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authorNik Clayton <nik@FreeBSD.org>2000-06-23 00:37:15 +0000
committerNik Clayton <nik@FreeBSD.org>2000-06-23 00:37:15 +0000
commit2e3f17940fc3a9a6554f88a4ecf232a4cdb9d67e (patch)
tree9025f7bb810a29e5de7deff26b54713d2380a990 /en_US.ISO8859-1/books/fdp-primer/doc-build
parent0200f776a40bca43638a2afdf4ee5141ffa8f15a (diff)
downloaddoc-2e3f17940fc3a9a6554f88a4ecf232a4cdb9d67e.tar.gz
doc-2e3f17940fc3a9a6554f88a4ecf232a4cdb9d67e.zip
Bring in a chapter about the doc build process. This has been hanging
around my tree for ages, and I've lost the details from the original submitter. I *think* it was Neil Blakey-Milner <nbm@mithrandr.moria.org> but I could be wrong.
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=7438
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+<!-- Copyright (c) 1999 Neil Blakey-Milner, All rights reserved.
+
+ Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
+ (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
+ modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ are met:
+
+ 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
+ copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
+ disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
+
+ 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
+ converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
+ the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
+ following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
+ provided with the distribution.
+
+ THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
+ IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
+ OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
+ DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
+ INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
+ (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
+ SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
+ STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
+ ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
+ POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
+
+ $Id: chapter.sgml,v 1.1 2000-06-23 00:37:15 nik Exp $
+-->
+
+<chapter id="doc-build">
+ <title>The Documentation Build Process</title>
+
+ <para>This chapter's main purpose is to clearly explain <emphasis>how
+ the documentation build process is organised</emphasis>, and
+ <emphasis>how to affect modifications to this process</emphasis>.
+ </para>
+
+ <para>After you have finished reading this chapter you should:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Know what you need to build the FDP documentation, in
+ addition to those mentioned in the <link
+ linkend="tools">SGML tools chapter</link>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Be able to read and understand the
+ <application>make</application> instructions that are present in
+ each document's <filename>Makefile</filename>s, as well as an
+ overview of the <filename>doc.project.mk</filename> includes.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Be able to customize the build process by using
+ <application>make</application> variables and
+ <application>make</application> targets.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <sect1>
+ <title>The FreeBSD Documentation Build Toolset</title>
+
+ <para>Here are your tools. Use them every way you can.</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The primary build tool you will need is
+ <application>make</application>, but specifically
+ <application>Berkeley Make</application>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Package building is handled by FreeBSD's
+ <application>pkg_create</application>. If you are not using
+ FreeBSD, you will either have to live without packages, or
+ compile the source yourself.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><application>gzip</application> is needed to create
+ compressed versions of the document.
+ <application>bzip2</application> compression and
+ <application>zip</application> archives are also supported.
+ <application>tar</application> is supported, but package
+ building demands it.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><application>install</application> is the default method
+ to install the documentation. There are alternatives,
+ however.</para
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>It is unlikely you will not be able to find these last two, they
+ are mentioned for completeness.</para>
+ </note>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1>
+ <title>Understanding Makefiles in the Documentation tree</title>
+
+ <para>There are three main types of <filename>Makefile</filename>s
+ in the FreeBSD Documentation Project tree.</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><link linkend="sub-make">Subdirectory
+ <filename>Makefile</filename>s</link> simply pass
+ commands to those directories below them.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><link linkend="doc-make">Documentation
+ <filename>Makefile</filename>s</link> describe the
+ document(s) that should be produced from this directory.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><link linkend="make-includes"><application>Make</application>
+ includes</link> are the glue that perform the document production,
+ and are usually of the form
+ <filename>doc.<replaceable>xxx</replaceable>.mk</filename>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para><application>Make</application> syntax is quickly revised as
+ the we explore these types.</para>
+
+ <sect2 id="sub-make">
+ <title>Subdirectory Makefiles</title>
+
+ <para>These directories usually take the form of:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>SUBDIR =articles
+SUBDIR+=books
+
+COMPAT_SYMLINK = en
+
+DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/..
