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authorGraham Perrin <grahamperrin@FreeBSD.org>2022-12-03 09:39:47 +0000
committerGraham Perrin <grahamperrin@FreeBSD.org>2022-12-03 09:39:47 +0000
commitd89e8fd3d40df804a7057b8371221477d1f5b3de (patch)
treeb0484b523d5e0ca1ebc8002b53af3ce0adaebb7b
parenta9f81805c39b8a6e0ec6e87ce6d7151764ea850c (diff)
downloaddoc-d89e8fd3d4.tar.gz
doc-d89e8fd3d4.zip
FAQ: TRIM: GELI, ZFS, OpenZFS: pruning, tidiness
The ViewVC views of 2013 Subersion revisions are no longer of interest. vfs.zfs.trim.enabled is unknown in FreeBSD 13.1-RELEASE-p3. Questions about TRIM in the context of GELI are not frequently asked. Also, non-contentious grammar, punctuation, and formatting: * surrounding apostrophes ('…') are obviously missing from some quotes * missing full stops (.) * trailing white space * AsciiDoc line breaks * et cetera, there might remain a superfluous break, such things can be addressed as a fix to this commit. This commit reduces, but does not fix, bug report 261212: > Update the ZFS chapter (20) of the FreeBSD Handbook, and other > OpenZFS-related pages PR: 261212 Reviewed by: mav, pauamma Approved by: delphij (doc) Differential revision: https://reviews.freebsd.org/D37512
-rw-r--r--documentation/content/en/books/faq/_index.adoc166
1 files changed, 108 insertions, 58 deletions
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/books/faq/_index.adoc b/documentation/content/en/books/faq/_index.adoc
index 45e849d05b..97646295ab 100644
--- a/documentation/content/en/books/faq/_index.adoc
+++ b/documentation/content/en/books/faq/_index.adoc
@@ -89,7 +89,8 @@ The goal of the FreeBSD Project is to provide a stable and fast general purpose
[[bsd-license-restrictions]]
=== Does the FreeBSD license have any restrictions?
-Yes. Those restrictions do not control how the code is used, but how to treat the FreeBSD Project itself.
+Yes.
+Those restrictions do not control how the code is used, but how to treat the FreeBSD Project itself.
The license itself is available at https://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/freebsd-license/[license] and can be summarized like this:
* Do not claim that you wrote this.
@@ -107,7 +108,8 @@ Due to the additional complexities that can evolve in the commercial use of GPL
[[replace-current-OS]]
=== Can FreeBSD replace my current operating system?
-For most people, yes. But this question is not quite that cut-and-dried.
+For most people, yes.
+But this question is not quite that cut-and-dried.
Most people do not actually use an operating system.
They use applications.
@@ -149,7 +151,8 @@ All of the BSDs have common ancestry.
The design goals of FreeBSD are described in <<FreeBSD-goals>>, above.
The design goals of the other most popular BSDs may be summarized as follows:
-* OpenBSD aims for operating system security above all else. The OpenBSD team wrote man:ssh[1] and man:pf[4], which have both been ported to FreeBSD.
+* OpenBSD aims for operating system security above all else.
+The OpenBSD team wrote man:ssh[1] and man:pf[4], which have both been ported to FreeBSD.
* NetBSD aims to be easily ported to other hardware platforms.
* DragonFly BSD is a fork of FreeBSD 4.8 that has since developed many interesting features of its own, including the HAMMER file system and support for user-mode "vkernels".
@@ -160,7 +163,7 @@ At any point in the development of FreeBSD, there can be multiple parallel branc
{rel-relx} releases are made from the {rel-stable} branch, and {rel2-relx} releases are made from the {rel2-stable} branch.
Up until the release of 12.0, the {rel2-relx} series was the one known as _-STABLE_.
-However, as of {rel-head-relx}, the {rel2-relx} branch will be designated for an "extended support" status and receive only fixes for major problems, such as security-related fixes.
