensure
+ you should enable <quote>chat</quote> logging to ensure
that the conversation is going as expected.</para>
<para>If you are using PAP or CHAP, there will be no login
@@ -468,7 +468,7 @@ protocol: ppp</screen>
their gateway (the machine to which you connect). If
your ISP hasn't given you a gateway address, use <hostid
role="netmask">10.0.0.2/0</hostid>. If you need to use
- a &ldquo;guessed&rdquo; address, make sure that you
+ a <quote>guessed</quote> address, make sure that you
create an entry in
<filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename> as per the
instructions for <link linkend="userppp-dynamicIP">PPP
@@ -522,7 +522,7 @@ protocol: ppp</screen>
<para>If your service provider does not assign static IP
addresses, <command>ppp</command> can be configured to
negotiate the local and remote addresses. This is done by
- &ldquo;guessing&rdquo; an IP address and allowing
+ <quote>guessing</quote> an IP address and allowing
<command>ppp</command> to set it up correctly using the IP
Configuration Protocol (IPCP) after connecting. The
<filename>ppp.conf</filename> configuration is the same as
@@ -617,7 +617,7 @@ protocol: ppp</screen>
<filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup.sample</filename> for a
detailed example.</para>
- <para>Version 2 of PPP introduces &ldquo;sticky routes&rdquo;.
+ <para>Version 2 of PPP introduces <quote>sticky routes</quote>.
Any <literal>add</literal> or <literal>delete</literal> lines
that contain <literal>MYADDR</literal> or
<literal>HISADDR</literal> will be remembered, and any time
@@ -947,7 +947,7 @@ set nbns 203.14.100.5</programlisting>
an issue here as passwords, although being sent as plain text
with PAP, are being transmitted down a serial line only.
There's not much room for crackers to
- &ldquo;eavesdrop&rdquo;.</para>
+ <quote>eavesdrop</quote>.</para>
<para>Referring back to the <link linkend="userppp-staticIP">PPP
and Static IP addresses</link> or <link
@@ -971,7 +971,7 @@ set nbns 203.14.100.5</programlisting>
<listitem>
<para>Your ISP will not normally require that you log into
the server if you're using PAP or CHAP. You must
- therefore disable your &ldquo;set login&rdquo;
+ therefore disable your <quote>set login</quote>
string.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -1113,7 +1113,7 @@ sendmail_flags="-bd"</programlisting>
4 !bg sendmail -bd -q30m</programlisting>
<para>If you don't like this, it is possible to set up a
- &ldquo;dfilter&rdquo; to block SMTP traffic. Refer to the
+ <quote>dfilter</quote> to block SMTP traffic. Refer to the
sample files for further details.</para>
<para>Now the only thing left to do is reboot the machine.</para>
@@ -1241,13 +1241,13 @@ sendmail_flags="-bd"</programlisting>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>As a &ldquo;client&rdquo;, i.e., you want to connect your
+ <para>As a <quote>client</quote>, i.e., you want to connect your
machine to the outside world via a PPP serial connection or
modem line.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>as a &ldquo;server&rdquo;, i.e. your machine is located on
+ <para>as a <quote>server</quote>, i.e. your machine is located on
the network and used to connect other computers using
PPP.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -1859,7 +1859,7 @@ pseudo-device sl 1</programlisting>
says:</para>
<programlisting>
-hostname=&ldquo;myname.my.domain&rdquo;</programlisting>
+hostname=<quote>myname.my.domain</quote></programlisting>
<para>You should give it your full Internet
hostname.</para>
@@ -1875,7 +1875,7 @@ network_interfaces="lo0"</programlisting>
<para>to:</para>
<programlisting>
-network_interfaces=&ldquo;lo0 sl0&rdquo;</programlisting>
+network_interfaces=<quote>lo0 sl0</quote></programlisting>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -1891,12 +1891,12 @@ ifconfig_sl0="inet ${hostname} slip-gateway netmask 0xffffff00 up"</programlisti
line:</para>
<programlisting>
-defaultrouter=&ldquo;NO&rdquo;</programlisting>
+defaultrouter=<quote>NO</quote></programlisting>
<para>to:</para>
<programlisting>
-defaultrouter=&ldquo;slip-gateway&rdquo;</programlisting>
+defaultrouter=<quote>slip-gateway</quote></programlisting>
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
</step>
@@ -2034,8 +2034,8 @@ sl0: flags=10&lt;POINTOPOINT&gt;
<listitem>
<para>Also, <command>netstat -r</command> will give the
- routing table, in case you get the &ldquo;no route to
- host&rdquo; messages from ping. Mine looks like:</para>
+ routing table, in case you get the <quote>no route to
+ host</quote> messages from ping. Mine looks like:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>netstat -r</userinput>
Routing tables
@@ -2194,7 +2194,7 @@ sl1* 296 &lt;Link&gt; 0 0 0 0
<command>netstat -i</command>'s output indicate that there are
two SLIP interfaces built into the kernel. (The asterisks after
the <literal>sl0</literal> and <literal>sl1</literal> indicate
- that the interfaces are &ldquo;down&rdquo;.)</para>
+ that the interfaces are <quote>down</quote>.)</para>
<para>However, FreeBSD's default kernels do not come configured
to forward packets (ie, your FreeBSD machine will not act as a
@@ -2305,7 +2305,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
<listitem>
<para><option>noicmp</option> &mdash; disable ICMP packets
- (so any &ldquo;ping&rdquo; packets will be dropped instead
+ (so any <quote>ping</quote> packets will be dropped instead
of using up your bandwidth)</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -2320,8 +2320,8 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
<para>Your choice of local and remote addresses for your SLIP
links depends on whether you are going to dedicate a TCP/IP
- subnet or if you are going to use &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo; on
- your SLIP server (it is not &ldquo;true&rdquo; proxy ARP, but
+ subnet or if you are going to use <quote>proxy ARP</quote> on
+ your SLIP server (it is not <quote>true</quote> proxy ARP, but
that is the terminology used in this document to describe it).
