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authorRyusuke SUZUKI <ryusuke@FreeBSD.org>2021-05-01 17:10:31 +0000
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-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
-<!--
- The FreeBSD Documentation Project
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
- xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0"
- xml:id="ports">
-
- <title>Installing Applications: Packages and Ports</title>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="ports-synopsis">
- <title>Synopsis</title>
-
- <indexterm><primary>ports</primary></indexterm>
- <indexterm><primary>packages</primary></indexterm>
- <para>&os; is bundled with a rich collection of system tools as
- part of the base system. In addition, &os; provides two
- complementary technologies for installing third-party software:
- the &os; Ports Collection, for installing from source, and
- packages, for installing from pre-built binaries. Either
- method may be used to install software from local media or
- from the network.</para>
-
- <para>After reading this chapter, you will know:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>The difference between binary packages and ports.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>How to find third-party software that has been ported
- to &os;.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>How to manage binary packages using
- <application>pkg</application>.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>How to build third-party software from source using the
- Ports Collection.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>How to find the files installed with the application
- for post-installation configuration.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>What to do if a software installation fails.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="ports-overview">
- <title>Overview of Software Installation</title>
-
- <para>The typical steps for installing third-party software on a
- &unix; system include:</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>Find and download the software, which might be
- distributed in source code format or as a binary.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>Unpack the software from its distribution format. This
- is typically a tarball compressed with a program such as
- &man.compress.1;, &man.gzip.1;, &man.bzip2.1; or
- &man.xz.1;.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>Locate the documentation in
- <filename>INSTALL</filename>, <filename>README</filename>
- or some file in a <filename>doc/</filename> subdirectory and
- read up on how to install the software.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>If the software was distributed in source format,
- compile it. This may involve editing a
- <filename>Makefile</filename> or running a
- <command>configure</command> script.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>Test and install the software.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
-
- <para>A &os; <emphasis>port</emphasis> is a collection of files
- designed to automate
- the process of compiling an application from source code. The
- files that comprise a port contain all the necessary information
- to automatically download, extract, patch, compile, and install
- the application.</para>
-
- <para>If the software has not already been adapted and tested
- on &os;, the source code might need editing in
- order for it to install and run properly.</para>
-
- <para>However, over <link
- xlink:href="&url.base;/ports/index.html">&os.numports;</link>
- third-party applications have already been ported to &os;. When
- feasible, these applications are made available for download as
- pre-compiled <emphasis>packages</emphasis>.</para>
-
- <para>Packages
- can be manipulated with the &os; package management
- commands.</para>
-
- <para>Both packages and ports understand dependencies. If a
- package or port is used to install an application and a
- dependent library is not already installed, the library will
- automatically be installed first.</para>
-
- <para>A &os; package contains pre-compiled copies of all the
- commands for an application, as well as any configuration files
- and documentation. A package can be manipulated with the
- &man.pkg.8; commands, such as
- <command>pkg install</command>.</para>
-
- <para>While the two technologies are similar, packages and
- ports each have their own strengths. Select the technology that
- meets your requirements for installing a particular
- application.</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <title>Package Benefits</title>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>A compressed package tarball is typically smaller than
- the compressed tarball containing the source code for the
- application.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Packages do not require compilation time. For large
- applications, such as <application>Mozilla</application>,
- <application>KDE</application>, or
- <application>GNOME</application>, this can be important
- on a slow system.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Packages do not require any understanding of the process
- involved in compiling software on &os;.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <title>Port Benefits</title>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Packages are normally compiled with conservative
- options because they have to run on the maximum number of
- systems. By compiling from the port, one can change the
- compilation options.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Some applications have compile-time options relating to
- which features are installed. For example,
- <application>Apache</application> can be configured with a
- wide variety of different built-in options.</para>
-
- <para>In some cases, multiple packages will exist for the same
- application to specify certain settings. For example,
- <application>Ghostscript</application> is available as a
- <filename>ghostscript</filename> package and a
- <filename>ghostscript-nox11</filename> package, depending on
- whether or not <application>Xorg</application> is installed.
- Creating multiple packages rapidly becomes impossible if an
- application has more than one or two different compile-time
- options.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>The licensing conditions of some software forbid binary
- distribution. Such software must be distributed as source
- code which must be compiled by the end-user.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Some people do not trust binary distributions or prefer
- to read through source code in order to look for potential
- problems.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Source code is needed in
- order to apply custom patches.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>To keep track of updated ports, subscribe to the
- &a.ports; and the &a.ports-bugs;.</para>
-
- <warning>
- <para>Before installing any application, check <link
- xlink:href="https://vuxml.freebsd.org/"></link>
- for security issues related to the application or type
- <command>pkg audit -F</command> to check all installed
- applications for known vulnerabilities.</para>
- </warning>
-
- <para>The remainder of this chapter explains how to use packages
- and ports to install and manage third-party software on
- &os;.</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="ports-finding-applications">
- <title>Finding Software</title>
-
- <para>&os;'s list of available applications is growing all the
- time. There are a number of ways to find software to
- install:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>The &os; web site maintains an up-to-date searchable
- list of all the available applications, at <link
- xlink:href="&url.base;/ports/index.html">https://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/</link>.
- The ports can be searched by application name or by
- software category.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <indexterm><primary>FreshPorts</primary></indexterm>
-
- <para>Dan Langille maintains <link
- xlink:href="http://www.FreshPorts.org/">FreshPorts.org</link>
- which provides a comprehensive search utility and also
- tracks changes to the applications in the Ports Collection.
- Registered users can create a customized watch list in order
- to receive an automated email when their watched ports are
- updated.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <indexterm><primary>SourceForge</primary></indexterm>
-
- <para>If finding a particular application becomes challenging,
- try searching a site like <link
- xlink:href="http://www.sourceforge.net/">SourceForge.net</link>
- or <link
- xlink:href="http://www.github.com/">GitHub.com</link> then
- check back at the <link
- xlink:href="&url.base;/ports/index.html">&os; site</link>
- to see if the application has been ported.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <indexterm>
- <primary>pkg</primary>
- <secondary>search</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para xml:id="pkg-search">To search the binary package
- repository for an application:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg search <replaceable>subversion</replaceable></userinput>
-git-subversion-<replaceable>1.9.2</replaceable>
-java-subversion-<replaceable>1.8.8_2</replaceable>
-p5-subversion-<replaceable>1.8.8_2</replaceable>
-py27-hgsubversion-<replaceable>1.6</replaceable>
-py27-subversion-<replaceable>1.8.8_2</replaceable>
-ruby-subversion-<replaceable>1.8.8_2</replaceable>
-subversion-<replaceable>1.8.8_2</replaceable>
-subversion-book-<replaceable>4515</replaceable>
-subversion-static-<replaceable>1.8.8_2</replaceable>
-subversion16-<replaceable>1.6.23_4</replaceable>
-subversion17-<replaceable>1.7.16_2</replaceable></screen>
-
- <para>Package names include the version number and, in the
- case of ports based on python, the version number of the
- version of python the package was built with. Some ports
- also have multiple versions available. In the case of
- <application>Subversion</application>, there are different
- versions available, as well as different compile options.