+However, as of {rel-head-relx}, the {rel2-relx} branch will be designated for an "extended support" status and receive only fixes for major problems, such as security-related fixes.
Releases are made <<release-freq,every few months>>.
While many people stay more up-to-date with the FreeBSD sources (see the questions on <<current,FreeBSD-CURRENT>> and <<stable,FreeBSD-STABLE>>) than that, doing so is more of a commitment, as the sources are a moving target.
@@ -214,7 +217,8 @@ The goals behind each snapshot release are:
* To test the latest version of the installation software.
* To give people who would like to run _-CURRENT_ or _-STABLE_ but who do not have the time or bandwidth to follow it on a day-to-day basis an easy way of bootstrapping it onto their systems.
-* To preserve a fixed reference point for the code in question, just in case we break something really badly later. (Although Subversion normally prevents anything horrible like this happening.)
+* To preserve a fixed reference point for the code in question, just in case we break something really badly later.
+(Although Subversion normally prevents anything horrible like this happening.)
* To ensure that all new features and fixes in need of testing have the greatest possible number of potential testers.
No claims are made that any _-CURRENT_ snapshot can be considered "production quality" for any purpose.
@@ -260,7 +264,7 @@ Before submitting a problem report, read extref:{problem-reports}[Writing FreeBS
[[books]]
=== What good books are there about FreeBSD?
-The project produces a wide range of documentation, available online from this link: https://www.FreeBSD.org/docs/[https://www.FreeBSD.org/docs/].
+The project produces a wide range of documentation, available online from this link: https://www.FreeBSD.org/docs/[https://www.FreeBSD.org/docs/].
[[doc-formats]]
=== Is the documentation available in other formats, such as PDF?
@@ -271,7 +275,8 @@ link:https://download.freebsd.org/doc/[The documentation is also available in se
Documentation directories are categorized according to:
* The document's name, such as `faq`, or `handbook`.
-* The document's language, based on the locale names found under [.filename]#/usr/share/locale# on a FreeBSD system, with the encodings removed as all documentation now uses UTF-8. The current languages are:
+* The document's language, based on the locale names found under [.filename]#/usr/share/locale# on a FreeBSD system, with the encodings removed as all documentation now uses UTF-8.
+The current languages are:
+
[.informaltable]
[cols="1,1", frame="none", options="header"]
@@ -342,7 +347,12 @@ Documentation directories are categorized according to:
Some documents may not be available in all languages.
====
-* The document's format. We produce the documentation in a number of different output formats. Each format has its own advantages and disadvantages. Some formats are better suited for online reading, while others are meant to be aesthetically pleasing when printed on paper. Having the documentation available in any of these formats ensures that our readers will be able to read the parts they are interested in, either on their monitor, or on paper after printing the documents. The currently available formats are:
+* The document's format.
+We produce the documentation in a number of different output formats.
+Each format has its own advantages and disadvantages.
+Some formats are better suited for online reading, while others are meant to be aesthetically pleasing when printed on paper.
+Having the documentation available in any of these formats ensures that our readers will be able to read the parts they are interested in, either on their monitor, or on paper after printing the documents.
+The currently available formats are:
+
[.informaltable]
[cols="1,1", frame="none", options="header"]
@@ -357,8 +367,10 @@ Some documents may not be available in all languages.
|Adobe's Portable Document Format
|===
* The compression and packaging scheme.
-.. Where the format is `html`, the files are bundled up using man:tar[1]. The resulting [.filename]#.tar# is then compressed using man:gzip[1].
-.. The PDF format generates one file. For example, [.filename]#explaining-bsd_en.pdf#, [.filename]#faq_en.pdf#, and so on.
+.. Where the format is `html`, the files are bundled up using man:tar[1].
+The resulting [.filename]#.tar# is then compressed using man:gzip[1].
+.. The PDF format generates one file.
+For example, [.filename]#explaining-bsd_en.pdf#, [.filename]#faq_en.pdf#, and so on.
