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authorSergio Carlavilla Delgado <carlavilla@FreeBSD.org>2023-01-12 19:40:21 +0000
committerSergio Carlavilla Delgado <carlavilla@FreeBSD.org>2023-01-12 19:40:21 +0000
commite1ecde315c9847a7f8a607d639540fbab713f550 (patch)
treebc85a1d5f225397247e97dd8eed44819e6268582
parent37af184fc175f6a630fa04d05bc3e23177b27d46 (diff)
downloaddoc-e1ecde315c.tar.gz
doc-e1ecde315c.zip
Upgrade Part I, Introduction and bsdinstall chapters
* Upgrade Part I to indicate that this part of the handbook covers Wayland too * Introduction chapter: * Improvements in FreeBSD history * References to Wayland * Remove companies from Who uses FreeBSD section, let this task to the FreeBSD Foundation * Upgrade offline paths for Handbook and FAQ * Use https in links * Minor typos * bsdinstall chapter: * Upgrade synopsis section * Upgrade install chapter with last changes in the installer * Upgrade stale images * Add alt text to images * Remove references to specific versions Reviewed by: bcr@, arrowd@, jrm@, karels@, mckusick@
-rw-r--r--documentation/content/en/books/handbook/bsdinstall/_index.adoc590
-rw-r--r--documentation/content/en/books/handbook/introduction/_index.adoc59
-rw-r--r--documentation/content/en/books/handbook/parti.adoc1
-rw-r--r--documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-hardening.pngbin11675 -> 74198 bytes
-rw-r--r--documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-10.pngbin8712 -> 53988 bytes
-rw-r--r--documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu.pngbin6321 -> 41416 bytes
-rw-r--r--documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme.pngbin6522 -> 31758 bytes
-rw-r--r--documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu.pngbin5928 -> 35024 bytes
8 files changed, 271 insertions, 379 deletions
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/books/handbook/bsdinstall/_index.adoc b/documentation/content/en/books/handbook/bsdinstall/_index.adoc
index c75d2266a6..bc1bb8da48 100644
--- a/documentation/content/en/books/handbook/bsdinstall/_index.adoc
+++ b/documentation/content/en/books/handbook/bsdinstall/_index.adoc
@@ -52,83 +52,33 @@ endif::[]
[[bsdinstall-synopsis]]
== Synopsis
-There are several different ways of getting FreeBSD to run, depending on the environment.
-Those are:
+FreeBSD supports different architectures including amd64, ARM(R), RISC-V(R), and PowerPC(R).
+Depending on the architecture and platform, different images can be link:https://www.freebsd.org/where/[downloaded] to install or directly run FreeBSD.
-* Virtual Machine images, to download and import on a virtual environment of choice. These can be downloaded from the https://www.freebsd.org/where/[Download FreeBSD] page. There are images for KVM ("qcow2"), VMWare ("vmdk"), Hyper-V ("vhd"), and raw device images that are universally supported. These are not installation images, but rather the preconfigured ("already installed") instances, ready to run and perform post-installation tasks.
-* Virtual Machine images available at Amazon's https://aws.amazon.com/marketplace/pp/prodview-ukzmy5dzc6nbq[AWS Marketplace], https://azuremarketplace.microsoft.com/en-US/marketplace/apps/thefreebsdfoundation.freebsd-13_1[Microsoft Azure Marketplace], and https://console.cloud.google.com/marketplace/product/freebsd-cloud/freebsd-13[Google Cloud Platform], to run on their respective hosting services. For more information on deploying FreeBSD on Azure please consult the relevant chapter in the https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/virtual-machines/linux/freebsd-intro-on-azure[Azure Documentation].
-* SD card images, for embedded systems such as Raspberry Pi or BeagleBone Black. These can be downloaded from the https://www.freebsd.org/where/[Download FreeBSD] page. These files must be uncompressed and written as a raw image to an SD card, from which the board will then boot.
-* Installation images, to install FreeBSD on a hard drive for the usual desktop, laptop, or server systems.
+The image types are:
-The rest of this chapter describes the fourth case, explaining how to install FreeBSD using the text-based installation program named bsdinstall.
+Virtual Machine disk images, such as `qcow2`, `vmdk`, `vhd`, and raw device images. These are not installation images, but images that have FreeBSD preinstalled and ready for post-installation tasks. Virtual machine images are also commonly used in cloud environments.
+* SD card images, for embedded systems such as Raspberry Pi. These files must be uncompressed and written as a raw image to an SD card, from which the board will boot.
+* Installation images to boot from an ISO or USB device to install FreeBSD on a drive for the usual desktop, laptop, or server system.
-In general, the installation instructions in this chapter are written for the i386(TM) and AMD64 architectures.
-Where applicable, instructions specific to other platforms will be listed.
+The rest of this chapter describes the third case, explaining how to install FreeBSD using the text-based installation program named bsdinstall.
There may be minor differences between the installer and what is shown here, so use this chapter as a general guide rather than as a set of literal instructions.
-[NOTE]
-====
-Users who prefer to install FreeBSD using a graphical installer may be interested in https://ghostbsd.org[GhostBSD], https://www.midnightbsd.org[MidnightBSD] or https://nomadbsd.org[NomadBSD].
-====
-
After reading this chapter, you will know:
-* The minimum hardware requirements and FreeBSD supported architectures.
-* How to create the FreeBSD installation media.
+* How to obtain FreeBSD images and create FreeBSD installation media.
* How to start bsdinstall.
* The questions bsdinstall will ask, what they mean, and how to answer them.
* How to troubleshoot a failed installation.
* How to access a live version of FreeBSD before committing to an installation.
-Before reading this chapter, you should:
-
-* Read the supported hardware list that shipped with the version of FreeBSD to be installed and verify that the system's hardware is supported.
-
[[bsdinstall-hardware]]
== Minimum Hardware Requirements
-The hardware requirements to install FreeBSD vary by architecture.
+The hardware requirements to install FreeBSD vary by architecture and version.
Hardware architectures and devices supported by a FreeBSD release are listed on the link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/[FreeBSD Release Information] page.
The link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/where/[FreeBSD download page] also has recommendations for choosing the correct image for different architectures.
-A FreeBSD installation requires a minimum of 96 MB of RAM and 1.5 GB of free hard drive space.
-However, such small amounts of memory and disk space are really only suitable for custom applications like embedded appliances.
-General-purpose desktop systems need more resources.
-2-4 GB RAM and at least 8 GB hard drive space is a good starting point.
-
-These are the processor requirements for each architecture:
-
-amd64::
-This is the most common desktop and laptop processor type, used in most modern systems.
-Intel(R) calls it Intel64.
-Other manufacturers sometimes call it x86-64.
-+
-Examples of amd64 compatible processors include: AMD Athlon(TM)64, AMD Opteron(TM), multi-core Intel(R) Xeon(TM), and Intel(R) Core(TM) 2 and later processors.
-
-i386::
-Older desktops and laptops often use this 32-bit, x86 architecture.
-+
-Almost all i386-compatible processors with a floating point unit are supported.
-All Intel(R) processors 486 or higher are supported.
-However, binaries released by the project are compiled for the 686 processor, so a special build will be needed for 486 and 586 systems.
-+
-FreeBSD will take advantage of Physical Address Extensions (PAE) support on CPUs with this feature.
-A kernel with the PAE feature enabled will detect memory above 4 GB and allow it to be used by the system.
-However, using PAE places constraints on device drivers and other features of FreeBSD.
-
-arm64::
-Most embedded boards are 64-bit ARM computers.
-A number of arm64 servers are supported.
-
-arm::
-Older armv7 boards are supported.
-
-powerpc::
-All New World ROM Apple(R) Mac(R) systems with built-in USB are supported.
-SMP is supported on machines with multiple CPUs.
-+
-A 32-bit kernel can only use the first 2 GB of RAM.
-
[[bsdinstall-pre]]
== Pre-Installation Tasks
@@ -136,9 +86,10 @@ Once it has been determined that the system meets the minimum hardware requireme
Before doing this, check that the system is ready for an installation by verifying the items in this checklist:
[.procedure]
+====
. *Back Up Important Data*
+
-Before installing any operating system, _always_ backup all important data first.
+Before installing any operating system, *always* backup all important data first.
Do not store the backup on the system being installed.
Instead, save the data to a removable disk such as a USB drive, another system on the network, or an online backup service.
Test the backup before starting the installation to make sure it contains all of the needed files.
@@ -159,15 +110,14 @@ The FreeBSD boot loader requires either a primary or GPT partition.
If all of the primary or GPT partitions are already in use, one must be freed for FreeBSD.
To create a partition without deleting existing data, use a partition resizing tool to shrink an existing partition and create a new partition using the freed space.
+
-A variety of free and commercial partition resizing tools are listed at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_disk_partitioning_software[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_disk_partitioning_software].
-GParted Live (https://gparted.org/livecd.php[https://gparted.org/livecd.php]) is a free live CD which includes the GParted partition editor.
-GParted is also included with many other Linux live CD distributions.
+A variety of free and commercial partition resizing tools are listed at link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_disk_partitioning_software[List of disk partitioning software wikipedia entry].
+link:https://gparted.org/livecd.php[GParted Live] is a free live CD which includes the GParted partition editor.
+
[WARNING]
-====
+======
When used properly, disk shrinking utilities can safely create space for creating a new partition.
Since the possibility of selecting the wrong partition exists, always backup any important data and verify the integrity of the backup before modifying disk partitions.
-====
+======
+
Disk partitions containing different operating systems make it possible to install multiple operating systems on one computer.
An alternative is to use virtualization (crossref:virtualization[virtualization,Virtualization]) which allows multiple operating systems to run at the same time without modifying any disk partitions.
@@ -192,10 +142,11 @@ Required Network Information
+
Although the FreeBSD Project strives to ensure that each release of FreeBSD is as stable as possible, bugs occasionally creep into the process.
On very rare occasions those bugs affect the installation process.
-As these problems are discovered and fixed, they are noted in the FreeBSD Errata (link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/{rel130-current}R/errata/[https://www.freebsd.org/releases/{rel130-current}R/errata/]) on the FreeBSD web site.
+As these problems are discovered and fixed, they are noted in the FreeBSD Errata page of each version.
