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authorGabor Kovesdan <gabor@FreeBSD.org>2013-11-07 15:39:28 +0000
committerGabor Kovesdan <gabor@FreeBSD.org>2013-11-07 15:39:28 +0000
commit24d129e8d1984a0b46a543bc523b63d216813bb0 (patch)
tree7dd0501c857c6f2139f4a71191c93bf19136412a /el_GR.ISO8859-7/books/handbook/disks/chapter.xml
parent35f1d6c78be90eb13320d655cd68f94333a0ab26 (diff)
downloaddoc-24d129e8d1984a0b46a543bc523b63d216813bb0.tar.gz
doc-24d129e8d1984a0b46a543bc523b63d216813bb0.zip
- Definitively upgrade to DocBook 5.0
Notes
Notes: svn path=/projects/db5/; revision=43125
Diffstat (limited to 'el_GR.ISO8859-7/books/handbook/disks/chapter.xml')
-rw-r--r--el_GR.ISO8859-7/books/handbook/disks/chapter.xml569
1 files changed, 239 insertions, 330 deletions
diff --git a/el_GR.ISO8859-7/books/handbook/disks/chapter.xml b/el_GR.ISO8859-7/books/handbook/disks/chapter.xml
index 12d6c80d03..987380c80c 100644
--- a/el_GR.ISO8859-7/books/handbook/disks/chapter.xml
+++ b/el_GR.ISO8859-7/books/handbook/disks/chapter.xml
@@ -11,11 +11,10 @@
%SRCID% 1.1
-->
-
-<chapter id="disks">
+<chapter xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0" xml:id="disks">
<title>Αποθηκευτικά Μέσα</title>
- <sect1 id="disks-synopsis">
+ <sect1 xml:id="disks-synopsis">
<title>Σύνοψη</title>
@@ -80,14 +79,14 @@
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="disks-naming">
+ <sect1 xml:id="disks-naming">
<title>Device Names</title>
<para>The following is a list of physical storage devices
supported in FreeBSD, and the device names associated with
them.</para>
- <table id="disk-naming-physical-table" frame="none">
+ <table xml:id="disk-naming-physical-table" frame="none">
<title>Physical Disk Naming Conventions</title>
<tgroup cols="2">
@@ -150,19 +149,15 @@
</table>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="disks-adding">
- <sect1info>
+ <sect1 xml:id="disks-adding">
+ <info><title>Adding Disks</title>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>David</firstname>
- <surname>O'Brien</surname>
- <contrib>Originally contributed by </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>David</firstname><surname>O'Brien</surname></personname><contrib>Originally contributed by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
- <!-- 26 Apr 1998 -->
- </sect1info>
+
+ </info>
- <title>Adding Disks</title>
+
<indexterm>
<primary>disks</primary>
@@ -176,12 +171,12 @@
wide variations of procedures to do this, the details are beyond
the scope of this document.</para>
- <para>Login as user <username>root</username>. After you have installed the
+ <para>Login as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>. After you have installed the
drive, inspect <filename>/var/run/dmesg.boot</filename> to ensure the new
disk was found. Continuing with our example, the newly added drive will
- be <devicename>da1</devicename> and we want to mount it on
+ be <filename>da1</filename> and we want to mount it on
<filename>/1</filename> (if you are adding an IDE drive, the device name
- will be <devicename>ad1</devicename>).</para>
+ will be <filename>ad1</filename>).</para>
<indexterm><primary>partitions</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm><primary>slices</primary></indexterm>
@@ -235,7 +230,7 @@
<para>You may use <command>sysinstall</command> to
partition and label a new disk using its easy to use menus.
- Either login as user <username>root</username> or use the
+ Either login as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> or use the
<command>su</command> command. Run
<command>sysinstall</command> and enter the
<literal>Configure</literal> menu. Within the
@@ -365,31 +360,23 @@
</sect2>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="raid">
+ <sect1 xml:id="raid">
<title>RAID</title>
- <sect2 id="raid-soft">
+ <sect2 xml:id="raid-soft">
<title>Software RAID</title>
- <sect3 id="ccd">
- <sect3info>
+ <sect3 xml:id="ccd">
+ <info><title>Concatenated Disk Driver (CCD) Configuration</title>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Christopher</firstname>
- <surname>Shumway</surname>
- <contrib>Original work by </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Christopher</firstname><surname>Shumway</surname></personname><contrib>Original work by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Jim</firstname>
- <surname>Brown</surname>
- <contrib>Revised by </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Jim</firstname><surname>Brown</surname></personname><contrib>Revised by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
- </sect3info>
+ </info>
- <title>Concatenated Disk Driver (CCD) Configuration</title>
+
<indexterm><primary>RAID</primary><secondary>software</secondary></indexterm>
<indexterm>
@@ -415,7 +402,7 @@
the system described in this section.</para>
- <sect4 id="ccd-installhw">
+ <sect4 xml:id="ccd-installhw">
<title>Installing the Hardware</title>
<para>In addition to the IDE system disk, three Western
@@ -445,12 +432,11 @@ ad3: 29333MB &lt;WDC WD307AA&gt; [59598/16/63] at ata1-slave UDMA33</programlist
identifying the correct jumper.</para></note>
<para>Next, consider how to attach them as part of the file
- system. You should research both &man.vinum.8; (<xref
- linkend="vinum-vinum"/>) and &man.ccd.4;. In this
+ system. You should research both &man.vinum.8; (<xref linkend="vinum-vinum"/>) and &man.ccd.4;. In this
particular configuration, &man.ccd.4; was chosen.</para>
</sect4>
- <sect4 id="ccd-setup">
+ <sect4 xml:id="ccd-setup">
<title>Setting Up the CCD</title>
<para>The &man.ccd.4; driver allows you to take
@@ -473,7 +459,7 @@ ad3: 29333MB &lt;WDC WD307AA&gt; [59598/16/63] at ata1-slave UDMA33</programlist
bsdlabel -r -w ad2 auto
bsdlabel -r -w ad3 auto</programlisting>
- <para>This creates a bsdlabel for <devicename>ad1c</devicename>, <devicename>ad2c</devicename> and <devicename>ad3c</devicename> that
+ <para>This creates a bsdlabel for <filename>ad1c</filename>, <filename>ad2c</filename> and <filename>ad3c</filename> that
spans the entire disk.</para>
<para>The next step is to change the disk label type. You
@@ -508,14 +494,14 @@ bsdlabel -e ad3</programlisting>
</sect4>
- <sect4 id="ccd-buildingfs">
+ <sect4 xml:id="ccd-buildingfs">
<title>Building the File System</title>
<para>Now that you have all the disks labeled, you must
build the &man.ccd.4;. To do that,
use &man.ccdconfig.8;, with options similar to the following:</para>
- <programlisting>ccdconfig ccd0<co id="co-ccd-dev"/> 32<co id="co-ccd-interleave"/> 0<co id="co-ccd-flags"/> /dev/ad1e<co id="co-ccd-devs"/> /dev/ad2e /dev/ad3e</programlisting>
+ <programlisting>ccdconfig ccd0<co xml:id="co-ccd-dev"/> 32<co xml:id="co-ccd-interleave"/> 0<co xml:id="co-ccd-flags"/> /dev/ad1e<co xml:id="co-ccd-devs"/> /dev/ad2e /dev/ad3e</programlisting>
<para>The use and meaning of each option is shown below:</para>
