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authorEitan Adler <eadler@FreeBSD.org>2015-04-03 16:31:14 +0000
committerEitan Adler <eadler@FreeBSD.org>2015-04-03 16:31:14 +0000
commit73bca3ef973fc2fc2e0968e81ba8ee8ec1652fbe (patch)
tree4daf187089cfdd88cdeb5a2915bd35be825376dd
parentb9f81b2a994b2e34966a329094fdd4665098e67d (diff)
downloaddoc-73bca3ef973fc2fc2e0968e81ba8ee8ec1652fbe.tar.gz
doc-73bca3ef973fc2fc2e0968e81ba8ee8ec1652fbe.zip
Linux comparison:
- comparing 'Linux' vs 'FreeBSD' is comparing apples and fruit: one is just the kernel and the other is a specific distribution. - the license 'debate' is well covered elsewhere - it still references CVS - comparing the development style of '300 committers' vs 'going through the maintainer' is a straw man and doesn't reflect how Linux works (or how BSD works) - the supported platforms list is old and incorrect - the "Extensible Frameworks" section belongs elsewhere - the 'security' section is a feature list, not a comparison and is missing important features etc. Discussed with: mjg
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=46450
-rw-r--r--de_DE.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile1
-rw-r--r--de_DE.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile24
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-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile1
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-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml532
-rw-r--r--es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile1
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-rw-r--r--es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml595
-rw-r--r--hu_HU.ISO8859-2/articles/Makefile1
-rw-r--r--hu_HU.ISO8859-2/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile22
-rw-r--r--hu_HU.ISO8859-2/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml655
-rw-r--r--ja_JP.eucJP/articles/Makefile1
-rw-r--r--ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/Makefile1
-rw-r--r--ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile22
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diff --git a/de_DE.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile b/de_DE.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile
index bdc3de5d96..5c800b1448 100644
--- a/de_DE.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile
+++ b/de_DE.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile
@@ -9,7 +9,6 @@ SUBDIR = contributing
SUBDIR+= contributing-ports
SUBDIR+= explaining-bsd
SUBDIR+= freebsd-update-server
-SUBDIR+= linux-comparison
SUBDIR+= nanobsd
SUBDIR+= new-users
SUBDIR+= port-mentor-guidelines
diff --git a/de_DE.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile b/de_DE.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 89e28e82b9..0000000000
--- a/de_DE.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,24 +0,0 @@
-#
-# The FreeBSD Documentation Project
-# The FreeBSD German Documentation Project
-#
-# $FreeBSD$
-# $FreeBSDde: de-docproj/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile,v 1.1 2009/01/17 11:49:02 jkois Exp $
-# basiert auf: 1.1
-#
-# Article: Vergleich FreeBSD - Linux
-
-DOC?= article
-
-FORMATS?= html html-split
-WITH_ARTICLE_TOC?= YES
-
-INSTALL_COMPRESSED?=gz
-INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESSED?=
-
-SRCS= article.xml
-
-URL_RELPREFIX?= ../../../..
-DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/../../..
-
-.include "${DOC_PREFIX}/share/mk/doc.project.mk"
diff --git a/de_DE.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml b/de_DE.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml
deleted file mode 100644
index e2e324f64f..0000000000
--- a/de_DE.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,722 +0,0 @@
-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
-<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V5.0-Based Extension//EN"
- "http://www.FreeBSD.org/XML/share/xml/freebsd50.dtd">
-<!--
-Copyright (c) 2005 Dru Lavigne
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT "AS
- IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
- THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
- PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY
- DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
- DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
- OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- The FreeBSD German Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD$
- $FreeBSDde: de-docproj/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml,v 1.9 2011/12/24 13:15:56 bcr Exp $
- basiert auf: 1.12
--->
-<article xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0" xml:lang="de">
- <info><title>&os;: Eine Open&nbsp;Source-Alternative zu &linux;</title>
-
-
- <author><personname><firstname>Dru</firstname><surname>Lavigne</surname></personname><affiliation>
- <address><email>dru@isecom.org</email></address>
- </affiliation></author>
-
- <copyright>
- <year>2005</year>
- <holder role="mailto:dru@isecom.org">Dru Lavigne</holder>
- </copyright>
-
- <pubdate>$FreeBSD$</pubdate>
-
- <releaseinfo>$FreeBSD$</releaseinfo>
-
- <legalnotice xml:id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
- &tm-attrib.freebsd;
- &tm-attrib.linux;
- &tm-attrib.unix;
- &tm-attrib.general;
- </legalnotice>
-
- &legalnotice;
-
- <abstract>
- <para>Das Ziel dieses Artikels ist es, einige der Funktionen und
- Vorzge, die &os; bietet, zu erlutern und an
- geeigneten Stellen mit denen von &linux; zu vergleichen.
- Dieses Dokument stellt damit einen Ausgangspunkt fr
- diejenigen dar, die sich fr
- Open&nbsp;Source-Alternativen zu &linux; interessieren.</para>
-
- <para><emphasis>bersetzt von Fabian Ruch</emphasis>.</para>
- </abstract>
- </info>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="introduction">
- <title>Einleitung</title>
-
- <para>&os; ist ein &unix;-hnliches Betriebssystem, das auf der
- Berkeley&nbsp;Software&nbsp;Distribution&nbsp;(<acronym>BSD</acronym>)
- basiert. Whrend &os; und &linux; hufig als sehr hnlich
- empfunden werden, gibt es doch Unterschiede:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>&linux; selbst ist ein Kernel. Distributionen (z.B.
- Red&nbsp;Hat, Debian, SUSE) stellen dem Benutzer ein
- Installationswerkzeug und Programme zur Verfgung. Auf der
- &linux;-Projektseite befindet sich eine <link xlink:href="http://www.linux.org/dist/">Auflistung verschiedener
- Distributionen</link> mit mehr als 300&nbsp;Eintrgen.
- Whrend dem Benutzer ein Hchstma an Flexibilitt geboten
- wird, erhht das Bestehen dieser Vielzahl an Distributionen
- auch die Schwierigkeit, die eigenen Kenntnisse von einer
- Distribution auf eine andere zu bertragen. Distributionen
- unterscheiden sich nicht nur in der Einfachheit der
- Installation und der zur Verfgung stehenden Programme, sie
- unterscheiden sich auch in der Verzeichnisstruktur, in den
- verfgbaren Shells und Window&nbsp;Managern sowie in den
- Vorgehensweisen bei der Installation und Aktualisierung von
- Software.</para>
-
- <para>&os; ist ein komplettes Betriebssystem (Kernel und
- Userland) mit einem hoch angesehenem Erbe, das bis in die
- Wurzeln der &unix;-Entwicklung
-
- <footnote>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/kirkmck.html">&os;-Historie</link></para>
- </footnote>
-
- zurckreicht. Da der Kernel und die bereitgestellten
- Programme unter der Aufsicht desselben
- Release&nbsp;Engineering&nbsp;Teams stehen, ist die
- Wahrscheinlichkeit gering, dass Inkompatibilitten zwischen
- Bibliotheken auftreten. Mit Sicherheitslcken kann sich das
- Security&nbsp;Team zeitnah befassen. Wenn neue Programm-
- oder Kernel-Funktionen hinzugefgt werden, braucht der
- Benutzer nur die Release&nbsp;Notes lesen, die auf der
- <link xlink:href="&url.base;/">&os;-Projektseite</link>
- verffentlicht werden.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>&os; verfgt ber eine groen und gut organisierten
- Entwicklerstamm, der gewhrleistet, dass nderungen auf
- schnelle und geregelte Art und Weise durchgefhrt werden.
- Dazu gehren mehrere tausend Entwickler, die regelmig Code
- beisteuern, von denen jedoch nur etwa 300 ein sogenanntes
- Commit&nbsp;Bit besitzen, das es ihnen erlaubt, direkt
- nderungen am Kernel, den Programmen und der offiziellen
- Dokumentation durchzufhren. Das
- Release&nbsp;Engineering&nbsp;Team ist zustndig fr die
- Qualittssicherung und das Security Team fr die Behandlung
- von Sicherheitsproblemen. Des Weiteren existiert eine
- gewhlte Core&nbsp;Group, die aus
- 8&nbsp;Senior&nbsp;Committern besteht und die Gesamtleitung
- des Projekts bernimmt.</para>
-
- <para>Im Gegensatz dazu mssen nderungen am &linux;-Kernel
- erst vom Kernel Source Maintainer Linus&nbsp;Torvalds
- bewilligt werden. Wie nderungen an Distributionen erfolgen,
- kann von Projekt zu Projekt stark variieren und ist abhngig
- von der Gre des jeweiligen Entwicklerstamms sowie dessen
- Organisation.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Whrend &os; und &linux; beide ein
- Open&nbsp;Source-Lizenzmodell verwenden, weichen die
- tatschlichen Lizenzen voneinander ab. Der
- &linux;-Kernel steht unter der <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license.php">GPL-Lizenz</link>,
- &os; dagegen unter der <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php"><acronym>BSD</acronym>-Lizenz</link>.
- Diese und andere Open&nbsp;Source-Lizenzen sind auf der
- Website der <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/">Open&nbsp;Source-Initiative</link>
- nher beschrieben.</para>
-
- <para>Die Philosophie hinter der GPL will sicherstellen, dass
- lizenzierter Code Open&nbsp;Source bleibt. Dies wird
- bewerkstelligt, indem die Verteilung von solchem Code
- eingeschrnkt ist. Dagegen enthlt die
- <acronym>BSD</acronym>-Lizenz keine vergleichbaren
- Einschrnkungen, wodurch jeder die Freiheit hat,
- lizenzierten Code Open&nbsp;Source zu belassen oder fr
- ein proprietres kommerzielles Produkt zu
- schlieen
-
- <footnote>
- <para>bersicht ber die Vorzge der beiden
- Lizenzen <link xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_and_GPL_licensing">GPL
- und BSDL</link>, ohne Partei zu beziehen.</para>
- </footnote>
-
- Stabilen und sicheren Code unter die BSD-Lizenz zu stellen
- ermglicht, dass viele Betriebssysteme wie <link xlink:href="http://developer.apple.com/opensource/">Mac&nbsp;OS&nbsp;X</link>
- auf &os;-Code basieren. Daneben bedeutet die Nutzung von
- Code unter der BSD-Lizenz in eigenen Projekten auch, dies
- tun zu knnen, ohne Angst vor einer zuknftigen
- gesetzlichen Haftung haben zu mssen.</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-features">
- <title>Merkmale von &os;</title>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-features-platforms">
- <title>Untersttzte Plattformen</title>
-
- <para>&os; hat sich den guten Ruf erworben, ein sicheres und
- stabiles Betriebssystem fr die &i386;-Plattform von
- &intel; zu sein. Jedoch untersttzt &os; auch die
- folgenden Architekturen:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <simpara>alpha</simpara>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <simpara>amd64</simpara>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <simpara>ia64</simpara>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <simpara>&i386;</simpara>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <simpara>pc98</simpara>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <simpara>&sparc64;</simpara>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Auerdem wird laufend an Portierungen von &os;
- gearbeitet, welche die folgenden Architekturen
- untersttzen:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <simpara>&arm;</simpara>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <simpara>&mips;</simpara>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <simpara>&powerpc;</simpara>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Stndig aktualisierte Listen mit untersttzter
- Hardware werden fr jede Architektur einzeln gepflegt,
- sodass auf einen Blick festgestellt werden kann, ob bestimmte
- Hardware untersttzt wird. Fr Server gibt es zum
- Beispiel ausgezeichnete Untersttzung von
- Hardware&nbsp;RAIDs und Netzwerkkarten.</para>
-
- <para>&os; stellt auch ein groartiges Betriebssystem
- fr Arbeitsplatzrechner und Laptops dar. Es ist unter
- anderem das X&nbsp;Window&nbsp;System verfgbar, das auch
- &linux;-Distributionen mitliefern, um dem Benutzer eine
- grafische Benutzeroberflche bieten zu knnen.