After choosing the format, download the files, uncompress them if necessary, then copy the appropriate documents into place.
@@ -797,12 +809,20 @@ In the second case, verify which piece of hardware is at fault.
Common causes of this include:
. The hard disks might be overheating: Check that the fans are still working, as the disk and other hardware might be overheating.
-. The processor running is overheating: This might be because the processor has been overclocked, or the fan on the processor might have died. In either case, ensure that the hardware is running at what it is specified to run at, at least while trying to solve this problem. If it is not, clock it back to the default settings.)
+. The processor running is overheating: This might be because the processor has been overclocked, or the fan on the processor might have died.
+In either case, ensure that the hardware is running at what it is specified to run at, at least while trying to solve this problem.
+If it is not, clock it back to the default settings.)
+
-Regarding overclocking, it is far cheaper to have a slow system than a fried system that needs replacing! Also the community is not sympathetic to problems on overclocked systems.
+Regarding overclocking, it is far cheaper to have a slow system than a fried system that needs replacing!
+Also the community is not sympathetic to problems on overclocked systems.
. Dodgy memory: if multiple memory SIMMS/DIMMS are installed, pull them all out and try running the machine with each SIMM or DIMM individually to narrow the problem down to either the problematic DIMM/SIMM or perhaps even a combination.
-. Over-optimistic motherboard settings: the BIOS settings, and some motherboard jumpers, provide options to set various timings. The defaults are often sufficient, but sometimes setting the wait states on RAM too low, or setting the "RAM Speed: Turbo" option will cause strange behavior. A possible idea is to set to BIOS defaults, after noting the current settings first.
-. Unclean or insufficient power to the motherboard. Remove any unused I/O boards, hard disks, or CD-ROMs, or disconnect the power cable from them, to see if the power supply can manage a smaller load. Or try another power supply, preferably one with a little more power. For instance, if the current power supply is rated at 250 Watts, try one rated at 300 Watts.
+. Over-optimistic motherboard settings: the BIOS settings, and some motherboard jumpers, provide options to set various timings.
+The defaults are often sufficient, but sometimes setting the wait states on RAM too low, or setting the "RAM Speed: Turbo" option will cause strange behavior.
+A possible idea is to set to BIOS defaults, after noting the current settings first.
+. Unclean or insufficient power to the motherboard.
+Remove any unused I/O boards, hard disks, or CD-ROMs, or disconnect the power cable from them, to see if the power supply can manage a smaller load.
+Or try another power supply, preferably one with a little more power.
+For instance, if the current power supply is rated at 250 Watts, try one rated at 300 Watts.
Read the section on <<signal11,Signal 11>> for a further explanation and a discussion on how memory testing software or hardware can still pass faulty memory.
There is an extensive FAQ on this at http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/[the SIG11 problem FAQ].
@@ -968,7 +988,7 @@ Problematic LORs tend to get fixed quickly, so check the {freebsd-current} befor
====
[[called-with-non-sleepable-locks-held]]
-=== What does Called ... with the following non-sleepable locks held mean?
+=== What does 'Called ... with the following non-sleepable locks held' mean?
This means that a function that may sleep was called while a mutex (or other unsleepable) lock was held.
@@ -1016,7 +1036,7 @@ See extref:{handbook}ports/[Installing the Ports Collection, ports-using-install
=== Why can I not build this port on my {rel2-relx} -, or {rel-relx} -STABLE machine?
If the installed FreeBSD version lags significantly behind _-CURRENT_ or _-STABLE_, update the Ports Collection using the instructions in extref:{handbook}ports/[Using the Ports Collection, ports-using].
-If the system is up-to-date, someone might have committed a change to the port which works for _-CURRENT_ but which broke the port for _-STABLE_.
+If the system is up-to-date, someone might have committed a change to the port which works for _-CURRENT_ but which broke the port for _-STABLE_.
https://bugs.FreeBSD.org/submit/[Submit] a bug report, since the Ports Collection is supposed to work for both the _-CURRENT_ and _-STABLE_ branches.
