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authorGabor Kovesdan <gabor@FreeBSD.org>2012-08-21 19:16:02 +0000
committerGabor Kovesdan <gabor@FreeBSD.org>2012-08-21 19:16:02 +0000
commit2e51ec7022b39b6fb3524de08669b20d0d436285 (patch)
tree79fbae1d36dfb1cf1c634282cd893ef6532e3abb /en_US.ISO8859-1/articles
parentb2153405c50aa7276c3b5ad07d50eec1f0b45449 (diff)
downloaddoc-2e51ec7022b39b6fb3524de08669b20d0d436285.tar.gz
doc-2e51ec7022b39b6fb3524de08669b20d0d436285.zip
- Strip unnecessary trailing spaces
Approved by: doceng (implicit)
Notes
Notes: svn path=/projects/sgml2xml/; revision=39416
Diffstat (limited to 'en_US.ISO8859-1/articles')
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/5-roadmap/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile.inc2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/bsdl-gpl/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/casestudy-argentina.com/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/committers-guide/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/compiz-fusion/article.sgml4
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/console-server/article.sgml34
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/article.sgml2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/contrib.additional.sgml6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/contrib.committers.sgml2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/custom-gcc/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/cvsup-advanced/article.sgml84
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/dialup-firewall/article.sgml4
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/diskless-x/article.sgml44
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/euro/article.sgml66
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/explaining-bsd/article.sgml6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/fonts/article.sgml8
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/formatting-media/article.sgml46
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/freebsd-questions/article.sgml50
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/geom-class/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/gjournal-desktop/article.sgml22
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/hubs/article.sgml2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/laptop/article.sgml52
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ldap-auth/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ldap-auth/article.sgml8
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.sgml2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-emulation/article.sgml82
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-users/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mailing-list-faq/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mh/article.sgml24
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/nanobsd/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/p4-primer/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/portbuild/article.sgml4
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/problem-reports/article.sgml4
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/rc-scripting/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/rc-scripting/article.sgml2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/relaydelay/article.sgml2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng-packages/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/article.sgml6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/remote-install/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/serial-uart/article.sgml556
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/article.sgml14
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/storage-devices/article.sgml884
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/version-guide/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/version-guide/article.sgml8
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/vinum/article.sgml20
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/vm-design/article.sgml12
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/wp-toolbox/Makefile2
51 files changed, 1050 insertions, 1050 deletions
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/5-roadmap/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/5-roadmap/Makefile
index b3b8bbb0e0..a2a3804255 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/5-roadmap/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/5-roadmap/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Article: FreeBSD 5-STABLE roadmap
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile.inc b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile.inc
index de45c09960..5aae9fcfbf 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile.inc
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/Makefile.inc
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/bsdl-gpl/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/bsdl-gpl/Makefile
index 4bfc9c797f..a221a6dfe5 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/bsdl-gpl/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/bsdl-gpl/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# BSDL vs GPL article.
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/casestudy-argentina.com/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/casestudy-argentina.com/Makefile
index 6f9f128635..d07a81bc94 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/casestudy-argentina.com/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/casestudy-argentina.com/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Article: Casestudy from Argentina.com
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/committers-guide/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/committers-guide/Makefile
index 890bd6e2b2..420756adac 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/committers-guide/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/committers-guide/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Article: The FreeBSD Committers Guide
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/compiz-fusion/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/compiz-fusion/article.sgml
index 9559d457b8..56c0344f5c 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/compiz-fusion/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/compiz-fusion/article.sgml
@@ -236,7 +236,7 @@ Option "AddARGBGLXVisuals" "True"</programlisting>
<programlisting>SubSection "Display"
Viewport 0 0
Modes "1280x1024"
-EndSubSection</programlisting>
+EndSubSection</programlisting>
<para>A color depth of 24&nbsp;bits is needed for desktop composition,
change the above subsection to:</para>
@@ -371,7 +371,7 @@ emerald --replace &amp;</programlisting>
<qandaentry>
<question id="xorg-crash">
- <para>When I run the command to start
+ <para>When I run the command to start
<application>Compiz&nbsp;Fusion</application>, the X server
crashes and I am back at the console. What is wrong?</para>
</question>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/console-server/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/console-server/article.sgml
index 9d565922a7..7833ab5e09 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/console-server/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/console-server/article.sgml
@@ -371,13 +371,13 @@
<title>Compiling conserver</title>
<note>
- <para>See the section on <application>conserver</application> versions
+ <para>See the section on <application>conserver</application> versions
<xref linkend="conserver-versions"/>; the version I use is
available in the &os; ports collection; however, it is not the only
one.)</para>
</note>
- <para>There are two ways to install <application>conserver</application>.
+ <para>There are two ways to install <application>conserver</application>.
You can either compile
from the source or use the &os; ports framework.</para>
@@ -398,7 +398,7 @@
is compiled will avoid having to either specify it each time the
program is run on remote hosts or having to maintain a
<filename>conserver.cf</filename> file on every host. This command
- will fetch, patch, configure, compile and install the
+ will fetch, patch, configure, compile and install the
<application>conserver</application> application.</para>
<para>You can then run <command>make package</command> to create a
@@ -424,7 +424,7 @@
<title>From the source tarball</title>
<para>If you prefer, you can download <application>conserver</application>
- and compile it yourself.
+ and compile it yourself.
You might need to do this if you want to install the
console client on non-&os; systems. We run the client on our
&solaris; hosts and it inter-operates with the &os;-hosted server
@@ -560,10 +560,10 @@ $1$VTd27V2G$eFu23iHpLvCBM5nQtNlKj/</screen>
<programlisting>cuaE0 "/usr/local/sbin/conserver" unknown on insecure</programlisting>
- <para>This has two advantages: <application>init</application> will restart
+ <para>This has two advantages: <application>init</application> will restart
the master console
server if it ever crashes for any reason (but we have not noticed any
- crashes so far), and it arranges for standard output of the
+ crashes so far), and it arranges for standard output of the
<application>conserver</application>
process to be directed to the named tty (in this case
<devicename>cuaE0</devicename>). This is useful because you
@@ -574,14 +574,14 @@ $1$VTd27V2G$eFu23iHpLvCBM5nQtNlKj/</screen>
monitoring tool to see if anything is going on. We set this
terminal up in the computer room but visible from the main
office. It is a very handy feature. The downside of running
- <application>conserver</application>
+ <application>conserver</application>
from the ttys file is that it cannot run in daemon
mode (else &man.init.8; would continually restart it). This means
- <application>conserver</application> will not write a PID file,
+ <application>conserver</application> will not write a PID file,
which makes it hard to rotate the log files.</para>
<para>So we start <application>conserver</application> from an rc.d script.
- If you installed <application>conserver</application> via the port,
+ If you installed <application>conserver</application> via the port,
there will be a
<filename>conserver.sh.sample</filename> file installed in
<filename>/usr/local/etc/rc.d</filename>. Copy and/or rename this to
@@ -1217,11 +1217,11 @@ exit 0</programlisting>
<para>Anyone who has turned off a terminal used as a console for a Sun
system will know what happens and why this is a problem. Sun hardware
- recognises a serial <literal>BREAK</literal> as a command to halt the
+ recognises a serial <literal>BREAK</literal> as a command to halt the
OS and return to the ROM monitor prompt. A serial <literal>BREAK</literal>
- is an out-of-band signal on an RS-232 serial port that involves making
- the TX DATA line active (i.e. pulled down to less than -5V) for more than
- two whole character times (or about 2ms on a 9600bps line).
+ is an out-of-band signal on an RS-232 serial port that involves making
+ the TX DATA line active (i.e. pulled down to less than -5V) for more than
+ two whole character times (or about 2ms on a 9600bps line).
Alas, this <literal>BREAK</literal> signal is all to
easily generated by serial hardware during power-on or power-off. And
the Stallion card does, in fact, generate breaks when the power to the
@@ -1232,7 +1232,7 @@ exit 0</programlisting>
<para>Fortunately, Sun have come up with a set of fixes for this. For
&solaris; 2.6 and later, the <command>kbd(1)</command> command can be used
- to disable the <literal>ROM-on-BREAK</literal> behaviour. This is a good start,
+ to disable the <literal>ROM-on-BREAK</literal> behaviour. This is a good start,
but leaves you out of luck in the situation where a break is needed to get into a
broken machine.</para>
@@ -1342,7 +1342,7 @@ exit 0</programlisting>
<application>conserver</application> is not really suitable for use
across untrusted networks (such as the Internet). Use of conserver-only
passwords (in the <filename>conserver.passwd</filename> file) slightly
- mitigate this problem, but anyone sniffing a
+ mitigate this problem, but anyone sniffing a
<application>conserver</application> connection can
easily get console access, and from there prang your machine using the
console break sequence. For operating across the Internet, use
@@ -1370,12 +1370,12 @@ exit 0</programlisting>
idiosyncratic manner (using a preprocessor to generate C code). Version
8.5 is maintained by Kevin S.&nbsp;Braunsdorf
<email>ksb+conserver@sa.fedex.com</email> who did most of the original
- work on <application>conserver</application>,
+ work on <application>conserver</application>,
and whose work Bryan Stansell is building on. The
8.5 version does support one feature not in the 8.1.9 version
(controlling power to remote machines via a specific serial-interfaced
power controller hardware).</para>
-
+
<para>Beginning with December 2001, Brian's version (currently 8.1.9) is
also presented in ports collection at
<filename role="package">comms/conserver-com</filename>. We therefore
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/article.sgml
index b42ff4fe72..caa4d284ea 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/article.sgml
@@ -482,7 +482,7 @@
information:</para>
<programlisting>Copyright (c) %%proper_years_here%%
- %%your_name_here%%, %%your_state%% %%your_zip%%.
+ %%your_name_here%%, %%your_state%% %%your_zip%%.
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/contrib.additional.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/contrib.additional.sgml
index 90af09b5b2..21245f882d 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/contrib.additional.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/contrib.additional.sgml
@@ -330,7 +330,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Alex Steiner
+ <para>Alex Steiner
<email>ast@treibsand.com</email></para>
</listitem>
@@ -4558,7 +4558,7 @@
<listitem>
<para>Jesse Kempf
- <email>jessekempf@gmail.com</email></para>
+ <email>jessekempf@gmail.com</email></para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -8295,7 +8295,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Philippe Pepiot
+ <para>Philippe Pepiot
<email>phil@philpep.org</email></para>
</listitem>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/contrib.committers.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/contrib.committers.sgml
index 2f633051b4..592bf0631f 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/contrib.committers.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/contrib.committers.sgml
@@ -567,7 +567,7 @@
<para>&a.chinsan;</para>
</listitem>
- <listitem>
+ <listitem>
<para>&a.davide;</para>
</listitem>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/custom-gcc/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/custom-gcc/Makefile
index b7bd286403..77336c615e 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/custom-gcc/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/custom-gcc/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/cvsup-advanced/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/cvsup-advanced/article.sgml
index 942328652f..4b7aaa1032 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/cvsup-advanced/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/cvsup-advanced/article.sgml
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@
<abstract>
<para>The present article assumes a basic understanding of <application>CVSup</application>
- operation. It documents several delicate issues connected with
+ operation. It documents several delicate issues connected with
source synchronization via <application>CVSup</application>, viz. effective solutions to
the problem of stale files as well as special source updating
cases; which issues are likely to cause apparently inexplicable
@@ -42,17 +42,17 @@
<sect1 id="preface">
<title>Preface</title>
-
- <para>This document is the fruit of the author's attempts to
+
+ <para>This document is the fruit of the author's attempts to
fully understand the niceties of <application>CVSup</application> &amp; source updating.&nbsp;:-)
- While the author has made every effort to make these pages
- as informative and correct as possible, he is only human and
+ While the author has made every effort to make these pages
+ as informative and correct as possible, he is only human and
may have made all sorts of typos, mistakes, etc. He will be
very grateful for any comments and/or suggestions you send to
his e-mail address, <email>bartequi@neomedia.it</email>.</para>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1 id="introduction">
<title>Introduction</title>
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@
FAQ</ulink>,
you may have noticed Question 12 &amp; 13.</para>
- <para>When updating any collection of sources (eg
+ <para>When updating any collection of sources (eg
<filename>/usr/ports</filename>), &man.cvsup.1; makes use of
the related checkouts file in order to perform the updating
process in the most efficient and correct way. In this example
@@ -72,12 +72,12 @@ FAQ</ulink>,
your base is <filename>/usr</filename>.</para>
<para>A checkouts file contains information on the current status
- of your sources&mdash;in a way, a sort of <quote>photograph</quote>. This
+ of your sources&mdash;in a way, a sort of <quote>photograph</quote>. This
significant information enables <command>cvsup</command> to retrieve updates most
effectively. Further, and maybe more important, it enables <command>cvsup</command>
to correctly manage your sources by locally deleting any files
no longer present in the repository, thus leaving no stale files
- on your system. In fact, without a checkouts file, <command>cvsup</command> would
+ on your system. In fact, without a checkouts file, <command>cvsup</command> would
<emphasis>not</emphasis> know which files your collection was composed of (cf
&man.cvsup.1; and the fallback method for details); as a result,
it could not delete on your system those files no longer present
@@ -95,9 +95,9 @@ FAQ</ulink>,
<sect1 id="script">
<title>A useful python script: <command>cvsupchk</command></title>
- <para>Alternatively, in order to examine your sources for
- inconsistencies, you may wish to utilize the <command>cvsupchk</command> python
- script; which script is currently found in
+ <para>Alternatively, in order to examine your sources for
+ inconsistencies, you may wish to utilize the <command>cvsupchk</command> python
+ script; which script is currently found in
<filename>/usr/ports/net/cvsup/work/cvsup-16.1/contrib/cvsupchk</filename>,
together with a nice <filename>README</filename>. Prerequisites:</para>
@@ -127,9 +127,9 @@ FAQ</ulink>,
<screen>&prompt.user; <filename>/path/to/</filename><userinput>cvsupchk -d /usr -c /usr/sup/src-all/checkouts.cvs:RELENG_4 | more</userinput></screen>
- <para>In each case, <command>cvsupchk</command> will inspect your sources for
- inconsistencies by utilizing the information contained in the
- related checkouts file. Such anomalies as deleted files being
+ <para>In each case, <command>cvsupchk</command> will inspect your sources for
+ inconsistencies by utilizing the information contained in the
+ related checkouts file. Such anomalies as deleted files being
present (aka stale files), missing checked-out files, extra RCS
files, and dead directories will be printed to standard output.</para>
@@ -147,15 +147,15 @@ FAQ</ulink>,
<literal>src-all</literal></title>
<para>If you specify eg <literal>tag=A</literal> in your <filename>supfile</filename>, <command>cvsup</command> will create
- a checkouts file called <filename>checkouts.cvs:A</filename>:
+ a checkouts file called <filename>checkouts.cvs:A</filename>:
for instance, if <literal>tag=RELENG_4</literal>, a checkouts file called
- <filename>checkouts.cvs:RELENG_4</filename> is generated.
+ <filename>checkouts.cvs:RELENG_4</filename> is generated.
This file will be used to retrieve and/or store information
identifying your 4-STABLE sources.</para>
<para>When tracking <literal>src-all</literal>, if you wish to
- pass from <literal>tag=A</literal> to <literal>tag=B</literal> (A less/greater than B not making
- any difference) and if your checkouts file is
+ pass from <literal>tag=A</literal> to <literal>tag=B</literal> (A less/greater than B not making
+ any difference) and if your checkouts file is
<filename>checkouts.cvs:A</filename>, the following actions
should be performed:</para>
@@ -178,8 +178,8 @@ checkouts.cvs:B</userinput>
</orderedlist>
<para>The <command>cvsup</command> utility will look for <filename>checkouts.cvs:B</filename>&mdash;in
- that the target is B; that is, <command>cvsup</command> will make use of
- the information contained therein to correctly manage your
+ that the target is B; that is, <command>cvsup</command> will make use of
+ the information contained therein to correctly manage your
sources.</para>
<para>The benefits:</para>
@@ -191,17 +191,17 @@ checkouts.cvs:B</userinput>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>less load is placed on the server, in that <command>cvsup</command>
+ <para>less load is placed on the server, in that <command>cvsup</command>
operates in the most efficient way.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
- <para>For example, <literal>A=RELENG_4</literal>, <literal>B=.</literal>. The period in <literal>B=.</literal> means
- -CURRENT. This is a rather typical update, from 4-STABLE
- to -CURRENT. While it is straightforward to <quote>downgrade</quote> your
- sources (e.g., from -CURRENT to -STABLE), downgrading a system
- is quite another matter. You are STRONGLY advised not to
+ <para>For example, <literal>A=RELENG_4</literal>, <literal>B=.</literal>. The period in <literal>B=.</literal> means
+ -CURRENT. This is a rather typical update, from 4-STABLE
+ to -CURRENT. While it is straightforward to <quote>downgrade</quote> your
+ sources (e.g., from -CURRENT to -STABLE), downgrading a system
+ is quite another matter. You are STRONGLY advised not to
attempt such an operation, unless you know exactly what you
are doing.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -209,8 +209,8 @@ checkouts.cvs:B</userinput>
<sect2>
<title>Updating to the same tag as of a different date</title>
- <para>If you wish to switch from <literal>tag=A</literal> to <literal>tag=A</literal> as of a
- different GMT date (say, <literal>date=D</literal>), you will execute the
+ <para>If you wish to switch from <literal>tag=A</literal> to <literal>tag=A</literal> as of a
+ different GMT date (say, <literal>date=D</literal>), you will execute the
following:</para>
<orderedlist>
@@ -225,25 +225,25 @@ checkouts.cvs:B</userinput>
</orderedlist>
<para>Whether the new date precedes that of the last sync
- operation with <literal>tag=A</literal> or not, it is immaterial. For example,
- in order to specify the date <quote>August 27, 2000, 10:00:00 GMT</quote>
+ operation with <literal>tag=A</literal> or not, it is immaterial. For example,
+ in order to specify the date <quote>August 27, 2000, 10:00:00 GMT</quote>
you write the line:</para>
<programlisting>src-all tag=RELENG_4 date=2000.08.27.10.00.00</programlisting>
- <note><para>The format of a date is rigid. You have to specify
- all the components of the date: century (<quote>20</quote>, i.e., the 21st
- century, must be supplied whereas <quote>19</quote>, the past century, can
- be omitted), year, month, day, hour, minutes, seconds&mdash;as
- shown in the above example. For more information, please
+ <note><para>The format of a date is rigid. You have to specify
+ all the components of the date: century (<quote>20</quote>, i.e., the 21st
+ century, must be supplied whereas <quote>19</quote>, the past century, can
+ be omitted), year, month, day, hour, minutes, seconds&mdash;as
+ shown in the above example. For more information, please
see &man.cvsup.1;.</para></note>
- <para>Whether or not a date is specified, the checkouts file
+ <para>Whether or not a date is specified, the checkouts file
is called <filename>checkouts.cvs:A</filename> (e.g.,
<filename>checkouts.cvs:RELENG_4</filename>). As a result,
- no particular action is needed in order to revert to the
- previous state: you have to modify the date in the <filename>supfile</filename>,
+ no particular action is needed in order to revert to the
+ previous state: you have to modify the date in the <filename>supfile</filename>,
and run <command>csvup</command> again.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -264,9 +264,9 @@ checkouts.cvs:B</userinput>
<programlisting>ports-all tag=.</programlisting>
All subsequent updates will be carried out smoothly.</para>
- <para>If you have been reading the apparently nit-picking
- remarks in these sections, you will probably have recognized
- the potential for trouble in a source updating process.
+ <para>If you have been reading the apparently nit-picking
+ remarks in these sections, you will probably have recognized
+ the potential for trouble in a source updating process.
A number of people have actually run into problems. You have
been warned. :-)</para>
</sect2>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/dialup-firewall/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/dialup-firewall/article.sgml
index bc604f144c..1135edfa27 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/dialup-firewall/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/dialup-firewall/article.sgml
@@ -72,7 +72,7 @@
support. &os; 4.X users should consult the &man.ipfw.8;
manual page for more information on using IPFW2 on their
systems, and should pay particular attention to the
- <emphasis>USING IPFW2 IN FreeBSD-STABLE</emphasis>
+ <emphasis>USING IPFW2 IN FreeBSD-STABLE</emphasis>
section.</para></note>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -180,7 +180,7 @@ fwcmd="/sbin/ipfw"
oif="tun0"
# Define our inside interface. This is usually your network
-# card. Be sure to change this to match your own network
+# card. Be sure to change this to match your own network
# interface.
iif="fxp0"
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/diskless-x/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/diskless-x/article.sgml
index 198cb53a03..843d1640ee 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/diskless-x/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/diskless-x/article.sgml
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
<article lang='en'>
<articleinfo>
<title>Diskless X Server: a how to guide</title>
-
+
<authorgroup>
<author>
<firstname>Jerry</firstname>
@@ -25,16 +25,16 @@
</address>
</affiliation>
</author></authorgroup>
-
+
<pubdate>28-December-1996</pubdate>
<releaseinfo>$FreeBSD$</releaseinfo>
-
+
<copyright>
<year>1996</year>
<holder>Jerry Kendall</holder>
</copyright>
-
+
<legalnotice id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
&tm-attrib.freebsd;
&tm-attrib.3com;
@@ -56,15 +56,15 @@
system is a 486DX2-66. I set up a diskless FreeBSD (complete) that
uses no local disk. The server in that case is a Sun 670MP running
&sunos; 4.1.3. The same setup configuration was needed for both.</para>
-
+
<para>I am sure that there is stuff that needs to be added
to this. Please send me any comments.</para>
</abstract>
</articleinfo>
-
+
<sect1>
<title>Creating the boot floppy (On the diskless system)</title>
-
+
<para>Since the network boot loaders will not work with some of the TSR's
and such that &ms-dos; uses, it is best to create a dedicated boot floppy
or, if you can, create an &ms-dos; menu that will (via the
@@ -72,7 +72,7 @@
ask what configuration to load when the system starts. The later is the
method that I use and it works great. My &ms-dos; (6.x) menu is
below.</para>
-
+
<example>
<title><filename>config.sys</filename></title>
@@ -105,10 +105,10 @@ nb8390.com
:end</programlisting>
</example>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1>
<title>Getting the network boot programs (On the server)</title>
-
+
<para>Compile the <quote>net-boot</quote> programs that are located in
<filename>/usr/src/sys/i386/boot/netboot</filename>. You should read
the comments at the top of the <filename>Makefile</filename>. Adjust as
@@ -119,10 +119,10 @@ nb8390.com
server. It will load the kernel from the boot server. At this point,
put both programs on the &ms-dos; boot floppy created earlier.</para>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1>
<title>Determine which program to run (On the diskless system)</title>
-
+
<para>If you know the chipset that your Ethernet adapter uses, this is
easy. If you have the NS8390 chipset, or a NS8390 based chipset, use
<filename>nb8390.com</filename>. If you have a &tm.3com; 509 based chipset,
@@ -134,13 +134,13 @@ nb8390.com
<sect1>
<title>Booting across the network</title>
-
+
<para>Boot the diskless system with out any config.sys/autoexec.bat
files. Try running the boot program for your Ethernet adapter.</para>
<para>My Ethernet adapter is running in WD8013 16bit mode so I run
<filename>nb8390.com</filename></para>
-
+
<screen><prompt>C:&gt;</prompt> <userinput>cd \netboot</userinput>
<prompt>C:&gt;</prompt> <userinput>nb8390</userinput>
@@ -165,18 +165,18 @@ Searching for server...</screen>
message, verify that you did indeed set the compile time defines in the
<filename>Makefile</filename> correctly.</para>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1>
<title>Allowing systems to boot across the network (On the server)</title>
-
+
<para>Make sure the <filename>/etc/inetd.conf</filename> file has entries
for tftp and bootps. Mine are listed below:</para>
-
+
<programlisting>tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/libexec/tftpd tftpd /tftpboot
#
# Additions by who ever you are
bootps dgram udp wait root /usr/libexec/bootpd bootpd /etc/bootptab</programlisting>
-
+
<para>If you have to change the <filename>/etc/inetd.conf</filename> file,
send a <literal>HUP</literal> signal to &man.inetd.8;. To do this, get the
process ID of <command>inetd</command> with <command>ps -ax | grep inetd | grep -v
@@ -200,7 +200,7 @@ bootps dgram udp wait root /usr/libexec/bootpd bootpd /etc/bootptab</progra
:ip=199.246.76.2:\
:gw=199.246.76.1:\
:vm=rfc1048:</programlisting>
-
+
<para>The lines are as follows:</para>
<informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
@@ -280,10 +280,10 @@ hostname altair.example.com</programlisting>
<para>The NFS mounted root filesystem will be mounted <emphasis>read
only</emphasis>.</para>
</note>
-
+
<para>The hierarchy for the diskless system can be re-mounted allowing
read-write operations if required.</para>
-
+
<para>I use my spare 386DX-40 as a dedicated X terminal.</para>
<para>The hierarchy for <hostid>altair</hostid> is:</para>
@@ -314,7 +314,7 @@ hostname altair.example.com</programlisting>
-r-xr-xr-x 1 root bin 73728 Dec 13 22:38 ./sbin/mount
-r-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 1992 Jun 10 1995 ./dev/MAKEDEV.local
-r-xr-xr-x 1 root wheel 24419 Jun 10 1995 ./dev/MAKEDEV</screen>
-
+
<para>If you are not using &man.devfs.5; (which is the default
in FreeBSD&nbsp;5.X), you should make sure that you
do not forget to run <command>MAKEDEV all</command> in the
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/euro/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/euro/article.sgml
index e5057bfc97..e52d0d63a2 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/euro/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/euro/article.sgml
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
<article lang='en'>
<articleinfo>
- <title>The Euro symbol on
+ <title>The Euro symbol on
<systemitem class="osname">FreeBSD</systemitem></title>
<authorgroup>
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@
<year>2003</year>
<holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>
</copyright>
-
+
<legalnotice id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
&tm-attrib.freebsd;
&tm-attrib.general;
@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@
will first focus on the more important parts like being able to
correctly display the symbol on the console. Later sections will deal
with configuring particular programs like
- <application>X11</application>.
