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authorJohn Fieber <jfieber@FreeBSD.org>1997-09-13 04:24:28 +0000
committerJohn Fieber <jfieber@FreeBSD.org>1997-09-13 04:24:28 +0000
commit7ee5688134af37945c2abd0c708697e703333907 (patch)
tree1e951a80c97add4f595f22970d2984b617679667 /en_US.ISO8859-1
parent8752165cd8bf780ac75c7f911da2141d621a79f0 (diff)
downloaddoc-7ee5688134af37945c2abd0c708697e703333907.tar.gz
doc-7ee5688134af37945c2abd0c708697e703333907.zip
New disk formatting tutorial.
Submitted by: dwhite@resnet.uoregon.edu
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=1949
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+# $Id: Makefile,v 1.1 1997-09-13 04:24:23 jfieber Exp $
+
+DOCS= diskformat.docb
+INDEXLINK= diskformat.html
+
+.include "../../web.mk"
+
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+<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
+<!-- $Id: article.sgml,v 1.1 1997-09-13 04:24:28 jfieber Exp $ -->
+<book>
+
+<bookinfo>
+<bookbiblio>
+<title>Formatting Media For Use With FreeBSD 2.2-RELEASE</title>
+<subtitle>A Tutorial</subtitle>
+
+<authorgroup>
+<author>
+<firstname>Doug</firstname>
+<surname>White</surname>
+<affiliation>
+<address><email>dwhite@resnet.uoregon.edu</email></address>
+</affiliation>
+</author>
+</authorgroup>
+
+<pubdate>March 1997</pubdate>
+<abstract><para>This document describes how to slice, partition, and
+format hard disk drives and similar media for use with FreeBSD. The
+examples given have been tested under FreeBSD 2.2-GAMMA and may work
+for other releases. </para>
+</abstract>
+</bookbiblio>
+</bookinfo>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Introduction & Definitions</title>
+
+<sect1>
+<title>Overview</title>
+<para>Successfully adding disks to an existing system is the mark of an
+experienced system administrator. Slicing, partitioning, and adding
+disks requires a careful dance of proper command and name syntax. One
+slipped finger and an entire disk could disappear in seconds. This
+document is written in an attempt to simplify this process and avoid
+accidents. Thankfully, enhancements to existing tools (notably
+sysinstall) have greatly improved this process in recent releases of
+FreeBSD. </para>
+
+<para>There are two possible modes of disk formatting:
+<itemizedlist>
+
+<listitem><para><firstterm>compatibility mode</firstterm>: Arranging a
+disk so that it has a slice table for use with other operating
+systems.</para> </listitem>
+
+<listitem><para><firstterm>dangerously dedicated mode</firstterm>:
+Formatting a disk with no slice table. This makes the process of
+adding disks easier, however non-FreeBSD operating systems may not
+accept the disk. </para> </listitem>
+</itemizedlist>
+</para>
+
+<para>For most cases, dedicated mode is the easiest to set up and use
+in existing systems, as a new disk is usually dedicated entirely to
+FreeBSD. However, compatibility mode insures optimum interoperability
+with future installations at a cost of increased complexity.</para>
+
+<para>In addition to selecting the mode, two methods of slicing the
+disk are available. One is using the system installation tool
+<command>/stand/sysinstall</command>. 2.1.7-RELEASE and later
+versions of <command>sysinstall</command> contain code to ease setup
+of disks during normal system operation, mainly allowing access to the
+Label and Partition editors and a Write feature which will update just
+the selected disk and slice without affecting other disks. The other
+method is running the tools manually from a root command line. For
+dangerously dedicated mode, only three or four commands are involved
+while <command>sysinstall</command> requires some manipulation.</para>
+</sect1>
+<sect1>
+<title>Definitions</title>
+
+<para>UNIX disk management over the centuries has invented many new
+definitions for old words. The following glossary covers the
+definitions used in this document and (hopefully) for FreeBSD in
+general. </para>
+
+<!-- I'm tempted to use GLOSSARY here but will resort to a list for
+now. -->
+
+<itemizedlist>
+<listitem><para>compatibility mode: Arranging a disk so that it has a slice
+table for use with other operating systems. Oppose dangerously
+dedicated mode.</para></listitem>
+
+<listitem><para>dangerously dedicated mode: Formatting a disk with no slice
+table. This makes the process of adding disks easier, however
+non-FreeBSD operating systems may not accept the disk. Oppose
+compatibility mode.</para></listitem>
+
+<listitem><para>disk: A circular disc, covered with magnetic or similarly
+manipulable material, spun by a motor under a head. Data is stored on
+the disk by changing the pattern of magnetism on the disc, which can
+be later read. Hard disks, CD-ROMs, Magneto-optical,and Zip/Jaz
+removables are examples of disks.</para></listitem>
+
+<listitem><para>slice: A division of a disk. Up to four slices are permitted on one
+disk in the PC standard. Slices are composed of contiguous sectors.
