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authorRemko Lodder <remko@FreeBSD.org>2017-03-09 13:04:23 +0000
committerRemko Lodder <remko@FreeBSD.org>2017-03-09 13:04:23 +0000
commit6be652d863aa285ed987d5501a83b5e9e631b61f (patch)
tree659f77692c1f1a7f5469a694312ce969243b1062 /nl_NL.ISO8859-1
parent87c4cbb943885642bbb7d0892da6d226c328f44c (diff)
downloaddoc-6be652d863aa285ed987d5501a83b5e9e631b61f.tar.gz
doc-6be652d863aa285ed987d5501a83b5e9e631b61f.zip
Initial version of the dutch po translation for the handbook.
This is still work in progress and the book.xml is not yet added until I have it working better. Facilitated by: Snow B.V.
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=50043
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+# $FreeBSD$
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: \n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2017-03-07 13:39+0100\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: 2017-03-09 13:55+0100\n"
+"Language: nl_NL\n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+"Last-Translator: \n"
+"Language-Team: \n"
+"X-Generator: Poedit 2.0beta3\n"
+
+#. Put one translator per line, in the form NAME <EMAIL>, YEAR1, YEAR2
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "translator-credits"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:613
+msgid "FreeBSD Handbook"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/author
+#: book.translate.xml:615
+msgid "<orgname>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</orgname>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/pubdate
+#. (itstool) path: info/releaseinfo
+#: book.translate.xml:619 book.translate.xml:621
+msgid "$FreeBSD$"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/copyright
+#: book.translate.xml:623
+msgid "<year>1995</year> <year>1996</year> <year>1997</year> <year>1998</year> <year>1999</year> <year>2000</year> <year>2001</year> <year>2002</year> <year>2003</year> <year>2004</year> <year>2005</year> <year>2006</year> <year>2007</year> <year>2008</year> <year>2009</year> <year>2010</year> <year>2011</year> <year>2012</year> <year>2013</year> <year>2014</year> <year>2015</year> <year>2016</year> <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/title
+#: book.translate.xml:651
+msgid "Copyright"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:653
+msgid "Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:660
+msgid "Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:666
+msgid "Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs, converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: important/para
+#: book.translate.xml:675
+msgid "THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT \"AS IS\" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:692
+msgid "FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:694
+msgid "3Com and HomeConnect are registered trademarks of 3Com Corporation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:696
+msgid "3ware is a registered trademark of 3ware Inc."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:698
+msgid "ARM is a registered trademark of ARM Limited."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:700
+msgid "Adaptec is a registered trademark of Adaptec, Inc."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:702
+msgid "Adobe, Acrobat, Acrobat Reader, Flash and PostScript are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States and/or other countries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:706
+msgid "Apple, AirPort, FireWire, iMac, iPhone, iPad, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, Quicktime, and TrueType are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. and other countries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:711
+msgid "Android is a trademark of Google Inc."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:713
+msgid "Heidelberg, Helvetica, Palatino, and Times Roman are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG in the U.S. and other countries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:717
+msgid "IBM, AIX, OS/2, PowerPC, PS/2, S/390, and ThinkPad are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:721
+msgid "IEEE, POSIX, and 802 are registered trademarks of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. in the United States."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:724
+msgid "Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, and Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:728
+msgid "Intuit and Quicken are registered trademarks and/or registered service marks of Intuit Inc., or one of its subsidiaries, in the United States and other countries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:731
+msgid "Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:733
+msgid "LSI Logic, AcceleRAID, eXtremeRAID, MegaRAID and Mylex are trademarks or registered trademarks of LSI Logic Corp."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:736
+msgid "Microsoft, IntelliMouse, MS-DOS, Outlook, Windows, Windows Media and Windows NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:740
+msgid "Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and The Open Group are trademarks of The Open Group in the United States and other countries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:744
+msgid "Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:746
+msgid "RealNetworks, RealPlayer, and RealAudio are the registered trademarks of RealNetworks, Inc."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:749
+msgid "Red Hat, RPM, are trademarks or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in the United States and other countries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:752
+msgid "Sun, Sun Microsystems, Java, Java Virtual Machine, JDK, JRE, JSP, JVM, Netra, OpenJDK, Solaris, StarOffice, SunOS and VirtualBox are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States and other countries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:757
+msgid "MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:759
+msgid "SpeedTouch is a trademark of Thomson."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:761
+msgid "VMware is a trademark of VMware, Inc."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:763
+msgid "Mathematica is a registered trademark of Wolfram Research, Inc."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:765
+msgid "XFree86 is a trademark of The XFree86 Project, Inc."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:767
+msgid "Ogg Vorbis and Xiph.Org are trademarks of Xiph.Org."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
+#: book.translate.xml:769
+msgid "Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this document, and the FreeBSD Project was aware of the trademark claim, the designations have been followed by the <quote>™</quote> or the <quote>®</quote> symbol."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: abstract/para
+#: book.translate.xml:778
+msgid "Welcome to FreeBSD! This handbook covers the installation and day to day use of <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.0-RELEASE</emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 10.3-RELEASE</emphasis>, and <emphasis>FreeBSD 9.3-RELEASE</emphasis>. This book is the result of ongoing work by many individuals. Some sections might be outdated. Those interested in helping to update and expand this document should send email to the <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc\">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: abstract/para
+#: book.translate.xml:787
+msgid "The latest version of this book is available from the <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/\">FreeBSD web site</link>. Previous versions can be obtained from <uri xlink:href=\"https://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/\">https://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/</uri>. The book can be downloaded in a variety of formats and compression options from the <link xlink:href=\"ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/\">FreeBSD FTP server</link> or one of the numerous <link linkend=\"mirrors-ftp\">mirror sites</link>. Printed copies can be purchased at the <link xlink:href=\"http://www.freebsdmall.com/\">FreeBSD Mall</link>. Searches can be performed on the handbook and other documents on the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/search/index.html\">search page</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/title
+#: book.translate.xml:808
+msgid "Preface"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
+#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-audience
+#: book.translate.xml:810
+msgid "Intended Audience"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:813
+msgid "The FreeBSD newcomer will find that the first section of this book guides the user through the FreeBSD installation process and gently introduces the concepts and conventions that underpin <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark>. Working through this section requires little more than the desire to explore, and the ability to take on board new concepts as they are introduced."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:820
+msgid "Once you have traveled this far, the second, far larger, section of the Handbook is a comprehensive reference to all manner of topics of interest to FreeBSD system administrators. Some of these chapters may recommend that you do some prior reading, and this is noted in the synopsis at the beginning of each chapter."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:827
+msgid "For a list of additional sources of information, please see <xref linkend=\"bibliography\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
+#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes-from3
+#: book.translate.xml:830
+msgid "Changes from the Third Edition"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:833
+msgid "The current online version of the Handbook represents the cumulative effort of many hundreds of contributors over the past 10 years. The following are some of the significant changes since the two volume third edition was published in 2004:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:840
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"dtrace\"/> has been added with information about the powerful DTrace performance analysis tool."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:845
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"filesystems\"/> has been added with information about non-native file systems in FreeBSD, such as ZFS from <trademark>Sun</trademark>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:851
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"audit\"/> has been added to cover the new auditing capabilities in FreeBSD and explain its use."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:856
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"virtualization\"/> has been added with information about installing FreeBSD on virtualization software."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:862
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"bsdinstall\"/> has been added to cover installation of FreeBSD using the new installation utility, <application>bsdinstall</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
+#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes-from2
+#: book.translate.xml:868
+msgid "Changes from the Second Edition (2004)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:871
+msgid "The third edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project. The printed edition grew to such a size that it was necessary to publish as two separate volumes. The following are the major changes in this new edition:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:879
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/> has been expanded with new information about the ACPI power and resource management, the <command>cron</command> system utility, and more kernel tuning options."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:886
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"security\"/> has been expanded with new information about virtual private networks (VPNs), file system access control lists (ACLs), and security advisories."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:892
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"mac\"/> is a new chapter with this edition. It explains what MAC is and how this mechanism can be used to secure a FreeBSD system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:898
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"disks\"/> has been expanded with new information about USB storage devices, file system snapshots, file system quotas, file and network backed filesystems, and encrypted disk partitions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:905