- Auerdem stehen mehr als 18.000&nbsp;Programme Dritter
- zur einfachen Installation bereit
-
- <footnote>
- <para><link xlink:href="&url.base;/de/ports/">&os;-Ports</link>:
- Zur Installation von Software gengt ein einfaches
- <command>pkg_add -r
- Paketname</command></para>
- </footnote>
-
- . Darunter finden sich KDE, GNOME und OpenOffice.</para>
-
- <para>Es existieren verschiedene Projekte, welche die
- Installation von &os; als Betriebssystem fr den
- Arbeitsplatz einfacher gestalten wollen. Die nennenswertesten
- sind:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.desktopbsd.net">DesktopBSD</link> strebt
- ein stabiles und leistungsfhiges Betriebssystem
- fr den Arbeitsplatz an</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.freesbie.org">FreeSBIE</link>
- ist als Live-CD von &os; verfgbar</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.pcbsd.com">PC-BSD</link> ist
- mit seinem einfach zu bedienenden grafischen
- Installationswerkzeug gerade fr Anwender
- geeignet</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-features-frameworks">
- <title>Erweiterbare Frameworks</title>
-
- <para>&os; verfgt ber viele solcher Frameworks,
- sodass es problemlos an die eigenen Bedrfnisse angepasst
- werden kann. Einige wichtige sind:</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Netgraph</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Netgraph ist ein baukastenartiges
- Netzwerkteilsystem, das verwendet werden kann, um die
- bestehende Netzwerkinfrastruktur des Kernels zu
- erweitern. Entwickler haben durch Hooks die Mglichkeit,
- eigene Komponenten abzuleiten. Infolgedessen gestaltet
- sich der kurzfristige Bau von Prototypen und die
- anschlieende Produktionsentwicklung bei erweiterten
- Netzwerkdiensten viel einfacher und weniger
- fehleranfllig. Viele funktionsfhige Komponenten werden
- mit &os; mitgeliefert, die unter anderem Untersttzung
- bieten fr:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>PPPoE</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>ATM</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>ISDN</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Bluetooth</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>HDLC</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Etherchannel</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Frame&nbsp;Relay</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>L2TP</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>GEOM</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>GEOM ist ein baukastenartiges Framework zur
- Umsetzung von I/O-Anfragen bei Festplatten. Da es sich
- um eine ein- und ausschaltbare Speicherebene handelt,
- ist es mglich, neue Speicherdienste schnell zu
- entwickeln und sauber in das Speicherteilsystem von &os;
- zu integrieren. Einige Beispiele, bei denen dies von
- Nutzen sein kann, sind:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Gestaltung von RAID-Lsungen</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Bereitstellung kompletter kryptographischer
- Sicherung gespeicherter Daten</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Neuere &os;-Versionen beinhalten viele
- Administrationswerkzeuge, um die bestehenden
- GEOM-Komponenten zu verwenden. Zum Beispiel kann mit
- Hilfe von &man.gmirror.8; ein Festplattenspiegel, mit
- &man.gstripe.8; ein Festplattenzusammenschluss und mit
- &man.gshsec.8; ein Shared&nbsp;Secret gesichertes
- Gert erstellt werden.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>GEOM&nbsp;Based&nbsp;Disk&nbsp;Encryption&nbsp;(<acronym>GBDE</acronym>)</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><acronym>GBDE</acronym> bietet starken
- kryptographischen Schutz fr Dateisysteme,
- Swap-Gerte und andere Anwendungen von
- Speichermedien. Darber hinaus verschlsselt
- <acronym>GBDE</acronym> transparent das gesamte
- Dateisystem und nicht nur einzelne Dateien. Es wird
- niemals Klartext auf die Festplatte geschrieben.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Mandatory&nbsp;Access&nbsp;Control&nbsp;(<acronym>MAC</acronym>)</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mac.html"><acronym>MAC</acronym></link>
- ermglicht eine bessere Zugriffskontrolle fr
- Dateien und soll die herkmmliche
- Betriebssystemautorisierung durch Dateizugriffsrechte
- erweitern. Da <acronym>MAC</acronym> als
- baukastenartiges Framework implementiert ist, kann ein
- &os;-System entsprechend der geforderten Richtlinien
- konfiguriert werden; von der Erfllung des HIPAA
- bis hin zu den Bedrfnissen eines Systems nach
- militrischen Standards.</para>
-
- <para>&os; beinhaltet Komponenten, die folgende
- Richtlinien umsetzen (das Framework ermglicht
- jedoch die Entwicklung von Komponenten zur Umsetzung
- jeder geforderten Richtlinie):</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Biba-Sicherheitsmodell</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Port&nbsp;ACLs</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Vertraulichkeit:
- Multi&nbsp;Level&nbsp;Security&nbsp;(<acronym>MLS</acronym>)</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Datenintegritt:
- Low&nbsp;Watermark&nbsp;Mandatory&nbsp;Access&nbsp;Control&nbsp;(<acronym>LOMAC</acronym>)</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Prozessabschottung</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Pluggable&nbsp;Authentication&nbsp;Modules&nbsp;(<acronym>PAM</acronym>)</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Sowohl &linux; als auch &os; untersttzen <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/pam/"><acronym>PAM</acronym></link>.
- Damit hat ein Administrator die Mglichkeit, die
- herkmmliche &unix;-Authentifizierung ber
- Benutzername und Passwort zu erweitern. &os; stellt
- Komponenten zur Einbindung vieler
- Authentifizierungsmechanismen zur Verfgung;
- darunter befinden sich:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Kerberos&nbsp;5</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>OPIE</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>RADIUS</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>TACACS+</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Der Administrator hat damit auch die
- Mglichkeit, Richtlinien festzulegen, die Probleme
- wie die Sicherheit des Benutzerpasswortes
- betreffen.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-security">
- <title>Sicherheit</title>
-
- <para>Sicherheit ist von groer Bedeutung fr das
- &os; <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/">Release&nbsp;Engineering&nbsp;Team</link>.
- Dies uert sich in einigen konkreten
- Bereichen:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Alle Sicherheitsfragen und Problemlsungen werden
- vom Security&nbsp;Team bearbeitet und in Form von
- ffentlichen Warnhinweisen bekanntgegeben. Bekannte
- Sicherheitsprobleme werden vom Security&nbsp;Team schnell
- gelst. Weitere Informationen zur Vorgehensweise des
- &os;-Projekts in Sicherheitsfragen und Verweise auf
- Sicherheitsinformationen sind <link xlink:href="&url.base;/de/security/">hier</link> verfgbar.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Eines der Probleme im Zusammenhang mit
- Open&nbsp;Source-Software ist die riesige Auswahl an
- verfgbaren Programmen. Es gibt buchstblich
- zehntausende Open&nbsp;Source-Projekte, wobei jedes
- unterschiedlich empfindlich auf Sicherheitsprobleme
- reagiert. &os; ist dieser Herausforderung mit <link xlink:href="http://www.vuxml.org/freebsd/">VuXML</link>
- entgegengetreten. Alle Programme, die zusammen mit &os;
- ausgeliefert werden oder in den <link xlink:href="&url.base;/de/ports/">Ports</link> zur Verfgung
- stehen, werden mit einer Datenbank verglichen, die bekannte
- und nicht behobene Sicherheitslcken enthlt. Ein
- Administrator kann &man.portaudit.1; verwenden, um sofort
- festzustellen, ob ein installiertes Programm
- Sicherheitslcken aufweist, und gegebenenfalls eine
- Beschreibung des Problems sowie einen Verweis auf eine
- detailliertere Darstellung der Schwachstelle zu
- erhalten.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>&os; bietet ebenfalls viele Mechanismen, die es einem
- Administrator erlauben, das Betriebssystem an die eigenen
- Sicherheitsansprche anzupassen:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>&man.jail.8; bietet die Mglichkeit, Prozesse
- einzusperren; dies eignet sich besonders fr Programme,
- die keine eigene Chroot-Umgebung besitzen.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>&man.chflags.1; erhhen die Sicherheit durch
- herkmmliche &unix;-Zugriffsrechte. Zum Beispiel kann
- festgelegt werden, dass bestimmte Dateien selbst vom
- Superuser nicht bearbeitet oder gelscht werden
- knnen.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>&os; stellt drei eingebaute Firewalls mit States- und
- NAT-Untersttzung zur Verfgung, um flexibel den
- richtigen Regelwerk fr die eigenen
- Sicherheitsbedrfnisse auswhlen zu
- knnen.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Der &os;-Kernel kann schnell und einfach angepasst
- werden, um nicht gebrauchte Funktionalitt zu
- entfernen. Es stehen auch ladbare Module und Werkzeuge zur
- Verfgung, um Module aufzulisten, zu laden und zu
- entladen.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Der sysctl-Mechanismus erlaubt es einem Administrator,
- den Kernel-Status (ohne einen Neustart) anzuzeigen und
- und zu ndern.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-support">
- <title>Hilfestellung</title>
-
- <para>Wie &linux; bietet auch &os; viele Anlaufstellen fr
- Hilfesuchende, die teilweise kostenlos und teilweise kommerziell
- sind.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-support-free">
- <title>Kostenlose Angebote</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>&os; ist eines der am besten dokumentierten
- Betriebssysteme und die Dokumentation ist sowohl als Teil
- des Betriebssystems als auch im Internet verfgbar.
- Die Manualpages sind bersichtlich, przise und
- enthalten funktionsfhige Beispiele. Das <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/de_DE.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/">&os;-Handbuch</link>
- bietet Hintergrundinformationen und
- Konfigurationsbeispiele zu so ziemlich jeder Anwendung von
- &os;.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Es existieren viele <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/de_DE.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources.html#ERESOURCES-MAIL">Mailinglisten</link>
- zu &os;. Der Nachrichtenverkehr wird archiviert und ist
- durchsuchbar. Falls eine Frage mit Hilfe des Handbuchs
- nicht beantwortet werden konnte, wurde sie mit grer
- Wahrscheinlichkeit schon auf einer der Mailinglisten
- beantwortet. Handbuch und Mailinglisten stehen in
- verschiedenen Sprachen zur Verfgung, die alle auf der
- Startseite des <link xlink:href="&url.base;/">&os;
- Projects</link> auswhlbar sind.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Es gibt viele IRC-Kanle, Foren und
- Benutzergruppen zu &os;. Eine Auswahl finden Sie
- <link xlink:href="&url.base;/de/community.html">hier</link>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Falls ein &os;-Administrator, -Entwickler oder -Berater
- gebraucht wird, sollte eine Aufgabenbeschreibung zusammen mit
- dem Einsatzort an <email>freebsd-jobs@FreeBSD.org</email>
- gesendet werden.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-support-commercial">
- <title>Kommerzielle Angebote</title>
-
- <para>Es gibt viele Anbieter kommerzieller Hilfestellung
- fr &os;. Um einen Anbieter in der Nhe zu finden,
- stehen unter anderem folgende Quellen zur
- Verfgung:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Eine <link xlink:href="&url.base;/commercial/">Liste kommerzieller Anbieter</link>
- auf der &os;-Projektseite</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.freebsdmall.com">FreeBSDMall</link>, die
- schon beinahe 10&nbsp;Jahre kommerzielle Hilfestellung
- anbietet</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.nycbug.org/index.php?NAV=BSDTracker">BSDTracker-Datenbank</link></para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Es gibt auerdem die Initiative, eine Zertifizierung von
- BSD-Systemadministratoren anzubieten. Weitere Informationen
- dazu finden Sie unter <uri xlink:href="http://www.bsdcertification.org">http://www.bsdcertification.org</uri>.</para>
-
- <para>Projekte, die eine Common&nbsp;Criteria-Zertifizierung
- bentigen, knnen die Hilfe von <link xlink:href="http://www.trustedbsd.org">TrustedBSD</link> in
- Anspruch nehmen, um (beispielsweise durch den Einsatz des
- &os; MAC&nbsp;Frameworks) diesen Prozess zu
- erleichtern.</para> </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-advantages">
- <title>Vorteile durch die Wahl von &os;</title>
-
- <para>Es gibt viele Vorteile, die fr den Einsatz von &os; in
- einer bestehenden Infrastruktur sprechen:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>&os; verfgt ber gute Dokumentation und
- richtet sich nach vielen Standards. Das bedeutet fr
- vorhandene fortgeschrittene Benutzer und erfahrene
- Systemadministratoren, dass bestehende &linux;- und
- &unix;-Fhigkeiten kurzerhand mit in die
- &os;-Administration bernommen werden
- knnen.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Betriebsinterne Entwickler haben vollen Zugriff auf den
- gesamten Code
-
- <footnote>
- <para>Ferner ist der gesamte Code unter Verwendung einer
- <link xlink:href="&url.base;/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/">Webschnittstelle</link>
- durchsuchbar.</para>
- </footnote>
-
- fr jedes einzelne &os;&nbsp;Release; bis hin zum
- ersten Release. Zusammen mit dem Code sind alle
- Protokolleintrge verfgbar, die den Zusammenhang
- fr nderungen und Fehlerbehebungen liefern.
