path: root/en_US.ISO8859-1
diff options
authorJohn Fieber <jfieber@FreeBSD.org>1997-08-15 17:11:49 +0000
committerJohn Fieber <jfieber@FreeBSD.org>1997-08-15 17:11:49 +0000
commit183ccdcf660b74ed8aa22550158ea347ff2f48b9 (patch)
tree5104efca3ada4c8507f174144adbe75363e07ab9 /en_US.ISO8859-1
parent933aaa03ac43bad40ed26a206a8d8b940b3adb99 (diff)
New Improved!
Submitted by: Annelise Anderson <andrsn@andrsn.stanford.edu>
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=1823
Diffstat (limited to 'en_US.ISO8859-1')
1 files changed, 149 insertions, 53 deletions
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml
index 97ba06a160..67568b5590 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-<!-- $Id: article.sgml,v 1.3 1997-07-01 21:38:45 max Exp $ -->
+<!-- $Id: article.sgml,v 1.4 1997-08-15 17:11:49 jfieber Exp $ -->
<!-- The FreeBSD Documentation Project -->
<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
@@ -13,12 +13,12 @@
-<pubdate>June 30, 1996</pubdate>
+<pubdate>August 15, 1997</pubdate>
<abstract><para>Congratulations on installing FreeBSD! This
introduction is for people new to both FreeBSD
@@ -39,7 +39,9 @@ class=prompt>login:</systemitem>) as a user you created during
installation or as <firstterm>root</firstterm>. (Your FreeBSD
installation will already have an account for root; root can go
anywhere and do anything, including deleting essential files, so be
+careful!) The symbols % and # in the following stand for the prompt
+(yours may be different), with % indicating an ordinary user and
+# indicating root. </para>
<para>To log out (and get a new <systemitem class=prompt>login:</systemitem> prompt) type
@@ -81,8 +83,13 @@ are thus logged in as root, you should probably create a user now with
<screen># <userinput>adduser</userinput></screen>
-Don't use the <option>-verbose</option> option; the defaults are what
-you want. Suppose you create a user <emphasis>jack</emphasis> with
+The first time you use adduser, it might ask for some defaults to save. You
+might want to make the default shell csh instead of sh, if it suggests
+sh as the default. Otherwise just press enter to accept each default.
+These defaults are saved in <filename>/etc/adduser.conf</filename>,
+an editable file.</para>
+<para>Suppose you create a user <emphasis>jack</emphasis> with
full name <emphasis>Jack Benimble</emphasis>. Give jack a password
if security (even kids around who might pound on the keyboard) is an
issue. When it asks you if you want to invite jack into other
@@ -92,8 +99,7 @@ groups, type <userinput>wheel</userinput>
This will make it possible to log in as <emphasis>jack</emphasis> and
use the <command>su</command> command to become root. Then you won't
-get scolded any more for logging in as root, and as root you'll have
-the same environment as jack (this is good).</para>
+get scolded any more for logging in as root.</para>
<para>You can quit <command>adduser</command> any time by typing
<keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>C</keycap></keycombo>, and at
@@ -112,7 +118,11 @@ power&mdash;and risk&mdash;of root.</para>
to <command>su</command> to root, you can log in as root
and edit the file <filename>/etc/group</filename>, adding jack to the
first line (the group wheel). But first you need to practice
-<command>vi</command>, the text editor.</para>
+<command>vi</command>, the text editor--or use the simpler text
+editor, <command>ee</command>, installed on recent version of
+<para>To delete a user, use the <command>rmuser</command> command.</para>
@@ -171,8 +181,9 @@ date, permissions.</para>
<varlistentry><term><command>ls <option>-a</option></command></term>
-<para>Lists hidden (unless you're root) <quote>dot</quote>
-files with the others.</para>
+<para>Lists hidden <quote>dot</quote>
+files with the others. If you're root, the<quote>dot</quote> files
