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authorJohn Fieber <jfieber@FreeBSD.org>1997-01-18 02:24:21 +0000
committerJohn Fieber <jfieber@FreeBSD.org>1997-01-18 02:24:21 +0000
commiteddbbfc8c04684e7fefc85b78e91224a5a3a6bab (patch)
tree7d5c8e7faa67b6c7605d1f81c7aa49ff9008101f /en_US.ISO8859-1
parent6b40a9989af53025940702e2375a533ffa6e7dea (diff)
downloaddoc-eddbbfc8c04684e7fefc85b78e91224a5a3a6bab.tar.gz
doc-eddbbfc8c04684e7fefc85b78e91224a5a3a6bab.zip
The first of the tutorials to be docbookified.
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=1046
Diffstat (limited to 'en_US.ISO8859-1')
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml844
2 files changed, 847 insertions, 3 deletions
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/Makefile b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/Makefile
index d8d8509284..a0f6762443 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/Makefile
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/Makefile
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
-DOC= newuser
-SRCS= newuser.sgml
+DOCS= newuser.docb
+INDEXLINK= newuser.html
-.include <bsd.sgml.mk>
+.include "../../web.mk"
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/new-users/article.sgml
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@@ -0,0 +1,844 @@
+<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
+<book>
+
+<bookinfo>
+<bookbiblio>
+<title>For People New to Both FreeBSD and Unix</title>
+
+<authorgroup>
+<author>
+<firstname>Annelise</firstname>
+<surname>Anderson</surname>
+<affiliation>
+<address><email>andrsn@hoover.stanford.edu</email></address>
+</affiliation>
+</author>
+</authorgroup>
+
+<pubdate>June 30, 1996</pubdate>
+
+<abstract><para>Congratulations on installing FreeBSD! This
+introduction is for people new to both FreeBSD
+<emphasis>and</emphasis> Un*x&mdash;so it starts with basics. It
+assumes you're using version 2.0.5 or later of FreeBSD as distributed
+by Walnut Creek or FreeBSD.ORG, your system (for now) has a single
+user (you)&mdash;and you're probably pretty good with DOS/Windows or
+OS/2.</para></abstract>
+
+</bookbiblio>
+</bookinfo>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Logging in and Getting Out</title>
+
+<para>Log in (when you see <systemitem
+class=prompt>login:</systemitem>) as a user you created during
+installation or as <firstterm>root</firstterm>. (Your FreeBSD
+installation will already have an account for root; root can go
+anywhere and do anything, including deleting essential files, so be
+careful!)</para>
+
+<para>To log out (and get a new <systemitem class=prompt>login:</systemitem> prompt) type
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>exit</userinput></screen>
+</informalexample>
+as often as necessary. Yes, press <keysym>enter</keysym> after
+commands, and remember that Unix is
+case-sensitive&mdash;<command>exit</command>, not
+<command>EXIT</command>.</para>
+
+<para>To shut down the machine type:
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>/sbin/shutdown -h now</userinput></screen>
+</informalexample>
+Or to reboot type
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>/sbin/shutdown -r now</userinput></screen>
+</informalexample>
+or
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>/sbin/reboot</userinput></screen>
+</informalexample>
+</para>
+
+<para>You can also reboot with
+<keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>Delete</keycap></keycombo>.