Check the errata before installing to make sure that there are no problems that might affect the installation.
+
-Information and errata for all the releases can be found on the release information section of the FreeBSD web site (link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/[https://www.freebsd.org/releases/]).
+Information and errata for all the releases can be found on the link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/[FreeBSD Release Information] page.
+====
[[bsdinstall-installation-media]]
=== Prepare the Installation Media
@@ -203,28 +154,23 @@ Information and errata for all the releases can be found on the release informat
The FreeBSD installer is not an application that can be run from within another operating system.
Instead, download a FreeBSD installation file, burn it to the media associated with its file type and size (CD, DVD, or USB), and boot the system to install from the inserted media.
-FreeBSD installation files are available at link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/where/[www.freebsd.org/where/].
+FreeBSD installation files are available at the link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/where/[FreeBSD download page].
Each installation file's name includes the release version of FreeBSD, the architecture, and the type of file.
-For example, to install FreeBSD 13.0 on an amd64 system from a DVD, download [.filename]#FreeBSD-13.0-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso#, burn this file to a DVD, and boot the system with the DVD inserted.
-Installation files are available in several formats.
+Installation files are available in several formats, compressed with man:xz[1] or uncompressed.
The formats vary depending on computer architecture and media type.
-[[bsdinstall-installation-media-uefi]]
-Additional installation files are included for computers that boot with UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface).
-The names of these files include the string [.filename]#uefi#.
-
-File types:
+Installation file types:
-* `-bootonly.iso`: This is the smallest installation file as it only contains the installer. A working Internet connection is required during installation as the installer will download the files it needs to complete the FreeBSD installation. This file should be burned to a CD using a CD burning application.
-* `-disc1.iso`: This file contains all of the files needed to install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It should be burned to a CD using a CD burning application.
-* `-dvd1.iso`: This file contains all of the files needed to install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It also contains a set of popular binary packages for installing a window manager and some applications so that a complete system can be installed from media without requiring a connection to the Internet. This file should be burned to a DVD using a DVD burning application.
-* `-memstick.img`: This file contains all of the files needed to install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It should be burned to a USB stick using the instructions below.
-* `-mini-memstick.img`: Like `-bootonly.iso`, does not include installation files, but downloads them as needed. A working internet connection is required during installation. Write this file to a USB stick as shown in <<bsdinstall-usb>>.
+* `*-bootonly.iso*`: This is the smallest installation file as it only contains the installer. A working Internet connection is required during installation as the installer will download the files it needs to complete the FreeBSD installation. This file should be burned to optical media.
+* `*-disc1.iso*`: This file contains all of the files needed to install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. This file should be burned to optical media.
+* `*-dvd1.iso*`: This file contains all of the files needed to install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It also contains a set of popular binary packages for installing a window manager and some applications so that a complete system can be installed from media without requiring a connection to the Internet. This file should be burned to optical media.
+* `*-memstick.img*`: This file contains all of the files needed to install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. Write this file to a USB stick as shown in <<bsdinstall-usb>>.
+* `*-mini-memstick.img*`: Like `*-bootonly.iso*`, does not include installation files, but downloads them as needed. A working internet connection is required during installation. It should be written to a USB stick as shown in <<bsdinstall-usb>>.
After downloading the image file, download at least one _checksum_ file from the same directory.
There are two _checksum_ files available, named after the release number and the architecture name.
-For example: [.filename]#CHECKSUM.SHA256-FreeBSD-13.1-RELEASE-amd64# and [.filename]#CHECKSUM.SHA512-FreeBSD-13.1-RELEASE-amd64#.
+For example: `CHECKSUM.SHA256-FreeBSD-13.1-RELEASE-amd64` and `CHECKSUM.SHA512-FreeBSD-13.1-RELEASE-amd64`.
After downloading one of the files (or both), calculate the _checksum_ for the image file and compare it with the one shown in the _checksum_ file.
Note that you need to compare the calculated _checksum_ against the correct file, as they correspond to two different algorithms: SHA256 and SHA512.
@@ -238,15 +184,16 @@ Verifying the _checksum_ in FreeBSD can be done automatically using man:sha256su
% sha256sum -c CHECKSUM.SHA256-FreeBSD-13.1-RELEASE-amd64 FreeBSD-13.1-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso
FreeBSD-13.1-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso: OK
....
+
The checksums must match exactly.
If the checksums do not match, the image file is corrupt and must be downloaded again.
[[bsdinstall-usb]]
==== Writing an Image File to USB
-The [.filename]#\*.img# file is an _image_ of the complete contents of a memory stick.
+The `\*memstick.img` file is an _image_ of the complete contents of a memory stick.
It _cannot_ be copied to the target device as a file.
-Several applications are available for writing the [.filename]#*.img# to a USB stick.
+Several applications are available for writing the `*.img` to a USB stick.
This section describes two of these utilities.
[IMPORTANT]
@@ -257,14 +204,14 @@ This procedure will erase the existing data on the stick.
[[bsdinstall-usb-dd]]
[.procedure]
-****
+====
*Procedure. Using `dd` to Write the Image* +
[WARNING]
-====
-This example uses [.filename]#/dev/da0# as the target device where the image will be written.
-Be _very careful_ that the correct device is used as this command will destroy the existing data on the specified target device.
-====
+======
+This example uses `/dev/da0` as the target device where the image will be written.
+Be *very careful* that the correct device is used as this command will destroy the existing data on the specified target device.
+======
. The command-line utility is available on BSD, Linux(R), and Mac OS(R) systems. To burn the image using `dd`, insert the USB stick and determine its device name. Then, specify the name of the downloaded installation file and the device name for the USB stick. This example burns the amd64 installation image to the first USB device on an existing FreeBSD system.
+
@@ -274,25 +221,26 @@ Be _very careful_ that the correct device is used as this command will destroy t
....
+
If this command fails, verify that the USB stick is not mounted and that the device name is for the disk, not a partition.
++
Some operating systems might require this command to be run with man:sudo[8].
The man:dd[1] syntax varies slightly across different platforms; for example, Mac OS(R) requires a lower-case `bs=1m`.
Systems like Linux(R) might buffer writes.
To force all writes to complete, use man:sync[8].
-****
+====
[.procedure]
-****
+====
*Procedure. Using Windows(R) to Write the Image* +
[WARNING]
-====
-
+======
Be sure to give the correct drive letter as the existing data on the specified drive will be overwritten and destroyed.
-====
+======
+
. *Obtaining Image Writer for Windows(R)*
+
Image Writer for Windows(R) is a free application that can correctly write an image file to a memory stick.
-Download it from https://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/[https://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/] and extract it into a folder.
+Download it from https://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/[win32diskimager home page] and extract it into a folder.
. *Writing the Image with Image Writer*
+
@@ -302,9 +250,7 @@ Click the folder icon and select the image to be written to the memory stick.
Click btn:[Save] to accept the image file name.
Verify that everything is correct, and that no folders on the memory stick are open in other windows.
When everything is ready, click btn:[Write] to write the image file to the memory stick.
-****
-
-You are now ready to start installing FreeBSD.
+====
[[bsdinstall-start]]
== Starting the Installation
@@ -330,31 +276,6 @@ When using a bootable USB stick, plug in the USB stick before turning on the com
When booting from CD or DVD, turn on the computer and insert the media at the first opportunity.
How to configure the system to boot from the inserted media depends upon the architecture.
-[[bsdinstall-starting-i386]]
-=== Booting on i386(TM) and amd64
-
-These architectures provide a BIOS menu for selecting the boot device.
-Depending upon the installation media being used, select the CD/DVD or USB device as the first boot device.
-Most systems also provide a key for selecting the boot device during startup without having to enter the BIOS.
-Typically, the key is either kbd:[F10], kbd:[F11], kbd:[F12], or kbd:[Escape].
-
-If the computer loads the existing operating system instead of the FreeBSD installer, then either:
-
-. The installation media was not inserted early enough in the boot process. Leave the media inserted and try restarting the computer.
-. The BIOS changes were incorrect or not saved. Double-check that the right boot device is selected as the first boot device.
-. This system is too old to support booting from the chosen media. In this case, the Plop Boot Manager (http://www.plop.at/en/bootmanagers.html[]) can be used to boot the system from the selected media.
-
-=== Booting on PowerPC(R)
-
-On most machines, holding kbd:[C] on the keyboard during boot will boot from the CD.
-Otherwise, hold kbd:[Command+Option+O+F], or kbd:[Windows+Alt+O+F] on non-Apple(R) keyboards.
-At the `0 >` prompt, enter
-
-[source,shell]
-....
- boot cd:,\ppc\loader cd:0
-....
-
[[bsdinstall-view-probe]]
=== FreeBSD Boot Menu
@@ -362,7 +283,7 @@ Once the system boots from the installation media, a menu similar to the followi
[[bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu]]
.FreeBSD Boot Loader Menu
-image::bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu.png[FreeBSD boot loader menu]
By default, the menu will wait ten seconds for user input before booting into the FreeBSD installer or, if FreeBSD is already installed, before booting into FreeBSD.
To pause the boot timer in order to review the selections, press kbd:[Space].
@@ -373,12 +294,13 @@ The following options are available.
* `Boot Single User`: This mode can be used to fix an existing FreeBSD installation as described in crossref:boot[boot-singleuser,“Single-User Mode”]. Press kbd:[2] or the upper- or lower-case kbd:[S] to enter this mode.
* `Escape to loader prompt`: This will boot the system into a repair prompt that contains a limited number of low-level commands. This prompt is described in crossref:boot[boot-loader,“Stage Three”]. Press kbd:[3] or kbd:[Esc] to boot into this prompt.
* `Reboot`: Reboots the system.
+* `Cons`: Allow to continue the installation by `video`, `serial`, `Dual (serial primary)` or `Dual (Video primary)`
* `Kernel`: Loads a different kernel.
* `Boot Options`: Opens the menu shown in, and described under, <<bsdinstall-boot-options-menu>>.
[[bsdinstall-boot-options-menu]]
.FreeBSD Boot Options Menu
-image::bsdinstall-boot-options-menu.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-boot-options-menu.png[Menu showing the different boot options supported]
The boot options menu is divided into two sections.