+msgid "A troubleshooting section has been added to <xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:909
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"mail\"/> has been expanded with new information about using alternative transport agents, SMTP authentication, UUCP, <application>fetchmail</application>, <application>procmail</application>, and other advanced topics."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:917
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"network-servers\"/> is all new with this edition. This chapter includes information about setting up the <application>Apache HTTP Server</application>, <application>ftpd</application>, and setting up a server for <trademark class=\"registered\">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> clients with <application>Samba</application>. Some sections from <xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/> were moved here to improve the presentation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:927
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/> has been expanded with new information about using <trademark class=\"registered\">Bluetooth</trademark> devices with FreeBSD, setting up wireless networks, and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networking."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:934
+msgid "A glossary has been added to provide a central location for the definitions of technical terms used throughout the book."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:940
+msgid "A number of aesthetic improvements have been made to the tables and figures throughout the book."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
+#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes
+#: book.translate.xml:945
+msgid "Changes from the First Edition (2001)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:948
+msgid "The second edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project. The following were the major changes in this edition:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:956
+msgid "A complete Index has been added."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:960
+msgid "All ASCII figures have been replaced by graphical diagrams."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:965
+msgid "A standard synopsis has been added to each chapter to give a quick summary of what information the chapter contains, and what the reader is expected to know."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:971
+msgid "The content has been logically reorganized into three parts: <quote>Getting Started</quote>, <quote>System Administration</quote>, and <quote>Appendices</quote>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:978
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"basics\"/> has been expanded to contain additional information about processes, daemons, and signals."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:984
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"ports\"/> has been expanded to contain additional information about binary package management."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:990
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"x11\"/> has been completely rewritten with an emphasis on using modern desktop technologies such as <application>KDE</application> and <application>GNOME</application> on <trademark>XFree86</trademark> 4.X."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:997
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"boot\"/> has been expanded."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1001
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"disks\"/> has been written from what used to be two separate chapters on <quote>Disks</quote> and <quote>Backups</quote>. We feel that the topics are easier to comprehend when presented as a single chapter. A section on RAID (both hardware and software) has also been added."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1010
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"serialcomms\"/> has been completely reorganized and updated for FreeBSD 4.X/5.X."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1015
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/> has been substantially updated."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1020
+msgid "Many new sections have been added to <xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1024
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"mail\"/> has been expanded to include more information about configuring <application>sendmail</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1030
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"linuxemu\"/> has been expanded to include information about installing <application><trademark class=\"registered\">Oracle</trademark></application> and <application><trademark class=\"registered\">SAP</trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">R/3</trademark></application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1037
+msgid "The following new topics are covered in this second edition:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1042
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1046
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"multimedia\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
+#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-overview
+#: book.translate.xml:1052
+msgid "Organization of This Book"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1054
+msgid "This book is split into five logically distinct sections. The first section, <emphasis>Getting Started</emphasis>, covers the installation and basic usage of FreeBSD. It is expected that the reader will follow these chapters in sequence, possibly skipping chapters covering familiar topics. The second section, <emphasis>Common Tasks</emphasis>, covers some frequently used features of FreeBSD. This section, and all subsequent sections, can be read out of order. Each chapter begins with a succinct synopsis that describes what the chapter covers and what the reader is expected to already know. This is meant to allow the casual reader to skip around to find chapters of interest. The third section, <emphasis>System Administration</emphasis>, covers administration topics. The fourth section, <emphasis>Network Communication</emphasis>, covers networking and server topics. The fifth section contains appendices of reference information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1079
+msgid "Introduces FreeBSD to a new user. It describes the history of the FreeBSD Project, its goals and development model."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1089
+msgid "Walks a user through the entire installation process of FreeBSD 9.<replaceable>x</replaceable> and later using <application>bsdinstall</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1099
+msgid "Covers the basic commands and functionality of the FreeBSD operating system. If you are familiar with <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> or another flavor of <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> then you can probably skip this chapter."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1110
+msgid "Covers the installation of third-party software with both FreeBSD's innovative <quote>Ports Collection</quote> and standard binary packages."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1120
+msgid "Describes the X Window System in general and using X11 on FreeBSD in particular. Also describes common desktop environments such as <application>KDE</application> and <application>GNOME</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1133
+msgid "Lists some common desktop applications, such as web browsers and productivity suites, and describes how to install them on FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1142
+msgid "Shows how to set up sound and video playback support for your system. Also describes some sample audio and video applications."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1152
+msgid "Explains why you might need to configure a new kernel and provides detailed instructions for configuring, building, and installing a custom kernel."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1162
+msgid "Describes managing printers on FreeBSD, including information about banner pages, printer accounting, and initial setup."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1172
+msgid "Describes the <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> compatibility features of FreeBSD. Also provides detailed installation instructions for many popular <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> applications such as <application><trademark class=\"registered\">Oracle</trademark></application> and <application><trademark class=\"registered\">Mathematica</trademark></application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1186
+msgid "Describes the parameters available for system administrators to tune a FreeBSD system for optimum performance. Also describes the various configuration files used in FreeBSD and where to find them."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1197
+msgid "Describes the FreeBSD boot process and explains how to control this process with configuration options."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1206
+msgid "Describes many different tools available to help keep your FreeBSD system secure, including Kerberos, IPsec and OpenSSH."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1216
+msgid "Describes the jails framework, and the improvements of jails over the traditional chroot support of FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1225
+msgid "Explains what Mandatory Access Control (MAC) is and how this mechanism can be used to secure a FreeBSD system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1235
+msgid "Describes what FreeBSD Event Auditing is, how it can be installed, configured, and how audit trails can be inspected or monitored."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1245
+msgid "Describes how to manage storage media and filesystems with FreeBSD. This includes physical disks, RAID arrays, optical and tape media, memory-backed disks, and network filesystems."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1256
+msgid "Describes what the GEOM framework in FreeBSD is and how to configure various supported RAID levels."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1265
+msgid "Examines support of non-native file systems in FreeBSD, like the Z File System from <trademark>Sun</trademark>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1274
+msgid "Describes what virtualization systems offer, and how they can be used with FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1283
+msgid "Describes how to use FreeBSD in languages other than English. Covers both system and application level localization."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1293
+msgid "Explains the differences between FreeBSD-STABLE, FreeBSD-CURRENT, and FreeBSD releases. Describes which users would benefit from tracking a development system and outlines that process. Covers the methods users may take to update their system to the latest security release."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1306
+msgid "Describes how to configure and use the DTrace tool from <trademark>Sun</trademark> in FreeBSD. Dynamic tracing can help locate performance issues, by performing real time system analysis."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1319
+msgid "Explains how to connect terminals and modems to your FreeBSD system for both dial in and dial out connections."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1329
+msgid "Describes how to use PPP to connect to remote systems with FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1338
+msgid "Explains the different components of an email server and dives into simple configuration topics for the most popular mail server software: <application>sendmail</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1349
+msgid "Provides detailed instructions and example configuration files to set up your FreeBSD machine as a network filesystem server, domain name server, network information system server, or time synchronization server."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1360
+msgid "Explains the philosophy behind software-based firewalls and provides detailed information about the configuration of the different firewalls available for FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1370
+msgid "Describes many networking topics, including sharing an Internet connection with other computers on your LAN, advanced routing topics, wireless networking, <trademark class=\"registered\">Bluetooth</trademark>, ATM, IPv6, and much more."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1383