+Give it a little time to do its work. This is equivalent to
+<command>/sbin/reboot</command> in recent releases of FreeBSD, and is
+much, much better than hitting the reset button. You don't want to
+have to reinstall this thing, do you?</para>
+
+</chapter>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Adding A User with Root Privileges</title>
+
+<para>If you didn't create any users when you installed the system and
+are thus logged in as root, you should probably create a user now with
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>adduser</userinput></screen>
+</informalexample>
+Don't use the <option>-verbose</option> option; the defaults are what
+you want. Suppose you create a user <emphasis>jack</emphasis> with
+full name <emphasis>Jack Benimble</emphasis>. Give jack a password
+if security (even kids around who might pound on the keyboard) is an
+issue. When it asks you if you want to invite jack into other
+groups, type <userinput>wheel</userinput>
+<informalexample>
+<screen>Login group is ``jack''. Invite jack into other groups: <userinput>wheel</userinput></screen>
+</informalexample>
+This will make it possible to log in as <emphasis>jack</emphasis> and
+use the <command>su</command> command to become root. Then you won't
+get scolded any more for logging in as root, and as root you'll have
+the same environment as jack (this is good).</para>
+
+<para>You can quit <command>adduser</command> any time by typing
+<keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>C</keycap></keycombo>, and at
+the end you'll have a chance to approve your new user or simply type
+<keycap>n</keycap> for no. You might want to create a
+second new user (jill?) so that when you edit jack's login files,
+you'll have a hot spare in case something goes wrong.</para>
+
+<para>Once you've done this, use <command>exit</command>
+to get back to a login prompt and log in as
+<emphasis>jack</emphasis>. In general, it's a good idea to do as
+much work as possible as an ordinary user who doesn't have the
+power&mdash;and risk&mdash;of root.</para>
+
+<para>If you already created a user and you want the user to be able
+to <command>su</command> to root, you can log in as root
+and edit the file <filename>/etc/group</filename>, adding jack to the
+first line (the group wheel). But first you need to practice
+<command>vi</command>, the text editor.</para>
+
+</chapter>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Looking Around</title>
+
+<para>Logged in as an ordinary user, look around and try out some
+commands that will access the sources of help and information within
+FreeBSD.</para>
+
+<para>Here are some commands and what they do:
+<variablelist>
+<varlistentry><term><command>id</command></term>
+<listitem>
+<para>Tells you who you are!</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>pwd</command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>Shows you where you are&mdash;the current
+working directory.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>ls</command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>Lists the files in the current directory.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>ls <option>-F</option></command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>Lists the files in the current directory with a
+<literal>*</literal> after executables, a <literal>/</literal> after
+directories, and an <literal>@</literal> after symbolic links.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>ls <option>-l</option></command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>Lists the files in long format&mdash;size,
+date, permissions.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>ls <option>-a</option></command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>Lists hidden (unless you're root) <quote>dot</quote>
+files with the others.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>cd</command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>Changes directories. <command>cd
+<parameter>..</parameter></command> backs up one level; note the
+space after <command>cd</command>. <command>cd
+<parameter>/usr/local</parameter></command> goes there. <command>cd
+<parameter>~</parameter></command> goes to the home directory of the
+person logged in&mdash;e.g., <filename>/usr/home/jack</filename>.
+Try <command>cd <parameter>/cdrom</parameter></command>, and then
+<command>ls</command>, to find out if your CDROM is mounted and
+working.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>view <replaceable>filename</replaceable></command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>Lets you look at a file (named
+<replaceable>filename</replaceable> without changing it. Try
+<command>view <parameter>/etc/fstab</parameter></command>.
+<command>:q</command> to quit.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>cat <replaceable>filename</replaceable></command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+
+<para>Displays <replaceable>filename</replaceable> on screen. If
+it's too long and you can see only the end of it, press
+<keycap>ScrollLock</keycap> and use the <keycap>up-arrow</keycap> to
+move backward; you can use <keycap>ScrollLock</keycap> with man pages
+too. Press <keycap>ScrollLock</keycap> again to quit scrolling. You
+might want to try <command>cat</command> on some of the dot files in
+your home directory&mdash;<command>cat
+<parameter>.cshrc</parameter></command>, <command>cat
+<parameter>.login</parameter></command>, <command>cat
+<parameter>.profile</parameter></command>.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+</variablelist>
+
+You'll notice aliases in <filename>.cshrc</filename> for some of the
+<command>ls</command> commands (they're very convenient).
+You can create other aliases by editing <filename>.cshrc</filename>.
+You can make these aliases available to all users on the system by
+putting them in the system-wide csh configuration file,
+<filename>/etc/csh.cshrc</filename>.</para>
+
+</chapter>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Getting Help and Information</title>
+
+<para>Here are some useful sources of help.