The first section can be used to either return to the main boot menu or to reset any toggled options back to their defaults.
@@ -398,7 +320,7 @@ Once the boot is complete, the welcome menu shown in <<bsdinstall-choose-mode>>
[[bsdinstall-choose-mode]]
.Welcome Menu
-image::bsdinstall-choose-mode.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-choose-mode.png[FreeBSD installation welcome menu]
Press kbd:[Enter] to select the default of btn:[Install] to enter the installer.
The rest of this chapter describes how to use this installer.
@@ -424,11 +346,11 @@ When finished, press kbd:[Enter] to save the selection and move onto the next sc
[[bsdinstall-keymap]]
=== Selecting the Keymap Menu
-Before starting the process, bsdinstall will load the keymap files as show in <<bsdinstall-keymap-loading>>.
+Before starting the process, bsdinstall will load the keymap files as shown in <<bsdinstall-keymap-loading>>.
[[bsdinstall-keymap-loading]]
.Keymap Loading
-image::bsdinstall-keymap-loading.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-keymap-loading.png[Keymap loading]
After the keymaps have been loaded, bsdinstall displays the menu shown in <<bsdinstall-keymap-10>>.
Use the up and down arrows to select the keymap that most closely represents the mapping of the keyboard attached to the system.
@@ -436,7 +358,7 @@ Press kbd:[Enter] to save the selection.
[[bsdinstall-keymap-10]]
.Keymap Selection Menu
-image::bsdinstall-keymap-10.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-keymap-10.png[Keymap selection menu showing all supported keyboards]
[NOTE]
====
@@ -448,7 +370,7 @@ In addition, when selecting a different keymap, the user can try the keymap and
[[bsdinstall-keymap-testing]]
.Keymap Testing Menu
-image::bsdinstall-keymap-testing.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-keymap-testing.png[Keymap testing menu]
[[bsdinstall-hostname]]
=== Setting the Hostname
@@ -457,7 +379,7 @@ The next bsdinstall menu is used to set the hostname for the newly installed sys
[[bsdinstall-config-hostname]]
.Setting the Hostname
-image::bsdinstall-config-hostname.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-config-hostname.png[Setting the hostname]
Type in a hostname that is unique for the network.
It should be a fully-qualified hostname, such as `machine3.example.com`.
@@ -469,7 +391,7 @@ Next, bsdinstall will prompt to select optional components to install.
[[bsdinstall-config-components]]
.Selecting Components to Install
-image::bsdinstall-config-components.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-config-components.png[Different components that can be installed. Example: base-dbg, lib32, ports, etc.]
Deciding which components to install will depend largely on the intended use of the system and the amount of disk space available.
The FreeBSD kernel and userland, collectively known as the _base system_, are always installed.
@@ -494,13 +416,13 @@ The FreeBSD Ports Collection takes up about {ports-size} of disk space.
[[bsdinstall-netinstall]]
=== Installing from the Network
-The menu shown in <<bsdinstall-netinstall-notify>> only appears when installing from a [.filename]#-bootonly.iso# or [.filename]#-mini-memstick.img#, as this installation media does not hold copies of the installation files.
+The menu shown in <<bsdinstall-netinstall-notify>> only appears when installing from a `-bootonly.iso` or `-mini-memstick.img`, as this installation media does not hold copies of the installation files.
Since the installation files must be retrieved over a network connection, this menu indicates that the network interface must be configured first.
If this menu is shown in any step of the process, remember to follow the instructions in <<bsdinstall-config-network-dev>>.
[[bsdinstall-netinstall-notify]]
.Installing from the Network
-image::bsdinstall-netinstall-files.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-netinstall-files.png[Indicates that certain components have not been found and will be downloaded using the network.]
[[bsdinstall-partitioning]]
== Allocating Disk Space
@@ -509,14 +431,14 @@ The next menu is used to determine the method for allocating disk space.
[[bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu]]
.Partitioning Choices
-image::bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu.png[Shows the different partition options. Example: Manual, Shell, etc.]
bsdinstall gives the user four methods for allocating disk space:
+* `Auto (ZFS)` partitioning creates a root-on-ZFS system with optional GELI encryption support for _boot environments_.
* `Auto (UFS)` partitioning automatically sets up the disk partitions using the `UFS` file system.
* `Manual` partitioning allows advanced users to create customized partitions from menu options.
* `Shell` opens a shell prompt where advanced users can create customized partitions using command-line utilities like man:gpart[8], man:fdisk[8], and man:bsdlabel[8].
-* `Auto (ZFS)` partitioning creates a root-on-ZFS system with optional GELI encryption support for _boot environments_.
This section describes what to consider when laying out the disk partitions.
It then demonstrates how to use the different partitioning methods.
@@ -524,42 +446,47 @@ It then demonstrates how to use the different partitioning methods.
[[configtuning-initial]]
=== Designing the Partition Layout
+The default partition layout for file systems includes one file system for the entire system.
+When using `UFS` it may be worth considering the use of multiple file systems if you have sufficient disk space or multiple disks.
When laying out file systems, remember that hard drives transfer data faster from the outer tracks to the inner.
-Thus, smaller and heavier-accessed file systems should be closer to the outside of the drive, while larger partitions like [.filename]#/usr# should be placed toward the inner parts of the disk.
-It is a good idea to create partitions in an order similar to: [.filename]#/#, swap, [.filename]#/var#, and [.filename]#/usr#.
+Thus, smaller and heavier-accessed file systems should be closer to the outside of the drive, while larger partitions like `/usr` should be placed toward the inner parts of the disk.
+It is a good idea to create partitions in an order similar to: `/`, swap, `/var`, and `/usr`.
-The size of the [.filename]#/var# partition reflects the intended machine's usage.
+The size of the `/var` partition reflects the intended machine's usage.
This partition is used to hold mailboxes, log files, and printer spools.
Mailboxes and log files can grow to unexpected sizes depending on the number of users and how long log files are kept.
-On average, most users rarely need more than about a gigabyte of free disk space in [.filename]#/var#.
+On average, most users rarely need more than about a gigabyte of free disk space in `/var`.
[NOTE]
====
-Sometimes, a lot of disk space is required in [.filename]#/var/tmp#.
-When new software is installed, the packaging tools extract a temporary copy of the packages under [.filename]#/var/tmp#.
-Large software packages, like Firefox or LibreOffice may be tricky to install if there is not enough disk space under [.filename]#/var/tmp#.
+Sometimes, a lot of disk space is required in `/var/tmp`.
+When new software is installed, the packaging tools extract a temporary copy of the packages under `/var/tmp`.
+Large software packages, like Firefox or LibreOffice may be tricky to install if there is not enough disk space under `/var/tmp`.
====
-The [.filename]#/usr# partition holds many of the files which support the system, including the FreeBSD Ports Collection and system source code.
+The `/usr` partition holds many of the files which support the system, including the FreeBSD Ports Collection and system source code.
At least 2 gigabytes of space is recommended for this partition.
+Also, note that home directories for users are placed in `/usr/home` by default, but can be placed on another partition.
+By default, `/home` is a symbolic link to `/usr/home`.
When selecting partition sizes, keep the space requirements in mind.
Running out of space in one partition while barely using another can be a hassle.
As a rule of thumb, the swap partition should be about double the size of physical memory (RAM).
-Systems with minimal RAM may perform better with more swap.
+Systems with minimal RAM (less for larger-memory configurations) may perform better with more swap.
Configuring too little swap can lead to inefficiencies in the VM page scanning code and might create issues later if more memory is added.
On larger systems with multiple SCSI disks or multiple IDE disks operating on different controllers, it is recommended that swap be configured on each drive, up to four drives.
The swap partitions should be approximately the same size.
The kernel can handle arbitrary sizes, but internal data structures scale to 4 times the largest swap partition.
Keeping the swap partitions near the same size will allow the kernel to optimally stripe swap space across disks.
-Large swap sizes are fine, even if swap is not used much.
+Large swap sizes may elicit a kernel warning message about the total configured swap.
+The limit is raised by increasing the amount of memory allowed for keeping track of swap allocations, as instructed by the warning message.
It might be easier to recover from a runaway program before being forced to reboot.
By properly partitioning a system, fragmentation introduced in the smaller write-heavy partitions will not bleed over into the mostly read partitions.
Keeping the write-loaded partitions closer to the disk's edge will increase I/O performance in the partitions where it occurs the most.
-While I/O performance in the larger partitions may be needed, shifting them more toward the edge of the disk will not lead to a significant performance improvement over moving [.filename]#/var# to the edge.
+While I/O performance in the larger partitions may be needed, shifting them more toward the edge of the disk will not lead to a significant performance improvement over moving `/var` to the edge.
[[bsdinstall-part-guided]]
=== Guided Partitioning Using UFS
@@ -569,7 +496,7 @@ If multiple disks are connected, choose the one where FreeBSD is to be installed
[[bsdinstall-part-guided-disk]]
.Selecting from Multiple Disks
-image::bsdinstall-part-guided-disk.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-part-guided-disk.png[Shows the list of disks on which FreeBSD can be installed]
Once the disk is selected, the next menu prompts to install to either the entire disk or to create a partition using free space.
If btn:[Entire Disk] is chosen, a general partition layout filling the whole disk is automatically created.
@@ -577,13 +504,13 @@ Selecting btn:[Partition] creates a partition layout from the unused space on th
[[bsdinstall-part-entire-part]]
.Selecting Entire Disk or Partition
-image::bsdinstall-part-entire-part.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-part-entire-part.png[Menu asking the user if he wants to use all the available space on the disk or wants to make a partition]
-After btn:[Entire Disk] is chosen, bsdinstall displays a dialog indicating that the disk will be erased.
+After the btn:[Entire Disk] option is chosen, bsdinstall displays a dialog indicating that the disk will be erased.
[[bsdinstall-ufs-warning]]
.Confirmation
-image::bsdinstall-ufs-warning.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-ufs-warning.png[Menu indicating the user that all data on the disk will be deleted and asking for confirmation]
The next menu shows a list with the available partition scheme types.
GPT is usually the most appropriate choice for amd64 computers.
@@ -593,7 +520,7 @@ More information is available in <<partition-schemes>>.