- In this case, the statically linked version of
- <application>Subversion</application>. When indicating
- which package to install, it is best to specify the
- application by the port origin, which is the path in the
- ports tree. Repeat the <command>pkg search</command> with
- <option>-o</option> to list the origin of each
- package:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg search -o <replaceable>subversion</replaceable></userinput>
-devel/git-subversion
-java/java-subversion
-devel/p5-subversion
-devel/py-hgsubversion
-devel/py-subversion
-devel/ruby-subversion
-devel/subversion16
-devel/subversion17
-devel/subversion
-devel/subversion-book
-devel/subversion-static</screen>
-
- <para>Searching by shell globs, regular expressions, exact
- match, by description, or any other field in the repository
- database is also supported by <command>pkg search</command>.
- After installing <package>ports-mgmt/pkg</package> or
- <package>ports-mgmt/pkg-devel</package>, see
- &man.pkg-search.8; for more details.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>If the Ports Collection is already installed, there are
- several methods to query the local version of the ports
- tree. To find out which category a port is in, type
- <command>whereis <replaceable>file</replaceable></command>,
- where <replaceable>file</replaceable> is the program to be
- installed:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>whereis lsof</userinput>
-lsof: /usr/ports/sysutils/lsof</screen>
-
- <para>Alternately, an &man.echo.1; statement can be
- used:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>echo /usr/ports/*/*lsof*</userinput>
-/usr/ports/sysutils/lsof</screen>
-
- <para>Note that this will also return any matched files
- downloaded into the
- <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> directory.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Another way to find software is by using the Ports
- Collection's built-in search mechanism. To use the search
- feature, <application>cd</application> to
- <filename>/usr/ports</filename> then run <command>make
- search name=program-name</command> where
- <replaceable>program-name</replaceable> is the name of the
- software. For example, to search for
- <command>lsof</command>:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>make search name=lsof</userinput>
-Port: lsof-4.88.d,8
-Path: /usr/ports/sysutils/lsof
-Info: Lists information about open files (similar to fstat(1))
-Maint: ler@lerctr.org
-Index: sysutils
-B-deps:
-R-deps: </screen>
-
- <tip>
- <para>The built-in search mechanism uses a file
- of index information. If a message indicates that the
- <filename>INDEX</filename> is required, run
- <command>make fetchindex</command> to download the current
- index file. With the <filename>INDEX</filename> present,
- <command>make search</command> will be able to perform the
- requested search.</para>
- </tip>
-
- <para>The <quote>Path:</quote> line indicates where to find
- the port.</para>
-
- <para>To receive less information, use the
- <command>quicksearch</command> feature:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>make quicksearch name=lsof</userinput>
-Port: lsof-4.88.d,8
-Path: /usr/ports/sysutils/lsof
-Info: Lists information about open files (similar to fstat(1))</screen>
-
- <para>For more in-depth searching, use
- <command>make search
- key=<replaceable>string</replaceable></command> or
- <command>make quicksearch
- key=<replaceable>string</replaceable></command>, where
- <replaceable>string</replaceable> is some text to search
- for. The text can be in comments, descriptions, or
- dependencies in order to find ports which relate to a
- particular subject when the name of the program is
- unknown.</para>
-
- <para>When using <buildtarget>search</buildtarget> or
- <buildtarget>quicksearch</buildtarget>, the search string
- is case-insensitive. Searching for <quote>LSOF</quote> will
- yield the same results as searching for
- <quote>lsof</quote>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="pkgng-intro">
- <title>Using <application>pkg</application> for Binary Package
- Management</title>
-
- <para><application>pkg</application> is the next generation
- replacement for the traditional &os; package management tools,
- offering many features that make dealing with binary packages
- faster and easier.</para>
-
- <para>For sites wishing to only use prebuilt binary packages
- from the &os; mirrors, managing packages with
- <application>pkg</application> can be sufficient.</para>
-
- <para>However, for those sites building from source or using their
- own repositories, a separate <link
- linkend="ports-upgrading-tools">port management tool</link>
- will be needed.</para>
-
- <para>Since <application>pkg</application> only works with
- binary packages, it
- is not a replacement for such tools. Those tools can be
- used to install software from both binary packages
- and the Ports Collection, while
- <application>pkg</application> installs only binary
- packages.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="pkgng-initial-setup">
- <title>Getting Started with
- <application>pkg</application></title>
-
- <para>&os; includes a bootstrap utility which can be used to
- download and install <application>pkg</application>
- and its manual pages. This utility is designed to work
- with versions of &os; starting with
- 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable>.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>Not all &os; versions and architectures
- support this bootstrap process. The current list is at
- <link xlink:href="https://pkg.freebsd.org/"></link>.
- For other cases,
- <application>pkg</application> must instead be installed
- from the Ports Collection or as a binary package.</para>
-
- </note>
-
- <para>To bootstrap the system, run:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/usr/sbin/pkg</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>You must have a working Internet connection for the
- bootstrap process to succeed.</para>
-
- <para>Otherwise, to install the port, run:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/pkg</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>make</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>When upgrading an existing system that originally used the
- older pkg_* tools, the database must be converted to the
- new format, so that the new tools are aware of the already
- installed packages. Once <application>pkg</application> has
- been installed, the
- package database must be converted from the traditional format
- to the new format by running this command:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg2ng</userinput></screen>
-
- <note><para>This step is not required for new installations that
- do not yet have any third-party software
- installed.</para></note>
-
- <important>
- <para>This step is not reversible. Once the package database
- has been converted to the <application>pkg</application>
- format, the traditional <literal>pkg_*</literal> tools
- should no longer be used.</para>
- </important>
-
- <note>
- <para>The package database conversion may emit errors as the
- contents are converted to the new version. Generally, these
- errors can be safely ignored. However, a list of
- software that was not successfully converted
- is shown after <command>pkg2ng</command> finishes.
- These applications must be manually reinstalled.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>To ensure that the Ports Collection registers
- new software with <application>pkg</application> instead of
- the traditional packages database, &os; versions earlier than
- 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> require this line in
- <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>:</para>
-
- <programlisting>WITH_PKGNG= yes</programlisting>
-
- <para>By default, <application>pkg</application> uses the
- binary packages from the &os;
- package mirrors (the <emphasis>repository</emphasis>).