+msgid "Lists different sources for obtaining FreeBSD media on CDROM or DVD as well as different sites on the Internet that allow you to download and install FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1393
+msgid "This book touches on many different subjects that may leave you hungry for a more detailed explanation. The bibliography lists many excellent books that are referenced in the text."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1404
+msgid "Describes the many forums available for FreeBSD users to post questions and engage in technical conversations about FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1414
+msgid "Lists the PGP fingerprints of several FreeBSD Developers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
+#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv
+#: book.translate.xml:1420
+msgid "Conventions used in this book"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1423
+msgid "To provide a consistent and easy to read text, several conventions are followed throughout the book."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
+#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-typographic
+#: book.translate.xml:1426
+msgid "Typographic Conventions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:1430
+msgid "<emphasis>Italic</emphasis>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1433
+msgid "An <emphasis>italic</emphasis> font is used for filenames, URLs, emphasized text, and the first usage of technical terms."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:1440
+msgid "<literal>Monospace</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1443
+msgid "A <literal>monospaced</literal> font is used for error messages, commands, environment variables, names of ports, hostnames, user names, group names, device names, variables, and code fragments."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:1451
+msgid "<application>Bold</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1454
+msgid "A <keycap>bold</keycap> font is used for applications, commands, and keys."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
+#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-commands
+#: book.translate.xml:1461
+msgid "User Input"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1464
+msgid "Keys are shown in <keycap>bold</keycap> to stand out from other text. Key combinations that are meant to be typed simultaneously are shown with `<literal>+</literal>' between the keys, such as:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1469
+msgid "<keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>Alt</keycap> <keycap>Del</keycap></keycombo>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1475
+msgid "Meaning the user should type the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>, <keycap>Alt</keycap>, and <keycap>Del</keycap> keys at the same time."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1479
+msgid "Keys that are meant to be typed in sequence will be separated with commas, for example:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1482
+msgid "<keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>X</keycap> </keycombo>, <keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>S</keycap></keycombo>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1491
+msgid "Would mean that the user is expected to type the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> and <keycap>X</keycap> keys simultaneously and then to type the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> and <keycap>S</keycap> keys simultaneously."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
+#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-examples
+#: book.translate.xml:1497
+msgid "Examples"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1499
+msgid "Examples starting with <filename>C:\\&gt;</filename> indicate a <trademark class=\"registered\">MS-DOS</trademark> command. Unless otherwise noted, these commands may be executed from a <quote>Command Prompt</quote> window in a modern <trademark class=\"registered\">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> environment."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:1505
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>E:\\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>tools\\fdimage floppies\\kern.flp A:</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1507
+msgid "Examples starting with <prompt>#</prompt> indicate a command that must be invoked as the superuser in FreeBSD. You can login as <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> to type the command, or login as your normal account and use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to gain superuser privileges."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:1513
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dd if=kern.flp of=/dev/fd0</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1515
+msgid "Examples starting with <prompt>%</prompt> indicate a command that should be invoked from a normal user account. Unless otherwise noted, C-shell syntax is used for setting environment variables and other shell commands."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:1520
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>top</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
+#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-acknowledgements
+#: book.translate.xml:1522
+msgid "Acknowledgments"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1524
+msgid "The book you are holding represents the efforts of many hundreds of people around the world. Whether they sent in fixes for typos, or submitted complete chapters, all the contributions have been useful."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: preface/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1529
+msgid "Several companies have supported the development of this document by paying authors to work on it full-time, paying for publication, etc. In particular, BSDi (subsequently acquired by <link xlink:href=\"http://www.windriver.com\">Wind River Systems</link>) paid members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project to work on improving this book full time leading up to the publication of the first printed edition in March 2000 (ISBN 1-57176-241-8). Wind River Systems then paid several additional authors to make a number of improvements to the print-output infrastructure and to add additional chapters to the text. This work culminated in the publication of the second printed edition in November 2001 (ISBN 1-57176-303-1). In 2003-2004, <link xlink:href=\"http://www.freebsdmall.com\">FreeBSD Mall, Inc</link>, paid several contributors to improve the Handbook in preparation for the third printed edition."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: part/title
+#: book.translate.xml:1548
+msgid "Getting Started"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: partintro/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1551
+msgid "This part of the handbook is for users and administrators who are new to FreeBSD. These chapters:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1556
+msgid "Introduce FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1560
+msgid "Guide readers through the installation process."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1564
+msgid "Teach <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> basics and fundamentals."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1568
+msgid "Show how to install the wealth of third party applications available for FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1573
+msgid "Introduce X, the <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> windowing system, and detail how to configure a desktop environment that makes users more productive."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: partintro/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1579
+msgid "The number of forward references in the text have been kept to a minimum so that this section can be read from front to back with minimal page flipping."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:1593 book.translate.xml:23827 book.translate.xml:65535
+msgid "Introduction"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:1596 book.translate.xml:2861
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Jim</firstname> <surname>Mock</surname> </personname> <contrib>Restructured, reorganized, and parts rewritten by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:1608 book.translate.xml:2916 book.translate.xml:5528
+#: book.translate.xml:8917 book.translate.xml:10650 book.translate.xml:12840
+#: book.translate.xml:13969 book.translate.xml:15590 book.translate.xml:18073
+#: book.translate.xml:19341 book.translate.xml:22826 book.translate.xml:23739
+#: book.translate.xml:27838 book.translate.xml:29448 book.translate.xml:31216
+#: book.translate.xml:31950 book.translate.xml:35730 book.translate.xml:41662
+#: book.translate.xml:41869 book.translate.xml:43150 book.translate.xml:44190
+#: book.translate.xml:46339 book.translate.xml:46724 book.translate.xml:48927
+#: book.translate.xml:50595 book.translate.xml:52508 book.translate.xml:58238
+#: book.translate.xml:61925
+msgid "Synopsis"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1610
+msgid "Thank you for your interest in FreeBSD! The following chapter covers various aspects of the FreeBSD Project, such as its history, goals, development model, and so on."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1614 book.translate.xml:2943 book.translate.xml:5535
+#: book.translate.xml:8929 book.translate.xml:10671 book.translate.xml:15603
+#: book.translate.xml:18099 book.translate.xml:19355 book.translate.xml:23752
+#: book.translate.xml:27910 book.translate.xml:29475 book.translate.xml:31240
+#: book.translate.xml:31958 book.translate.xml:35756 book.translate.xml:41694
+#: book.translate.xml:41877 book.translate.xml:44202 book.translate.xml:46377
+#: book.translate.xml:46735 book.translate.xml:48938 book.translate.xml:50606
+#: book.translate.xml:58293 book.translate.xml:61930
+msgid "After reading this chapter, you will know:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1618
+msgid "How FreeBSD relates to other computer operating systems."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1623
+msgid "The history of the FreeBSD Project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1627
+msgid "The goals of the FreeBSD Project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1631
+msgid "The basics of the FreeBSD open-source development model."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1636
+msgid "And of course: where the name <quote>FreeBSD</quote> comes from."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:1643
+msgid "Welcome to FreeBSD!"
+msgstr "Welkom bij FreeBSD!"
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1645 book.translate.xml:1814
+msgid "<primary>4.4BSD-Lite</primary>"
+msgstr "<primary>4.4BSD-Lite</primary>"
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1647
+msgid "FreeBSD is a 4.4BSD-Lite based operating system for Intel (x86 and <trademark class=\"registered\">Itanium</trademark>), AMD64, Sun <trademark class=\"registered\">UltraSPARC</trademark> computers. Ports to other architectures are also under way. You can also read about <link linkend=\"history\">the history of FreeBSD</link>, or the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases\">current release</link>. If you are interested in contributing something to the Project (code, hardware, funding), see the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/index.html\">Contributing to FreeBSD</link> article."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:1657
+#, fuzzy
+msgid "What Can FreeBSD Do?"
+msgstr "Wat kan FreeBSD?"
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1659
+msgid "FreeBSD has many noteworthy features. Some of these are:"
+msgstr "FreeBSD heeft veel benoemenswaardige opties. Enkele van deze zijn:"
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1665
+msgid "<primary>preemptive multitasking</primary>"
+msgstr "<primary>preemptive multitasking</primary>"
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1664
+msgid "<emphasis>Preemptive multitasking</emphasis> <_:indexterm-1/> with dynamic priority adjustment to ensure smooth and fair sharing of the computer between applications and users, even under the heaviest of loads."
+msgstr "<emphasis>Preemptive multitasking</emphasis> <_:indexterm-1/> met dynamische prioriteit aanpassingen om te zorgen voor een geleidelijke en eerlijke verdeling van de computer tussen applicaties en gebruikers, zelfs onder de zwaarste belasting."