[[bsdinstall-ufs-scheme]]
.Select Partition Scheme
-image::bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme.png[Menu showing the user the different the different types of partition that exist and requesting one of them]
After the partition layout has been created, review it to ensure it meets the needs of the installation.
Selecting btn:[Revert] will reset the partitions to their original values. Pressing btn:[Auto] will recreate the automatic FreeBSD partitions.
@@ -602,7 +529,7 @@ When the partitioning is correct, select btn:[Finish] to continue with the insta
[[bsdinstall-part-review]]
.Review Created Partitions
-image::bsdinstall-part-review.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-part-review.png[Menu showing created partitions]
Once the disks are configured, the next menu provides the last chance to make changes before the selected drives are formatted.
If changes need to be made, select btn:[Back] to return to the main partitioning menu.
@@ -611,7 +538,7 @@ Otherwise, select btn:[Commit] to start the installation process.
[[bsdinstall-ufs-final-confirmation]]
.Final Confirmation
-image::bsdinstall-final-confirmation.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-final-confirmation.png[Menu indicating to the user that all changes will be written to disk and informing that if he decides to continue the existing data will be permanently deleted.]
To continue with the installation process, go to <<bsdinstall-fetching-distribution>>.
@@ -622,13 +549,13 @@ Selecting this method opens the partition editor:
[[bsdinstall-part-manual-create]]
.Manually Create Partitions
-image::bsdinstall-part-manual-create.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-part-manual-create.png[Menu showing the Partition Editor.]
-Highlight the installation drive ([.filename]#ada0# in this example) and select btn:[Create] to display a menu of available partition schemes:
+Highlight the installation drive (`ada0` in this example) and select btn:[Create] to display a menu of available partition schemes:
[[bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme]]
.Manually Create Partitions
-image::bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme.png[Menu showing the different kind of partition schemes]
GPT is usually the most appropriate choice for amd64 computers.
Older computers that are not compatible with GPT should use MBR.
@@ -636,7 +563,7 @@ The other partition schemes are generally used for uncommon or older computers.
[[partition-schemes]]
.Partitioning Schemes
-[cols="1,1", frame="none", options="header"]
+[cols="25h,~", frame="none", options="header"]
|===
<| Abbreviation
<| Description
@@ -648,10 +575,10 @@ The other partition schemes are generally used for uncommon or older computers.
|BSD label without an MBR, sometimes called _dangerously dedicated mode_ as non-BSD disk utilities may not recognize it.
|GPT
-|GUID Partition Table (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table]).
+|link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table[GUID Partition Table].
|MBR
-|Master Boot Record (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record]).
+|link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record[Master Boot Record].
|===
After the partitioning scheme has been selected and created, select btn:[Create] again to create the partitions.
@@ -659,18 +586,24 @@ The kbd:[Tab] key is used to move the cursor between fields.
[[bsdinstall-part-manual-addpart]]
.Manually Create Partitions
-image::bsdinstall-part-manual-addpart.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-part-manual-addpart.png[Menu requesting type, size, mountpoint and label for the new partition.]
-A standard FreeBSD GPT installation uses at least three partitions:
+A standard FreeBSD GPT installation uses at least three partitions, including either UFS or ZFS:
-* `freebsd-boot` - Holds the FreeBSD boot code.
+* `freebsd-boot` or `efi` - Holds the FreeBSD boot code.
* `freebsd-ufs` - A FreeBSD UFS file system.
* `freebsd-zfs` - A FreeBSD ZFS file system. More information about ZFS is available in crossref:zfs[zfs,The Z File System (ZFS)].
* `freebsd-swap` - FreeBSD swap space.
Refer to man:gpart[8] for descriptions of the available GPT partition types.
-Multiple file system partitions can be created. Some people prefer a traditional layout with separate partitions for [.filename]#/#, [.filename]#/var#, [.filename]#/tmp#, and [.filename]#/usr#.
+Multiple file system partitions can be created. Some people prefer a traditional layout with separate partitions for `/`, `/var`, `/tmp`, and `/usr`.
+
+[TIP]
+====
+Note that `/tmp` can be added later as a memory-based file system (man:tmpfs[5]) on systems with sufficient memory.
+====
+
See <<bsdinstall-part-manual-splitfs>> for an example.
The `Size` may be entered with common abbreviations: _K_ for kilobytes, _M_ for megabytes, or _G_ for gigabytes.
@@ -683,13 +616,13 @@ There is one exception: the _freebsd-boot_ partition should be no larger than 51
====
A `Mountpoint` is needed if the partition will contain a file system.
-If only a single UFS partition will be created, the mountpoint should be [.filename]#/#.
+If only a single UFS partition will be created, the mountpoint should be `/`.
The `Label` is a name by which the partition will be known.
Drive names or numbers can change if the drive is connected to a different controller or port, but the partition label does not change.
-Referring to labels instead of drive names and partition numbers in files like [.filename]#/etc/fstab# makes the system more tolerant to hardware changes.
-GPT labels appear in [.filename]#/dev/gpt/# when a disk is attached.
-Other partitioning schemes have different label capabilities and their labels appear in different directories in [.filename]#/dev/#.
+Referring to labels instead of drive names and partition numbers in files like `/etc/fstab` makes the system more tolerant to hardware changes.
+GPT labels appear in `/dev/gpt/` when a disk is attached.
+Other partitioning schemes have different label capabilities and their labels appear in different directories in `/dev/`.
[TIP]
====
@@ -702,12 +635,12 @@ For instance, use `labroot` or `rootfslab` for the UFS root partition on the com
.Creating Traditional Split File System Partitions
[example]
====
-For a traditional partition layout where the [.filename]#/#, [.filename]#/var#, [.filename]#/tmp#, and [.filename]#/usr# directories are separate file systems on their own partitions, create a GPT partitioning scheme, then create the partitions as shown.
+For a traditional partition layout where the `/`, `/var`, `/tmp`, and `/usr` directories are separate file systems on their own partitions, create a GPT partitioning scheme, then create the partitions as shown.
Partition sizes shown are typical for a 20G target disk.
-If more space is available on the target disk, larger swap or [.filename]#/var# partitions may be useful.
+If more space is available on the target disk, larger swap or `/var` partitions may be useful.
Labels shown here are prefixed with `ex` for "example", but readers should use other unique label values as described above.
-By default, FreeBSD's [.filename]#gptboot# expects the first UFS partition to be the [.filename]#/# partition.
+By default, FreeBSD's `gptboot` expects the first UFS partition to be the `/` partition.
[.informaltable]
[cols="1,1,1,1", frame="none", options="header"]
@@ -724,7 +657,7 @@ By default, FreeBSD's [.filename]#gptboot# expects the first UFS partition to be
|`freebsd-ufs`
|`2G`
-|[.filename]#/#
+|`/`
|`exrootfs`
|`freebsd-swap`
@@ -734,17 +667,17 @@ By default, FreeBSD's [.filename]#gptboot# expects the first UFS partition to be
|`freebsd-ufs`
|`2G`
-|[.filename]#/var#
+|`/var`
|`exvarfs`
|`freebsd-ufs`
|`1G`
-|[.filename]#/tmp#
+|`/tmp`
|`extmpfs`
|`freebsd-ufs`
|accept the default (remainder of the disk)
-|[.filename]#/usr#
+|`/usr`
|`exusrfs`
|===
====
@@ -759,7 +692,7 @@ The main ZFS configuration menu offers a number of options to control the creati
[[bsdinstall-zfs-menu]]
.ZFS Partitioning Menu
-image::bsdinstall-zfs-menu.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-zfs-menu.png[Menu showing the different options to configure the ZFS pool]
Here is a summary of the options in this menu:
@@ -769,17 +702,17 @@ Here is a summary of the options in this menu:
* `Disk Info` - This menu can be used to inspect each disk, including its partition table and various other information such as the device model number and serial number, if available.
* `Pool Name` - Establish the name of the pool. The default name is _zroot_.
* `Force 4K Sectors?` - Force the use of 4K sectors. By default, the installer will automatically create partitions aligned to 4K boundaries and force ZFS to use 4K sectors. This is safe even with 512 byte sector disks, and has the added benefit of ensuring that pools created on 512 byte disks will be able to have 4K sector disks added in the future, either as additional storage space or as replacements for failed disks. Press the kbd:[Enter] key to chose to activate it or not.
-* `Encrypt Disks?` - Encrypting the disks allows the user to encrypt the disks using GELI. More information about disk encryption is available in crossref:disks[disks-encrypting-geli,“Disk Encryption with geli”]. Press the kbd:[Enter] key to chose activate it or not.
+* `Encrypt Disks?` - Encrypting the disks allows the user to encrypt the disks using GELI. More information about disk encryption is available in crossref:disks[disks-encrypting-geli,“Disk Encryption with geli”]. Press the kbd:[Enter] key to choose whether to activate it or not.
* `Partition Scheme` - Choose the partition scheme. GPT is the recommended option in most cases. Press the kbd:[Enter] key to chose between the different options.
* `Swap Size` - Establish the amount of swap space.
* `Mirror Swap?` - Whether to mirror the swap between the disks. Be aware that enabling mirror swap will break crash dumps. Press the kbd:[Enter] key to activate it or not.
-* `Encrypt Swap?` - Whether to encrypt the swap. This will encrypt the swap with a temporary key each time the system boots, and discards it on reboot. Press the kbd:[Enter] key to chose activate it or not. More information about swap encryption in crossref:disks[swap-encrypting,“Encrypting Swap”].
+* `Encrypt Swap?` - Whether to encrypt the swap. This will encrypt the swap with a temporary key each time the system boots, and discards it on reboot. Press the kbd:[Enter] key to choose to activate it or not. More information about swap encryption in crossref:disks[swap-encrypting,“Encrypting Swap”].
Select kbd:[T] to configure the `Pool Type` and the disk(s) that will constitute the pool.
[[bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_type]]
.ZFS Pool Type
-image::bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_type.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_type.png[Menu requesting the Virtual Device type. Ex: stripe, mirror, raidz1]
Here is a summary of the `Pool Type` that can be selected in this menu:
@@ -796,55 +729,55 @@ If validation fails, select btn:[<Change Selection>] to return to the list of di
[[bsdinstall-zfs-disk_select]]
.Disk Selection
-image::bsdinstall-zfs-disk_select.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-zfs-disk_select.png[Menu requesting how many disks will be added to the pool]
[[bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_invalid]]
.Invalid Selection
-image::bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_invalid.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_invalid.png[Menu indicating that not enough disks have been selected.]