@@ -557,7 +543,7 @@ bsdlabel -e ad3</programlisting>
</sect4>
- <sect4 id="ccd-auto">
+ <sect4 xml:id="ccd-auto">
<title>Making it All Automatic</title>
<para>Generally, you will want to mount the
@@ -589,7 +575,7 @@ bsdlabel -e ad3</programlisting>
</sect4>
</sect3>
- <sect3 id="vinum">
+ <sect3 xml:id="vinum">
<title>The Vinum Volume Manager</title>
<indexterm><primary>RAID</primary><secondary>software</secondary></indexterm>
@@ -611,7 +597,7 @@ bsdlabel -e ad3</programlisting>
</sect3>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="raid-hard">
+ <sect2 xml:id="raid-hard">
<title>Hardware RAID</title>
<indexterm>
@@ -727,19 +713,15 @@ ar0: ATA RAID1 subdisks: ad4 ad6 status: REBUILDING 0% completed</screen>
</sect2>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="usb-disks">
- <sect1info>
+ <sect1 xml:id="usb-disks">
+ <info><title>USB Storage Devices</title>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Marc</firstname>
- <surname>Fonvieille</surname>
- <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Marc</firstname><surname>Fonvieille</surname></personname><contrib>Contributed by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
- <!-- Jul 2004 -->
- </sect1info>
+
+ </info>
- <title>USB Storage Devices</title>
+
<indexterm>
<primary>USB</primary>
<secondary>disks</secondary>
@@ -813,7 +795,7 @@ da0: 1.000MB/s transfers
da0: 126MB (258048 512 byte sectors: 64H 32S/T 126C)</screen>
<para>Of course, the brand, the device node
- (<devicename>da0</devicename>) and other details can differ
+ (<filename>da0</filename>) and other details can differ
according to your configuration.</para>
<para>Since the USB device is seen as a SCSI one, the
@@ -832,9 +814,9 @@ da0: 126MB (258048 512 byte sectors: 64H 32S/T 126C)</screen>
steps have to be taken. First, the devices that are created
when a USB storage device is connected need to be accessible
by the user. A solution is to make all users of these devices
- a member of the <groupname>operator</groupname> group. This
+ a member of the <systemitem class="groupname">operator</systemitem> group. This
is done with &man.pw.8;. Second, when the devices are
- created, the <groupname>operator</groupname> group should be
+ created, the <systemitem class="groupname">operator</systemitem> group should be
able to read and write them. This is accomplished by adding
these lines to
<filename>/etc/devfs.rules</filename>:</para>
@@ -845,14 +827,14 @@ add path 'da*' mode 0660 group operator</programlisting>
<note>
<para>If there already are SCSI disks in the system, it must
be done a bit different. E.g., if the system already
- contains disks <devicename>da0</devicename> through
- <devicename>da2</devicename> attached to the system, change
+ contains disks <filename>da0</filename> through
+ <filename>da2</filename> attached to the system, change
the second line as follows:</para>
<programlisting>add path 'da[3-9]*' mode 0660 group operator</programlisting>
<para>This will exclude the already existing disks from
- belonging to the <groupname>operator</groupname>
+ belonging to the <systemitem class="groupname">operator</systemitem>
group.</para>
</note>
@@ -875,21 +857,21 @@ add path 'da*' mode 0660 group operator</programlisting>
<para>The final step is to create a directory where the file
system is to be mounted. This directory needs to be owned by
the user that is to mount the file system. One way to do that
- is for <username>root</username> to create a subdirectory
+ is for <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> to create a subdirectory
owned by that user as
- <filename>/mnt/<replaceable>$USER</replaceable></filename>
+ <filename>/mnt/$USER</filename>
(replace <replaceable>$USER</replaceable> by the login name of
the actual user):</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkdir /mnt/$USER</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>chown <replaceable>$USER</replaceable>:<replaceable>$USER</replaceable> /mnt/<replaceable>$USER</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>chown $USER:$USER /mnt/$USER</userinput></screen>
<para>Suppose a USB thumbdrive is plugged in, and a device
<filename>/dev/da0s1</filename> appears. Since these devices
usually come preformatted with a FAT file system, one can
mount them like this:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mount_msdosfs -m 644 -M 755 /dev/da0s1 /mnt/<replaceable>$USER</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mount_msdosfs -m 644 -M 755 /dev/da0s1 /mnt/$USER</userinput></screen>
<para>If you unplug the device (the disk must be unmounted
before), you should see, in the system message buffer,
@@ -913,20 +895,15 @@ umass0: detached</screen>
</sect2>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="creating-cds">
- <sect1info>
+ <sect1 xml:id="creating-cds">
+ <info><title>Creating and Using Optical Media (CDs)</title>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Mike</firstname>
- <surname>Meyer</surname>
- <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
- <!-- mwm@mired.org -->
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Mike</firstname><surname>Meyer</surname></personname><contrib>Contributed by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
- <!-- Apr 2001 -->
- </sect1info>
+
+ </info>
- <title>Creating and Using Optical Media (CDs)</title>
+
<indexterm>
<primary>CDROMs</primary>
<secondary>creating</secondary>
@@ -960,9 +937,9 @@ umass0: detached</screen>
working with systems that do not support those extensions.</para>
<indexterm>
- <primary><filename role="package">sysutils/cdrtools</filename></primary>
+ <primary><package>sysutils/cdrtools</package></primary>
</indexterm>
- <para>The <filename role="package">sysutils/cdrtools</filename>
+ <para>The <package>sysutils/cdrtools</package>
port includes &man.mkisofs.8;, a program that you can use to
produce a data file containing an ISO 9660 file
system. It has options that support various extensions, and is
@@ -973,39 +950,33 @@ umass0: detached</screen>
<secondary>ATAPI</secondary>
</indexterm>
<para>Which tool to use to burn the CD depends on whether your CD burner
- is ATAPI or something else. ATAPI CD burners use the <command><link
- linkend="burncd">burncd</link></command> program that is part of
+ is ATAPI or something else. ATAPI CD burners use the <command>burncd</command> program that is part of
the base system. SCSI and USB CD burners should use
- <command><link linkend="cdrecord">cdrecord</link></command> from
- the <filename role="package">sysutils/cdrtools</filename> port.
- It is also possible to use <command><link
- linkend="cdrecord">cdrecord</link></command> and other tools
- for SCSI drives on ATAPI hardware with the <link
- linkend="atapicam">ATAPI/CAM module</link>.</para>
+ <command>cdrecord</command> from
+ the <package>sysutils/cdrtools</package> port.