- For information about building a custom
- package repository, see
- <xref linkend="ports-poudriere"/>.</para>
-
- <para>Additional <application>pkg</application> configuration
- options are described in &man.pkg.conf.5;.</para>
-
- <para>Usage information for <application>pkg</application> is
- available in the &man.pkg.8; manual page or by running
- <command>pkg</command> without additional arguments.</para>
-
- <para>Each <application>pkg</application> command argument is
- documented in a command-specific manual page. To read the
- manual page for <command>pkg install</command>, for example,
- run either of these commands:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg help install</userinput></screen>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>man pkg-install</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>The rest of this section demonstrates common binary
- package management tasks which can be performed using
- <application>pkg</application>. Each demonstrated command
- provides many switches to customize its use. Refer to a
- command's help or man page for details and more
- examples.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="quarterly-latest-branch">
- <title>Quarterly and Latest Ports Branches</title>
-
- <para>The <literal>Quarterly</literal> branch provides users
- with a more predictable and stable experience for port and
- package installation and upgrades. This is done essentially
- by only allowing non-feature updates. Quarterly branches aim
- to receive security fixes (that may be version updates, or
- backports of commits), bug fixes and ports compliance or
- framework changes. The Quarterly branch is cut from HEAD at
- the beginning of every (yearly) quarter in January, April,
- July, and October. Branches are named according to the year
- (YYYY) and quarter (Q1-4) they are created in. For example,
- the quarterly branch created in January 2016, is named 2016Q1.
- And the <literal>Latest</literal> branch provides the latest
- versions of the packages to the users.</para>
-
- <para>To switch from quarterly to latest run the following
- commands:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cp /etc/pkg/FreeBSD.conf /usr/local/etc/pkg/repos/FreeBSD.conf</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Edit the file
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/pkg/repos/FreeBSD.conf</filename>
- and change the string <emphasis>quarterly</emphasis> to
- <emphasis>latest</emphasis> in the <literal>url:</literal>
- line.</para>
-
- <para>The result should be similar to the following:</para>
-
- <programlisting>FreeBSD: {
- url: "pkg+http://pkg.FreeBSD.org/${ABI}/latest",
- mirror_type: "srv",
- signature_type: "fingerprints",
- fingerprints: "/usr/share/keys/pkg",
- enabled: yes
-}</programlisting>
-
- <para>And finally run this command to update from the new
- (latest) repository metadata.</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg update -f</userinput></screen>
-
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="pkgng-pkg-info">
- <title>Obtaining Information About Installed Packages</title>
-
- <para>Information about the packages installed on a system
- can be viewed by running <command>pkg info</command> which,
- when run without any switches, will list the package version
- for either all installed packages or the specified
- package.</para>
-
- <para>For example, to see which version of
- <application>pkg</application> is installed, run:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg info pkg</userinput>
-pkg-1.1.4_1</screen>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="pkgng-installing-deinstalling">
- <title>Installing and Removing Packages</title>
-
- <para>To install a binary package use the following command,
- where <replaceable>packagename</replaceable> is the name of
- the package to install:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg install <replaceable>packagename</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <para>This command uses repository data to determine which
- version of the software to install and if it has any
- uninstalled dependencies. For example, to install
- <application>curl</application>:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg install curl</userinput>
-Updating repository catalogue
-/usr/local/tmp/All/curl-7.31.0_1.txz 100% of 1181 kB 1380 kBps 00m01s
-
-/usr/local/tmp/All/ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1.txz 100% of 288 kB 1700 kBps 00m00s
-
-Updating repository catalogue
-The following 2 packages will be installed:
-
- Installing ca_root_nss: 3.15.1_1
- Installing curl: 7.31.0_1
-
-The installation will require 3 MB more space
-
-0 B to be downloaded
-
-Proceed with installing packages [y/N]: <userinput>y</userinput>
-Checking integrity... done
-[1/2] Installing ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1... done
-[2/2] Installing curl-7.31.0_1... done
-Cleaning up cache files...Done</screen>
-
- <para>The new package and any additional packages that were
- installed as dependencies can be seen in the installed
- packages list:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg info</userinput>
-ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1 The root certificate bundle from the Mozilla Project
-curl-7.31.0_1 Non-interactive tool to get files from FTP, GOPHER, HTTP(S) servers
-pkg-1.1.4_6 New generation package manager</screen>
-
- <para>Packages that are no longer needed can be removed with
- <command>pkg delete</command>. For example:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg delete curl</userinput>
-The following packages will be deleted:
-
- curl-7.31.0_1
-
-The deletion will free 3 MB
-
-Proceed with deleting packages [y/N]: <userinput>y</userinput>
-[1/1] Deleting curl-7.31.0_1... done</screen>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="pkgng-upgrading">
- <title>Upgrading Installed Packages</title>
-
- <para>Installed packages can be upgraded to their latest
- versions by running:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg upgrade</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>This command will compare the installed versions with
- those available in the repository catalogue and upgrade them
- from the repository.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="pkgng-auditing">
- <title>Auditing Installed Packages</title>
-
- <para>Software vulnerabilities are regularly discovered
- in third-party applications. To address this,
- <application>pkg</application> includes a built-in auditing
- mechanism. To determine if there are any known
- vulnerabilities for the software installed on the system,
- run:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg audit -F</userinput></screen>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="pkgng-autoremove">
- <title>Automatically Removing Unused Packages</title>
-
- <para>Removing a package may leave behind dependencies which
- are no longer required. Unneeded packages that were installed
- as dependencies (leaf packages) can be automatically detected
- and removed using:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg autoremove</userinput>
-Packages to be autoremoved:
- ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1
-
-The autoremoval will free 723 kB
-
-Proceed with autoremoval of packages [y/N]: <userinput>y</userinput>
-Deinstalling ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1... done</screen>
-
- <para>Packages installed as dependencies are
- called <emphasis>automatic</emphasis> packages. Non-automatic
- packages, i.e the packages that were explicity installed not
- as a dependency to another package, can be listed
- using:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg prime-list</userinput>
-nginx
-openvpn
-sudo</screen>
-
- <para><command>pkg prime-list</command> is an alias command
- declared in <filename>/usr/local/etc/pkg.conf</filename>.