[[make-index]]
@@ -1037,7 +1057,8 @@ Additional tools are available to simplify port handling and are described the e
[[ports-major-upgrade]]
=== Do I need to recompile every port each time I perform a major version update?
-Yes! While a recent system will run with software compiled under an older release,
+Yes!
+While a recent system will run with software compiled under an older release,
things will randomly crash and fail to work once other ports are installed or updated.
When the system is upgraded, various shared libraries, loadable modules, and other parts of the system will be replaced with newer versions.
@@ -1048,7 +1069,8 @@ For more information, see extref:{handbook}cutting-edge/[the section on upgrades
[[ports-minor-upgrade]]
=== Do I need to recompile every port each time I perform a minor version update?
-In general, no. FreeBSD developers do their utmost to guarantee binary compatibility across all releases with the same major version number.
+In general, no.
+FreeBSD developers do their utmost to guarantee binary compatibility across all releases with the same major version number.
Any exceptions will be documented in the Release Notes, and advice given there should be followed.
[[minimal-sh]]
@@ -1070,7 +1092,8 @@ Compare the memory utilization of these shells by looking at the "VSZ" and "RSS"
[[make-kernel]]
=== I would like to customize my kernel. Is it difficult?
-Not at all! Check out the extref:{handbook}kernelconfig/[kernel config section of the Handbook].
+Not at all!
+Check out the extref:{handbook}kernelconfig/[kernel config section of the Handbook].
[NOTE]
====
@@ -1136,9 +1159,14 @@ For reference, the FreeBSD 11 amd64 kernel ([.filename]#/boot/kernel/kernel#) is
There are a number of possible causes for this problem:
-* The source tree is different from the one used to build the currently running system. When attempting an upgrade, read [.filename]#/usr/src/UPDATING#, paying particular attention to the "COMMON ITEMS" section at the end.
-* The `make buildkernel` did not complete successfully. The `make buildkernel` target relies on files generated by the `make buildworld` target to complete its job correctly.
-* Even when building <<stable,FreeBSD-STABLE>>, it is possible that the source tree was fetched at a time when it was either being modified or it was broken. Only releases are guaranteed to be buildable, although <<stable,FreeBSD-STABLE>> builds fine the majority of the time. Try re-fetching the source tree and see if the problem goes away. Try using a different mirror in case the previous one is having problems.
+* The source tree is different from the one used to build the currently running system.
+When attempting an upgrade, read [.filename]#/usr/src/UPDATING#, paying particular attention to the "COMMON ITEMS" section at the end.
+* The `make buildkernel` did not complete successfully.
+The `make buildkernel` target relies on files generated by the `make buildworld` target to complete its job correctly.
+* Even when building <<stable,FreeBSD-STABLE>>, it is possible that the source tree was fetched at a time when it was either being modified or it was broken.
+Only releases are guaranteed to be buildable, although <<stable,FreeBSD-STABLE>> builds fine the majority of the time.
+Try re-fetching the source tree and see if the problem goes away.
+Try using a different mirror in case the previous one is having problems.
[[scheduler-in-use]]
=== Which scheduler is in use on a running system?
@@ -1298,8 +1326,8 @@ FreeBSD includes the Network File System NFS and the FreeBSD Ports Collection pr
=== How do I mount a secondary DOS partition?
The secondary DOS partitions are found after _all_ the primary partitions.
-For example, if `E` is the second DOS partition on the second SCSI drive,
-there will be a device file for "slice 5" in [.filename]#/dev#. To mount it:
+For example, if `E` is the second DOS partition on the second SCSI drive, there will be a device file for "slice 5" in [.filename]#/dev#.
+To mount it:
[source,shell]
....
@@ -1496,7 +1524,8 @@ Once the `more` session ends, `du` and `df` will agree.
This situation is common on web servers.
Many people set up a FreeBSD web server and forget to rotate the log files.