+ It is also possible to use <command>cdrecord</command> and other tools
+ for SCSI drives on ATAPI hardware with the <link linkend="atapicam">ATAPI/CAM module</link>.</para>
<para>If you want CD burning software with a graphical user
interface, you may wish to take a look at either
<application>X-CD-Roast</application> or
<application>K3b</application>. These tools are available as
- packages or from the <filename
- role="package">sysutils/xcdroast</filename> and <filename
- role="package">sysutils/k3b</filename> ports.
+ packages or from the <package>sysutils/xcdroast</package> and <package>sysutils/k3b</package> ports.
<application>X-CD-Roast</application> and
- <application>K3b</application> require the <link
- linkend="atapicam">ATAPI/CAM module</link> with ATAPI
+ <application>K3b</application> require the <link linkend="atapicam">ATAPI/CAM module</link> with ATAPI
hardware.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="mkisofs">
+ <sect2 xml:id="mkisofs">
<title>mkisofs</title>
<para>The &man.mkisofs.8; program, which is part of the
- <filename role="package">sysutils/cdrtools</filename> port,
+ <package>sysutils/cdrtools</package> port,
produces an ISO 9660 file system
that is an image of a directory tree in the &unix; file system name
space. The simplest usage is:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkisofs -o <replaceable>imagefile.iso</replaceable> <replaceable>/path/to/tree</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkisofs -o imagefile.iso /path/to/tree</userinput></screen>
<indexterm>
<primary>file systems</primary>
@@ -1062,7 +1033,7 @@ umass0: detached</screen>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkisofs -R -no-emul-boot -b boot/cdboot -o /tmp/bootable.iso /tmp/myboot</userinput></screen>
- <para>Having done that, if you have <devicename>md</devicename>
+ <para>Having done that, if you have <filename>md</filename>
configured in your kernel, you can mount the file system with:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mdconfig -a -t vnode -f /tmp/bootable.iso -u 0</userinput>
@@ -1077,7 +1048,7 @@ umass0: detached</screen>
and HFS discs. See the &man.mkisofs.8; manual page for details.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="burncd">
+ <sect2 xml:id="burncd">
<title>burncd</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>CDROMs</primary>
@@ -1089,7 +1060,7 @@ umass0: detached</screen>
as <filename>/usr/sbin/burncd</filename>. Usage is very simple, as
it has few options:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>burncd -f <replaceable>cddevice</replaceable> data <replaceable>imagefile.iso</replaceable> fixate</userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>burncd -f cddevice data imagefile.iso fixate</userinput></screen>
<para>Will burn a copy of <replaceable>imagefile.iso</replaceable> on
<replaceable>cddevice</replaceable>. The default device is
@@ -1098,26 +1069,25 @@ umass0: detached</screen>
data.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="cdrecord">
+ <sect2 xml:id="cdrecord">
<title>cdrecord</title>
<para>If you do not have an ATAPI CD burner, you will have to use
<command>cdrecord</command> to burn your
CDs. <command>cdrecord</command> is not part of the base system;
- you must install it from either the port at <filename role="package">sysutils/cdrtools</filename>
+ you must install it from either the port at <package>sysutils/cdrtools</package>
or the appropriate
package. Changes to the base system can cause binary versions of
this program to fail, possibly resulting in a
<quote>coaster</quote>. You should therefore either upgrade the
- port when you upgrade your system, or if you are <link
- linkend="stable">tracking -STABLE</link>, upgrade the port when a
+ port when you upgrade your system, or if you are <link linkend="stable">tracking -STABLE</link>, upgrade the port when a
new version becomes available.</para>
<para>While <command>cdrecord</command> has many options, basic usage
is even simpler than <command>burncd</command>. Burning an ISO 9660
image is done with:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cdrecord dev=<replaceable>device</replaceable> <replaceable>imagefile.iso</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cdrecord dev=device imagefile.iso</userinput></screen>
<para>The tricky part of using <command>cdrecord</command> is finding
the <option>dev</option> to use. To find the proper setting, use
@@ -1160,7 +1130,7 @@ scsibus1:
audio tracks, controlling the speed, and other things.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="duplicating-audiocds">
+ <sect2 xml:id="duplicating-audiocds">
<title>Duplicating Audio CDs</title>
<para>You can duplicate an audio CD by extracting the audio data from
@@ -1181,7 +1151,7 @@ scsibus1:
<para>Use <command>cdrecord</command> to write the
<filename>.wav</filename> files.</para>
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cdrecord -v dev=<replaceable>2,0</replaceable> -dao -useinfo *.wav</userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cdrecord -v dev=2,0 -dao -useinfo *.wav</userinput></screen>
<para>Make sure that <replaceable>2,0</replaceable> is set
appropriately, as described in <xref linkend="cdrecord"/>.</para>
@@ -1193,7 +1163,7 @@ scsibus1:
<step>
<para>The ATAPI CD driver makes each track available as
- <filename>/dev/acd<replaceable>d</replaceable>t<replaceable>nn</replaceable></filename>,
+ <filename>/dev/acddtnn</filename>,
where <replaceable>d</replaceable> is the drive number, and
<replaceable>nn</replaceable> is the track number written with two
decimal digits, prefixed with zero as needed.