- There are many others that can be used to query the package
- database of the system. For instance, command
- <command>pkg prime-origins</command> can be used to get the
- origin port directory of the list mentioned above:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg prime-origins</userinput>
-www/nginx
-security/openvpn
-security/sudo</screen>
-
- <para>This list can be used to rebuild all packages
- installed on a system using build tools such as <package>
- ports-mgmt/poudriere</package> or <package>
- ports-mgmt/synth</package>.</para>
-
- <para>Marking an installed package as automatic can be
- done using:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg set -A 1 devel/cmake</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Once a package is a leaf package and is marked
- as automatic, it gets selected by
- <command>pkg autoremove</command>.</para>
-
- <para>Marking an installed package as <emphasis>not</emphasis>
- automatic can be done using:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg set -A 0 devel/cmake</userinput></screen>
-
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="pkgng-backup">
- <title>Restoring the Package Database</title>
-
- <para>Unlike the traditional package management system,
- <application>pkg</application> includes its own package
- database backup mechanism. This functionality is enabled by
- default.</para>
-
- <tip>
- <para>To disable the periodic script from backing up the
- package database, set
- <literal>daily_backup_pkgdb_enable="NO"</literal> in
- &man.periodic.conf.5;.</para>
- </tip>
-
- <para>To restore the contents of a previous package database
- backup, run the following command replacing
- <replaceable>/path/to/pkg.sql</replaceable> with the location
- of the backup:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg backup -r <replaceable>/path/to/pkg.sql</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <note>
- <para>If restoring a backup taken by the periodic script,
- it must be decompressed prior to being restored.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>To run a manual backup of the
- <application>pkg</application> database, run the following
- command, replacing <replaceable>/path/to/pkg.sql</replaceable>
- with a suitable file name and location:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg backup -d <replaceable>/path/to/pkg.sql</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="pkgng-clean">
- <title>Removing Stale Packages</title>
-
- <para>By default, <application>pkg</application> stores
- binary packages in a cache directory defined by
- <envar>PKG_CACHEDIR</envar> in &man.pkg.conf.5;. Only copies
- of the latest installed packages are kept. Older versions of
- <application>pkg</application> kept all previous packages. To
- remove these outdated binary packages, run:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg clean</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>The entire cache may be cleared by running:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg clean -a</userinput></screen>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="pkgng-set">
- <title>Modifying Package Metadata</title>
-
- <para>Software within the &os;&nbsp;Ports Collection can
- undergo major version number changes. To address this,
- <application>pkg</application> has a built-in command to
- update package origins. This can be useful, for example, if
- <package>lang/php5</package> is renamed to
- <package>lang/php53</package> so that
- <package>lang/php5</package> can now
- represent version <literal>5.4</literal>.</para>
-
- <para>To change the package origin for the above example,
- run:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg set -o lang/php5:lang/php53</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>As another example, to update
- <package>lang/ruby18</package> to
- <package>lang/ruby19</package>, run:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg set -o lang/ruby18:lang/ruby19</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>As a final example, to change the origin of the
- <filename>libglut</filename> shared libraries from
- <package>graphics/libglut</package> to
- <package>graphics/freeglut</package>, run:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg set -o graphics/libglut:graphics/freeglut</userinput></screen>
-
- <note>
- <para>When changing package origins, it is important to
- reinstall packages that are dependent on the package with
- the modified origin. To force a reinstallation of dependent
- packages, run:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg install -Rf <replaceable>graphics/freeglut</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- </note>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="ports-using">
- <title>Using the Ports Collection</title>
-
- <para>The Ports Collection is a set of
- <filename>Makefile</filename>s, patches, and description files.
- Each set of these files is used to compile and install an
- individual application on &os;, and is called a
- <emphasis>port</emphasis>.</para>
-
- <para>By default, the Ports Collection itself is stored as a
- subdirectory of <filename>/usr/ports</filename>.</para>
-
- <para>Before an application can be compiled using a port, the
- Ports Collection must first be installed. If it was not
- installed during the installation of &os;, use one of the
- following methods to install it:</para>
-
- <procedure xml:id="ports-using-portsnap-method">
- <title>Portsnap Method</title>
-
- <para>The base system of &os; includes
- <application>Portsnap</application>. This is a fast and
- user-friendly tool for retrieving the Ports Collection and
- is the recommended choice for most users not running
- &os.current;. This utility
- connects to a &os; site, verifies the secure key, and
- downloads a new copy of the Ports Collection. The key is used
- to verify the integrity of all downloaded files.</para>
-
- <step>
- <para>To download a compressed snapshot of the Ports
- Collection into
- <filename>/var/db/portsnap</filename>:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portsnap fetch</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>When running <application>Portsnap</application> for the
- first time, extract the snapshot into
- <filename>/usr/ports</filename>:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portsnap extract</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>After the first use of
- <application>Portsnap</application> has been completed as
- shown above, <filename>/usr/ports</filename> can be updated
- as needed by running:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portsnap fetch</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>portsnap update</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>When using <literal>fetch</literal>, the
- <literal>extract</literal> or the <literal>update</literal>
- operation may be run consecutively, like so:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portsnap fetch update</userinput></screen>
- </step>
- </procedure>
-
- <procedure xml:id="ports-using-subversion-method">
- <title>Subversion Method</title>
-
- <para>If more control over the ports tree is needed or if local
- changes need to be maintained, or if running &os.current;,
- <application>Subversion</application> can be used to obtain
- the Ports Collection. Refer to <link
- xlink:href="&url.articles.committers-guide;/subversion-primer.html">the
- Subversion Primer</link> for a detailed description of
- <application>Subversion</application>.</para>
-
- <step>
- <para><application>Subversion</application> must be installed
- before it can be used to check out the ports tree. If a
- copy of the ports tree is already present, install
- <application>Subversion</application> like this:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/devel/subversion</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>If the ports tree is not available, or
- <application>pkg</application> is being used to manage
- packages, <application>Subversion</application> can be
- installed as a package:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg install subversion</userinput></screen>
-
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>Check out a copy of the ports tree:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>svn checkout https://svn.FreeBSD.org/ports/head /usr/ports</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>As needed, update <filename>/usr/ports</filename> after
- the initial <application>Subversion</application>
- checkout:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>svn update /usr/ports</userinput></screen>
- </step>
- </procedure>
-
- <para>The Ports Collection contains directories
- for software categories. Inside each category are
- subdirectories for individual applications. Each application
- subdirectory contains a set of files that
- tells &os; how to compile and install that program,
- called a <emphasis>ports skeleton</emphasis>. Each port
- skeleton includes these files and directories:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><filename>Makefile</filename>: contains statements that
- specify how the application should be compiled and where
- its components should be installed.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><filename>distinfo</filename>: contains the names and
- checksums of the files that must be downloaded to build the
- port.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><filename>files/</filename>: this directory contains
- any patches needed for the program to compile and install
- on &os;. This directory may also contain other files used
- to build the port.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><filename>pkg-descr</filename>: provides a more detailed
- description of the program.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><filename>pkg-plist</filename>: a list of all the
- files that will be installed by the port. It also tells
- the ports system which files to remove upon
- deinstallation.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>Some ports include <filename>pkg-message</filename> or
- other files to handle special situations. For more details
- on these files, and on ports in general, refer to the <link
- xlink:href="&url.books.porters-handbook;/index.html">&os;
- Porter's Handbook</link>.</para>
-
- <para>The port does not include the actual source code, also
- known as a <filename>distfile</filename>. The extract portion
- of building a port will automatically save the downloaded
- source to <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="ports-skeleton">
- <title>Installing Ports</title>
-
- <indexterm>
- <primary>ports</primary>
- <secondary>installing</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para>This section provides basic instructions on using the
- Ports Collection to install or remove software. The detailed
- description of available <command>make</command> targets and
- environment variables is available in &man.ports.7;.</para>
-
- <warning>
- <para>Before compiling any port, be sure to update the Ports
- Collection as described in the previous section. Since
- the installation of any third-party software can introduce
- security vulnerabilities, it is recommended to first check
- <link xlink:href="https://vuxml.freebsd.org/"></link>
- for known security issues related to the port. Alternately,
- run <command>pkg audit -F</command> before installing a new
- port. This command can be configured to automatically
- perform a security audit and an update of the vulnerability
- database during the daily security system check. For more
- information, refer to &man.pkg-audit.8; and
- &man.periodic.8;.</para>
- </warning>
-
- <para>Using the Ports Collection assumes a working Internet
- connection. It also requires superuser privilege.</para>
-
- <para>To compile and install the port, change to the directory
- of the port to be installed, then type <command>make
- install</command> at the prompt. Messages will indicate
- the progress:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/sysutils/lsof</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>make install</userinput>
-&gt;&gt; lsof_4.88D.freebsd.tar.gz doesn't seem to exist in /usr/ports/distfiles/.