+.include "${DOC_PREFIX}/share/mk/doc.project.mk"</programlisting>
+
+ <para>In quick summary, the first four non-empty lines define the
+ <application>make</application> variables,
+ <makevar>SUBDIR</makevar>, <makevar>COMPAT_SYMLINK</makevar>,
+ and <makevar>DOC_PREFIX</makevar>.</para>
+
+ <para>The first <makevar>SUBDIR</makevar> statement, as well as
+ the <makevar>COMPAT_SYMLINK</makevar> statement, shows how to
+ assign a value to a variable, overriding any previous
+ value.</para>
+
+ <para>The second <makevar>SUBDIR</makevar> statement shows how a
+ value is appended to the current value of a variable. The
+ <makevar>SUBDIR</makevar> variable is now <literal>articles
+ books</literal>.</para>
+
+ <para>The <makevar>DOC_PREFIX</makevar> assignment shows how a
+ value is assigned to the variable, but only if it is not already
+ defined. This is useful if <makevar>DOC_PREFIX</makevar> is not
+ where this <filename>Makefile</filename> thinks it is - the user
+ can override this and provide the correct value.</para>
+
+ <para>Now what does it all mean? <makevar>SUBDIR</makevar>
+ mentions which subdirectories below this one the build process
+ should pass any work on to.</para>
+
+ <para><makevar>COMPAT_SYMLINK</makevar> is specific to
+ compatibility symlinks (amazingly enough) for languages to their
+ official encoding (<filename>doc/en</filename> would point to
+ <filename>en_US.ISO-8859-1</filename>).</para>
+
+ <para><makevar>DOC_PREFIX</makevar> is the path to the root of the
+ FreeBSD Document Project tree. This is not always that easy to
+ find, and is also easily overridable, to allow for flexibility.
+ <makevar>.CURDIR</makevar> is a <application>make</application>
+ builtin variable with the path to the current directory.</para>
+
+ <para>The final line includes the FreeBSD Documentation Project's
+ project-wide <application>make</application> system file
+ <filename>doc.project.mk</filename> which is the glue which
+ converts these variables into build instructions.</para>
+
+ </sect2>
+ <sect2 id="doc-make">
+ <title>Documentation Makefiles</title>
+
+ <para>These <filename>Makefile</filename>s set a bunch of
+ <application>make</application> variables that describe how to
+ build the documentation contained in that directory.</para>
+
+ <para>Here is an example:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>MAINTAINER=nik@FreeBSD.org
+
+DOC?= book
+
+FORMATS?= html-split html
+
+INSTALL_COMPRESSED?= gz
+INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESSED?=
+
+# SGML content
+SRCS= book.sgml
+
+DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/../../..
+
+.include "$(DOC_PREFIX)/share/mk/docproj.docbook.mk"</programlisting>
+
+ <para>The <makevar>MAINTAINER</makevar> variable is a very
+ important one. This variable provides the ability to claim
+ ownership over a document in the FreeBSD Documentation
+ Project, whereby you gain the responsibility for maintaining
+ it.</para>
+
+ <para><makevar>DOC</makevar> is the name (sans the
+ <filename>.sgml</filename> extension) of the main document
+ created by this directory. <makevar>SRCS</makevar> lists all
+ the individual files that make up the document. This should
+ also include important files in which a change should result
+ in a rebuild.</para>
+
+ <para><makevar>FORMATS</makevar> indicates the default formats
+ that should be built for this document.