@@ -1225,19 +1195,19 @@ scsibus1:
files, and that <command>burncd</command> should fixate the disk
when finished.</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>burncd -f <replaceable>/dev/acd0</replaceable> audio track1.cdr track2.cdr <replaceable>...</replaceable> fixate</userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>burncd -f /dev/acd0 audio track1.cdr track2.cdr ... fixate</userinput></screen>
</step>
</procedure>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="imaging-cd">
+ <sect2 xml:id="imaging-cd">
<title>Duplicating Data CDs</title>
<para>You can copy a data CD to a image file that is
functionally equivalent to the image file created with
&man.mkisofs.8;, and you can use it to duplicate
any data CD. The example given here assumes that your CDROM
- device is <devicename>acd0</devicename>. Substitute your
+ device is <filename>acd0</filename>. Substitute your
correct CDROM device.</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/acd0 of=file.iso bs=2048</userinput></screen>
@@ -1246,7 +1216,7 @@ scsibus1:
described above.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="mounting-cd">
+ <sect2 xml:id="mounting-cd">
<title>Using Data CDs</title>
<para>Now that you have created a standard data CDROM, you
@@ -1321,7 +1291,7 @@ scsibus1:
bus reset.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="rawdata-cd">
+ <sect2 xml:id="rawdata-cd">
<title>Burning Raw Data CDs</title>
<para>You can choose to burn a file directly to CD, without
@@ -1343,18 +1313,14 @@ scsibus1:
&man.mkisofs.8; as described above.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="atapicam">
- <sect2info>
+ <sect2 xml:id="atapicam">
+ <info><title>Using the ATAPI/CAM Driver</title>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Marc</firstname>
- <surname>Fonvieille</surname>
- <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Marc</firstname><surname>Fonvieille</surname></personname><contrib>Contributed by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
- </sect2info>
+ </info>
- <title>Using the ATAPI/CAM Driver</title>
+
<indexterm>
<primary>CD burner</primary>
@@ -1363,8 +1329,7 @@ scsibus1:
<para>This driver allows ATAPI devices (CD-ROM, CD-RW, DVD
drives etc...) to be accessed through the SCSI subsystem, and
- so allows the use of applications like <filename
- role="package">sysutils/cdrdao</filename> or
+ so allows the use of applications like <package>sysutils/cdrdao</package> or
&man.cdrecord.1;.</para>
<para>To use this driver, you will need to add the following
@@ -1408,9 +1373,9 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
mount a CD-ROM on <filename>/mnt</filename>, just type the
following:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount -t cd9660 <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable> /mnt</userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount -t cd9660 /dev/cd0 /mnt</userinput></screen>
- <para>As <username>root</username>, you can run the following
+ <para>As <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, you can run the following
command to get the SCSI address of the burner:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>camcontrol devlist</userinput>
@@ -1425,26 +1390,18 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
</sect2>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="creating-dvds">
- <sect1info>
+ <sect1 xml:id="creating-dvds">
+ <info><title>Creating and Using Optical Media (DVDs)</title>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Marc</firstname>
- <surname>Fonvieille</surname>
- <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Marc</firstname><surname>Fonvieille</surname></personname><contrib>Contributed by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Andy</firstname>
- <surname>Polyakov</surname>
- <contrib>With inputs from </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Andy</firstname><surname>Polyakov</surname></personname><contrib>With inputs from </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
- <!-- Feb 2004 -->
- </sect1info>
+
+ </info>
- <title>Creating and Using Optical Media (DVDs)</title>
+
<indexterm>
<primary>DVD</primary>
<secondary>burning</secondary>
@@ -1464,8 +1421,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>DVD-R: This was the first DVD recordable format
- available. The DVD-R standard is defined by the <ulink
- url="http://www.dvdforum.com/forum.shtml">DVD Forum</ulink>.
+ available. The DVD-R standard is defined by the <link xlink:href="http://www.dvdforum.com/forum.shtml">DVD Forum</link>.
This format is write once.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -1487,8 +1443,8 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<listitem>
<para>DVD+RW: This is a rewritable format defined by
- the <ulink url="http://www.dvdrw.com/">DVD+RW
- Alliance</ulink>. A DVD+RW can be rewritten about 1000
+ the <link xlink:href="http://www.dvdrw.com/">DVD+RW
+ Alliance</link>. A DVD+RW can be rewritten about 1000
times.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -1517,8 +1473,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<para>The program &man.growisofs.1; will be used to perform DVD
recording. This command is part of the
- <application>dvd+rw-tools</application> utilities (<filename
- role="package">sysutils/dvd+rw-tools</filename>). The
+ <application>dvd+rw-tools</application> utilities (<package>sysutils/dvd+rw-tools</package>). The
<application>dvd+rw-tools</application> support all DVD media
types.</para>
@@ -1537,15 +1492,13 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<para>Before attempting to use the
<application>dvd+rw-tools</application> you should consult the
- <ulink
- url="http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/hcn.html">dvd+rw-tools'
- hardware compatibility notes</ulink> for any information
+ <link xlink:href="http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/hcn.html">dvd+rw-tools'
+ hardware compatibility notes</link> for any information
related to your DVD burner.</para>
<note>
<para>If you want a graphical user interface, you should have
- a look to <application>K3b</application> (<filename
- role="package">sysutils/k3b</filename>) which provides a
+ a look to <application>K3b</application> (<package>sysutils/k3b</package>) which provides a
user friendly interface to &man.growisofs.1; and many other
burning tools.</para>
</note>
@@ -1554,17 +1507,15 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<sect2>
<title>Burning Data DVDs</title>
- <para>The &man.growisofs.1; command is a frontend to <link
- linkend="mkisofs">mkisofs</link>, it will invoke
+ <para>The &man.growisofs.1; command is a frontend to <link linkend="mkisofs">mkisofs</link>, it will invoke
&man.mkisofs.8; to create the file system layout and will
perform the write on the DVD. This means you do not need to
create an image of the data before the burning process.</para>
- <para>To burn onto a DVD+R or a DVD-R the data from the <filename
- class="directory">/path/to/data</filename> directory, use the
+ <para>To burn onto a DVD+R or a DVD-R the data from the <filename>/path/to/data</filename> directory, use the
following command:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -dvd-compat -Z <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable> -J -R <replaceable>/path/to/data</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/cd0 -J -R /path/to/data</userinput></screen>
<para>The options <option>-J -R</option> are passed to
&man.mkisofs.8; for the file system creation (in this case: an
@@ -1584,7 +1535,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
example to burn the image
<replaceable>imagefile.iso</replaceable>, we will run:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -dvd-compat -Z <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable>=<replaceable>imagefile.iso</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/cd0=imagefile.iso</userinput></screen>
<para>The write speed should be detected and automatically set
according to the media and the drive being used. If you want
@@ -1604,18 +1555,17 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<para>A DVD-Video is a specific file layout based on ISO 9660
and the micro-UDF (M-UDF) specifications. The DVD-Video also
presents a specific data structure hierarchy, it is the reason
- why you need a particular program such as <filename
- role="package">multimedia/dvdauthor</filename> to author the
+ why you need a particular program such as <package>multimedia/dvdauthor</package> to author the
DVD.</para>
<para>If you already have an image of the DVD-Video file system,
just burn it in the same way as for any image, see the
previous section for an example. If you have made the DVD
authoring and the result is in, for example, the directory
- <filename class="directory">/path/to/video</filename>, the
+ <filename>/path/to/video</filename>, the
following command should be used to burn the DVD-Video:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -Z <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable> -dvd-video <replaceable>/path/to/video</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -Z /dev/cd0 -dvd-video /path/to/video</userinput></screen>