-The access log fills up [.filename]#/var#. The new administrator deletes the file, but the system still complains that the partition is full.
+The access log fills up [.filename]#/var#.
+The new administrator deletes the file, but the system still complains that the partition is full.
Stopping and restarting the web server program would free the file, allowing the system to release the disk space.
To prevent this from happening, set up man:newsyslog[8].
@@ -1571,7 +1600,8 @@ it is possible that deduplication will do more harm than good.
Another consideration is the inability to revert deduplication status.
If data is written when deduplication is enabled, disabling dedup will not cause those blocks which were deduplicated to be replicated until they are next modified.
-Deduplication can also lead to some unexpected situations. In particular, deleting files may become much slower.
+Deduplication can also lead to some unexpected situations.
+In particular, deleting files may become much slower.
[[zpool-fully-full]]
=== I cannot delete or create files on my ZFS pool. How can I fix this?
@@ -1589,27 +1619,21 @@ File truncation works because a new transaction is not started, new spare blocks
[NOTE]
====
-On systems with additional ZFS dataset tuning, such as deduplication, the space may not be immediately available
+On systems with additional ZFS dataset tuning, such as deduplication, the space may not be immediately available.
====
[[zfs-ssd-trim]]
-=== Does ZFS support TRIM for Solid State Drives?
-
-ZFS TRIM support was added to FreeBSD 10-CURRENT with revision link:https://svnweb.freebsd.org/changeset/base/240868[r240868].
-ZFS TRIM support was added to all FreeBSD-STABLE branches in link:https://svnweb.freebsd.org/changeset/base/252162[r252162] and link:https://svnweb.freebsd.org/changeset/base/251419[r251419], respectively.
+=== Is there TRIM support for ZFS on solid state drives?
-ZFS TRIM is enabled by default, and can be turned off by adding this line to [.filename]#/etc/sysctl.conf#:
+ZFS in FreeBSD 12.3 and 12.4: TRIM is enabled by default.
+To disable TRIM: add the line below to [.filename]#/etc/sysctl.conf#, then restart the system.
[.programlisting]
....
vfs.zfs.trim.enabled=0
....
-[NOTE]
-====
-ZFS TRIM support was added to GELI as of link:https://svnweb.freebsd.org/changeset/base/286444[r286444].
-Please see man:geli[8] and the `-T` switch.
-====
+OpenZFS in FreeBSD 13.0 and greater: see man:zpool-trim[8], and `autotrim` in man:zpoolprops[7].
[[admin]]
== System Administration
@@ -1760,7 +1784,8 @@ Search the mailing lists for discussions regarding the advantages and disadvanta
[[forgot-root-pw]]
=== I have forgotten the root password! What do I do?
-Do not panic! Restart the system, type `boot -s` at the `Boot:` prompt to enter single-user mode.
+Do not panic!
+Restart the system, type `boot -s` at the `Boot:` prompt to enter single-user mode.
At the question about the shell to use, hit kbd:[Enter] which will display a # prompt.
Enter `mount -urw /` to remount the root file system read/write, then run `mount -a` to remount all the file systems.
Run `passwd root` to change the `root` password then run man:exit[1] to continue booting.
@@ -1995,7 +2020,7 @@ Install Xorg from FreeBSD packages:
After the installation of Xorg, follow the instructions from the extref:{handbook}x11/[X11 Configuration, x-config] section of the FreeBSD Handbook.
[[running-X-securelevels]]
-=== I tried to run X, but I get a No devices detected. error when I type startx. What do I do now?
+=== I tried to run X, but I get a 'No devices detected' error when I type startx. What do I do now?
The system is probably running at a raised `securelevel`.
It is not possible to start X at a raised `securelevel` because X requires write access to man:io[4].
@@ -2238,7 +2263,8 @@ The detailed answer for this question can be found in the extref:{handbook}[Boot
[[windows-keys]]
=== Can I use the kbd:[Windows] keys on my keyboard in X?