+ <application>X11</application>.
</para>
<para>Lots of helpful input came from Oliver Fromme, Tom Rhodes and
@@ -59,16 +59,16 @@
<sect1>
<title>The Euro in a nutshell</title>
- <para>If you already feel comfortable with
- <ulink url="&url.books.handbook;/l10n.html">localization</ulink> as
- described in the <systemitem class="osname">FreeBSD</systemitem>
- Handbook you might be only interested in the following facts which
- will get you started quickly:</para>
+ <para>If you already feel comfortable with
+ <ulink url="&url.books.handbook;/l10n.html">localization</ulink> as
+ described in the <systemitem class="osname">FreeBSD</systemitem>
+ Handbook you might be only interested in the following facts which
+ will get you started quickly:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term>ISO8859-15</term>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>This is a slight modification of the commonly used ISO8859-1
character map. It includes the Euro symbol. Used for the
@@ -89,8 +89,8 @@
<term><filename>/usr/share/syscons/keymaps/*.iso.kbd</filename></term>
<listitem>
- <para>Appropriate keyboard maps depending on your language. Set your
- <literal>keymap</literal> entry in <filename>rc.conf</filename> to
+ <para>Appropriate keyboard maps depending on your language. Set your
+ <literal>keymap</literal> entry in <filename>rc.conf</filename> to
one of these.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -124,7 +124,7 @@
<sect1 id="general">
<title>A general remark</title>
-
+
<para>In the following sections we will often refer to
<emphasis>ISO8859-15</emphasis>. This is the standard notation starting
with <systemitem class="osname">FreeBSD</systemitem> 4.5. In older
@@ -132,23 +132,23 @@
<emphasis>ISO_8859-15</emphasis> or <emphasis>DIS_8859-15</emphasis>.
</para>
- <para>If you are using an older version of
- <systemitem class="osname">FreeBSD</systemitem>, be sure to take a
+ <para>If you are using an older version of
+ <systemitem class="osname">FreeBSD</systemitem>, be sure to take a
look at <filename>/usr/share/locale/</filename> in order to find out
which naming convention is in place.</para>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="console">
<title>The console</title>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>Setting up your console font</title>
<para>Depending on your console resolution and size you will need one of
the following lines in <filename>rc.conf</filename>:</para>
- <programlisting>font8x16="iso15-8x16.fnt" # from /usr/share/syscons/fonts/*
-font8x14="iso15-8x14.fnt"
+ <programlisting>font8x16="iso15-8x16.fnt" # from /usr/share/syscons/fonts/*
+font8x14="iso15-8x14.fnt"
font8x8="iso15-8x8.fnt"</programlisting>
<para>This will effectively select the ISO8859-15 also known as Latin-9
@@ -200,8 +200,8 @@ BEGIN {
combination is necessary (e.g.: <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Alt
Gr</keycap><keycap>e</keycap></keycombo>) to decimal value 164.
If running into problems, the best way to check is to take a look at
- <filename>/usr/share/syscons/keymaps/*.kbd</filename>. The format of
- the key mapping files is described in &man.keyboard.4;.
+ <filename>/usr/share/syscons/keymaps/*.kbd</filename>. The format of
+ the key mapping files is described in &man.keyboard.4;.
&man.kbdcontrol.1; can be used to load a custom keymap.</para>
<para>Once the correct keyboard map is selected, it should be added to
@@ -210,13 +210,13 @@ BEGIN {
<programlisting>keymap="<replaceable>german.iso</replaceable>" # or another map</programlisting>
<para>As stated above, this step has most probably already been taken
- by you at installation time (with
- <application>sysinstall</application>). If not, either reboot or
+ by you at installation time (with
+ <application>sysinstall</application>). If not, either reboot or
load the new keymap via &man.kbdcontrol.1;.</para>
- <para>To verify the keyboard mapping, switch to a new console and at
+ <para>To verify the keyboard mapping, switch to a new console and at
the login prompt, <emphasis>instead of logging</emphasis> in, try to
- type the <keycap>Euro</keycap> key. If it is not working, either
+ type the <keycap>Euro</keycap> key. If it is not working, either
file a bug report via &man.send-pr.1; or make sure you in fact chose
the right keyboard map.</para>
@@ -226,13 +226,13 @@ BEGIN {
<application>tcsh</application>.</para>
</note>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>Fixing the environment variables</title>
- <para>The shells (<application>bash</application>, <application>tcsh</application>) revert to the &man.readline.3; library
- which in turn respects the <envar>LC_CTYPE</envar> environment
- variable. <envar>LC_CTYPE</envar> must be set before the shell is
+ <para>The shells (<application>bash</application>, <application>tcsh</application>) revert to the &man.readline.3; library
+ which in turn respects the <envar>LC_CTYPE</envar> environment
+ variable. <envar>LC_CTYPE</envar> must be set before the shell is
completely running. Luckily it suffices to add the line:</para>
<programlisting>export LC_CTYPE=<replaceable>de_DE</replaceable>.ISO8859-15</programlisting>
@@ -250,11 +250,11 @@ BEGIN {
however.</para>
<note>
- <para>An alternative to modifying <filename>.login</filename> and
+ <para>An alternative to modifying <filename>.login</filename> and
<filename>.bash_profile</filename> is to set the environment
variables through the &man.login.conf.5; mechanism. This approach
has the advantage of assigning login classes to certain users (e.g.
- French users, Italian users, etc) <emphasis>in one
+ French users, Italian users, etc) <emphasis>in one
place</emphasis>.</para>
</note>
</sect2>
@@ -294,14 +294,14 @@ variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
<filename>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults</filename> and add the correct
font. Let us demonstrate this with
<application>xterm</application>.</para>
-
+
<screen>&prompt.root; cd /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/app-defaults/
&prompt.root; vi XTerm</screen>
<para>Add the following line to the beginning of the file:</para>
<programlisting>*font: -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-c-*-iso8859-15</programlisting>
-
+
<para>Finally, restart X and make sure, fonts can be displayed by
executing the above <link linkend="awk-test">awk script</link>. All
major applications should respect the keyboard mapping and the font
@@ -310,7 +310,7 @@ variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
<sect1 id="problems">
<title>Open problems</title>
-
+
<para>Of course, the author would like to receive feedback. In addition,
at least let me know if you have fixes for one of these open
problems:</para>
@@ -320,7 +320,7 @@ variable -*-helvetica-bold-r-normal-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-15
<para>Describe alternative way of setting up <application>Xorg</application>:
<filename role="package">x11/xkeycaps</filename></para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Settings in <application>GNOME</application></para>
</listitem>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/explaining-bsd/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/explaining-bsd/article.sgml
index 68618c73ec..7b963700f6 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/explaining-bsd/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/explaining-bsd/article.sgml
@@ -118,9 +118,9 @@
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1 id="what-a-real-unix">
- <title>What, a real &unix;?</title>
+ <title>What, a real &unix;?</title>
<para>The BSD operating systems are not clones, but open source
derivatives of AT&amp;T's Research &unix; operating system, which is also
@@ -189,7 +189,7 @@
<ulink url="http://www.dragonflybsd.org/">DragonFlyBSD</ulink> split
off from FreeBSD.</para>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1 id="why-is-bsd-not-better-known">
<title>Why is BSD not better known?</title>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/fonts/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/fonts/article.sgml
index 6cf7a5c96a..c24d60e074 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/fonts/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/fonts/article.sgml
@@ -539,7 +539,7 @@ GS&gt;<userinput>quit</userinput></screen>
<title>Using type 1 fonts with Groff</title>
<para>Now that the new font can be used by both <application>X11</application> and
- <application>Ghostscript</application>, how can one use the new font
+ <application>Ghostscript</application>, how can one use the new font
with <application>groff</application>? First of
all, since we are dealing with type 1 &postscript; fonts, the
<application>groff</application> device that is applicable is the <emphasis>ps</emphasis>
@@ -852,7 +852,7 @@ Converting 3of9.ttf to A.pfa and B.afm.
fonts available in this format.</para>
<para>Unfortunately, there are few applications that I am aware of
- that can use this format: <application>Ghostscript</application>
+ that can use this format: <application>Ghostscript</application>
and <application>Povray</application> come to mind.
<application>Ghostscript's</application> support, according to the documentation, is
rudimentary and the results are likely to be inferior to type 1
@@ -879,7 +879,7 @@ Converting 3of9.ttf to A.pfa and B.afm.
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para><application>xfstt</application> is another font server for
+ <para><application>xfstt</application> is another font server for
<application>X11</application>,
available under <ulink url="
ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/X11/fonts/"></ulink>.</para>
@@ -916,7 +916,7 @@ Converting 3of9.ttf to A.pfa and B.afm.
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Checkout the fonts that come with the Ports Collection in
+ <para>Checkout the fonts that come with the Ports Collection in
<filename>x11-fonts/</filename></para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/formatting-media/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/formatting-media/article.sgml
index 7a695160ec..eacc599bba 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/formatting-media/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/formatting-media/article.sgml
@@ -65,7 +65,7 @@
<para>There are two possible modes of disk formatting:</para>
- <itemizedlist>
+ <itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para><firstterm>compatibility mode</firstterm>: Arranging a
disk so that it has a slice table for use with other
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@
allowing access to the Label and Partition editors and a Write
feature which will update just the selected disk and slice
without affecting other disks. The other method is running
- the tools manually from a root command line. For
+ the tools manually from a root command line. For
dedicated mode, only three or four commands are involved while
<command>sysinstall</command> requires some
manipulation.</para>
@@ -155,7 +155,7 @@ now. -->
Each filesystem and swap area on a disk resides in a
partition. Maintained using the disklabel utility.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>sector: Smallest subdivision of a disk. One sector
usually represents 512 bytes of data.</para>
@@ -188,7 +188,7 @@ now. -->
to the system and a disk placed in the drive during startup,
so the kernel can determine the drive's geometry. Check the
<command>dmesg</command> output and make sure your device and
- the disk's size is listed. If the kernel reports
+ the disk's size is listed. If the kernel reports
<informalexample>
<screen>Can't get the size</screen>
@@ -224,11 +224,11 @@ now. -->
<procedure>
<step>
- <para>Start sysinstall as root by typing
+ <para>Start sysinstall as root by typing
<informalexample>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/stand/sysinstall</userinput></screen>
- </informalexample>
+ </informalexample>
from the command prompt.</para>
</step>
@@ -249,12 +249,12 @@ now. -->
<step>
<para>If you are using this entire disk for FreeBSD, select
<command>A</command>.</para>
- </step>
+ </step>
<step>
<para>When asked if you still want to do this, answer
<command>Yes</command>.</para>
- </step>
+ </step>
<step>
<para>Select <command>Write</command>.</para>
@@ -263,7 +263,7 @@ now. -->
<step>
<para>When warned about writing on installed systems, answer
<command>Yes</command>.</para>
- </step>
+ </step>
<step>
<para>When asked about installing a boot loader, select
@@ -293,13 +293,13 @@ now. -->
<command>C</command> to Create a partition, accept the
default size, partition type Filesystem, and a mountpoint
(which is not used).</para>
- </step>
+ </step>
<step>
<para>Enter <command>W</command> when done and confirm to
continue. The filesystem will be newfs'd for you, unless
you select otherwise (for new partitions you will want to
- do this!). You will get the error:
+ do this!). You will get the error:
<informalexample>
<screen>Error mounting /mnt/dev/ad2s1e on /mnt/blah : No such file or directory</screen>
@@ -330,7 +330,7 @@ now. -->
<para>If you need to edit the disklabel to create multiple
partitions (such as swap), use the following: </para>
-
+
<informalexample>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/ad2 count=2</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel /dev/ad2 > /tmp/label</userinput>
@@ -363,11 +363,11 @@ now. -->
<procedure>
<step>
- <para>Start sysinstall as root by typing
+ <para>Start sysinstall as root by typing
<informalexample>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/stand/sysinstall</userinput></screen>
- </informalexample>
+ </informalexample>
from the command prompt.</para>
</step>
@@ -388,10 +388,10 @@ now. -->
<step>
<para>If you are using this entire disk for FreeBSD, select
<command>A</command>.</para>
- </step>
+ </step>
<step>
- <para>When asked:
+ <para>When asked:
<informalexample>
<screen>Do you want to do this with a true partition entry so as to remain
@@ -419,18 +419,18 @@ drive(s)?</screen>
<step>
<para>You will be asked about the boot manager, select
<command>None</command> again. </para>
- </step>
+ </step>
<step>
<para>Select <command>Label</command> from the Index
menu.</para>
- </step>
+ </step>
<step>
<para>Label as desired. For a single partition, accept the
default size, type filesystem, and a mountpoint (which
is not used).</para>
- </step>
+ </step>
<step>
<para>The filesystem will be newfs'd for you, unless you
@@ -438,7 +438,7 @@ drive(s)?</screen>
this!). You will get the error:
<informalexample>
- <screen>Error mounting /mnt/dev/ad2s1e on /mnt/blah : No such file or directory</screen>
+ <screen>Error mounting /mnt/dev/ad2s1e on /mnt/blah : No such file or directory</screen>
</informalexample>
Ignore.</para>
@@ -479,7 +479,7 @@ drive(s)?</screen>
<para>When newfsing the drive, do NOT newfs the `c'
partition. Instead, newfs the partition where the
non-swap space lies.</para>
- </step>
+ </step>
<step>
<para>Add an entry to <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> as
@@ -489,7 +489,7 @@ drive(s)?</screen>
<programlisting>/dev/ad0b none swap sw 0 0
</programlisting>
</informalexample>
-
+
<para>Change <filename>/dev/ad0b</filename> to the device of the newly added
space.</para>
</step>
@@ -510,7 +510,7 @@ swapon: added /dev/da0b as swap space</screen>
<sect2>
<title>Copying the Contents of Disks</title>
<!-- Should have specific tag -->
-
+
<para>Submitted By: Renaud Waldura
(<email>renaud@softway.com</email>) </para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/freebsd-questions/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/freebsd-questions/article.sgml
index 25768fbc07..9d73bd5a53 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/freebsd-questions/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/freebsd-questions/article.sgml
@@ -42,10 +42,10 @@
list.</para>
</abstract>
</articleinfo>
-
+
<sect1>
<title id="Introduction">Introduction</title>
-
+
<para><literal>FreeBSD-questions</literal> is a mailing list maintained by
the FreeBSD project to help people who have questions about the normal
use of FreeBSD. Another group, <literal>FreeBSD-hackers</literal>,
@@ -62,7 +62,7 @@
url="http://www.catb.org/~esr/faqs/hacker-howto.html">How To Become
A Hacker</ulink></para>
</note>
-
+
<para>This is a regular posting aimed to help both those seeking advice
from FreeBSD-questions (the <quote>newcomers</quote>), and also those
who answer the questions (the <quote>hackers</quote>).</para>
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@
FreeBSD-questions. In the following section, I recommend how to submit
a question; after that, we will look at how to answer one.</para>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1>
<title id="subscribe">How to subscribe to FreeBSD-questions</title>
@@ -107,7 +107,7 @@
If you ever should want to leave the list, you will need the information
there. See the next section for more details.</para>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1>
<title id="unsubscribe">How to unsubscribe from FreeBSD-questions</title>
@@ -129,7 +129,7 @@ General information about the mailing list is at:
If you ever want to unsubscribe or change your options (e.g., switch to
or from digest mode, change your password, etc.), visit your
subscription page at:
-
+
http://lists.freebsd.org/mailman/options/freebsd-questions/grog%40lemsi.de
You can also make such adjustments via email by sending a message to:
@@ -175,7 +175,7 @@ your options page that will email your current password to you.</literallayout>
<literal>FreeBSD-hackers</literal>. In some cases, it is not really
clear which group you should ask. The following criteria should help
for 99% of all questions, however:</para>
-
+
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
<para>If the question is of a general nature, ask
@@ -183,13 +183,13 @@ your options page that will email your current password to you.</literallayout>
about installing FreeBSD or the use of a particular &unix;
utility.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>If you think the question relates to a bug, but you are not sure,
or you do not know how to look for it, send the message to
<literal>FreeBSD-questions</literal>.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>If the question relates to a bug, and you are
<emphasis>sure</emphasis> that it is a bug (for example, you can
@@ -216,7 +216,7 @@ your options page that will email your current password to you.</literallayout>
<sect1>
<title id="before">Before submitting a question</title>
-
+
<para>You can (and should) do some things yourself before asking a question
on one of the mailing lists:</para>
@@ -260,10 +260,10 @@ your options page that will email your current password to you.</literallayout>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1>
<title id="submit">How to submit a question</title>
-
+
<para>When submitting a question to FreeBSD-questions, consider the
following points:</para>
@@ -280,7 +280,7 @@ your options page that will email your current password to you.</literallayout>
you do not. In the rest of this document, we will look at how to get
the most out of your question to FreeBSD-questions.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Not everybody who answers FreeBSD questions reads every message:
they look at the subject line and decide whether it interests them.
@@ -297,7 +297,7 @@ your options page that will email your current password to you.</literallayout>
speak English as their first language, and we try to make
allowances for that, but it is really painful to try to read a
message written full of typos or without any line breaks.</para>
-
+
<para>Do not underestimate the effect that a poorly formatted mail
message has, not just on the FreeBSD-questions mailing list.
Your mail message is all people see of you, and if it is poorly
@@ -347,7 +347,7 @@ your options page that will email your current password to you.</literallayout>
use mailers which do not get on very well with
<acronym>MIME</acronym>.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Make sure your time and time zone are set correctly. This may
seem a little silly, since your message still gets there, but many
@@ -377,7 +377,7 @@ your options page that will email your current password to you.</literallayout>
sources, though of course you should not be sending questions
about -CURRENT to FreeBSD-questions.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem><para>With any problem which <emphasis>could</emphasis> be
hardware related, tell us about your hardware. In case of
doubt, assume it is possible that it is hardware. What kind of
@@ -389,7 +389,7 @@ your options page that will email your current password to you.</literallayout>
tells not just what hardware you are running, but what version of
FreeBSD as well.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>If you get error messages, do not say <quote>I get error
messages</quote>, say (for example) <quote>I get the error
@@ -435,7 +435,7 @@ your options page that will email your current password to you.</literallayout>
<para>This redirects the information to the file
<filename>/tmp/dmesg.out</filename>.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>If you do all this, and you still do not get an answer, there
could be other reasons. For example, the problem is so complicated
@@ -447,7 +447,7 @@ your options page that will email your current password to you.</literallayout>
only make you unpopular.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
-
+
<para>To summarize, let's assume you know the answer to the following
question (yes, it is the same one in each case).
You choose which of these two questions you would be more prepared to
@@ -490,7 +490,7 @@ fine, but when I try to reboot the system, I get the message
you are talking about. Do not forget to trim unnecessary text out,
though.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>The text in the subject line stays the same (you did remember to
put one in, did you not?). Many mailers will sort messages by
@@ -506,7 +506,7 @@ fine, but when I try to reboot the system, I get the message
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1>
<title id="answer">How to answer a question</title>
@@ -524,7 +524,7 @@ fine, but when I try to reboot the system, I get the message
check this is to sort your incoming mail by subject: then
(hopefully) you will see the question followed by any answers, all
together.</para>
-
+
<para>If somebody has already answered it, it does not automatically
mean that you should not send another answer. But it makes sense to
read all the other answers first.</para>
@@ -570,14 +570,14 @@ fine, but when I try to reboot the system, I get the message
send messages with hundreds of CCs. If this is the case, be sure to
trim the Cc: lines appropriately.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Include relevant text from the original message. Trim it to the
minimum, but do not overdo it. It should still be possible for
somebody who did not read the original message to understand what
you are talking about.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Use some technique to identify which text came from the original
message, and which text you add. I personally find that prepending
@@ -599,7 +599,7 @@ fine, but when I try to reboot the system, I get the message
text such as <quote>Re: </quote>. If your mailer does not do it
automatically, you should do it manually.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>If the submitter did not abide by format conventions (lines too
long, inappropriate subject line), <emphasis>please</emphasis> fix
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/geom-class/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/geom-class/Makefile
index 58e659e2a9..80e7914137 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/geom-class/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/geom-class/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Article: Writing a GEOM Class
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/gjournal-desktop/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/gjournal-desktop/article.sgml
index c1535e5f29..4557dfb241 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/gjournal-desktop/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/gjournal-desktop/article.sgml
@@ -69,7 +69,7 @@
system and data). It should be followed during a fresh installation of
&os;. The steps are simple enough and do not require overly complex
interaction with the command line.</para>
-
+
<para>After reading this article, you will know:</para>
<itemizedlist>
@@ -77,7 +77,7 @@
<para>How to reserve space for journaling during a new installation of
&os;.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>How to load and enable the <literal>geom_journal</literal>
module (or build support for it in your custom kernel).</para>
@@ -194,7 +194,7 @@
</note>
<para>For more information about journaling, please read the manual
- page of &man.gjournal.8;.</para>
+ page of &man.gjournal.8;.</para>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="reserve-space">
@@ -221,7 +221,7 @@
<para>In our example, an 80&nbsp;GB disk is used. The following screenshot
shows the default partitions created by <application>Disklabel</application> during
installation:</para>
-
+
<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
<imagedata fileref="disklabel1.png"/>
@@ -250,7 +250,7 @@
on a typical desktop will cause no harm. If the file system is
lightly used (quite probable for a desktop) you may wish to
allocate less disk space for its journal.</para>
-
+
<para>In our example, we journal both <filename>/usr</filename> and
<filename>/var</filename>. You may of course adjust the procedure
to your own needs.</para>
@@ -283,7 +283,7 @@
partitions to provide for the journals of <filename>/usr</filename> and
<filename>/var</filename>. The final result is shown in the following
screenshot:</para>
-
+
<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
<imagedata fileref="disklabel2.png"/>
@@ -470,7 +470,7 @@ GEOM_JOURNAL: Journal ad0s1f clean.</screen>
was created. Creating the journal would be as simple as:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>gjournal label ad1s1d</userinput></screen>
-
+
<para>The journal size will be 1&nbsp;GB by default. You may adjust it by
using the <option>-s</option> option. The value can be given in
bytes, or appended by <literal>K</literal>, <literal>M</literal> or
@@ -500,7 +500,7 @@ GEOM_JOURNAL: Journal ad0s1f clean.</screen>
<programlisting>options UFS_GJOURNAL # Note: This is already in GENERIC
options GEOM_JOURNAL # You will have to add this one</programlisting>
-
+
<para>Rebuild and reinstall your kernel following the relevant
<ulink url="&url.books.handbook;/kernelconfig.html">instructions in
the &os;&nbsp;Handbook.</ulink></para>
@@ -586,7 +586,7 @@ GEOM_JOURNAL: Journal ad0s1f clean.
can then be used for other purposes, if you so wish.</para>
<para>Login as <username>root</username> and switch to single user mode:</para>
-
+
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>shutdown now</userinput></screen>
<para>Unmount the journaled partitions:</para>
@@ -639,7 +639,7 @@ tunefs: soft updates set</screen>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
- </qandaset>
+ </qandaset>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="further-reading">
@@ -659,7 +659,7 @@ tunefs: soft updates set</screen>
<para><ulink url="http://lists.freebsd.org/pipermail/freebsd-current/2006-June/064043.html">This post</ulink>
in &a.current.name; by &man.gjournal.8;'s developer, &a.pjd;.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para><ulink url="http://lists.freebsd.org/pipermail/freebsd-questions/2008-April/173501.html">This post</ulink>
in &a.questions.name; by &a.ivoras;.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/hubs/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/hubs/article.sgml
index 9e4a95f06f..0702bd0e16 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/hubs/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/hubs/article.sgml
@@ -512,7 +512,7 @@ cvspserver stream tcp nowait root /usr/bin/cvs cvs -f -l -R -T /anoncvstmp --all
Please have look at the <application>CVSup</application> documentation
like &man.cvsup.1; and consider using the <option>-s</option>
option. This reduces I/O operations by assuming the
- recorded information about each file is correct.</para>
+ recorded information about each file is correct.</para>
</note>
</sect3>
</sect2>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/laptop/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/laptop/article.sgml
index 73e9e968c7..4f33c72f89 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/laptop/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/laptop/article.sgml
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@
<sect1 id="xorg">
<title>&xorg;</title>
-
+
<para>Recent versions of <application>&xorg;</application> work with most display adapters
available on laptops these days. Acceleration may not be
supported, but a generic SVGA configuration should work.</para>
@@ -81,9 +81,9 @@
hardware.</para>
<para>Most laptops come with two buttons on their pointing
- devices, which is rather problematic in X (since the middle
- button is commonly used to paste text); you can map a
- simultaneous left-right click in your X configuration to
+ devices, which is rather problematic in X (since the middle
+ button is commonly used to paste text); you can map a
+ simultaneous left-right click in your X configuration to
a middle button click with the line</para>
<programlisting>
@@ -92,24 +92,24 @@
<para>in the <filename>xorg.conf</filename> file in the <literal>InputDevice</literal>
section.</para>
- </sect1>
+ </sect1>
<sect1 id="modems">
<title>Modems</title>
- <para>
+ <para>
Laptops usually come with internal (on-board) modems.
- Unfortunately, this almost always means they are
+ Unfortunately, this almost always means they are
<quote>winmodems</quote> whose
functionality is implemented in software, for which only &windows;
- drivers are normally available (though a few drivers are beginning
+ drivers are normally available (though a few drivers are beginning
to show up for other operating systems; for example, if your modem has a Lucent LT chipset it might be supported by the <filename role="package">comms/ltmdm</filename> port). If that is the case, you
need to buy an external modem: the most compact option is
- probably a PC Card (PCMCIA) modem, discussed below, but
- serial or USB modems may be cheaper. Generally, regular
- modems (non-winmodems) should work fine.
+ probably a PC Card (PCMCIA) modem, discussed below, but
+ serial or USB modems may be cheaper. Generally, regular
+ modems (non-winmodems) should work fine.