<para>The <option>-dvd-video</option> option will be passed down to
&man.mkisofs.8; and will instruct it to create a DVD-Video file system
@@ -1639,7 +1589,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<command>dvd+rw-format</command> command to format the
DVD+RW:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dvd+rw-format <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dvd+rw-format /dev/cd0</userinput></screen>
<para>You need to perform this operation just once, keep in mind
that only virgin DVD+RW medias need to be formatted. Then you
@@ -1651,7 +1601,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
blank it, you just have to write over the previous recording
(in performing a new initial session), like this:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -Z <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable> -J -R <replaceable>/path/to/newdata</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -Z /dev/cd0 -J -R /path/to/newdata</userinput></screen>
<para>DVD+RW format offers the possibility to easily append data
to a previous recording. The operation consists in merging a
@@ -1662,7 +1612,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<para>For example, if we want to append data to our previous
DVD+RW, we have to use the following:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -M <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable> -J -R <replaceable>/path/to/nextdata</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -M /dev/cd0 -J -R /path/to/nextdata</userinput></screen>
<para>The same &man.mkisofs.8; options we used to burn the
initial session should be used during next writes.</para>
@@ -1677,7 +1627,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<para>If for any reason you really want to blank the media, do
the following:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -Z <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable>=<replaceable>/dev/zero</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -Z /dev/cd0=/dev/zero</userinput></screen>
</sect2>
<sect2>
@@ -1699,7 +1649,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<para>To blank a DVD-RW in sequential mode, run:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dvd+rw-format -blank=full <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dvd+rw-format -blank=full /dev/cd0</userinput></screen>
<note>
<para>A full blanking (<option>-blank=full</option>) will take
@@ -1708,7 +1658,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
DVD-RW will be recorded in Disk-At-Once (DAO) mode. To burn
the DVD-RW in DAO mode, use the command:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -use-the-force-luke=dao -Z <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable>=<replaceable>imagefile.iso</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -use-the-force-luke=dao -Z /dev/cd0=imagefile.iso</userinput></screen>
<para>The <option>-use-the-force-luke=dao</option> option
should not be required since &man.growisofs.1; attempts to
@@ -1723,7 +1673,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<para>To write data on a sequential DVD-RW, use the same
instructions as for the other DVD formats:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -Z <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable> -J -R <replaceable>/path/to/data</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -Z /dev/cd0 -J -R /path/to/data</userinput></screen>
<para>If you want to append some data to your previous
recording, you will have to use the &man.growisofs.1;
@@ -1743,11 +1693,11 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<para>To put a DVD-RW in the restricted overwrite format, the
following command must be used:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dvd+rw-format <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dvd+rw-format /dev/cd0</userinput></screen>
<para>To change back to the sequential format use:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dvd+rw-format -blank=full <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dvd+rw-format -blank=full /dev/cd0</userinput></screen>
</sect2>
<sect2>
@@ -1764,7 +1714,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
session on a DVD+R, DVD-R, or DVD-RW in sequential format,
will add a new session to the disc:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -M <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable> -J -R <replaceable>/path/to/nextdata</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>growisofs -M /dev/cd0 -J -R /path/to/nextdata</userinput></screen>
<para>Using this command line with a DVD+RW or a DVD-RW in restricted
overwrite mode, will append data in merging the new session to
@@ -1787,16 +1737,14 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<para>To obtain more information about a DVD, the
<command>dvd+rw-mediainfo
- <replaceable>/dev/cd0</replaceable></command> command can be
+ /dev/cd0</command> command can be
ran with the disc in the drive.</para>
<para>More information about the
<application>dvd+rw-tools</application> can be found in
- the &man.growisofs.1; manual page, on the <ulink
- url="http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/">dvd+rw-tools
- web site</ulink> and in the <ulink
- url="http://lists.debian.org/cdwrite/">cdwrite mailing
- list</ulink> archives.</para>
+ the &man.growisofs.1; manual page, on the <link xlink:href="http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/">dvd+rw-tools
+ web site</link> and in the <link xlink:href="http://lists.debian.org/cdwrite/">cdwrite mailing
+ list</link> archives.</para>
<note>
<para>The <command>dvd+rw-mediainfo</command> output of the
@@ -1806,7 +1754,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
</note>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="creating-dvd-ram">
+ <sect2 xml:id="creating-dvd-ram">
<title>Using a DVD-RAM</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>DVD</primary>
@@ -1833,11 +1781,11 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
before the first use. In the example, the whole
disk space will be used with a standard UFS2 file system:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=<replaceable>/dev/acd0</replaceable> count=2</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>bsdlabel -Bw <replaceable>acd0</replaceable></userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs <replaceable>/dev/acd0</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/acd0 count=2</userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>bsdlabel -Bw acd0</userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs /dev/acd0</userinput></screen>
- <para>The DVD device, <devicename>acd0</devicename>, must be
+ <para>The DVD device, <filename>acd0</filename>, must be
changed according to the configuration.</para>
</sect3>
@@ -1847,34 +1795,26 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<para>Once the previous operations have been performed on the
DVD-RAM, it can be mounted as a normal hard drive:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount <replaceable>/dev/acd0</replaceable> <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/acd0 /mnt</userinput></screen>
<para>After this the DVD-RAM will be both readable and writeable.</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="floppies">
- <sect1info>
+ <sect1 xml:id="floppies">
+ <info><title>Creating and Using Floppy Disks</title>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Julio</firstname>
- <surname>Merino</surname>
- <contrib>Original work by </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Julio</firstname><surname>Merino</surname></personname><contrib>Original work by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
- <!-- 24 Dec 2001 -->
+
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Martin</firstname>
- <surname>Karlsson</surname>
- <contrib>Rewritten by </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Martin</firstname><surname>Karlsson</surname></personname><contrib>Rewritten by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
- <!-- 27 Apr 2003 -->
- </sect1info>
+
+ </info>
- <title>Creating and Using Floppy Disks</title>
+
<para>Storing data on floppy disks is sometimes useful, for
example when one does not have any other removable storage media
@@ -1895,7 +1835,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<para>Floppy disks are accessed through entries in
<filename>/dev</filename>, just like other devices. To
access the raw floppy disk, simply use
- <filename>/dev/fd<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename>.</para>
+ <filename>/dev/fdN</filename>.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
@@ -1918,7 +1858,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<title>Formatting Floppy Disks</title>
<para>Use the
- <filename>/dev/fd<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename>
+ <filename>/dev/fdN</filename>
devices to format the floppy. Insert a new 3.5inch floppy
disk in your drive and issue:</para>
@@ -1971,19 +1911,19 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<title>Using the Floppy</title>