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1674
+msgid "<primary>multi-user facilities</primary>"
+msgstr "<primary>multi-user facilities</primary>"
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1674
+msgid "<emphasis>Multi-user facilities</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> which allow many people to use a FreeBSD system simultaneously for a variety of things. This means, for example, that system peripherals such as printers and tape drives are properly shared between all users on the system or the network and that individual resource limits can be placed on users or groups of users, protecting critical system resources from over-use."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1687
+msgid "<primary>TCP/IP networking</primary>"
+msgstr "<primary>TCP/IP networking</primary>"
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1686
+msgid "Strong <emphasis>TCP/IP networking</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> with support for industry standards such as SCTP, DHCP, NFS, NIS, PPP, SLIP, IPsec, and IPv6. This means that your FreeBSD machine can interoperate easily with other systems as well as act as an enterprise server, providing vital functions such as NFS (remote file access) and email services or putting your organization on the Internet with WWW, FTP, routing and firewall (security) services."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1700
+msgid "<primary>memory protection</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1700
+msgid "<emphasis>Memory protection</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> ensures that applications (or users) cannot interfere with each other. One application crashing will not affect others in any way."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1709 book.translate.xml:1952
+msgid "<primary>X Window System</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1708
+msgid "The industry standard <emphasis>X Window System</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> (X11R7) can provide a graphical user interface (GUI) on any machine and comes with full sources."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1718 book.translate.xml:18078
+msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>Linux</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1722
+msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>SCO</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1726
+msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>SVR4</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1730
+msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>BSD/OS</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1734
+msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>NetBSD</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1717
+msgid "<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <_:indexterm-4/> <_:indexterm-5/> <emphasis>Binary compatibility</emphasis> with many programs built for Linux, SCO, SVR4, BSDI and NetBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1744
+msgid "Thousands of <emphasis>ready-to-run</emphasis> applications are available from the FreeBSD <emphasis>ports</emphasis> and <emphasis>packages</emphasis> collection. Why search the net when you can find it all right here?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1752
+msgid "Thousands of additional and <emphasis>easy-to-port</emphasis> applications are available on the Internet. FreeBSD is source code compatible with most popular commercial <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> systems and thus most applications require few, if any, changes to compile."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1761
+msgid "<primary>virtual memory</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1760
+msgid "Demand paged <emphasis>virtual memory</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> and <quote>merged VM/buffer cache</quote> design efficiently satisfies applications with large appetites for memory while still maintaining interactive response to other users."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1770
+msgid "<primary>Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP)</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1770
+msgid "<emphasis>SMP</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> support for machines with multiple CPUs."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1779
+msgid "<primary>compilers</primary> <secondary>C</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1783
+msgid "<primary>compilers</primary> <secondary>C++</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1778
+msgid "<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> A full complement of <emphasis>C</emphasis> and <emphasis>C++</emphasis> development tools. Many additional languages for advanced research and development are also available in the ports and packages collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1796
+msgid "<primary>source code</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1796
+msgid "<emphasis>Source code</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> for the entire system means you have the greatest degree of control over your environment. Why be locked into a proprietary solution at the mercy of your vendor when you can have a truly open system?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1805
+msgid "Extensive <emphasis>online documentation</emphasis>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1810
+msgid "<emphasis>And many more!</emphasis>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1817
+msgid "<primary>Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG)</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1814
+msgid "FreeBSD is based on the 4.4BSD-Lite<_:indexterm-1/> release from Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG)<_:indexterm-2/> at the University of California at Berkeley, and carries on the distinguished tradition of BSD systems development. In addition to the fine work provided by CSRG, the FreeBSD Project has put in many thousands of hours in fine tuning the system for maximum performance and reliability in real-life load situations. FreeBSD offers performance and reliability on par with commercial offerings, combined with many cutting-edge features not available anywhere else."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1828
+msgid "The applications to which FreeBSD can be put are truly limited only by your own imagination. From software development to factory automation, inventory control to azimuth correction of remote satellite antennae; if it can be done with a commercial <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> product then it is more than likely that you can do it with FreeBSD too! FreeBSD also benefits significantly from literally thousands of high quality applications developed by research centers and universities around the world, often available at little to no cost. Commercial applications are also available and appearing in greater numbers every day."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1840
+msgid "Because the source code for FreeBSD itself is generally available, the system can also be customized to an almost unheard of degree for special applications or projects, and in ways not generally possible with operating systems from most major commercial vendors. Here is just a sampling of some of the applications in which people are currently using FreeBSD:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1850
+msgid "<emphasis>Internet Services:</emphasis> The robust TCP/IP networking built into FreeBSD makes it an ideal platform for a variety of Internet services such as:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1857
+msgid "<primary>web servers</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1857
+msgid "World Wide Web servers<_:indexterm-1/> (standard or secure [SSL])"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1864
+msgid "IPv4 and IPv6 routing"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#. (itstool) path: chapter/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1868 book.translate.xml:58229
+msgid "<primary>firewall</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1871 book.translate.xml:61395
+msgid "<primary>NAT</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1868
+msgid "Firewalls<_:indexterm-1/> and NAT<_:indexterm-2/> (<quote>IP masquerading</quote>) gateways"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1878
+msgid "<primary>FTP servers</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1878
+msgid "FTP servers<_:indexterm-1/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1885
+msgid "<primary>electronic mail</primary> <see>email</see>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1889 book.translate.xml:50597
+msgid "<primary>email</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1884
+msgid "<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> Electronic Mail servers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1896
+msgid "And more..."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1902
+msgid "<emphasis>Education:</emphasis> Are you a student of computer science or a related engineering field? There is no better way of learning about operating systems, computer architecture and networking than the hands on, under the hood experience that FreeBSD can provide. A number of freely available CAD, mathematical and graphic design packages also make it highly useful to those whose primary interest in a computer is to get <emphasis>other</emphasis> work done!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1914
+msgid "<emphasis>Research:</emphasis> With source code for the entire system available, FreeBSD is an excellent platform for research in operating systems as well as other branches of computer science. FreeBSD's freely available nature also makes it possible for remote groups to collaborate on ideas or shared development without having to worry about special licensing agreements or limitations on what may be discussed in open forums."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1926 book.translate.xml:62278
+msgid "<primary>router</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1928
+msgid "<primary>DNS Server</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1925
+msgid "<emphasis>Networking:</emphasis> Need a new router?<_:indexterm-1/> A name server (DNS)?<_:indexterm-2/> A firewall to keep people out of your internal network? FreeBSD can easily turn that unused PC sitting in the corner into an advanced router with sophisticated packet-filtering capabilities."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1939
+msgid "<primary>embedded</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1937
+msgid "<emphasis>Embedded:</emphasis> FreeBSD makes an excellent platform to build embedded systems upon. <_:indexterm-1/> With support for the <trademark class=\"registered\">ARM</trademark>, <trademark class=\"registered\">MIPS</trademark> and <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</trademark> platforms, coupled with a robust network stack, cutting edge features and the permissive <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/introduction.html#bsd-license-restrictions\">BSD license</link> FreeBSD makes an excellent foundation for building embedded routers, firewalls, and other devices."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1955 book.translate.xml:12040
+msgid "<primary>GNOME</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1958 book.translate.xml:12127
+msgid "<primary>KDE</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1951
+msgid "<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <emphasis>Desktop:</emphasis> FreeBSD makes a fine choice for an inexpensive desktop solution using the freely available X11 server. FreeBSD offers a choice from many open-source desktop environments, including the standard <application>GNOME</application> and <application>KDE</application> graphical user interfaces. FreeBSD can even boot <quote>diskless</quote> from a central server, making individual workstations even cheaper and easier to administer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1977
+msgid "<primary>Compiler</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1974
+msgid "<emphasis>Software Development:</emphasis> The basic FreeBSD system comes with a full complement of development tools including a full C/C++<_:indexterm-1/> compiler and debugger suite. Support for many other languages are also available through the ports and packages collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1986
+msgid "FreeBSD is available to download free of charge, or can be obtained on either CD-ROM or DVD. Please see <xref linkend=\"mirrors\"/> for more information about obtaining FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:1993
+msgid "Who Uses FreeBSD?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1995
+msgid "<primary>users</primary> <secondary>large sites running FreeBSD</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2000
+msgid "FreeBSD's advanced features, proven security, predictable release cycle, and permissive license have led to its use as a platform for building many commercial and open source appliances, devices, and products. Many of the world's largest IT companies use FreeBSD:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2010 book.translate.xml:56898