If one or more disks are missing from the list, or if disks were attached after the installer was started, select btn:[- Rescan Devices] to repopulate the list of available disks.
[[bsdinstall-zfs-rescan-devices]]
.Rescan Devices
-image::bsdinstall-zfs-rescan-devices.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-zfs-rescan-devices.png[Device rescan]
To avoid accidentally erasing the wrong disk, the btn:[- Disk Info] menu can be used to inspect each disk, including its partition table and various other information such as the device model number and serial number, if available.
[[bsdinstall-zfs-disk_info]]
.Analyzing a Disk
-image::bsdinstall-zfs-disk_info.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-zfs-disk_info.png[Menu showing the information of the partitions.]
Select kbd:[N] to configure the `Pool Name`.
Enter the desired name, then select btn:[<OK>] to establish it or btn:[<Cancel>] to return to the main menu and leave the default name.
[[bsdinstall-zfs-pool-name]]
.Pool Name
-image::bsdinstall-zfs-pool-name.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-zfs-pool-name.png[Menu requesting the name of the pool.]
Select kbd:[S] to set the amount of swap.
Enter the desired amount of swap, then select btn:[<OK>] to establish it or btn:[<Cancel>] to return to the main menu and let the default amount.
[[bsdinstall-zfs-swap-amount]]
.Swap Amount
-image::bsdinstall-zfs-swap-amount.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-zfs-swap-amount.png[Menu requesting the amount of swap memory]
Once all options have been set to the desired values, select the btn:[>>> Install] option at the top of the menu.
The installer then offers a last chance to cancel before the contents of the selected drives are destroyed to create the ZFS pool.
[[bsdinstall-zfs-warning]]
.Last Chance
-image::bsdinstall-zfs-warning.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-zfs-warning.png[Menu indicating to the user that the data will be lost]
If GELI disk encryption was enabled, the installer will prompt twice for the passphrase to be used to encrypt the disks.
Initialization of the encryption then begins.
[[bsdinstall-zfs-geli_password]]
.Disk Encryption Password
-image::bsdinstall-zfs-geli_password.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-zfs-geli_password.png[Menu requesting the password to encrypt the devices.]
[[bsdinstall-zfs-init-encription]]
.Initializing Encryption
-image::bsdinstall-zfs-init-encription.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-zfs-init-encription.png[Menu showing that the encryption is initializing.]
The installation then proceeds normally.
To continue with the installation, go to <<bsdinstall-fetching-distribution>>.
@@ -853,7 +786,7 @@ To continue with the installation, go to <<bsdinstall-fetching-distribution>>.
=== Shell Mode Partitioning
When creating advanced installations, the bsdinstall partitioning menus may not provide the level of flexibility required.
-Advanced users can select the btn:[Shell] option from the partitioning menu in order to manually partition the drives, create the file system(s), populate [.filename]#/tmp/bsdinstall_etc/fstab#, and mount the file systems under [.filename]#/mnt#.
+Advanced users can select the btn:[Shell] option from the partitioning menu in order to manually partition the drives, create the file system(s), populate `/tmp/bsdinstall_etc/fstab`, and mount the file systems under `/mnt`.
Once this is done, type `exit` to return to bsdinstall and continue the installation.
[[bsdinstall-fetching-distribution]]
@@ -867,25 +800,25 @@ Next, in the case of a `bootonly media` or `mini memstick`, it downloads the sel
[[bsdinstall-distfile-fetching]]
.Fetching Distribution Files
-image::bsdinstall-distfile-fetching.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-distfile-fetching.png[Menu showing the download of the different components.]
Next, the integrity of the distribution files is verified to ensure they have not been corrupted during download or misread from the installation media:
[[bsdinstall-distfile-verify]]
.Verifying Distribution Files
-image::bsdinstall-distfile-verifying.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-distfile-verifying.png[Menu showing the verification of the different components.]
Finally, the verified distribution files are extracted to the disk:
[[bsdinstall-distfile-extract]]
.Extracting Distribution Files
-image::bsdinstall-distfile-extracting.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-distfile-extracting.png[Menu showing the extraction of the different components.]
Once all requested distribution files have been extracted, bsdinstall displays the first post-installation configuration screen.
The available post-configuration options are described in the next section.
[[bsdinstall-post]]
-== Accounts, Time Zone, Services and Hardening
+== Network Interfaces, Accounts, Time Zone, Services and Hardening
[[bsdinstall-post-root]]
=== Setting the `root` Password
@@ -896,7 +829,120 @@ The password must be entered twice to prevent typing errors.
[[bsdinstall-post-set-root-passwd]]
.Setting the `root` Password
-image::bsdinstall-post-root-passwd.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-post-root-passwd.png[Menu showing requesting the password for the root user.]
+
+[[bsdinstall-config-network-dev]]
+=== Configuring Network Interfaces
+
+Next, a list of the network interfaces found on the computer is shown.
+Select the interface to configure.
+
+[[bsdinstall-configure-net-interface]]
+.Choose a Network Interface
+image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface.png[Menu showing the different network interfaces to configure.]
+
+If an Ethernet interface is selected, the installer will skip ahead to the menu shown in <<bsdinstall-configure-net-ipv4>>.
+If a wireless network interface is chosen, the system will instead scan for wireless access points:
+
+[[bsdinstall-wireless-scan]]
+.Scanning for Wireless Access Points
+image::bsdinstall-configure-wireless-scan.png[Menu showing wireless network scanning.]
+
+Wireless networks are identified by a Service Set Identifier (SSID), a short, unique name given to each network.
+SSIDs found during the scan are listed, followed by a description of the encryption types available for that network.
+If the desired SSID does not appear in the list, select btn:[Rescan] to scan again.
+If the desired network still does not appear, check for problems with antenna connections or try moving the computer closer to the access point.
+Rescan after each change is made.
+
+[[bsdinstall-wireless-accesspoints]]
+.Choosing a Wireless Network
+image::bsdinstall-configure-wireless-accesspoints.png[Menu showing the different wireless networks to connect to.]
+
+Next, enter the encryption information for connecting to the selected wireless network.
+WPA2 encryption is strongly recommended over older encryption types such as WEP, which offer little security.
+If the network uses WPA2, input the password, also known as the Pre-Shared Key (PSK).
+For security reasons, the characters typed into the input box are displayed as asterisks.
+
+[[bsdinstall-wireless-wpa2]]
+.WPA2 Setup
+image::bsdinstall-configure-wireless-wpa2setup.png[Menu requesting the wireless network password.]
+
+Next, choose whether or not an IPv4 address should be configured on the Ethernet or wireless interface:
+
+[[bsdinstall-configure-net-ipv4]]
+.Choose IPv4 Networking
+image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4.png[Menu indicating if IPv4 wants to be configured for the selected interface.]
+
+There are two methods of IPv4 configuration.
+DHCP will automatically configure the network interface correctly and should be used if the network provides a DHCP server.
+Otherwise, the addressing information needs to be input manually as a static configuration.
+
+[NOTE]
+====
+Do not enter random network information as it will not work.
+If a DHCP server is not available, obtain the information listed in <<bsdinstall-collect-network-information, Required Network Information>> from the network administrator or Internet service provider.
+====
+
+If a DHCP server is available, select btn:[Yes] in the next menu to automatically configure the network interface.
+The installer will appear to pause for a minute or so as it finds the DHCP server and obtains the addressing information for the system.
+
+[[bsdinstall-net-ipv4-dhcp]]
+.Choose IPv4DHCP Configuration
+image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-dhcp.png[Menu indicating if DHCP wants to be configured for the selected interface.]
+
+If a DHCP server is not available, select btn:[No] and input the following addressing information in this menu:
+
+[[bsdinstall-net-ipv4-static]]
+.IPv4 Static Configuration
+image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-static.png[Menu requesting data to configure IPv4 network.]
+
+* `IP Address` - The IPv4 address assigned to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use by another device on the local network.
+* `Subnet Mask` - The subnet mask for the network.
+* `Default Router` - The IP address of the network's default gateway.
+
+The next screen will ask if the interface should be configured for IPv6. If IPv6 is available and desired, choose btn:[Yes] to select it.
+
+[[bsdinstall-net-ipv6]]
+.Choose IPv6 Networking
+image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6.png[Menu indicating if IPv6 wants to be configured for the selected interface.]
+
+IPv6 also has two methods of configuration.
+StateLess Address AutoConfiguration (SLAAC) will automatically request the correct configuration information from a local router.
+Refer to http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4862[rfc4862] for more information.
+Static configuration requires manual entry of network information.
+
+If an IPv6 router is available, select btn:[Yes] in the next menu to automatically configure the network interface.
+The installer will appear to pause for a minute or so as it finds the router and obtains the addressing information for the system.
+
+[[bsdinstall-net-ipv6-slaac]]
+.Choose IPv6 SLAAC Configuration
+image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-slaac.png[Menu indicating if SLAAC wants to be configured for the selected interface.]
+
+If an IPv6 router is not available, select btn:[No] and input the following addressing information in this menu:
+
+[[bsdinstall-net-ipv6-static]]
+.IPv6 Static Configuration
+image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6-static.png[Menu requesting data to configure IPv6 network.]
+
+* `IPv6 Address` - The IPv6 address assigned to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use by another device on the local network.
+* `Default Router` - The IPv6 address of the network's default gateway.
+
+The last network configuration menu is used to configure the Domain Name System (DNS) resolver, which converts hostnames to and from network addresses.
+If DHCP or SLAAC was used to autoconfigure the network interface, the `Resolver Configuration` values may already be filled in.
+Otherwise, enter the local network's domain name in the `Search` field.
+`DNS #1` and `DNS #2` are the IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses of the DNS servers.
+At least one DNS server is required.
+
+[[bsdinstall-net-dns-config]]
+.DNS Configuration
+image::bsdinstall-configure-network-ipv4-dns.png[Menu requesting data to configure DNS for the network.]
+
+Once the interface is configured, select a mirror site that is located in the same region of the world as the computer on which FreeBSD is being installed.