</para>
- </sect1>
+ </sect1>
<sect1 id="pcmcia">
<title>PCMCIA (PC Card) devices</title>
@@ -124,24 +124,24 @@
<para>&os;&nbsp;4.X supports 16-bit PCMCIA cards, and
&os;&nbsp;5.X supports both 16-bit and
- 32-bit (<quote>CardBus</quote>) cards. A database of supported
- cards is in the file <filename>/etc/defaults/pccard.conf</filename>.
+ 32-bit (<quote>CardBus</quote>) cards. A database of supported
+ cards is in the file <filename>/etc/defaults/pccard.conf</filename>.
Look through it, and preferably buy cards listed there. Cards not
- listed may also work as <quote>generic</quote> devices: in
- particular most modems (16-bit) should work fine, provided they
- are not winmodems (these do exist even as PC Cards, so watch out).
+ listed may also work as <quote>generic</quote> devices: in
+ particular most modems (16-bit) should work fine, provided they
+ are not winmodems (these do exist even as PC Cards, so watch out).
If your card is recognised as a generic modem, note that the
default <filename>pccard.conf</filename> file specifies a delay time of 10 seconds
(to avoid freezes on certain modems); this may well be
over-cautious for your modem, so you may want to play with it,
reducing it or removing it totally.</para>
- <para>Some parts of <filename>pccard.conf</filename> may need
- editing. Check the irq line, and be sure to remove any number
- already being used: in particular, if you have an on board sound
- card, remove irq 5 (otherwise you may experience hangs when you
- insert a card). Check also the available memory slots; if your
- card is not being detected, try changing it to one of the other
+ <para>Some parts of <filename>pccard.conf</filename> may need
+ editing. Check the irq line, and be sure to remove any number
+ already being used: in particular, if you have an on board sound
+ card, remove irq 5 (otherwise you may experience hangs when you
+ insert a card). Check also the available memory slots; if your
+ card is not being detected, try changing it to one of the other
allowed values (listed in the manual page &man.pccardc.8;).
</para>
@@ -156,8 +156,8 @@
(including ISA routing of interrupts, for machines where
&os; is not able to use the PCI BIOS) before the &os;&nbsp;4.4
release. If you have problems, try upgrading your system.</para>
-
- </sect1>
+
+ </sect1>
<sect1 id="power-management">
@@ -294,7 +294,7 @@ apm_event NORMRESUME, STANDBYRESUME {
<para>The X window system (<application>&xorg;</application>) also includes display power
management (look at the &man.xset.1; manual page, and search for
- <quote>dpms</quote> there). You may want to investigate this. However, this,
+ <quote>dpms</quote> there). You may want to investigate this. However, this,
too, works inconsistently on laptops: it
often turns off the display but does not turn off the
backlight.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ldap-auth/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ldap-auth/Makefile
index c0266a09d6..df0bcdb4d8 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ldap-auth/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ldap-auth/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Article: LDAP Authentication
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ldap-auth/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ldap-auth/article.sgml
index bdc3562cac..2167ef324e 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ldap-auth/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/ldap-auth/article.sgml
@@ -52,7 +52,7 @@
explanation of <filename role="package">net/nss_ldap</filename>
and <filename role="package">security/pam_ldap</filename> for use with
client machines services for use with the LDAP server.</para>
-
+
<para>When finished, the reader should be able to configure and
deploy a &os; server that can host an LDAP directory, and to
configure and deploy a &os; server which can authenticate against
@@ -397,7 +397,7 @@ cn: tuser</programlisting>
<para><filename role="package">security/pam_ldap</filename> is
configured via <filename>/usr/local/etc/ldap.conf</filename>.</para>
-
+
<note>
<para>This is a <emphasis>different file</emphasis> than the
<application>OpenLDAP</application> library functions'
@@ -616,7 +616,7 @@ ldappasswd -D uid="$USER",ou=people,dc=example,dc=org \
<example id="chpw-ruby">
<title>Ruby script for changing passwords</title>
-
+
<programlisting><![CDATA[require 'ldap'
require 'base64'
require 'digest'
@@ -632,7 +632,7 @@ def get_password
raise if pwd1 != pwd2
pwd1.check # check password strength
-
+
salt = rand.to_s.gsub(/0\./, '')
pass = pwd1.to_s
hash = "{SSHA}"+Base64.encode64(Digest::SHA1.digest("#{pass}#{salt}")+salt).chomp!
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.sgml
index 9e9a447f69..cad25e1d21 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-comparison/article.sgml
@@ -310,7 +310,7 @@ Copyright (c) 2005 Dru Lavigne
<varlistentry>
<term>MAC</term>
- <listitem><para><ulink url="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mac.html">MAC</ulink>,
+ <listitem><para><ulink url="&url.base;/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mac.html">MAC</ulink>,
or Mandatory Access Control, provides fine-tuned access to
files and is meant to augment traditional operating system
authorization provided by file permissions. Since MAC is
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-emulation/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-emulation/article.sgml
index b5b65e07d3..7a8e6ee92e 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-emulation/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-emulation/article.sgml
@@ -106,7 +106,7 @@
SysV interprocess communication primitives, copy-on-write, etc. &unix;
itself does not exist any more but its ideas have been used by many
other operating systems world wide thus forming the so called &unix;-like
- operating systems. These days the most influential ones are &linux;,
+ operating systems. These days the most influential ones are &linux;,
Solaris, and possibly (to some extent) &os;. There are in-company
&unix; derivatives (AIX, HP-UX etc.), but these have been more and
more migrated to the aforementioned systems. Let us summarize typical
@@ -345,7 +345,7 @@
<literal>ERESTART</literal> and <literal>EJUSTRETURN</literal>
errors). Finally an <literal>userret()</literal> is scheduled,
switching the process back to the users-pace. The parameters to
- the actual syscall handler are passed in the form of
+ the actual syscall handler are passed in the form of
<literal>struct thread *td</literal>,
<literal>struct syscall args *</literal> arguments where the second
parameter is a pointer to the copied in structure of
@@ -627,17 +627,17 @@
program.</para>
<para>The code that implements &man.pthread.create.3; in NPTL defines
- the clone flags like this:</para>
+ the clone flags like this:</para>
<programlisting>int clone_flags = (CLONE_VM | CLONE_FS | CLONE_FILES | CLONE_SIGNAL
- | CLONE_SETTLS | CLONE_PARENT_SETTID
+ | CLONE_SETTLS | CLONE_PARENT_SETTID
-| CLONE_CHILD_CLEARTID | CLONE_SYSVSEM
-#if __ASSUME_NO_CLONE_DETACHED == 0
+| CLONE_CHILD_CLEARTID | CLONE_SYSVSEM
+#if __ASSUME_NO_CLONE_DETACHED == 0
-| CLONE_DETACHED
-#endif
+| CLONE_DETACHED
+#endif
| 0);</programlisting>
@@ -1223,7 +1223,7 @@
<programlisting>...
AUE_FORK STD { int linux_fork(void); }
-...
+...
AUE_CLOSE NOPROTO { int close(int fd); }
...</programlisting>
@@ -1257,15 +1257,15 @@
<para>The <filename>linux_proto.h</filename> contains structure
definitions of arguments to every syscall, e.g.:</para>
- <programlisting>struct linux_fork_args {
- register_t dummy;
+ <programlisting>struct linux_fork_args {
+ register_t dummy;
};</programlisting>
<para>And finally, <filename>linux_sysent.c</filename> contains
structure describing the system entry table, used to actually
dispatch a syscall, e.g.:</para>
- <programlisting>{ 0, (sy_call_t *)linux_fork, AUE_FORK, NULL, 0, 0 }, /* 2 = linux_fork */
+ <programlisting>{ 0, (sy_call_t *)linux_fork, AUE_FORK, NULL, 0, 0 }, /* 2 = linux_fork */
{ AS(close_args), (sy_call_t *)close, AUE_CLOSE, NULL, 0, 0 }, /* 6 = close */</programlisting>
<para>As you can see <function>linux_fork</function> is implemented
@@ -1349,7 +1349,7 @@
instruction or between system entries (syscalls and traps).
&man.ptrace.2; also lets you set various information in the traced
process (registers etc.). &man.ptrace.2; is a &unix;-wide standard
- implemented in most &unix;es around the world.</para>
+ implemented in most &unix;es around the world.</para>
<para>&linux; emulation in &os; implements the &man.ptrace.2; facility
in <filename>linux_ptrace.c</filename>. The routines for converting
@@ -1379,11 +1379,11 @@
trap is so this is dealt with here. The code is actually very
short:</para>
- <programlisting>static int
-translate_traps(int signal, int trap_code)
-{
+ <programlisting>static int
+translate_traps(int signal, int trap_code)
+{
- if (signal != SIGBUS)
+ if (signal != SIGBUS)
return signal;
switch (trap_code) {
@@ -1394,9 +1394,9 @@ translate_traps(int signal, int trap_code)
case T_PAGEFLT:
return SIGSEGV;
- default:
- return signal;
- }
+ default:
+ return signal;
+ }
}</programlisting>
</sect2>
@@ -1523,17 +1523,17 @@ translate_traps(int signal, int trap_code)
emulation specific structure attached to the process. The
structure attached to the process looks like:</para>
- <programlisting>struct linux_emuldata {
- pid_t pid;
+ <programlisting>struct linux_emuldata {
+ pid_t pid;
- int *child_set_tid; /* in clone(): Child.s TID to set on clone */
- int *child_clear_tid;/* in clone(): Child.s TID to clear on exit */
+ int *child_set_tid; /* in clone(): Child.s TID to set on clone */
+ int *child_clear_tid;/* in clone(): Child.s TID to clear on exit */
- struct linux_emuldata_shared *shared;
+ struct linux_emuldata_shared *shared;
- int pdeath_signal; /* parent death signal */
+ int pdeath_signal; /* parent death signal */
- LIST_ENTRY(linux_emuldata) threads; /* list of linux threads */
+ LIST_ENTRY(linux_emuldata) threads; /* list of linux threads */
};</programlisting>
<para>The PID is used to identify the &os; process that attaches this
@@ -1547,13 +1547,13 @@ translate_traps(int signal, int trap_code)
to the list of threads. The <literal>linux_emuldata_shared</literal>
structure looks like:</para>
- <programlisting>struct linux_emuldata_shared {
+ <programlisting>struct linux_emuldata_shared {
- int refs;
+ int refs;
- pid_t group_pid;
+ pid_t group_pid;
- LIST_HEAD(, linux_emuldata) threads; /* head of list of linux threads */
+ LIST_HEAD(, linux_emuldata) threads; /* head of list of linux threads */
};</programlisting>
<para>The <varname>refs</varname> is a reference counter being used
@@ -1860,8 +1860,8 @@ void * child_tidptr);</programlisting>
counter, which is very fast, as presented by the following
example:</para>
- <programlisting>pthread_mutex_lock(&amp;mutex);
-....
+ <programlisting>pthread_mutex_lock(&amp;mutex);
+....
pthread_mutex_unlock(&amp;mutex);</programlisting>
<para>1:1 threading forces us to perform two syscalls for those mutex
@@ -1908,7 +1908,7 @@ pthread_mutex_unlock(&amp;mutex);</programlisting>
<listitem>
<para><literal>FUTEX_WAKE_OP</literal></para>
</listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
+ </itemizedlist>
<sect4 id="futex-wait">
<title>FUTEX_WAIT</title>
@@ -1952,7 +1952,7 @@ pthread_mutex_unlock(&amp;mutex);</programlisting>
<para>This operation does the same as
<literal>FUTEX_REQUEUE</literal> but it checks that
<varname>val3</varname> equals to <varname>val</varname>
- first.</para>
+ first.</para>
</sect4>
<sect4 id="futex-wake-op">
@@ -2017,13 +2017,13 @@ pthread_mutex_unlock(&amp;mutex);</programlisting>
<para>And the structure <literal>waiting_proc</literal> is:</para>
- <programlisting>struct waiting_proc {
+ <programlisting>struct waiting_proc {
- struct thread *wp_t;
+ struct thread *wp_t;
- struct futex *wp_new_futex;
+ struct futex *wp_new_futex;
- TAILQ_ENTRY(waiting_proc) wp_list;
+ TAILQ_ENTRY(waiting_proc) wp_list;
};</programlisting>
<sect4 id="futex-get">
@@ -2135,7 +2135,7 @@ pthread_mutex_unlock(&amp;mutex);</programlisting>
<literal>AT_FDCWD</literal>. So for example the
<function>openat</function> syscall can be like this:</para>
- <programlisting>file descriptor 123 = /tmp/foo/, current working directory = /tmp/
+ <programlisting>file descriptor 123 = /tmp/foo/, current working directory = /tmp/
openat(123, /tmp/bah\, flags, mode) /* opens /tmp/bah */
openat(123, bah\, flags, mode) /* opens /tmp/foo/bah */
@@ -2246,7 +2246,7 @@ openat(stdio, bah\, flags, mode) /* returns error because stdio is not a directo
sysctl). For printing we have LMSG and ARGS macros. Those are used
for altering a printable string for uniform debugging messages.</para>
</sect3>
- </sect2>
+ </sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="conclusion">
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-users/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-users/Makefile
index 82fc436564..4c0ac44d24 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-users/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/linux-users/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Article: FreeBSD Quickstart for Linux Users
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mailing-list-faq/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mailing-list-faq/Makefile
index 09f7ccb2f7..a089bd63c7 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mailing-list-faq/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mailing-list-faq/Makefile
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESSED?=
WITH_ARTICLE_TOC?=YES
-#
+#
# SRCS lists the individual SGML files that make up the document. Changes
# to any of these files will force a rebuild
#
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mh/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mh/article.sgml
index 82e18373bc..06ce3754de 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mh/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mh/article.sgml
@@ -278,7 +278,7 @@ Incorporating new mail into inbox...
36+ 01/19 Stephen L. Lange Request...&lt;&lt;Please remove me as contact for pind
37 01/19 Matt Thomas Re: kern/950: Two PCI bridge chips fail (multipl
- 38 01/19 Amancio Hasty Jr Re: FreeBSD and VAT&lt;&lt;&gt;&gt;&gt; Bill Fenner said: &gt; In
+ 38 01/19 Amancio Hasty Jr Re: FreeBSD and VAT&lt;&lt;&gt;&gt;&gt; Bill Fenner said: &gt; In
&prompt.user;</screen>
</informalexample>
@@ -310,10 +310,10 @@ X-Authentication-Warning: whydos.lkg.dec.com: Host localhost didn't use HELO pro
tocol
To: hsu@clinet.fi
Cc: hackers@FreeBSD.org
-Subject: Re: kern/950: Two PCI bridge chips fail (multiple multiport ethernet
- boards)
+Subject: Re: kern/950: Two PCI bridge chips fail (multiple multiport ethernet
+ boards)
In-Reply-To: Your message of "Fri, 19 Jan 1996 00:18:36 +0100."
- &lt;199601182318.AA11772@Sysiphos&gt;
+ &lt;199601182318.AA11772@Sysiphos&gt;
X-Mailer: exmh version 1.5omega 10/6/94
Date: Fri, 19 Jan 1996 17:56:40 +0000
From: Matt Thomas &lt;matt@lkg.dec.com&gt;
@@ -332,16 +332,16 @@ which I am probably the guilty party).</screen>
<informalexample>
<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>scan last:10</userinput>
- 26 01/16 maddy Re: Testing some stuff&lt;&lt;yeah, well, Trinity has
+ 26 01/16 maddy Re: Testing some stuff&lt;&lt;yeah, well, Trinity has
27 01/17 Automatic digest NET-HAPPENINGS Digest - 16 Jan 1996 to 17 Jan 19
- 28 01/17 Evans A Criswell Re: Hey dude&lt;&lt;&gt;From matt@tempest.garply.com Tue
+ 28 01/17 Evans A Criswell Re: Hey dude&lt;&lt;&gt;From matt@tempest.garply.com Tue
29 01/16 Karl Heuer need configure/make volunteers&lt;&lt;The FSF is looki
30 01/18 Paul Stephanouk Re: [alt.religion.scientology] Raw Meat (humor)&lt;
31 01/18 Bill Lenherr Re: Linux NIS Solaris&lt;&lt;--- On Thu, 18 Jan 1996 1
34 01/19 John Fieber Re: Stuff for the email section?&lt;&lt;On Fri, 19 Jan
35 01/19 support@foo.garpl [garply.com #1138] parlor&lt;&lt;Hello. This is the Ne
37+ 01/19 Matt Thomas Re: kern/950: Two PCI bridge chips fail (multipl
- 38 01/19 Amancio Hasty Jr Re: FreeBSD and VAT&lt;&lt;&gt;&gt;&gt; Bill Fenner said: &gt; In
+ 38 01/19 Amancio Hasty Jr Re: FreeBSD and VAT&lt;&lt;&gt;&gt;&gt; Bill Fenner said: &gt; In
&prompt.user;</screen>
</informalexample>
@@ -508,7 +508,7 @@ which I am probably the guilty party).</screen>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
-
+
<para>This allows you to do things like
<informalexample>
@@ -551,7 +551,7 @@ which I am probably the guilty party).</screen>
necessary as in the following example</para>
<informalexample>
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>pick -lbrace -to freebsd-hackers -and
+ <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>pick -lbrace -to freebsd-hackers -and
-not -cc freebsd-questions -rbrace -and -subject pci</userinput></screen>
</informalexample>
@@ -618,7 +618,7 @@ which I am probably the guilty party).</screen>
TOTAL= 199 messages in 13 folders.</screen>
</informalexample>
-
+
<para>The <command>refile</command> command is what you use to move
messages between folders. When you do something like
<command>refile 23 +netfuture</command> message number 23 is moved
@@ -799,13 +799,13 @@ X-Home-Page: http://www.FreeBSD.org/
original message. So that might be translated this way:</para>
<informalexample>
- <screen>%&lt;<emphasis remap="bf">if</emphasis> {reply-to} <emphasis remap="bf">the original message has a reply-to</emphasis>
+ <screen>%&lt;<emphasis remap="bf">if</emphasis> {reply-to} <emphasis remap="bf">the original message has a reply-to</emphasis>
then give that to formataddr, %? <emphasis remap="bf">else</emphasis> {from} <emphasis remap="bf">take the
from address</emphasis>, %? <emphasis remap="bf">else</emphasis> {sender} <emphasis remap="bf">take the sender address</emphasis>, %?
<emphasis remap="bf">else</emphasis> {return-path} <emphasis remap="bf">take the return-path from the original
message</emphasis>, %&gt; <emphasis remap="bf">endif</emphasis>.</screen>
</informalexample>
-
+
<para>As you can tell <application>MH</application> formatting
can get rather involved. You can probably decipher what most
of the other functions and variables mean. All of the
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/nanobsd/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/nanobsd/Makefile
index 4b9cf79584..1b3baa6fe3 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/nanobsd/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/nanobsd/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Article: Introduction to NanoBSD
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml
index 95045ea05d..1ca4b054f9 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml
@@ -431,7 +431,7 @@
the long run the text editor <command>vi</command> is worth
learning. There is an excellent tutorial on vi in
<filename>/usr/src/contrib/nvi/docs/tutorial</filename>, if you
- have the system sources installed.</para>
+ have the system sources installed.</para>
<para>Before you edit a file, you should probably back it up.
Suppose you want to edit <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>. You
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/p4-primer/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/p4-primer/Makefile
index 9f80f4fa05..cb9bac7f12 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/p4-primer/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/p4-primer/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Perforce in FreeBSD Development article.
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/portbuild/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/portbuild/article.sgml
index 85d102bc47..aee1650fa6 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/portbuild/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/portbuild/article.sgml
@@ -2670,7 +2670,7 @@ ln -s ../<replaceable>arch</replaceable>/archive/errorlogs <replaceable>arch</re
<para>(Only necessary for old codebase):
Only after the first time a
<application>dopackages</application> has been run for the
- arch: add the arch to
+ arch: add the arch to
<filename>/var/portbuild/scripts/dopackagestats</filename>.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -2908,7 +2908,7 @@ Use smartctl -X to abort test.</screen>
after it finishes:</para>
<screen># SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
-# Num Test_Description Status Remaining
+# Num Test_Description Status Remaining
LifeTime(hours) LBA_of_first_error
# 1 Extended offline Completed: read failure 80% 15252 319286</screen>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/problem-reports/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/problem-reports/article.sgml
index 70a6323b9e..e37649d56a 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/problem-reports/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/problem-reports/article.sgml
@@ -123,13 +123,13 @@
committer, or you might be asked to provide a patch to update
the port; providing it upfront will greatly improve your chances
that the port will get updated in a timely manner.</para>
-
+
<para>If the port is maintained, PRs announcing new upstream releases
are usually not very useful since they generate supplementary work
for the committers, and the maintainer likely knows already there is
a new version, they have probably worked with the developers on it,
they are probably testing to see there is no regression, etc.</para>
-
+
<para>In either case, following the process described in <ulink
url="&url.books.porters-handbook;/port-upgrading.html">Porter's
Handbook</ulink> will yield the best results. (You might
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/rc-scripting/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/rc-scripting/Makefile
index 92886d6ba7..586196f69f 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/rc-scripting/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/rc-scripting/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Article: Practical rc.d scripting in BSD
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/rc-scripting/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/rc-scripting/article.sgml
index d763a65c2a..944028dffd 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/rc-scripting/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/rc-scripting/article.sgml
@@ -1232,7 +1232,7 @@ run_rc_command "$1"</programlisting>
<para>Fortunately, &man.rc.subr.8; allows for passing any number
of arguments to script's methods (within the system limits).
Due to that, the changes in the script itself can be minimal.</para>
-
+
<para>How can &man.rc.subr.8; gain
access to the extra command-line arguments. Should it just
grab them directly? Not by any means. Firstly, an &man.sh.1;
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/relaydelay/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/relaydelay/article.sgml
index a0331570af..144e27ba2b 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/relaydelay/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/relaydelay/article.sgml
@@ -68,7 +68,7 @@
set. The current version of <command>perl</command>
may need to be removed first; errors will be reported
by the install process if this is necessary.</para>
-
+
<note>
<para>This will require all ports which require
<command>perl</command> to be rebuilt and reinstalled;
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng-packages/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng-packages/Makefile
index d47d0b2e9a..78b5446bc3 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng-packages/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng-packages/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Article: FreeBSD Release Engineering of Third Party Software Packages
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/Makefile
index 9cb2ff4114..59137dbad0 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Article: FreeBSD Release Engineering
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/article.sgml
index f1d842816d..09392d38d6 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/article.sgml
@@ -788,11 +788,11 @@ applicable.</para>
&man.sysinstall.8; and &man.release.7; must be updated to
include installation instructions. The relevant code is contained
in <filename>src/release</filename> and <filename>src/usr.sbin/sysinstall</filename>.
- Specifically, the file <filename>src/release/Makefile</filename>, and
+ Specifically, the file <filename>src/release/Makefile</filename>, and
<filename>dist.c</filename>, <filename>dist.h</filename>,
- <filename>menus.c</filename>, <filename>install.c</filename>, and
+ <filename>menus.c</filename>, <filename>install.c</filename>, and
<filename>Makefile</filename> will need to be updated under
- <filename>src/usr.sbin/sysinstall</filename>. Optionally, you may choose
+ <filename>src/usr.sbin/sysinstall</filename>. Optionally, you may choose
to update <filename>sysinstall.8</filename>.</para>
</sect3>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/remote-install/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/remote-install/Makefile
index d7db2cc2e0..388906f144 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/remote-install/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/remote-install/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/serial-uart/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/serial-uart/article.sgml
index 37f3f5deb6..0485c37050 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/serial-uart/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/serial-uart/article.sgml
@@ -8,18 +8,18 @@
<article lang='en'>
<articleinfo>
<title>Serial and UART Tutorial</title>
-
+
<authorgroup>
<author>
<firstname>Frank</firstname>
<surname>Durda</surname>
-
+
<affiliation>
<address><email>uhclem@FreeBSD.org</email></address>
</affiliation>
</author>
</authorgroup>
-
+
<legalnotice id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
&tm-attrib.freebsd;
&tm-attrib.microsoft;
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@
<para>This article talks about using serial hardware with FreeBSD.</para>
</abstract>
</articleinfo>
-
+
<sect1 id="uart">
<title>The UART: What it is and how it works</title>
@@ -47,11 +47,11 @@
transmits the individual bits in a sequential fashion. At the
destination, a second UART re-assembles the bits into complete
bytes.</para>
-
+
<para>Serial transmission is commonly used with modems and for
non-networked communication between computers, terminals and
other devices.</para>
-
+
<para>There are two primary forms of serial transmission:
Synchronous and Asynchronous. Depending on the modes that are
supported by the hardware, the name of the communication
@@ -59,13 +59,13 @@
supports Asynchronous communications, and a
<literal>S</literal> if it supports Synchronous
communications. Both forms are described below.</para>
-
+
<para>Some common acronyms are:</para>
-
+
<blockquote>
<para>UART Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter</para>
</blockquote>
-
+
<blockquote>
<para>USART Universal Synchronous-Asynchronous
Receiver/Transmitter</para>
@@ -73,7 +73,7 @@
<sect2>
<title>Synchronous Serial Transmission</title>
-
+
<para>Synchronous serial transmission requires that the sender
and receiver share a clock with one another, or that the
sender provide a strobe or other timing signal so that the
@@ -87,7 +87,7 @@
synchronous communication can be more costly if extra wiring
and circuits are required to share a clock signal between
the sender and receiver.</para>
-
+
<para>A form of Synchronous transmission is used with printers
and fixed disk devices in that the data is sent on one set
of wires while a clock or strobe is sent on a different
@@ -96,7 +96,7 @@
send an entire word of data for each clock or strobe signal
by using a separate wire for each bit of the word. In the
PC industry, these are known as Parallel devices.</para>
-
+
<para>The standard serial communications hardware in the PC
does not support Synchronous operations. This mode is
described here for comparison purposes only.</para>
@@ -104,14 +104,14 @@
<sect2>
<title>Asynchronous Serial Transmission</title>
-
+
<para>Asynchronous transmission allows data to be transmitted
without the sender having to send a clock signal to the
receiver. Instead, the sender and receiver must agree on
timing parameters in advance and special bits are added to
each word which are used to synchronize the sending and
receiving units.</para>
-
+
<para>When a word is given to the UART for Asynchronous
transmissions, a bit called the "Start Bit" is added to the
beginning of each word that is to be transmitted. The Start
@@ -123,7 +123,7 @@
the remaining bits in the word. (This requirement was set
in the days of mechanical teleprinters and is easily met by
modern electronic equipment.)</para>
-
+
<para>After the Start Bit, the individual bits of the word of
data are sent, with the Least Significant Bit (LSB) being
sent first. Each bit in the transmission is transmitted for
@@ -137,18 +137,18 @@
<literal>0</literal> after one second has passed, then it
will wait two seconds and then examine the value of the next
bit, and so on.</para>
-
+
<para>The sender does not know when the receiver has
<quote>looked</quote> at the value of the bit. The sender
only knows when the clock says to begin transmitting the
next bit of the word.</para>
-
+
<para>When the entire data word has been sent, the transmitter
may add a Parity Bit that the transmitter generates. The
Parity Bit may be used by the receiver to perform simple
error checking. Then at least one Stop Bit is sent by the
transmitter.</para>
-
+
<para>When the receiver has received all of the bits in the
data word, it may check for the Parity Bits (both sender and
receiver must agree on whether a Parity Bit is to be used),
@@ -159,16 +159,16 @@
usual cause of a Framing Error is that the sender and
receiver clocks were not running at the same speed, or that
the signal was interrupted.</para>
-
+
<para>Regardless of whether the data was received correctly or
not, the UART automatically discards the Start, Parity and
Stop bits. If the sender and receiver are configured
identically, these bits are not passed to the host.</para>
-
+
<para>If another word is ready for transmission, the Start Bit
for the new word can be sent as soon as the Stop Bit for the
previous word has been sent.</para>
-
+
<para>Because asynchronous data is <quote>self
synchronizing</quote>, if there is no data to transmit, the
transmission line can be idle.</para>
@@ -176,7 +176,7 @@
<sect2>
<title>Other UART Functions</title>
-
+
<para>In addition to the basic job of converting data from
parallel to serial for transmission and from serial to
parallel on reception, a UART will usually provide
@@ -194,23 +194,23 @@
<sect2>
<title>The RS232-C and V.24 Standards</title>
-
+
<para>In most computer systems, the UART is connected to
circuitry that generates signals that comply with the EIA
RS232-C specification. There is also a CCITT standard named
V.24 that mirrors the specifications included in
RS232-C.</para>
-
+
<sect3>
<title>RS232-C Bit Assignments (Marks and Spaces)</title>
-
+
<para>In RS232-C, a value of <literal>1</literal> is called
a <literal>Mark</literal> and a value of
<literal>0</literal> is called a <literal>Space</literal>.