+msgid "<primary>Apache</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2009
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.apache.org/\">Apache</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The Apache Software Foundation runs most of its public facing infrastructure, including possibly one of the largest SVN repositories in the world with over 1.4 million commits, on FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2020
+msgid "<primary>Apple</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2019
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.apple.com/\">Apple</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - OS X borrows heavily from FreeBSD for the network stack, virtual file system, and many userland components. Apple iOS also contains elements borrowed from FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2030
+msgid "<primary>Cisco</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2029
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.cisco.com/\">Cisco</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - IronPort network security and anti-spam appliances run a modified FreeBSD kernel."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2038
+msgid "<primary>Citrix</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2037
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.citrix.com/\">Citrix</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The NetScaler line of security appliances provide layer 4-7 load balancing, content caching, application firewall, secure VPN, and mobile cloud network access, along with the power of a FreeBSD shell."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2049
+msgid "<primary>Dell KACE</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2047
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.dell.com/KACE\">Dell KACE</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The KACE system management appliances run FreeBSD because of its reliability, scalability, and the community that supports its continued development."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2059
+msgid "<primary>Experts Exchange</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2057
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.experts-exchange.com/\">Experts Exchange</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - All public facing web servers are powered by FreeBSD and they make extensive use of jails to isolate development and testing environments without the overhead of virtualization."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2069
+msgid "<primary>Isilon</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2068
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.isilon.com/\">Isilon</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - Isilon's enterprise storage appliances are based on FreeBSD. The extremely liberal FreeBSD license allowed Isilon to integrate their intellectual property throughout the kernel and focus on building their product instead of an operating system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2081
+msgid "<primary>iXsystems</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2080
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.ixsystems.com/\">iXsystems</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The TrueNAS line of unified storage appliances is based on FreeBSD. In addition to their commercial products, iXsystems also manages development of the open source projects PC-BSD and FreeNAS."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2091
+msgid "<primary>Juniper</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2090
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.juniper.net/\">Juniper</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The JunOS operating system that powers all Juniper networking gear (including routers, switches, security, and networking appliances) is based on FreeBSD. Juniper is one of many vendors that showcases the symbiotic relationship between the project and vendors of commercial products. Improvements generated at Juniper are upstreamed into FreeBSD to reduce the complexity of integrating new features from FreeBSD back into JunOS in the future."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2106
+msgid "<primary>McAfee</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2105
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.mcafee.com/\">McAfee</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - SecurOS, the basis of McAfee enterprise firewall products including Sidewinder is based on FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2115
+msgid "<primary>NetApp</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2114
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netapp.com/\">NetApp</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The Data ONTAP GX line of storage appliances are based on FreeBSD. In addition, NetApp has contributed back many features, including the new BSD licensed hypervisor, bhyve."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2125 book.translate.xml:2399
+msgid "<primary>Netflix</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2124
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netflix.com/\">Netflix</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The OpenConnect appliance that Netflix uses to stream movies to its customers is based on FreeBSD. Netflix has made extensive contributions to the codebase and works to maintain a zero delta from mainline FreeBSD. Netflix OpenConnect appliances are responsible for delivering more than 32% of all Internet traffic in North America."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2138
+msgid "<primary>Sandvine</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2137
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sandvine.com/\">Sandvine</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - Sandvine uses FreeBSD as the basis of their high performance realtime network processing platforms that make up their intelligent network policy control products."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2148
+msgid "<primary>Sony</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2147
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sony.com/\">Sony</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The PlayStation 4 gaming console runs a modified version of FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2156
+msgid "<primary>Sophos</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2155
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sophos.com/\">Sophos</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The Sophos Email Appliance product is based on a hardened FreeBSD and scans inbound mail for spam and viruses, while also monitoring outbound mail for malware as well as the accidental loss of sensitive information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2168
+msgid "<primary>Spectra Logic</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2166
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.spectralogic.com/\">Spectra Logic</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The nTier line of archive grade storage appliances run FreeBSD and OpenZFS."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2176
+msgid "<primary>Stormshield</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2175
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"https://www.stormshield.eu\">Stormshield</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - Stormshield Network Security appliances are based on a hardened version of FreeBSD. The BSD license allows us to integrate our own intellectual property with the system while returning a great deal of interesting development to the community."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2189
+msgid "<primary>The Weather Channel</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2187
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.weather.com/\">The Weather Channel</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The IntelliStar appliance that is installed at each local cable providers headend and is responsible for injecting local weather forecasts into the cable TV network's programming runs FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2200
+msgid "<primary>Verisign</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2199
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.verisign.com/\">Verisign</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - Verisign is responsible for operating the .com and .net root domain registries as well as the accompanying DNS infrastructure. They rely on a number of different network operating systems including FreeBSD to ensure there is no common point of failure in their infrastructure."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2213
+msgid "<primary>Voxer</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2212
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.voxer.com/\">Voxer</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - Voxer powers their mobile voice messaging platform with ZFS on FreeBSD. Voxer switched from a Solaris derivative to FreeBSD because of its superior documentation, larger and more active community, and more developer friendly environment. In addition to critical features like <acronym>ZFS</acronym> and DTrace, FreeBSD also offers TRIM support for <acronym>ZFS</acronym>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2227
+msgid "<primary>WhatsApp</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2226
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.whatsapp.com/\">WhatsApp</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - When WhatsApp needed a platform that would be able to handle more than 1 million concurrent TCP connections per server, they chose FreeBSD. They then proceeded to scale past 2.5 million connections per server."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2239
+msgid "<primary>Wheel Systems</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2237
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://wheelsystems.com/\">Wheel Systems</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The FUDO security appliance allows enterprises to monitor, control, record, and audit contractors and administrators who work on their systems. Based on all of the best security features of FreeBSD including ZFS, GELI, Capsicum, HAST, and auditdistd."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2251
+msgid "FreeBSD has also spawned a number of related open source projects:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2258
+msgid "<primary>BSD Router</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2256
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://bsdrp.net/\">BSD Router</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - A FreeBSD based replacement for large enterprise routers designed to run on standard PC hardware."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2267
+msgid "<primary>FreeNAS</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2266
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.freenas.org/\">FreeNAS</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - A customized FreeBSD designed to be used as a network file server appliance. Provides a python based web interface to simplify the management of both the UFS and ZFS file systems. Includes support for NFS, SMB/CIFS, AFP, FTP, and iSCSI. Includes an extensible plugin system based on FreeBSD jails."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2279
+msgid "<primary>GhostBSD</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2278
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.ghostbsd.org/\">GhostBSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - A desktop oriented distribution of FreeBSD bundled with the Gnome desktop environment."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2287
+msgid "<primary>mfsBSD</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2286
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://mfsbsd.vx.sk/\">mfsBSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - A toolkit for building a FreeBSD system image that runs entirely from memory."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2295
+msgid "<primary>NAS4Free</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2294
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.nas4free.org/\">NAS4Free</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - A file server distribution based on FreeBSD with a PHP powered web interface."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2303
+msgid "<primary>OPNsense</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2302
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.opnsense.org/\">OPNSense</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - OPNsense is an open source, easy-to-use and easy-to-build FreeBSD based firewall and routing platform. OPNsense includes most of the features available in expensive commercial firewalls, and more in many cases. It brings the rich feature set of commercial offerings with the benefits of open and verifiable sources."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2315