+show up without the <option>-a</option> switch.</para>
@@ -284,7 +295,8 @@ is found.</para>
<para>Tells you what the command <replaceable>text</replaceable>
-does and its man page.</para>
+does and its man page. Typing <command>whatis *</command> will tell
+you about all the binaries in the current directory.</para>
@@ -358,33 +370,41 @@ Administration</citetitle> (O'Reilly &amp; Associates, 1993, ISBN
<para>To configure your system, you need to edit text files. Most of
them will be in the <filename>/etc</filename> directory; and you'll
-need to <command>su</command> to root to be able to change them. The
-text editor is <command>vi</command>. Before you edit a file, you
-should probably back it up. Suppose you want to edit
-<filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename>. You could just use <command>cd
+need to <command>su</command> to root to be able to change them. You
+can use the easy <command>ee</command>, but in the long run the
+text editor <command>vi</command> is worth learning. There's an
+excellent tutorial on vi in
+<filename>/usr/src/contrib/nvi/docs/tutorial</filename> if you have
+that installed; otherwise you can get it by ftp to
+ftp.cdrom.com in the directory
+<para>Before you edit a
+file, you should probably back it up. Suppose you want to edit
+<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>. You could just use <command>cd
/etc</command> to get to the <filename>/etc</filename> directory and
-<screen># <userinput>cp sysconfig sysconfig.orig</userinput></screen>
+<screen># <userinput>cp rc.conf rc.conf.orig</userinput></screen>
-This would copy <filename>sysconfig</filename> to
-<filename>sysconfig.orig</filename>, and you could later copy
-<filename>sysconfig.orig</filename> to <emphasis
-remap=tt>sysconfig</emphasis> to recover the original. But even
+This would copy <filename>rc.conf</filename> to
+<filename>rc.conf.orig</filename>, and you could later copy
+<filename>rc.conf.orig</filename> to <emphasis
+remap=tt>rc.conf</emphasis> to recover the original. But even
better would be moving (renaming) and then copying back:
-<screen># <userinput>mv sysconfig sysconfig.orig</userinput>
-# <userinput>cp sysconfig.orig sysconfig</userinput></screen>
+<screen># <userinput>mv rc.conf rc.conf.orig</userinput>
+# <userinput>cp rc.conf.orig rc.conf</userinput></screen>
because the <command>mv</command> command preserves the original date
and owner of the file. You can now edit
-<filename>sysconfig</filename>. If you want the original back, you'd
-then <userinput>mv sysconfig syconfig.myedit</userinput>
+<filename>rc.conf</filename>. If you want the original back, you'd
+then <userinput>mv rc.conf rc.conf.myedit</userinput>
(assuming you want to preserve your edited version) and then
-<screen># <userinput>mv sysconfig.orig sysconfig</userinput></screen>
+<screen># <userinput>mv rc.conf.orig rc.conf</userinput></screen>
to put things back the way they were.</para>
@@ -532,9 +552,10 @@ print it from DOS. Suppose you want to read carefully about changing
permissions on files (pretty important). You can use the command
man chmod to read about it. The command
-<screen># <userinput>man chmod &gt; chmod.txt</></screen>
+<screen># <userinput>man chmod | col -b &gt; chmod.txt</></screen>
-will send the man page to the <filename>chmod.txt</filename> file
+will remove formatting codes and send the man page to
+the <filename>chmod.txt</filename> file
instead of showing it on your screen. Now put a dos-formatted
diskette in your floppy drive a, <command>su</> to
root, and type
@@ -574,7 +595,7 @@ out with
<screen># <userinput>/sbin/umount /mnt</></screen>
and reboot to go to DOS. Copy these files to a DOS directory, call
-them up with DOS EDIT, Windows Notepad, or a word processor, make a
+them up with DOS EDIT, Windows Notepad or Wordpad, or a word processor, make a