When a communication line is idle, the line is said to be
<quote>Marking</quote>, or transmitting continuous
<literal>1</literal> values.</para>
-
+
<para>The Start bit always has a value of
<literal>0</literal> (a Space). The Stop Bit always has a
value of <literal>1</literal> (a Mark). This means that
@@ -220,12 +220,12 @@
sender and receiver can resynchronize their clocks
regardless of the content of the data bits that are being
transmitted.</para>
-
+
<para>The idle time between Stop and Start bits does not
have to be an exact multiple (including zero) of the bit
rate of the communication link, but most UARTs are
designed this way for simplicity.</para>
-
+
<para>In RS232-C, the "Marking" signal (a
<literal>1</literal>) is represented by a voltage between
-2 VDC and -12 VDC, and a "Spacing" signal (a
@@ -238,24 +238,24 @@
acceptable to a RS232-C receiver, provided that the cable
lengths are short.</para>
</sect3>
-
+
<sect3>
<title>RS232-C Break Signal</title>
-
+
<para>RS232-C also specifies a signal called a
<literal>Break</literal>, which is caused by sending
continuous Spacing values (no Start or Stop bits). When
there is no electricity present on the data circuit, the
line is considered to be sending
<literal>Break</literal>.</para>
-
+
<para>The <literal>Break</literal> signal must be of a
duration longer than the time it takes to send a complete
byte plus Start, Stop and Parity bits. Most UARTs can
distinguish between a Framing Error and a Break, but if
the UART cannot do this, the Framing Error detection can
be used to identify Breaks.</para>
-
+
<para>In the days of teleprinters, when numerous printers
around the country were wired in series (such as news
services), any unit could cause a <literal>Break</literal>
@@ -263,7 +263,7 @@
current flowed. This was used to allow a location with
urgent news to interrupt some other location that was
currently sending information.</para>
-
+
<para>In modern systems there are two types of Break
signals. If the Break is longer than 1.6 seconds, it is
considered a "Modem Break", and some modems can be
@@ -275,7 +275,7 @@
is used as an Attention or Interrupt signal and sometimes
is accepted as a substitute for the ASCII CONTROL-C
character.</para>
-
+
<para>Marks and Spaces are also equivalent to
<quote>Holes</quote> and <quote>No Holes</quote> in paper
tape systems.</para>
@@ -288,10 +288,10 @@
a special command from the host processor.</para>
</note>
</sect3>
-
+
<sect3>
<title>RS232-C DTE and DCE Devices</title>
-
+
<para>The RS232-C specification defines two types of
equipment: the Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) and the Data
Carrier Equipment (DCE). Usually, the DTE device is the
@@ -301,7 +301,7 @@
is connected to that modem is a DTE device. The DCE
device receives signals on the pins that the DTE device
transmits on, and vice versa.</para>
-
+
<para>When two devices that are both DTE or both DCE must be
connected together without a modem or a similar media
translator between them, a NULL modem must be used. The
@@ -311,34 +311,34 @@
are performed on all of the control signals so that each
device will see what it thinks are DCE (or DTE) signals
from the other device.</para>
-
+
<para>The number of signals generated by the DTE and DCE
devices are not symmetrical. The DTE device generates
fewer signals for the DCE device than the DTE device
receives from the DCE.</para>
</sect3>
-
+
<sect3>
<title>RS232-C Pin Assignments</title>
-
+
<para>The EIA RS232-C specification (and the ITU equivalent,
V.24) calls for a twenty-five pin connector (usually a
DB25) and defines the purpose of most of the pins in that
connector.</para>
-
+
<para>In the IBM Personal Computer and similar systems, a
subset of RS232-C signals are provided via nine pin
connectors (DB9). The signals that are not included on
the PC connector deal mainly with synchronous operation,
and this transmission mode is not supported by the UART
that IBM selected for use in the IBM PC.</para>
-
+
<para>Depending on the computer manufacturer, a DB25, a DB9,
or both types of connector may be used for RS232-C
communications. (The IBM PC also uses a DB25 connector
for the parallel printer interface which causes some
confusion.)</para>
-
+
<para>Below is a table of the RS232-C signal assignments in
the DB25 and DB9 connectors.</para>
@@ -353,7 +353,7 @@
<entry>Description</entry>
</row>
</thead>
-
+
<tbody>
<row>
<entry>1</entry>
@@ -364,7 +364,7 @@
<entry>-</entry>
<entry>Frame/Protective Ground</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>2</entry>
<entry>3</entry>
@@ -374,7 +374,7 @@
<entry>DTE</entry>
<entry>Transmit Data</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>3</entry>
<entry>2</entry>
@@ -384,7 +384,7 @@
<entry>DCE</entry>
<entry>Receive Data</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>4</entry>
<entry>7</entry>
@@ -394,7 +394,7 @@
<entry>DTE</entry>
<entry>Request to Send</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>5</entry>
<entry>8</entry>
@@ -404,7 +404,7 @@
<entry>DCE</entry>
<entry>Clear to Send</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>6</entry>
<entry>6</entry>
@@ -414,7 +414,7 @@
<entry>DCE</entry>
<entry>Data Set Ready</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>7</entry>
<entry>5</entry>
@@ -424,7 +424,7 @@
<entry>-</entry>
<entry>Signal Ground</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>8</entry>
<entry>1</entry>
@@ -434,7 +434,7 @@
<entry>DCE</entry>
<entry>Data Carrier Detect</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>9</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -444,7 +444,7 @@
<entry>-</entry>
<entry>Reserved for Test</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>10</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -454,7 +454,7 @@
<entry>-</entry>
<entry>Reserved for Test</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>11</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -464,7 +464,7 @@
<entry>-</entry>
<entry>Reserved for Test</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>12</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -474,7 +474,7 @@
<entry>DCE</entry>
<entry>Sec. Recv. Line Signal Detector</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>13</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -484,7 +484,7 @@
<entry>DCE</entry>
<entry>Secondary Clear to Send</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>14</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -494,7 +494,7 @@
<entry>DTE</entry>
<entry>Secondary Transmit Data</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>15</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -504,7 +504,7 @@
<entry>DCE</entry>
<entry>Trans. Sig. Element Timing</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>16</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -514,7 +514,7 @@
<entry>DCE</entry>
<entry>Secondary Received Data</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>17</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -524,7 +524,7 @@
<entry>DCE</entry>
<entry>Receiver Signal Element Timing</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>18</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -534,7 +534,7 @@
<entry>DTE</entry>
<entry>Local Loopback</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>19</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -544,7 +544,7 @@
<entry>DTE</entry>
<entry>Secondary Request to Send</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>20</entry>
<entry>4</entry>
@@ -554,7 +554,7 @@
<entry>DTE</entry>
<entry>Data Terminal Ready</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>21</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -564,7 +564,7 @@
<entry>DTE</entry>
<entry>Remote Digital Loopback</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>22</entry>
<entry>9</entry>
@@ -574,7 +574,7 @@
<entry>DCE</entry>
<entry>Ring Indicator</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>23</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -584,7 +584,7 @@
<entry>DTE</entry>
<entry>Data Signal Rate Selector</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>24</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -594,7 +594,7 @@
<entry>DTE</entry>
<entry>Trans. Sig. Element Timing</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>25</entry>
<entry>-</entry>
@@ -612,12 +612,12 @@
<sect2>
<title>Bits, Baud and Symbols</title>
-
+
<para>Baud is a measurement of transmission speed in
asynchronous communication. Because of advances in modem
communication technology, this term is frequently misused
when describing the data rates in newer devices.</para>
-
+
<para>Traditionally, a Baud Rate represents the number of bits
that are actually being sent over the media, not the amount
of data that is actually moved from one DTE device to the
@@ -629,12 +629,12 @@
per second from one place to another can normally only move
30 7-bit words if Parity is used and one Start and Stop bit
are present.</para>
-
+
<para>If 8-bit data words are used and Parity bits are also
used, the data rate falls to 27.27 words per second, because
it now takes 11 bits to send the eight-bit words, and the
modem still only sends 300 bits per second.</para>
-
+
<para>The formula for converting bytes per second into a baud
rate and vice versa was simple until error-correcting modems
came along. These modems receive the serial stream of bits
@@ -650,7 +650,7 @@
bits to the words, converts them to a serial format and then
sends them to the receiving UART in the remote computer, who
then strips the Start, Stop and Parity bits.</para>
-
+
<para>The reason all these extra conversions are done is so
that the two modems can perform error correction, which
means that the receiving modem is able to ask the sending
@@ -658,7 +658,7 @@
the correct checksum. This checking is handled by the
modems, and the DTE devices are usually unaware that the
process is occurring.</para>
-
+
<para>By striping the Start, Stop and Parity bits, the
additional bits of data that the two modems must share
between themselves to perform error-correction are mostly
@@ -669,14 +669,14 @@
will be able to add 30 bits of its own information that the
receiving modem can use to do error-correction without
impacting the transmission speed of the real data.</para>
-
+
<para>The use of the term Baud is further confused by modems
that perform compression. A single 8-bit word passed over
the telephone line might represent a dozen words that were
transmitted to the sending modem. The receiving modem will
expand the data back to its original content and pass that
data to the receiving DTE.</para>
-
+
<para>Modern modems also include buffers that allow the rate
that bits move across the phone line (DCE to DCE) to be a
different speed than the speed that the bits move between
@@ -684,7 +684,7 @@
the speed between the DTE and DCE is higher than the DCE to
DCE speed because of the use of compression by the
modems.</para>
-
+
<para>Because the number of bits needed to describe a byte
varied during the trip between the two machines plus the
differing bits-per-seconds speeds that are used present on
@@ -697,7 +697,7 @@
connection is made between two systems with a wired
connection, or if a modem is in use that is not performing
error-correction or compression.</para>
-
+
<para>Modern high speed modems (2400, 9600, 14,400, and
19,200bps) in reality still operate at or below 2400 baud,
or more accurately, 2400 Symbols per second. High speed
@@ -712,17 +712,17 @@
<sect2>
<title>The IBM Personal Computer UART</title>
-
+
<para>Starting with the original IBM Personal Computer, IBM
selected the National Semiconductor INS8250 UART for use in
the IBM PC Parallel/Serial Adapter. Subsequent generations
of compatible computers from IBM and other vendors continued
to use the INS8250 or improved versions of the National
Semiconductor UART family.</para>
-
+
<sect3>
<title>National Semiconductor UART Family Tree</title>
-
+
<para>There have been several versions and subsequent
generations of the INS8250 UART. Each major version is
described below.</para>
@@ -738,7 +738,7 @@
\
\
\-&gt; NS16550 -&gt; NS16550A -&gt; PC16550D</programlisting>
-
+
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term>INS8250</term>
@@ -748,7 +748,7 @@
IBM PC/XT. The original name for this part was the
INS8250 ACE (Asynchronous Communications Element)
and it is made from NMOS technology.</para>
-
+
<para>The 8250 uses eight I/O ports and has a one-byte
send and a one-byte receive buffer. This original
UART has several race conditions and other
@@ -759,20 +759,20 @@
original IBM PC or IBM PC/XT.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
-
+
<varlistentry>
<term>INS8250-B</term>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>This is the slower speed of the INS8250 made
from NMOS technology. It contains the same problems
as the original INS8250.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
-
+
<varlistentry>
<term>INS8250A</term>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>An improved version of the INS8250 using XMOS
technology with various functional flaws
@@ -784,20 +784,20 @@
INS8250B.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
-
+
<varlistentry>
<term>INS82C50A</term>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>This is a CMOS version (low power consumption)
of the INS8250A and has similar functional
characteristics.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
-
+
<varlistentry>
<term>NS16450</term>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Same as NS8250A with improvements so it can be
used with faster CPU bus designs. IBM used this
@@ -805,29 +805,29 @@
longer rely on the bugs in the INS8250.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
-
+
<varlistentry>
<term>NS16C450</term>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>This is a CMOS version (low power consumption)
of the NS16450.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
-
+
<varlistentry>
<term>NS16550</term>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Same as NS16450 with a 16-byte send and receive
buffer but the buffer design was flawed and could
not be reliably be used.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
-
+
<varlistentry>
<term>NS16550A</term>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Same as NS16550 with the buffer flaws
corrected. The 16550A and its successors have become
@@ -837,19 +837,19 @@
interrupt response times.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
-
+
<varlistentry>
<term>NS16C552</term>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>This component consists of two NS16C550A CMOS
UARTs in a single package.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
-
+
<varlistentry>
<term>PC16550D</term>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Same as NS16550A with subtle flaws
corrected. This is revision D of the 16550 family
@@ -859,10 +859,10 @@
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
</sect3>
-
+
<sect3>
<title>The NS16550AF and the PC16550D are the same thing</title>
-
+
<para>National reorganized their part numbering system a few
years ago, and the NS16550AFN no longer exists by that
name. (If you have a NS16550AFN, look at the date code on
@@ -871,12 +871,12 @@
year, and the last two digits are the week in that year
when the part was packaged. If you have a NS16550AFN, it
is probably a few years old.)</para>
-
+
<para>The new numbers are like PC16550DV, with minor
differences in the suffix letters depending on the package
material and its shape. (A description of the numbering
system can be found below.)</para>
-
+
<para>It is important to understand that in some stores, you
may pay &#36;15(US) for a NS16550AFN made in 1990 and in
the next bin are the new PC16550DN parts with minor fixes
@@ -885,27 +885,27 @@
six months and it costs half (as low as &#36;5(US) in
volume) as much as the NS16550AFN because they are readily
available.</para>
-
+
<para>As the supply of NS16550AFN chips continues to shrink,
the price will probably continue to increase until more
people discover and accept that the PC16550DN really has
the same function as the old part number.</para>
</sect3>
-
+
<sect3>
<title>National Semiconductor Part Numbering System</title>
-
+
<para>The older NS<replaceable>nnnnnrqp</replaceable> part
numbers are now of the format
PC<replaceable>nnnnnrgp</replaceable>.</para>
-
+
<para>The <replaceable>r</replaceable> is the revision
field. The current revision of the 16550 from National
Semiconductor is <literal>D</literal>.</para>
-
+
<para>The <replaceable>p</replaceable> is the package-type
field. The types are:</para>
-
+
<informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
<tgroup cols="3">
<tbody>
@@ -914,7 +914,7 @@
<entry>QFP</entry>
<entry>(quad flat pack) L lead type</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>"N"</entry>
<entry>DIP</entry>
@@ -930,7 +930,7 @@
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</informaltable>
-
+
<para>The <replaceable>g</replaceable> is the product grade
field. If an <literal>I</literal> precedes the
package-type letter, it indicates an
@@ -938,7 +938,7 @@
specs than a standard part but not as high as Military
Specification (Milspec) component. This is an optional
field.</para>
-
+
<para>So what we used to call a NS16550AFN (DIP Package) is
now called a PC16550DN or PC16550DIN.</para>
</sect3>
@@ -946,7 +946,7 @@
<sect2>
<title>Other Vendors and Similar UARTs</title>
-
+
<para>Over the years, the 8250, 8250A, 16450 and 16550 have
been licensed or copied by other chip vendors. In the case
of the 8250, 8250A and 16450, the exact circuit (the
@@ -954,7 +954,7 @@
including Western Digital and Intel. Other vendors
reverse-engineered the part or produced emulations that had
similar behavior.</para>
-
+
<para>In internal modems, the modem designer will frequently
emulate the 8250A/16450 with the modem microprocessor, and
the emulated UART will frequently have a hidden buffer
@@ -965,18 +965,18 @@
8250A or 16450, and may not make effective use of the extra
buffering present in the emulated UART unless special
drivers are used.</para>
-
+
<para>Some modem makers are driven by market forces to abandon
a design that has hundreds of bytes of buffer and instead
use a 16550A UART so that the product will compare favorably
in market comparisons even though the effective performance
may be lowered by this action.</para>
-
+
<para>A common misconception is that all parts with
<quote>16550A</quote> written on them are identical in
performance. There are differences, and in some cases,
outright flaws in most of these 16550A clones.</para>
-
+
<para>When the NS16550 was developed, the National
Semiconductor obtained several patents on the design and
they also limited licensing, making it harder for other
@@ -988,7 +988,7 @@
computer and modem makers want to buy but are sometimes
unwilling to pay the price required to get the genuine
part.</para>
-
+
<para>Some of the differences in the clone 16550A parts are
unimportant, while others can prevent the device from being
used at all with a given operating system or driver. These
@@ -1002,7 +1002,7 @@
different operating system is used, problems could appear
due to subtle differences between the clones and genuine
components.</para>
-
+
<para>National Semiconductor has made available a program
named <application>COMTEST</application> that performs
compatibility tests independent of any OS drivers. It
@@ -1011,7 +1011,7 @@
competition, so the program will report major as well as
extremely subtle differences in behavior in the part being
tested.</para>
-
+
<para>In a series of tests performed by the author of this
document in 1994, components made by National Semiconductor,
TI, StarTech, and CMD as well as megacells and emulations
@@ -1020,7 +1020,7 @@
below. Because these tests were performed in 1994, they may
not reflect the current performance of the given product
from a vendor.</para>
-
+
<para>It should be noted that COMTEST normally aborts when an
excessive number or certain types of problems have been
detected. As part of this testing, COMTEST was modified so
@@ -1036,51 +1036,51 @@
<entry>Errors (aka "differences" reported)</entry>
</row>
</thead>
-
+
<tbody>
<row>
<entry>National</entry>
<entry>(PC16550DV)</entry>
<entry>0</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>National</entry>
<entry>(NS16550AFN)</entry>
<entry>0</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>National</entry>
<entry>(NS16C552V)</entry>
<entry>0</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>TI</entry>
<entry>(TL16550AFN)</entry>
<entry>3</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>CMD</entry>
<entry>(16C550PE)</entry>
<entry>19</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>StarTech</entry>
<entry>(ST16C550J)</entry>
<entry>23</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Rockwell</entry>
<entry>Reference modem with internal 16550 or an
emulation (RC144DPi/C3000-25)</entry>
<entry>117</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Sierra</entry>
<entry>Modem with an internal 16550
@@ -1090,7 +1090,7 @@
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</informaltable>
-
+
<note>
<para>To date, the author of this document has not found any
non-National parts that report zero differences using the
@@ -1105,7 +1105,7 @@
bugs in the A, B and C revisions of the parts, so this
bias in COMTEST must be taken into account.</para>
</note>
-
+
<para>It is important to understand that a simple count of
differences from COMTEST does not reveal a lot about what
differences are important and which are not. For example,
@@ -1119,7 +1119,7 @@
particularly those with error-correction and compression
capabilities. This means that the differences related to
five- and six-bit character modes can be discounted.</para>
-
+
<para>Many of the differences COMTEST reports have to do with
timing. In many of the clone designs, when the host reads
from one port, the status bits in some other port may not
@@ -1132,12 +1132,12 @@
faster or slower than the reference part (that would
probably never affect the operation of a properly written
driver) could have dozens of differences reported.</para>
-
+
<para>COMTEST can be used as a screening tool to alert the
administrator to the presence of potentially incompatible
components that might cause problems or have to be handled
as a special case.</para>
-
+
<para>If you run COMTEST on a 16550 that is in a modem or a
modem is attached to the serial port, you need to first
issue a ATE0&amp;W command to the modem so that the modem
@@ -1150,7 +1150,7 @@
<sect2>
<title>8250/16450/16550 Registers</title>
-
+
<para>The 8250/16450/16550 UART occupies eight contiguous I/O
port addresses. In the IBM PC, there are two defined
locations for these eight ports and they are known
@@ -1159,13 +1159,13 @@
and <devicename>COM4</devicename>, but these extra COM ports conflict with other
hardware on some systems. The most common conflict is with
video adapters that provide IBM 8514 emulation.</para>
-
+
<para><devicename>COM1</devicename> is located from 0x3f8 to 0x3ff and normally uses
IRQ 4. <devicename>COM2</devicename> is located from 0x2f8 to 0x2ff and normally uses
IRQ 3. <devicename>COM3</devicename> is located from 0x3e8 to 0x3ef and has no
standardized IRQ. <devicename>COM4</devicename> is located from 0x2e8 to 0x2ef and has
no standardized IRQ.</para>
-
+
<para>A description of the I/O ports of the 8250/16450/16550
UART is provided below.</para>
@@ -1178,7 +1178,7 @@
<entry>Description</entry>
</row>
</thead>
-
+
<tbody>
<row>
<entry>+0x00</entry>
@@ -1188,7 +1188,7 @@
treated as data words and will be transmitted by the
UART.</para></entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>+0x00</entry>
<entry>read (DLAB==0)</entry>
@@ -1197,7 +1197,7 @@
accessed by the host by reading this
port.</para></entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>+0x00</entry>
<entry>write/read (DLAB==1)</entry>
@@ -1208,7 +1208,7 @@
register holds bits 0 thru 7 of the
divisor.</para></entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>+0x01</entry>
<entry>write/read (DLAB==1)</entry>
@@ -1219,7 +1219,7 @@
register holds bits 8 thru 15 of the
divisor.</para></entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>+0x01</entry>
<entry>write/read (DLAB==0)</entry>
@@ -1244,27 +1244,27 @@
to determine the true cause(s) of the
interrupt.</para></entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 7</entry>
<entry>Reserved, always 0.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 6</entry>
<entry>Reserved, always 0.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 5</entry>
<entry>Reserved, always 0.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 4</entry>
<entry>Reserved, always 0.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 3</entry>
<entry>Enable Modem Status Interrupt (EDSSI). Setting
@@ -1272,7 +1272,7 @@
interrupt when a change occurs on one or more of the
status lines.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 2</entry>
<entry>Enable Receiver Line Status Interrupt (ELSI)
@@ -1280,7 +1280,7 @@
an interrupt when the an error (or a BREAK signal)
has been detected in the incoming data.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 1</entry>
<entry>Enable Transmitter Holding Register Empty
@@ -1289,7 +1289,7 @@
for one or more additional characters that are to be
transmitted.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 0</entry>
<entry>Enable Received Data Available Interrupt
@@ -1303,7 +1303,7 @@
</tbody>
</entrytbl>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>+0x02</entry>
<entry>write</entry>
@@ -1314,7 +1314,7 @@
<colspec colnum="4" colname="col4"/>
<spanspec namest="col1" nameend="col4" spanname="1to4"/>
<spanspec namest="col2" nameend="col4" spanname="2to4"/>
-
+
<tbody>
<row>
<entry spanname="1to4">FIFO Control Register (FCR)
@@ -1326,7 +1326,7 @@
<entry>Bit 7</entry>
<entry spanname="2to4">Receiver Trigger Bit #1</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 6</entry>
<entry spanname="2to4"><para>Receiver Trigger Bit
@@ -1334,48 +1334,48 @@
point the receiver is to generate an interrupt
when the FIFO is active.</para></entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">7</entry>
<entry colname="col3">6</entry>
<entry colname="col4">How many words are received
before an interrupt is generated</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">0</entry>
<entry colname="col3">0</entry>
<entry colname="col4">1</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">0</entry>
<entry colname="col3">1</entry>
<entry colname="col4">4</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">1</entry>
<entry colname="col3">0</entry>
<entry colname="col4">8</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">1</entry>
<entry colname="col3">1</entry>
<entry colname="col4">14</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 5</entry>
<entry spanname="2to4">Reserved, always 0.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 4</entry>
<entry spanname="2to4">Reserved, always 0.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 3</entry>
<entry spanname="2to4">DMA Mode Select. If Bit 0 is
@@ -1383,7 +1383,7 @@
the operation of the -RXRDY and -TXRDY signals from
Mode 0 to Mode 1.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 2</entry>
<entry spanname="2to4">Transmit FIFO Reset. When a
@@ -1392,7 +1392,7 @@
will be sent intact. This function is useful in
aborting transfers.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 1</entry>
<entry spanname="2to4">Receiver FIFO Reset. When a
@@ -1413,7 +1413,7 @@
</tbody>
</entrytbl>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>+0x02</entry>
<entry>read</entry>
@@ -1438,34 +1438,34 @@
<entry spanname="2to6">FIFOs enabled. On the
8250/16450 UART, this bit is zero.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 6</entry>
<entry spanname="2to6">FIFOs enabled. On the
8250/16450 UART, this bit is zero.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 5</entry>
<entry spanname="2to6">Reserved, always 0.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 4</entry>
<entry spanname="2to6">Reserved, always 0.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 3</entry>
<entry spanname="2to6">Interrupt ID Bit #2. On the
8250/16450 UART, this bit is zero.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 2</entry>
<entry spanname="2to6">Interrupt ID Bit #1</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 1</entry>
<entry spanname="2to6">Interrupt ID Bit #0.These
@@ -1481,7 +1481,7 @@
interrupts will be generated. (This is a
limitation of the PC architecture.)</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">2</entry>
<entry colname="col3">1</entry>
@@ -1489,7 +1489,7 @@
<entry colname="col5">Priority</entry>
<entry colname="col6">Description</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">0</entry>
<entry colname="col3">1</entry>
@@ -1498,7 +1498,7 @@
<entry colname="col6">Received Error (OE, PE, BI, or
FE)</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">0</entry>
<entry colname="col3">1</entry>
@@ -1506,7 +1506,7 @@
<entry colname="col5">Second</entry>
<entry colname="col6">Received Data Available</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">1</entry>
<entry colname="col3">1</entry>
@@ -1515,7 +1515,7 @@
<entry colname="col6">Trigger level identification
(Stale data in receive buffer)</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">0</entry>
<entry colname="col3">0</entry>
@@ -1524,7 +1524,7 @@
<entry colname="col6">Transmitter has room for more
words (THRE)</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">0</entry>
<entry colname="col3">0</entry>
@@ -1533,7 +1533,7 @@
<entry colname="col6">Modem Status Change (-CTS, -DSR,
-RI, or -DCD)</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 0</entry>
<entry spanname="2to6">Interrupt Pending Bit. If this
@@ -1543,7 +1543,7 @@
</tbody>
</entrytbl>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>+0x03</entry>
<entry>write/read</entry>
@@ -1562,7 +1562,7 @@
<entry spanname="1to5">Line Control Register
(LCR)</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 7</entry>
<entry spanname="2to5">Divisor Latch Access Bit
@@ -1574,7 +1574,7 @@
the Divisor Registers, and clearing DLAB should be
done with interrupts disabled.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 6</entry>
<entry spanname="2to5">Set Break. When set to "1",
@@ -1583,14 +1583,14 @@
overrides any bits of characters that are being
transmitted.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 5</entry>
<entry spanname="2to5">Stick Parity. When parity is
enabled, setting this bit causes parity to always be
"1" or "0", based on the value of Bit 4.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 4</entry>
<entry spanname="2to5">Even Parity Select (EPS). When
@@ -1598,7 +1598,7 @@
causes even parity to be transmitted and expected.