If you are not sure which method to select or how to assign IP
addresses, please refer to the TCP/IP books referenced in the
@@ -2339,7 +2339,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
your other routers to inform them about your SLIP server's
route to the SLIP subnet.</para>
- <para>Otherwise, if you will use the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;
+ <para>Otherwise, if you will use the <quote>proxy ARP</quote>
method, you will need to assign your SLIP client's IP
addresses out of your SLIP server's Ethernet subnet, and you
will also need to adjust your
@@ -2373,7 +2373,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
with the local and remote addresses and network mask of the
SLIP interface.</para>
- <para>If you have decided to use the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;
+ <para>If you have decided to use the <quote>proxy ARP</quote>
method (instead of using a separate subnet for your SLIP
clients), your <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename>
file will need to look something like this:</para>
@@ -2404,7 +2404,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
<para>When using the example above, be sure to replace the
Ethernet MAC address (<hostid
role="mac">00:11:22:33:44:55</hostid>) with the MAC address of
- your system's Ethernet card, or your &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;
+ your system's Ethernet card, or your <quote>proxy ARP</quote>
will definitely not work! You can discover your SLIP server's
Ethernet MAC address by looking at the results of running
<command>netstat -i</command>; the second line of the output
@@ -2425,7 +2425,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
<para>When you create
<filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename> and
<filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename>, the
- &ldquo;execute&rdquo; bit (ie, <command>chmod 755
+ <quote>execute</quote> bit (ie, <command>chmod 755
/etc/sliphome/slip.login /etc/sliphome/slip.logout</command>)
must be set, or <command>sliplogin</command> will be unable
to execute it.</para>
@@ -2436,8 +2436,8 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
<title><filename>slip.logout</filename> Configuration</title>
<para><filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename> is not
- strictly needed (unless you are implementing &ldquo;proxy
- ARP&rdquo;), but if you decide to create it, this is an
+ strictly needed (unless you are implementing <quote>proxy
+ ARP</quote>), but if you decide to create it, this is an
example of a basic
<filename>slip.logout</filename> script:</para>
@@ -2454,7 +2454,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
#
/sbin/ifconfig sl$1 down</programlisting>
- <para>If you are using &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;, you will want to
+ <para>If you are using <quote>proxy ARP</quote>, you will want to
have <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename> remove the
ARP entry for the SLIP client:</para>
@@ -2474,7 +2474,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
/usr/sbin/arp -d $5</programlisting>
<para>The <command>arp -d &#36;5</command> removes the ARP entry
- that the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;
+ that the <quote>proxy ARP</quote>
<filename>slip.login</filename> added when the SLIP client
logged in.</para>
@@ -2488,7 +2488,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
<sect3>
<title>Routing Considerations</title>
- <para>If you are not using the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo; method for
+ <para>If you are not using the <quote>proxy ARP</quote> method for
routing packets between your SLIP clients and the rest of your
network (and perhaps the Internet), you will probably either
have to add static routes to your closest default router(s) to
@@ -2525,7 +2525,7 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
GateD anonymous ftp site</ulink>; I believe the current version
as of this writing is
<filename>gated-R3_5Alpha_8.tar.Z</filename>, which includes
- support for FreeBSD &ldquo;out-of-the-box&rdquo;. Complete
+ support for FreeBSD <quote>out-of-the-box</quote>. Complete
information and documentation on <command>gated</command> is
available on the Web starting at <ulink
url="http://www.gated.merit.edu/">the Merit GateD
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml
index 37d45e05a4..8400b1bf22 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml,v 1.25 2000/04/30 22:26:03 nik Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/printing/chapter.sgml,v 1.26 2000/05/17 19:55:22 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="printing">
@@ -164,8 +164,8 @@
see <link linkend="printing-advanced-network-net-if">Printers With
Networked Data Stream Interaces</link>.</para>
- <para>Although this section is called &ldquo;Simple Printer
- Setup&rdquo;, it is actually fairly complex. Getting the printer
+ <para>Although this section is called <quote>Simple Printer
+ Setup</quote>, it is actually fairly complex. Getting the printer
to work with your computer and the LPD spooler is the hardest
part. The advanced options like header pages and accounting are
fairly easy once you get the printer working.</para>
@@ -210,7 +210,7 @@
configuration exceedingly simple.</para>
<para>Parallel interfaces are sometimes known as
- &ldquo;Centronics&rdquo; interfaces, named after the
+ <quote>Centronics</quote> interfaces, named after the
connector type on the printer.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -262,8 +262,8 @@
instructions that came with the printer, the computer, or both
should give you complete guidance.</para>
- <para>If you are unsure what the &ldquo;proper serial
- cable&rdquo; is, you may wish to try one of the following
+ <para>If you are unsure what the <quote>proper serial
+ cable</quote> is, you may wish to try one of the following
alternatives:</para>
<itemizedlist>
@@ -272,7 +272,7 @@
of the connector on one end of the cable straight through
to its corresponding pin of the connector on the other
end. This type of cable is also known as a
- &ldquo;DTE-to-DCE&rdquo; cable.</para>
+ <quote>DTE-to-DCE</quote> cable.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -280,7 +280,7 @@
pins straight through, swaps others (send data to receive
data, for example), and shorts some internally in each
connector hood. This type of cable is also known as a
- &ldquo;DTE-to-DTE&rdquo; cable.</para>
+ <quote>DTE-to-DTE</quote> cable.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -299,7 +299,7 @@
and the printer can support. Choose 7 or 8 data bits; none,
even, or odd parity; and 1 or 2 stop bits. Also choose a flow
control protocol: either none, or XON/XOFF (also known as
- &ldquo;in-band&rdquo; or &ldquo;software&rdquo;) flow control.