+<replaceable>Text</replaceable> stands for something of your choice
+that you type in&mdash;usually a command or filename.</para>
+
+<variablelist>
+<varlistentry><term><command>apropos <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>Everything containing string <replaceable>text</replaceable>
+in the <database>whatis database</database>.</para>
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>man <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>The man page for <replaceable>text</replaceable>. The major
+source of documentation for Un*x systems. <command>man
+<parameter>ls</parameter></command> will tell you all the ways to use
+the <command>ls</command> command. Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to
+move through text,
+<keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>b</keycap></keycombo> to go
+back a page, <keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>f</keycap></keycombo> to
+go forward, <keycap>q</keycap> or
+<keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>c</keycap></keycombo> to
+quit.</para>
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>which <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>Tells you where in the user's path the command
+<replaceable>text</replaceable> is found.</para>
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>locate <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>All the paths where the string <replaceable>text</replaceable>
+is found.</para>
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>whatis <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>Tells you what the command <replaceable>text</replaceable>
+does and its man page.</para>
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>whereis <replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>Finds the file <replaceable>text</replaceable>, giving its full
+path.</para>
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+</variablelist>
+
+<para>You might want to try using <command>whatis</command> on some
+common useful commands like <command>cat</command>,
+<command>more</command>, <command>grep</command>,
+<command>mv</command>, <command>find</command>,
+<command>tar</command>, <command>chmod</command>,
+<command>chown</command>, <command>date</command>, and
+<command>script</command>. <command>more</command> lets you read a
+page at a time as it does in DOS, e.g., <command>ls -l |
+more</command> or <command>more
+<replaceable>filename</replaceable></command>. The
+<literal>*</literal> works as a wildcard&mdash;e.g., <command>ls
+w*</command> will show you files beginning with
+<literal>w</literal>.</para>
+
+<para>Are some of these not working very well? Both
+<command>locate</command> and <command>whatis</command>
+depend on a database that's rebuilt weekly. If your machine isn't
+going to be left on over the weekend (and running FreeBSD), you might
+want to run the commands for daily, weekly, and monthly maintenance
+now and then. Run them as root and give each one time to finish
+before you start the next one, for now.
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>/etc/daily</userinput>
+<lineannotation>output omitted</lineannotation>
+# <userinput>/etc/weekly</userinput>
+<lineannotation>output omitted</lineannotation>
+# <userinput>/etc/monthly</userinput>
+<lineannotation>output omitted</lineannotation></screen>
+</informalexample></para>
+
+<para>If you get tired waiting, press
+<keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F2</keycap></keycombo> to get
+another <firstterm>virtual console</firstterm>, and log in again.
+After all, it's a multi-user, multi-tasking system. Nevertheless
+these commands will probably flash messages on your screen while
+they're running; you can type <command>clear</command> at the prompt
+to clear the screen. Once they've run, you might want to look at
+<filename>/var/mail/root</filename> and
+<filename>/var/log/messages</filename>.</para>
+
+<para>Basically running such commands is part of system
+administration&mdash;and as a single user of a Unix system, you're
+your own system administrator. Virtually everything you need to be
+root to do is system administration. Such responsibilities aren't
+covered very well even in those big fat books on Unix, which seem to
+devote a lot of space to pulling down menus in windows managers. You
+might want to get one of the two leading books on systems
+administration, either Evi Nemeth et.al.'s <citetitle>UNIX System
+Administration Handbook</citetitle> (Prentice-Hall, 1995, ISBN
+0-13-15051-7)&mdash;the second edition with the red cover; or
+&AElig;leen Frisch's <citetitle>Essential System
+Administration</citetitle> (O'Reilly &amp; Associates, 1993, ISBN