Otherwise, odd parity is used.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 3</entry>
<entry spanname="2to5">Parity Enable (PEN). When set
@@ -1607,7 +1607,7 @@
also expect parity to be present in the received
data.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 2</entry>
<entry spanname="2to5">Number of Stop Bits (STB). If
@@ -1617,53 +1617,53 @@
transmitted and expected. When this bit is set to
"0", one Stop Bit is used on each data word.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 1</entry>
<entry spanname="2to5">Word Length Select Bit #1
(WLSB1)</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 0</entry>
<entry spanname="2to5">Word Length Select Bit #0
(WLSB0)</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2" spanname="2to5">Together these
bits specify the number of bits in each data
word.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">1</entry>
<entry colname="col3">0</entry>
<entry colname="col4" spanname="4to5">Word
Length</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">0</entry>
<entry colname="col3">0</entry>
<entry colname="col4" spanname="4to5">5 Data
Bits</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">0</entry>
<entry colname="col3">1</entry>
<entry colname="col4" spanname="4to5">6 Data
Bits</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">1</entry>
<entry colname="col3">0</entry>
<entry colname="col4" spanname="4to5">7 Data
Bits</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry colname="col2">1</entry>
<entry colname="col3">1</entry>
@@ -1673,7 +1673,7 @@
</tbody>
</entrytbl>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>+0x04</entry>
<entry>write/read</entry>
@@ -1687,22 +1687,22 @@
<entry spanname="1to2">Modem Control Register
(MCR)</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 7</entry>
<entry>Reserved, always 0.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 6</entry>
<entry>Reserved, always 0.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 5</entry>
<entry>Reserved, always 0.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 4</entry>
<entry>Loop-Back Enable. When set to "1", the UART
@@ -1714,7 +1714,7 @@
connected to RI, and OUT 2 is connected to
DCD.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 3</entry>
<entry>OUT 2. An auxiliary output that the host
@@ -1723,21 +1723,21 @@
tri-state (disable) the interrupt signal from the
8250/16450/16550 UART.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 2</entry>
<entry>OUT 1. An auxiliary output that the host
processor may set high or low. This output is not
used on the IBM PC serial adapter.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 1</entry>
<entry>Request to Send (RTS). When set to "1", the
output of the UART -RTS line is Low
(Active).</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 0</entry>
<entry>Data Terminal Ready (DTR). When set to "1",
@@ -1747,7 +1747,7 @@
</tbody>
</entrytbl>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>+0x05</entry>
<entry>write/read</entry>
@@ -1761,7 +1761,7 @@
<entry spanname="1to2">Line Status Register
(LSR)</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 7</entry>
<entry>Error in Receiver FIFO. On the 8250/16450
@@ -1769,7 +1769,7 @@
any of the bytes in the FIFO have one or more of the
following error conditions: PE, FE, or BI.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 6</entry>
<entry>Transmitter Empty (TEMT). When set to "1",
@@ -1777,7 +1777,7 @@
or the transmit shift register. The transmitter is
completely idle.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 5</entry>
<entry>Transmitter Holding Register Empty (THRE).
@@ -1786,13 +1786,13 @@
transmit. The transmitter may still be transmitting
when this bit is set to "1".</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 4</entry>
<entry>Break Interrupt (BI). The receiver has
detected a Break signal.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 3</entry>
<entry>Framing Error (FE). A Start Bit was detected
@@ -1800,13 +1800,13 @@
time. The received word is probably
garbled.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 2</entry>
<entry>Parity Error (PE). The parity bit was
incorrect for the word received.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 1</entry>
<entry>Overrun Error (OE). A new word was received
@@ -1816,7 +1816,7 @@
holding register is discarded and the newly- arrived
word is put in the holding register.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 0</entry>
<entry>Data Ready (DR) One or more words are in the
@@ -1828,7 +1828,7 @@
</tbody>
</entrytbl>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>+0x06</entry>
<entry>write/read</entry>
@@ -1842,31 +1842,31 @@
<entry spanname="1to2">Modem Status Register
(MSR)</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 7</entry>
<entry>Data Carrier Detect (DCD). Reflects the state
of the DCD line on the UART.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 6</entry>
<entry>Ring Indicator (RI). Reflects the state of the
RI line on the UART.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 5</entry>
<entry>Data Set Ready (DSR). Reflects the state of
the DSR line on the UART.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 4</entry>
<entry>Clear To Send (CTS). Reflects the state of the
CTS line on the UART.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 3</entry>
<entry>Delta Data Carrier Detect (DDCD). Set to "1"
@@ -1874,7 +1874,7 @@
time since the last time the MSR was read by the
host.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 2</entry>
<entry>Trailing Edge Ring Indicator (TERI). Set to
@@ -1882,7 +1882,7 @@
since the last time the MSR was read by the
host.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 1</entry>
<entry>Delta Data Set Ready (DDSR). Set to "1" if the
@@ -1890,7 +1890,7 @@
since the last time the MSR was read by the
host.</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Bit 0</entry>
<entry>Delta Clear To Send (DCTS). Set to "1" if the
@@ -1901,7 +1901,7 @@
</tbody>
</entrytbl>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>+0x07</entry>
<entry>write/read</entry>
@@ -1917,7 +1917,7 @@
<sect2>
<title>Beyond the 16550A UART</title>
-
+
<para>Although National Semiconductor has not offered any
components compatible with the 16550 that provide additional
features, various other vendors have. Some of these
@@ -1926,7 +1926,7 @@
have to be provided by the chip vendor since most of the
popular operating systems do not support features beyond
those provided by the 16550.</para>
-
+
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term>ST16650</term>
@@ -1937,20 +1937,20 @@
enabled. Made by StarTech.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
-
+
<varlistentry>
<term>TIL16660</term>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>By default this part behaves similar to the NS16550A,
but an extended 64-byte send and receive buffer can be
optionally enabled. Made by Texas Instruments.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
-
+
<varlistentry>
<term>Hayes ESP</term>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>This proprietary plug-in card contains a 2048-byte send
and receive buffer, and supports data rates to
@@ -1958,7 +1958,7 @@
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
-
+
<para>In addition to these <quote>dumb</quote> UARTs, many vendors
produce intelligent serial communication boards. This type of
design usually provides a microprocessor that interfaces with
@@ -1971,28 +1971,28 @@
performance characteristics.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1 id="sio">
<title>Configuring the <devicename>sio</devicename> driver</title>
-
+
<para>The <devicename>sio</devicename> driver provides support
for NS8250-, NS16450-, NS16550 and NS16550A-based EIA RS-232C
(CCITT V.24) communications interfaces. Several multiport
cards are supported as well. See the &man.sio.4; manual page
for detailed technical documentation.</para>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>Digi International (DigiBoard) PC/8</title>
-
+
<para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.awebster;. 26 August
1995.</emphasis></para>
-
+
<para>Here is a config snippet from a machine with a Digi
International PC/8 with 16550. It has 8 modems connected to
these 8 lines, and they work just great. Do not forget to
add <literal>options COM_MULTIPORT</literal> or it will not
work very well!</para>
-
+
<programlisting>device sio4 at isa? port 0x100 flags 0xb05
device sio5 at isa? port 0x108 flags 0xb05
device sio6 at isa? port 0x110 flags 0xb05
@@ -2001,7 +2001,7 @@ device sio8 at isa? port 0x120 flags 0xb05
device sio9 at isa? port 0x128 flags 0xb05
device sio10 at isa? port 0x130 flags 0xb05
device sio11 at isa? port 0x138 flags 0xb05 irq 9</programlisting>
-
+
<para>The trick in setting this up is that the MSB of the
flags represent the last SIO port, in this case 11 so flags
are 0xb05.</para>
@@ -2009,14 +2009,14 @@ device sio11 at isa? port 0x138 flags 0xb05 irq 9</programlisting>
<sect2>
<title>Boca 16</title>
-
+
<para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.whiteside;. 26 August
1995.</emphasis></para>
-
+
<para>The procedures to make a Boca 16 port board with FreeBSD
are pretty straightforward, but you will need a couple
things to make it work:</para>
-
+
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
<para>You either need the kernel sources installed so you
@@ -2026,21 +2026,21 @@ device sio11 at isa? port 0x138 flags 0xb05 irq 9</programlisting>
multiport support enabled and you will need to add a
device entry for each port anyways.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Two, you will need to know the interrupt and IO
setting for your Boca Board so you can set these options
properly in the kernel.</para>
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
-
+
<para>One important note &mdash; the actual UART chips for the
Boca 16 are in the connector box, not on the internal board
itself. So if you have it unplugged, probes of those ports
will fail. I have never tested booting with the box
unplugged and plugging it back in, and I suggest you do not
either.</para>
-
+
<para>If you do not already have a custom kernel
configuration file set up, refer to <ulink
url="&url.books.handbook;/kernelconfig.html">Kernel
@@ -2048,16 +2048,16 @@ device sio11 at isa? port 0x138 flags 0xb05 irq 9</programlisting>
general procedures. The following are the specifics for the
Boca 16 board and assume you are using the kernel name
MYKERNEL and editing with vi.</para>
-
+
<procedure>
<step>
- <para>Add the line
-
+ <para>Add the line
+
<programlisting>options COM_MULTIPORT</programlisting>
to the config file.</para>
</step>
-
+
<step>
<para>Where the current <literal>device
sio<replaceable>n</replaceable></literal> lines are, you
@@ -2092,7 +2092,7 @@ device sio16 at isa? port 0x178 flags 0x1005 irq 3</programlisting>
1C indicates the minor number of the master port. Do
not change the 05 setting.</para>
</step>
-
+
<step>
<para>Save and complete the kernel configuration,
recompile, install and reboot. Presuming you have
@@ -2101,7 +2101,7 @@ device sio16 at isa? port 0x178 flags 0x1005 irq 3</programlisting>
should indicate the successful probe of the Boca ports
as follows: (obviously the sio numbers, IO and IRQ could
be different)</para>
-
+
<screen>sio1 at 0x100-0x107 flags 0x1005 on isa
sio1: type 16550A (multiport)
sio2 at 0x108-0x10f flags 0x1005 on isa
@@ -2140,7 +2140,7 @@ sio16: type 16550A (multiport master)</screen>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dmesg | more</userinput></screen>
will show you the boot messages.</para>
</step>
-
+
<step>
<para>Next, appropriate entries in
<filename>/dev</filename> for the devices must be made
@@ -2148,27 +2148,27 @@ sio16: type 16550A (multiport master)</screen>
script. This step can be omitted if you are running
FreeBSD&nbsp;5.X with a kernel that has &man.devfs.5;
support compiled in.</para>
-
+
<para>If you do need to create the <filename>/dev</filename>
entries, run the following as <username>root</username>:</para>
-
+
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>./MAKEDEV tty1</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>./MAKEDEV cua1</userinput>
<emphasis>(everything in between)</emphasis>
&prompt.root; <userinput>./MAKEDEV ttyg</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>./MAKEDEV cuag</userinput></screen>
-
+
<para>If you do not want or need call-out devices for some
reason, you can dispense with making the
<filename>cua*</filename> devices.</para>
</step>
-
+
<step>
<para>If you want a quick and sloppy way to make sure the
devices are working, you can simply plug a modem into
each port and (as root)
-
+
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>echo at &gt; ttyd*</userinput></screen>
for each device you have made. You
<emphasis>should</emphasis> see the RX lights flash for each
@@ -2183,11 +2183,11 @@ sio16: type 16550A (multiport master)</screen>
<para><emphasis>Contributed by Helge Oldach
<email>hmo@sep.hamburg.com</email>, September
1999</emphasis></para>
-
+
<para>Ever wondered about FreeBSD support for your 20$
multi-I/O card with two (or more) COM ports, sharing IRQs?
Here is how:</para>
-
+
<para>Usually the only option to support these kind of boards
is to use a distinct IRQ for each port. For example, if
your CPU board has an on-board <devicename>COM1</devicename>
@@ -2202,7 +2202,7 @@ sio16: type 16550A (multiport master)</screen>
basically possible to run both extension board ports using a
single IRQ with the <literal>COM_MULTIPORT</literal>
configuration described in the previous sections.</para>
-
+
<para>Such cheap I/O boards commonly have a 4 by 3 jumper
matrix for the COM ports, similar to the following:</para>
@@ -2296,13 +2296,13 @@ sio2: type 16550A (multiport master)</screen>
likely there is something wrong with your wiring.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1 id="cy">
<title>Configuring the <devicename>cy</devicename> driver</title>
-
+
<para><emphasis>Contributed by Alex Nash. 6 June
1996.</emphasis></para>
-
+
<para>The Cyclades multiport cards are based on the
<devicename>cy</devicename> driver instead of the usual
<devicename>sio</devicename> driver used by other multiport
@@ -2313,39 +2313,39 @@ sio2: type 16550A (multiport master)</screen>
<para>Add the <devicename>cy</devicename> device to your
kernel configuration (note that your irq and iomem
settings may differ).</para>
-
+
<programlisting>device cy0 at isa? irq 10 iomem 0xd4000 iosiz 0x2000</programlisting>
</step>
-
+
<step>
<para>Rebuild and install the new kernel.</para>
</step>
-
+
<step>
<para>Make the device nodes by typing (the following
example assumes an 8-port board)<footnote>
<para>You can omit this part if you are running FreeBSD&nbsp;5.X
with &man.devfs.5;.</para>
</footnote>:</para>
-
+
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>for i in 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7;do ./MAKEDEV cuac$i ttyc$i;done</userinput></screen>
</step>
-
+
<step>
<para>If appropriate, add dialup entries to
<filename>/etc/ttys</filename> by duplicating serial
device (<literal>ttyd</literal>) entries and using
<literal>ttyc</literal> in place of
<literal>ttyd</literal>. For example:</para>
-
+
<programlisting>ttyc0 "/usr/libexec/getty std.38400" unknown on insecure
ttyc1 "/usr/libexec/getty std.38400" unknown on insecure
ttyc2 "/usr/libexec/getty std.38400" unknown on insecure
&hellip;
ttyc7 "/usr/libexec/getty std.38400" unknown on insecure</programlisting>
</step>
-
+
<step>
<para>Reboot with the new kernel.</para>
</step>
@@ -2357,7 +2357,7 @@ ttyc7 "/usr/libexec/getty std.38400" unknown on insecure</programlisting>
<para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.nsayer;. 25 March
1998.</emphasis></para>
-
+
<para>The Specialix SI/XIO and SX multiport cards use the
<devicename>si</devicename> driver. A single machine can have
up to 4 host cards. The following host cards are
@@ -2386,11 +2386,11 @@ ttyc7 "/usr/libexec/getty std.38400" unknown on insecure</programlisting>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>SI 4 or 8 port modules. Up to 57600 bps on each port
supported.</para></listitem>
-
+
<listitem><para>XIO 8 port modules. Up to 115200 bps on each port
supported. One type of XIO module has 7 serial and 1 parallel
port.</para></listitem>
-
+
<listitem><para>SXDC 8 port modules. Up to 921600 bps on each port
supported. Like XIO, a module is available with one parallel
port as well.</para></listitem>
@@ -2399,19 +2399,19 @@ ttyc7 "/usr/libexec/getty std.38400" unknown on insecure</programlisting>
<para>To configure an ISA host card, add the following line to
your kernel configuration file, changing the numbers as
appropriate:</para>
-
+
<programlisting>device si0 at isa? iomem 0xd0000 irq 11</programlisting>
<para>Valid IRQ numbers are 9, 10, 11, 12 and 15 for SX ISA host
cards and 11, 12 and 15 for SI/XIO ISA host cards.</para>
-
+
<para>To configure an EISA or PCI host card, use this line:</para>
-
+
<programlisting>device si0</programlisting>
<para>After adding the configuration entry, rebuild and
install your new kernel.</para>
-
+
<note>
<para>The following step, is not necessary if you are using
&man.devfs.5; in FreeBSD&nbsp;5.<replaceable>X</replaceable>.</para>
@@ -2421,19 +2421,19 @@ ttyc7 "/usr/libexec/getty std.38400" unknown on insecure</programlisting>
device nodes in <filename>/dev</filename>. The <filename>MAKEDEV</filename> script
will take care of this for you. Count how many total ports
you have and type:</para>
-
+
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>./MAKEDEV ttyA<replaceable>nn</replaceable> cuaA<replaceable>nn</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
+
<para>(where <replaceable>nn</replaceable> is the number of
ports)</para>
-
+
<para>If you want login prompts to appear on these ports, you
will need to add lines like this to
<filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:</para>
<programlisting>ttyA01 "/usr/libexec/getty std.9600" vt100 on insecure</programlisting>
-
+
<para>Change the terminal type as appropriate. For modems,
<userinput>dialup</userinput> or
<userinput>unknown</userinput> is fine.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/Makefile
index 9dfb36fb9d..6861fab294 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Article: FreeBSD and Solid State Devices
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/article.sgml
index 0f8750d882..ae1617bb6e 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/solid-state/article.sgml
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@
</affiliation>
</author>
</authorgroup>
-
+
<copyright>
<year>2001</year>
<year>2009</year>
@@ -68,11 +68,11 @@
<pubdate>$FreeBSD$</pubdate>
<releaseinfo>$FreeBSD$</releaseinfo>
-
+
<abstract>
<para>This article covers the use of solid state disk devices in &os;
to create embedded systems.</para>
-
+
<para>Embedded systems have the advantage of increased stability due to
the lack of integral moving parts (hard drives). Account must be
taken, however, for the generally low disk space available in the
@@ -291,7 +291,7 @@ pseudo-device md # memory disk</programlisting>
<para>Mount the newly prepared flash media:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/ad0a /flash</userinput></screen>
-
+
<para>Bring this machine up on the network so we may transfer our tar
file and explode it onto our flash media filesystem. One example of
how to do this is:</para>
@@ -417,7 +417,7 @@ pseudo-device md # memory disk</programlisting>
<filename>/var/db/pkg</filename>. An example:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ln -s /etc/pkg /var/db/pkg</userinput></screen>
-
+
<para>Now, any time that you mount your filesystems as read-write and
install a package, the <command>make</command> <maketarget>install</maketarget> will work,
and package information
@@ -431,7 +431,7 @@ pseudo-device md # memory disk</programlisting>
<title>Apache Web Server</title>
<note>
- <para>The steps in this section are only necessary if Apache is
+ <para>The steps in this section are only necessary if Apache is
set up to write its pid or log information outside of
<filename class="directory">/var</filename>. By default,
Apache keeps its pid file in <filename
@@ -455,7 +455,7 @@ pseudo-device md # memory disk</programlisting>
<para>First, add the directory <literal>log/apache</literal> to the list
of directories to be created in
<filename>/etc/rc.d/var</filename>.</para>
-
+
<para>Second, add these commands to
<filename>/etc/rc.d/var</filename> after the directory creation
section:</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/storage-devices/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/storage-devices/article.sgml
index 94b7529fa7..c58a646b99 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/storage-devices/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/storage-devices/article.sgml
@@ -8,18 +8,18 @@
<article lang='en'>
<articleinfo>
<title>Storage Devices</title>
-
+
<authorgroup>
<author>
<firstname>Wilko</firstname>
<surname>Bulte</surname>
-
+
<affiliation>
<address><email>wilko@FreeBSD.org</email></address>
</affiliation>
</author>
</authorgroup>
-
+
<legalnotice id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
&tm-attrib.freebsd;
&tm-attrib.general;
@@ -33,18 +33,18 @@
<para>This article talks about storage devices with FreeBSD.</para>
</abstract>
</articleinfo>
-
+
<sect1 id="esdi">
<title>Using ESDI hard disks</title>
-
+
<para><emphasis>Copyright &copy; 1995, &a.wilko;. 24 September
1995.</emphasis></para>
-
+
<para>ESDI is an acronym that means Enhanced Small Device
Interface. It is loosely based on the good old ST506/412
interface originally devised by Seagate Technology, the makers
of the first affordable 5.25" Winchester disk.</para>
-
+
<para>The acronym says Enhanced, and rightly so. In the first
place the speed of the interface is higher, 10 or 15
Mbits/second instead of the 5 Mbits/second of ST412 interfaced
@@ -52,33 +52,33 @@
the ESDI interface somewhat <quote>smarter</quote> to the operating system
driver writers. It is by no means as smart as SCSI by the way.
ESDI is standardized by ANSI.</para>
-
+
<para>Capacities of the drives are boosted by putting more sectors
on each track. Typical is 35 sectors per track, high capacity
drives I have seen were up to 54 sectors/track.</para>
-
+
<para>Although ESDI has been largely obsoleted by IDE and SCSI
interfaces, the availability of free or cheap surplus drives
makes them ideal for low (or now) budget systems.</para>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>Concepts of ESDI</title>
<sect3>
<title>Physical connections</title>
-
+
<para>The ESDI interface uses two cables connected to each drive.
One cable is a 34 pin flat cable edge connector that carries the
command and status signals from the controller to the drive and
vice-versa. The command cable is daisy chained between all the
drives. So, it forms a bus onto which all drives are
connected.</para>
-
+
<para>The second cable is a 20 pin flat cable edge connector that
carries the data to and from the drive. This cable is radially
connected, so each drive has its own direct connection to the
controller.</para>
-
+
<para>To the best of my knowledge PC ESDI controllers are limited to
using a maximum of 2 drives per controller. This is compatibility
feature(?) left over from the WD1003 standard that reserves only a
@@ -87,12 +87,12 @@
<sect3>
<title>Device addressing</title>
-
+
<para>On each command cable a maximum of 7 devices and 1 controller
can be present. To enable the controller to uniquely identify
which drive it addresses, each ESDI device is equipped with
jumpers or switches to select the devices address.</para>
-
+
<para>On PC type controllers the first drive is set to address 0,
the second disk to address 1. <emphasis>Always make
sure</emphasis> you set each disk to an unique address! So, on a
@@ -102,12 +102,12 @@
<sect3>
<title>Termination</title>
-
+
<para>The daisy chained command cable (the 34 pin cable remember?)
needs to be terminated at the last drive on the chain. For this
purpose ESDI drives come with a termination resistor network that
can be removed or disabled by a jumper when it is not used.</para>
-
+
<para>So, one and <emphasis>only</emphasis> one drive, the one at
the farthest end of the command cable has its terminator
installed/enabled. The controller automatically terminates the
@@ -116,7 +116,7 @@
<emphasis>not</emphasis> in the middle.</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>Using ESDI disks with FreeBSD</title>
@@ -127,18 +127,18 @@
developed a profound sense of frustration. A combination of factors
works against you to produce effects that are hard to understand
when you have never seen them before.</para>
-
+
<para>This has also led to the popular legend ESDI and FreeBSD is a
plain NO-GO. The following sections try to list all the pitfalls
and solutions.</para>
-
+
<sect3>
<title>ESDI speed variants</title>
-
+
<para>As briefly mentioned before, ESDI comes in two speed flavors.
