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authorGabor Kovesdan <gabor@FreeBSD.org>2012-10-01 09:53:01 +0000
committerGabor Kovesdan <gabor@FreeBSD.org>2012-10-01 09:53:01 +0000
commitb4346b9b2dfe86a97907573086dff096850dcb1d (patch)
tree9b951977cbd22dada9b868ac83b1d56791ea3859 /en_US.ISO8859-1/books/fdp-primer/translations/chapter.xml
parentbee5d224febbeba11356aa848006a4f5f9e24b30 (diff)
downloaddoc-b4346b9b2dfe86a97907573086dff096850dcb1d.tar.gz
doc-b4346b9b2dfe86a97907573086dff096850dcb1d.zip
- Rename .sgml files to .xml
- Reflect the rename in referencing files Approved by: doceng (implicit)
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+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1" standalone="no"?>
+<!-- Copyright (c) 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
+
+ Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
+ (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
+ modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
+ are met:
+
+ 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
+ copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
+ disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
+
+ 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
+ converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
+ the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
+ following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
+ provided with the distribution.
+
+ THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
+ IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
+ OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
+ DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
+ INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
+ (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
+ SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
+ HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
+ STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
+ ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
+ POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
+
+ $FreeBSD$
+-->
+
+<chapter id="translations">
+ <title>Translations</title>
+
+ <para>This is the FAQ for people translating the FreeBSD
+ documentation (FAQ, Handbook, tutorials, manual pages, and others)
+ to different languages.</para>
+
+ <para>It is <emphasis>very</emphasis> heavily based on the
+ translation FAQ from the FreeBSD German Documentation Project,
+ originally written by Frank Gr&uuml;nder
+ <email>elwood@mc5sys.in-berlin.de</email> and translated back to
+ English by Bernd Warken <email>bwarken@mayn.de</email>.</para>
+
+ <para>The FAQ is maintained by the &a.doceng;.</para>
+
+ <qandaset>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>Why a FAQ?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>More and more people are approaching the freebsd-doc
+ mailing list and volunteering to translate FreeBSD
+ documentation to other languages. This FAQ aims to answer
+ their questions so they can start translating documentation
+ as quickly as possible.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>What do <phrase>i18n</phrase> and <phrase>l10n</phrase>
+ mean?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para><phrase>i18n</phrase> means
+ <phrase>internationalization</phrase> and
+ <phrase>l10n</phrase> means <phrase>localization</phrase>.
+ They are just a convenient shorthand.</para>
+
+ <para><phrase>i18n</phrase> can be read as <quote>i</quote>
+ followed by 18 letters, followed by <quote>n</quote>.
+ Similarly, <phrase>l10n</phrase> is <quote>l</quote>
+ followed by 10 letters, followed by <quote>n</quote>.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>Is there a mailing list for translators?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>Yes. Different translation groups have their own
+ mailing lists. The <ulink
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/docproj/translations.html">list
+ of translation projects</ulink> has more information about
+ the mailing lists and web sites run by each translation
+ project.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>Are more translators needed?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>Yes. The more people work on translation the faster it
+ gets done, and the faster changes to the English
+ documentation are mirrored in the translated
+ documents.</para>
+
+ <para>You do not have to be a professional translator to be
+ able to help.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>What languages do I need to know?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>Ideally, you will have a good knowledge of written
+ English, and obviously you will need to be fluent in the
+ language you are translating to.</para>
+
+ <para>English is not strictly necessary. For example, you
+ could do a Hungarian translation of the FAQ from the Spanish
+ translation.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>What software do I need to know?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>It is strongly recommended that you maintain a local
+ copy of the FreeBSD Subversion repository (at least the
+ documentation part). This can be done by running:</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput><command>svn</command> checkout svn://svn.FreeBSD.org/doc/head/ head</userinput></screen>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>This will require the <filename
+ role="package">devel/subversion</filename> package to
+ be installed.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>You should be comfortable using