+Slices are recorded in a <quote>slice table</quote> used by the system BIOS to
+locate bootable partitions. The slice table is usually called the
+Partition Table in DOS parlance. Maintained by the fdisk utility.</para></listitem>
+
+<listitem><para>partition: A division of a slice. Usually used in reference
+to divisions of the FreeBSD slice of a disk. Each filesystem and swap
+area on a disk resides in a partition. Maintained using the disklabel
+utility.</para></listitem>
+
+<listitem><para>sector: Smallest subdivision of a disk. One sector usually
+represents 512 bytes of data.</para></listitem>
+
+</itemizedlist>
+</sect1>
+
+<sect1>
+<title>Warnings & Pitfalls</title>
+
+<para>Building disks is not something to take lightly. It is quite possible
+to destroy the contents of other disks in your system if the proper
+precautions are not taken.</para>
+
+<para>In particular, note the following:
+<orderedlist>
+<listitem><para><emphasis>Type carefully.</> One wrong number can wipe out
+the wrong disk. Double check your typing before entering the command. When
+in doubt consult the kernel boot output for the proper device.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para><emphasis>Never set up a boot disk as dangerously dedicated.</> Some PC BIOSs cannot understand the bootblocks and start your system properly.
+Make the first disk in <quote>compatibility mode</quote> just to be safe.
+Subsequent non-booting disks are OK to dangerously dedicate.</para></listitem>
+</orderedlist>
+</para>
+</sect1>
+
+<sect1>
+<title>Zip, Jaz, and Other Removables</title>
+
+<para>Removable disks can be formatted in the same way as normal hard
+disks. It is essential to have the disk drive connected to the system
+and a disk placed in the drive during startup, so the kernel can
+determine the drive's geometry. Check the <command>dmesg</command>
+output and make sure your device and the disk's size is listed. If
+the kernel reports
+<informalexample>
+<screen>
+Can't get the size
+</screen>
+</informalexample>
+then the disk was not in the drive. In this case, you will need to restart the
+machine before attempting to format disks.
+</para>
+</sect1>
+
+</chapter>
+<chapter>
+<title>Formatting Disks in Dedicated Mode</title>
+
+<sect1>
+<title>Introduction</title>
+
+<para>This section details how to make disks that are totally dedicated to
+FreeBSD. Remember, dedicated mode disks cannot be booted by the PC
+architecture.</para>
+
+</sect1>
+<sect1>
+<title>Making Dedicated Mode Disks using Sysinstall</title>
+
+<para><command>/stand/sysinstall</command>, the system installation
+utility, has been expanded in recent versions to make the process of
+dividing disks properly a less tiring affair. The fdisk and disklabel
+editors built into sysinstall are GUI tools that remove much of the
+confusion from slicing disks. For FreeBSD versions 2.1.7 and later,
+this is perhaps the simplest way to slice disks.</para>
+
+<orderedlist>
+<listitem><para>Start sysinstall as root by typing
+<informalexample>
+<screen><userinput>/stand/sysinstall</userinput></screen>
+</informalexample>
+from the command prompt.</para></listitem>
+
+<listitem><para>Select <command>Index</command>.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Select <command>Partition</command>.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Select the disk to edit with arrow keys and
+<keycap>SPACE</keycap>.</para>
+</listitem>
+<listitem><para>If you are using this entire disk for FreeBSD, select
+<command>A</command>.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>When asked:
+<informalexample>
+<screen>
+Do you want to do this with a true partition entry so as to remain
+cooperative with any future possible operating systems on the
+drive(s)?
+</screen>
+</informalexample>answer <command>No</command>.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>When asked if you still want to do this, answer
+<command>Yes</command>.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Select <command>Write</command>.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>When warned about Writing on installed systems, answer
+<command>Yes</command>.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para><command>Quit</command>the FDISK Editor and
+<keycap>ESCAPE</keycap> back to the Index menu.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Select <command>Label</command> from the Index
+menu.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Label as desired. For a single partition, enter
+<command>C</command> to Create a partition, accept the
+default size, partition type Filesystem, and a mountpoint (which isn't
+used).</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Enter <command>W</command> when done and confirm to
+continue. The filesystem will be newfs'd for you, unless you select
+otherwise (for news partitions you'll want to do this!). You'll get
+the error:
+<informalexample>
+<screen>Error mounting /mnt/dev/wd2s1e on /mnt/blah : No such file or directory </screen>
+</informalexample>
+Ignore.
+</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Exit out by repeatedly pressing <keycap>ESCAPE</keycap>.</para></listitem>
+</orderedlist>
+
+</sect1>
+<sect1>
+<title>Making Dedicated Mode Disks Using the Command Line</title>
+
+
+<para>Execute the following commands, replacing wd2 with the disk
+name. Lines beginning with # are comments. </para>
+<informalexample>
+<screen>
+<userinput>
+ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd2 count=2
+ disklabel /dev/rwd2 | disklabel -B -R -r wd2 /dev/stdin
+ # We only want one partition, so using slice 'c' should be fine:
+ newfs /dev/rwd2c
+</userinput>
+</screen>
+</informalexample>
+
+<para> If you need to edit the disklabel to create multiple
+partitions (such as swap), use the following: </para>
+
+<informalexample>
+<screen>
+<userinput>
+ dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd2 count=2
+ disklabel /dev/r$d > /tmp/label
+ # Edit disklabel to add partitions:
+ vi /tmp/label
+ disklabel -B -R -r wd2 /tmp/label
+ # newfs partitions appropriately
+</userinput>
+</screen>
+</informalexample>
+
+<para>Your disk is now ready for use.</para>
+
+</sect1>
+</chapter>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Making Compatibility Mode Disks</title>
+
+<sect1>
+<title>Introduction</title>
+<para>The command line is the easiest way to make dedicated disks, and
+the worst way to make compatibility disks. The command-line fdisk
+utility requires higher math skills and an in-depth understanding of
+the slice table, which is more than most people want to deal with.