-Yes. Use man:xmodmap[1] to define which functions the keys should perform.
+Yes.
+Use man:xmodmap[1] to define which functions the keys should perform.
Assuming all Windows keyboards are standard, the keycodes for these three keys are the following:
@@ -2322,13 +2348,15 @@ For full details, see extref:{handbook}advanced-networking/[the Handbook entry o
[[router]]
=== Can a FreeBSD box be used as a dedicated network router?
-Yes. Refer to the Handbook entry on extref:{handbook}advanced-networking/[advanced networking, advanced-networking],
+Yes.
+Refer to the Handbook entry on extref:{handbook}advanced-networking/[advanced networking, advanced-networking],
specifically the section on extref:{handbook}advanced-networking/[routing and gateways, network-routing].
[[natd]]
=== Does FreeBSD support NAT or Masquerading?
-Yes. For instructions on how to use NAT over a PPP connection, see the extref:{handbook}ppp-and-slip/[Handbook entry on PPP, userppp].
+Yes.
+For instructions on how to use NAT over a PPP connection, see the extref:{handbook}ppp-and-slip/[Handbook entry on PPP, userppp].
To use NAT over some other sort of network connection, look at the extref:{handbook}[natd, network-natd] section of the Handbook.
[[ethernet-aliases]]
@@ -2398,7 +2426,8 @@ For further information on configuring this firewall, see the extref:{handbook}f
=== Why is my `ipfw` “fwd” rule to redirect a service to another machine not working?
Possibly because network address translation (NAT) is needed instead of just forwarding packets.
-A "fwd" rule only forwards packets, it does not actually change the data inside the packet. Consider this rule:
+A "fwd" rule only forwards packets, it does not actually change the data inside the packet.
+Consider this rule:
[source,shell]
....
@@ -2465,7 +2494,8 @@ Among others, these are the kinds of activities which may cause these messages:
* Brute-force denial of service (DoS) attacks (as opposed to single-packet attacks which exploit a specific vulnerability).
* Port scans which attempt to connect to a large number of ports (as opposed to only trying a few well-known ports).
-The first number in the message indicates how many packets the kernel would have sent if the limit was not in place, and the second indicates the limit. This limit is controlled using `net.inet.icmp.icmplim`.
+The first number in the message indicates how many packets the kernel would have sent if the limit was not in place, and the second indicates the limit.
+This limit is controlled using `net.inet.icmp.icmplim`.
This example sets the limit to `300` packets per second:
[source,shell]
@@ -2533,7 +2563,8 @@ Take the `ntalk` service, for example (see man:inetd[8]).
This service used to run as user ID `root`.
Now it runs as user ID `tty`.
The `tty` user is a sandbox designed to make it more difficult for someone who has successfully hacked into the system via `ntalk` from being able to hack beyond that user ID.
-* A process which is placed inside a simulation of the machine. It means that someone who is able to break into the process may believe that he can break into the wider machine but is, in fact, only breaking into a simulation of that machine and not modifying any real data.
+* A process which is placed inside a simulation of the machine.
+It means that someone who is able to break into the process may believe that he can break into the wider machine but is, in fact, only breaking into a simulation of that machine and not modifying any real data.
+
The most common way to accomplish this is to build a simulated environment in a subdirectory and then run the processes in that directory chrooted so that [.filename]#/# for that process is this directory, not the real [.filename]#/# of the system).
+
@@ -2765,7 +2796,8 @@ With the trailing slash, man:chmod[1] will follow the symlink, [.filename]#foo#,
[[dos-binaries]]
=== Can I run DOS binaries under FreeBSD?
-Yes. A DOS emulation program, package:emulators/doscmd[], is available in the FreeBSD Ports Collection.
+Yes.
+A DOS emulation program, package:emulators/doscmd[], is available in the FreeBSD Ports Collection.
If doscmd will not suffice, package:emulators/pcemu[] emulates an 8088 and enough BIOS services to run many DOS text-mode applications.