+0-937175-80-3). I used Nemeth.</para>
+
+</chapter>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Editing Text</title>
+
+<para>To configure your system, you need to edit text files. Most of
+them will be in the <filename>/etc</filename> directory; and you'll
+need to <command>su</command> to root to be able to change them. The
+text editor is <command>vi</command>. Before you edit a file, you
+should probably back it up. Suppose you want to edit
+<filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename>. You could just use <command>cd
+/etc</command> to get to the <filename>/etc</filename> directory and
+do:
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>cp sysconfig sysconfig.orig</userinput></screen>
+</informalexample>
+
+This would copy <filename>sysconfig</filename> to
+<filename>sysconfig.orig</filename>, and you could later copy
+<filename>sysconfig.orig</filename> to <emphasis
+remap=tt>sysconfig</emphasis> to recover the original. But even
+better would be moving (renaming) and then copying back:
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>mv sysconfig sysconfig.orig</userinput>
+# <userinput>cp sysconfig.orig sysconfig</userinput></screen>
+</informalexample>
+
+because the <command>mv</command> command preserves the original date
+and owner of the file. You can now edit
+<filename>sysconfig</filename>. If you want the original back, you'd
+then <userinput>mv sysconfig syconfig.myedit</userinput>
+(assuming you want to preserve your edited version) and then
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>mv sysconfig.orig sysconfig</userinput></screen>
+</informalexample>
+to put things back the way they were.</para>
+
+<para>To edit a file, type
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>vi <replaceable>filename</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+</informalexample>
+Move through the text with the arrow keys. <keycap>Esc</keycap> (the
+escape key) puts <command>vi</command> in command mode. Here are some
+commands:
+<variablelist>
+<varlistentry><term><command>x</command></term>
+<listitem>
+<para>delete letter the cursor is on</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>dd</command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>delete the entire line (even if it wraps on the screen)</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>i</command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>insert text at the cursor</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>a</command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>insert text after the cursor</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+</variablelist>
+Once you type <command>i</command> or <command>a</command>, you can enter text.
+<command>Esc</command> puts you back in command mode where you can type
+<variablelist>
+<varlistentry><term><command>:w</command></term>
+<listitem>
+<para>to write your changes to disk and continue editing</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>:wq</command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>to write and quit</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>:q!</command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>to quit without saving changes</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>/<replaceable>text</replaceable></command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>to move the cursor to <replaceable>text</replaceable>;
+<command>/<keycap>Enter</keycap></command> (the enter key) to find
+the next instance of <replaceable>text</replaceable>.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>G</command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>to go to the end of the file</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command><replaceable>n</replaceable>G</command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>to go to line <replaceable>n</replaceable> in
+the file, where <replaceable>n</replaceable> is a number</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</><keycap>L</></keycombo></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>to redraw the screen</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</><keycap>b</></> and <keycombo><keycap>Ctrl</><keycap>f</></></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>go back
+and forward a screen, as they
+do with <command>more</> and <command>view</>.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+</variablelist>
+</para>
+
+<para>Practice with <command>vi</> in your home directory by creating
+a new file with <command>vi <replaceable>filename</></> and adding
+and deleting text, saving the file, and calling it up again.