- Auerdem kann ein Entwickler jedes Release ohne
- Probleme reproduzieren, indem der gewnschte Code nach
- Kennzeichnung ausgewhlt und geladen wird. Dagegen hat
- &linux; dieses Modell traditionell nicht umgesetzt, jedoch
- ist inzwischen ein durchdachteres Entwicklungsmodell
-
- <footnote>
- <para>Es ist ein interessanter berblick ber
- das sich entwickelnde <link xlink:href="http://linuxdevices.com/articles/AT4155251624.html">Entwicklungsmodell
- von &linux;</link> verfgbar.</para>
- </footnote>
-
- eingefhrt worden.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Betriebsinterne Entwickler haben auch vollen Zugriff auf
- die <link xlink:href="http://www.gnu.org/software/gnats/">GNATS</link>-Fehlerdatenbank
- von &os;. Es besteht die Mglichkeit, die Eintrge
- zu bekannten Fehlern zu durchsuchen und zu verfolgen sowie
- eigene Korrekturen zur Abnahme und zum mglichen
- Einpflegen in den &os;-Code <link xlink:href="&url.base;/de/support/bugreports.html">einzusenden</link>.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Die BSD-Lizenz erlaubt die uneingeschrnkte
- Anpassung des Codes, damit dieser dem Geschftszweck
- entspricht. Im Gegensatz zur GPL gibt es keine
- Einschrnkungen, was die Verbreitung des angepassten
- Codes angeht.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-conclusion">
- <title>Fazit</title>
-
- <para>&os; ist ein ausgereiftes &unix;-hnliches
- Betriebssystem, das viele der Eigenschaften besitzt, die von
- einem modernen &unix;-System erwartet werden. Fr
- diejenigen, die eine Open&nbsp;Source-Lsung fr eine
- bestehende Infrastruktur suchen, ist &os; gewiss eine exzellente
- Wahl.</para>
- </sect1>
-</article>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile
index b99ed2bb07..541d5c97b5 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile
@@ -21,7 +21,6 @@ SUBDIR+= gjournal-desktop
SUBDIR+= hubs
SUBDIR+= ipsec-must
SUBDIR+= ldap-auth
-SUBDIR+= linux-comparison
SUBDIR+= linux-emulation
SUBDIR+= linux-users
SUBDIR+= mailing-list-faq
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index 47bad67d7f..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,18 +0,0 @@
-# $FreeBSD$
-#
-# Article: FreeBSD and Linux Comparison Whitepaper
-
-MAINTAINER= marketing@FreeBSD.org
-
-DOC?= article
-
-FORMATS?= html
-INSTALL_COMPRESSED?= gz
-INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESSED?=
-
-SRCS= article.xml
-
-URL_RELPREFIX?= ../../../..
-DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/../../..
-
-.include "${DOC_PREFIX}/share/mk/doc.project.mk"
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml
deleted file mode 100644
index c4954affea..0000000000
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,532 +0,0 @@
-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
-<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V5.0-Based Extension//EN"
- "http://www.FreeBSD.org/XML/share/xml/freebsd50.dtd">
-<!--
-Copyright (c) 2005 Dru Lavigne
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT "AS
- IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
- THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
- PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY
- DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
- DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
- OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<article xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0" xml:lang="en">
- <info><title>FreeBSD: An Open Source Alternative to Linux</title>
-
-
- <author><personname><firstname>Dru</firstname><surname>Lavigne</surname></personname><affiliation>
- <address><email>dru@isecom.org</email></address>
- </affiliation></author>
-
- <copyright>
- <year>2005</year>
- <holder role="mailto:dru@isecom.org">Dru Lavigne</holder>
- </copyright>
-
- <pubdate>$FreeBSD$</pubdate>
-
- <releaseinfo>$FreeBSD$</releaseinfo>
-
- <legalnotice xml:id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
- &tm-attrib.freebsd;
- &tm-attrib.linux;
- &tm-attrib.unix;
- &tm-attrib.general;
- </legalnotice>
-
- &legalnotice;
-
- <abstract>
- <para>The objective of this whitepaper is to explain some of the
- features and benefits provided by &os;, and where
- applicable, compare those features to &linux;. This paper
- provides a starting point for those interested in exploring
- Open Source alternatives to &linux;.</para>
- </abstract>
- </info>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="introduction">
- <title>Introduction</title>
-
- <para>&os; is a &unix; like operating system based on the
- Berkeley Software Distribution. While &os; and &linux; are
- commonly perceived as being very similar, there are differences:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
-
- <listitem>
-
- <para>&linux; itself is a kernel. Distributions (e.g. Red Hat,
- Debian, Suse and others) provide the installer and the
- utilities available to the user. http://www.linux.org/dist
- lists well over 300 distinct distributions. While giving
- the user maximum flexibility, the existence of so many
- distributions also increases the difficulty of transferring
- one's skills from one distribution to another. Distributions
- don't just differ in ease-of install and available programs;
- they also differ in directory layout, available shells and
- window managers, and software installation and patching
- routines.</para>
-
- <para>&os; is a complete operating system (kernel and
- userland) with a well-respected heritage grounded in the
- roots of Unix development.
-
- <footnote>
- <para>See also <uri xlink:href="http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/kirkmck.html">http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/kirkmck.html</uri>
- for a brief history.</para>
- </footnote>
-
- Since both the kernel and the
- provided utilities are under the control of the same release
- engineering team, there is less likelihood of library
- incompatibilities. Security vulnerabilities can also be
- addressed quickly by the security team. When new utilities
- or kernel features are added, the user simply needs to read
- one file, the Release Notes, which is publicly available on
- the main page of the <link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org">&os; website</link>.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>&os; has a large and well organized programming base
- which ensures changes are implemented quickly and in a
- controlled manner. There are several thousand programmers
- who contribute code on a regular basis but only about 300 of
- these have what is known as a commit bit and can actually
- commit changes to the kernel, utilities and official
- documentation. A release engineering team provides quality
- control and a security officer team is responsible for
- responding to security incidents. In addition, there is an
- elected core group of 8 senior committers who set the
- overall direction of the Project.</para>
-
- <para>In contrast, changes to the Linux kernel ultimately have
- to wait until they pass through the maintainer of kernel
- source, Linus Torvalds. How changes to distributions occur
- can vary widely, depending upon the size of each particular
- distribution's programming base and organizational method.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
-
- <para>While both &os; and &linux; use an Open Source
- licensing model, the actual licenses used differ. The Linux
- kernel is under the <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license.php">GPL license</link> while
- &os; uses the <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php">BSD license</link>. These,
- and other Open Source licenses, are described in more detail
- at the website of the <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/">Open Source
- Initiative</link>.</para>
-
- <para>The driving philosophy behind the GPL is to ensure that
- code remains Open Source; it does this by placing
- restrictions on the distribution of GPLd code. In contrast,
- the BSD license places no such restrictions, which gives you
- the flexibility of keeping the code Open Source or closing
- the code for a proprietary commercial product.
-
- <footnote>
- <para>For a fairly unbiased view of the merits of each
- license, see <uri xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_and_GPL_licensing">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_and_GPL_licensing</uri>.</para>
- </footnote>
-
- Having
- stable and reliable code under the attractive BSD license
- means that many operating systems, such as <link xlink:href="http://developer.apple.com/darwin/projects/darwin/faq.html">Apple OS X</link>
- are based on FreeBSD code. It also means that if you choose
- to use BSD licensed code in your own projects, you can do so
- without threat of future legal liability.</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-features">
- <title>&os; Features</title>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-features-platforms">
- <title>Supported Platforms</title>
-
- <para>&os; has gained a reputation as a secure, stable,
- operating system for the &intel; (&i386;) platform. However,
- &os; also supports the following architectures:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><simpara>amd64</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&i386;</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>pc98</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&sparc64;</simpara></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>In addition, there is ongoing development to port &os;
- to the following architectures:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><simpara>&arm;</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&mips;</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&powerpc;</simpara></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Up-to-date hardware lists are maintained for each
- architecture so you can tell at a glance if your hardware is
- supported. For servers, there is excellent hardware RAID and
- network interface support.</para>
-
- <para>&os; also makes a great workstation and laptop
- operating system! It supports the X Window System, the same
- one used in &linux; distributions to provide a desktop user
- interface. It also supports over 13,000 easy to install
- third-party applications,
-
- <footnote>
- <para>Using <link xlink:href="&url.base;/ports">FreeBSD's ports
- collection</link>: software installation is as easy as
- <command>pkg install application_name</command>.</para>
- </footnote>
-
- including KDE, Gnome, and
- OpenOffice.</para>
-
- <para>Several projects are available to ease the installation of
- &os; as a desktop. The most notable are:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para><link xlink:href="http://www.desktopbsd.net">DesktopBSD</link> which
- aims at being a stable and powerful operating system for
- desktop users.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para><link xlink:href="http://www.freesbie.org">FreeSBIE</link> which
- provides a LiveCD of &os;.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para><link xlink:href="http://www.pcbsd.com">PC-BSD</link> which provides an
- easy-to-use GUI installer for &os; aimed at the desktop
- user.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-features-frameworks">
- <title>Extensible Frameworks</title>
-
- <para>&os; provides many extensible frameworks to easily
- allow you to customize the FreeBSD environment to your
- particular needs. Some of the major frameworks are:</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Netgraph</term>
-
- <listitem><para>Netgraph is a modular networking subsystem that
- can be used to supplement the existing kernel networking
- infrastructure. Hooks are provided to allow developers to
- derive their own modules. As a result, rapid prototyping and
- production deployment of enhanced network services can be
- performed far more easily and with fewer bugs. Many existing
- operational modules ship with FreeBSD and include support for:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>PPPoE</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>ATM</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>ISDN</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Bluetooth</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>HDLC</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>EtherChannel</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Frame Relay</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>L2TP, just to name a few.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>GEOM</term>
-
- <listitem><para>GEOM is a modular disk I/O request
- transformation framework. Since it is a pluggable storage
- layer, it permits new storage services to be quickly developed
- and cleanly integrated into the FreeBSD storage
- subsystem. Some examples where this can be useful are:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>Creating RAID solutions.</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Providing full-blown cryptographic protection of stored data.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Newer versions of FreeBSD provide many administrative
- utilities to use the existing GEOM modules. For example, one
- can create a disk mirror using &man.gmirror.8;, a stripe
- using &man.gstripe.8;, and a shared secret device using
- &man.gshsec.8;.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>GBDE</term>
-
- <listitem><para>GBDE, or GEOM Based Disk Encryption, provides
- strong cryptographic protection and can protect file systems,
- swap devices, and other uses of storage media. In addition,
- GBDE transparently encrypts entire file systems, not just
- individual files. No cleartext ever touches the hard drive's
- platter.</para></listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>MAC</term>
-
- <listitem><para><link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mac.html">MAC</link>,
- or Mandatory Access Control, provides fine-tuned access to
- files and is meant to augment traditional operating system
- authorization provided by file permissions. Since MAC is
- implemented as a modular framework, a FreeBSD system can be
- configured for any required policy varying from HIPAA
- compliance to the needs of a military-grade system.</para>
-
- <para>&os; ships with modules to implement the following
- policies; however the framework allows you to develop any
- required policy:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>Biba integrity model</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Port ACLs</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>MLS or Multi-Level Security confidentiality policy</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>LOMAC or Low-watermark Mandatory Access Control data integrity policy</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Process partition policy</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>PAM</term>
-
- <listitem><para>Like &linux;, &os; provides support for <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/pam/">PAM</link>,
- Pluggable Authentication Modules. This allows an administrator
- to augment the traditional &unix; username/password
- authentication model. &os; provides modules to integrate
- into many authentication mechanisms, including:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>Kerberos 5</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>OPIE</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>RADIUS</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>TACACS+</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>It also allows the administrator to define policies to
- control authentication issues such as the quality of
- user-chosen passwords.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-security">
- <title>Security</title>
-
- <para>Security is very important to the <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/">FreeBSD
-Release
- Engineering Team</link>. This
- manifests itself in several concrete areas:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>All security incidents and fixes pass through the
- Security Team and are issued as publicly available
- Advisories. The Security Team has a reputation for quickly
- resolving known security issues. Full information regarding
- FreeBSD's security handling procedures and where to find
- security information is available at
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/security/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/security/</uri>.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>One of the problems associated with Open Source
- software is the sheer volume of available applications. There
- are literally tens of thousands of Open Source application projects
- each with varying levels of responsiveness to security
- incidents. &os; has met this challenge head-on with <link xlink:href="http://www.vuxml.org/freebsd/">VuXML</link>. All software
- shipped with the FreeBSD operating system as well any software
- available in the <link xlink:href="&url.base;/ports/">Ports Collection</link>
- is compared to a database of known, unresolved
- vulnerabilities. An administrator can use the &man.pkg.7;
- utility to quickly determine if any software on a &os;
- system is vulnerable, and if so, receive a description of the
- problem and an URL containing a more detailed vulnerability
- description.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>&os; also provides many mechanisms which allow an
- administrator to tune the operating system to meet his security
- needs:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
-
- <listitem><para>The &man.jail.8; utility allows an administrator
- to imprison a process; this is ideal for applications which
- don't provide their own chroot environment.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>The &man.chflags.1; utility augments the
- security provided by traditional Unix permissions. It can, for
- example, prevent specified files from being modified or
- deleted by even the superuser.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>&os; provides 3 built-in stateful, NAT-aware
- firewalls, allowing the flexibility of choosing the ruleset
- most appropriate to one's security needs.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>The &os; kernel is easily modified, allowing an
- administrator to strip out unneeded functionality. &os;
- also supports kernel loadable modules and provides utilities
- to view, load and unload kernel modules.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>The sysctl mechanism allows an administrator to view
- and change kernel state on-the-fly without requiring a
- reboot.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-support">
- <title>Support</title>
-
- <para>Like &linux;, &os; offers many venues for support, both
- freely available and commercial.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-support-free">
- <title>Free Offerings</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
-
- <listitem><para>&os; is one of the best documented
- operating systems, and the documentation is available both
- as part of the operating system and on the Internet. Manual
- pages are clear, concise and provide working
- examples. <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/">
- The FreeBSD Handbook</link>
- provides background information and configuration examples
- for nearly every task one would wish to complete using
- &os;.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>&os; provides many support <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources.html#ERESOURCES-MAIL">mailing
- lists</link>.