It requires the X Window System.
@@ -2790,7 +2822,8 @@ Some of the specific requirements are:
Other advice to help mail reach its destination include:
* Mail should be sent in plain text, and messages sent to mailing lists should generally be no more than 200KB in length.
-* Avoid excessive cross posting. Choose _one_ mailing list which seems most relevant and send it there.
+* Avoid excessive cross posting.
+Choose _one_ mailing list which seems most relevant and send it there.
If you still have trouble with email infrastructure at `FreeBSD.org`, send a note with the details to mailto:postmaster@freebsd.org[postmaster@freebsd.org];
Include a date/time interval so that logs may be reviewed - and note that we only keep one week's worth of mail logs.
@@ -2813,14 +2846,16 @@ _M-Net_ also provides an bulletin board system and interactive chat.
=== What is the cute little red guy's name?
He does not have one, and is just called "the BSD daemon".
-If you insist upon using a name, call him "beastie". Note that "beastie" is pronounced "BSD".
+If you insist upon using a name, call him "beastie".
+Note that "beastie" is pronounced "BSD".
More about the BSD daemon is available on his http://www.mckusick.com/beastie/index.html[home page].
[[use-beastie]]
=== Can I use the BSD daemon image?
-Perhaps. The BSD daemon is copyrighted by Marshall Kirk McKusick.
+Perhaps.
+The BSD daemon is copyrighted by Marshall Kirk McKusick.
Check his http://www.mckusick.com/beastie/mainpage/copyright.html[Statement on the Use of the BSD Daemon Figure] for detailed usage terms.
In summary, the image can be used in a tasteful manner, for personal use, so long as appropriate credit is given.
@@ -2870,7 +2905,7 @@ So no matter how well prepared, no matter how reasonable you are with your propo
somebody will seize the chance to show that he is doing his job, that he is paying attention, that he is here.
In Denmark we call it “setting your fingerprint”.
-It is about personal pride and prestige, it is about being able to point somewhere and say “There! I did that.”
+It is about personal pride and prestige, it is about being able to point somewhere and say “There! I did that.”.
It is a strong trait in politicians, but present in most people given the chance.
Just think about footsteps in wet cement.
@@ -2883,20 +2918,32 @@ Just think about footsteps in wet cement.
[[very-very-cool]]
=== How cool is FreeBSD?
-_Q._ Has anyone done any temperature testing while running FreeBSD? I know Linux(R) runs cooler than DOS, but have never seen a mention of FreeBSD. It seems to run really hot.
+_Q._ Has anyone done any temperature testing while running FreeBSD? I know Linux(R) runs cooler than DOS, but have never seen a mention of FreeBSD.
+It seems to run really hot.
-_A._ No, but we have done numerous taste tests on blindfolded volunteers who have also had 250 micrograms of LSD-25 administered beforehand. 35% of the volunteers said that FreeBSD tasted sort of orange, whereas Linux(R) tasted like purple haze. Neither group mentioned any significant variances in temperature. We eventually had to throw the results of this survey out entirely anyway when we found that too many volunteers were wandering out of the room during the tests, thus skewing the results. We think most of the volunteers are at Apple now, working on their new "scratch and sniff" GUI. It is a funny old business we are in!
+_A._ No, but we have done numerous taste tests on blindfolded volunteers who have also had 250 micrograms of LSD-25 administered beforehand.
+35% of the volunteers said that FreeBSD tasted sort of orange, whereas Linux(R) tasted like purple haze.
+Neither group mentioned any significant variances in temperature.
+We eventually had to throw the results of this survey out entirely anyway when we found that too many volunteers were wandering out of the room during the tests, thus skewing the results.
+We think most of the volunteers are at Apple now, working on their new "scratch and sniff" GUI.
+It is a funny old business we are in!
-Seriously, FreeBSD uses the HLT (halt) instruction when the system is idle thus lowering its energy consumption and therefore the heat it generates. Also if you have ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) configured, then FreeBSD can also put the CPU into a low power mode.