<para>To use the floppy, mount it with &man.mount.msdosfs.8;. One can also use
- <filename role="package">emulators/mtools</filename> from the ports
+ <package>emulators/mtools</package> from the ports
collection.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="backups-tapebackups">
+ <sect1 xml:id="backups-tapebackups">
<title>Creating and Using Data Tapes</title>
<indexterm><primary>tape media</primary></indexterm>
<para>The major tape media are the 4mm, 8mm, QIC, mini-cartridge and
DLT.</para>
- <sect2 id="backups-tapebackups-4mm">
+ <sect2 xml:id="backups-tapebackups-4mm">
<title>4mm (DDS: Digital Data Storage)</title>
<indexterm>
@@ -2020,7 +1960,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
backups.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="backups-tapebackups-8mm">
+ <sect2 xml:id="backups-tapebackups-8mm">
<title>8mm (Exabyte)</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>tape media</primary>
@@ -2053,7 +1993,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
tape from one edge to the other.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="backups-tapebackups-qic">
+ <sect2 xml:id="backups-tapebackups-qic">
<title>QIC</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>tape media</primary>
@@ -2090,7 +2030,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
<para>Tapes should be retired from use after 5,000 backups.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="backups-tapebackups-dlt">
+ <sect2 xml:id="backups-tapebackups-dlt">
<title>DLT</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>tape media</primary>
@@ -2126,7 +2066,7 @@ cd0: Attempt to query device size failed: NOT READY, Medium not present - tray c
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title id="backups-tapebackups-ait">AIT</title>
+ <title xml:id="backups-tapebackups-ait">AIT</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>tape media</primary>
<secondary>AIT</secondary>
@@ -2186,10 +2126,10 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
</sect2>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="backups-floppybackups">
+ <sect1 xml:id="backups-floppybackups">
<title>Backups to Floppies</title>
- <sect2 id="floppies-using">
+ <sect2 xml:id="floppies-using">
<title>Can I Use Floppies for Backing Up My Data?</title>
<indexterm><primary>backup floppies</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm><primary>floppy disks</primary></indexterm>
@@ -2223,7 +2163,7 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
reputable manufacturer.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="floppies-creating">
+ <sect2 xml:id="floppies-creating">
<title>So How Do I Backup My Data to Floppies?</title>
<para>The best way to backup to floppy disk is to use
@@ -2232,7 +2172,7 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
floppies.</para>
<para>To backup all the files in the current directory and sub-directory
- use this (as <username>root</username>):</para>
+ use this (as <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>):</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>tar Mcvf /dev/fd0 *</userinput></screen>
@@ -2246,7 +2186,7 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
the specified files have been archived.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="floppies-compress">
+ <sect2 xml:id="floppies-compress">
<title>Can I Compress My Backups?</title>
<indexterm>
<primary><command>tar</command></primary>
@@ -2263,7 +2203,7 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
&man.gunzip.1; the files again!</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="floppies-restoring">
+ <sect2 xml:id="floppies-restoring">
<title>How Do I Restore My Backups?</title>
<para>To restore the entire archive use:</para>
@@ -2274,7 +2214,7 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
specific files. First, you can start with the first floppy
and use:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>tar Mxvf /dev/fd0 <replaceable>filename</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>tar Mxvf /dev/fd0 filename</userinput></screen>
<para>The utility &man.tar.1; will prompt you to insert subsequent floppies until it
finds the required file.</para>
@@ -2287,19 +2227,15 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
</sect2>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="backup-strategies">
- <sect1info>
+ <sect1 xml:id="backup-strategies">
+ <info><title>Backup Strategies</title>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Lowell</firstname>
- <surname>Gilbert</surname>
- <contrib>Original work by </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Lowell</firstname><surname>Gilbert</surname></personname><contrib>Original work by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
- <!-- 3 Dec 2005 -->
- </sect1info>
+
+ </info>
- <title>Backup Strategies</title>
+
<para>The first requirement in devising a backup plan is to make sure that
all of the following problems are covered:</para>
@@ -2378,7 +2314,7 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
you want to protect against, and how you will handle each.</para>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="backup-basics">
+ <sect1 xml:id="backup-basics">
<title>Backup Basics</title>
<para>The three major backup programs are
@@ -2431,9 +2367,9 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
to use on the remote computer. When
<command>rdump</command>ing from a FreeBSD computer to an
Exabyte tape drive connected to a Sun called
- <hostid>komodo</hostid>, use:</para>
+ <systemitem>komodo</systemitem>, use:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/sbin/rdump 0dsbfu 54000 13000 126 komodo:/dev/nsa8 /dev/da0a 2>&amp;1</userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/sbin/rdump 0dsbfu 54000 13000 126 komodo:/dev/nsa8 /dev/da0a 2&gt;&amp;1</userinput></screen>
<para>Beware: there are security implications to
allowing <filename>.rhosts</filename> authentication. Evaluate your
@@ -2486,16 +2422,16 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
supports remote devices using the same syntax as
<command>rdump</command>. To <command>tar</command> to an
Exabyte tape drive connected to a Sun called
- <hostid>komodo</hostid>, use:</para>
+ <systemitem>komodo</systemitem>, use:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/usr/bin/gtar cf komodo:/dev/nsa8 . 2>&amp;1</userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/usr/bin/gtar cf komodo:/dev/nsa8 . 2&gt;&amp;1</userinput></screen>
<para>The same could be accomplished with
<command>bsdtar</command> by using a pipeline and
<command>rsh</command> to send the data to a remote tape
drive.</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>tar cf - . | rsh <replaceable>hostname</replaceable> dd of=<replaceable>tape-device</replaceable> obs=20b</userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>tar cf - . | rsh hostname dd of=tape-device obs=20b</userinput></screen>
<para>If you are worried about the security of backing up over a
network you should use the <command>ssh</command> command
@@ -2523,10 +2459,10 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
the network. You can use a pipeline and <command>rsh</command>
to send the data to a remote tape drive.</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>for f in <replaceable>directory_list; do</replaceable></userinput>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>for f in directory_list; do</userinput>
<userinput>find $f &gt;&gt; backup.list</userinput>
<userinput>done</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>cpio -v -o --format=newc &lt; backup.list | ssh <replaceable>user</replaceable>@<replaceable>host</replaceable> "cat &gt; <replaceable>backup_device</replaceable>"</userinput></screen>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>cpio -v -o --format=newc &lt; backup.list | ssh user@host "cat &gt; backup_device"</userinput></screen>
<para>Where <replaceable>directory_list</replaceable> is the list of
directories you want to back up,
@@ -2558,7 +2494,7 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
<command>tar</command>.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="backups-programs-amanda">
+ <sect2 xml:id="backups-programs-amanda">
<title><application>Amanda</application></title>
<indexterm>
<primary>backup software</primary>
@@ -2630,9 +2566,8 @@ sa0(ncr1:4:0): Logical unit is in process of becoming ready</screen>
names, unreadable and unwritable files, devices, files that change
size during the backup, files that are created/deleted during the
backup and more. She presented the results at LISA V in Oct. 1991.
- See <ulink
- url="http://berdmann.dyndns.org/zwicky/testdump.doc.html">torture-testing
- Backup and Archive Programs</ulink>.</para>
+ See <link xlink:href="http://berdmann.dyndns.org/zwicky/testdump.doc.html">torture-testing
+ Backup and Archive Programs</link>.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
@@ -2874,8 +2809,8 @@ echo "The floppy has been unmounted and is now ready."]]></programlisting>
floppy.</literal> option. Insert the
<filename>fixit.flp</filename> when prompted.