+ <makevar>INSTALL_COMPRESSED</makevar> is the default list of
+ compression techniques that should be used in the document
+ build. <makevar>INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESS</makevar>, empty by
+ default, should be non-empty if only compressed documents are
+ desired in the build.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>We covered optional variable assignments in the
+ <link linkend="sub-make">previous section</link>.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>The <makevar>DOC_PREFIX</makevar> and include statements
+ should be familiar already.</para>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 id="make-includes">
+ <title>FreeBSD Documentation Project make includes</title>
+
+ <para>This is best explained by inspection of the code. Here are
+ the system include files:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><filename>doc.project.mk</filename> is the main project
+ include file, which includes all the following include files, as
+ necessary.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><filename>doc.subdir.mk</filename> handles traversing of
+ the document tree during the build and install processes.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><filename>doc.install.mk</filename> provides variables
+ that affect ownership and installation of documents.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><filename>doc.docbook.mk</filename> is included if
+ <makevar>DOCFORMAT</makevar> is <literal>docbook</literal>
+ and <makevar>DOC</makevar> is set.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>doc.project.mk</title>
+
+ <para>By inspection:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>DOCFORMAT?= docbook
+MAINTAINER?= doc@FreeBSD.org
+
+PREFIX?= /usr/local
+PRI_LANG?= en_US.ISO_8859-1
+
+.if defined(DOC)
+.if ${DOCFORMAT} == "docbook"
+.include "doc.docbook.mk"
+.endif
+.endif
+
+.include "doc.subdir.mk"
+.include "doc.install.mk"</programlisting>
+
+ <sect3>
+
+ <title>Variables</title>
+
+ <para><makevar>DOCFORMAT</makevar> and <makevar>MAINTAINER</makevar>
+ are assigned default values, if these are not set by the
+ document make file.</para>
+
+ <para><makevar>PREFIX</makevar> is the prefix under which the
+ <link linkend="tools">documentation building tools</link> are
+ installed. For normal package and port installation, this is
+ <filename>/usr/local</filename>.</para>
+
+ <para><makevar>PRI_LANG</makevar> should be set to whatever
+ language and encoding is natural amongst users these documents are
+ being built for. US English is the default.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para><makevar>PRI_LANG</makevar> in no way affects what documents
+ can, or even will, be built. It's main use is creating links to
+ commonly referenced documents into the FreeBSD documentation
+ install root.</para>
+ </note>
+ </sect3>
+
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Conditionals</title>
+
+ <para>The <literal>.if defined(DOC)</literal> line is an example of
+ a <application>make</application> conditional which, like in
+ other programs, defines behaviour if some condition is true or
+ if it is false. <literal>defined</literal> is a function which
+ returns whether the variable given is defined or not.</para>
+
+ <para><literal>.if ${DOCFORMAT} == "docbook"</literal>, next,
+ tests whether the <makevar>DOCFORMAT</makevar> variable is
+ <literal>"docbook"</literal>, and in this case, includes
+ <filename>doc.docbook.mk</filename>.</para>
+
+ <para>The two <literal>.endif</literal>s close the two above
+ conditionals, marking the end of their application.</para>
+ </sect3>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>doc.subdir.mk</title>
+
+ <para>This is too long to explain by inspection, you should be
+ able to work it out with the knowledge gained from the previous
+ chapters, and a little help given here.</para>
+
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Variables</title>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><makevar>SUBDIR</makevar> is a list of subdirectories
+ that the build process should go further down
+ into.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><makevar>ROOT_SYMLINKS</makevar> is the name of
+ directories that should be linked to the document
+ install root from their actual locations, if the current
+ language is the primary language (specified by
+ <makevar>PRI_LANG</makevar>).</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><makevar>COMPAT_SYMLINK</makevar> is described in the