The older drives and controllers use a 10 Mbits/second data
transfer rate. Newer stuff uses 15 Mbits/second.</para>
-
+
<para>It is not hard to imagine that 15 Mbits/second drive cause
problems on controllers laid out for 10 Mbits/second. As always,
consult your controller <emphasis>and</emphasis> drive
@@ -147,18 +147,18 @@
<sect3>
<title>Stay on track</title>
-
+
<para>Mainstream ESDI drives use 34 to 36 sectors per track. Most
(older) controllers cannot handle more than this number of
sectors. Newer, higher capacity, drives use higher numbers of
sectors per track. For instance, I own a 670 MB drive that has 54
sectors per track.</para>
-
+
<para>In my case, the controller could not handle this number of
sectors. It proved to work well except that it only used 35
sectors on each track. This meant losing a lot of disk
space.</para>
-
+
<para>Once again, check the documentation of your hardware for more
info. Going out-of-spec like in the example might or might not
work. Give it a try or get another more capable
@@ -167,13 +167,13 @@
<sect3>
<title>Hard or soft sectoring</title>
-
+
<para>Most ESDI drives allow hard or soft sectoring to be selected
using a jumper. Hard sectoring means that the drive will produce
a sector pulse on the start of each new sector. The controller
uses this pulse to tell when it should start to write or
read.</para>
-
+
<para>Hard sectoring allows a selection of sector size (normally
256, 512 or 1024 bytes per formatted sector). FreeBSD uses 512
byte sectors. The number of sectors per track also varies while
@@ -184,12 +184,12 @@
track of course gives you more usable space, but might give
problems if your controller needs more bytes than the drive
offers.</para>
-
+
<para>In case of soft sectoring, the controller itself determines
where to start/stop reading or writing. For ESDI hard sectoring
is the default (at least on everything I came across). I never
felt the urge to try soft sectoring.</para>
-
+
<para>In general, experiment with sector settings before you install
FreeBSD because you need to re-run the low-level format after each
change.</para>
@@ -197,21 +197,21 @@
<sect3>
<title>Low level formatting</title>
-
+
<para>ESDI drives need to be low level formatted before they are
usable. A reformat is needed whenever you figgle with the number
of sectors/track jumpers or the physical orientation of the drive
(horizontal, vertical). So, first think, then format. The format
time must not be underestimated, for big disks it can take
hours.</para>
-
+
<para>After a low level format, a surface scan is done to find and
flag bad sectors. Most disks have a manufacturer bad block list
listed on a piece of paper or adhesive sticker. In addition, on
most disks the list is also written onto the disk. Please use the
manufacturer's list. It is much easier to remap a defect now than
after FreeBSD is installed.</para>
-
+
<para>Stay away from low-level formatters that mark all sectors of a
track as bad as soon as they find one bad sector. Not only does
this waste space, it also and more importantly causes you grief
@@ -220,13 +220,13 @@
<sect3>
<title>Translations</title>
-
+
<para>Translations, although not exclusively a ESDI-only problem,
might give you real trouble. Translations come in multiple
flavors. Most of them have in common that they attempt to work
around the limitations posed upon disk geometries by the original
IBM PC/AT design (thanks IBM!).</para>
-
+
<para>First of all there is the (in)famous 1024 cylinder limit. For
a system to be able to boot, the stuff (whatever operating system)
must be in the first 1024 cylinders of a disk. Only 10 bits are
@@ -234,7 +234,7 @@
sectors the limit is 64 (0-63). When you combine the 1024
cylinder limit with the 16 head limit (also a design feature) you
max out at fairly limited disk sizes.</para>
-
+
<para>To work around this problem, the manufacturers of ESDI PC
controllers added a BIOS prom extension on their boards. This
BIOS extension handles disk I/O for booting (and for some
@@ -245,7 +245,7 @@
and is therefore usable by the system without problems. It is
noteworthy to know that FreeBSD does not use the BIOS after its
kernel has started. More on this later.</para>
-
+
<para>A second reason for translations is the fact that most older
system BIOSes could only handle drives with 17 sectors per track
(the old ST412 standard). Newer system BIOSes usually have a
@@ -257,7 +257,7 @@
keep in mind that if you have multiple operating systems on the
same disk, all must use the same translation</para>
</warning>
-
+
<para>While on the subject of translations, I have seen one
controller type (but there are probably more like this) offer the
option to logically split a drive in multiple partitions as a BIOS
@@ -266,29 +266,29 @@
info and presented itself to the system based on the info from the
disk.</para>
</sect3>
-
+
<sect3>
<title>Spare sectoring</title>
-
+
<para>Most ESDI controllers offer the possibility to remap bad
sectors. During/after the low-level format of the disk bad
sectors are marked as such, and a replacement sector is put in
place (logically of course) of the bad one.</para>
-
+
<para>In most cases the remapping is done by using N-1 sectors on
each track for actual data storage, and sector N itself is the
spare sector. N is the total number of sectors physically
available on the track. The idea behind this is that the
operating system sees a <quote>perfect</quote> disk without bad sectors. In
the case of FreeBSD this concept is not usable.</para>
-
+
<para>The problem is that the translation from
<emphasis>bad</emphasis> to <emphasis>good</emphasis> is performed
by the BIOS of the ESDI controller. FreeBSD, being a true 32 bit
operating system, does not use the BIOS after it has been booted.
Instead, it has device drivers that talk directly to the
hardware.</para>
-
+
<para><emphasis>So: do not use spare sectoring, bad block remapping
or whatever it may be called by the controller manufacturer when
you want to use the disk for FreeBSD.</emphasis></para>
@@ -296,7 +296,7 @@
<sect3>
<title>Bad block handling</title>
-
+
<para>The preceding section leaves us with a problem. The
controller's bad block handling is not usable and still FreeBSD's
filesystems assume perfect media without any flaws. To solve this
@@ -305,14 +305,14 @@
scans a FreeBSD slice for bad blocks. Having found these bad
blocks, it writes a table with the offending block numbers to the
end of the FreeBSD slice.</para>
-
+
<para>When the disk is in operation, the disk accesses are checked
against the table read from the disk. Whenever a block number is
requested that is in the <command>bad144</command> list, a
replacement block (also from the end of the FreeBSD slice) is
used. In this way, the <command>bad144</command> replacement
scheme presents <quote>perfect</quote> media to the FreeBSD filesystems.</para>
-
+
<para>There are a number of potential pitfalls associated with the
use of <command>bad144</command>. First of all, the slice cannot
have more than 126 bad sectors. If your drive has a high number
@@ -322,7 +322,7 @@
sector of a track as bad when they find a flaw on the track. As
you can imagine, the 126 limit is quickly reached when the
low-level format is done this way.</para>
-
+
<para>Second, if the slice contains the root filesystem, the slice
should be within the 1024 cylinder BIOS limit. During the boot
process the bad144 list is read using the BIOS and this only
@@ -338,20 +338,20 @@
<sect3>
<title>Kernel configuration</title>
-
+
<para>ESDI disks are handled by the same <literal>wd</literal>driver
as IDE and ST412 MFM disks. The <literal>wd</literal> driver
should work for all WD1003 compatible interfaces.</para>
-
+
<para>Most hardware is jumperable for one of two different I/O
address ranges and IRQ lines. This allows you to have two wd
type controllers in one system.</para>
-
+
<para>When your hardware allows non-standard strappings, you can use
these with FreeBSD as long as you enter the correct info into the
kernel config file. An example from the kernel config file (they
live in <filename>/sys/i386/conf</filename> BTW).</para>
-
+
<programlisting># First WD compatible controller
controller wdc0 at isa? port "IO_WD1" bio irq 14 vector wdintr
disk wd0 at wdc0 drive 0
@@ -362,17 +362,17 @@ disk wd2 at wdc1 drive 0
disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
</sect3>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>Particulars on ESDI hardware</title>
<sect3>
<title>Adaptec 2320 controllers</title>
-
+
<para>I successfully installed FreeBSD onto a ESDI disk controlled
by a ACB-2320. No other operating system was present on the
disk.</para>
-
+
<para>To do so I low level formatted the disk using
<command>NEFMT.EXE</command> (<command>ftp</command>able from
<hostid role="fqdn">www.adaptec.com</hostid>) and answered NO to
@@ -380,20 +380,20 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
sector on each track. The BIOS on the ACD-2320 was disabled. I
used the <literal>free configurable</literal> option in the system
BIOS to allow the BIOS to boot it.</para>
-
+
<para>Before using <command>NEFMT.EXE</command> I tried to format
the disk using the ACB-2320 BIOS built-in formatter. This proved
to be a show stopper, because it did not give me an option to
disable spare sectoring. With spare sectoring enabled the FreeBSD
installation process broke down on the <command>bad144</command>
run.</para>
-
+
<para>Please check carefully which
ACB-232<replaceable>xy</replaceable> variant you have. The
<replaceable>x</replaceable> is either <literal>0</literal> or
<literal>2</literal>, indicating a controller without or with a
floppy controller on board.</para>
-
+
<para>The <literal>y</literal> is more interesting. It can either
be a blank, a <literal>A-8</literal> or a <literal>D</literal>. A
blank indicates a plain 10 Mbits/second controller. An
@@ -401,18 +401,18 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
capable of handling 52 sectors/track. A <literal>D</literal>
means a 15 Mbits/second controller that can also handle drives
with &gt; 36 sectors/track (also 52?).</para>
-
+
<para>All variations should be capable of using 1:1 interleaving.
Use 1:1, FreeBSD is fast enough to handle it.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Western Digital WD1007 controllers</title>
-
+
<para>I successfully installed FreeBSD onto a ESDI disk controlled
by a WD1007 controller. To be precise, it was a WD1007-WA2.
Other variations of the WD1007 do exist.</para>
-
+
<para>To get it to work, I had to disable the sector translation and
the WD1007's onboard BIOS. This implied I could not use the
low-level formatter built into this BIOS. Instead, I grabbed
@@ -423,34 +423,34 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
<sect3>
<title>Ultrastor U14F controllers</title>
-
+
<para>According to multiple reports from the net, Ultrastor ESDI
boards work OK with FreeBSD. I lack any further info on
particular settings.</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2 id="esdi-further-reading">
<title>Further reading</title>
-
+
<para>If you intend to do some serious ESDI hacking, you might want to
have the official standard at hand:</para>
-
+
<para>The latest ANSI X3T10 committee document is: Enhanced Small
Device Interface (ESDI) [X3.170-1990/X3.170a-1991] [X3T10/792D
Rev 11]</para>
-
+
<para>On Usenet the newsgroup <ulink
url="news:comp.periphs">comp.periphs</ulink> is a noteworthy place
to look for more info.</para>
-
+
<para>The World Wide Web (WWW) also proves to be a very handy info
source: For info on Adaptec ESDI controllers see <ulink
url="http://www.adaptec.com/"></ulink>. For
info on Western Digital controllers see
<ulink url="http://www.wdc.com/"></ulink>.</para>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>Thanks to...</title>
@@ -458,20 +458,20 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
disk for testing.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1 id="scsi">
<title>What is SCSI?</title>
-
+
<para><emphasis>Copyright &copy; 1995, &a.wilko;. July 6,
1996.</emphasis></para>
-
+
<para>SCSI is an acronym for Small Computer Systems Interface. It is an
ANSI standard that has become one of the leading I/O buses in the
computer industry. The foundation of the SCSI standard was laid by
Shugart Associates (the same guys that gave the world the first mini
floppy disks) when they introduced the SASI bus (Shugart Associates
Standard Interface).</para>
-
+
<para>After some time an industry effort was started to come to a more
strict standard allowing devices from different vendors to work
together. This effort was recognized in the ANSI SCSI-1 standard.
@@ -479,7 +479,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
current standard is SCSI-2 (see <link
linkend="scsi-further-reading">Further reading</link>), with SCSI-3
on the drawing boards.</para>
-
+
<para>In addition to a physical interconnection standard, SCSI defines a
logical (command set) standard to which disk devices must adhere.
This standard is called the Common Command Set (CCS) and was developed
@@ -487,7 +487,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
(revised) CCS as part of the standard itself. The commands are
dependent on the type of device at hand. It does not make much sense
of course to define a Write command for a scanner.</para>
-
+
<para>The SCSI bus is a parallel bus, which comes in a number of
variants. The oldest and most used is an 8 bit wide bus, with
single-ended signals, carried on 50 wires. (If you do not know what
@@ -501,13 +501,13 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
is 40 million transfers per second (40 Mbytes/sec on a 8 bit bus).
Most hard drives sold today are single-ended Ultra SCSI (8 or 16
bits).</para>
-
+
<para>Of course the SCSI bus not only has data lines, but also a number
of control signals. A very elaborate protocol is part of the standard
to allow multiple devices to share the bus in an efficient manner. In
SCSI-2, the data is always checked using a separate parity line. In
pre-SCSI-2 designs parity was optional.</para>
-
+
<para>In SCSI-3 even faster bus types are introduced, along with a
serial SCSI busses that reduces the cabling overhead and allows a
higher maximum bus length. You might see names like SSA and
@@ -515,7 +515,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
in widespread use (especially not in the typical FreeBSD environment).
For this reason the serial bus types are not discussed any
further.</para>
-
+
<para>As you could have guessed from the description above, SCSI devices
are intelligent. They have to be to adhere to the SCSI standard
(which is over 2 inches thick BTW). So, for a hard disk drive for
@@ -523,12 +523,12 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
particular block, but simply the number of the block you want.
Elaborate caching schemes, automatic bad block replacement etc are all
made possible by this <quote>intelligent device</quote> approach.</para>
-
+
<para>On a SCSI bus, each possible pair of devices can communicate.
Whether their function allows this is another matter, but the standard
does not restrict it. To avoid signal contention, the 2 devices have
to arbitrate for the bus before using it.</para>
-
+
<para>The philosophy of SCSI is to have a standard that allows
older-standard devices to work with newer-standard ones. So, an old
SCSI-1 device should normally work on a SCSI-2 bus. I say Normally,
@@ -537,7 +537,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
new bus. Modern devices are usually more well-behaved, because the
standardization has become more strict and is better adhered to by the
device manufacturers.</para>
-
+
<para>Generally speaking, the chances of getting a working set of
devices on a single bus is better when all the devices are SCSI-2 or
newer. This implies that you do not have to dump all your old stuff
@@ -548,7 +548,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
devices however. This is especially advantageous if you have an
Ultra160 host adapter where you should separate your U160 devices
from the Fast and Wide SCSI-2 devices.</para>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>Components of SCSI</title>
@@ -561,16 +561,16 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
their hardware particulars. FreeBSD uses this capability during
boot to check out what devices are connected and whether they need
any special treatment.</para>
-
+
<para>The advantage of intelligent devices is obvious: the device
drivers on the host can be made in a much more generic fashion,
there is no longer a need to change (and qualify!) drivers for every
odd new device that is introduced.</para>
-
+
<para>For cabling and connectors there is a golden rule: get good
stuff. With bus speeds going up all the time you will save yourself
a lot of grief by using good material.</para>
-
+
<para>So, gold plated connectors, shielded cabling, sturdy connector
hoods with strain reliefs etc are the way to go. Second golden rule:
do no use cables longer than necessary. I once spent 3 days hunting
@@ -578,7 +578,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
the SCSI bus by 1 meter solved the problem. And the original bus
length was well within the SCSI specification.</para>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>SCSI bus types</title>
@@ -589,27 +589,27 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
converter hardware to transform a single-ended bus into a
differential one (and vice versa). The differences between the bus
types are explained in the next sections.</para>
-
+
<para>In lots of SCSI related documentation there is a sort of jargon
in use to abbreviate the different bus types. A small list:</para>
-
+
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>FWD: Fast Wide Differential</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>FND: Fast Narrow Differential</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>SE: Single Ended</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>FN: Fast Narrow</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>etc.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -618,11 +618,11 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
<para>With a minor amount of imagination one can usually imagine what
is meant.</para>
-
+
<para>Wide is a bit ambiguous, it can indicate 16 or 32 bit buses. As
far as I know, the 32 bit variant is not (yet) in use, so wide
normally means 16 bit.</para>
-
+
<para>Fast means that the timing on the bus is somewhat different, so
that on a narrow (8 bit) bus 10 Mbytes/sec are possible instead of 5
Mbytes/sec for <quote>slow</quote> SCSI. As discussed before, bus speeds of 20
@@ -640,7 +640,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
<sect3>
<title>Single ended buses</title>
-
+
<para>A single-ended SCSI bus uses signals that are either 5 Volts
or 0 Volts (indeed, TTL levels) and are relative to a COMMON
ground reference. A singled ended 8 bit SCSI bus has
@@ -650,7 +650,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
maximum length allowed drops to 3 meters. Fast-SCSI means that
instead of 5Mbytes/sec the bus allows 10Mbytes/sec
transfers.</para>
-
+
<para>Fast-20 (Ultra SCSI) and Fast-40 allow for 20 and 40 million
transfers/second respectively. So, F20 is 20 Mbytes/second on a 8
bit bus, 40 Mbytes/second on a 16 bit bus etc. For F20 the max
@@ -663,16 +663,16 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
bus must adhere to the length restrictions for fast
buses!</para>
</note>
-
+
<para>It is obvious that with the newer fast-SCSI devices the bus
length can become a real bottleneck. This is why the differential
SCSI bus was introduced in the SCSI-2 standard.</para>
-
+
<para>For connector pinning and connector types please refer to the
SCSI-2 standard (see <link linkend="scsi-further-reading">Further
reading</link>) itself, connectors etc are listed there in
painstaking detail.</para>
-
+
<para>Beware of devices using non-standard cabling. For instance
Apple uses a 25pin D-type connecter (like the one on serial ports
and parallel printers). Considering that the official SCSI bus
@@ -685,7 +685,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
<sect3>
<title>Differential buses</title>
-
+
<para>A differential SCSI bus has a maximum length of 25 meters.
Quite a difference from the 3 meters for a single-ended fast-SCSI
bus. The idea behind differential signals is that each bus signal
@@ -695,7 +695,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
or de-asserted. To a certain extent the voltage difference
between ground and the signal wire pair is not relevant (do not
try 10 kVolts though).</para>
-
+
<para>It is beyond the scope of this document to explain why this
differential idea is so much better. Just accept that
electrically seen the use of differential signals gives a much
@@ -703,7 +703,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
use for inter-cabinet connections. Because of the lower cost
single ended is mostly used for shorter buses like inside
cabinets.</para>
-
+
<para>There is nothing that stops you from using differential stuff
with FreeBSD, as long as you use a controller that has device
driver support in FreeBSD. As an example, Adaptec marketed the
@@ -714,7 +714,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
<sect3>
<title>Terminators</title>
-
+
<para>Terminators in SCSI terminology are resistor networks that are
used to get a correct impedance matching. Impedance matching is
important to get clean signals on the bus, without reflections or
@@ -722,7 +722,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
line you probably know what reflections are. With 20Mbytes/sec
traveling over your SCSI bus, you do not want signals echoing
back.</para>
-
+
<para>Terminators come in various incarnations, with more or less
sophisticated designs. Of course, there are internal and external
variants. Many SCSI devices come with a number of sockets in
@@ -736,7 +736,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
onto a flat cable bus. Others look like external connectors, or a
connector hood without a cable. So, lots of choice as you can
see.</para>
-
+
<para>There is much debate going on if and when you should switch
from simple resistor (passive) terminators to active terminators.
Active terminators contain slightly more elaborate circuit to give
@@ -745,11 +745,11 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
buses and/or fast devices. If you ever have problems with your
SCSI buses you might consider trying an active terminator. Try to
borrow one first, they reputedly are quite expensive.</para>
-
+
<para>Please keep in mind that terminators for differential and
single-ended buses are not identical. You should <emphasis>not
mix</emphasis> the two variants.</para>
-
+
<para>OK, and now where should you install your terminators? This is
by far the most misunderstood part of SCSI. And it is by far the
simplest. The rule is: <emphasis>every single line on the SCSI
@@ -759,7 +759,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
grief, because wrong termination has the potential to introduce
highly mysterious bugs. (Note the <quote>potential</quote> here;
the nastiest part is that it may or may not work.)</para>
-
+
<para>A common pitfall is to have an internal (flat) cable in a
machine and also an external cable attached to the controller. It
seems almost everybody forgets to remove the terminators from the
@@ -774,13 +774,13 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
bits of the bus on the adapter (as well as the last devices on
each bus, of course).</para>
</note>
-
+
<para>What I did myself is remove all terminators from my SCSI
devices and controllers. I own a couple of external terminators,
for both the Centronics-type external cabling and for the internal
flat cable connectors. This makes reconfiguration much
easier.</para>
-
+
<para>On modern devices, sometimes integrated terminators are used.
These things are special purpose integrated circuits that can be
enabled or disabled with a control pin. It is not necessary to
@@ -794,25 +794,25 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
<sect3>
<title>Terminator power</title>
-
+
<para>The terminators discussed in the previous chapter need power
to operate properly. On the SCSI bus, a line is dedicated to this
purpose. So, simple huh?</para>
-
+
<para>Not so. Each device can provide its own terminator power to
the terminator sockets it has on-device. But if you have external
terminators, or when the device supplying the terminator power to
the SCSI bus line is switched off you are in trouble.</para>
-
+
<para>The idea is that initiators (these are devices that initiate
actions on the bus, a discussion follows) must supply terminator
power. All SCSI devices are allowed (but not required) to supply
terminator power.</para>
-
+
<para>To allow for un-powered devices on a bus, the terminator power
must be supplied to the bus via a diode. This prevents the
backflow of current to un-powered devices.</para>
-
+
<para>To prevent all kinds of nastiness, the terminator power is
usually fused. As you can imagine, fuses might blow. This can,
but does not have to, lead to a non functional bus. If multiple
@@ -820,18 +820,18 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
you out of business. A single supplier with a blown fuse
certainly will. Clever external terminators sometimes have a LED
indication that shows whether terminator power is present.</para>
-
+
<para>In newer designs auto-restoring fuses that <quote>reset</quote> themselves
after some time are sometimes used.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Device addressing</title>
-
+
<para>Because the SCSI bus is, ehh, a bus there must be a way to
distinguish or address the different devices connected to
it.</para>
-
+
<para>This is done by means of the SCSI or target ID. Each device
has a unique target ID. You can select the ID to which a device
must respond using a set of jumpers, or a dip switch, or something
@@ -839,12 +839,12 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
from the boot menu. (Yet some others will not let you change the
ID from 7.) Consult the documentation of your device for more
information.</para>
-
+
<para>Beware of multiple devices configured to use the same ID.
Chaos normally reigns in this case. A pitfall is that one of the
devices sharing the same ID sometimes even manages to answer to
I/O requests!</para>
-
+
<para>For an 8 bit bus, a maximum of 8 targets is possible. The
maximum is 8 because the selection is done bitwise using the 8
data lines on the bus. For wide buses this increases to the
@@ -857,7 +857,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
something higher than 7 (or your CDROM will stop
working).</para>
</note>
-
+
<para>The higher the SCSI target ID, the higher the priority the
devices has. When it comes to arbitration between devices that
want to use the bus at the same time, the device that has the
@@ -868,7 +868,7 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
on a wide-SCSI system. (If you are wondering why the lower 8
have higher priority, read the previous paragraph for a
hint.)</para>
-
+
<para>For a further subdivision, the standard allows for Logical
Units or LUNs for short. A single target ID may have multiple
LUNs. For example, a tape device including a tape changer may
@@ -876,10 +876,10 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
changer. In this way, the host system can address each of the
functional units of the tape changer as desired.</para>
</sect3>
-
+
<sect3>
<title>Bus layout</title>
-
+
<para>SCSI buses are linear. So, not shaped like Y-junctions, star
topologies, rings, cobwebs or whatever else people might want to
invent. One of the most common mistakes is for people with
@@ -889,31 +889,31 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
really lucky, but I can almost guarantee that your system will
stop functioning at the most unfortunate moment (this is also
known as <quote>Murphy's law</quote>).</para>
-
+
<para>You might notice that the terminator issue discussed earlier
becomes rather hairy if your bus is not linear. Also, if you have
more connectors than devices on your internal SCSI cable, make
sure you attach devices on connectors on both ends instead of
using the connectors in the middle and let one or both ends
dangle. This will screw up the termination of the bus.</para>
-
+
<para>The electrical characteristics, its noise margins and
ultimately the reliability of it all are tightly related to linear
bus rule.</para>
-
+
<para><emphasis>Stick to the linear bus rule!</emphasis></para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>Using SCSI with FreeBSD</title>
<sect3>
<title>About translations, BIOSes and magic...</title>
-
+
<para>As stated before, you should first make sure that you have a
electrically sound bus.</para>
-
+
<para>When you want to use a SCSI disk on your PC as boot disk, you
must aware of some quirks related to PC BIOSes. The PC BIOS in
its first incarnation used a low level physical interface to the
@@ -922,20 +922,20 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
involved stating number of heads, number of cylinders, number of
sectors per track, obscure things like precompensation and reduced
write current cylinder etc.</para>
-
+
<para>One might be inclined to think that since SCSI disks are smart
you can forget about this. Alas, the arcane setup issue is still
present today. The system BIOS needs to know how to access your
SCSI disk with the head/cyl/sector method in order to load the
FreeBSD kernel during boot.</para>
-
+
<para>The SCSI host adapter or SCSI controller you have put in your
AT/EISA/PCI/whatever bus to connect your disk therefore has its
own on-board BIOS. During system startup, the SCSI BIOS takes
over the hard disk interface routines from the system BIOS. To
fool the system BIOS, the system setup is normally set to No hard
disk present. Obvious, is it not?</para>
-
+
<para>The SCSI BIOS itself presents to the system a so called
<emphasis>translated</emphasis> drive. This means that a fake
drive table is constructed that allows the PC to boot the drive.