+ <application>svn</application>. This will allow you to see
+ what has changed between different versions of the files
+ that make up the documentation.</para>
+
+ <para>For example, to view the differences between revisions
+ <literal>r33733</literal> and <literal>r33734</literal> of
+ <filename>en_US.ISO8859-1/books/fdp-primer/book.xml</filename>,
+ run:</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput><command>svn</command> diff -r<replaceable>33733</replaceable>:<replaceable>33734</replaceable> <filename>en_US.ISO8859-1/books/fdp-primer/book.xml</filename></userinput></screen>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>How do I find out who else might be translating to the
+ same language?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>The <ulink
+ url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/docproj/translations.html">Documentation
+ Project translations page</ulink> lists the translation
+ efforts that are currently known about. If others are
+ already working on translating documentation to your
+ language, please do not duplicate their efforts. Instead,
+ contact them to see how you can help.</para>
+
+ <para>If no one is listed on that page as translating for your
+ language, then send a message to the &a.doc; in case someone
+ else is thinking of doing a translation, but has not
+ announced it yet.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>No one else is translating to my language. What do I
+ do?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>Congratulations, you have just started the
+ <quote>FreeBSD <replaceable>your-language-here</replaceable>
+ Documentation Translation Project</quote>. Welcome
+ aboard.</para>
+
+ <para>First, decide whether or not you have got the time to
+ spare. Since you are the only person working on your
+ language at the moment it is going to be your responsibility
+ to publicize your work and coordinate any volunteers that
+ might want to help you.</para>
+
+ <para>Write an email to the Documentation Project mailing
+ list, announcing that you are going to translate the
+ documentation, so the Documentation Project translations
+ page can be maintained.</para>
+
+ <para>If there is already someone in your country providing
+ FreeBSD mirroring services you should contact them and ask
+ if you can have some webspace for your project, and possibly
+ an email address or mailing list services.</para>
+
+ <para>Then pick a document and start translating. It is best
+ to start with something fairly small&mdash;either the FAQ,
+ or one of the tutorials.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>I have translated some documentation, where do I send
+ it?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>That depends. If you are already working with a
+ translation team (such as the Japanese team, or the German
+ team) then they will have their own procedures for handling
+ submitted documentation, and these will be outlined on their
+ web pages.</para>
+
+ <para>If you are the only person working on a particular
+ language (or you are responsible for a translation project
+ and want to submit your changes back to the FreeBSD project)
+ then you should send your translation to the FreeBSD project
+ (see the next question).</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>I am the only person working on translating to this
+ language, how do I submit my translation?</para>
+
+ <para>or</para>
+
+ <para>We are a translation team, and want to submit
+ documentation that our members have translated for
+ us.</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>First, make sure your translation is organized properly.
+ This means that it should drop into the existing
+ documentation tree and build straight away.</para>
+
+ <para>Currently, the FreeBSD documentation is stored in a top
+ level directory called <filename>head/</filename>.
+ Directories below this are named according to the language
+ code they are written in, as defined in ISO639
+ (<filename>/usr/share/misc/iso639</filename> on a version of
+ FreeBSD newer than 20th January 1999).</para>
+
+ <para>If your language can be encoded in different ways (for
+ example, Chinese) then there should be directories below
+ this, one for each encoding format you have provided.</para>
+
+ <para>Finally, you should have directories for each
+ document.</para>
+
+ <para>For example, a hypothetical Swedish translation might
+ look like:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>head/
+ sv_SE.ISO8859-1/
+ Makefile
+ htdocs/
+ docproj/
+ books/
+ faq/
+ Makefile
+ book.xml</programlisting>
+
+ <para><literal>sv_SE.ISO8859-1</literal> is the name of the
+ translation, in
+ <filename><replaceable>lang</replaceable>.<replaceable>encoding</replaceable></filename>
+ form. Note the two Makefiles, which will be used to build
+ the documentation.</para>
+
+ <para>Use &man.tar.1; and &man.gzip.1; to compress up your
+ documentation, and send it to the project.</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cd doc</userinput>
+&prompt.user; <userinput>tar cf swedish-docs.tar sv_SE.ISO8859-1</userinput>
+&prompt.user; <userinput>gzip -9 swedish-docs.tar</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>Put <filename>swedish-docs.tar.gz</filename> somewhere.
+ If you do not have access to your own webspace (perhaps your
+ ISP does not let you have any) then you can email
+ &a.doceng;, and arrange to email the files when it is
+ convenient.</para>
+
+ <para>Either way, you should use &man.send-pr.1; to submit a
+ report indicating that you have submitted the documentation.