- where answers are archived and fully searchable. If you have
- a question that wasn't addressed by the Handbook, it most
- likely has already been answered on a mailing list. The
- Handbook and mailing lists are also available in several
- languages, all of which are easily accessible from
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org">http://www.FreeBSD.org</uri>.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>There are many FreeBSD IRC channels, forums,
- and user groups. See <link xlink:href="&url.base;/community.html"></link> for a
- selection.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>If you're looking for a &os; administrator, developer
- or support personnel, send a job description which includes
- geographic location to <email>freebsd-jobs@FreeBSD.org</email>.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-support-commercial">
- <title>Commercial Offerings</title>
-
- <para>There are many vendors who provide commercial &os;
- support. Resources for finding a vendor near you
- include:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>The Commercial Vendors page at the &os;
- site: <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/commercial/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/commercial/</uri></para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>FreeBSDMall, who have been selling support contracts
- for nearly 10 years.
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.freebsdmall.com">http://www.freebsdmall.com</uri></para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>The BSDTracker Database at: <uri xlink:href="http://www.nycbug.org/index.php?NAV=BSDTracker">http://www.nycbug.org/index.php?NAV=BSDTracker</uri></para></listitem>
-
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>There is also an initiative to provide certification of BSD
- system administrators. <uri xlink:href="http://www.bsdcertification.org">http://www.bsdcertification.org</uri>.</para>
-
- <para>If your project requires Common Criteria certification,
- &os; includes the <link xlink:href="http://www.trustedbsd.org">TrustedBSD</link> MAC
- framework to ease the certification process.</para>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-advantages">
- <title>Advantages to Choosing &os;</title>
-
- <para>There are many advantages to including &os; solutions in
- your IT infrastructure:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>&os; is well documented and follows many
- standards. This allows your existing intermediate and advanced
- system administrators to quickly transfer their existing Linux
- and Unix skillsets to FreeBSD administration.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>In-house developers have full access to all
- FreeBSD code
-
- <footnote>
- <para>In addition, all code is browsable through a
- web-interface: <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/</uri>.</para>
- </footnote>
-
- for all releases going back to the original
- &os; release. Included with the code are all of the log
- messages which provide context to changes and
- bug fixes. Additionally, a developer can easily replicate any
- release by simply checking out the code with the desired
- label. In contrast, &linux; traditionally didn't follow this
- model, but has recently adopted a more mature development
- model.
-
- <footnote>
- <para>An interesting overview of the evolving Linux
- development model can be found at <uri xlink:href="http://linuxdevices.com/articles/AT4155251624.html">http://linuxdevices.com/articles/AT4155251624.html</uri>.</para>
- </footnote>
-
- </para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>In-house developers also have full access to
- &os;'s
- bug-tracking database. They are able to query and track
- existing bugs as well as submit their own patches for approval
- and possible committal into the FreeBSD base code.
- <link xlink:href="&url.base;/support.html"></link></para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>The BSD license allows you to freely modify the
- code to suit your business purposes. Unlike the GPL, there are
- no restrictions on how you choose to distribute the resulting
- software.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-conclusion">
- <title>Conclusion</title>
-
- <para>&os; is a mature &unix;-like operating system which
- includes many of the features one would expect in a modern &unix;
- system. For those wishing to incorporate an Open Source solution
- in their existing infrastructure, &os; is an excellent choice
- indeed.</para>
- </sect1>
-</article>
diff --git a/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile b/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile
index 3dc298d6fe..3ccdcaaa40 100644
--- a/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile
+++ b/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile
@@ -7,7 +7,6 @@ SUBDIR+= contributing
SUBDIR+= cvs-freebsd
SUBDIR+= explaining-bsd
SUBDIR+= fdp-es
-SUBDIR+= linux-comparison
SUBDIR+= linux-users
SUBDIR+= mailing-list-faq
SUBDIR+= nanobsd
diff --git a/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile b/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index eed69d5078..0000000000
--- a/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,16 +0,0 @@
-# $FreeBSD$
-#
-# Article: FreeBSD and Linux Comparison Whitepaper
-
-DOC?= article
-
-FORMATS?= html
-INSTALL_COMPRESSED?= gz
-INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESSED?=
-
-SRCS= article.xml
-
-URL_RELPREFIX?= ../../../..
-DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/../../..
-
-.include "${DOC_PREFIX}/share/mk/doc.project.mk"
diff --git a/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml b/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml
deleted file mode 100644
index 17b5467c20..0000000000
--- a/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,595 +0,0 @@
-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
-<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V5.0-Based Extension//EN"
- "http://www.FreeBSD.org/XML/share/xml/freebsd50.dtd">
-<!--
-Copyright (c) 2005 Dru Lavigne
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT ''AS
- IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
- THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
- PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY
- DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
- DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
- OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<!-- The FreeBSD Spanish Documentation Project
- Original Revision: r1.10 -->
-<article xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0" xml:lang="es">
- <info><title>&os;: Una alternativa de cdigo abierto a &linux;</title>
-
-
- <author><personname><firstname>Dru</firstname><surname>Lavigne</surname></personname><affiliation>
- <address><email>dru@isecom.org</email></address>
- </affiliation></author>
-
- <copyright>
- <year>2005</year>
- <holder role="mailto:dru@isecom.org">Dru Lavigne</holder>
- </copyright>
-
- <pubdate>$FreeBSD$</pubdate>
-
- <releaseinfo>$FreeBSD$</releaseinfo>
-
- <legalnotice xml:id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
- &tm-attrib.freebsd;
- &tm-attrib.linux;
- &tm-attrib.unix;
- &tm-attrib.general;
- </legalnotice>
-
- &legalnotice;
-
- <abstract>
- <para>El propsito de este artculo es explicar algunas de
- las caractersticas y ventajas de elegir &os;; cuando es posible
- hacerlo se comparan dichas caractersticas con las de &linux;.
- Este artculo debera ser un punto de partida para quienes
- debera ser un punto de partida para quienes tengan inters
- tengan inters en alternatvas a &linux; en el bito
- del cdigo abierto.</para>
-
- &trans.es.gabor;
- </abstract>
- </info>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="introduction">
- <title>Introduccin</title>
-
- <para>&os; es un sistema operativo de tipo &unix; derivado de Berkeley
- Software Distribution. Aunque &os; y &linux; parecen con frecuencia
- muy similares existen notables diferencias:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>&linux; es solamente un kernel. Las distribuciones (p.ej. Red Hat,
- Debian, Suse, etc) disponen de instalador y de utilidades
- de usuario. En http://www.linux.org/dist se muestran ms
- de 300 distribuciones distintas. Aunque por una parte tanta
- variedad proporcione la mxima flexibilidad posible, la existencia
- de tantas distribuciones pone trabas a los usuarios cuando
- tiene que aplicar su experiencia con una distribucin al usar
- otra diferente. Las distribuciones no solamente se diferencian en
- la facilidad de instalacin o los programas que incluyen;
- tambin hay diferencias en la estructura de directorios,
- las shells y gestores de ventanas que ofrecen y el procedimiento
- de instalacin o parcheo de software.</para>
-
- <para>&os; es un sistema operativo completo (kernel y utilidades)
- en el que se respeta la herencia del desarrollo original de
- &unix;.[1] Dado que es el mismo grupo de ingeniera de
- releases el que controla tanto el kernel como las utilidades, la
- probabilidad de incompatibilidades entre bibliotecas es menor.
- El equipo de seguridad gestiona de un modo ms rpido
- las vulnerabilidades de seguridad. Si quiere conocer las nuevas
- utilidades que se van aadiendo al kernel solo debe seguir
- un fichero, las <quote>Release Notes</quote>, que estn
- en la pgina principal de <link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org">&os;</link>.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>&os; tiene un grupo de desarrollo grande y bien
- organizado, lo que asegura que los cambios se implementen
- de una forma rpida pero controlada. Hay varios miles
- de programadores que aportan cdigo regularmente, pero
- slo unos 300 de ellos tienen lo que se denomina
- <quote>commit bit</quote>, con el que pueden aplicar cambios
- directamente en el kernel, las utilidades y la documentacin.
- El grupo de ingeniera de <quote>releases</quote> se encarga
- del control de calidad de las <quote>releases</quote>, mientras que
- el equipo de seguridad se responsabiliza de los problemas de
- seguridad. Adems de estos grupos hay otro denominado
- <quote>Core Team</quote>, compuesto por ocho desarrolladores
- veteranos que supervisan las directrices de desarrollo del proyecto
- como un todo.</para>
-
- <para>Los cambios que se hacen en el kernel de &linux;, en cambio,
- han de esperar hasta que el responsable del cdigo del kernel,
- Linus Torvalds, los apruebe. En cada una de las distribuciones hay
- un modo distinto de trabajar para que esos cambios se lleven a
- cabo dependiendo del tamano del grupo de programadores de
- que disponga y cmo se organicen.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
-
- <para>Tanto &os; como &linux; usan una licencia de
- cdigo abierto, pero las licencias son diferentes. El kernel
- de &linux; usa la <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license.php">licencia GPL</link>,
- mientras que &os; usa la <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php">licencia BSD</link>.
- Tiene ms informacin sobre stas y otras licencias
- de cdigo abierto en el sitio web de <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/">Open Source Initiative</link>.</para>
-
- <para>La filosofa que hay tras la GPL busca asegurarse de
- que el cdigo permanezca abierto, cosa que hace imponiendo
- restricciones en la distribucin de cdigo GPL.