+ <quote>in-band</quote> or <quote>software</quote>) flow control.
Remember these settings for the software configuration that
follows.</para>
</sect4>
@@ -1319,7 +1319,7 @@ $%&amp;'()*+,-./01234567
<para>Section <link linkend="printing-advanced-filters">How Filters
Work</link>, tries to give an overview of a filter's role in the
printing process. You should read this section to get an
- understanding of what is happening &ldquo;under the hood&rdquo;
+ understanding of what is happening <quote>under the hood</quote>
when LPD uses filters. This knowledge could help you anticipate
and debug problems you might encounter as you install more and
more filters on each of your printers.</para>
@@ -1901,8 +1901,8 @@ exit 2</programlisting>
publishing program), but will never print plot files. You could
install a Printerleaf conversion filter under the
<literal>gf</literal> capability and then educate your users that
- <command>lpr -g</command> mean &ldquo;print Printerleaf
- files.&rdquo;</para>
+ <command>lpr -g</command> mean <quote>print Printerleaf
+ files.</quote></para>
</sect4>
<sect4>
@@ -2337,7 +2337,7 @@ exit 0</programlisting>
<para>In the <link linkend="printing-simple">Simple Printer
Setup</link>, we turned off header pages by specifying
- <literal>sh</literal> (meaning &ldquo;suppress header&rdquo;) in the
+ <literal>sh</literal> (meaning <quote>suppress header</quote>) in the
<filename>/etc/printcap</filename> file. To enable header pages for
a printer, just remove the <literal>sh</literal> capability.</para>
@@ -2480,7 +2480,7 @@ rose:kelly Job: outline Date: Sun Sep 17 11:07:51 1995</programlisting>
accounting, and it is not provided with any <emphasis>user or
host</emphasis> information or an accounting file, so it has no
idea whom to charge for printer use. It is also not enough to just
- &ldquo;add one page&rdquo; to the text filter or any of the
+ <quote>add one page</quote> to the text filter or any of the
conversion filters (which do have user and host information) since
users can suppress header pages with <command>lpr -h</command>.
They could still be charged for header pages they did not print.
@@ -2681,7 +2681,7 @@ done
Work</link>).</para>
<para>As we have mentioned before, the above scheme, though fairly
- simple, disables the &ldquo;suppress header page&rdquo; option (the
+ simple, disables the <quote>suppress header page</quote> option (the
<option>-h</option> option) to <command>lpr</command>. If users
wanted to save a tree (or a few pennies, if you charge for header
pages), they would not be able to do so, since every filter's going
@@ -2739,7 +2739,7 @@ done
<listitem>
<para>It might support a data stream network connection. In this
- case, you &ldquo;attach&rdquo; the printer to one host on the
+ case, you <quote>attach</quote> the printer to one host on the
network by making that host responsible for spooling jobs and
sending them to the printer. Section <link
linkend="printing-advanced-network-net-if">Printers with
@@ -3271,7 +3271,7 @@ boo/minfree</userinput></screen>
printers from their own departmental systems. If you would
rather allow them to use <emphasis>only</emphasis> your
printers and not your compute resources, you can give them
- &ldquo;token&rdquo; accounts, with no home directory and a
+ <quote>token</quote> accounts, with no home directory and a
useless shell like <filename>/usr/bin/false</filename>.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -3323,7 +3323,7 @@ boo/minfree</userinput></screen>
printers. Like disk quotas, the accounting is immediate. You can
prevent users from printing when their account goes in the red,
and might provide a way for users to check and adjust their
- &ldquo;print quotas.&rdquo; But this method requires some database
+ <quote>print quotas.</quote> But this method requires some database
code to track users and their quotas.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -3653,7 +3653,7 @@ total 337.00 154 $ 6.74</screen>
<title>Checking Jobs</title>
<para>When you print with &man.lpr.1;, the data you wish to print is put
- together in a package called a &ldquo;print job&rdquo;, which is sent
+ together in a package called a <quote>print job</quote>, which is sent
to the LPD spooling system. Each printer has a queue of jobs, and
your job waits in that queue along with other jobs from yourself and
from other users. The printer prints those jobs in a first-come,
@@ -3676,8 +3676,8 @@ active kelly 9 /etc/host.conf, /etc/hosts.equiv 88 bytes
3rd mary 11 ... 78519 bytes</screen>
<para>This shows three jobs in the queue for <literal>bamboo</literal>.
- The first job, submitted by user kelly, got assigned &ldquo;job
- number&rdquo; 9. Every job for a printer gets a unique job number.
+ The first job, submitted by user kelly, got assigned <quote>job
+ number</quote> 9. Every job for a printer gets a unique job number.