+ It would be very helpful if you could get other people to
+ look over your translation and double check it first, since
+ it is unlikely that the person committing it will be fluent
+ in the language.</para>
+
+ <para>Someone (probably the Documentation Project Manager,
+ currently &a.doceng;) will then take your translation and
+ confirm that it builds. In particular, the following things
+ will be looked at:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Do all your files use RCS strings (such as
+ "ID")?</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Does <command>make all</command> in the
+ <filename>sv_SE.ISO8859-1</filename> directory work
+ correctly?</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Does <command>make install</command> work
+ correctly?</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>If there are any problems then whoever is looking at the
+ submission will get back to you to work them out.</para>
+
+ <para>If there are no problems your translation will be
+ committed as soon as possible.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>Can I include language or country specific text in my
+ translation?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>We would prefer that you did not.</para>
+
+ <para>For example, suppose that you are translating the
+ Handbook to Korean, and want to include a section about
+ retailers in Korea in your Handbook.</para>
+
+ <para>There is no real reason why that information should not
+ be in the English (or German, or Spanish, or Japanese, or
+ &hellip;) versions as well. It is feasible that an English
+ speaker in Korea might try to pick up a copy of FreeBSD
+ whilst over there. It also helps increase FreeBSD's
+ perceived presence around the globe, which is not a bad
+ thing.</para>
+
+ <para>If you have country specific information, please submit
+ it as a change to the English Handbook (using
+ &man.send-pr.1;) and then translate the change back to your
+ language in the translated Handbook.</para>
+
+ <para>Thanks.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>How should language specific characters be
+ included?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>Non-ASCII characters in the documentation should be
+ included using SGML entities.</para>
+
+ <para>Briefly, these look like an ampersand (&amp;), the name
+ of the entity, and a semi-colon (;).</para>
+
+ <para>The entity names are defined in ISO8879, which is in the
+ ports tree as <filename
+ role="package">textproc/iso8879</filename>.</para>
+
+ <para>A few examples include:</para>
+
+ <segmentedlist>
+ <segtitle>Entity</segtitle>
+
+ <segtitle>Appearance</segtitle>
+
+ <segtitle>Description</segtitle>
+
+ <seglistitem>
+ <seg>&amp;eacute;</seg>
+ <seg>&eacute;</seg>
+ <seg>Small <quote>e</quote> with an acute accent</seg>
+ </seglistitem>
+
+ <seglistitem>
+ <seg>&amp;Eacute;</seg>
+ <seg>&Eacute;</seg>
+ <seg>Large <quote>E</quote> with an acute accent</seg>
+ </seglistitem>
+
+ <seglistitem>
+ <seg>&amp;uuml;</seg>
+ <seg>&uuml;</seg>
+ <seg>Small <quote>u</quote> with an umlaut</seg>
+ </seglistitem>
+ </segmentedlist>
+
+ <para>After you have installed the iso8879 port, the files in
+ <filename>/usr/local/share/sgml/iso8879</filename> contain
+ the complete list.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>Addressing the reader</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>In the English documents, the reader is addressed as
+ <quote>you</quote>, there is no formal/informal distinction
+ as there is in some languages.</para>
+
+ <para>If you are translating to a language which does
+ distinguish, use whichever form is typically used in other
+ technical documentation in your language. If in doubt, use
+ a mildly polite form.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question>
+ <para>Do I need to include any additional information in my
+ translations?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>Yes.</para>
+
+ <para>The header of the English version of each document will
+ look something like this:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>&lt;!--
+ The FreeBSD Documentation Project
+
+ &dollar;FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/book.xml 38674 2012-04-14 13:52:52Z &dollar;
+--&gt;</programlisting>
+
+ <para>The exact boilerplate may change, but it will always
+ include a &dollar;FreeBSD&dollar; line and the phrase
+ <literal>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</literal>.
+ Note that the &dollar;FreeBSD part is expanded automatically
+ by Subversion, so it should be empty (just
+ <literal>&dollar;FreeBSD&dollar;</literal>) for new
+ files.</para>
+
+ <para>Your translated documents should include their own
+ &dollar;FreeBSD&dollar; line, and change the
+ <literal>FreeBSD Documentation Project</literal> line to
+ <literal>The FreeBSD <replaceable>language</replaceable>
+ Documentation Project</literal>.</para>
+
+ <para>In addition, you should add a third line which indicates
+ which revision of the English text this is based on.</para>
+
+ <para>So, the Spanish version of this file might start:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>&lt;!--
+ The FreeBSD Spanish Documentation Project
+
+ &dollar;FreeBSD: head/es_ES.ISO8859-1/books/faq/book.xml 38826 2012-05-17 19:12:14Z hrs &dollar;
+ Original revision: r38674
+--&gt;</programlisting>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+ </qandaset>
+</chapter>