+ <link linkend="sub-make">Subdirectory Makefile</link>
+ section.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect3>
+
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Targets and macros</title>
+
+ <para>Dependencies are described by
+ <literal><replaceable>target</replaceable>:
+ <replaceable>dependency1 dependency2 ...</replaceable></literal>
+ tuples, where to build <literal>target</literal>, you need to build
+ the given dependencies first.</para>
+
+ <para>After that descriptive tuple, instructions on how to build
+ the target may be given, if the conversion process between the
+ target and it's dependencies are not previously defined, or if
+ this particular conversion is not the same as the default
+ conversion method.</para>
+
+ <para>A special dependency <literal>.USE</literal> defines
+ the equivalent of a macro.</para>
+
+<programlisting>_SUBDIRUSE: .USE
+.for entry in ${SUBDIR}
+ @${ECHO} "===> ${DIRPRFX}${entry}"
+ @(cd ${.CURDIR}/${entry} && \
+ ${MAKE} ${.TARGET:S/realpackage/package/:S/realinstall/install/} DIRPRFX=${DIRPRFX}${entry}/ )
+.endfor</programlisting>
+
+ <para>In the above, <maketarget>_SUBDIRUSE</maketarget> is now a
+ macro which will execute the given commands when it is listed
+ as a dependency.</para>
+
+ <para>What sets this macro apart from other targets? Basically,
+ it is executed <emphasis>after</emphasis> the instructions
+ given in the build procedure it is listed as a dependency to,
+ and it doesn't adjust <makevar>.TARGET</makevar>, which is the
+ variable which contains the name of the target currently
+ being built.</para>
+
+<programlisting>clean: _SUBDIRUSE
+ rm -f ${CLEANFILES}</programlisting>
+
+ <para>In the above, <maketarget>clean</maketarget> will use the
+ <maketarget>_SUBDIRUSE</maketarget> macro after it has
+ executed the instruction
+ <command>rm -f ${CLEANFILES}</command>. In effect, this causes
+ <maketarget>clean</maketarget> to go further and further down
+ the directory tree, deleting built files as it goes
+ <emphasis>down</emphasis>, not on the way back up.</para>
+
+ <sect4>
+ <title>Provided targets</title>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><maketarget>install</maketarget> and
+ <maketarget>package</maketarget> both go down the
+ directory tree calling the real versions of themselves
+ in the subdirectories.
+ (<maketarget>realinstall</maketarget> and
+ <maketarget>realpackage</maketarget>
+ respectively)</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><maketarget>clean</maketarget> removes files created
+ by the build process (and goes down the directory tree
+ too). <maketarget>cleandir</maketarget> does the same,
+ and also removes the object directory, if any.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect4>
+ </sect3>
+
+ <sect3>
+ <title>More on conditionals</title>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>exists</literal> is another condition
+ function which returns true if the given file exists.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>empty</literal> returns true if the given
+ variable is empty.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>target</literal> returns true if the given
+ target does not already exist.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect3>
+
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Looping constructs in make (.for)</title>
+
+ <para><literal>.for</literal> provides a way to repeat a set of
+ instructions for each space-seperated element in a variable.
+ It does this by assigning a variable to contain the current
+ element in the list being examined.</para>
+
+<programlisting>_SUBDIRUSE: .USE
+.for entry in ${SUBDIR}
+ @${ECHO} "===> ${DIRPRFX}${entry}"
+ @(cd ${.CURDIR}/${entry} && \
+ ${MAKE} ${.TARGET:S/realpackage/package/:S/realinstall/install/} DIRPRFX=${DIRPRFX}${entry}/ )
+.endfor</programlisting>
+
+ <para>In the above, if <makevar>SUBDIR</makevar> is empty, no
+ action is taken; if it has one or more elements, the
+ instructions between <literal>.for</literal> and
+ <literal>.endfor</literal> would repeat for every element,
+ with <makevar>entry</makevar> being replaced with the value of
+ the current element.</para>
+ </sect3>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+</chapter>
+
+<!--
+ Local Variables:
+ mode: sgml
+ sgml-declaration: "../chapter.decl"
+ sgml-indent-data: t
+ sgml-omittag: nil
+ sgml-always-quote-attributes: t
+ sgml-parent-document: ("../book.sgml" "part" "chapter")
+ End:
+-->
+