Most of the time you can ignore the job number, but you will need it
if you want to cancel the job; see section <link
linkend="printing-lprm">Removing Jobs</link> for details.</para>
@@ -3685,7 +3685,7 @@ active kelly 9 /etc/host.conf, /etc/hosts.equiv 88 bytes
<para>Job number nine consists of two files; multiple files given on the
&man.lpr.1; command line are treated as part of a single job. It
is the currently active job (note the word <literal>active</literal>
- under the &ldquo;Rank&rdquo; column), which means the printer should
+ under the <quote>Rank</quote> column), which means the printer should
be currently printing that job. The second job consists of data
passed as the standard input to the &man.lpr.1; command. The third
job came from user <username>mary</username>; it is a much larger
@@ -4285,8 +4285,8 @@ cfA013rose dequeued
have learned just about everything there is to know about the LPD
spooling system that comes with FreeBSD. You can probably appreciate
many of its shortcomings, which naturally leads to the question:
- &ldquo;What other spooling systems are out there (and work with
- FreeBSD)?&rdquo;</para>
+ <quote>What other spooling systems are out there (and work with
+ FreeBSD)?</quote></para>
<para>Unfortunately, I have located only <emphasis>two</emphasis>
alternatives&mdash;and they are almost identical to each other! They
@@ -4340,8 +4340,8 @@ cfA013rose dequeued
<term>LPRng</term>
<listitem>
- <para>LPRng, which purportedly means &ldquo;LPR: the Next
- Generation&rdquo; is a complete rewrite of PLP. Patrick Powell
+ <para>LPRng, which purportedly means <quote>LPR: the Next
+ Generation</quote> is a complete rewrite of PLP. Patrick Powell
and Justin Mason (the principal maintainer of PLP) collaborated to
make LPRng. The main site for LPRng is <ulink
url="ftp://dickory.sdsu.edu/pub/LPRng/">ftp://dickory.sdsu.edu/pub/LPRng/</ulink>.</para>
@@ -4397,7 +4397,7 @@ exit 2</programlisting>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term>It produced the &ldquo;staircase effect.&rdquo;</term>
+ <term>It produced the <quote>staircase effect.</quote></term>
<listitem>
<para>You got the following on paper:</para>
@@ -4522,7 +4522,7 @@ teak|hp|laserjet|Hewlett Packard LaserJet 3Si:\
<para>The printer never advanced a line. All of the lines of
text were printed on top of each other on one line.</para>
- <para>This problem is the &ldquo;opposite&rdquo; of the
+ <para>This problem is the <quote>opposite</quote> of the
staircase effect, described above, and is much rarer.
Somewhere, the LF characters that FreeBSD uses to end a line
are being treated as CR characters to return the print
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml
index c6ff707515..0222980a24 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml,v 1.29 2000/04/26 19:25:05 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml,v 1.30 2000/05/23 22:46:03 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="security">
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@
<para>Security is a function that begins and ends with the system
administrator. While all BSD UNIX multi-user systems have some
inherent security, the job of building and maintaining additional
- security mechanisms to keep those users &ldquo;honest&rdquo; is
+ security mechanisms to keep those users <quote>honest</quote> is
probably one of the single largest undertakings of the sysadmin.
Machines are only as secure as you make them, and security concerns
are ever competing with the human necessity for convenience. UNIX
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@
internetworked, security becomes an ever bigger issue.</para>
<para>Security is best implemented through a layered
- &ldquo;onion&rdquo; approach. In a nutshell, what you want to do is
+ <quote>onion</quote> approach. In a nutshell, what you want to do is
to create as many layers of security as are convenient and then
carefully monitor the system for intrusions. You do not want to
overbuild your security or you will interefere with the detection
@@ -128,7 +128,7 @@
off the hole the hacker found to break in in the first place.</para>
<para>Security remedies should always be implemented with a
- multi-layered &ldquo;onion peel&rdquo; approach and can be
+ multi-layered <quote>onion peel</quote> approach and can be
categorized as follows:</para>
<orderedlist>
@@ -606,15 +606,15 @@
The idea here is to prevent saturation attacks from outside your
LAN, not so much to protect internal services from network-based
root compromise. Always configure an exclusive firewall, i.e.,
- &ldquo;firewall everything <emphasis>except</emphasis> ports A, B,
- C, D, and M-Z&rdquo;. This way you can firewall off all of your
+ <quote>firewall everything <emphasis>except</emphasis> ports A, B,
+ C, D, and M-Z</quote>. This way you can firewall off all of your
low ports except for certain specific services such as
<application>named</application> (if you are primary for a zone),
<application>ntalkd</application>,
<application>sendmail</application>, and other internet-accessible
services. If you try to configure the firewall the other way
&ndash; as an inclusive or permissive firewall, there is a good
- chance that you will forget to &ldquo;close&rdquo; a couple of
+ chance that you will forget to <quote>close</quote> a couple of
services or that you will add a new internal service and forget
to update the firewall. You can still open up the high-numbered
port range on the firewall to allow permissive-like operation
@@ -746,13 +746,13 @@
their account. It seems obvious that these passwords need to be
known only to the user and the actual operating system. In
order to keep these passwords secret, they are encrypted with
- what is known as a &ldquo;one-way hash&rdquo;, that is, they can
+ what is known as a <quote>one-way hash</quote>, that is, they can
only be easily encrypted but not decrypted. In other words, what
we told you a moment ago was obvious is not even true: the
operating system itself does not <emphasis>really</emphasis> know
the password. It only knows the <emphasis>encrypted</emphasis>
form of the password. The only way to get the
- &ldquo;plain-text&rdquo; password is by a brute force search of the
+ <quote>plain-text</quote> password is by a brute force search of the
space of possible passwords.</para>
<para>Unfortunately the only secure way to encrypt passwords when
@@ -823,16 +823,16 @@ lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 15 Mar 19 06:56 libcrypt_p.a -&gt; libdescrypt_p.a</s
<para>There are three different sorts of passwords which we will talk
about in the discussion below. The first is your usual UNIX-style or
- Kerberos password; we will call this a &ldquo;UNIX password&rdquo;.