+Files can be retrieved more quickly when the mirror is close to the target computer, reducing installation time.
+
+[[bsdinstall-netinstall-mirror]]
+.Choosing a Mirror
+image::bsdinstall-netinstall-mirrorselect.png[Menu requesting a network mirror.]
[[bsdinstall-timezone]]
=== Setting the Time Zone
@@ -909,38 +955,38 @@ The selections will vary according to the geographical location.
[[bsdinstall-timezone-region]]
.Select a Region
-image::bsdinstall-timezone-region.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-timezone-region.png[Menu requesting the timezone region.]
The appropriate region is selected using the arrow keys and then pressing kbd:[Enter].
[[bsdinstall-timezone-country]]
.Select a Country
-image::bsdinstall-timezone-country.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-timezone-country.png[Menu requesting the timezone country.]
Select the appropriate country using the arrow keys and press kbd:[Enter].
[[bsdinstall-timezone-zone]]
.Select a Time Zone
-image::bsdinstall-timezone-zone.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-timezone-zone.png[Menu requesting the timezone zone.]
The appropriate time zone is selected using the arrow keys and pressing kbd:[Enter].
[[bsdinstall-timezone-confirmation]]
.Confirm Time Zone
-image::bsdinstall-timezone-confirm.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-timezone-confirm.png[Menu requesting confirmation of the selected timezone.]
Confirm the abbreviation for the time zone is correct.
[[bsdinstall-timezone-date]]
.Select Date
-image::bsdinstall-timezone-date.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-timezone-date.png[Menu requesting the system date.]
The appropriate date is selected using the arrow keys and then pressing btn:[Set Date].
Otherwise, the date selection can be skipped by pressing btn:[Skip].
[[bsdinstall-timezone-time]]
.Select Time
-image::bsdinstall-timezone-time.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-timezone-time.png[Menu requesting the system time.]
The appropriate time is selected using the arrow keys and then pressing btn:[Set Time].
Otherwise, the time selection can be skipped by pressing btn:[Skip].
@@ -954,7 +1000,7 @@ Only start the services that are needed for the system to function.
[[bsdinstall-config-serv]]
.Selecting Additional Services to Enable
-image::bsdinstall-config-services.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-config-services.png[Menu showing the different services available.]
Here is a summary of the services that can be enabled in this menu:
@@ -962,7 +1008,7 @@ Here is a summary of the services that can be enabled in this menu:
* `sshd` - The Secure Shell (SSH) daemon is used to remotely access a system over an encrypted connection. Only enable this service if the system should be available for remote logins.
* `moused` - Enable this service if the mouse will be used from the command-line system console.
* `ntpdate` - Enable the automatic clock synchronization at boot time. The functionality of this program is now available in the man:ntpd[8] daemon. After a suitable period of mourning, the man:ntpdate[8] utility will be retired.
-* `ntpd` - The Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon for automatic clock synchronization. Enable this service if there is a Windows(R), Kerberos, or LDAP server on the network.
+* `ntpd` - The Network Time Protocol (NTP) daemon for automatic clock synchronization. Enable this service if there is a Windows(R), Kerberos, LDAP server on the network, or to use a remote server pool is desired.
* `powerd` - System power control utility for power control and energy saving.
* `dumpdev` - Crash dumps are useful when debugging issues with the system, so users are encouraged to enable them.
@@ -975,7 +1021,7 @@ But their use is encouraged.
[[bsdinstall-hardening-options]]
.Selecting Hardening Security Options
-image::bsdinstall-hardening.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-hardening.png[Menu shoring the different hardening security options.]
Here is a summary of the options that can be enabled in this menu:
@@ -985,11 +1031,12 @@ Here is a summary of the options that can be enabled in this menu:
* `read_msgbuf` - Disable reading kernel message buffer for unprivileged users. Prevent unprivileged users from using man:dmesg[8] to view messages from the kernel's log buffer.
* `proc_debug` - Disable process debugging facilities for unprivileged users. Disables a variety of unprivileged inter-process debugging services, including some procfs functionality, `ptrace()`, and `ktrace()`. Please note that this will also prevent debugging tools such as man:lldb[1], man:truss[1] and man:procstat[1], as well as some built-in debugging facilities in certain scripting languages like PHP.
* `random_pid` - Randomize the PID of processes.
-* `clear_tmp` - Clean [.filename]#/tmp# when the system starts up.
+* `clear_tmp` - Clean `/tmp` when the system starts up.
* `disable_syslogd` - Disable opening the syslogd network socket. By default, FreeBSD runs syslogd in a secure way with `-s`. This prevents the daemon from listening for incoming UDP requests on port 514. With this option enabled, syslogd will instead run with `-ss`, which prevents syslogd from opening any port. For more information, see man:syslogd[8].
* `disable_sendmail` - Disable the sendmail mail transport agent.
* `secure_console` - Make the command prompt request the `root` password when entering single-user mode.
* `disable_ddtrace` - DTrace can run in a mode that affects the running kernel. Destructive actions may not be used unless explicitly enabled. Use `-w` to enable this option when using DTrace. For more information, see man:dtrace[1].
+* `enable_aslr` - Enable address layout randomization. For more information about address layout randomization the link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Address_space_layout_randomization[Wikipedia article] can be consulted.
[[bsdinstall-addusers]]
=== Add Users
@@ -1003,14 +1050,14 @@ Select btn:[Yes] to add new users.
[[bsdinstall-add-user1]]
.Add User Accounts
-image::bsdinstall-adduser1.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-adduser1.png[Menu requesting if a user want to be added to the system.]
Follow the prompts and input the requested information for the user account.
The example shown in <<bsdinstall-add-user2>> creates the `asample` user account.
[[bsdinstall-add-user2]]
.Enter User Information
-image::bsdinstall-adduser2.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-adduser2.png[Menu requesting different information for the new user.]
Here is a summary of the information to input:
@@ -1036,7 +1083,7 @@ Once everything is correct, enter `yes` to create the new user.
[[bsdinstall-add-user3]]
.Exit User and Group Management
-image::bsdinstall-adduser3.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-adduser3.png[Menu showing the information of the new user and requesting if everything is correct.]
If there are more users to add, answer the `Add another user?` question with `yes`.
Enter `no` to finish adding users and continue the installation.
@@ -1050,7 +1097,7 @@ After everything has been installed and configured, a final chance is provided t
[[bsdinstall-final-config]]
.Final Configuration
-image::bsdinstall-finalconfiguration.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-finalconfiguration.png[Menu showing different options to perform before finishing the installation. Ex: Add user, Time Zone, etc.]
Use this menu to make any changes or to do any additional configuration before completing the installation.
@@ -1067,14 +1114,14 @@ Once configuration is complete, select btn:[Exit].
[[bsdinstall-final-modification-shell]]
.Manual Configuration
-image::bsdinstall-final-modification-shell.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-final-modification-shell.png[Menu showing that the installation has finished. And asking if you want to open a shell to make manual changes.]
bsdinstall will prompt for any additional configuration that needs to be done before rebooting into the new system.
Select btn:[Yes] to exit to a shell within the new system or btn:[No] to proceed to the last step of the installation.
[[bsdinstall-final-main]]
.Complete the Installation
-image::bsdinstall-mainexit.png[]
+image::bsdinstall-mainexit.png[Menu showing that the installation has finished and asking whether to reboot the system or access the Live CD.]
If further configuration or special setup is needed, select btn:[Live CD] to boot the install media into Live CD mode.
@@ -1145,131 +1192,12 @@ Proper shutdown of a FreeBSD computer helps protect data and hardware from damag
_Do not turn off the power before the system has been properly shut down!_ If the user is a member of the `wheel` group, become the superuser by typing `su` at the command line and entering the `root` password.
Then, type `shutdown -p now` and the system will shut down cleanly, and, if the hardware supports it, turn itself off.
-[[bsdinstall-network]]
-== Network Interfaces
-
-[[bsdinstall-config-network-dev]]
-=== Configuring Network Interfaces
-
-Next, a list of the network interfaces found on the computer is shown.
-Select the interface to configure.
-
-[[bsdinstall-configure-net-interface]]
-.Choose a Network Interface
-image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface.png[]
-
-If an Ethernet interface is selected, the installer will skip ahead to the menu shown in <<bsdinstall-configure-net-ipv4>>.
-If a wireless network interface is chosen, the system will instead scan for wireless access points:
-
-[[bsdinstall-wireless-scan]]
-.Scanning for Wireless Access Points
-image::bsdinstall-configure-wireless-scan.png[]
-
-Wireless networks are identified by a Service Set Identifier (SSID), a short, unique name given to each network.
-SSIDs found during the scan are listed, followed by a description of the encryption types available for that network.
-If the desired SSID does not appear in the list, select btn:[Rescan] to scan again.
-If the desired network still does not appear, check for problems with antenna connections or try moving the computer closer to the access point.
-Rescan after each change is made.
-
-[[bsdinstall-wireless-accesspoints]]
-.Choosing a Wireless Network
-image::bsdinstall-configure-wireless-accesspoints.png[]
-
-Next, enter the encryption information for connecting to the selected wireless network.
-WPA2 encryption is strongly recommended over older encryption types such as WEP, which offer little security.
-If the network uses WPA2, input the password, also known as the Pre-Shared Key (PSK).
-For security reasons, the characters typed into the input box are displayed as asterisks.
-
-[[bsdinstall-wireless-wpa2]]
-.WPA2 Setup
-image::bsdinstall-configure-wireless-wpa2setup.png[]
-
-Next, choose whether or not an IPv4 address should be configured on the Ethernet or wireless interface:
-
-[[bsdinstall-configure-net-ipv4]]
-.Choose IPv4 Networking
-image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4.png[]
-
-There are two methods of IPv4 configuration.
-DHCP will automatically configure the network interface correctly and should be used if the network provides a DHCP server.
-Otherwise, the addressing information needs to be input manually as a static configuration.
-
-[NOTE]
-====
-Do not enter random network information as it will not work.
-If a DHCP server is not available, obtain the information listed in <<bsdinstall-collect-network-information, Required Network Information>> from the network administrator or Internet service provider.
-====
-
-If a DHCP server is available, select btn:[Yes] in the next menu to automatically configure the network interface.