- La licencia BSD, en cambio, no impone ninguna restriccin,
- de forma que es posible dejarlo abierto o cerrarlo para hacer
- productos comerciales propietarios (tambin conocidos como
- <quote>privativos</quote>)[2]. La existencia de cdigo
- estable y confiable bajo una licencia tan interesante como la
- BSD ha hecho que un sistema operativo como <link xlink:href="http://developer.apple.com/darwin/projects/darwin/faq.html">Apple OS X</link>
- est basado en cdigo de &os;. Todo esto significa
- que si decide usted utilizar cdigo BSD en sus proyectos
- puede hacerlo sin preocuparse de que en un futuro tal decisin
- pueda acarrearle problemas legales.</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-features">
- <title>Caractersticas de &os;</title>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-features-platforms">
- <title>Plataformas soportadas</title>
-
- <para>&os; goza de una merecida reputacin de sistema operativo
- seguro y estable sobre plataformas &intel; (&i386;). Tambin
- es posible utilizarlo en las siguientes arquitecturas:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><simpara>alpha</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>amd64</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>ia64</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&i386;</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>pc98</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&sparc64;</simpara></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Adems en este momento se est trabajando en
- portar &os; a las siguientes arquitecturas:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><simpara>&arm;</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&mips;</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&powerpc;</simpara></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Existen unas listas actualizadas de hardware para cada
- arquitectura donde puede verificarse rpidamente
- si su hardware est soportado por &os;. En el
- campo de los servidores &os; dispone de un soporte
- excelente de RAID por hardware y para adaptadores de
- red.</para>
-
- <para>&os; tambin funciona muy bien en una estacin de
- trabajo o un porttil. &os; soporta X Window System, el
- mismo que ofrecen las distribuciones de &linux; para interfaces
- de usuario de escritorio. &os; ofrece adems ms de
- 17000 aplicaciones externas muy fciles de instalar; entre
- ellas estn KDE, Gnome y OpenOffice.</para>
-
- <para>Hay varios proyectos que tienen como meta una instalacin de
- &os; ms fcil. Los ms importantes son:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para><link xlink:href="http://www.desktopbsd.net">DesktopBSD</link>, que tiene
- como fin ofrecer un sistema operativo estable y poderoso
- para usar como escritorio.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para><link xlink:href="http://www.freesbie.org">FreeSBIE</link>, que ofrece un
- LiveCD de &os;.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para><link xlink:href="http://www.pcbsd.com">PC-BSD</link>, que dispone de
- un sencillo instalador grfico sobre &os; dirigido
- al usuario de escritorio.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-features-frameworks">
- <title><quote>Framework</quote> integrados</title>
-
- <para>Hay diversos <quote>frameworks</quote> que le
- permitirn adaptar su entorno &os; a sus necesidades
- concretas. Veamos algunos de ellos:</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Netgraph</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Netgraph es un subsistema de mdulos que
- se puede usar para ampliar la infraestructura de red disponible
- en el kernel gracias a la posibilidad que se ofrece a los
- desarrolladores de usar sus propios mdulos. De este modo
- ha sido posible crear nuevos prototipos y productos en el rea
- de los sistemas de red avanzados de un modo ms sencillo y
- limpio. Algunos de estos mdulos ya estn incluidos
- en &os;:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>PPPoE</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>ATM</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>ISDN</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Bluetooth</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>HDLC</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>EtherChannel</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Frame Relay</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>y L2TP, solo por enumerar unos cuantos.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>GEOM</term>
-
- <listitem><para>GEOM es un <quote>framework</quote> modular que permite
- gestionar las peticiones de lectura/escritura en disco. Al ser
- un dispositivo de almacenamiento que se puede enchufar permite que
- puedan desarrollarse nuevos servicios de almacenamiento de forma
- rpida y limpia dentro del subsistema de almacenamiento de
- &os;.</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Uso de RAID.</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>Proteccin criptogrfica de los
- datos almacenados.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Las versiones ms recientes de &os; disponen de
- diversas aplicaciones administrativas para facilitar el uso
- de los mdulos de GEOM existentes. Es posible, por ejemplo,
- crear un disco espejo mediante &man.gmirror.8;; &man.gstripe.8;
- permite crear un <quote>stripe</quote>, as como gracias a
- &man.gshsec.8; puede crearse un dispositivo secreto compartido.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>GBDE</term>
-
- <listitem><para>GBDE (de GEOM Based Disk Encryption) ofrece una
- proteccin criptogrfica fuerte que puede utilizarse
- en sistemas de ficheros y unidades swap entre otros tipos de unidades
- de almacenamiento. Adems GBDE cifra de forma transparente
- el sistema de ficheros en su totalidad, no slamente ficheros
- individuales. De este modo el texto legible no llega siquiera a
- tocar el disco duro.</para></listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>MAC</term>
-
- <listitem><para><link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mac.html">MAC</link>
- (Mandatory Access Control) ofrece un control de acceso a ficheros
- muy configurable; su propsito es aumentar las posibilidades
- del control de acceso a ficheros de los que ha gozado hasta ahora
- el sistema operativo. Puesto que MAC se implementa como un
- <quote>framework</quote> modular cualquier sistema &os; puede
- configurarse para que alcance cualquier rango de exigencia, desde
- el cumplimiento del estndar HIPAA hasta los sistemas
- de seguridad de grado militar.</para>
-
- <para>&os; incluye mdulos que permiten implementar las
- normas que se listan a continuacin, aunque no hay que
- olvidar que el <quote>framework</quote> permite desarrollar e
- implementar cualquier otra que se necesite:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Modelo Biba de integridad</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>ACL para ports</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>MLS (norma de confidencialidad Multi-Level Security)</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>LOMAC (norma de integridad de datos Low-watermark Mandatory
- Access Control)</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>Normas de particin de procesos</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>PAM</term>
-
- <listitem><para>Igual que &linux;, &os; ofrece soporte para <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/pam/">PAM</link>
- (Pluggable Authentication Modules). Con PAM el administrador
- puede reforzar el modelo tradicional de autentificacin
- usuario/contrasea. &os; dispone de mdulos para
- integrar PAM en una amplia gama de mecanismos de
- autenticacin. Estos son algunos de ellos:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Kerberos 5</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>OPIE</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>RADIUS</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>TACACS+</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Tambin es posible configurar normas que se
- engarguen de problemas de control de autentificacin
- como la calidad de las contraseas que los usuarios puedan
- elegir.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-security">
- <title>Seguridad</title>
-
- <para>La seguridad es extremadamente importante para el <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/">grupo de ingeniera de <quote>releases</quote> de &os;</link>.
- Esto se refleja en distintas reas:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Todos los problemas de seguridad y los parches que
- los corrigen pasan por el equipo de seguridad, que los publica
- y pone a disposicin de los usuarios en lo que se conoce como
- <quote>Advisories</quote>. El equipo de seguridad tiene una
- merecida reputacin de rapidez en la resolucin de
- problemas de seguridad. Si quiere informacin detallada
- sobre cmo se gestionan los problemas de seguridad en &os; y
- dnde encontrar informacin de seguridad consulte
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/security/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/security/</uri>.</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>Uno de los problemas que suelen asociarse al software de
- cdigo abierto es la escasez de aplicaciones que pueden
- ejecutarse. Hay literalmente decenas de miles de proyectos
- desarrollando aplicaciones de cdigo abierto, evidentemente
- no todas tienen el mismo rigor en cuestiones de seguridad.
- En &os; se ataja este problema gracias a <link xlink:href="http://www.vuxml.org/freebsd/">VuXML</link>. Consiste en
- una base de datos donde se van almacenando problemas de seguridad
- que van apareciendo; esta base de datos se cruza con la
- informacin de los programas que incluye &os; y las
- aplicaciones que est en la <link xlink:href="&url.base;/ports/">Coleccin de Ports</link>.
- El administrador tiene a su disposicin &man.portaudit.1;,
- con el que puede determinar rpidamente si cualquier
- aplicacin que haya en un sistema &os; es vulnerable. En el
- caso de que lo sea recibir una descripcin del
- problema con un enlace donde encontrar informacin
- ms detallada sobre l.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>&os; ofrece tambin diversos mecanismos para que el
- administrador pueda hacer que su sistema operativo cumpla los requisitos
- de seguridad que necesite:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>La utilidad &man.jail.8; permite al administrador
- <quote>enjaular</quote> (de ah su nombre) un proceso. Es
- ideal para aplicaciones que no pueden ejecutarse en un entorno
- <quote>chroot</quote>.</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>La utilidad &man.chflags.1; aumenta la seguridad que
- ofrece el sistema tradicional de permisos de &unix;. Puede
- por ejemplo prohibirse la modificacin de uno o ms
- ficheros dados; es posible incluso prohibir que el superusuario
- pueda modificarlos o borrarlos.</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>&os; ofrece 3 <quote>firewalls</quote> empotrados y con soporte
- de NAT, gracias a lo cual puede elegirse el conjunto de reglas
- ms apropiado a las necesidades de seguridad de cada
- situacin.</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>El kernel de &os; puede modificarse muy fcilmente, lo
- que permite al administrador retirar de l
- caractersticas que no necesite. &os; tambin
- admite mdulos dinmicos y dispone de herramientas
- para cargar, descargar y ver los mdulos que estn
- en el kernel.</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>sysctl permite al administrador ver y configurar multitud de
- caractersticas del kernel sin tener que reiniciar
- la mquina.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-support">
- <title>Soporte</title>
-
- <para>Del mismo modo que sucede en &linux;, &os; ofrece distintos tipos
- de soporte, tanto gratuito como comercial.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-support-free">
- <title>Soporte gratuito</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>&os; es uno de los sistemas operativos mejor documentados;
- dicha documentacin forma parte del sistema y tambin
- est en Internet. Las pginas man son claras,
- concisas y contienen ejemplos tiles. El <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/"><quote>Handbook</quote> de &os;</link>
- dispone de informacin a fondo y ejemplos de
- configuracin para casi todas las tareas que deben
- acometerse en el uso de &os;.</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>&os; dispone de muchas <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources.html#ERESOURCES-MAIL">listas de correo</link>; el correo que pasa por estas listas
- se archiva y pueden hacerse bsquedas en l.
- Si tiene alguna duda cuya solucin no aparezca en el
- <quote>Handbook</quote> es muy probable que haya aparecido ya
- resuelta en alguna lista de correo del proyecto. Hay listas de
- correo (e incluso versiones del <quote>Handbook</quote>) en
- otros idiomas adems del ingls. Puede encontrarlas
- en <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org">http://www.FreeBSD.org</uri>.</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>Hay muchos canales de IRC, foros y grupos de usuarios.
- Consulte una lista de de algunos de ellos en <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/support.html">http://www.FreeBSD.org/support.html</uri>.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Si busca un administrador, desarrollador o alguien que
- ofrezca soporte para &os;, enve la
- descripcin del trabajo a <email>freebsd-jobs@FreeBSD.org</email>;
- no olvide incluir la ubicacin fsica.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-support-commercial">
- <title>Soporte comercial</title>
-
- <para>Hay muchas empresas que ofrecen soporte comercial para
- &os;. Si necesita alguna de estas empresas los siguientes enlaces
- le sern de mucha utilidad para buscar el que le resulta
- ms adecuado:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>La pgina de distribuidores comerciales que hay en el
- sitio web de &os;: <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/commercial/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/commercial/</uri></para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>FreeBSDMall, que vende contratos de soporte desde hace casi
- diez aos. <uri xlink:href="http://www.freebsdmall.com">http://www.freebsdmall.com</uri></para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>La base de datos de BSDTracker: <uri xlink:href="http://www.nycbug.org/index.php?NAV=BSDTracker">http://www.nycbug.org/index.php?NAV=BSDTracker</uri></para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Hay una organizacin que ofrece certificados para
- administradores de sistemas BSD. <uri xlink:href="http://www.bsdcertification.org">http://www.bsdcertification.org</uri>.</para>
-
- <para>Si su proyecto necesita un certificado de Common Criteria, &os;
- incluye el <quote>framework</quote> MAC de <link xlink:href="http://www.trustedbsd.org">TrustedBSD</link> que puede
- facilitar el proceso de obtener la certificacin.</para>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-advantages">
- <title>Ventajas de elegir &os;</title>
-
- <para>Integrar &os; en su estructura IT tiene muchas ventajas:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>&os; est bien documentado y cumple muchos
- estndares. Un administrador con conocimientos
- de nivel intermedio o avanzado puede utilizar en &os; su
- experiencia con &linux; y &unix;
- rpidamente.</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>Los desarrolladores oficiales tienen acceso completo al
- cdigo[4] de todas las versiones de &os; desde la
- primera <quote>release</quote>. El cdigo incluye toda
- la informacin que se incluye con cada cambio, as
- que puede seguirse cada modificacin y correccin que se
- haya hecho en el cdigo. Adem&acute;s, cualquier desarrollador
- puede obtener una <quote>release</quote> dada de un modo muy
- fcil usando la etiqueta adecuada. Por el contrario,
- &linux; no utiliza este modelo, aunque recientemente
- haya adoptado un modelo de desarrollo ms avanzado[5].</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>Los desarrolladores oficiales tambin tiene acceso
- completo a la base de datos de fallos de &os;, <link xlink:href="http://www.gnu.org/software/gnats/">GNATS</link>.