-&gt;&gt; Attempting to fetch from ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/.
-===&gt; Extracting for lsof-4.88
-...
-[extraction output snipped]
-...
-&gt;&gt; Checksum OK for lsof_4.88D.freebsd.tar.gz.
-===&gt; Patching for lsof-4.88.d,8
-===&gt; Applying FreeBSD patches for lsof-4.88.d,8
-===&gt; Configuring for lsof-4.88.d,8
-...
-[configure output snipped]
-...
-===&gt; Building for lsof-4.88.d,8
-...
-[compilation output snipped]
-...
-
-===&gt; Installing for lsof-4.88.d,8
-...
-[installation output snipped]
-...
-===&gt; Generating temporary packing list
-===&gt; Compressing manual pages for lsof-4.88.d,8
-===&gt; Registering installation for lsof-4.88.d,8
-===&gt; SECURITY NOTE:
- This port has installed the following binaries which execute with
- increased privileges.
-/usr/local/sbin/lsof
-&prompt.root;</screen>
-
- <para>Since <command>lsof</command> is a program that runs
- with increased privileges, a security warning is displayed
- as it is installed. Once the installation is complete, the
- prompt will be returned.</para>
-
- <para>Some shells keep a cache of the commands that are
- available in the directories listed in the
- <envar>PATH</envar> environment variable, to speed up lookup
- operations for the executable file of these commands. Users
- of the <command>tcsh</command> shell should type
- <command>rehash</command> so that a newly installed command
- can be used without specifying its full path. Use
- <command>hash -r</command> instead for the
- <command>sh</command> shell. Refer to the documentation
- for the shell for more information.</para>
-
- <para>During installation, a working subdirectory is created
- which contains all the temporary files used during
- compilation. Removing this directory saves disk space and
- minimizes the chance of problems later when upgrading to the
- newer version of the port:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make clean</userinput>
-===&gt; Cleaning for lsof-88.d,8
-&prompt.root;</screen>
-
- <note>
- <para>To save this extra step, instead use <command>make
- install clean</command> when compiling the port.</para>
- </note>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>Customizing Ports Installation</title>
-
- <para>Some ports provide build options which can be used to
- enable or disable application components, provide security
- options, or allow for other customizations. Examples
- include <package>www/firefox</package>,
- <package>security/gpgme</package>, and
- <package>mail/sylpheed-claws</package>. If the port depends
- upon other ports which have configurable options, it may
- pause several times for user interaction as the default
- behavior is to prompt the user to select options from a
- menu. To avoid this and do all of the configuration in one
- batch, run <command>make config-recursive</command> within
- the port skeleton. Then, run <command>make install
- [clean]</command> to compile and install the port.</para>
-
- <tip>
- <para>When using
- <buildtarget>config-recursive</buildtarget>, the list of
- ports to configure are gathered by the
- <buildtarget>all-depends-list</buildtarget> target. It is
- recommended to run <command>make
- config-recursive</command> until all dependent ports
- options have been defined, and ports options screens no
- longer appear, to be certain that all dependency options
- have been configured.</para>
- </tip>
-
- <para>There are several ways to revisit a port's build options
- menu in order to add, remove, or change these options after
- a port has been built. One method is to
- <command>cd</command> into the directory containing the
- port and type <command>make config</command>. Another
- option is to use <command>make showconfig</command>.
- Another option is to execute <command>make
- rmconfig</command> which will remove all selected options
- and allow you to start over. All of these options, and
- others, are explained in great detail in
- &man.ports.7;.</para>
-
- <para>The ports system uses &man.fetch.1; to download the
- source files, which supports various environment variables.
- The <envar>FTP_PASSIVE_MODE</envar>,
- <envar>FTP_PROXY</envar>, and <envar>FTP_PASSWORD</envar>
- variables may need to be set if the &os; system is behind
- a firewall or FTP/HTTP proxy. See &man.fetch.3; for the
- complete list of supported variables.</para>
-
- <para>For users who cannot be connected to the Internet all
- the time, <command>make fetch</command> can be run within
- <filename>/usr/ports</filename>, to fetch all distfiles, or
- within a category, such as
- <filename>/usr/ports/net</filename>, or within the specific
- port skeleton. Note that if a port has any dependencies,
- running this command in a category or ports skeleton will
- <emphasis>not</emphasis> fetch the distfiles of ports from
- another category. Instead, use <command>make
- fetch-recursive</command> to also fetch the distfiles for
- all the dependencies of a port.</para>
-
- <para>In rare cases, such as when an organization has a local
- distfiles repository, the <varname>MASTER_SITES</varname>
- variable can be used to override the download locations
- specified in the <filename>Makefile</filename>. When using,
- specify the alternate location:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/<replaceable>directory</replaceable></userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>make MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE= \
-<replaceable>ftp://ftp.organization.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/</replaceable> fetch</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>The <varname>WRKDIRPREFIX</varname> and
- <varname>PREFIX</varname> variables can override the default
- working and target directories. For example:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make WRKDIRPREFIX=/usr/home/example/ports install</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>will compile the port in
- <filename>/usr/home/example/ports</filename> and install
- everything under <filename>/usr/local</filename>.</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make PREFIX=/usr/home/example/local install</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>will compile the port in <filename>/usr/ports</filename>
- and install it in
- <filename>/usr/home/example/local</filename>. And:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make WRKDIRPREFIX=../ports PREFIX=../local install</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>will combine the two.</para>
-
- <para>These can also be set as environmental variables. Refer
- to the manual page for your shell for instructions on how to
- set an environmental variable.</para>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="ports-removing">
- <title>Removing Installed Ports</title>
-
- <indexterm>
- <primary>ports</primary>
- <secondary>removing</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para>Installed ports can be uninstalled using <command>pkg
- delete</command>. Examples for using this command can be
- found in the &man.pkg-delete.8; manual page.</para>
-
- <para>Alternately, <command>make deinstall</command> can be
- run in the port's directory:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/sysutils/lsof</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>make deinstall</userinput>
-===&gt; Deinstalling for sysutils/lsof
-===&gt; Deinstalling
-Deinstallation has been requested for the following 1 packages:
-
- lsof-4.88.d,8
-
-The deinstallation will free 229 kB
-[1/1] Deleting lsof-4.88.d,8... done</screen>
-
- <para>It is recommended to read the messages as the port is
- uninstalled. If the port has any applications that depend
- upon it, this information will be displayed but the
- uninstallation will proceed. In such cases, it may be better
- to reinstall the application in order to prevent broken
- dependencies.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="ports-upgrading">
- <title>Upgrading Ports</title>
-
- <indexterm>
- <primary>ports</primary>
- <secondary>upgrading</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para>Over time, newer versions of software become available