minor change so the file has to be saved, and print as you normally
would from DOS or Windows. Hope it works! man pages come out best if
printed with the dos <command>print</> command. (Copying files from
@@ -588,9 +609,9 @@ a matching spool directory in
<hardware>lpt0</> (what dos calls <hardware>LPT1</>), you may only
need to go to <filename>/var/spool/output</filename> and (as root)
create the directory <filename>lpd</> by typing:
-<screen># <userinput>mkdir lpd</></screen>
+mkdir lpd</command>, if it doesn't already
Then the printer should respond if it's turned on when the system is
booted, and lp or lpr should send a file to the printer. Whether or
not the file actually prints depends on configuring it, which is
@@ -726,11 +747,13 @@ This should result in a <filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename>
subdirectory that has all the files that the
<command>kermit</command> subdirectory on the CDROM has.</para>
-<para>Next, check <filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename> for a
+<para>Next, create the directory <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>
+if it doesn't already exist using <command>mkdir</>. Now check
+check <filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename> for a
file with a name that indicates it's the port you want. Copy that
-file to <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>. (Create
-<filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> if it doesn't exist using
-<command>mkdir</>.) In the case of <command>kermit</>, there is no
+file to <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>; in recent versions
+you can skip this step, as FreeBSD will do it for you.
+In the case of <command>kermit</>, there is no
<para>Then <command>cd</> to the subdirectory of
@@ -742,8 +765,8 @@ distfile.</para>
<para>During this process the port will ftp to get any compressed
-files it needs that it didn't find in
-<filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>. If you don't have your
+files it needs that it didn't find on the cdrom or in
+<filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>. If you don't have your
network running yet and there was no file for the port in
<filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename>, you will have to get
the distfile using another machine and copy it to
@@ -778,8 +801,8 @@ work; no space after the slash.)</para>
<para>You might want to get the most recent version of Netscape from
their <ulink URL="ftp://ftp.netscape.com">ftp site</ulink>. (Netscape
-requires the X Window System.) The version you want is the
-<quote>unknown bsd</quote> version. Just use <command>gunzip
+requires the X Window System.) There's now a FreeBSD version, so look
+around carefully. Just use <command>gunzip
<replaceable>filename</></> and <command>tar xvf
<replaceable>filename</></> on it, move the binary to
<filename>/usr/local/bin</filename> or some other place binaries are
@@ -805,31 +828,104 @@ is <filename>/usr/local/lib/netscape/netscape.bin</filename>.</para>
+<title>Your Working Environment</title>
+<para>Your shell is the most important part of your working environment.
+In DOS, the usual shell is command.com. The shell is what interprets
+the commands you type on the command line, and thus communicates with
+the rest of the operating system. You can also write shell
+scripts, which are like DOS batch files: a series of commands to be
+run without your intervention.</para>
+<para>Two shells come installed with FreeBSD: csh and sh. csh is good for
+command-line work, but scripts should be written with sh (or bash). You can
+find out what shell you have by typing <command>echo $SHELL</command>.</para>
+<para>The csh shell is okay, but tcsh does everything csh does and more. It
+It allows you to recall commands with the arrow keys and edit them.