+msgid "<primary>PC-BSD</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2314
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pcbsd.org/\">PC-BSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - A customized version of FreeBSD geared towards desktop users with graphical utilities to exposing the power of FreeBSD to all users. Designed to ease the transition of Windows and OS X users."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2325
+msgid "<primary>pfSense</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2324
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pfsense.org/\">pfSense</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - A firewall distribution based on FreeBSD with a huge array of features and extensive IPv6 support."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2334
+msgid "<primary>ZRouter</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2333
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://zrouter.org/\">ZRouter</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - An open source alternative firmware for embedded devices based on FreeBSD. Designed to replace the proprietary firmware on off-the-shelf routers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2342
+msgid "FreeBSD is also used to power some of the biggest sites on the Internet, including:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2348
+msgid "<primary>Yahoo!</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2347
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.yahoo.com/\">Yahoo!</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2355
+msgid "<primary>Yandex</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2354
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.yandex.ru/\">Yandex</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2362
+msgid "<primary>Rambler</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2361
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.rambler.ru/\">Rambler</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2369
+msgid "<primary>Sina</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2368
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sina.com/\">Sina</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2377
+msgid "<primary>Pair Networks</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2375
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pair.com/\">Pair Networks</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2385
+msgid "<primary>Sony Japan</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2383
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sony.co.jp/\">Sony Japan</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2392
+msgid "<primary>Netcraft</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2391
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netcraft.com/\">Netcraft</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2398
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"https://signup.netflix.com/openconnect\">Netflix</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2406
+msgid "<primary>NetEase</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2405
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.163.com/\">NetEase</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2413
+msgid "<primary>Weathernews</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2412
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.weathernews.com/\">Weathernews</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2421
+msgid "<primary>TELEHOUSE America</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2419
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.telehouse.com/\">TELEHOUSE America</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2428
+msgid "and many more. Wikipedia also maintains a <link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_products_based_on_FreeBSD\">list of products based on FreeBSD</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:2434
+msgid "About the FreeBSD Project"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2436
+msgid "The following section provides some background information on the project, including a brief history, project goals, and the development model of the project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:2441
+msgid "A Brief History of FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2443
+msgid "<primary>386BSD Patchkit</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2444
+msgid "<primary>Hubbard, Jordan</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2445
+msgid "<primary>Williams, Nate</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2446
+msgid "<primary>Grimes, Rod</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2447
+msgid "<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>history</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2452
+msgid "The FreeBSD Project had its genesis in the early part of 1993, partially as an outgrowth of the Unofficial 386BSDPatchkit by the patchkit's last 3 coordinators: Nate Williams, Rod Grimes and Jordan Hubbard."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2457 book.translate.xml:2497
+msgid "<primary>386BSD</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2458
+msgid "The original goal was to produce an intermediate snapshot of 386BSD in order to fix a number of problems with it that the patchkit mechanism just was not capable of solving. The early working title for the project was 386BSD 0.5 or 386BSD Interim in reference of that fact."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2464
+msgid "<primary>Jolitz, Bill</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2465
+msgid "386BSD was Bill Jolitz's operating system, which had been up to that point suffering rather severely from almost a year's worth of neglect. As the patchkit swelled ever more uncomfortably with each passing day, they decided to assist Bill by providing this interim <quote>cleanup</quote> snapshot. Those plans came to a rude halt when Bill Jolitz suddenly decided to withdraw his sanction from the project without any clear indication of what would be done instead."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2475
+msgid "<primary>Greenman, David</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2476
+msgid "<primary>Walnut Creek CDROM</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2478
+msgid "The trio thought that the goal remained worthwhile, even without Bill's support, and so they adopted the name \"FreeBSD\" coined by David Greenman. The initial objectives were set after consulting with the system's current users and, once it became clear that the project was on the road to perhaps even becoming a reality, Jordan contacted Walnut Creek CDROM with an eye toward improving FreeBSD's distribution channels for those many unfortunates without easy access to the Internet. Walnut Creek CDROM not only supported the idea of distributing FreeBSD on CD but also went so far as to provide the project with a machine to work on and a fast Internet connection. Without Walnut Creek CDROM's almost unprecedented degree of faith in what was, at the time, a completely unknown project, it is quite unlikely that FreeBSD would have gotten as far, as fast, as it has today."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2494
+msgid "<primary>4.3BSD-Lite</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2495 book.translate.xml:2510
+msgid "<primary>Net/2</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2496 book.translate.xml:2509
+msgid "<primary>U.C. Berkeley</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2498 book.translate.xml:8884
+msgid "<primary>Free Software Foundation</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2500
+msgid "The first CD-ROM (and general net-wide) distribution was FreeBSD 1.0, released in December of 1993. This was based on the 4.3BSD-Lite (<quote>Net/2</quote>) tape from U.C. Berkeley, with many components also provided by 386BSD and the Free Software Foundation. It was a fairly reasonable success for a first offering, and they followed it with the highly successful FreeBSD 1.1 release in May of 1994."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2508
+msgid "<primary>Novell</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2511
+msgid "<primary>AT&amp;T</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2512
+msgid "Around this time, some rather unexpected storm clouds formed on the horizon as Novell and U.C. Berkeley settled their long-running lawsuit over the legal status of the Berkeley Net/2 tape. A condition of that settlement was U.C. Berkeley's concession that large parts of Net/2 were <quote>encumbered</quote> code and the property of Novell, who had in turn acquired it from AT&amp;T some time previously. What Berkeley got in return was Novell's <quote>blessing</quote> that the 4.4BSD-Lite release, when it was finally released, would be declared unencumbered and all existing Net/2 users would be strongly encouraged to switch. This included FreeBSD, and the project was given until the end of July 1994 to stop shipping its own Net/2 based product. Under the terms of that agreement, the project was allowed one last release before the deadline, that release being FreeBSD 1.1.5.1."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2529
+msgid "FreeBSD then set about the arduous task of literally re-inventing itself from a completely new and rather incomplete set of 4.4BSD-Lite bits. The <quote>Lite</quote> releases were light in part because Berkeley's CSRG had removed large chunks of code required for actually constructing a bootable running system (due to various legal requirements) and the fact that the Intel port of 4.4 was highly incomplete. It took the project until November of 1994 to make this transition, and in December it released FreeBSD 2.0 to the world. Despite being still more than a little rough around the edges, the release was a significant success and was followed by the more robust and easier to install FreeBSD 2.0.5 release in June of 1995."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2543
+msgid "Since that time, FreeBSD has made a series of releases each time improving the stability, speed, and feature set of the previous version."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2547
+msgid "For now, long-term development projects continue to take place in the 10.X-CURRENT (trunk) branch, and snapshot releases of 10.X are continually made available from <link xlink:href=\"ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/snapshots/\">the snapshot server</link> as work progresses."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:2555
+msgid "FreeBSD Project Goals"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:2558
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Jordan</firstname> <surname>Hubbard</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2568
+msgid "<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>goals</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2572
+msgid "The goals of the FreeBSD Project are to provide software that may be used for any purpose and without strings attached. Many of us have a significant investment in the code (and project) and would certainly not mind a little financial compensation now and then, but we are definitely not prepared to insist on it. We believe that our first and foremost <quote>mission</quote> is to provide code to any and all comers, and for whatever purpose, so that the code gets the widest possible use and provides the widest possible benefit. This is, I believe, one of the most fundamental goals of Free Software and one that we enthusiastically support."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2584
+msgid "<primary>GNU General Public License (GPL)</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2587
+msgid "<primary>GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL)</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2590
+msgid "<primary>BSD Copyright</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2591
+msgid "That code in our source tree which falls under the GNU General Public License (GPL) or Library General Public License (LGPL) comes with slightly more strings attached, though at least on the side of enforced access rather than the usual opposite. Due to the additional complexities that can evolve in the commercial use of GPL software we do, however, prefer software submitted under the more relaxed BSD copyright when it is a reasonable option to do so."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:2603
+msgid "The FreeBSD Development Model"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:2606
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Satoshi</firstname> <surname>Asami</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2616
+msgid "<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>development model</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2621