+ Kerberos password; we will call this a <quote>UNIX password</quote>.
The second sort is the one-time password which is generated by the
S/Key <command>key</command> program and accepted by the
<command>keyinit</command> program and the login prompt; we will
- call this a &ldquo;one-time password&rdquo;. The final sort of
+ call this a <quote>one-time password</quote>. The final sort of
password is the secret password which you give to the
<command>key</command> program (and sometimes the
<command>keyinit</command> program) which it uses to generate
- one-time passwords; we will call it a &ldquo;secret password&rdquo;
- or just unqualified &ldquo;password&rdquo;.</para>
+ one-time passwords; we will call it a <quote>secret password</quote>
+ or just unqualified <quote>password</quote>.</para>
<para>The secret password does not have anything to do with your UNIX
password; they can be the same but this is not reccomended. S/Key
@@ -844,9 +844,9 @@ lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 15 Mar 19 06:56 libcrypt_p.a -&gt; libdescrypt_p.a</s
<para>Besides the password, there are two other pieces of data that
are important to S/Key. One is what is known as the
- &ldquo;seed&rdquo; or &ldquo;key&rdquo; and consists of two letters
- and five digits. The other is what is called the &ldquo;iteration
- count&rdquo; and is a number between 1 and 100. S/Key creates the
+ <quote>seed</quote> or <quote>key</quote> and consists of two letters
+ and five digits. The other is what is called the <quote>iteration
+ count</quote> and is a number between 1 and 100. S/Key creates the
one-time password by concatenating the seed and the secret password,
then applying the MD4 hash as many times as specified by the
iteration count and turning the result into six short English words.
@@ -911,7 +911,7 @@ DEFY CLUB PRO NASH LACE SOFT</screen>
<para>At the <prompt>Enter secret password:</prompt> prompt you
should enter a password or phrase. Remember, this is not the
password that you will use to login with, this is used to generate
- your one-time login keys. The &ldquo;ID&rdquo; line gives the
+ your one-time login keys. The <quote>ID</quote> line gives the
parameters of your particular S/Key instance; your login name, the
iteration count, and seed. When logging in with S/Key, the system
will remember these parameters and present them back to you so you
@@ -1175,7 +1175,7 @@ ARC.NASA.GOV trident.arc.nasa.gov</screen>
<para>The first line names the realm in which this system works. The
other lines contain realm/host entries. The first item on a line is a
realm, and the second is a host in that realm that is acting as a
- &ldquo;key distribution centre&rdquo;. The words <literal>admin
+ <quote>key distribution centre</quote>. The words <literal>admin
server</literal> following a hosts name means that host also
provides an administrative database server. For further explanation
of these terms, please consult the Kerberos man pages.</para>
@@ -1572,7 +1572,7 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
<note>
<para>People often think that having a firewall between your
- internal network and the &ldquo;Big Bad Internet&rdquo; will solve all
+ internal network and the <quote>Big Bad Internet</quote> will solve all
your security problems. It may help, but a poorly setup firewall
system is more of a security risk than not having one at all. A
firewall can add another layer of security to your systems, but it
@@ -1626,8 +1626,8 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
obeyed. The rule action could be to drop the packet, to forward the
packet, or even to send an ICMP message back to the originator.
Only the first match counts, as the rules are searched in order.
- Hence, the list of rules can be referred to as a &ldquo;rule
- chain&rdquo;.</para>
+ Hence, the list of rules can be referred to as a <quote>rule
+ chain</quote>.</para>
<para>The packet matching criteria varies depending on the software
used, but typically you can specify rules which depend on the source
@@ -1652,7 +1652,7 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
<para>Proxy servers are normally more secure than normal servers, and
often have a wider variety of authentication mechanisms available,
- including &ldquo;one-shot&rdquo; password systems so that even if
+ including <quote>one-shot</quote> password systems so that even if
someone manages to discover what password you used, they will not be
able to use it to gain access to your systems as the password
instantly expires. As they do not actually give users access to the
@@ -1963,8 +1963,8 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
192.216.222) to be matched.
<option><replaceable>mask-pattern</replaceable></option> is an IP
address which will be logically AND'ed with the address given. The
- keyword <literal>any</literal> may be used to specify &ldquo;any IP
- address&rdquo;.</para>
+ keyword <literal>any</literal> may be used to specify <quote>any IP
+ address</quote>.</para>
<para>The port numbers to be blocked are specified as:
@@ -2330,7 +2330,7 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
crypto sources from <hostid
role="fqdn">internat.FreeBSD.org</hostid> (the International
Crypto Repository) or an international mirror site, will build a
- version of OpenSSL which includes the &ldquo;native&rdquo; OpenSSL
+ version of OpenSSL which includes the <quote>native</quote> OpenSSL
implementation of
RSA, but does not include IDEA, because the latter is restricted
in certain locations elsewhere in the world. In the future a more
@@ -2350,12 +2350,12 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
the standard OpenSSL RSA code may not be used in the USA, and has been
removed from the version of OpenSSL carried on USA mirror sites.