+Use sysinstall for compatibility disks, as described below.</para>
+
+</sect1>
+<sect1>
+
+<title>Making Compatibility Mode Disks Using Sysinstall</title>
+
+<orderedlist>
+<listitem><para>Start sysinstall as root by typing
+<informalexample>
+<screen><userinput>/stand/sysinstall</></screen>
+</informalexample>
+from the command prompt.</para></listitem>
+
+<listitem><para>Select <command>Index</command>.</para> </listitem>
+<listitem><para>Select <command>Partition</command>.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Select the disk to edit with arrow keys and
+<keycap>SPACE</keycap>.
+</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>If you are using this entire disk for FreeBSD, select
+<command>A</command>.</para></listitem>
+
+<listitem><para>When asked:
+<informalexample>
+<screen>
+Do you want to do this with a true partition entry so as to remain
+cooperative with any future possible operating systems on the
+drive(s)?
+</screen>
+</informalexample> answer <command>yes</command>.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Select <command>Write</command>.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>When asked to install the boot manager, select None with
+<keycap>SPACE</keycap> then hit <keycap>ENTER</keycap> for OK.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para><command>Quit</command> the FDISK Editor.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>You'll be asked about the boot manager, select
+<command>None</command>
+again. </para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Select <command>Label</command> from the Index
+menu.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Label as desired. For a single partition, accept the
+default size, type filesystem, and a mountpoint (which isn't
+used).</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>The filesystem will be newfs'd for you, unless you select otherwise (for news partitions you'll want to do this!). You'll get the error:
+<informalexample>
+<screen>
+Error mounting /mnt/dev/wd2s1e on /mnt/blah : No such file or directory </screen>
+</informalexample>
+Ignore.
+</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Exit out by repeatedly pressing <keycap>ESCAPE</keycap>.</para></listitem>
+</orderedlist>
+
+<para>Your new disk is now ready for use.</para>
+
+</sect1>
+</chapter>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Other Disk Operations</title>
+<sect1>
+<title>Adding Swap Space</title>
+
+<para>As a system grows, it's need for swap space can also grow.
+Although adding swap space to existing disks is very difficult, a new
+disk can be partitioned with additional swap space. </para>
+
+<para>To add swap space when adding a disk to a system:
+<orderedlist>
+<listitem><para>When partitioning the disk, edit the disklabel and
+allocate the amount of swap space to add in partition `b' and the
+remainder in another partition, such as `a' or `e'. The size is given
+in 512 byte blocks. </para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>When newfsing the drive, do NOT newfs the `c'
+partition. Instead, newfs the partition where the non-swap space
+lies.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Add an entry to <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> as follows:
+<informalexample>
+<programlisting>
+/dev/wd0b none swap sw 0 0
+</programlisting>
+</informalexample>
+Change /dev/wd0b to the device of the newly added
+space.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>To make the new space immediately available, use the
+<command>swapon</command> command.
+<informalexample>
+<screen>
+<userinput>
+$ swapon /dev/sd0b
+</userinput>
+swapon: added /dev/sd0b as swap space
+</screen>
+</informalexample>
+</para></listitem>
+</orderedlist>
+</para>
+</sect1>
+
+<sect1>
+<title>Copying the Contents of Disks</title>
+<!-- Should have specific tag -->
+<para>Submitted By: Renaud Waldura (<email>renaud@softway.com</email>) </para>
+
+<para>To move file from your original base disk to the fresh new one,
+do:
+<informalexample>
+<screen>
+<userinput>
+mount /dev/wd2 /mnt
+pax -r -w -p e /usr/home /mnt
+umount /mnt
+rm -rf /usr/home/*
+mount /dev/wd2 /usr/home
+</userinput>
+</screen>
+</informalexample>
+</para>
+</sect1>
+</chapter>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Credits</title>
+
+
+
+<para>The author would like to thank the following individuals for
+their contributions to this project:
+<itemizedlist>
+<listitem><para>Darryl Okahata
+(<email>darrylo@hpnmhjw.sr.hp.com</email>) for his
+simple dedicated mode setup documentation which I have used repeatedly
+on freebsd-questions.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>Jordan Hubbard
+(<email>jkh@freebsd.org</email>) for making
+sysinstall useful for this type of task.</para></listitem>
+<listitem><para>John Fieber
+(<email>jfieber@indiana.edu</email>) for making
+information and examples of the DocBook DTD on which this document is
+based.</para></listitem>
+</itemizedlist>
+</para>
+
+</chapter>
+
+
+
+</book>