-The installer will appear to pause for a minute or so as it finds the DHCP server and obtains the addressing information for the system.
-
-[[bsdinstall-net-ipv4-dhcp]]
-.Choose IPv4DHCP Configuration
-image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-dhcp.png[]
-
-If a DHCP server is not available, select btn:[No] and input the following addressing information in this menu:
-
-[[bsdinstall-net-ipv4-static]]
-.IPv4 Static Configuration
-image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-static.png[]
-
-* `IP Address` - The IPv4 address assigned to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use by another device on the local network.
-* `Subnet Mask` - The subnet mask for the network.
-* `Default Router` - The IP address of the network's default gateway.
-
-The next screen will ask if the interface should be configured for IPv6. If IPv6 is available and desired, choose btn:[Yes] to select it.
-
-[[bsdinstall-net-ipv6]]
-.Choose IPv6 Networking
-image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6.png[]
-
-IPv6 also has two methods of configuration.
-StateLess Address AutoConfiguration (SLAAC) will automatically request the correct configuration information from a local router.
-Refer to http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4862[rfc4862] for more information.
-Static configuration requires manual entry of network information.
-
-If an IPv6 router is available, select btn:[Yes] in the next menu to automatically configure the network interface.
-The installer will appear to pause for a minute or so as it finds the router and obtains the addressing information for the system.
-
-[[bsdinstall-net-ipv6-slaac]]
-.Choose IPv6 SLAAC Configuration
-image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-slaac.png[]
-
-If an IPv6 router is not available, select btn:[No] and input the following addressing information in this menu:
-
-[[bsdinstall-net-ipv6-static]]
-.IPv6 Static Configuration
-image::bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6-static.png[]
-
-* `IPv6 Address` - The IPv6 address assigned to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use by another device on the local network.
-* `Default Router` - The IPv6 address of the network's default gateway.
-
-The last network configuration menu is used to configure the Domain Name System (DNS) resolver, which converts hostnames to and from network addresses.
-If DHCP or SLAAC was used to autoconfigure the network interface, the `Resolver Configuration` values may already be filled in.
-Otherwise, enter the local network's domain name in the `Search` field.
-`DNS #1` and `DNS #2` are the IPv4 and/or IPv6 addresses of the DNS servers.
-At least one DNS server is required.
-
-[[bsdinstall-net-dns-config]]
-.DNS Configuration
-image::bsdinstall-configure-network-ipv4-dns.png[]
-
-Once the interface is configured, select a mirror site that is located in the same region of the world as the computer on which FreeBSD is being installed.
-Files can be retrieved more quickly when the mirror is close to the target computer, reducing installation time.
-
-[[bsdinstall-netinstall-mirror]]
-.Choosing a Mirror
-image::bsdinstall-netinstall-mirrorselect.png[]
-
[[bsdinstall-install-trouble]]
== Troubleshooting
This section covers basic installation troubleshooting, such as common problems people have reported.
-Check the Hardware Notes (link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/[https://www.freebsd.org/releases/]) document for the version of FreeBSD to make sure the hardware is supported.
-If the hardware is supported and locks up or other problems occur, build a custom kernel using the instructions in crossref:kernelconfig[kernelconfig,Configuring the FreeBSD Kernel] to add support for devices which are not present in the [.filename]#GENERIC# kernel.
-The default kernel assumes that most hardware devices are in their factory default configuration in terms of IRQs, I/O addresses, and DMA channels.
-If the hardware has been reconfigured, a custom kernel configuration file can tell FreeBSD where to find things.
+Check the Hardware Notes listed on the link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/[FreeBSD Release Information] page for the version of FreeBSD to make sure the hardware is supported.
[NOTE]
====
@@ -1288,10 +1216,10 @@ ACPI can be disabled by setting the `hint.acpi.0.disabled` hint in the third sta
[source,shell]
....
- set hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"
+set hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"
....
-This is reset each time the system is booted, so it is necessary to add `hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"` to the file [.filename]#/boot/loader.conf#.
+This is reset each time the system is booted, so it is necessary to add `hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"` to the file `/boot/loader.conf`.
More information about the boot loader can be found in crossref:boot[boot-synopsis,“Synopsis”].
[[using-live-cd]]
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/books/handbook/introduction/_index.adoc b/documentation/content/en/books/handbook/introduction/_index.adoc
index db3923e71b..7f95916a82 100644
--- a/documentation/content/en/books/handbook/introduction/_index.adoc
+++ b/documentation/content/en/books/handbook/introduction/_index.adoc
@@ -87,7 +87,7 @@ FreeBSD offers performance and reliability on par with other Open Source and com
=== What Can FreeBSD Do?
The applications to which FreeBSD can be put are truly limited only by your own imagination.
-From software development to factory automation, inventory control to azimuth correction of remote satellite antennae; if it can be done with a commercial UNIX(R) product then it is more than likely that you can do it with FreeBSD too! FreeBSD also benefits significantly from literally thousands of high quality applications developed by research centers and universities around the world, often available at little to no cost.
+From software development to factory automation, inventory control to azimuth correction of remote satellite antenna; if it can be done with a commercial UNIX(R) product then it is more than likely that you can do it with FreeBSD too! FreeBSD also benefits significantly from literally thousands of high quality applications developed by research centers and universities around the world, often available at little to no cost.
Because the source code for FreeBSD itself is freely available, the system can also be customized to an almost unheard-of degree for special applications or projects, and in ways not generally possible with operating systems from most major commercial vendors.
Here is just a sampling of some of the applications in which people are currently using FreeBSD:
@@ -105,7 +105,7 @@ Here is just a sampling of some of the applications in which people are currentl
* _Research:_ With source code for the entire system available, FreeBSD is an excellent platform for research in operating systems as well as other branches of computer science. FreeBSD's freely available nature also makes it possible for remote groups to collaborate on ideas or shared development without having to worry about special licensing agreements or limitations on what may be discussed in open forums.
* _Networking:_ Need a new router? A name server (DNS)? A firewall to keep people out of your internal network? FreeBSD can easily turn that unused PC sitting in the corner into an advanced router with sophisticated packet-filtering capabilities.
* _Embedded:_ FreeBSD makes an excellent platform to build embedded systems upon. With support for the ARM(R), MIPS(R) and PowerPC(R) platforms, coupled with a robust network stack, cutting edge features, and the permissive extref:{faq}[BSD license, bsd-license-restrictions], FreeBSD makes an excellent foundation for building embedded routers, firewalls, and other devices.
-* _Desktop:_ FreeBSD makes a fine choice for an inexpensive desktop solution using the freely available X11 server. FreeBSD offers a choice from many open-source desktop environments, including the standard GNOME and KDE graphical user interfaces. FreeBSD can even boot "diskless" from a central server, making individual workstations even cheaper and easier to administer.
+* _Desktop:_ FreeBSD makes a fine choice for an inexpensive desktop solution using the freely available X11 server and Wayland display server. FreeBSD offers a choice from many open-source desktop environments, including the standard GNOME and KDE graphical user interfaces. FreeBSD can even boot "diskless" from a central server, making individual workstations even cheaper and easier to administer.
* _Software Development:_ The basic FreeBSD system comes with a full suite of development tools including a full C/C++ compiler and debugger suite. Support for many other languages are also available through the ports and packages collection.
FreeBSD is available to download free of charge, or can be obtained on either CD-ROM or DVD.
@@ -114,45 +114,7 @@ Please see crossref:mirrors[mirrors, Obtaining FreeBSD] for more information abo
[[introduction-nutshell-users]]
=== Who Uses FreeBSD?
-FreeBSD has been known for its web serving capabilities - sites that run on FreeBSD include link:https://news.ycombinator.com/[Hacker News], link:http://www.netcraft.com/[Netcraft], link:http://www.163.com/[NetEase], link:https://signup.netflix.com/openconnect[Netflix], link:http://www.sina.com/[Sina], link:http://www.sony.co.jp/[Sony Japan], link:http://www.rambler.ru/[Rambler], link:http://www.yahoo.com/[Yahoo!], and link:http://www.yandex.ru/[Yandex].
-
-FreeBSD's advanced features, proven security, predictable release cycle, and permissive license have led to its use as a platform for building many commercial and open source appliances, devices, and products.
-Many of the world's largest IT companies use FreeBSD:
-
-* link:http://www.apache.org/[Apache] - The Apache Software Foundation runs most of its public-facing infrastructure on FreeBSD, including possibly one of the largest SVN repositories in the world with over 1.4 million commits.
-* link:https://www.apple.com/[Apple] - Modern operating systems produced by Apple borrow code from FreeBSD for the process model, network stack, virtual file system, libraries, manual pages, and command-line utilities.
-* link:http://www.cisco.com/[Cisco] - IronPort network security and anti-spam appliances run a modified FreeBSD kernel.
-* link:http://www.citrix.com/[Citrix] - The NetScaler line of security appliances provide layer 4-7 load balancing, content caching, application firewall, secure VPN, and mobile cloud network access, along with the power of a FreeBSD shell.
-* link:https://www.emc.com/isilon[Dell EMC Isilon] - Isilon's enterprise storage appliances are based on FreeBSD. The extremely liberal FreeBSD license allowed Isilon to integrate their intellectual property throughout the kernel and focus on building their product instead of an operating system.
-* link:http://www.quest.com/KACE[Quest KACE] - The KACE system management appliances run FreeBSD because of its reliability, scalability, and the community that supports its continued development.
-* link:http://www.ixsystems.com/[iXsystems] - The TrueNAS line of unified storage appliances is based on FreeBSD.
-* link:http://www.juniper.net/[Juniper] - The JunOS operating system that powers all Juniper networking gear (including routers, switches, and security and networking appliances) is based on FreeBSD. Juniper is one of many vendors that showcases the symbiotic relationship between the project and vendors of commercial products. Improvements generated at Juniper are upstreamed into FreeBSD to reduce the complexity of integrating new features from FreeBSD back into JunOS in the future.
-* link:http://www.mcafee.com/[McAfee] - SecurOS, the basis of McAfee enterprise firewall products including Sidewinder, is based on FreeBSD.
-* link:http://www.netapp.com/[NetApp] - The Data ONTAP GX line of storage appliances are based on FreeBSD. In addition, NetApp has contributed back many features, including the new BSD licensed hypervisor, bhyve.