+msgid "The development of FreeBSD is a very open and flexible process, being literally built from the contributions of thousands of people around the world, as can be seen from our <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/article.html\">list of contributors</link>. FreeBSD's development infrastructure allow these thousands of contributors to collaborate over the Internet. We are constantly on the lookout for new developers and ideas, and those interested in becoming more closely involved with the project need simply contact us at the <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-hackers\">FreeBSD technical discussions mailing list</link>. The <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-announce\">FreeBSD announcements mailing list</link> is also available to those wishing to make other FreeBSD users aware of major areas of work."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2634
+msgid "Useful things to know about the FreeBSD Project and its development process, whether working independently or in close cooperation:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:2640
+msgid "The SVN repositories<anchor xml:id=\"development-cvs-repository\"/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2644
+msgid "<primary>CVS</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2648
+msgid "<primary>CVS Repository</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2652
+msgid "<primary>Concurrent Versions System</primary> <see>CVS</see>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2657 book.translate.xml:45258 book.translate.xml:45298
+#: book.translate.xml:65535
+msgid "<primary>Subversion</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2661
+msgid "<primary>Subversion Repository</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2665
+msgid "<primary>SVN</primary> <see>Subversion</see>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2643
+msgid "<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <_:indexterm-4/> <_:indexterm-5/> <_:indexterm-6/> For several years, the central source tree for FreeBSD was maintained by <link xlink:href=\"http://www.nongnu.org/cvs/\">CVS</link> (Concurrent Versions System), a freely available source code control tool. In June 2008, the Project switched to using <link xlink:href=\"http://subversion.tigris.org\">SVN</link> (Subversion). The switch was deemed necessary, as the technical limitations imposed by <application>CVS</application> were becoming obvious due to the rapid expansion of the source tree and the amount of history already stored. The Documentation Project and Ports Collection repositories also moved from <application>CVS</application> to <application>SVN</application> in May 2012 and July 2012, respectively. Please refer to the <link linkend=\"synching\">Synchronizing your source tree</link> section for more information on obtaining the FreeBSD <literal>src/</literal> repository and <link linkend=\"ports-using\">Using the Ports Collection</link> for details on obtaining the FreeBSD Ports Collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:2692
+msgid "The committers list<anchor xml:id=\"development-committers\"/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2696
+msgid "<primary>committers</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2695
+msgid "The <firstterm>committers</firstterm> <_:indexterm-1/> are the people who have <emphasis>write</emphasis> access to the Subversion tree, and are authorized to make modifications to the FreeBSD source (the term <quote>committer</quote> comes from <command>commit</command>, the source control command which is used to bring new changes into the repository). Anyone can submit a bug to the <link xlink:href=\"https://bugs.FreeBSD.org/submit/\">Bug Database</link>. Before submitting a bug report, the FreeBSD mailing lists, IRC channels, or forums can be used to help verify that an issue is actually a bug."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:2712
+msgid "The FreeBSD core team<anchor xml:id=\"development-core\"/>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2716
+msgid "<primary>core team</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2715
+msgid "The <firstterm>FreeBSD core team</firstterm> <_:indexterm-1/> would be equivalent to the board of directors if the FreeBSD Project were a company. The primary task of the core team is to make sure the project, as a whole, is in good shape and is heading in the right directions. Inviting dedicated and responsible developers to join our group of committers is one of the functions of the core team, as is the recruitment of new core team members as others move on. The current core team was elected from a pool of committer candidates in July 2014. Elections are held every 2 years."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2731
+msgid "Like most developers, most members of the core team are also volunteers when it comes to FreeBSD development and do not benefit from the project financially, so <quote>commitment</quote> should also not be misconstrued as meaning <quote>guaranteed support.</quote> The <quote>board of directors</quote> analogy above is not very accurate, and it may be more suitable to say that these are the people who gave up their lives in favor of FreeBSD against their better judgement!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:2746
+msgid "Outside contributors"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2749
+msgid "Last, but definitely not least, the largest group of developers are the users themselves who provide feedback and bug fixes to us on an almost constant basis. The primary way of keeping in touch with FreeBSD's more non-centralized development is to subscribe to the <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-hackers\">FreeBSD technical discussions mailing list</link> where such things are discussed. See <xref linkend=\"eresources\"/> for more information about the various FreeBSD mailing lists."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2760
+msgid "<primary>contributors</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2758
+msgid "<citetitle><link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/article.html\">The FreeBSD Contributors List</link></citetitle> <_:indexterm-1/> is a long and growing one, so why not join it by contributing something back to FreeBSD today?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2765
+msgid "Providing code is not the only way of contributing to the project; for a more complete list of things that need doing, please refer to the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html\">FreeBSD Project web site</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2773
+msgid "In summary, our development model is organized as a loose set of concentric circles. The centralized model is designed for the convenience of the <emphasis>users</emphasis> of FreeBSD, who are provided with an easy way of tracking one central code base, not to keep potential contributors out! Our desire is to present a stable operating system with a large set of coherent <link linkend=\"ports\">application programs</link> that the users can easily install and use — this model works very well in accomplishing that."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2783
+msgid "All we ask of those who would join us as FreeBSD developers is some of the same dedication its current people have to its continued success!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:2789
+msgid "Third Party Programs"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2791
+msgid "In addition to the base distributions, FreeBSD offers a ported software collection with thousands of commonly sought-after programs. At the time of this writing, there were over 24,000 ports! The list of ports ranges from http servers, to games, languages, editors, and almost everything in between. The entire Ports Collection requires approximately 500 MB. To compile a port, you simply change to the directory of the program you wish to install, type <command>make install</command>, and let the system do the rest. The full original distribution for each port you build is retrieved dynamically so you need only enough disk space to build the ports you want. Almost every port is also provided as a pre-compiled <quote>package</quote>, which can be installed with a simple command (<command>pkg install</command>) by those who do not wish to compile their own ports from source. More information on packages and ports can be found in <xref linkend=\"ports\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:2812
+msgid "Additional Documentation"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2814
+msgid "All recent FreeBSD versions provide an option in the installer (either <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsdinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>) to install additional documentation under <filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd</filename> during the initial system setup. Documentation may also be installed at any later time using packages as described in <xref linkend=\"doc-ports-install-package\"/>. You may view the locally installed manuals with any HTML capable browser using the following URLs:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:2826
+msgid "The FreeBSD Handbook"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2829
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"file://localhost/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/handbook/index.html\"><filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/handbook/index.html</filename></link>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:2834
+msgid "The FreeBSD FAQ"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2837
+msgid "<link xlink:href=\"file://localhost/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/faq/index.html\"><filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/faq/index.html</filename></link>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2842
+msgid "You can also view the master (and most frequently updated) copies at <uri xlink:href=\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/\">http://www.FreeBSD.org/</uri>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:2858
+msgid "Installing FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:2886
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Gavin</firstname> <surname>Atkinson</surname> </personname> <contrib>Updated for bsdinstall by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:2895
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Warren</firstname> <surname>Block</surname> </personname>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:2904
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Allan</firstname> <surname>Jude</surname> </personname> <contrib>Updated for root-on-ZFS by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2918
+msgid "<primary>installation</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2920
+msgid "Beginning with FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE, FreeBSD provides an easy to use, text-based installation program named <application>bsdinstall</application>. This chapter describes how to install FreeBSD using <application>bsdinstall</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2926
+msgid "In general, the installation instructions in this chapter are written for the <trademark>i386</trademark> and <acronym>AMD64</acronym> architectures. Where applicable, instructions specific to other platforms will be listed. There may be minor differences between the installer and what is shown here, so use this chapter as a general guide rather than as a set of literal instructions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2935
+msgid "Users who prefer to install FreeBSD using a graphical installer may be interested in <application>pc-sysinstall</application>, the installer used by the PC-BSD Project. It can be used to install either a graphical desktop (PC-BSD) or a command line version of FreeBSD. Refer to the PC-BSD Users Handbook for details (<link xlink:href=\"http://wiki.pcbsd.org/index.php/Colophon\">http://wiki.pcbsd.org/index.php/Colophon</link>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2947
+msgid "The minimum hardware requirements and FreeBSD supported architectures."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2952
+msgid "How to create the FreeBSD installation media."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2956
+msgid "How to start <application>bsdinstall</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2961
+msgid "The questions <application>bsdinstall</application> will ask, what they mean, and how to answer them."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2966
+msgid "How to troubleshoot a failed installation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2970
+msgid "How to access a live version of FreeBSD before committing to an installation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2975 book.translate.xml:10700 book.translate.xml:14032
+#: book.translate.xml:18123 book.translate.xml:19388 book.translate.xml:23812
+#: book.translate.xml:29511 book.translate.xml:31258 book.translate.xml:32010
+#: book.translate.xml:35781 book.translate.xml:41712 book.translate.xml:41907
+#: book.translate.xml:43210 book.translate.xml:44233 book.translate.xml:46394
+#: book.translate.xml:46753 book.translate.xml:48964 book.translate.xml:50670
+#: book.translate.xml:58321 book.translate.xml:61972
+msgid "Before reading this chapter, you should:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2979
+msgid "Read the supported hardware list that shipped with the version of FreeBSD to be installed and verify that the system's hardware is supported."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:2987