- in the Ports Collection. This section describes how to
- determine which software can be upgraded and how to perform
- the upgrade.</para>
-
- <para>To determine if newer versions of installed ports are
- available, ensure that the latest version of the ports tree is
- installed, using the updating command described in either
- <xref linkend="ports-using-portsnap-method"/> or
- <xref linkend="ports-using-subversion-method"/>. On &os; 10
- and later, or if the system has been converted to
- <application>pkg</application>, the following command will
- list the installed ports which are out of date:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg version -l "&lt;"</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>For &os; 9.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and lower, the
- following command will list the installed ports that are out
- of date:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg_version -l "&lt;"</userinput></screen>
-
- <important>
- <para>Before
- attempting an upgrade, read
- <filename>/usr/ports/UPDATING</filename> from the top of
- the file to the date closest to the last time ports were
- upgraded or the system was installed. This file describes
- various issues and additional steps users may encounter and
- need to perform when updating a port, including such things
- as file format changes, changes in locations of
- configuration files, or any incompatibilities with previous
- versions. Make note of any instructions which match any of
- the ports that need upgrading and follow these instructions
- when performing the upgrade.</para>
- </important>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="ports-upgrading-tools">
- <title>Tools to Upgrade and Manage Ports</title>
-
- <indexterm>
- <primary>ports</primary>
- <secondary>upgrading-tools</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para>The Ports Collection contains several utilities to
- perform the actual upgrade. Each has its strengths and
- weaknesses.</para>
-
- <para>Historically, most installations used either
- <application>Portmaster</application> or
- <application>Portupgrade</application>.
- <application>Synth</application> is a newer
- alternative.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>The choice of which tool is best for a particular
- system is up to the system administrator. It is
- recommended practice to back up your data before using any
- of these tools.</para>
- </note>
-
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="portmaster">
- <title>Upgrading Ports Using
- <application>Portmaster</application></title>
-
- <indexterm>
- <primary>portmaster</primary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para><package>ports-mgmt/portmaster</package> is a very
- small utility for upgrading installed ports.
- It is designed to use the tools installed with the &os;
- base system
- without depending on other ports or databases.
- To install this utility
- as a port:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/portmaster</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
-
- <para><application>Portmaster</application> defines four
- categories of ports:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Root port: has no dependencies and is not a
- dependency of any other ports.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Trunk port: has no dependencies, but other ports
- depend upon it.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Branch port: has dependencies and other ports
- depend upon it.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Leaf port: has dependencies but no other ports
- depend upon it.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>To list these categories and search for updates:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portmaster -L</userinput>
-===&gt;&gt;&gt; Root ports (No dependencies, not depended on)
-===&gt;&gt;&gt; ispell-3.2.06_18
-===&gt;&gt;&gt; screen-4.0.3
- ===&gt;&gt;&gt; New version available: screen-4.0.3_1
-===&gt;&gt;&gt; tcpflow-0.21_1
-===&gt;&gt;&gt; 7 root ports
-...
-===&gt;&gt;&gt; Branch ports (Have dependencies, are depended on)
-===&gt;&gt;&gt; apache22-2.2.3
- ===&gt;&gt;&gt; New version available: apache22-2.2.8
-...
-===&gt;&gt;&gt; Leaf ports (Have dependencies, not depended on)
-===&gt;&gt;&gt; automake-1.9.6_2
-===&gt;&gt;&gt; bash-3.1.17
- ===&gt;&gt;&gt; New version available: bash-3.2.33
-...
-===&gt;&gt;&gt; 32 leaf ports
-
-===&gt;&gt;&gt; 137 total installed ports
- ===&gt;&gt;&gt; 83 have new versions available</screen>
-
- <para>This command is used to upgrade all outdated
- ports:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portmaster -a</userinput></screen>
-
- <note>
- <para>By default, <application>Portmaster</application>
- makes a backup package before deleting the existing port.
- If the installation of the new version is successful,
- <application>Portmaster</application> deletes the
- backup. Using <option>-b</option> instructs
- <application>Portmaster</application> not to automatically
- delete the backup. Adding <option>-i</option> starts
- <application>Portmaster</application> in interactive mode,
- prompting for confirmation before upgrading each port.
- Many other options are available. Read through the
- manual page for &man.portmaster.8; for details regarding
- their usage.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>If errors are encountered during the upgrade process,
- add <option>-f</option> to upgrade and rebuild all
- ports:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portmaster -af</userinput></screen>
-
- <para><application>Portmaster</application> can also be used
- to install new ports on the system, upgrading all
- dependencies before building and installing the new
- port. To use this function, specify the location of the
- port in the Ports Collection:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portmaster <replaceable>shells/bash</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <para>More information about
- <package>ports-mgmt/portmaster</package> may be found in its
- <filename>pkg-descr</filename>.</para>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="portupgrade">
- <title>Upgrading Ports Using Portupgrade</title>
-
- <indexterm>
- <primary>portupgrade</primary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para><package>ports-mgmt/portupgrade</package> is another
- utility that can be used to upgrade ports. It installs a
- suite of applications which can be used to manage ports.
- However, it is dependent upon Ruby. To install the
- port:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/portupgrade</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Before performing an upgrade using this utility, it is
- recommended to scan the list of installed ports using
- <command>pkgdb -F</command> and to fix all the
- inconsistencies it reports.</para>
-
- <para>To upgrade all the outdated ports installed on the
- system, use <command>portupgrade -a</command>. Alternately,
- include <option>-i</option> to be asked for confirmation
- of every individual upgrade:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portupgrade -ai</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>To upgrade only a specified application instead of all
- available ports, use <command>portupgrade
- <replaceable>pkgname</replaceable></command>. It is very
- important to include <option>-R</option> to first upgrade
- all the ports required by the given application:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portupgrade -R firefox</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>If
- <option>-P</option> is included,
- <application>Portupgrade</application> searches for
- available packages in the local directories listed in
- <envar>PKG_PATH</envar>. If none are available locally, it
- then fetches packages from a remote site. If packages can
- not be found locally or fetched remotely,
- <application>Portupgrade</application> will use ports. To
- avoid using ports entirely, specify <option>-PP</option>.