The RSA patent is due to expire on September 20, 2000, at which
- time it is intended to add the &ldquo;full&rdquo; RSA code back to
+ time it is intended to add the <quote>full</quote> RSA code back to
the USA version of OpenSSL.</para>
<para>However (and fortunately), the RSA patent holder (<ulink
url="http://www.rsasecurity.com/">RSA Security</ulink>, has
- provided a &ldquo;RSA reference implementation&rdquo; toolkit
+ provided a <quote>RSA reference implementation</quote> toolkit
(RSAREF) which is available for <emphasis>certain classes of
use</emphasis>, including <emphasis>non-commercial use</emphasis>
(see the RSAREF license for their definition of
@@ -2371,7 +2371,7 @@ FreeBSD BUILT-19950429 (GR386) #0: Sat Apr 29 17:50:09 SAT 1995</screen>
terms.</para>
<para> The RSAREF implementation is inferior to the
- &ldquo;native&rdquo OpenSSL implementation (it is much slower,
+ <quote>native</quote> OpenSSL implementation (it is much slower,
and cannot be used with keys larger than 1024 bits). If you are not
located in the USA then you are doing yourself a disadvantage by
using RSAREF.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml
index 20891636d2..5edffa56cb 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml,v 1.16 2000/03/11 19:38:37 nbm Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml,v 1.17 2000/04/03 04:36:10 unfurl Exp $
-->
<chapter id="serialcomms">
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@
<para>UNIX has always had support for serial communications. In fact,
the very first UNIX machines relied on serial lines for user input
and output. Things have changed a lot from the days when the average
- &ldquo;terminal&rdquo; consisted of a 10-character-per-second serial
+ <quote>terminal</quote> consisted of a 10-character-per-second serial
printer and a keyboard. This chapter will cover some of the ways in
which FreeBSD uses serial communications.</para>
</sect1>
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@
<para>When you change the settings to this device, the settings are in
effect until the device is closed. When it is reopened, it goes back to
the default set. To make changes to the default set, you can open and
- adjust the settings of the &ldquo;initial state&rdquo; device. For
+ adjust the settings of the <quote>initial state</quote> device. For
example, to turn on <acronym>CLOCAL</acronym> mode, 8 bits, and
<emphasis>XON/XOFF</emphasis> flow control by default for ttyd5,
do:</para>
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@
liking, though.</para>
<para>You can also prevent certain settings from being changed by an
- application by making adjustments to the &ldquo;lock state&rdquo;
+ application by making adjustments to the <quote>lock state</quote>
device. For example, to lock the speed of <filename>ttyd5</filename> to
57600 bps, do</para>
@@ -123,7 +123,7 @@
<para>Dumb terminals are specialized pieces of hardware that let you
connect to computers over serial lines. They are called
- &ldquo;dumb&rdquo; because they have only enough computational power
+ <quote>dumb</quote> because they have only enough computational power
to display, send, and receive text. You cannot run any programs on
them. It is the computer to which you connect them that has all the
power to run text editors, compilers, email, games, and so
@@ -215,9 +215,9 @@
<title>Null-modem cables</title>
<para>A null-modem cable passes some signals straight through, like
- &ldquo;signal ground,&rdquo; but switches other signals. For
- example, the &ldquo;send data&rdquo; pin on one end goes to the
- &ldquo;receive data&rdquo; pin on the other end.</para>
+ <quote>signal ground,</quote> but switches other signals. For
+ example, the <quote>send data</quote> pin on one end goes to the
+ <quote>receive data</quote> pin on the other end.</para>
<para>If you like making your own cables, here is a table showing a
recommended way to construct a null-modem cable for use with
@@ -315,8 +315,8 @@
<title>Standard RS-232C Cables</title>
<para>A standard serial cable passes all the RS-232C signals
- straight-through. That is, the &ldquo;send data&rdquo; pin on one
- end of the cable goes to the &ldquo;send data&rdquo; pin on the
+ straight-through. That is, the <quote>send data</quote> pin on one
+ end of the cable goes to the <quote>send data</quote> pin on the
other end. This is the type of cable to connect a modem to your
FreeBSD system, and the type of cable needed for some
terminals.</para>
@@ -430,12 +430,12 @@
</step>
<step>
- <para>Set the port to &ldquo;on.&rdquo;</para>
+ <para>Set the port to <quote>on.</quote></para>
</step>
<step>
<para>Specify whether the port should be
- &ldquo;secure.&rdquo;</para>
+ <quote>secure.</quote></para>
</step>
<step>
@@ -598,7 +598,7 @@ ttyd5 "/usr/libexec/getty std.19200" vt100 on</programlisting>
optional <literal>window</literal> specifier, but we will ignore
that). The last field tells whether the port is secure.</para>
- <para>What does &ldquo;secure&rdquo; mean?</para>
+ <para>What does <quote>secure</quote> mean?</para>
<para>It means that the root account (or any account with a user ID of
0) may login on the port. Insecure ports do not allow root to
@@ -625,7 +625,7 @@ ttyd5 "/usr/libexec/getty std.19200" vt100 on</programlisting>
<para>Which should you use?</para>