+<command>vi</> delivers some surprises because it's really quite
+complex, and sometimes you'll inadvertently issue a command that will
+do something you don't expect. (Some people actually like
+<command>vi</>&mdash;it's more powerful than DOS EDIT&mdash;find out
+about the <command>:r</> command.) Use <keycap>Esc</> one or
+more times to be sure you're in command mode and proceed from there
+when it gives you trouble, save often with <command>:w</>, and
+use <command>:q!</> to get out and start over (from
+your last <command>:w</>) when you need to.</para>
+
+<para>Now you can <command>cd</> to <filename>/etc</filename>,
+<command>su</> to root, use <command>vi</> to edit the file
+<filename>/etc/group</filename>, and add a user to wheel so the user
+has root privileges. Just add a comma and the user's login name to
+the end of the first line in the file, press <keycap>Esc</>, and use
+<command>:wq</> to write the file to disk and quit. Instantly
+effective. (You didn't put a space after the comma, did you?)</para>
+
+</chapter>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Printing Files from DOS</title>
+
+<para>At this point you probably don't have the printer working, so here's a
+way to create a file from a man page, move it to a floppy, and then
+print it from DOS. Suppose you want to read carefully about changing
+permissions on files (pretty important). You can use the command
+man chmod to read about it. The command
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>man chmod &gt; chmod.txt</></screen>
+</informalexample>
+will send the man page to the <filename>chmod.txt</filename> file
+instead of showing it on your screen. Now put a dos-formatted
+diskette in your floppy drive a, <command>su</> to
+root, and type
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>/sbin/mount -t msdos /dev/fd0 /mnt</></screen>
+</informalexample>
+to mount the floppy drive on <filename>/mnt</filename>.</para>
+
+<para>Now (you no longer need to be root, and you can type
+<command>exit</> to get back to being user jack) you can go to the
+directory where you created chmod.txt and copy the file to the floppy
+with:
+<informalexample>
+<screen>% <userinput>cp chmod.txt /mnt</></screen>
+</informalexample>
+and use <command>ls /mnt</command> to get a directory listing of
+<filename>/mnt</filename>, which should show the file
+<filename>chmod.txt</filename>.</para>
+
+<para>You might especially want to make a file from
+<filename>/sbin/dmesg</filename> by typing
+<informalexample>
+<screen>% <userinput>/sbin/dmesg &gt; dmesg.txt</></screen>
+</informalexample>
+and copying <filename>dmesg.txt</filename> to the floppy.
+<command>/sbin/dmesg</command> is the boot log record, and it's
+useful to understand it because it shows what FreeBSD found when it
+booted up. If you ask questions on
+<email>freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.ORG</> or on a USENET
+group&mdash;like <quote>FreeBSD isn't finding my tape drive, what do
+I do?</quote>&mdash;people will want to know what <command>dmesg</>
+has to say.</para>
+
+<para>You can now dismount the floppy drive (as root) to get the disk
+out with
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>/sbin/umount /mnt</></screen>
+</informalexample>
+and reboot to go to DOS. Copy these files to a DOS directory, call
+them up with DOS EDIT, Windows Notepad, or a word processor, make a
+minor change so the file has to be saved, and print as you normally
+would from DOS or Windows. Hope it works! man pages come out best if
+printed with the dos <command>print</> command. (Copying files from
+FreeBSD to a mounted dos partition is in some cases still a little
+risky.)</para>
+
+<para>Getting the printer printing from FreeBSD involves creating an
+appropriate entry in <filename>/etc/printcap</filename> and creating
+a matching spool directory in
+<filename>/var/spool/output</filename>. If your printer is on
+<hardware>lpt0</> (what dos calls <hardware>LPT1</>), you may only
+need to go to <filename>/var/spool/output</filename> and (as root)
+create the directory <filename>lpd</> by typing:
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>mkdir lpd</></screen>
+</informalexample>
+Then the printer should respond if it's turned on when the system is
+booted, and lp or lpr should send a file to the printer. Whether or
+not the file actually prints depends on configuring it, which is
+covered in the <ulink
+URL="http://www.freebsd.org/handbook/handbook.html">FreeBSD
+handbook.</></para>
+
+</chapter>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Other Useful Commands</title>
+
+<para>
+<variablelist>
+<varlistentry><term><command>df</></term>
+<listitem>