- This last set of options tells
- <application>Portupgrade</application> to abort if no
- packages are available:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portupgrade -PP gnome3</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>To just fetch the port distfiles, or packages, if
- <option>-P</option> is specified, without building or
- installing anything, use <option>-F</option>. For further
- information on all of the available switches, refer to the
- manual page for <command>portupgrade</command>.</para>
-
- <para>More information about
- <package>ports-mgmt/portupgrade</package> may be found in
- its <filename>pkg-descr</filename>.</para>
- </sect3>
-
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="ports-disk-space">
- <title>Ports and Disk Space</title>
-
- <indexterm>
- <primary>ports</primary>
- <secondary>disk-space</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para>Using the Ports Collection will use up disk space over
- time. After building and installing a port, running
- <command>make clean</command> within the ports skeleton will
- clean up the temporary <filename>work</filename> directory.
- If <application>Portmaster</application> is used to install a
- port, it will automatically remove this directory unless
- <option>-K</option> is specified. If
- <application>Portupgrade</application> is installed, this
- command will remove all <filename>work</filename> directories
- found within the local copy of the Ports Collection:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portsclean -C</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>In addition, outdated source distribution files
- accumulate in <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> over
- time. To use <application>Portupgrade</application> to
- delete all the distfiles that are no longer
- referenced by any ports:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portsclean -D</userinput></screen>
-
- <para><application>Portupgrade</application> can remove
- all distfiles not referenced by any port currently installed
- on the system:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portsclean -DD</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>If <application>Portmaster</application> is installed,
- use:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>portmaster --clean-distfiles</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>By default, this command is interactive and prompts
- the user to confirm if a distfile should be deleted.</para>
-
- <para>In addition to these commands,
- <package>ports-mgmt/pkg_cutleaves</package>
- automates the task of removing installed ports that are no
- longer needed.</para>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="ports-poudriere">
- <title>Building Packages with
- <application>Poudriere</application></title>
-
- <para><application>Poudriere</application> is a
- <acronym>BSD</acronym>-licensed utility for creating and testing
- &os; packages. It uses &os; jails to set up isolated
- compilation environments. These jails can be used to build
- packages for versions of &os; that are different from the system
- on which it is installed, and also to build packages for i386 if
- the host is an &arch.amd64; system. Once the packages are
- built, they are in a layout identical to the official mirrors.
- These packages are usable by &man.pkg.8; and other package
- management tools.</para>
-
- <para><application>Poudriere</application> is installed using
- the <package role="port">ports-mgmt/poudriere</package> package
- or port. The installation includes a sample configuration
- file <filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.conf.sample</filename>.
- Copy this file to
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.conf</filename>. Edit the
- copied file to suit the local configuration.</para>
-
- <para>While <acronym>ZFS</acronym> is not required on the system
- running <application>poudriere</application>, it is beneficial.
- When <acronym>ZFS</acronym> is used,
- <varname>ZPOOL</varname> must be specified in
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.conf</filename> and
- <varname>FREEBSD_HOST</varname> should be set to a nearby
- mirror. Defining <varname>CCACHE_DIR</varname> enables the use
- of <package role="port">devel/ccache</package> to cache
- compilation and reduce build times for frequently-compiled code.
- It may be convenient to put
- <application>poudriere</application> datasets in an isolated
- tree mounted at <filename
- >/poudriere</filename>. Defaults for the
- other configuration values are adequate.</para>
-
- <para>The number of processor cores detected is used to define how
- many builds will run in parallel. Supply enough virtual memory,
- either with <acronym>RAM</acronym> or swap space. If virtual
- memory runs out, the compilation jails will stop and be torn
- down, resulting in weird error messages.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="poudriere-initialization">
- <title>Initialize Jails and Port Trees</title>
-
- <para>After configuration, initialize
- <application>poudriere</application> so that it installs a
- jail with the required &os; tree and a ports tree. Specify a
- name for the jail using <option>-j</option> and the &os;
- version with <option>-v</option>. On systems running
- &os;/&arch.amd64;, the architecture can be set with
- <option>-a</option> to either <literal>i386</literal> or
- <literal>amd64</literal>. The default is the
- architecture shown by <command>uname</command>.</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere jail -c -j <replaceable>11amd64</replaceable> -v <replaceable>11.4-RELEASE</replaceable></userinput>
-[00:00:00] Creating 11amd64 fs at /poudriere/jails/11amd64... done
-[00:00:00] Using pre-distributed MANIFEST for FreeBSD 11.4-RELEASE amd64
-[00:00:00] Fetching base for FreeBSD 11.4-RELEASE amd64
-/poudriere/jails/11amd64/fromftp/base.txz 125 MB 4110 kBps 31s
-[00:00:33] Extracting base... done
-[00:00:54] Fetching src for FreeBSD 11.4-RELEASE amd64
-/poudriere/jails/11amd64/fromftp/src.txz 154 MB 4178 kBps 38s
-[00:01:33] Extracting src... done
-[00:02:31] Fetching lib32 for FreeBSD 11.4-RELEASE amd64
-/poudriere/jails/11amd64/fromftp/lib32.txz 24 MB 3969 kBps 06s
-[00:02:38] Extracting lib32... done
-[00:02:42] Cleaning up... done
-[00:02:42] Recording filesystem state for clean... done
-[00:02:42] Upgrading using ftp
-/etc/resolv.conf -&gt; /poudriere/jails/11amd64/etc/resolv.conf
-Looking up update.FreeBSD.org mirrors... 3 mirrors found.
-Fetching public key from update4.freebsd.org... done.
-Fetching metadata signature for 11.4-RELEASE from update4.freebsd.org... done.
-Fetching metadata index... done.
-Fetching 2 metadata files... done.
-Inspecting system... done.
-Preparing to download files... done.
-Fetching 124 patches.....10....20....30....40....50....60....70....80....90....100....110....120.. done.
-Applying patches... done.
-Fetching 6 files... done.
-The following files will be added as part of updating to
-11.4-RELEASE-p1:
-/usr/src/contrib/unbound/.github
-/usr/src/contrib/unbound/.github/FUNDING.yml
-/usr/src/contrib/unbound/contrib/drop2rpz
-/usr/src/contrib/unbound/contrib/unbound_portable.service.in
-/usr/src/contrib/unbound/services/rpz.c
-/usr/src/contrib/unbound/services/rpz.h
-/usr/src/lib/libc/tests/gen/spawnp_enoexec.sh
-The following files will be updated as part of updating to
-11.4-RELEASE-p1:
-[&hellip;]
-Installing updates...Scanning //usr/share/certs/blacklisted for certificates...
-Scanning //usr/share/certs/trusted for certificates...
- done.