- Pueden buscar y gestionar los fallos existentes y enviar
- parches para que puedan probarse e integrarse en el
- cdigo base de &os;.
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/support.html#gnats">http://www.FreeBSD.org/support.html#gnats</uri></para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>La licencia BSD le permite modificar el cdigo
- de la forma que prefiera para que satisfaga su objetivos comerciales.
- A diferencia de la licencia GPL no hay restricciones en el modo en
- que deba distribuirse el software que desarrolle.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-conclusion">
- <title>Conclusin</title>
-
- <para>&os; es un sistema operativo maduro basado en &unix; que incluye
- muchas de las caractersticas que uno espera en un sistema
- &unix; moderno. Para quien quiere incorporar soluciones de cdigo
- abierto a su infraestructura &os; es una alternativa a tener muy
- en cuenta.</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-addenda">
- <title>Addenda</title>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Si quiere una breve historia de BSD consulte <uri xlink:href="http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/kirkmck.html">http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/kirkmck.html</uri>.</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>Hay un resumen neutral de las ventajas de las licencias
- en <uri xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_and_GPL_licensing">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_and_GPL_licensing</uri>.</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>Uso de la <link xlink:href="&url.base;/ports">Coleccin de ports de &os;</link>:
- instalar software es tan fcil como ejecutar
- <command>pkg_add -r nombre_de_aplicacin</command>.</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>Adems puede verse todo el cdigo via
- web: <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/</uri>.</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>Hay una interesanta visin general del modelo de
- desarrollo de &linux; en <uri xlink:href="http://linuxdevices.com/articles/AT4155251624.html">http://linuxdevices.com/articles/AT4155251624.html</uri>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </sect1>
-</article>
diff --git a/hu_HU.ISO8859-2/articles/Makefile b/hu_HU.ISO8859-2/articles/Makefile
index 36240cdbbd..5b5c1b1fcb 100644
--- a/hu_HU.ISO8859-2/articles/Makefile
+++ b/hu_HU.ISO8859-2/articles/Makefile
@@ -12,7 +12,6 @@ SUBDIR = compiz-fusion
SUBDIR+= cups
SUBDIR+= explaining-bsd
SUBDIR+= gjournal-desktop
-SUBDIR+= linux-comparison
SUBDIR+= linux-users
DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/../..
diff --git a/hu_HU.ISO8859-2/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile b/hu_HU.ISO8859-2/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index ec5b75a2cd..0000000000
--- a/hu_HU.ISO8859-2/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,22 +0,0 @@
-# $FreeBSD$
-#
-# Article: FreeBSD and Linux Comparison Whitepaper
-#
-# %SOURCE% en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile
-# %SRCID% 1.1
-#
-
-MAINTAINER= gabor@FreeBSD.org
-
-DOC?= article
-
-FORMATS?= html
-INSTALL_COMPRESSED?= gz
-INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESSED?=
-
-SRCS= article.xml
-
-URL_RELPREFIX?= ../../../..
-DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/../../..
-
-.include "${DOC_PREFIX}/share/mk/doc.project.mk"
diff --git a/hu_HU.ISO8859-2/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml b/hu_HU.ISO8859-2/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml
deleted file mode 100644
index 1dd04afa2d..0000000000
--- a/hu_HU.ISO8859-2/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,655 +0,0 @@
-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-2"?>
-<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V5.0-Based Extension//EN"
- "http://www.FreeBSD.org/XML/share/xml/freebsd50.dtd">
-<!--
-Copyright (c) 2005 Dru Lavigne
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT "AS
- IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
- THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
- PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY
- DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
- DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
- OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<!-- The FreeBSD Hungarian Documentation Project
- Translated by: Gabor Kovesdan <gabor@FreeBSD.org>
- %SOURCE% en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml
- %SRCID% 1.11
--->
-<article xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0" xml:lang="hu">
- <info><title>&os;: Egy nylt forrs alternatva
- a &linux; mellett</title>
-
-
- <author><personname><firstname>Dru</firstname><surname>Lavigne</surname></personname><affiliation>
- <address><email>dru@isecom.org</email></address>
- </affiliation></author>
-
- <copyright>
- <year>2005</year>
- <holder role="mailto:dru@isecom.org">Dru Lavigne</holder>
- </copyright>
-
- <pubdate>$FreeBSD$</pubdate>
-
- <releaseinfo>$FreeBSD$</releaseinfo>
-
- <legalnotice xml:id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
- &tm-attrib.freebsd;
- &tm-attrib.linux;
- &tm-attrib.unix;
- &tm-attrib.general;
- </legalnotice>
-
- &legalnotice;
-
- <abstract>
- <para>Ez a dokumentum a &os; adottsgait s elnyeit
- tekinti t; hol alkalmazhat, illetve hogyan viszonyulnak
- ezek az adottsgok a &linux;hoz. Ez a dokumentum
- kiindulsi pontot nyjt azoknak, akik dekeltek
- a &linux; mellett ms nylt forrs
- alternatvk megismersben is.</para>
- <para><emphasis>Fordtotta: &a.hu.gabor;</emphasis></para>
- </abstract>
- </info>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="introduction">
- <title>Bevezets</title>
-
- <para>A &os; egy &unix;-szer opercis rendszer, amely
- a Berkeley Software Distribution alapjaibl fejldtt ki.
- A &os; s a &linux; nagyon hasonlnak tnik, de
- vannak kztk klnbsgek:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
-
- <listitem>
-
- <para>A &linux; nmagban egy rendszermag (kernel).
- A disztribcik (pl. Red Hat, SuSE s egyebek)
- biztostjk a teleptt s a
- felhasznl szmra elrhet
- segdprogramokat. A http://www.linux.org/dist tbb
- mint 300 disztribcit sorol fel. Amg ilyen
- sok disztribci biztostja a
- felhasznl fel a maximlis
- rugalmassgot, meg is neheztik egy msik
- disztribcira vltst a
- felhasznl szmra. A
- disztribcik nem csak a telepts
- nehzsgben s a
- szoftverknlatban trnek el, a
- knyvtrszerkezetk, elrhet shelljeik
- s ablakkezelik, illetve a szoftvertelept-
- s foltoz alkalmazsaik is
- klnbzek.</para>
-
- <para>A &os; komplett opercis rendszer (kernel
- s felhasznli programok), tiszteletre
- mlt rksggel a &unix;
- fejldsnek gykereitl.[1]
- Mivel a kernel s a rendelkezsre ll
- segdprogramok is ugyanazon kiadsi csapat
- felgyelete al tartoznak, kisebb a
- valsznsge a
- programknyvtrak kztti
- inkompatibilitsnak. A biztonsgi
- sebezhetsgek szintn gyorsan
- orvosolhatak a biztonsgi csapat
- segtsgvel. Ha j
- felhasznli programok, vagy kernel
- funkcik kerlnek a rendszerbe, a
- felhasznlnak csupn egyetlen fjt kell
- elolvasnia, a Kiadsi Jegyzeteket, amelyek szabadon
- elrhetek a
- <link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org">&os; honlapjn</link>.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>A &os; nagy s jl szervezett fejleszti
- httrrel rendelkezik, amely biztostja, hogy
- a vltoztatsok gyorsan s szervezetten menjenek
- vgbe. Tbb szz programoz rendszeresen
- hozzjrul a projekt fejldshez,
- de csak krlbell 300 rendelkezik commit
- jogosultsggal, csak k frnek hozz
- kzvetlenl a kernelhez, a segdprogramokhoz,
- illetve a hivatalos dokumentcihoz. A
- kiadsi csapat garantlja a minsget
- s a biztonsgi csapat felel a biztonsgi
- problmk
- elhrtsrt.
- Ezen kvl a 8 tag core csapat, amely
- senior committerekbl ll, hatrozza meg a
- projekt ltalnos cljait.</para>
-
- <para>Ezzel ellenttben, a &linux; kernelt rint
- vltozsoknak vrniuk kell addig, amg
- a kernel karbantartja, Linus Torvalds, jv
- nem hagyja azokat. A disztribcikban a
- vltozsok klnbzkppen
- trtnhetnek, ez a disztribci
- fejleszti bzisnak mrettl
- s a szervezeti felptstl
- fgg.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
-
- <para>Igaz, hogy a &os; s a &linux; is nylt
- forrs licencet hasznl, de a konkrt
- licencek klnbzek. A &linux; kernel a
- <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license.php">GPL
- licencet</link> hasznlja, amg a &os; a
- <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php">BSD
- licencet</link>. Ezekrl s ms nylt
- forrs licencekrl rszletesebben
- olvashat az <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/">Open Source
- Initiative weboldaln</link>.</para>
-
- <para>A f vezrelv a GPL mgtt, hogy a
- kd nylt maradjon. Ezt gy
- valstja meg, hogy megszortsokat
- alkalmaz a GPL al es kd
- terjesztsvel kapcsolatban. Ezzel ellenttben
- a BSD licenc nem tartalmaz ilyen megszortsokat,
- hanem nre bzza, hogy a kdot nyitva hagyja,
- vagy zrtt teszi egy kereskedelmi termk
- rszeknt[2]. A stabil s
- megbzhat kd a vonz BSD licenccel
- egytt azt eredmnyezi, hogy sok opercis
- rendszer, mint pldul az <link xlink:href="http://developer.apple.com/darwin/projects/darwin/faq.html">Apple
- OS X</link>, a &os; kdjra pl.
- Tovbb azt is eredmnyezi, hogy ha BSD
- licences kdot hasznl a sajt projektjeiben,
- nem kell tartania semmifle jogi
- ktelezettsgtl.</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-features">
- <title>A &os; adottsgai</title>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-features-platforms">
- <title>Tmogatott platformok</title>
-
- <para>A &os; nagy hrnvre tett szert az &intel; (&i386;)
- platformon mint egy biztonsgos s stabil
- opercis rendszer. Emellett a &os; a
- kvetkez architektrkat is
- tmogatja:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><simpara>alpha</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>amd64</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>ia64</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&i386;</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>pc98</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&sparc64;</simpara></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Tovbb a &os; portolsa folyamatban van a
- kvetkez architektrkra is:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><simpara>&arm;</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&mips;</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&powerpc;</simpara></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Friss hardverlista is elrhet minden
- architektrhoz, gy egy pillanat alatt meg tudja
- llaptani, hogy az n hardvere tmogatott-e.
- A kiszolglk szmra fejlett RAID
- s hlzati interfsz
- tmogats rhet el.</para>
-
- <para>A &os; szintn jl hasznlhat
- munkallomsok s laptopok opercis
- rendszereknt. Tmogatja az X Window rendszert, amelyet
- a &linux; disztribcik is hasznlnak desktop
- felhasznli felletknt.
- Tovbb tmogat tbb mint 13.000 knnyen
- telepthet kls alkalmazst,[3] mint
- pldul a KDE, Gnome s OpenOffice.</para>
-
- <para>Tbb projekt is ltezik, amelyek
- megknnytik a &os; teleptst
- desktop rendszerknt. A legjelentsebbek:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>A <link xlink:href="http://www.desktopbsd.net">DesktopBSD</link>, amely
- stabil s erteljes opercs rendszer
- hivatott lenni a desktop felhasznlk
- szmra.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>A <link xlink:href="http://www.freesbie.org">FreeSBIE</link> egy LiveCD
- disztribci a &os;
- szmra.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>A <link xlink:href="http://www.pcbsd.com">PC-BSD</link>, amely egy knnyen
- hasznlhat GUI teleptt nyjt a
- desktop &os; felhasznlknak.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-features-frameworks">
- <title>Kiterjeszthet keretrendszerek</title>
-
- <para>A &os; rengeteg kiterjeszthet keretrendszerrel rendelkezik,
- amelyek lehetv teszik, hogy knnyen testreszabja
- a &os;-t a sajt ignyeinek megfelelen. A
- fontosabb keretrendszerek a kvetkezek:</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Netgraph</term>
-
- <listitem><para>A Netgraph egy modulris hlzati
- alrendszer, amely a mr ltez
- hlzati kernel infrastruktra
- kibvtsre hasznlhat.