+<para>shows file space and mounted systems.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>ps aux</></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>shows processes running. <command>ps ax</> is a narrower form.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>rm <replaceable>filename</></></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>remove <replaceable>filename</>.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>rm -R <replaceable>dir</></></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>removes a directory <replaceable>dir</> and all
+subdirectories&mdash;careful!</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>ls -R</command></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>lists files in the current
+directory and all subdirectories;
+I used a variant, <command>ls -AFR &gt; where.txt</command>,
+to get a list of all
+the files in <filename>/</filename> and (separately)
+<filename>/usr</filename> before I found better
+ways to find files.</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>passwd</></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>to change user's password (or root's password)</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+
+<varlistentry><term><command>man hier</></term>
+
+<listitem>
+<para>man page on the Unix file system</para>
+
+</listitem>
+</varlistentry>
+</variablelist></para>
+
+<para>Use <command>find</> to locate filename in <filename>/usr</filename>
+or any of its subdirectories with
+<informalexample>
+<screen>% <userinput>find /usr -name "<replaceable>filename</>"</></screen>
+</informalexample>
+You can use <literal>*</literal> as a wildcard in
+<parameter>"<replaceable>filename</>"</> (which should be in
+quotes). If you tell find to search in <filename>/</filename>
+instead of <filename>/usr</filename> it will look for the file(s) on
+all mounted file systems, including the CDROM and the dos
+partition.</para>
+
+<para>An excellent book that explains Unix commands and utilities is
+Abrahams &amp; Larson, <citetitle>Unix for the Impatient</citetitle>
+(2nd ed., Addison-Wesley, 1996). There's also a lot of Unix
+information on the Internet. Try the <ulink
+URL="http://www.eecs.nwu.edu/unix.html">Unix Reference
+Desk</ulink>.</para>
+
+</chapter>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Next Steps</title>
+
+<para>You should now have the tools you need to get around and edit
+files, so you can get everything up and running. There is a great
+deal of information in the FreeBSD handbook (which is probably on
+your hard drive) and <ulink URL="http://www.freebsd.org/">FreeBSD's
+web site</ulink>. A wide variety of packages and ports are on the
+<ulink URL="http://www.cdrom.com/">Walnut Creek</ulink> CDROM as well
+as the web site. The handbook tells you more about how to use them
+(get the package if it exists, with <command>pkg_add
+/cdrom/packages/All/<replaceable>packagename</></>,
+where <replaceable>packagename</replaceable> is the filename of the
+package). The cdrom has lists of the packages and ports with brief
+descriptions in <filename>cdrom/packages/index</filename>,
+<filename>cdrom/packages/index.txt</filename>, and
+<filename>cdrom/ports/index</filename>, with fuller descriptions in
+<filename>/cdrom/ports/*/*/pkg/DESCR</filename>, where the
+<literal>*</literal>s represent subdirectories of kinds of programs
+and program names respectively.</para>
+
+<para>If you find the handbook too sophisticated (what with
+<command>lndir</> and all) on installing ports from the cdrom,
+here's what usually works:</para>
+
+<para>Find the port you want, say <command>kermit</>. There will be
+a directory for it on the cdrom. Copy the subdirectory to
+<filename>/usr/local</filename> (a good place for software you add
+that should be available to all users) with:
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>cp -R /cdrom/ports/comm/kermit /usr/local</></screen>
+</informalexample>
+
+This should result in a <filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename>
+subdirectory that has all the files that the
+<command>kermit</command> subdirectory on the CDROM has.</para>
+
+<para>Next, check <filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename> for a
+file with a name that indicates it's the port you want. Copy that
+file to <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>. (Create
+<filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> if it doesn't exist using
+<command>mkdir</>.) In the case of <command>kermit</>, there is no
+distfile.</para>
+
+<para>Then <command>cd</> to the subdirectory of
+<filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename> that has the file
+<filename>Makefile</>. Type
+<informalexample>
+<screen># <userinput>make all install</></screen>
+</informalexample>
+</para>
+
+<para>During this process the port will ftp to get any compressed
+files it needs that it didn't find in
+<filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>. If you don't have your
+network running yet and there was no file for the port in
+<filename>/cdrom/ports/distfiles</filename>, you will have to get
+the distfile using another machine and copy it to