@@ -945,37 +945,37 @@ disk wd3 at wdc1 drive 1</programlisting>
size. It is useful to note that 32 * 64 / 2 = the size of your
drive in megabytes. The division by 2 is to get from disk blocks
that are normally 512 bytes in size to Kbytes.</para>
-
+
<para>Right. All is well now?! No, it is not. The system BIOS has
another quirk you might run into. The number of cylinders of a
bootable hard disk cannot be greater than 1024. Using the
translation above, this is a show-stopper for disks greater than 1
GB. With disk capacities going up all the time this is causing
problems.</para>
-
+
<para>Fortunately, the solution is simple: just use another
translation, e.g. with 128 heads instead of 32. In most cases new
SCSI BIOS versions are available to upgrade older SCSI host
adapters. Some newer adapters have an option, in the form of a
jumper or software setup selection, to switch the translation the
SCSI BIOS uses.</para>
-
+
<para>It is very important that <emphasis>all</emphasis> operating
systems on the disk use the <emphasis>same translation</emphasis>
to get the right idea about where to find the relevant partitions.
So, when installing FreeBSD you must answer any questions about
heads/cylinders etc using the translated values your host adapter
uses.</para>
-
+
<para>Failing to observe the translation issue might lead to
un-bootable systems or operating systems overwriting each others
partitions. Using fdisk you should be able to see all
partitions.</para>
-
+
<para>You might have heard some talk of <quote>lying</quote> devices?
Older FreeBSD kernels used to report the geometry of SCSI disks
when booting. An example from one of my systems:</para>
-
+
<screen>aha0 targ 0 lun 0: &lt;MICROP 1588-15MB1057404HSP4&gt;
da0: 636MB (1303250 total sec), 1632 cyl, 15 head, 53 sec, bytes/sec 512</screen>
@@ -984,9 +984,9 @@ da0: 636MB (1303250 total sec), 1632 cyl, 15 head, 53 sec, bytes/sec 512</screen
<screen>(bt0:0:0): "SEAGATE ST41651 7574" type 0 fixed SCSI 2
da0(bt0:0:0): Direct-Access 1350MB (2766300 512 byte sectors)</screen>
-
+
<para>Why has this changed?</para>
-
+
<para>This info is retrieved from the SCSI disk itself. Newer disks
often use a technique called zone bit recording. The idea is that
on the outer cylinders of the drive there is more space so more
@@ -1003,13 +1003,13 @@ da0(bt0:0:0): Direct-Access 1350MB (2766300 512 byte sectors)</screen>
<sect3>
<title>SCSI subsystem design</title>
-
+
<para>FreeBSD uses a layered SCSI subsystem. For each different
controller card a device driver is written. This driver knows all
the intimate details about the hardware it controls. The driver
has a interface to the upper layers of the SCSI subsystem through
which it receives its commands and reports back any status.</para>
-
+
<para>On top of the card drivers there are a number of more generic
drivers for a class of devices. More specific: a driver for tape
devices (abbreviation: sa, for serial access),
@@ -1017,7 +1017,7 @@ da0(bt0:0:0): Direct-Access 1350MB (2766300 512 byte sectors)</screen>
In case you are wondering where you can find this stuff, it all
lives in <filename>/sys/cam/scsi</filename>. See the man pages in
section 4 for more details.</para>
-
+
<para>The multi level design allows a decoupling of low-level bit
banging and more high level stuff. Adding support for another
piece of hardware is a much more manageable problem.</para>
@@ -1025,7 +1025,7 @@ da0(bt0:0:0): Direct-Access 1350MB (2766300 512 byte sectors)</screen>
<sect3>
<title>Kernel configuration</title>
-
+
<para>Dependent on your hardware, the kernel configuration file must
contain one or more lines describing your host adapter(s). This
includes I/O addresses, interrupts etc. Consult the manual page for
@@ -1035,7 +1035,7 @@ da0(bt0:0:0): Direct-Access 1350MB (2766300 512 byte sectors)</screen>
possible option you can dream of. It does
<emphasis>not</emphasis> imply <filename>LINT</filename> will
actually get you to a working kernel at all.</para>
-
+
<para>Although it is probably stating the obvious: the kernel config
file should reflect your actual hardware setup. So, interrupts,
I/O addresses etc must match the kernel config file. During
@@ -1050,11 +1050,11 @@ da0(bt0:0:0): Direct-Access 1350MB (2766300 512 byte sectors)</screen>
adapters themselves at boot time; thus, you just need to write,
for instance, <literal>controller ahc0</literal>.</para>
</note>
-
+
<para>An example loosely based on the FreeBSD 2.2.5-Release kernel
config file <filename>LINT</filename> with some added comments
(between []):</para>
-
+
<programlisting># SCSI host adapters: `aha', `ahb', `aic', `bt', `nca'
#
# aha: Adaptec 154x
@@ -1091,14 +1091,14 @@ disk da2 at scbus1 target 3 [SCSI disk on the uha0]
disk da3 at scbus2 target 4 [SCSI disk on the ncr0]
tape sa1 at scbus0 target 6 [SCSI tape at target 6]
device cd0 at scbus? [the first ever CDROM found, no wiring]</programlisting>
-
+
<para>The example above tells the kernel to look for a ahc (Adaptec
274x) controller, then for an NCR/Symbios board, and so on. The
lines following the controller specifications tell the kernel to
configure specific devices but <emphasis>only</emphasis> attach
them when they match the target ID and LUN specified on the
corresponding bus.</para>
-
+
<para>Wired down devices get <quote>first shot</quote> at the unit
numbers so the first non <quote>wired down</quote> device, is
allocated the unit number one greater than the highest
@@ -1116,26 +1116,26 @@ device cd0 at scbus? [the first ever CDROM found, no wiring]<
<emphasis>no</emphasis> relationship with its target ID on the
SCSI bus.</para>
</note>
-
+
<para>Below is another example of a kernel config file as used by
FreeBSD version &lt; 2.0.5. The difference with the first example
is that devices are not <quote>wired down</quote>. <quote>Wired
down</quote> means that you specify which SCSI target belongs to
which device.</para>
-
+
<para>A kernel built to the config file below will attach the first
SCSI disk it finds to da0, the second disk to da1 etc. If you ever
removed or added a disk, all other devices of the same type (disk
in this case) would <quote>move around</quote>. This implies you have to
change <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> each time.</para>
-
+
<para>Although the old style still works, you are
<emphasis>strongly</emphasis> recommended to use this new feature.
It will save you a lot of grief whenever you shift your hardware
around on the SCSI buses. So, when you re-use your old trusty
config file after upgrading from a pre-FreeBSD2.0.5.R system check
this out.</para>
-
+
<programlisting>[driver for Adaptec 174x]
controller ahb0 at isa? bio irq 11 vector ahbintr
@@ -1152,14 +1152,14 @@ device sa0 [support for 2 SCSI tapes]
[for the CDROM]
device cd0 #Only need one of these, the code dynamically grows</programlisting>
-
+
<para>Both examples support SCSI disks. If during boot more devices
of a specific type (e.g. da disks) are found than are configured
in the booting kernel, the system will simply allocate more
devices, incrementing the unit number starting at the last number
<quote>wired down</quote>. If there are no <quote>wired
down</quote> devices then counting starts at unit 0.</para>
-
+
<para>Use <command>man 4 scsi</command> to check for the latest info
on the SCSI subsystem. For more detailed info on host adapter
drivers use e.g., <command>man 4 ahc</command> for info on the
@@ -1168,19 +1168,19 @@ device cd0 #Only need one of these, the code dynamically grows</pro
<sect3>
<title>Tuning your SCSI kernel setup</title>
-
+
<para>Experience has shown that some devices are slow to respond to
INQUIRY commands after a SCSI bus reset (which happens at boot
time). An INQUIRY command is sent by the kernel on boot to see
what kind of device (disk, tape, CDROM etc.) is connected to a
specific target ID. This process is called device probing by the
way.</para>
-
+
<para>To work around the <quote>slow response</quote> problem, FreeBSD allows a
tunable delay time before the SCSI devices are probed following a
SCSI bus reset. You can set this delay time in your kernel
configuration file using a line like:</para>
-
+
<programlisting>options SCSI_DELAY=15 #Be pessimistic about Joe SCSI device</programlisting>
<para>This line sets the delay time to 15 seconds. On my own system
@@ -1192,29 +1192,29 @@ device cd0 #Only need one of these, the code dynamically grows</pro
<sect3 id="scsi-rogue-devices">
<title>Rogue SCSI devices</title>
-
+
<para>Although the SCSI standard tries to be complete and concise,
it is a complex standard and implementing things correctly is no
easy task. Some vendors do a better job then others.</para>
-
+
<para>This is exactly where the <quote>rogue</quote> devices come
into view. Rogues are devices that are recognized by the FreeBSD
kernel as behaving slightly (...) non-standard. Rogue devices are
reported by the kernel when booting. An example for two of my
cartridge tape units:</para>
-
+
<screen>Feb 25 21:03:34 yedi /kernel: ahb0 targ 5 lun 0: &lt;TANDBERG TDC 3600 -06:&gt;
Feb 25 21:03:34 yedi /kernel: sa0: Tandberg tdc3600 is a known rogue
Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: aha0 targ 5 lun 0: &lt;ARCHIVE VIPER 150 21247-005&gt;
Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
-
+
<para>For instance, there are devices that respond to all LUNs on a
certain target ID, even if they are actually only one device. It
is easy to see that the kernel might be fooled into believing that
there are 8 LUNs at that particular target ID. The confusion this
causes is left as an exercise to the reader.</para>
-
+
<para>The SCSI subsystem of FreeBSD recognizes devices with bad
habits by looking at the INQUIRY response they send when probed.
Because the INQUIRY response also includes the version number of
@@ -1223,12 +1223,12 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<filename>/sys/cam/scsi/scsi_sa.c</filename> and
<filename>/sys/cam/scsi/scsi_all.c</filename> for more info on how
this is done.</para>
-
+
<para>This scheme works fine, but keep in mind that it of course
only works for devices that are known to be weird. If you are the
first to connect your bogus Mumbletech SCSI CDROM you might be
the one that has to define which workaround is needed.</para>
-
+
<para>After you got your Mumbletech working, please send the
required workaround to the FreeBSD development team for inclusion
in the next release of FreeBSD. Other Mumbletech owners will be
@@ -1237,18 +1237,18 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<sect3>
<title>Multiple LUN devices</title>
-
+
<para>In some cases you come across devices that use multiple
logical units (LUNs) on a single SCSI ID. In most cases FreeBSD
only probes devices for LUN 0. An example are so called bridge
boards that connect 2 non-SCSI hard disks to a SCSI bus (e.g. an
Emulex MD21 found in old Sun systems).</para>
-
+
<para>This means that any devices with LUNs != 0 are not normally
found during device probe on system boot. To work around this
problem you must add an appropriate entry in /sys/cam/scsi
and rebuild your kernel.</para>
-
+
<para>Look for a struct that is initialized like below:
(FIXME: which file? Do these entries still exist in this form
now that we use CAM?)</para>
@@ -1257,16 +1257,16 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
T_DIRECT, T_FIXED, "MAXTOR", "XT-4170S", "B5A",
"mx1", SC_ONE_LU
}</programlisting>
-
+
<para>For your Mumbletech BRIDGE2000 that has more than one LUN, acts
as a SCSI disk and has firmware revision 123 you would add
something like:</para>
-
+
<programlisting>{
T_DIRECT, T_FIXED, "MUMBLETECH", "BRIDGE2000", "123",
"da", SC_MORE_LUS
}</programlisting>
-
+
<para>The kernel on boot scans the inquiry data it receives against
the table and acts accordingly. See the source for more
info.</para>
@@ -1274,10 +1274,10 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<sect3>
<title>Tagged command queuing</title>
-
+
<para>Modern SCSI devices, particularly magnetic disks,
support what is called tagged command queuing (TCQ).</para>
-
+
<para>In a nutshell, TCQ allows the device to have multiple I/O
requests outstanding at the same time. Because the device is
intelligent, it can optimize its operations (like head
@@ -1285,12 +1285,12 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
like RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) arrays the TCQ
function is indispensable to take advantage of the device's
inherent parallelism.</para>
-
+
<para>Each I/O request is uniquely identified by a <quote>tag</quote>
(hence the name tagged command queuing) and this tag is used by
FreeBSD to see which I/O in the device drivers queue is reported
as complete by the device.</para>
-
+
<para>It should be noted however that TCQ requires device driver
support and that some devices implemented it <quote>not quite
right</quote> in their firmware. This problem bit me once, and it
@@ -1300,84 +1300,84 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<sect3>
<title>Bus-master host adapters</title>
-
+
<para>Most, but not all, SCSI host adapters are bus mastering
controllers. This means that they can do I/O on their own without
putting load onto the host CPU for data movement.</para>
-
+
<para>This is of course an advantage for a multitasking operating
system like FreeBSD. It must be noted however that there might be
some rough edges.</para>
-
+
<para>For instance an Adaptec 1542 controller can be set to use
different transfer speeds on the host bus (ISA or AT in this
case). The controller is settable to different rates because not
all motherboards can handle the higher speeds. Problems like
hang-ups, bad data etc might be the result of using a higher data
transfer rate then your motherboard can stomach.</para>
-
+
<para>The solution is of course obvious: switch to a lower data
transfer rate and try if that works better.</para>
-
+
<para>In the case of a Adaptec 1542, there is an option that can be
put into the kernel config file to allow dynamic determination of
the right, read: fastest feasible, transfer rate. This option is
disabled by default:</para>
-
+
<programlisting>options "TUNE_1542" #dynamic tune of bus DMA speed</programlisting>
-
+
<para>Check the manual pages for the host adapter that you use. Or
better still, use the ultimate documentation (read: driver
source).</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>Tracking down problems</title>
<para>The following list is an attempt to give a guideline for the
most common SCSI problems and their solutions. It is by no means
complete.</para>
-
+
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>Check for loose connectors and cables.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Check and double check the location and number of your
terminators.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Check if your bus has at least one supplier of terminator
power (especially with external terminators.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Check if no double target IDs are used.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Check if all devices to be used are powered up.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Make a minimal bus config with as little devices as
possible.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>If possible, configure your host adapter to use slow bus
speeds.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Disable tagged command queuing to make things as simple as
possible (for a NCR host adapter based system see man
ncrcontrol)</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>If you can compile a kernel, make one with the
<literal>SCSIDEBUG</literal> option, and try accessing the
@@ -1395,16 +1395,16 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2 id="scsi-further-reading">
<title>Further reading</title>
<para>If you intend to do some serious SCSI hacking, you might want to
have the official standard at hand:</para>
-
+
<para>Approved American National Standards can be purchased from
ANSI at
-
+
<address>
<otheraddr>13th Floor</otheraddr>
<street>11 West 42nd Street</street>
@@ -1431,7 +1431,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<para>Many X3T10 draft documents are available electronically on the
SCSI BBS (719-574-0424) and on the <hostid
role="fqdn">ncrinfo.ncr.com</hostid> anonymous FTP site.</para>
-
+
<para>Latest X3T10 committee documents are:</para>
<itemizedlist>
@@ -1439,22 +1439,22 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<para>AT Attachment (ATA or IDE) [X3.221-1994]
(<emphasis>Approved</emphasis>)</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>ATA Extensions (ATA-2) [X3T10/948D Rev 2i]</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Enhanced Small Device Interface (ESDI)
[X3.170-1990/X3.170a-1991]
(<emphasis>Approved</emphasis>)</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Small Computer System Interface &mdash; 2 (SCSI-2)
[X3.131-1994] (<emphasis>Approved</emphasis>)</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>SCSI-2 Common Access Method Transport and SCSI Interface
Module (CAM) [X3T10/792D Rev 11]</para>
@@ -1471,33 +1471,33 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 07632 Phone: (201) 767-5937
ISBN 0-13-796855-8</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para><quote>Basics of SCSI</quote>, a SCSI tutorial written by
Ancot Corporation Contact Ancot for availability information at:
Phone: (415) 322-5322 Fax: (415) 322-0455</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para><quote>SCSI Interconnection Guide Book</quote>, an AMP
publication (dated 4/93, Catalog 65237) that lists the various
SCSI connectors and suggests cabling schemes. Available from
AMP at (800) 522-6752 or (717) 564-0100</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para><quote>Fast Track to SCSI</quote>, A Product Guide written by
Fujitsu. Available from: Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ,
07632 Phone: (201) 767-5937 ISBN 0-13-307000-X</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para><quote>The SCSI Bench Reference</quote>, <quote>The SCSI
Encyclopedia</quote>, and the <quote>SCSI Tutor</quote>, ENDL
Publications, 14426 Black Walnut Court, Saratoga CA, 95070
Phone: (408) 867-6642</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para><quote>Zadian SCSI Navigator</quote> (quick ref. book) and
<quote>Discover the Power of SCSI</quote> (First book along with
@@ -1518,38 +1518,38 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
information about the devices you own.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1 id="hw-storage-controllers">
<title>* Disk/tape controllers</title>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>* SCSI</title>
<para></para>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>* IDE</title>
<para></para>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>* Floppy</title>
<para></para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1>
<title>Hard drives</title>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>SCSI hard drives</title>
<para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.asami;. 17 February
1998.</emphasis></para>
-
+
<para>As mentioned in the <link linkend="scsi">SCSI</link> section,
virtually all SCSI hard drives sold today are SCSI-2 compliant and
thus will work fine as long as you connect them to a supported SCSI
@@ -1563,7 +1563,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<sect3>
<title>Rotational speed</title>
-
+
<para>Rotational speeds of SCSI drives sold today range from around
4,500RPM to 15,000RPM. Most of them are either 7,200RPM or
10,000RPM, with 15,000RPM becoming affordable (June 2002).
@@ -1572,7 +1572,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
counterparts. A large fraction of today's disk drive malfunctions
are heat-related. If you do not have very good cooling in your PC
case, you may want to stick with 7,200RPM or slower drives.</para>
-
+
<para>Note that newer drives, with higher areal recording densities,
can deliver much more bits per rotation than older ones. Today's
top-of-line 7,200RPM drives can sustain a throughput comparable to
@@ -1581,13 +1581,13 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
(or transfer) rate</quote>. It is usually in megabits/sec so
divide it by 8 and you will get the rough approximation of how much
megabytes/sec you can get out of the drive.</para>
-
+
<para>(If you are a speed maniac and want a 15,000RPM drive for your
cute little PC, be my guest; however, those drives become
extremely hot. Do not even think about it if you do not have a fan
blowing air <emphasis>directly at</emphasis> the drive or a
properly ventilated disk enclosure.)</para>
-
+
<para>Obviously, the latest 15,000RPM drives and 10,000RPM drives can
deliver more data than the latest 7,200RPM drives, so if absolute
bandwidth is the necessity for your applications, you have little
@@ -1606,7 +1606,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
similar or even better results by using the ccd (concatenated
disk) driver to create a striped disk array out of multiple slower
drives for comparable overall cost.</para>
-
+
<para>Make sure you have adequate air flow around the drive,
especially if you are going to use a fast-spinning drive. You
generally need at least 1/2&rdquo; (1.25cm) of spacing above and below a
@@ -1615,7 +1615,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
where the air flows in, and put the drive where it will have the
largest volume of cool air flowing around it. You may need to seal
some unwanted holes or add a new fan for effective cooling.</para>
-
+
<para>Another consideration is noise. Many 10,000 or faster drives
generate a high-pitched whine which is quite unpleasant to most
people. That, plus the extra fans often required for cooling, may
@@ -1625,7 +1625,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<sect3>
<title>Form factor</title>
-
+
<para>Most SCSI drives sold today are of 3.5&rdquo; form factor. They
come in two different heights; 1.6&rdquo; (<quote>half-height</quote>) or
1&rdquo; (<quote>low-profile</quote>). The half-height drive is the same
@@ -1637,7 +1637,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<sect3>
<title>Interface</title>
-
+
<para>The majority of SCSI hard drives sold today are Ultra,
Ultra-wide, or Ultra160 SCSI. As of this writing (June 2002),
the first Ultra320 host adapters and devices become available.
@@ -1649,7 +1649,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
bus integrity problems. Unless you have a well-designed disk
enclosure, it is not easy to make more than 5 or 6 Ultra SCSI
drives work on a single bus.</para>
-
+
<para>On the other hand, if you need to connect many drives, going
for Fast-wide SCSI may not be a bad idea. That will have the same
max bandwidth as Ultra (narrow) SCSI, while electronically it is
@@ -1659,7 +1659,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
cost a little more but it may save you down the road. (Besides,
if you can not afford the cost difference, you should not be building
a disk array.)</para>
-
+
<para>There are two variant of wide SCSI drives; 68-pin and 80-pin
SCA (Single Connector Attach). The SCA drives do not have a
separate 4-pin power connector, and also read the SCSI ID settings
@@ -1675,20 +1675,20 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
LED lines).</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>* IDE hard drives</title>
<para></para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1>
<title>Tape drives</title>
-
+
<para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.jmb;. 2 July
1996.</emphasis></para>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>General tape access commands</title>
@@ -1697,7 +1697,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<command>erase</command>, and <command>status</command>. See the
&man.mt.1; manual page for a detailed description.</para>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>Controller Interfaces</title>
@@ -1708,7 +1708,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
linkend="hw-storage-controllers">Disk/tape
controllers</link>.</para>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>SCSI drives</title>
@@ -1725,153 +1725,153 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<sect3>
<title>4mm (DAT: Digital Audio Tape)</title>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-python-28454">Archive Python
28454</link></para>
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-python-04687">Archive Python
04687</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-hp1533a">HP C1533A</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-hp1534a">HP C1534A</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-hp35450a">HP 35450A</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-hp35470a">HP 35470A</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-hp35480a">HP 35480A</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-sdt5000">SDT-5000</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-wangtek6200">Wangtek
6200</link></para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>8mm (Exabyte)</title>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-exb8200">EXB-8200</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-exb8500">EXB-8500</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-exb8505">EXB-8505</link></para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>QIC (Quarter-Inch Cartridge)</title>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-anaconda">Archive Anaconda
2750</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-viper60">Archive Viper
60</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-viper150">Archive Viper
150</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-viper2525">Archive Viper
2525</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-tandberg3600">Tandberg TDC
3600</link></para>
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-tandberg3620">Tandberg TDC
3620</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-tandberg3800">Tandberg TDC
3800</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-tandberg4222">Tandberg TDC
4222</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-wangtek5525es">Wangtek
5525ES</link></para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>DLT (Digital Linear Tape)</title>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-dectz87">Digital TZ87</link></para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Mini-Cartridge</title>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-ctms3200">Conner CTMS
3200</link></para>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-exb2501">Exabyte 2501</link></para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Autoloaders/Changers</title>
-
+
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-hp1553a">Hewlett-Packard HP C1553A
Autoloading DDS2</link></para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>* IDE drives</title>
<para></para>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>Floppy drives</title>
<para><link linkend="hw-storage-conner420r">Conner 420R</link></para>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>* Parallel port drives</title>
<para></para>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>Detailed Information</title>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-anaconda">
<title>Archive Anaconda 2750</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>ARCHIVE
ANCDA 2750 28077 -003 type 1 removable SCSI 2</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is a QIC tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 1.35GB when using QIC-1350 tapes. This
drive will read and write QIC-150 (DC6150), QIC-250 (DC6250), and
QIC-525 (DC6525) tapes as well.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 350kB/s using &man.dump.8;.
Rates of 530kB/s have been reported when using
Amanda</para>
<para>Production of this drive has been discontinued.</para>
-
+
<para>The SCSI bus connector on this tape drive is reversed from
that on most other SCSI devices. Make sure that you have enough
SCSI cable to twist the cable one-half turn before and after the
Archive Anaconda tape drive, or turn your other SCSI devices
upside-down.</para>
-
+
<para>Two kernel code changes are required to use this drive. This
drive will not work as delivered.</para>
-
+
<para>If you have a SCSI-2 controller, short jumper 6. Otherwise,
the drive behaves are a SCSI-1 device. When operating as a SCSI-1
device, this drive, <quote>locks</quote> the SCSI bus during some
tape operations, including: fsf, rewind, and rewoffl.</para>
-
+
<para>If you are using the NCR SCSI controllers, patch the file
<filename>/usr/src/sys/pci/ncr.c</filename> (as shown below).