<command>restore</command> and the other programs that you need are
- located in <filename class="directory">/mnt2/rescue</filename>
- (<filename class="directory">/mnt2/stand</filename> for
+ located in <filename>/mnt2/rescue</filename>
+ (<filename>/mnt2/stand</filename> for
&os; versions older than 5.2).</para>
<para>Recover each file system separately.</para>
@@ -2909,17 +2844,13 @@ echo "The floppy has been unmounted and is now ready."]]></programlisting>
</sect2>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="disks-virtual">
- <sect1info>
+ <sect1 xml:id="disks-virtual">
+ <info><title>Network, Memory, and File-Backed File Systems</title>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Marc</firstname>
- <surname>Fonvieille</surname>
- <contrib>Reorganized and enhanced by </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Marc</firstname><surname>Fonvieille</surname></personname><contrib>Reorganized and enhanced by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
- </sect1info>
- <title>Network, Memory, and File-Backed File Systems</title>
+ </info>
+
<indexterm><primary>virtual disks</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm>
<primary>disks</primary>
@@ -2937,8 +2868,7 @@ echo "The floppy has been unmounted and is now ready."]]></programlisting>
<primary>disks</primary>
<secondary>memory</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para>These include network file systems such as the <link
- linkend="network-nfs">Network File System</link> and Coda, memory-based
+ <para>These include network file systems such as the <link linkend="network-nfs">Network File System</link> and Coda, memory-based
file systems and
file-backed file systems.</para>
@@ -2951,7 +2881,7 @@ echo "The floppy has been unmounted and is now ready."]]></programlisting>
user.</para>
</note>
- <sect2 id="disks-mdconfig">
+ <sect2 xml:id="disks-mdconfig">
<title>File-Backed File System</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>disks</primary>
@@ -2977,8 +2907,8 @@ echo "The floppy has been unmounted and is now ready."]]></programlisting>
<title>Using <command>mdconfig</command> to Mount an Existing File System
Image</title>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mdconfig -a -t vnode -f <replaceable>diskimage</replaceable> -u <replaceable>0</replaceable></userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/md<replaceable>0</replaceable> <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mdconfig -a -t vnode -f diskimage -u 0</userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/md0 /mnt</userinput></screen>
</example>
<para>To create a new file system image with &man.mdconfig.8;:</para>
@@ -2986,18 +2916,18 @@ echo "The floppy has been unmounted and is now ready."]]></programlisting>
<example>
<title>Creating a New File-Backed Disk with <command>mdconfig</command></title>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=<replaceable>newimage</replaceable> bs=1k count=<replaceable>5</replaceable>k</userinput>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=newimage bs=1k count=5k</userinput>
5120+0 records in
5120+0 records out
-&prompt.root; <userinput>mdconfig -a -t vnode -f <replaceable>newimage</replaceable> -u <replaceable>0</replaceable></userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>bsdlabel -w md<replaceable>0</replaceable> auto</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs md<replaceable>0</replaceable>a</userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>mdconfig -a -t vnode -f newimage -u 0</userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>bsdlabel -w md0 auto</userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs md0a</userinput>
/dev/md0a: 5.0MB (10224 sectors) block size 16384, fragment size 2048
using 4 cylinder groups of 1.25MB, 80 blks, 192 inodes.
super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
160, 2720, 5280, 7840
-&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/md<replaceable>0</replaceable>a <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>df <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/md0a /mnt</userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>df /mnt</userinput>
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
/dev/md0a 4710 4 4330 0% /mnt</screen>
</example>
@@ -3006,7 +2936,7 @@ Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
<option>-u</option> option, &man.mdconfig.8; will use the
&man.md.4; automatic allocation to select an unused device.
The name of the allocated unit will be output on stdout like
- <devicename>md4</devicename>. For more details about
+ <filename>md4</filename>. For more details about
&man.mdconfig.8;, please refer to the manual page.</para>
<para>The utility &man.mdconfig.8; is very useful, however it
@@ -3020,11 +2950,11 @@ Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
<example>
<title>Configure and Mount a File-Backed Disk with <command>mdmfs</command></title>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=<replaceable>newimage</replaceable> bs=1k count=<replaceable>5</replaceable>k</userinput>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=newimage bs=1k count=5k</userinput>
5120+0 records in
5120+0 records out
-&prompt.root; <userinput>mdmfs -F <replaceable>newimage</replaceable> -s <replaceable>5</replaceable>m md<replaceable>0</replaceable> <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>df <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>mdmfs -F newimage -s 5m md0 /mnt</userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>df /mnt</userinput>
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
/dev/md0 4718 4 4338 0% /mnt</screen>
</example>
@@ -3036,7 +2966,7 @@ Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="disks-md-freebsd5">
+ <sect2 xml:id="disks-md-freebsd5">
<title>Memory-Based File System</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>disks</primary>
@@ -3058,15 +2988,15 @@ Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
<title>Creating a New Memory-Based Disk with
<command>mdconfig</command></title>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mdconfig -a -t swap -s <replaceable>5</replaceable>m -u <replaceable>1</replaceable></userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs -U md<replaceable>1</replaceable></userinput>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mdconfig -a -t swap -s 5m -u 1</userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs -U md1</userinput>
/dev/md1: 5.0MB (10240 sectors) block size 16384, fragment size 2048
using 4 cylinder groups of 1.27MB, 81 blks, 192 inodes.
with soft updates
super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
160, 2752, 5344, 7936
-&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/md<replaceable>1</replaceable> <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>df <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/md1 /mnt</userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>df /mnt</userinput>
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
/dev/md1 4718 4 4338 0% /mnt</screen>
</example>
@@ -3074,8 +3004,8 @@ Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
<example>
<title>Creating a New Memory-Based Disk with
<command>mdmfs</command></title>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mdmfs -s <replaceable>5</replaceable>m md<replaceable>2</replaceable> <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>df <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mdmfs -s 5m md2 /mnt</userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>df /mnt</userinput>
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
/dev/md2 4846 2 4458 0% /mnt</screen>
</example>
@@ -3097,7 +3027,7 @@ Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
<para>For example to detach and free all resources used by
<filename>/dev/md4</filename>:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mdconfig -d -u <replaceable>4</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mdconfig -d -u 4</userinput></screen>
<para>It is possible to list information about configured
&man.md.4; devices in using the command <command>mdconfig
@@ -3105,19 +3035,15 @@ Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
</sect2>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="snapshots">
- <sect1info>
+ <sect1 xml:id="snapshots">
+ <info><title>File System Snapshots</title>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Tom</firstname>
- <surname>Rhodes</surname>
- <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Tom</firstname><surname>Rhodes</surname></personname><contrib>Contributed by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
- <!-- 15 JUL 2002 -->
- </sect1info>
+
+ </info>
- <title>File System Snapshots</title>
+
<indexterm>
<primary>file systems</primary>
@@ -3209,10 +3135,10 @@ Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
<para>For more information about <option>softupdates</option> and
file system snapshots, including technical papers, you can visit
Marshall Kirk McKusick's website at
- <ulink url="http://www.mckusick.com/"></ulink>.</para>
+ <uri xlink:href="http://www.mckusick.com/">http://www.mckusick.com/</uri>.</para>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="quotas">
+ <sect1 xml:id="quotas">
<title>File System Quotas</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>accounting</primary>
@@ -3390,7 +3316,7 @@ Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
on the &man.edquota.8; command. First, assign the
desired quota limit to a user, and then run
<command>edquota -p protouser startuid-enduid</command>. For
- example, if user <username>test</username> has the desired quota
+ example, if user <systemitem class="username">test</systemitem> has the desired quota
limits, the following command can be used to duplicate those quota
limits for UIDs 10,000 through 19,999:</para>
@@ -3463,22 +3389,17 @@ Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="disks-encrypting">
- <sect1info>
+ <sect1 xml:id="disks-encrypting">
+ <info><title>Encrypting Disk Partitions</title>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Lucky</firstname>
- <surname>Green</surname>
- <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
- <affiliation>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Lucky</firstname><surname>Green</surname></personname><contrib>Contributed by </contrib><affiliation>
<address><email>shamrock@cypherpunks.to</email></address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
+ </affiliation></author>
</authorgroup>
- <!-- 11 MARCH 2003 -->
- </sect1info>
+
+ </info>
- <title>Encrypting Disk Partitions</title>
+
<indexterm>
<primary>disks</primary>
<secondary>encrypting</secondary></indexterm>
@@ -3509,7 +3430,7 @@ Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
<procedure>
<step>
- <title>Become <username>root</username></title>
+ <title>Become <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem></title>
<para>Configuring <application>gbde</application> requires
super-user privileges.</para>
@@ -3526,8 +3447,7 @@ Password:</screen>
<para><literal>options GEOM_BDE</literal></para>
- <para>Rebuild the kernel as described in <xref
- linkend="kernelconfig"/>.</para>
+ <para>Rebuild the kernel as described in <xref linkend="kernelconfig"/>.</para>
<para>Reboot into the new kernel.</para>
</step>
@@ -3555,11 +3475,10 @@ Password:</screen>
<step>
<title>Add the New Hard Drive</title>
- <para>Install the new drive to the system as explained in <xref
- linkend="disks-adding"/>. For the purposes of this example,
+ <para>Install the new drive to the system as explained in <xref linkend="disks-adding"/>. For the purposes of this example,
a new hard drive partition has been added as
<filename>/dev/ad4s1c</filename>. The
- <filename>/dev/ad0s1<replaceable>*</replaceable></filename>
+ <filename>/dev/ad0s1*</filename>
devices represent existing standard FreeBSD partitions on
the example system.</para>
@@ -3616,9 +3535,8 @@ sector_size = 2048
passphrase that you choose.