+<filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> from a floppy or your dos
+partition. Read <filename>Makefile</> (with <command>cat</> or
+<command>more</> or <command>view</>) to find out where to go (the
+master distribution site) to get the file and what its name is. Its
+name will be truncated when downloaded to DOS, and after you get it
+into <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> you'll have to rename
+it (with the <command>mv</> command) to its original name so it can
+be found. (Use binary file transfers!) Then go back to
+<filename>/usr/local/kermit</filename>, find the directory with
+<filename>Makefile</>, and type <command>make all install</>.</para>
+
+<para>The other thing that happens when installing ports or packages
+is that some other program is needed. If the installation stops with
+a message <errorname>can't find unzip</errorname> or whatever, you
+might need to install the package or port for unzip before you
+continue.</para>
+
+<para>Once it's installed type <command>rehash</> to make FreeBSD
+reread the files in the path so it knows what's there. (If you get a
+lot of <errorname>path not found</> messages when you use
+<command>whereis</> or which, you might want to make additions to the
+list of directories in the path statement in
+<filename>.cshrc</filename> in your home directory. The path
+statement in Unix does the same kind of work it does in DOS, except
+the current directory is not (by default) in the path for security
+reasons; if the command you want is in the directory you're in, you
+need to type <filename>./</filename> before the command to make it
+work; no space after the slash.)</para>
+
+<para>You might want to get the most recent version of Netscape from
+their <ulink URL="ftp://ftp.netscape.com">ftp site</ulink>. (Netscape
+requires the X Window System.) The version you want is the
+<quote>unknown bsd</quote> version. Just use <command>gunzip
+<replaceable>filename</></> and <command>tar xvf
+<replaceable>filename</></> on it, move the binary to
+<filename>/usr/local/bin</filename> or some other place binaries are
+kept, <command>rehash</>, and then put the following lines in
+<filename>.cshrc</filename> in each user's home directory or (easier)
+in <filename>/etc/csh.cshrc</filename>, the system-wide csh start-up
+file:
+<informalexample>
+<programlisting>setenv XKEYSYMDB /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/XKeysymDB
+setenv XNLSPATH /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/nls</>
+</informalexample>
+This assumes that the file <filename>XKeysymDB</> and the directory
+<filename>nls</> are in <filename>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11</filename>; if
+they're not, find them and put them there.</para>
+
+<para>If you originally got Netscape as a port using the CDROM (or
+ftp), don't replace <filename>/usr/local/bin/netscape</filename> with
+the new netscape binary; this is just a shell script that sets up the
+environmental variables for you. Instead rename the new binary to
+<filename>netscape.bin</filename> and replace the old binary, which
+is <filename>/usr/local/lib/netscape/netscape.bin</filename>.</para>
+
+</chapter>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Other</title>
+
+<para>As root, you can dismount the CDROM with <command>/sbin/umount
+/cdrom</>, take it out of the drive, insert another one, and mount it
+with <command>/sbin/mount_cd9660 /dev/cd0a /cdrom</> assuming
+<hardware>cd0a</> is the device name for your CDROM drive.</para>
+
+<para>Using the live file system&mdash;the second of FreeBSD's CDROM
+disks&mdash;is useful if you've got limited space. You might try
+using <command>emacs</> or playing games from the cdrom. This
+involves using <command>lndir</>, which gets installed with the X
+Window System, to tell the program(s) where to find the necessary
+files, because they're in the <filename>/cdrom</filename> file system
+instead of in <filename>/usr</filename> and its subdirectories, which
+is where they're expected to be. Read <command>man lndir</>.</para>
+
+<para>You can delete a user (say, jack) by using the command
+<command>vipw</> to bring up the <filename>master.passwd</filename>
+file (do not use <command>vi</> directly on master.passwd); delete
+the line for jack and save the file. Then edit
+<filename>/etc/group</filename>, eliminating jack wherever it
+appears. Finally, go to <filename>/usr/home</filename> and use
+<command>rm -R</command> jack (to get rid of user jack's home
+directory files).</para>
+
+</chapter>
+
+<chapter>
+<title>Comments Welcome</title>
+
+<para>If you use this guide I'd be interested in knowing where it was
+unclear and what was left out that you think should be included, and
+if it was helpful. My thanks to Eugene W. Stark, professor of
+computer science at SUNY-Stony Brook, and John Fieber for helpful
+comments.</para>
+
+<para>Annelise Anderson, <email>andrsn@hoover.stanford.edu</></para>
+
+</chapter>
+</book>