+It has tab-key completion
+of filenames (csh uses the escape key), and it lets you switch to the
+directory you were last in with <command>cd -</command>. It's also much
+easier to alter your prompt with tcsh. It makes life a lot easier.</para>
+<para>Here are the three steps for installing a new shell:</para>
+<para> 1. Install the shell as a port or a package, just as you
+would any other port or package. Use <command>rehash</command> and
+<command>which tcsh</command> (assuming you're installing tcsh) to
+make sure it got installed.</para>
+<para> 2. As root, edit <filename>/etc/shells</filename>, adding
+a line in the file for the new shell, in this case /usr/local/bin/tcsh,
+and save the file. (Some ports may do this for you.)</para>
+<para> 3. Use the <command>chsh</command> command to change your shell to
+tcsh permanently, or type <command>tcsh</command> at the prompt to
+change your shell without logging in again.</para>
+<para><emphasis>Note: It can be dangerous to change root's shell</emphasis>
+to something other than sh or csh on early versions of FreeBSD and many
+other versions of Unix; you may not have a working shell when the system
+puts you into single user mode. The solution is to use <command>su -m</command>
+to become root, which will give you the tcsh as root, because the shell is part
+of the environment. You can make this permanent by adding it to your
+<filename>.tcshrc</filename> file as an alias with <programlisting>alias su su -m.</></para>
+<para>When tcsh starts up, it will read the
+<filename>/etc/csh.cshrc</filename> and <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename>
+files, as does csh. It will also read the
+<filename>.login</filename> file in your home directory and the
+file as well, unless you provide a <filename>.tcshrc</filename>
+file. This you can do by simply copying <filename>.cshrc</filename>
+to <filename>.tcshrc</filename>.</para>
+<para>Now that you've installed tcsh, you can adjust your prompt. You can
+find the details in the manual page for tcsh, but here is a line to
+put in your <filename>.tcshrc</filename> that will tell you how many
+commands you have typed, what time it is, and what directory you are in.
+It also produces a <literal>></literal> if you're an ordinary user and
+a <literal>#</literal> if you're root, but tsch will do that in any
+ set prompt = "%h %t %~ %# "</para>
+<para>This should go in the same place as the existing set prompt line
+if there is one, or under "if($?prompt) then" if not.
+Comment out the old line; you can always switch back to it if you prefer
+it. Don't forget the spaces and quotes. You can get the <filename>.tcshrc</filename> reread by typing <command>source .tcshrc</command>.</para>
+<para>You can get a listing of other environmental variables that
+have been set by typing <command>env</command> at the prompt. The
+result will show you your default editor, pager, and terminal type,
+among possibly many others. A useful command if you log in from a
+remote location and can't run a program because the terminal isn't
+capable is
+<command>setenv TERM vt100</command>.</para>
<para>As root, you can dismount the CDROM with <command>/sbin/umount
/cdrom</>, take it out of the drive, insert another one, and mount it
with <command>/sbin/mount_cd9660 /dev/cd0a /cdrom</> assuming
-<hardware>cd0a</> is the device name for your CDROM drive.</para>
+<hardware>cd0a</> is the device name for your CDROM drive. The
+most recent versions of FreeBSD let you mount the cdrom with just
+<command>/sbin/mount /cdrom</command>.</para>
<para>Using the live file system&mdash;the second of FreeBSD's CDROM
-disks&mdash;is useful if you've got limited space. You might try
-using <command>emacs</> or playing games from the cdrom. This
+disks&mdash;is useful if you've got limited space. What is on the
+live file system varies from release to release. You might try
+playing games from the cdrom. This
involves using <command>lndir</>, which gets installed with the X
Window System, to tell the program(s) where to find the necessary
files, because they're in the <filename>/cdrom</filename> file system
instead of in <filename>/usr</filename> and its subdirectories, which
is where they're expected to be. Read <command>man lndir</>.</para>
-<para>You can delete a user (say, jack) by using the command
-<command>vipw</> to bring up the <filename>master.passwd</filename>
-file (do not use <command>vi</> directly on master.passwd); delete
-the line for jack and save the file. Then edit
-<filename>/etc/group</filename>, eliminating jack wherever it
-appears. Finally, go to <filename>/usr/home</filename> and use
-<command>rm -R</command> jack (to get rid of user jack's home
-directory files).</para>
@@ -841,7 +937,7 @@ if it was helpful. My thanks to Eugene W. Stark, professor of
computer science at SUNY-Stony Brook, and John Fieber for helpful
-<para>Annelise Anderson, <email>andrsn@hoover.stanford.edu</></para>
+<para>Annelise Anderson, <email>andrsn@andrsn.stanford.edu</></para>