+Seriously, FreeBSD uses the HLT (halt) instruction when the system is idle thus lowering its energy consumption and therefore the heat it generates.
+Also if you have ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) configured, then FreeBSD can also put the CPU into a low power mode.
[[letmeoutofhere]]
=== Who is scratching in my memory banks??
_Q._ Is there anything "odd" that FreeBSD does when compiling the kernel which would cause the memory to make a scratchy sound? When compiling (and for a brief moment after recognizing the floppy drive upon startup, as well), a strange scratchy sound emanates from what appears to be the memory banks.
-_A._ Yes! You will see frequent references to "daemons" in the BSD documentation, and what most people do not know is that this refers to genuine, non-corporeal entities that now possess your computer. The scratchy sound coming from your memory is actually high-pitched whispering exchanged among the daemons as they best decide how to deal with various system administration tasks.
+_A._ Yes!
+You will see frequent references to "daemons" in the BSD documentation, and what most people do not know is that this refers to genuine, non-corporeal entities that now possess your computer.
+The scratchy sound coming from your memory is actually high-pitched whispering exchanged among the daemons as they best decide how to deal with various system administration tasks.
-If the noise gets to you, a good `fdisk /mbr` from DOS will get rid of them, but do not be surprised if they react adversely and try to stop you. In fact, if at any point during the exercise you hear the satanic voice of Bill Gates coming from the built-in speaker, take off running and do not ever look back! Freed from the counterbalancing influence of the BSD daemons, the twin demons of DOS and Windows(R) are often able to re-assert total control over your machine to the eternal damnation of your soul. Now that you know, given a choice you would probably prefer to get used to the scratchy noises, no?
+If the noise gets to you, a good `fdisk /mbr` from DOS will get rid of them, but do not be surprised if they react adversely and try to stop you.
+In fact, if at any point during the exercise you hear the satanic voice of Bill Gates coming from the built-in speaker, take off running and do not ever look back!
+Freed from the counterbalancing influence of the BSD daemons, the twin demons of DOS and Windows(R) are often able to re-assert total control over your machine to the eternal damnation of your soul.
+Now that you know, given a choice you would probably prefer to get used to the scratchy noises, no?
[[changing-lightbulbs]]
=== How many FreeBSD hackers does it take to change a lightbulb?
@@ -3058,7 +3105,8 @@ To proceed:
[.procedure]
====
-. Write down the instruction pointer value. Note that the `0x8:` part at the beginning is not significant in this case: it is the `0xf0xxxxxx` part that we want.
+. Write down the instruction pointer value.
+Note that the `0x8:` part at the beginning is not significant in this case: it is the `0xf0xxxxxx` part that we want.
. When the system reboots, do the following:
+
[source,shell]
@@ -3190,11 +3238,13 @@ Add the following line to the kernel configuration file to increase available sp
options KVA_PAGES=N
....
-To find the correct value of _N_, divide the desired address space size (in megabytes) by four. (For example, it is `512` for 2 GB.)
+To find the correct value of _N_, divide the desired address space size (in megabytes) by four.
+(For example, it is `512` for 2 GB.)
[[acknowledgments]]
== Acknowledgments
-This innocent little Frequently Asked Questions document has been written, rewritten, edited, folded, spindled, mutilated, eviscerated, contemplated, discombobulated, cogitated, regurgitated, rebuilt, castigated, and reinvigorated over the last decade, by a cast of hundreds if not thousands. Repeatedly.
+This innocent little Frequently Asked Questions document has been written, rewritten, edited, folded, spindled, mutilated, eviscerated, contemplated, discombobulated, cogitated, regurgitated, rebuilt, castigated, and reinvigorated over the last decade, by a cast of hundreds if not thousands.
+Repeatedly.
We wish to thank every one of the people responsible, and we encourage you to extref:{contributing}[join them] in making this FAQ even better.