- <para>Just use &ldquo;insecure.&rdquo; Use &ldquo;insecure&rdquo;
+ <para>Just use <quote>insecure.</quote> Use <quote>insecure</quote>
<emphasis>even</emphasis> for terminals <emphasis>not</emphasis> in
public user areas or behind locked doors. It is quite easy to login
and use <command>su</command> if you need superuser
@@ -734,8 +734,8 @@ ttyd5 "/usr/libexec/getty std.19200" vt100 on insecure # Guest bathroom</pro
<listitem>
<para>Switch the terminal (or the terminal emulation software)
- from &ldquo;half duplex&rdquo; or &ldquo;local echo&rdquo; to
- &ldquo;full duplex.&rdquo;</para>
+ from <quote>half duplex</quote> or <quote>local echo</quote> to
+ <quote>full duplex.</quote></para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
@@ -825,10 +825,10 @@ ttyd5 "/usr/libexec/getty std.19200" vt100 on insecure # Guest bathroom</pro
good reference.</para>
<para>When talking about communications data rates, the author does
- not use the term &ldquo;baud&rdquo;. Baud refers to the number of
+ not use the term <quote>baud</quote>. Baud refers to the number of
electrical state transitions that may be made in a period of time,
- while &ldquo;bps&rdquo; (bits per second) is the
- &ldquo;correct&rdquo; term to use (at least it does not seem to
+ while <quote>bps</quote> (bits per second) is the
+ <quote>correct</quote> term to use (at least it does not seem to
bother the curmudgeons quite a much).</para>
</sect3>
@@ -996,7 +996,7 @@ ttyd5 "/usr/libexec/getty std.19200" vt100 on insecure # Guest bathroom</pro
ports, known in the PC-DOS world as <devicename>COM1:</devicename>,
<devicename>COM2:</devicename>, <devicename>COM3:</devicename>, and
<devicename>COM4:</devicename>. FreeBSD can presently also handle
- &ldquo;dumb&rdquo; multiport serial interface cards, such as the Boca
+ <quote>dumb</quote> multiport serial interface cards, such as the Boca
Board 1008 and 2016 (please see the manual page &man.sio.4; for kernel
configuration information if you have a multiport serial card). The
default kernel only looks for the standard COM ports, though.</para>
@@ -1027,9 +1027,9 @@ sio3: type 16550A</screen>
system.</para>
<para>Please see the BSD System Manager's Manual chapter on
- &ldquo;Building Berkeley Kernels with Config&rdquo; [the source for
+ <quote>Building Berkeley Kernels with Config</quote> [the source for
which is in <filename>/usr/src/share/doc/smm</filename>] and
- &ldquo;FreeBSD Configuration Options&rdquo; [in
+ <quote>FreeBSD Configuration Options</quote> [in
<filename>/sys/conf/options</filename> and in
<filename>/sys/<replaceable>arch</replaceable>/conf/options.<replaceable>arch</replaceable></filename>,
with <emphasis>arch</emphasis> for example being
@@ -1080,8 +1080,8 @@ device sio3 at isa? port "IO_COM4" tty irq 9 vector siointr</programlisting>
</note>
<para>When you are finished adjusting the kernel configuration file, use
- the program <command>config</command> as documented in &ldquo;Building
- Berkeley Kernels with Config&rdquo; and the
+ the program <command>config</command> as documented in <quote>Building
+ Berkeley Kernels with Config</quote> and the
&man.config.8; manual page to prepare a kernel building directory,
then build, install, and test the new kernel.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -1089,8 +1089,8 @@ device sio3 at isa? port "IO_COM4" tty irq 9 vector siointr</programlisting>
<sect2>
<title>Device Special Files</title>
- <para>Most devices in the kernel are accessed through &ldquo;device
- special files&rdquo;, which are located in the
+ <para>Most devices in the kernel are accessed through <quote>device
+ special files</quote>, which are located in the
<filename>/dev</filename> directory. The <devicename>sio</devicename>
devices are accessed through the
<filename>/dev/ttyd<replaceable>?</replaceable></filename> (dial-in)
@@ -1191,12 +1191,12 @@ crw-rw---- 1 uucp dialer 28, 193 Feb 15 14:38 /dev/cual01</screen>
assumed that they know they should press the
<literal>&lt;Enter&gt;</literal> key until they see a recognizable
prompt. If the data rates do not match, <command>getty</command> sees
- anything the user types as &ldquo;junk&rdquo;, tries going to the next
+ anything the user types as <quote>junk</quote>, tries going to the next
speed and gives the <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt again. This
procedure can continue ad nauseum, but normally only takes a keystroke
or two before the user sees a good prompt. Obviously, this login
sequence does not look as clean as the former
- &ldquo;locked-speed&rdquo; method, but a user on a low-speed
+ <quote>locked-speed</quote> method, but a user on a low-speed
connection should receive better interactive response from full-screen
programs.</para>
@@ -1274,10 +1274,10 @@ uq|V19200|High Speed Modem at 19200,8-bit:\
(for a V.32bis connection), then cycles through 9600 bps (for
V.32), 2400 bps, 1200 bps, 300 bps, and back to 19.2 Kbps.
Communications rate cycling is implemented with the
- <literal>nx=</literal> (&ldquo;next table&rdquo;) capability.
- Each of the lines uses a <literal>tc=</literal> (&ldquo;table
- continuation&rdquo;) entry to pick up the rest of the
- &ldquo;standard&rdquo; settings for a particular data rate.</para>
+ <literal>nx=</literal> (<quote>next table</quote>) capability.