- Horgok biztostjk a fejlesztk
- szmra, hogy sajt modulokat
- szrmaztassanak. Ennek eredmnyeknt gyorsan,
- knnyen s kevesebb hibval hozhatak
- ltre javtott hlzati
- szolgltatsok. Rengeteg mkd modul
- telepl a &os;-vel, amelyek a kvetkez
- szolgltatsokat tmogatjk:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>PPPoE</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>ATM</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>ISDN</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Bluetooth</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>HDLC</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>EtherChannel</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Frame Relay</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>L2TP, csak, hogy nhnyat
- emltsnk.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>GEOM</term>
-
- <listitem><para>A GEOM egy modulris lemez I/O
- transzformcis keretrendszer. Mivel ez egy
- csatlakoztathat trol rteg, knnyen
- fejleszthetek s integrlhatk j
- trol szolgltatsok a &os;-be a
- GEOM segtsgvel. Nhny
- plda, ahol ez hasznos lehet:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>RAID megoldsok ksztse</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Az adatok teljes kriptografikus vdelemmel
- val elltsa</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>A &os; jabb verzii szmos
- adminisztrcis segdeszkzt
- nyjtanak a meglv GEOM modulok
- hasznlathoz. Pldul lrehozhat
- tkrztt ktetet a &man.gmirror.8;
- segtsgvel, stripe ktetet a
- &man.gstripe.8; hasznlatval, a shared secret
- eszkzk ksztsre
- pedig a &man.gshsec.8; alkalmazhat.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>GBDE</term>
-
- <listitem><para>A GBDE, vagy GEOM alap lemez
- titkosts (GEOM Based Disk Encryption) ers
- kriptografikus vdelmet nyjt. Alkalmazhat
- fjlrendszereken, swap eszkzn s egyb
- troleszkzkn. Radsul
- a GDBE transzparens mdon titkostja az egsz
- fjlrendszert, nem csak a klnll
- fjlokat. Titkostatlan szveg
- egyltaln nem kerl a lemezre.</para></listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>MAC</term>
-
- <listitem><para>A <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/hu_HU.ISO8859-2/books/handbook/mac.html">MAC</link>,
- avagy Mandatory Access Control lehetv teszi a
- fjlokhoz val hozzfrsi jog
- finomhangolst, kiegsztve ezzel
- a hagyomnyos fjl hozzfrsi
- jogokat. Mivel a MAC modulris keretrendszerknt
- lett megvalstva, a &os; rendszer brmilyen
- kvetelmny szerint konfigurlhat, a
- HIPAA-megfelelsgtl kezdve a katonai
- rendszerekig.</para>
-
- <para>A &os; tartalmaz modulokat az itt felsorolt rendszerekhez, de a
- keretrendszer segtsgvel sajt modult
- fejleszthet brmilyen szksges
- kvetelmnyhez.</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>Biba integritsi modell</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Port ACL-ek</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>MLS, avagy Multi-Level Security bizalmi hzirend</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>LOMAC, avagy Low-watermark Mandatory Access Control
- adat integritsi hzirend</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Processz particionlsi
- hzirend</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>PAM</term>
-
- <listitem><para>Ahogy a &linux;, a &os; is tmogatja a
- <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/pam/">PAM</link>,
- azaz Pluggable Authentication Modules rendszert. Ez biztostja
- az adminisztrtor szmra, hogy
- kibvtse a hagyomnyos &unix;
- felhasznlnv/jelsz
- azonostsi modellt. A &os; modulokat biztost
- rengeteg azonostsi mechanizmus
- hasznlathoz, mint pldul:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>Kerberos 5</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>OPIE</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>RADIUS</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>TACACS+</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Ezen fell azt is lehetv teszi az
- adminisztrtor szmra, hogy szablyokat
- vezessen be az azonostshoz, mint pldul
- a felhasznl ltal vlasztott jelszavakra
- vonatkoz megszortsok.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-security">
- <title>Biztonsg</title>
-
- <para>A biztonsg nagyon fontos a <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/">&os;
- Release Engineering Team szmra</link>. Ez tbb
- terleten is megnyilvnul:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>Minden biztonsgi sebezhetsggel
- s javtssal a Security Team foglalkozik
- s ezeket szabadon elrhetv teszik
- a biztonsgi bejelentseken keresztl. A Security
- Team nagy megbecslsnek rvend a felfedezett
- biztonsgi hibk gyors
- javtsrt. Tbb
- informci a &os; biztonsgi
- procedrirl s tovbbi
- informciforrsairl a
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/security/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/security/</uri>
- oldalon tallhat.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>Az egyik problma, amit a nylt
- forrs szoftvereknek tulajdontanak, az
- elrhet alkalmazsok alacsony szma.
- Valjban tbb tzezer nylt
- forrs alkalmazs ltezik, amelyek
- klnbz szinten foglalkoznak a
- biztonsggal. A &os; a <link xlink:href="http://www.vuxml.org/freebsd/">VuXML</link>
- segtsgvel igyekszik megoldani ezt a
- problmt. Minden szoftver, ami a &os;-ben, vagy a
- <link xlink:href="&url.base;/ports/">Ports Collectionben</link>
- tallhat, sszevetsre kerl az
- ismert, megoldatlan sebezhetsgek
- adatbzisval. Az adminisztrtor a
- &man.portaudit.1; program segtsgvel gyorsan
- megllapthatja, hogy brmely szoftver a
- &os; rendszeren sebezhet-e, s amennyiben igen, gy
- kap egy lerst a problmrl,
- illetve egy URL-t, ahol rszletesebb informcikat
- tallhat.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>A &os; szmos mechanizmussal rendelkezik, amellyel a
- biztonsgi elvrsoknak megfelelen
- konfigurlhat:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
-
- <listitem><para>A &man.jail.8; segdprogram lehetv
- teszi processzek bebrtnzst, ez akkor
- idelis, ha az adott alkalmazs nem biztost
- sajt chroot krnyezetet.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>A &man.chflags.1; segdprogram
- kibvti a hagyomnyos &unix;
- jogosultsgokat. Pldul kpes arra, hogy
- bizonyos fjlokat vdett tegyen
- mdosts vagy trls ellen mg
- a root felhasznlval szemben is.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>A &os; 3 beptett
- llapotkezel, NAT-ot tmogat tzfallal
- rendelkezik, ezzel rugalmasan biztostva, hogy a
- felhasznl a szmra legalkalmasabbat
- vlaszthassa ki.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>A &os; kernel knnyen testreszabhat,
- gy az adminisztrtor eltvolthatja
- belle a szmra szksgtelen
- funkcikat. A &os; szintn tmogatja a
- betlthet kernel modulokat, s biztost
- eszkzket a modulok megtekintsre,
- betltsre s
- eltvoltsra.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>A sysctl mechanizmussal az adminisztrtor
- jraindts nlkl
- megtekintheti s megvltoztathatja a kernel
- llapott.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-support">
- <title>Tmogats</title>
-
- <para>Ahogyan a &linux;, a &os; is rengeteg tmogatst
- nyjt, lteznek ingyenes s kereskedelmi
- tmogatsi formk is.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-support-free">
- <title>Ingyenes lehetsgek</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
-
- <listitem><para>A &os; az egyik legjobban dokumentlt
- opercis rendszer, s a
- dokumentcija egyarnt elrhet a
- rendszer rszeknt s az Interneten is.
- A man oldalak vilgosak s tmrek s
- mkd pldkat is tartalmaznak.
- <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/hu_HU.ISO8859-2/books/handbook/">
- A &os; kziknyv</link>
- httrinformcikat s
- konfigurcis pldkat nyjt
- majdnem minden feladathoz, amin egy &os; felhasznl
- keresztl mehet a rendszer hasznlata
- sorn.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>A &os; sok <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/hu_HU.ISO8859-2/books/handbook/eresources.html#ERESOURCES-MAIL">
- levelezsi listval</link> rendelkezik,
- ahol a vlaszok archivlva vannak s teljes
- mrtkben kereshetek. Ha olyan
- krdse van, amelyre a Kziknyv nem ad
- vlaszt, nagy valsznsggel azt
- mr megvlaszoltk valamelyik levelezsi
- listn. A Kziknyv s a levelezsi
- listk tbb nyelven is elrhetek, amelyek
- mindegyike knnyen fellelhet a
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org">http://www.FreeBSD.org</uri>.
- oldalon.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>Sok &os; IRC csatorna, frum s
- felhasznli csoport ltezik. Tekintse meg
- a <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/support.html">http://www.FreeBSD.org/support.html</uri>
- oldalt a vlasztkrt.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Ha &os; adminisztrtort, fejlesztt, vagy
- konzulenst keres, kdjn egy levelet a munka
- lersval s fldrajzi
- helyzetvel a <email>freebsd-jobs@FreeBSD.org</email>
- e-mail cmre.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-support-commercial">
- <title>Kereskedelmi lehetsgek</title>
-
- <para>Sok cg nyjt kereskedelmi tmogatst a
- &os;-hez. A kvetkez cmeken tallhat egy
- kzeli cget:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>A Kereskedelmi Elrustk
- oldal a &os; weblapjain: <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/commercial/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/commercial/</uri></para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>FreeBSDMall, akik kzel 10 ve
- nyjtanak tmogatst:
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.freebsdmall.com">http://www.freebsdmall.com</uri></para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>A BSDTracker adatbzis: <uri xlink:href="http://www.nycbug.org/index.php?NAV=BSDTracker">http://www.nycbug.org/index.php?NAV=BSDTracker</uri></para></listitem>
-
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Ezen kvl ltezik egy
- kezdemnyezs, hogy a BSD rendszeradminisztrtorok
- tanstvnyt szerezhessenek: <uri xlink:href="http://www.bsdcertification.org">http://www.bsdcertification.org</uri>.</para>
-
- <para>Ha a projektje Common Criteria tanstvnyt
- ignyel, a &os;-ben tallhat <link xlink:href="http://www.trustedbsd.org">TrustedBSD</link> MAC
- keretrendszer megknnytheti a certifikcis
- folyamatot.</para>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-advantages">
- <title>Mi szl a &os; vlasztsa mellett?</title>
-
- <para>Sok elny szl amellett, hogy a &os; megoldsait
- hasznlja az IT infrastruktrjban:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>A &os; jl dokumentlt s sok
- szabvnyt kvet, gy a halad vagy
- szakrt &linux; s &unix;
- rendszeradminisztrtorok knnyen
- tvlthatnak a &os;
- szolgltatsaira.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>A bels fejlesztknek teljes
- hozzfrsk van a &os;
- kdjhoz[4], egszen a legels
- kiadsig visszamenleg. A kddal egytt
- elrhet az sszes naplbejegyzs is,
- amelyek a vltoztatsok s
- hibajavtsok lerst
- tartalmazzk. Tovbb a fejlesztk
- knnyen kinyerhetik a kdbl brmelyik
- kiadst a megfelel cmke
- alkalmazsval. Ezzel szemben a &linux; eredetileg
- nem kvette ezt a modellt, de mostanban
- tvltottak egy kiforrottabb fejlesztsi
- modellre.[5]</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>A bels fejlesztknek szintn teljes
- hozzfrsk van a &os; <link xlink:href="http://www.gnu.org/software/gnats/">GNATS</link>
- hibakvet adatbzishoz. Kpesek
- lekrdezni s nyomonkvetni a fennll
- hibkat, illetve bekldeni a sajt patcheiket
- jvhagysra s a &os;
- kdjba olvasztsra. Bvebben:
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/support.html#gnats">http://www.FreeBSD.org/support.html#gnats</uri></para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>A BSD licenc megengedi, hogy szabadon
- mdostsa a kdot, hogy megfeleljen az zleti
- cljainak. A GPL-el szemben, itt nincsenek
- megszortsok az eredmnyknt
- ltrejtt szoftver terjesztsvel
- kapcsolatban.</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-conclusion">
- <title>Konklzi</title>
-
- <para>A &os; kiforrott &unix;-szer opercis
- rendszer, amely rengeteg olyan adottsggal rendelkezik, amely
- egy modern &unix; rendszertl elvrhat. Azoknak,
- akik nylt forrs megoldssal
- kvnjk kiegszteni a jelenlegi
- infrastruktrjukat, a &os; valban
- kivl megolds.</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-addenda">
- <title>Fggelk</title>
-
- <orderedlist>
-
- <listitem><para>A <uri xlink:href="http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/kirkmck.html">http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/kirkmck.html</uri>
- oldalon tallhat egy rvid trtnetet.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>Ha egy elgg elfogulatlan
- ttekints rdekli a klnbz
- licencekrl tekintse meg a <uri xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_and_GPL_licensing">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_and_GPL_licensing</uri>
- oldalt.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>A <link xlink:href="&url.base;/ports">&os; Ports Collection</link>
- hasznlata: a szoftverek teleptshez
- mindssze ennyit kell begpelnie:
- <command>pkg_add -r csomagnv</command>.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>Ezenkvl a teljes kd
- bngszhet a webes interfszen keresztl:
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/</uri>.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>rdekes ttekints
- tallhat a &linux; fejlesztsi
- modelljrl itt: <uri xlink:href="http://linuxdevices.com/articles/AT4155251624.html">http://linuxdevices.com/articles/AT4155251624.html</uri>.</para></listitem>
-
- </orderedlist>
- </sect1>
-</article>
diff --git a/ja_JP.eucJP/articles/Makefile b/ja_JP.eucJP/articles/Makefile
index aea6ef257e..29800ecc63 100644
--- a/ja_JP.eucJP/articles/Makefile
+++ b/ja_JP.eucJP/articles/Makefile
@@ -22,7 +22,6 @@ SUBDIR+= fonts
#SUBDIR+= hubs
SUBDIR+= ipsec-must
#SUBDIR+= ldap-auth
-#SUBDIR+= linux-comparison
#SUBDIR+= linux-emulation
#SUBDIR+= linux-users
#SUBDIR+= mailing-list-faq
diff --git a/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/Makefile b/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/Makefile
index 4e2724b48b..e5e3e9ce39 100644
--- a/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/Makefile
+++ b/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/Makefile
@@ -23,7 +23,6 @@ SUBDIR+= geom-class
SUBDIR+= gjournal-desktop
SUBDIR+= hubs
SUBDIR+= ipsec-must
-SUBDIR+= linux-comparison
SUBDIR+= mailing-list-faq
SUBDIR+= mh
SUBDIR+= new-users
diff --git a/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile b/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile
deleted file mode 100644
index d78f5416e2..0000000000
--- a/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,22 +0,0 @@
-#
-# The FreeBSD Russian Documentation Project
-#
-# $FreeBSDru: frdp/doc/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/linux-comparison/Makefile,v 1.2 2005/09/13 10:23:44 gad Exp $
-# $FreeBSD$
-#
-# Original revision: r39631
-#
-# Article: FreeBSD and Linux Comparison Whitepaper
-
-DOC?= article
-
-FORMATS?= html
-INSTALL_COMPRESSED?= gz
-INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESSED?=
-
-SRCS= article.xml
-
-URL_RELPREFIX?= ../../../..
-DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/../../..
-
-.include "${DOC_PREFIX}/share/mk/doc.project.mk"
diff --git a/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml b/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml
deleted file mode 100644
index a237b84cd3..0000000000
--- a/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,528 +0,0 @@
-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="koi8-r"?>
-<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V5.0-Based Extension//EN"
- "http://www.FreeBSD.org/XML/share/xml/freebsd50.dtd">
-<!--
-Copyright (c) 2005 Dru Lavigne
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT "AS
- IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
- THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
- PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY
- DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
- DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
- OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
--->
-<!--
- The FreeBSD Russian Documentation Project
-
- $FreeBSDru: frdp/doc/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/linux-comparison/article.xml,v 1.7 2007/01/06 18:28:16 gad Exp $
- $FreeBSD$
-
- Original revision: r43184
--->
-<article xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0" xml:lang="ru">
- <info><title>&os;: Open Source &linux;</title>
-
-
- <author><personname><firstname>Dru</firstname><surname>Lavigne</surname></personname><affiliation>
- <address><email>dru@isecom.org</email></address>
- </affiliation></author>
-
- <copyright>
- <year>2005</year>
- <holder role="mailto:dru@isecom.org">Dru Lavigne</holder>
- </copyright>
-
- <pubdate>$FreeBSD$</pubdate>
-
- <releaseinfo>$FreeBSD$</releaseinfo>
-
- <legalnotice xml:id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
- &tm-attrib.freebsd;
- &tm-attrib.linux;
- &tm-attrib.unix;
- &tm-attrib.general;
- </legalnotice>
-
- &legalnotice;
-
- <abstract>
- <para> -
- , &os;, ,
- &linux;.
- , Open Source
- .</para>
- </abstract>
- </info>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="introduction">
- <title></title>
-
- <para>&os; - &unix; ,
- Berkeley Software Distribution. &os; &linux; ,
- , :</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
-
- <listitem>
-
- <para>&linux; - . (: Red Hat,
- Debian, Suse )
- . http://www.linux.org/dist ,
- 300 .
- ,
-
- .
- ,
- , ,
-
- (patching) .</para>
-
- <para>&os; - (
- ) ,
- Unix
- <footnote>
- <para> <uri xlink:href="http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/kirkmck.html">http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/kirkmck.html</uri>.</para>
- </footnote>.
-
-
- - .
-
- .
-
- (Release Notes, ),
- <link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org">- &os;</link>.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>&os;
- , ,
- .
- , ,
- 300 , ,
- ,
- . (release engineering
- team) ,
- (security officer team) ,
- . ,
- 8 ,
- .</para>
-
- <para> , Linux
- ,
- (Linus Torvalds). ,
- . ӣ
-
- .</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
-
- <para> &os; &linux; Open Source
- , . Linux
- <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license.php">GPL </link>,
- &os; <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php">BSD </link>.
- Open Source
- - <link xlink:href="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/">Open Source
- </link>.</para>
-
- <para> GPL - ,
- Open Source; ԣ
- GPL. BSD , ,
- ,
- Open Source
-
- <footnote>
- <para>
- <uri xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_and_GPL_licensing">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BSD_and_GPL_licensing</uri>.</para>
- </footnote>.
-
- ģ BSD ,
- , <link xlink:href="http://developer.apple.com/darwin/projects/darwin/faq.html">Apple OS X</link>
- FreeBSD. ,
- BSD,
-
- .</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-features">
- <title> &os;</title>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-features-platforms">
- <title> </title>
-
- <para>&os; ,
- &intel; (&i386;) . , &os;
- :</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><simpara>amd64</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>ia64</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&i386;</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>pc98</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&sparc64;</simpara></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para> , &os;
- :</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><simpara>&arm;</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&mips;</simpara></listitem>
- <listitem><simpara>&powerpc;</simpara></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>
- ,
- .
- RAID .</para>
-
- <para>&os;
- ! X Window System, ,
- &linux;
- . FreeBSD
- 13,000
- <footnote>
- <para>
- <link xlink:href="&url.base;/ports"> FreeBSD</link>:
-
- <command>pkg_add -r _</command>.</para>
- </footnote>,
- KDE, Gnome OpenOffice.</para>
-
- <para> , &os;
- . :</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para><link xlink:href="http://www.desktopbsd.net">DesktopBSD</link>,
-
- .</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para><link xlink:href="http://www.freesbie.org">FreeSBIE</link>,
- LiveCD &os;.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para><link xlink:href="http://www.pcbsd.com">PC-BSD</link>,
- GUI &os;,
- .</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-features-frameworks">
- <title> </title>
-
- <para>&os;
- , FreeBSD
- .
- :</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Netgraph</term>
-
- <listitem><para>Netgraph - ,
-
- . (hooks)
- . ,
-
- .
- FreeBSD :</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>PPPoE</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>ATM</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>ISDN</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Bluetooth</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>HDLC</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>EtherChannel</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Frame Relay</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>L2TP, .</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>GEOM</term>
-
- <listitem><para>GEOM -
- -. ߣ ,
-
- FreeBSD , .
- :</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para> RAID.</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para> .</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para> FreeBSD
- GEOM . ,
- - , &man.gmirror.8;,
- (stripe), &man.gstripe.8;
- , &man.gshsec.8;.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>GBDE</term>
-
- <listitem><para>GBDE, GEOM Based Disk Encryption (
- GEOM)
- , swap
- . , GBDE
- ,
- . ֣
- .</para></listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>MAC</term>
-
- <listitem><para><link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/ru_RU.KOI8-R/books/handbook/mac.html">MAC</link>,
- Mandatory Access Control ( )
-
-
- , .
- MAC ,
- FreeBSD ,
- HIPAA
- .</para>
-
- <para>&os; ,
- ;
- :</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>Biba integrity model</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Port ACLs</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>MLS Multi-Level Security confidentiality policy</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>LOMAC Low-watermark Mandatory Access Control data integrity policy</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>Process partition policy</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>PAM</term>
-
- <listitem><para> &linux;, &os; <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/pam/">PAM</link>,
- Pluggable Authentication Modules (
- ).
- &unix; , /.
- &os;
- , :</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>Kerberos 5</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>OPIE</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>RADIUS</para></listitem>
- <listitem><para>TACACS+</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>
- , ,
- .</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-security">
- <title></title>
-
- <para> <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/ru_RU.KOI8-R/articles/releng/">
- FreeBSD</link>. This
- manifests itself in several concrete areas:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para> ,
-
- ,
- (Advisories).
-
- .
- FreeBSD
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/security/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/security/</uri>.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para> , Open Source
- - .
- Open Source ,
- ,
- . &os; <link xlink:href="http://www.vuxml.org/freebsd/">VuXML</link>. ӣ
- , FreeBSD, ,
- <link xlink:href="&url.base;/ports/"> </link>
- ,
- . &man.portaudit.1;
- , , &os;
- , ,
- URL,
- .</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>&os; ,
-
- , :</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
-
- <listitem><para> &man.jail.8;
- <quote> </quote>;
- , chroot .</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para> &man.chflags.1; ,
- Unix . , ,
-
- .</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>&os; 3 ,
- NAT ,
- .</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para> &os; ,
- . &os;
-
- , .</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para> sysctl
- .</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-support">
- <title></title>
-
- <para> &linux;, &os; ,
- , .</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-support-free">
- <title> </title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
-
- <listitem><para>&os; -
- ,
- , .
- , . <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/ru_RU.KOI8-R/books/handbook/">
- FreeBSD</link>
- , -
- , &os;.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>&os; <link xlink:href="&url.base;/doc/ru_RU.KOI8-R/books/handbook/eresources.html#ERESOURCES-MAIL">
- </link>,
- . ,
- , .
-
- ,
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org">http://www.FreeBSD.org</uri>.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para> IRC , ݣ
- FreeBSD, . <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/support.html">http://www.FreeBSD.org/support.html</uri>
- .</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para> &os;,
- ,
- <email>freebsd-jobs@FreeBSD.org</email>.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="freebsd-support-commercial">
- <title> </title>
-
- <para> ,
- &os;. ,
- :</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>
- &os;: <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/commercial/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/commercial/</uri></para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>FreeBSDMall,
- 10 : <uri xlink:href="http://www.freebsdmall.com">http://www.freebsdmall.com</uri></para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para> BSDTracker : <uri xlink:href="http://www.nycbug.org/index.php?NAV=BSDTracker">http://www.nycbug.org/index.php?NAV=BSDTracker</uri></para></listitem>
-
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>
- BSD. <uri xlink:href="http://www.bsdcertification.org">http://www.bsdcertification.org</uri>.</para>
-
- <para> Common Criteria certification,
- &os; <link xlink:href="http://www.trustedbsd.org">TrustedBSD</link> MAC
- .</para>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-advantages">
- <title> &os;</title>
-
- <para> &os;
- IT :</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem><para>&os;
- .
- Linux Unix
- FreeBSD.</para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>,
- FreeBSD
- <footnote>
- <para> , -: <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/</uri>.</para>
- </footnote>
-
- . ,
- .
- , ,
- .
- , &linux; ,
-
- <footnote>
- <para> Linux
- <uri xlink:href="http://linuxdevices.com/articles/AT4155251624.html">http://linuxdevices.com/articles/AT4155251624.html</uri>.</para>
- </footnote>.
- </para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>,
- FreeBSD , <link xlink:href="http://www.gnu.org/software/gnats/">GNATS</link>.
- ,
- FreeBSD.
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/support.html#gnats">http://www.FreeBSD.org/support.html#gnats</uri></para></listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>BSD
- , . GPL,
- ,
- .</para></listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="freebsd-conclusion">
- <title></title>
-
- <para>&os; - &unix;- ,
- , &unix;
- . , Open Source
- , &os; .</para>
- </sect1>
-</article>