Build and install a new kernel.</para>
-
+
<programlisting>*** 4831,4835 ****
};
-
+
! if (np-&gt;latetime&gt;4) {
/*
** Although we tried to wake it up,
@@ -1881,29 +1881,29 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
! if (np-&gt;latetime&gt;1200) {
/*
** Although we tried to wake it up,</programlisting>
-
+
<para>Reported by: &a.jmb;</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-python-28454">
<title>Archive Python 28454</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>ARCHIVE
Python 28454-XXX4ASB</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
2</literal> <literal>density code 0x8c, 512-byte
blocks</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is a DDS-1 tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 2.5GB on 90m tapes.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is XXX.</para>
-
+
<para>This drive was repackaged by Sun Microsystems as model
595-3067.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: Bob Bishop <email>rb@gid.co.uk</email></para>
-
+
<para>Throughput is in the 1.5 MByte/sec range, however this will
drop if the disks and tape drive are on the same SCSI
controller.</para>
@@ -1915,7 +1915,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-python-04687">
<title>Archive Python 04687</title>
- <para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>ARCHIVE
+ <para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>ARCHIVE
Python 04687-XXX 6580</literal> <literal>Removable Sequential
Access SCSI-2 device</literal></para>
@@ -1930,7 +1930,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<para>Parity is controlled by switch 5. Switch 5
<emphasis>on</emphasis> to enable parity control. Compression is
- enabled with Switch 6 <emphasis>off</emphasis>. It is possible to
+ enabled with Switch 6 <emphasis>off</emphasis>. It is possible to
override compression with the <literal>SCSI MODE SELECT</literal>
command (see &man.mt.1;).</para>
@@ -1939,117 +1939,117 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-viper60">
<title>Archive Viper 60</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>ARCHIVE
VIPER 60 21116 -007</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
1</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is a QIC tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 60MB.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is XXX.</para>
-
+
<para>Production of this drive has been discontinued.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: Philippe Regnauld
<email>regnauld@hsc.fr</email></para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-viper150">
<title>Archive Viper 150</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>ARCHIVE
VIPER 150 21531 -004</literal> <literal>Archive Viper 150 is a
known rogue</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
1</literal>. A multitude of firmware revisions exist for this
drive. Your drive may report different numbers (e.g
<literal>21247 -005</literal>.</para>
-
+
<para>This is a QIC tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 150/250MB. Both 150MB (DC6150) and 250MB
(DC6250) tapes have the recording format. The 250MB tapes are
approximately 67% longer than the 150MB tapes. This drive can
read 120MB tapes as well. It can not write 120MB tapes.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 100kB/s</para>
-
+
<para>This drive reads and writes DC6150 (150MB) and DC6250 (250MB)
tapes.</para>
-
+
<para>This drives quirks are known and pre-compiled into the SCSI
tape device driver (&man.st.4;).</para>
-
+
<para>Under FreeBSD 2.2-CURRENT, use <command>mt blocksize
512</command> to set the blocksize. (The particular drive had
firmware revision 21247 -005. Other firmware revisions may behave
differently) Previous versions of FreeBSD did not have this
problem.</para>
-
+
<para>Production of this drive has been discontinued.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: Pedro A M Vazquez
<email>vazquez@IQM.Unicamp.BR</email></para>
-
+
<para>&a.msmith;</para>
</sect3>
-
+
<sect3 id="hw-storage-viper2525">
<title>Archive Viper 2525</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>ARCHIVE
VIPER 2525 25462 -011</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
1</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is a QIC tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 525MB.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 180kB/s at 90 inches/sec.</para>
-
+
<para>The drive reads QIC-525, QIC-150, QIC-120 and QIC-24 tapes.
Writes QIC-525, QIC-150, and QIC-120.</para>
-
+
<para>Firmware revisions prior to <literal>25462 -011</literal> are
bug ridden and will not function properly.</para>
-
+
<para>Production of this drive has been discontinued.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-conner420r">
<title>Conner 420R</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>Conner
tape</literal>.</para>
-
+
<para>This is a floppy controller, mini cartridge tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is XXXX</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is XXX</para>
-
+
<para>The drive uses QIC-80 tape cartridges.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: Mark Hannon
<email>mark@seeware.DIALix.oz.au</email></para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-ctms3200">
<title>Conner CTMS 3200</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>CONNER
CTMS 3200 7.00</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
2</literal>.</para>
-
+
<para>This is a mini cartridge tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is XXXX</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is XXX</para>
-
+
<para>The drive uses QIC-3080 tape cartridges.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: Thomas S. Traylor
<email>tst@titan.cs.mci.com</email></para>
</sect3>
@@ -2057,156 +2057,156 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-dectz87">
<title><ulink
url="http://www.digital.com/info/Customer-Update/931206004.txt.html">DEC TZ87</ulink></title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>DEC
TZ87 (C) DEC 9206</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
2</literal> <literal>density code 0x19</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is a DLT tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 10GB.</para>
-
+
<para>This drive supports hardware data compression.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 1.2MB/s.</para>
-
+
<para>This drive is identical to the Quantum DLT2000. The drive
firmware can be set to emulate several well-known drives,
including an Exabyte 8mm drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: &a.wilko;</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-exb2501">
<title><ulink
url="http://www.Exabyte.COM:80/Products/Minicartridge/2501/Rfeatures.html">Exabyte EXB-2501</ulink></title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>EXABYTE
EXB-2501</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is a mini-cartridge tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 1GB when using MC3000XL
mini cartridges.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is XXX</para>
-
+
<para>This drive can read and write DC2300 (550MB), DC2750 (750MB),
MC3000 (750MB), and MC3000XL (1GB) mini cartridges.</para>
-
+
<para>WARNING: This drive does not meet the SCSI-2 specifications.
The drive locks up completely in response to a SCSI MODE_SELECT
command unless there is a formatted tape in the drive. Before
using this drive, set the tape blocksize with</para>
-
+
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mt -f /dev/st0ctl.0 blocksize 1024</userinput></screen>
-
+
<para>Before using a mini cartridge for the first time, the
mini cartridge must be formatted. FreeBSD 2.1.0-RELEASE and
earlier:</para>
-
+
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/sbin/scsi -f /dev/rst0.ctl -s 600 -c "4 0 0 0 0 0"</userinput></screen>
-
+
<para>(Alternatively, fetch a copy of the
<command>scsiformat</command> shell script from FreeBSD
2.1.5/2.2.) FreeBSD 2.1.5 and later:</para>
-
+
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/sbin/scsiformat -q -w /dev/rst0.ctl</userinput></screen>
-
+
<para>Right now, this drive cannot really be recommended for
FreeBSD.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: Bob Beaulieu
<email>ez@eztravel.com</email></para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-exb8200">
<title>Exabyte EXB-8200</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>EXABYTE
EXB-8200 252X</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
1</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is an 8mm tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 2.3GB.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 270kB/s.</para>
-
+
<para>This drive is fairly slow in responding to the SCSI bus during
boot. A custom kernel may be required (set SCSI_DELAY to 10
seconds).</para>
-
+
<para>There are a large number of firmware configurations for this
drive, some have been customized to a particular vendor's
hardware. The firmware can be changed via EPROM
replacement.</para>
-
+
<para>Production of this drive has been discontinued.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: &a.msmith;</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-exb8500">
<title>Exabyte EXB-8500</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>EXABYTE
EXB-8500-85Qanx0 0415</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
2</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is an 8mm tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 5GB.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 300kB/s.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: Greg Lehey <email>grog@lemis.de</email></para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-exb8505">
<title><ulink
url="http://www.Exabyte.COM:80/Products/8mm/8505XL/Rfeatures.html">Exabyte EXB-8505</ulink></title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is
<literal>EXABYTE EXB-85058SQANXR1 05B0</literal> <literal>type 1
removable SCSI 2</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is an 8mm tape drive which supports compression, and is
upward compatible with the EXB-5200 and EXB-8500.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 5GB.</para>
-
+
<para>The drive supports hardware data compression.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 300kB/s.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: Glen Foster
<email>gfoster@gfoster.com</email></para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-hp1533a">
<title>Hewlett-Packard HP C1533A</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>HP
C1533A 9503</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
2</literal>.</para>
-
+
<para>This is a DDS-2 tape drive. DDS-2 means hardware data
compression and narrower tracks for increased data
capacity.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 4GB when using 120m tapes. This drive
supports hardware data compression.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 510kB/s.</para>
-
+
<para>This drive is used in Hewlett-Packard's SureStore 6000eU and
6000i tape drives and C1533A DDS-2 DAT drive.</para>
-
+
<para>The drive has a block of 8 dip switches. The proper settings
for FreeBSD are: 1 ON; 2 ON; 3 OFF; 4 ON; 5 ON; 6 ON; 7 ON; 8
ON.</para>
-
+
<informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
<tgroup cols="3">
<thead>
@@ -2216,7 +2216,7 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<entry>Result</entry>
</row>
</thead>
-
+
<tbody>
<row>
<entry>On</entry>
@@ -2224,21 +2224,21 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
<entry>Compression enabled at power-on, with host
control</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>On</entry>
<entry>Off</entry>
<entry>Compression enabled at power-on, no host
control</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Off</entry>
<entry>On</entry>
<entry>Compression disabled at power-on, with host
control</entry>
</row>
-
+
<row>
<entry>Off</entry>
<entry>Off</entry>
@@ -2248,46 +2248,46 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</informaltable>
-
+
<para>Switch 3 controls MRS (Media Recognition System). MRS tapes
have stripes on the transparent leader. These identify the tape
as DDS (Digital Data Storage) grade media. Tapes that do not have
the stripes will be treated as write-protected. Switch 3 OFF
enables MRS. Switch 3 ON disables MRS.</para>
-
+
<para>See <ulink url="http://www.hp.com/tape/c_intro.html">HP
SureStore Tape Products</ulink> and <ulink
url="http://www.impediment.com/hp/hp_technical.html">Hewlett-Packard
Disk and Tape Technical Information</ulink> for more information
on configuring this drive.</para>
-
+
<para><emphasis>Warning:</emphasis> Quality control on these drives
varies greatly. One FreeBSD core-team member has returned 2 of
these drives. Neither lasted more than 5 months.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: &a.se;</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-hp1534a">
<title>Hewlett-Packard HP 1534A</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>HP
HP35470A T503</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
2</literal> <literal>Sequential-Access density code 0x13,
variable blocks</literal>.</para>
-
+
<para>This is a DDS-1 tape drive. DDS-1 is the original DAT tape
format.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 2GB when using 90m tapes.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 183kB/s.</para>
-
+
<para>The same mechanism is used in Hewlett-Packard's SureStore
<ulink url="http://www.dmo.hp.com/tape/sst2000.htm">2000i</ulink>
tape drive, C35470A DDS format DAT drive, C1534A DDS format DAT
drive and HP C1536A DDS format DAT drive.</para>
-
+
<para>The HP C1534A DDS format DAT drive has two indicator lights,
one green and one amber. The green one indicates tape action:
slow flash during load, steady when loaded, fast flash during
@@ -2295,40 +2295,40 @@ Mar 29 21:16:37 yedi /kernel: sa1: Archive Viper 150 is a known rogue </screen>
flash when cleaning is required or tape is nearing the end of its
useful life, steady indicates an hard fault. (factory service
required?)</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by Gary Crutcher
<email>gcrutchr@nightflight.com</email></para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-hp1553a">
<title>Hewlett-Packard HP C1553A Autoloading DDS2</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is "".</para>
-
+
<para>This is a DDS-2 tape drive with a tape changer. DDS-2 means
hardware data compression and narrower tracks for increased data
capacity.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 24GB when using 120m tapes. This drive
supports hardware data compression.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 510kB/s (native).</para>
-
+
<para>This drive is used in Hewlett-Packard's SureStore <ulink
url="http://www.dmo.hp.com/tape/sst12000.htm">12000e</ulink>
tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>The drive has two selectors on the rear panel. The selector
closer to the fan is SCSI id. The other selector should be set to
7.</para>
-
+
<para>There are four internal switches. These should be set: 1 ON;
2 ON; 3 ON; 4 OFF.</para>
-
+
<para>At present the kernel drivers do not automatically change
tapes at the end of a volume. This shell script can be used to
change tapes:</para>
-
+
<programlisting>#!/bin/sh
PATH="/sbin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin"; export PATH
@@ -2369,80 +2369,80 @@ scsi -f $2 -s 100 -c "1b 0 0 $cdb3 $cdb4 $cdb5"</programlisting>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-hp35450a">
<title>Hewlett-Packard HP 35450A</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>HP
HP35450A -A C620</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
2</literal> <literal>Sequential-Access density code
0x13</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is a DDS-1 tape drive. DDS-1 is the original DAT tape
format.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 1.2GB.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 160kB/s.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: Mark Thompson
<email>mark.a.thompson@pobox.com</email></para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-hp35470a">
<title>Hewlett-Packard HP 35470A</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>HP
HP35470A 9 09</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
2</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is a DDS-1 tape drive. DDS-1 is the original DAT tape
format.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 2GB when using 90m tapes.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 183kB/s.</para>
-
+
<para>The same mechanism is used in Hewlett-Packard's SureStore
<ulink url="http://www.dmo.hp.com/tape/sst2000.htm">2000i</ulink>
tape drive, C35470A DDS format DAT drive, C1534A DDS format DAT
drive, and HP C1536A DDS format DAT drive.</para>
-
+
<para><emphasis>Warning:</emphasis> Quality control on these drives
varies greatly. One FreeBSD core-team member has returned 5 of
these drives. None lasted more than 9 months.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: David Dawes
<email>dawes@rf900.physics.usyd.edu.au</email> (9 09)</para>
-
+
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-hp35480a">
<title>Hewlett-Packard HP 35480A</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>HP
HP35480A 1009</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
2</literal> <literal>Sequential-Access density code
0x13</literal>.</para>
-
+
<para>This is a DDS-DC tape drive. DDS-DC is DDS-1 with hardware
data compression. DDS-1 is the original DAT tape format.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 2GB when using 90m tapes. It cannot handle
120m tapes. This drive supports hardware data compression.
Please refer to the section on <link
linkend="hw-storage-hp1533a">HP C1533A</link> for the proper
switch settings.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 183kB/s.</para>
-
+
<para>This drive is used in Hewlett-Packard's SureStore <ulink
url="http://www.dmo.hp.com/tape/sst5000.htm">5000eU</ulink> and
<ulink url="http://www.dmo.hp.com/tape/sst5000.htm">5000i</ulink>
tape drives and C35480A DDS format DAT drive..</para>
-
+
<para>This drive will occasionally hang during a tape eject
operation (<command>mt offline</command>). Pressing the front
panel button will eject the tape and bring the tape drive back to
life.</para>
-
+
<para>WARNING: HP 35480-03110 only. On at least two occasions this
tape drive when used with FreeBSD 2.1.0, an IBM Server 320 and an
2940W SCSI controller resulted in all SCSI disk partitions being
@@ -2453,68 +2453,68 @@ scsi -f $2 -s 100 -c "1b 0 0 $cdb3 $cdb4 $cdb5"</programlisting>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-sdt5000">
<title><ulink
url="http://www.sel.sony.com/SEL/ccpg/storage/tape/t5000.html">Sony SDT-5000</ulink></title>
-
+
<para>There are at least two significantly different models: one is
a DDS-1 and the other DDS-2. The DDS-1 version is
<literal>SDT-5000 3.02</literal>. The DDS-2 version is
<literal>SONY SDT-5000 327M</literal>. The DDS-2 version has a 1MB
cache. This cache is able to keep the tape streaming in almost
any circumstances.</para>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>SONY
SDT-5000 3.02</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
2</literal> <literal>Sequential-Access density code
0x13</literal></para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 4GB when using 120m tapes. This drive
supports hardware data compression.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is depends upon the model or the drive. The
rate is 630kB/s for the <literal>SONY SDT-5000 327M</literal>
while compressing the data. For the <literal>SONY SDT-5000
3.02</literal>, the data transfer rate is 225kB/s.</para>
-
+
<para>In order to get this drive to stream, set the blocksize to 512
bytes (<command>mt blocksize 512</command>) reported by Kenneth
Merry <email>ken@ulc199.residence.gatech.edu</email>.</para>
-
+
<para><literal>SONY SDT-5000 327M</literal> information reported by
Charles Henrich <email>henrich@msu.edu</email>.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: &a.jmz;</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-tandberg3600">
<title>Tandberg TDC 3600</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is
<literal>TANDBERG TDC 3600 =08:</literal> <literal>type 1
removable SCSI 2</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is a QIC tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 150/250MB.</para>
-
+
<para>This drive has quirks which are known and work around code is
present in the SCSI tape device driver (&man.st.4;).
Upgrading the firmware to XXX version will fix the quirks and
provide SCSI 2 capabilities.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 80kB/s.</para>
-
+
<para>IBM and Emerald units will not work. Replacing the firmware
EPROM of these units will solve the problem.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: &a.msmith;</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-tandberg3620">
<title>Tandberg TDC 3620</title>
-
+
<para>This is very similar to the <link
linkend="hw-storage-tandberg3600">Tandberg TDC 3600</link>
drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: &a.joerg;</para>
</sect3>
@@ -2524,56 +2524,56 @@ scsi -f $2 -s 100 -c "1b 0 0 $cdb3 $cdb4 $cdb5"</programlisting>
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is
<literal>TANDBERG TDC 3800 =04Y</literal> <literal>Removable
Sequential Access SCSI-2 device</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is a QIC tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 525MB.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: &a.jhs;</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-tandberg4222">
<title>Tandberg TDC 4222</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is
<literal>TANDBERG TDC 4222 =07</literal> <literal>type 1 removable
SCSI 2</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is a QIC tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 2.5GB. The drive will read all cartridges
from the 60 MB (DC600A) upwards, and write 150 MB (DC6150)
upwards. Hardware compression is optionally supported for the 2.5
GB cartridges.</para>
-
+
<para>This drives quirks are known and pre-compiled into the SCSI
tape device driver (&man.st.4;) beginning with FreeBSD
2.2-CURRENT. For previous versions of FreeBSD, use
<command>mt</command> to read one block from the tape, rewind the
tape, and then execute the backup program (<command>mt fsr 1; mt
rewind; dump ...</command>)</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 600kB/s (vendor claim with compression),
350 KB/s can even be reached in start/stop mode. The rate
decreases for smaller cartridges.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: &a.joerg;</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-wangtek5525es">
<title>Wangtek 5525ES</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>WANGTEK
5525ES SCSI REV7 3R1</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
1</literal> <literal>density code 0x11, 1024-byte
blocks</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is a QIC tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 525MB.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 180kB/s.</para>
-
+
<para>The drive reads 60, 120, 150, and 525MB tapes. The drive will
not write 60MB (DC600 cartridge) tapes. In order to overwrite 120
and 150 tapes reliably, first erase (<command>mt erase</command>)
@@ -2582,13 +2582,13 @@ scsi -f $2 -s 100 -c "1b 0 0 $cdb3 $cdb4 $cdb5"</programlisting>
previous tracks is not overwritten, as a result the new data lies
in a band surrounded on both sides by the previous data unless the
tape have been erased.</para>
-
+
<para>This drives quirks are known and pre-compiled into the SCSI
tape device driver (&man.st.4;).</para>
-
+
<para>Other firmware revisions that are known to work are:
M75D</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: Marc van Kempen <email>marc@bowtie.nl</email>
<literal>REV73R1</literal> Andrew Gordon
<email>Andrew.Gordon@net-tel.co.uk</email>
@@ -2597,35 +2597,35 @@ scsi -f $2 -s 100 -c "1b 0 0 $cdb3 $cdb4 $cdb5"</programlisting>
<sect3 id="hw-storage-wangtek6200">
<title>Wangtek 6200</title>
-
+
<para>The boot message identifier for this drive is <literal>WANGTEK
6200-HS 4B18</literal> <literal>type 1 removable SCSI
2</literal> <literal>Sequential-Access density code
0x13</literal></para>
-
+
<para>This is a DDS-1 tape drive.</para>
-
+
<para>Native capacity is 2GB using 90m tapes.</para>
-
+
<para>Data transfer rate is 150kB/s.</para>
-
+
<para>Reported by: Tony Kimball <email>alk@Think.COM</email></para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
<title>* Problem drives</title>
<para></para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1>
<title>CDROM drives</title>
-
+
<para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.obrien;. 23 November
1997.</emphasis></para>
-
+
<para>Generally speaking those in <emphasis>The FreeBSD
Project</emphasis> prefer SCSI CDROM drives over IDE CDROM
drives. However not all SCSI CDROM drives are equal. Some
@@ -2635,7 +2635,7 @@ scsi -f $2 -s 100 -c "1b 0 0 $cdb3 $cdb4 $cdb5"</programlisting>
found displeasure with the 12x speed XM-5701TA as its volume
(when playing audio CDROMs) is not controllable by the various
audio player software.</para>
-
+
<para>Another area where SCSI CDROM manufacturers are cutting corners is
adherence to the <link linkend="scsi-further-reading">SCSI
specification</link>. Many SCSI CDROMs will respond to <link
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/version-guide/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/version-guide/Makefile
index cf40e82e00..e9b3852f11 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/version-guide/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/version-guide/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Article: FreeBSD Version Guide
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/version-guide/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/version-guide/article.sgml
index b9ea919775..554ae15bcf 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/version-guide/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/version-guide/article.sgml
@@ -8,18 +8,18 @@
<article lang='en'>
<title>Choosing the FreeBSD Version That Is Right For You</title>
-
+
<articleinfo>
<authorgroup>
<author>
<surname>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</surname>
</author>
</authorgroup>
-
+
<legalnotice id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
&tm-attrib.freebsd;
</legalnotice>
-
+
<copyright>
<year>2005</year>
<holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@
<pubdate>$FreeBSD$</pubdate>
<releaseinfo>$FreeBSD$</releaseinfo>
-
+
<abstract>
<para>So you have chosen to install &os;. Welcome! This
document is designed to help you to decide which version to
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/vinum/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/vinum/article.sgml
index 118e9a9af4..f3905df3e9 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/vinum/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/vinum/article.sgml
@@ -552,7 +552,7 @@
performance disk server at a very reasonable cost.</para>
<para>However, you can indeed get started with
- <application>Vinum</application> very simply.
+ <application>Vinum</application> very simply.
A minimum system can be as simple as
an old CPU (even a 486 is fine) and a pair of drives
that are 500 MB or more. They need not be the same size or
@@ -594,7 +594,7 @@
for the server against available resources and make design
tradeoffs.
We will plan the transition from no
- <application>Vinum</application> to
+ <application>Vinum</application> to
<application>Vinum</application>
on just one spindle, to <application>Vinum</application>
on two spindles.</para>
@@ -1075,7 +1075,7 @@ Not to scale</literallayout>
allocations as described above in <xref linkend="AssignSmall"/>.
For this example on a 2 GB spindle, I will use
200,000 blocks for root, 200,265 blocks for swap,
- 1,000,000 blocks for <filename>/home</filename>, and
+ 1,000,000 blocks for <filename>/home</filename>, and
the rest of the spindle (2,724,408 blocks) for
<filename>/usr</filename>.
(<command>/stand/sysinstall</command>
@@ -1239,7 +1239,7 @@ Not to scale</literallayout>
<step>
<para>We now need to install new spindle partitioning for
<devicename>/dev/ad0</devicename>.
- This requires that
+ This requires that
<devicename>/dev/ad0s1b</devicename> not be in use for
swapping so we have to reboot in single-user mode.</para>
@@ -1575,7 +1575,7 @@ expected next file 492, got 491</screen>
<application>Vinum</application>
may automatically avoid failed hardware in a way that users
do not notice.
- You must watch for such failures and get them repaired before a
+ You must watch for such failures and get them repaired before a
second failure results in data loss.
You may see
<application>Vinum</application> noting damaged objects
@@ -1610,7 +1610,7 @@ expected next file 492, got 491</screen>
sd name hope.p0.s0 drive UpWindow plex hope.p0 len 0</programlisting>
<note>
- <para>Specifying a length of <literal>0</literal> for
+ <para>Specifying a length of <literal>0</literal> for
the <filename>hope.p0.s0</filename> subdisk
asks <application>Vinum</application>
to use whatever space is left available on the underlying
@@ -1672,7 +1672,7 @@ expected next file 492, got 491</screen>
For each scenario, there is a subsection on how to configure your
server for degraded mode operation, how to recover from the failure,
how to exit degraded mode, and how to simulate the failure.</para>
-
+
<tip>
<para>Make a hard copy of these instructions and leave them inside the CPU
case, being careful not to interfere with ventilation.</para></tip>
@@ -1812,7 +1812,7 @@ ok <userinput>boot -as</userinput></screen>
<title>Simulation</title>
<para>This kind of failure can be simulated by shutting down to
- single-user mode and then booting as shown above in
+ single-user mode and then booting as shown above in
<xref linkend="enter1"/>.</para>
</section>
</section>
@@ -1876,7 +1876,7 @@ ok <userinput>boot -s</userinput></screen>
<procedure>
<para>We assume here that your server is up and running multi-user in
- degraded mode on just
+ degraded mode on just
<devicename>/dev/ad0</devicename> and that you have
a new spindle now on
<devicename>/dev/ad2</devicename> ready to go.</para>
@@ -2096,7 +2096,7 @@ use strict;
use FileHandle;
my $config_tag1 = '$Id: article.sgml,v 1.17 2012-03-20 08:56:30 pluknet Exp $';
-# Copyright (C) 2001 Robert A. Van Valzah
+# Copyright (C) 2001 Robert A. Van Valzah
#
# Bootstrap Vinum
#
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/vm-design/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/vm-design/article.sgml
index 2f2ed46c84..9d64b3cd05 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/vm-design/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/vm-design/article.sgml
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@
</abstract>
<legalnotice>
- <para>This article was originally published in the January 2000 issue of
+ <para>This article was originally published in the January 2000 issue of
<ulink url="http://www.daemonnews.org/">DaemonNews</ulink>. This
version of the article may include updates from Matt and other authors
to reflect changes in &os;'s VM implementation.</para>
@@ -190,7 +190,7 @@
<imageobject>
<imagedata fileref="fig1" format="EPS"/>
</imageobject>
-
+
<textobject>
<literallayout class="monospaced">+---------------+
| A |
@@ -215,7 +215,7 @@
<textobject>
<literallayout class="monospaced">+---------------+
-| B |
+| B |
+---------------+
| A |
+---------------+</literallayout>
@@ -232,7 +232,7 @@
<imageobject>
<imagedata fileref="fig3" format="EPS"/>
</imageobject>
-
+
<textobject>
<literallayout class="monospaced">+-------+-------+
| C1 | C2 |
@@ -337,7 +337,7 @@
However, the swap management structure has had problems
historically:</para>
- <itemizedlist>
+ <itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>Under &os; 3.X the swap management structure preallocates an
array that encompasses the entire object requiring swap backing
@@ -365,7 +365,7 @@
<para>The problem is further exacerbated by holes created due to
the interleaving algorithm.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>Also, the swap block map can become fragmented fairly easily
resulting in non-contiguous allocations.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/wp-toolbox/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/wp-toolbox/Makefile
index d19a1dc514..efcf23ead2 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/wp-toolbox/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/wp-toolbox/Makefile
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-#
+#
# $FreeBSD$
#
# Article: Casestudy about FreeBSD as a Software Testing Toolbox