+ Each of the lines uses a <literal>tc=</literal> (<quote>table
+ continuation</quote>) entry to pick up the rest of the
+ <quote>standard</quote> settings for a particular data rate.</para>
<para>If you have a 28.8 Kbps modem and/or you want to take
advantage of compression on a 14.4 Kbps modem, you need to use a
@@ -1302,7 +1302,7 @@ vq|VH57600|Very High Speed Modem at 57600,8-bit:\
<para>If you have a slow CPU or a heavily loaded system and you do
not have 16550A-based serial ports, you may receive sio
- &ldquo;silo&rdquo; errors at 57.6 Kbps.</para>
+ <quote>silo</quote> errors at 57.6 Kbps.</para>
</sect4>
</sect3>
@@ -1387,7 +1387,7 @@ ttyd0 "/usr/libexec/getty std.19200" dialup on</programlisting>
<para>In a matching-speed configuration, your
<filename>ttys</filename> entry needs to reference the appropriate
- beginning &ldquo;auto-baud&rdquo; (sic) entry in
+ beginning <quote>auto-baud</quote> (sic) entry in
<filename>/etc/gettytab</filename>. For example, if you added the
above suggested entry for a matching-speed modem that starts at
19.2 Kbps (the <filename>gettytab</filename> entry containing the
@@ -1782,7 +1782,7 @@ AT&amp;B2&amp;W</programlisting>
<sect2 id="direct-at">
<title>How am I expected to enter these AT commands?</title>
- <para>Make what is called a &ldquo;direct&rdquo; entry in your
+ <para>Make what is called a <quote>direct</quote> entry in your
<filename>/etc/remote</filename> file. For example, if your modem is
hooked up to the first serial port, <filename>/dev/cuaa0</filename>,
then put in the following line:</para>
@@ -1828,7 +1828,7 @@ pn=\@</programlisting>
<sect2>
<title>How can I dial a phone number on the command line?</title>
- <para>Put what is called a &ldquo;generic&rdquo; entry in your
+ <para>Put what is called a <quote>generic</quote> entry in your
<filename>/etc/remote</filename> file. For example:</para>
<programlisting>
@@ -1918,11 +1918,11 @@ big-university 5551114</programlisting>
<sect2>
<title>Why do I have to hit CTRL+P twice to send CTRL+P once?</title>
- <para>CTRL+P is the default &ldquo;force&rdquo; character, used to tell
+ <para>CTRL+P is the default <quote>force</quote> character, used to tell
<command>tip</command> that the next character is literal data. You
can set the force character to any other character with the
- <command>~s</command> escape, which means &ldquo;set a
- variable.&rdquo;</para>
+ <command>~s</command> escape, which means <quote>set a
+ variable.</quote></para>
<para>Type
<command>~sforce=<replaceable>single-char</replaceable></command>
@@ -1946,7 +1946,7 @@ force=&lt;single-char&gt;</programlisting>
<title>Suddenly everything I type is in UPPER CASE??</title>
<para>You must have pressed CTRL+A, <command>tip</command>'s
- &ldquo;raise character,&rdquo; specially designed for people with
+ <quote>raise character,</quote> specially designed for people with
broken caps-lock keys. Use <command>~s</command> as above and set the
variable <literal>raisechar</literal> to something reasonable. In
fact, you can set it to the same as the force character, if you never
@@ -2076,13 +2076,13 @@ raisechar=^^</programlisting>
on how to do this.</para>
<tip>
- <para>Setting the keyboard to &ldquo;Not installed&rdquo; in the
+ <para>Setting the keyboard to <quote>Not installed</quote> in the
BIOS setup does <emphasis>not</emphasis> mean that you will not
be able to use your keyboard. All this does is tell the BIOS
not to probe for a keyboard at power-on so that it will not
complain if the keyboard is not plugged in. You can leave the
- keyboard plugged in even with this flag set to &ldquo;Not
- installed&rdquo; and the keyboard will still work.</para>
+ keyboard plugged in even with this flag set to <quote>Not
+ installed</quote> and the keyboard will still work.</para>
</tip>
<note>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml
index 0ef31311eb..a0ac0c009e 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml,v 1.121 2000/05/26 15:21:38 jwd Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/staff/chapter.sgml,v 1.122 2000/05/27 02:07:00 billf Exp $
-->
<!--
@@ -18,8 +18,8 @@
<sect1 id="staff-core">
<title>The FreeBSD Core Team</title>
- <para>The FreeBSD core team constitutes the project's &ldquo;Board of
- Directors&rdquo;, responsible for deciding the project's overall goals
+ <para>The FreeBSD core team constitutes the project's <quote>Board of
+ Directors</quote>, responsible for deciding the project's overall goals
and direction as well as managing <link linkend="staff-who">specific
areas</link> of the FreeBSD project landscape.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml
index 090af3974f..71f22c7765 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml,v 1.9 2000/03/21 07:27:21 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml,v 1.10 2000/03/21 07:52:43 jim Exp $
-->
<chapter id="x11">
@@ -325,13 +325,13 @@
<row>
<entry><filename>Xlk98.tgz</filename></entry>
- <entry>The &ldquo;link kit&rdquo; for building servers,
+ <entry>The <quote>link kit</quote> for building servers,
Japanese PC98 version.</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry><filename>Xlkit.tgz</filename></entry>
- <entry>The &ldquo;link kit&rdquo; for building servers,
+ <entry>The <quote>link kit</quote> for building servers,
normal PC architecture.</entry>
</row>
@@ -647,8 +647,8 @@ Password:
<para>You do not need to uncompress the font files, but if you
do, you must run <command>mkfontdir</command> in the
corresponding font directory, otherwise your server will abort
- with the message &ldquo;could not open default font
- `fixed'&rdquo;.</para>
+ with the message <quote>could not open default font
+ `fixed'</quote>.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
@@ -718,8 +718,8 @@ ttyv3 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 off secure</screen>
<para>How do you decide what your hardware is? The manufacturer
should tell you, but very often the information you get about
- your display board and monitor is pitiful; &ldquo;Super VGA
- board with 76 Hz refresh rate and 16,777,216 colors&rdquo;.
+ your display board and monitor is pitiful; <quote>Super VGA
+ board with 76 Hz refresh rate and 16,777,216 colors</quote>.
This tells you the maximum pixel depth (24 bits &ndash; - the
number of colors is 2(pixel depth)), but it doesn't tell you
anything else about the display board.</para>