-* link:http://www.netflix.com/[Netflix] - The OpenConnect appliance that Netflix uses to stream movies to its customers is based on FreeBSD. Netflix has made extensive contributions to the codebase and works to maintain a zero delta from mainline FreeBSD. Netflix OpenConnect appliances are responsible for delivering more than 32% of all Internet traffic in North America.
-* link:http://www.sandvine.com/[Sandvine] - Sandvine uses FreeBSD as the basis of their high performance real-time network processing platforms that make up their intelligent network policy control products.
-* link:http://www.sony.com/[Sony] - The PlayStation Vita, PlayStation 4, and PlayStation 5 gaming consoles run a modified version of FreeBSD.
-* link:http://www.sophos.com/[Sophos] - The Sophos Email Appliance product is based on a hardened FreeBSD and scans inbound mail for spam and viruses, while also monitoring outbound mail for malware as well as the accidental loss of sensitive information.
-* link:http://www.spectralogic.com/[Spectra Logic] - The nTier line of archive grade storage appliances run FreeBSD and OpenZFS.
-* link:https://www.stormshield.com[Stormshield] - Stormshield Network Security appliances are based on a hardened version of FreeBSD. The BSD license allows them to integrate their own intellectual property with the system while returning a great deal of interesting development to the community.
-* link:http://www.weather.com/[The Weather Channel] - The IntelliStar appliance that is installed at each local cable provider's headend and is responsible for injecting local weather forecasts into the cable TV network's programming runs FreeBSD.
-* link:http://www.verisign.com/[Verisign] - Verisign is responsible for operating the .com and .net root domain registries as well as the accompanying DNS infrastructure. They rely on a number of different network operating systems including FreeBSD to ensure there is no common point of failure in their infrastructure.
-* link:http://www.voxer.com/[Voxer] - Voxer powers their mobile voice messaging platform with ZFS on FreeBSD. Voxer switched from a Solaris derivative to FreeBSD because of its superior documentation, larger and more active community, and more developer friendly environment. In addition to critical features like ZFS and DTrace, FreeBSD also offers TRIM support for ZFS.
-* link:https://fudosecurity.com/en/[Fudo Security] - The FUDO security appliance allows enterprises to monitor, control, record, and audit contractors and administrators who work on their systems. Based on all of the best security features of FreeBSD including ZFS, GELI, Capsicum, HAST, and auditdistd.
-
-FreeBSD has also spawned a number of related open source projects:
-
-* link:http://bsdrp.net/[BSD Router] - A FreeBSD-based replacement for large enterprise routers, designed to run on standard PC hardware.
-* link:https://www.truenas.com/[TrueNAS] is a Network Attached Storage (NAS) software that shares and protects data from modern-day threats like ransomware and malware. TrueNAS makes it easy for users and client devices to access shared data through virtually any sharing protocol.
-* link:https://ghostbsd.org/[GhostBSD] is derived from FreeBSD and uses the GTK environment to provide a beautiful look and comfortable experience on the modern BSD platform, offering a natural and native UNIX(R) work environment.
-* link:http://mfsbsd.vx.sk/[mfsBSD] - A toolkit for building a FreeBSD system image that runs entirely from memory.
-* link:https://xigmanas.com/[XigmaNAS] - A file server distribution based on FreeBSD with a PHP-powered web interface.
-* link:http://www.opnsense.org/[OPNSense] is an open source, easy-to-use and easy-to-build FreeBSD-based firewall and routing platform. OPNsense includes most of the features available in expensive commercial firewalls, and more in many cases. It brings the rich feature set of commercial offerings with the benefits of open and verifiable sources.
-* link:https://www.midnightbsd.org[MidnightBSD] is a FreeBSD-derived operating system developed with desktop users in mind. It includes all the software expected for daily tasks such as mail, web browsing, word processing, gaming, and much more.
-* link:https://www.nomadbsd.org[NomadBSD] is a persistent live system for USB flash drives, based on FreeBSD. Together with automatic hardware detection and setup, it is configured to be used as a desktop system that works out of the box, but can also be used for data recovery, for educational purposes, or to test FreeBSD's hardware compatibility.
-* link:http://www.pfsense.org/[pfSense] - A firewall distribution based on FreeBSD with a huge array of features and extensive IPv6 support.
-* link:http://zrouter.org/[ZRouter] - An open source alternative firmware for embedded devices based on FreeBSD. Designed to replace the proprietary firmware on off-the-shelf routers.
-
+FreeBSD has been known for its web serving capabilities.
A list of link:https://www.freebsdfoundation.org/about/testimonials/[testimonials from companies basing their products and services on FreeBSD] can be found at the FreeBSD Foundation website.
Wikipedia also maintains a link:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_products_based_on_FreeBSD[list of products based on FreeBSD].
@@ -167,7 +129,7 @@ The following section provides some background information on the project, inclu
The FreeBSD Project had its genesis in the early part of 1993, partially as the brainchild of the Unofficial 386BSDPatchkit's last 3 coordinators: Nate Williams, Rod Grimes and Jordan Hubbard.
The original goal was to produce an intermediate snapshot of 386BSD in order to fix a number of problems that the patchkit mechanism was just not capable of solving.
-The early working title for the project was 386BSD 0.5 or 386BSD Interim in reference of that fact.
+The early working title for the project was 386BSD 0.5 or 386BSD Interim in reference to that fact.
386BSD was Bill Jolitz's operating system, which had been up to that point suffering rather severely from almost a year's worth of neglect.
As the patchkit swelled ever more uncomfortably with each passing day, they decided to assist Bill by providing this interim "cleanup" snapshot.
@@ -183,13 +145,13 @@ This was based on the 4.3BSD-Lite ("Net/2") tape from U.C. Berkeley, with many c
It was a fairly reasonable success for a first offering, and they followed it with the highly successful FreeBSD 1.1 release in May of 1994.
Around this time, some rather unexpected storm clouds formed on the horizon as Novell and U.C. Berkeley settled their long-running lawsuit over the legal status of the Berkeley Net/2 tape.
-A condition of that settlement was U.C. Berkeley's concession that large parts of Net/2 were "encumbered" code and the property of Novell, who had in turn acquired it from AT&T some time previously.
+A condition of that settlement was U.C. Berkeley's concession that three files of Net/2 were "encumbered" code and had to be removed as they were the property of Novell, who had in turn acquired it from AT&T some time previously.
What Berkeley got in return was Novell's "blessing" that the 4.4BSD-Lite release, when it was finally released, would be declared unencumbered and all existing Net/2 users would be strongly encouraged to switch.
This included FreeBSD, and the project was given until the end of July 1994 to stop shipping its own Net/2 based product.
Under the terms of that agreement, the project was allowed one last release before the deadline, that release being FreeBSD 1.1.5.1.
FreeBSD then set about the arduous task of literally re-inventing itself from a completely new and rather incomplete set of 4.4BSD-Lite bits.
-The "Lite" releases were light in part because Berkeley's CSRG had removed large chunks of code required for actually constructing a bootable running system (due to various legal requirements) and the fact that the Intel port of 4.4 was highly incomplete.
+Although only three files having to do with System V shared memory and semaphores were removed, many other changes and bug fixes had been made to the BSD distribution, so it was a huge task to merge all the FreeBSD developments into 4.4BSD-Lite.
It took the project until November of 1994 to make this transition, and in December it released FreeBSD 2.0 to the world.
Despite being still more than a little rough around the edges, the release was a significant success and was followed by the more robust and easier to install FreeBSD 2.0.5 release in June of 1995.
@@ -283,19 +245,20 @@ More information on packages and ports can be found in crossref:ports[ports,Inst
All supported FreeBSD versions provide an option in the installer to install additional documentation under [.filename]#/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd# during the initial system setup.
Documentation may also be installed later using packages:
+
[source,shell]
....
# pkg install en-freebsd-doc
....
-For localized versions replace the "en" with language prefix of choice.
+For localized versions replace the "en" with the language prefix of choice.
Be aware that some of the localised versions might be out of date and might contain information that is no longer correct or relevant.
You may view the locally installed manuals with a web browser using the following URLs:
The FreeBSD Handbook::
-[.filename]#link:file:///usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/en/books/handbook/book.html[/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/en/books/handbook/book.html]#
+`/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/en/books/handbook/handbook_en.pdf`
The FreeBSD FAQ::
-[.filename]#link:file://localhost/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/en/books/faq/book.html[/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/en/books/faq/book.html]#
+`/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/en/books/faq/faq_en.pdf`
-You can always find up to date documentation at link:https://docs.FreeBSD.org/[https://docs.FreeBSD.org/].
+You can always find up to date documentation at link:https://docs.FreeBSD.org/[The Documentation Portal].
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/books/handbook/parti.adoc b/documentation/content/en/books/handbook/parti.adoc
index 9ef35a4ce4..d387a70f50 100644
--- a/documentation/content/en/books/handbook/parti.adoc
+++ b/documentation/content/en/books/handbook/parti.adoc
@@ -18,5 +18,6 @@ These chapters:
* Teach UNIX(R) basics and fundamentals.
* Show how to install the wealth of third party applications available for FreeBSD.
* Introduce X, the UNIX(R) windowing system, and detail how to configure a desktop environment that makes users more productive.
+* Introduce Wayland, a new display server for UNIX(R).
The number of forward references in the text have been kept to a minimum so that this section can be read from front to back with minimal page flipping.
diff --git a/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-hardening.png b/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-hardening.png
index a1df8e49fa..66d2aee11a 100644
--- a/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-hardening.png
+++ b/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-hardening.png
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diff --git a/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-10.png b/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-10.png
index 5d76c5f6af..0a787d7c43 100644
--- a/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-10.png
+++ b/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-10.png
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diff --git a/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu.png b/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu.png
index b600bc48cb..fc35add938 100644
--- a/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu.png
+++ b/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu.png
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diff --git a/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme.png b/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme.png
index a1ce30cbfc..47cc8c89c4 100644
--- a/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme.png
+++ b/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme.png
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diff --git a/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu.png b/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu.png
index 8f4bb3feca..e33a71af45 100644
--- a/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu.png
+++ b/documentation/static/images/books/handbook/bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu.png
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