-11.4-RELEASE-p1
-[00:04:06] Recording filesystem state for clean... done
-[00:04:07] Jail 11amd64 11.4-RELEASE-p1 amd64 is ready to be used</screen>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere ports -c -p <replaceable>local</replaceable> -m svn+https</userinput>
-[00:00:00] Creating local fs at /poudriere/ports/local... done
-[00:00:00] Checking out the ports tree... done</screen>
-
- <para>On a single computer, <application>poudriere</application>
- can build ports with multiple configurations, in multiple
- jails, and from different port trees. Custom configurations
- for these combinations are called <emphasis>sets</emphasis>.
- See the CUSTOMIZATION section of &man.poudriere.8; for details
- after <package>ports-mgmt/poudriere</package> or
- <package>ports-mgmt/poudriere-devel</package> is
- installed.</para>
-
- <para>The basic configuration shown here puts a single jail-,
- port-, and set-specific <filename>make.conf</filename> in
- <filename
- >/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d</filename>.
- The filename in this example is created by combining the jail
- name, port name, and set name:
- <filename><replaceable>11amd64-local-workstation</replaceable>-make.conf</filename>.
- The system <filename>make.conf</filename> and this new file
- are combined at build time to create the
- <filename>make.conf</filename> used by the build jail.</para>
-
- <para>Packages to be built are entered in
- <filename><replaceable>11amd64-local-workstation</replaceable>-pkglist</filename>:</para>
-
- <programlisting>editors/emacs
-devel/git
-ports-mgmt/pkg
-...</programlisting>
-
- <para>Options and dependencies for the specified ports are
- configured:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere options -j <replaceable>11amd64</replaceable> -p <replaceable>local</replaceable> -z <replaceable>workstation</replaceable> -f <replaceable>11amd64-local-workstation-pkglist</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Finally, packages are built and a package
- repository is created:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>poudriere bulk -j <replaceable>11amd64</replaceable> -p <replaceable>local</replaceable> -z <replaceable>workstation</replaceable> -f <replaceable>11amd64-local-workstation-pkglist</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <para>While running, pressing <keycombo
- action="simul"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>t</keycap></keycombo>
- displays the current state of the build.
- <application>Poudriere</application> also builds files in
- <filename>/poudriere/logs/bulk/<replaceable>jailname</replaceable></filename>
- that can be used with a web server to display build
- information.</para>
-
- <para>After completion, the new packages are now available for
- installation from the <application>poudriere</application>
- repository.</para>
-
- <para>For more information on using
- <application>poudriere</application>, see &man.poudriere.8;
- and the main web site, <link
- xlink:href="https://github.com/freebsd/poudriere/wiki"></link>.</para>
- </sect2>
- <sect2>
- <title>Configuring pkg Clients to Use a Poudriere
- Repository</title>
-
- <para>While it is possible to use both a custom repository along
- side of the official repository, sometimes it is useful to
- disable the official repository. This is done by creating a
- configuration file that overrides and disables the official
- configuration file. Create
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/pkg/repos/FreeBSD.conf</filename>
- that contains the following:</para>
-
- <programlisting>FreeBSD: {
- enabled: no
-}</programlisting>
-
- <para>Usually it is easiest to serve a poudriere repository to
- the client machines via HTTP. Set up a webserver to serve up
- the package directory, for instance:
- <filename>/usr/local/poudriere/data/packages/<replaceable>11amd64</replaceable></filename>,
- where <filename><replaceable>11amd64</replaceable></filename>
- is the name of the build.</para>
-
- <para>If the URL to the package repository is:
- <literal>http://pkg.example.com/11amd64</literal>, then the
- repository configuration file in
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/pkg/repos/custom.conf</filename>
- would look like:</para>
-
- <programlisting>custom: {
- url: "<replaceable>http://pkg.example.com/11amd64</replaceable>",
- enabled: yes,
-}</programlisting>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="ports-nextsteps">
- <title>Post-Installation Considerations</title>
-
- <para>Regardless of whether the software was installed from a
- binary package or port, most third-party applications require
- some level of configuration after installation. The following
- commands and locations can be used to help determine what was
- installed with the application.</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Most applications install at least one default
- configuration file in <filename>/usr/local/etc</filename>.
- In cases where an application has a large number of
- configuration files, a subdirectory will be created to hold
- them. Often, sample configuration files are installed which
- end with a suffix such as <filename>.sample</filename>. The
- configuration files should be reviewed and possibly
- edited to meet the system's needs. To edit a sample file,
- first copy it without the <filename>.sample</filename>
- extension.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Applications which provide documentation will install
- it into <filename>/usr/local/share/doc</filename> and many
- applications also install manual pages. This documentation
- should be consulted before continuing.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Some applications run services which must be added
- to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> before starting the
- application. These applications usually install a startup
- script in <filename>/usr/local/etc/rc.d</filename>. See
- <link linkend="configtuning-starting-services">Starting
- Services</link> for more information.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>By design, applications do not run their startup
- script upon installation, nor do they run their stop
- script upon deinstallation or upgrade. This decision
- is left to the individual system administrator.</para>
- </note>
-
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Users of &man.csh.1; should run
- <command>rehash</command> to rebuild the known binary list
- in the shells <envar>PATH</envar>.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Use <command>pkg info</command> to determine which
- files, man pages, and binaries were installed with the
- application.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="ports-broken">
- <title>Dealing with Broken Ports</title>
-
- <para>When a port does not build or
- install, try the following:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Search to see if there is a fix pending for the port in
- the <link xlink:href="&url.base;/support.html">Problem
- Report database</link>. If so, implementing the proposed
- fix may fix the issue.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Ask the maintainer of the port for help. Type
- <command>make maintainer</command>
- in the ports skeleton or read the port's
- <filename>Makefile</filename> to find the maintainer's
- email address. Remember to include the
- <literal>&dollar;FreeBSD:</literal> line from the port's
- <filename>Makefile</filename> and the output leading up to
- the error in the email to the maintainer.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>Some ports are not maintained by an individual but
- instead by a group maintainer represented by a <link
- xlink:href="&url.articles.mailing-list-faq;/article.html">mailing
- list</link>. Many, but not all, of these addresses look
- like <email
- role="nolink">freebsd-<replaceable>listname</replaceable>@FreeBSD.org</email>.
- Please take this into account when sending an
- email.</para>
-
- <para>In particular, ports maintained by
- <email role="nolink">ports@FreeBSD.org</email> are not
- maintained by a specific individual. Instead, any fixes
- and support come from the general community who subscribe
- to that mailing list. More volunteers are always
- needed!</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>If there is no response to the email, use
- Bugzilla to submit a bug report using the
- instructions in <link
- xlink:href="&url.articles.problem-reports;/article.html">Writing
- &os; Problem Reports</link>.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Fix it! The <link
- xlink:href="&url.books.porters-handbook;/index.html">Porter's
- Handbook</link> includes detailed information on the
- ports infrastructure so that you can fix the occasional
- broken port or even submit your own!</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Install the package instead of the port using the
- instructions in <xref linkend="pkgng-intro"/>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>