<footnote>
<para>For tips on how to select a secure passphrase that is easy
- to remember, see the <ulink
- url="http://world.std.com/~reinhold/diceware.html">Diceware
- Passphrase</ulink> website.</para></footnote></para>
+ to remember, see the <link xlink:href="http://world.std.com/~reinhold/diceware.html">Diceware
+ Passphrase</link> website.</para></footnote></para>
<para>The <command>gbde init</command> command creates a lock
file for your <application>gbde</application> partition that in
@@ -3671,7 +3589,7 @@ sector_size = 2048
<para>The &man.newfs.8; command must be performed on an
attached <application>gbde</application> partition which
is identified by a
- <filename><replaceable>*</replaceable>.bde</filename>
+ <filename>*.bde</filename>
extension to the device name.</para>
</note>
</step>
@@ -3712,7 +3630,7 @@ Filesystem Size Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
<para>After each boot, any encrypted file systems must be
re-attached to the kernel, checked for errors, and mounted, before
the file systems can be used. The required commands must be
- executed as user <username>root</username>.</para>
+ executed as user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>.</para>
<procedure>
<step>
@@ -3785,7 +3703,7 @@ gbde_devices="ad4s1c"</screen>
<para>&man.sysinstall.8; is incompatible with
<application>gbde</application>-encrypted devices. All
- <devicename><replaceable>*</replaceable>.bde</devicename> devices must be detached from the
+ <filename>*.bde</filename> devices must be detached from the
kernel before starting &man.sysinstall.8; or it will crash during
its initial probing for devices. To detach the encrypted device
used in our example, use the following command:</para>
@@ -3800,18 +3718,14 @@ gbde_devices="ad4s1c"</screen>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <sect2info>
+ <info><title>Disk Encryption with <command>geli</command></title>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Daniel</firstname>
- <surname>Gerzo</surname>
- <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Daniel</firstname><surname>Gerzo</surname></personname><contrib>Contributed by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
- <!-- Date of writing: 28 November 2005 -->
- </sect2info>
+
+ </info>
- <title>Disk Encryption with <command>geli</command></title>
+
<para>A new cryptographic GEOM class is available as of &os; 6.0 -
<command>geli</command>. It is currently being developed by
@@ -3880,8 +3794,7 @@ gbde_devices="ad4s1c"</screen>
<screen>options GEOM_ELI
device crypto</screen>
- <para>Rebuild the kernel as described in <xref
- linkend="kernelconfig"/>.</para>
+ <para>Rebuild the kernel as described in <xref linkend="kernelconfig"/>.</para>
<para>Alternatively, the <command>geli</command> module can
be loaded at boot time. Add the following line to the
@@ -3898,7 +3811,7 @@ device crypto</screen>
<para>The following example will describe how to generate a
key file, which will be used as part of the Master Key for
the encrypted provider mounted under
- <filename class="directory">/private</filename>. The key
+ <filename>/private</filename>. The key
file will provide some random data used to encrypt the
Master Key. The Master Key will be protected by a
passphrase as well. Provider's sector size will be 4kB big.
@@ -3939,7 +3852,7 @@ Reenter new passphrase:</screen>
Enter passphrase:</screen>
<para>The new plaintext device will be named
- <filename>/dev/<replaceable>da2</replaceable>.eli</filename>.</para>
+ <filename>/dev/da2.eli</filename>.</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ls /dev/da2*</userinput>
/dev/da2 /dev/da2.eli</screen>
@@ -3970,7 +3883,7 @@ Filesystem Size Used Avail Capacity Mounted on
<title>Unmounting and Detaching the Provider</title>
<para>Once the work on the encrypted partition is done, and
- the <filename class="directory">/private</filename> partition
+ the <filename>/private</filename> partition
is no longer needed, it is prudent to consider unmounting
and detaching the <command>geli</command> encrypted
partition from the kernel.</para>
@@ -4011,18 +3924,14 @@ geli_da2_flags="-p -k /root/da2.key"</screen>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="swap-encrypting">
- <sect1info>
+ <sect1 xml:id="swap-encrypting">
+ <info><title>Encrypting Swap Space</title>
<authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Christian</firstname>
- <surname>Br&uuml;ffer</surname>
- <contrib>Written by </contrib>
- </author>
+ <author><personname><firstname>Christian</firstname><surname>Br&uuml;ffer</surname></personname><contrib>Written by </contrib></author>
</authorgroup>
- </sect1info>
+ </info>
- <title>Encrypting Swap Space</title>
+
<indexterm>
<primary>swap</primary>
<secondary>encrypting</secondary>
@@ -4058,7 +3967,7 @@ geli_da2_flags="-p -k /root/da2.key"</screen>
<title>Preparation</title>
<note>
- <para>For the remainder of this section, <devicename>ad0s1b</devicename>
+ <para>For the remainder of this section, <filename>ad0s1b</filename>
will be the swap partition.</para>
</note>