+msgid "Minimum Hardware Requirements"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2989
+msgid "The hardware requirements to install FreeBSD vary by architecture. Hardware architectures and devices supported by a FreeBSD release are listed on the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html\">FreeBSD Release Information</link> page. The <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/where.html\">FreeBSD download page</link> also has recommendations for choosing the correct image for different architectures."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2996
+msgid "A FreeBSD installation requires a minimum of 96 MB of <acronym>RAM</acronym> and 1.5 GB of free hard drive space. However, such small amounts of memory and disk space are really only suitable for custom applications like embedded appliances. General-purpose desktop systems need more resources. 2-4 GB RAM and at least 8 GB hard drive space is a good starting point."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3004
+msgid "These are the processor requirements for each architecture:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:3009
+msgid "amd64"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3011
+msgid "This is the most common desktop and laptop processor type, used in most modern systems. <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> calls it <acronym>Intel64</acronym>. Other manufacturers sometimes call it <acronym>x86-64</acronym>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3016
+msgid "Examples of amd64 compatible processsors include: <trademark>AMD Athlon</trademark>64, <trademark>AMD Opteron</trademark>, multi-core <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Xeon</trademark>, and <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Core</trademark> 2 and later processors."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:3024
+msgid "i386"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3026
+msgid "Older desktops and laptops often use this 32-bit, x86 architecture."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3029
+msgid "Almost all i386-compatible processors with a floating point unit are supported. All <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> processors 486 or higher are supported."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3033
+msgid "FreeBSD will take advantage of Physical Address Extensions (<acronym>PAE</acronym>) support on <acronym>CPU</acronym>s with this feature. A kernel with the <acronym>PAE</acronym> feature enabled will detect memory above 4 GB and allow it to be used by the system. However, using <acronym>PAE</acronym> places constraints on device drivers and other features of FreeBSD. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pae</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:3045
+msgid "ia64"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3047
+msgid "Currently supported processors are the <trademark class=\"registered\">Itanium</trademark> and the <trademark class=\"registered\">Itanium</trademark> 2. Supported chipsets include the HP zx1, <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> 460GX, and <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> E8870. Both Uniprocessor (<acronym>UP</acronym>) and Symmetric Multi-processor (<acronym>SMP</acronym>) configurations are supported."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:3057
+msgid "pc98"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3059
+msgid "NEC PC-9801/9821 series with almost all i386-compatible processors, including 80486, <trademark class=\"registered\">Pentium</trademark>, <trademark class=\"registered\">Pentium</trademark> Pro, and <trademark class=\"registered\">Pentium</trademark> II, are all supported. All i386-compatible processors by AMD, Cyrix, IBM, and IDT are also supported. EPSON PC-386/486/586 series, which are compatible with NEC PC-9801 series, are supported. The NEC FC-9801/9821 and NEC SV-98 series should be supported."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3068
+msgid "High-resolution mode is not supported. NEC PC-98XA/XL/RL/XL^2, and NEC PC-H98 series are supported in normal (PC-9801 compatible) mode only. The <acronym>SMP</acronym>-related features of FreeBSD are not supported. The New Extend Standard Architecture (<acronym>NESA</acronym>) bus used in the PC-H98, SV-H98, and FC-H98 series, is not supported."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:3079
+msgid "powerpc"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3081
+msgid "All New World <acronym>ROM</acronym> <trademark class=\"registered\">Apple</trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">Mac</trademark> systems with built-in <acronym>USB</acronym> are supported. <acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on machines with multiple <acronym>CPU</acronym>s."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3086
+msgid "A 32-bit kernel can only use the first 2 GB of <acronym>RAM</acronym>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:3092
+msgid "sparc64"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3094
+msgid "Systems supported by FreeBSD/sparc64 are listed at the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/platforms/sparc.html\">FreeBSD/sparc64 Project</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3098
+msgid "<acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on all systems with more than 1 processor. A dedicated disk is required as it is not possible to share a disk with another operating system at this time."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3108
+msgid "Pre-Installation Tasks"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3110
+msgid "Once it has been determined that the system meets the minimum hardware requirements for installing FreeBSD, the installation file should be downloaded and the installation media prepared. Before doing this, check that the system is ready for an installation by verifying the items in this checklist:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3119
+msgid "Back Up Important Data"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3121
+msgid "Before installing any operating system, <emphasis>always</emphasis> backup all important data first. Do not store the backup on the system being installed. Instead, save the data to a removable disk such as a <acronym>USB</acronym> drive, another system on the network, or an online backup service. Test the backup before starting the installation to make sure it contains all of the needed files. Once the installer formats the system's disk, all data stored on that disk will be lost."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3133
+msgid "Decide Where to Install FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3135
+msgid "If FreeBSD will be the only operating system installed, this step can be skipped. But if FreeBSD will share the disk with another operating system, decide which disk or partition will be used for FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3140
+msgid "In the i386 and amd64 architectures, disks can be divided into multiple partitions using one of two partitioning schemes. A traditional <firstterm>Master Boot Record</firstterm> (<acronym>MBR</acronym>) holds a partition table defining up to four <firstterm>primary partitions</firstterm>. For historical reasons, FreeBSD calls these primary partition <firstterm>slices</firstterm>. One of these primary partitions can be made into an <firstterm>extended partition</firstterm> containing multiple <firstterm>logical partitions</firstterm>. The <firstterm>GUID Partition Table</firstterm> (<acronym>GPT</acronym>) is a newer and simpler method of partitioning a disk. Common <acronym>GPT</acronym> implementations allow up to 128 partitions per disk, eliminating the need for logical partitions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: warning/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3158
+msgid "Some older operating systems, like <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> XP, are not compatible with the <acronym>GPT</acronym> partition scheme. If FreeBSD will be sharing a disk with such an operating system, <acronym>MBR</acronym> partitioning is required."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3165
+msgid "The FreeBSD boot loader requires either a primary or <acronym>GPT</acronym> partition. If all of the primary or <acronym>GPT</acronym> partitions are already in use, one must be freed for FreeBSD. To create a partition without deleting existing data, use a partition resizing tool to shrink an existing partition and create a new partition using the freed space."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3173
+msgid "A variety of free and commercial partition resizing tools are listed at <link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_disk_partitioning_software\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_disk_partitioning_software</link>. <application>GParted Live</application> (<link xlink:href=\"http://gparted.sourceforge.net/livecd.php\">http://gparted.sourceforge.net/livecd.php</link>) is a free live <acronym>CD</acronym> which includes the <application>GParted</application> partition editor. <application>GParted</application> is also included with many other Linux live <acronym>CD</acronym> distributions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: warning/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3183
+msgid "When used properly, disk shrinking utilities can safely create space for creating a new partition. Since the possibility of selecting the wrong partition exists, always backup any important data and verify the integrity of the backup before modifying disk partitions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3190
+msgid "Disk partitions containing different operating systems make it possible to install multiple operating systems on one computer. An alternative is to use virtualization (<xref linkend=\"virtualization\"/>) which allows multiple operating systems to run at the same time without modifying any disk partitions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3199
+msgid "Collect Network Information"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3201
+msgid "Some FreeBSD installation methods require a network connection in order to download the installation files. After any installation, the installer will offer to setup the system's network interfaces."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3206
+msgid "If the network has a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server, it can be used to provide automatic network configuration. If <acronym>DHCP</acronym> is not available, the following network information for the system must be obtained from the local network administrator or Internet service provider:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: orderedlist/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3214
+msgid "Required Network Information"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:3217 book.translate.xml:53724
+msgid "<acronym>IP</acronym> address"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3221
+msgid "Subnet mask"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3225
+msgid "<acronym>IP</acronym> address of default gateway"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3230
+msgid "Domain name of the network"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3234
+msgid "<acronym>IP</acronym> addresses of the network's <acronym>DNS</acronym> servers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3241
+msgid "Check for FreeBSD Errata"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3243
+msgid "Although the FreeBSD Project strives to ensure that each release of FreeBSD is as stable as possible, bugs occasionally creep into the process. On very rare occasions those bugs affect the installation process. As these problems are discovered and fixed, they are noted in the FreeBSD Errata (<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/11.0R/errata.html\">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/11.0R/errata.html</link>) on the FreeBSD web site. Check the errata before installing to make sure that there are no problems that might affect the installation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3253
+msgid "Information and errata for all the releases can be found on the release information section of the FreeBSD web site (<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html\">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3260
+msgid "Prepare the Installation Media"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3262
+msgid "The FreeBSD installer is not an application that can be run from within another operating system. Instead, download a FreeBSD installation file, burn it to the media associated with its file type and size (<acronym>CD</acronym>, <acronym>DVD</acronym>, or <acronym>USB</acronym>), and boot the system to install from the inserted media."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3269
+msgid "FreeBSD installation files are available at <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/where.html#download\">www.freebsd.org/where.html#download</link>. Each installation file's name includes the release version of FreeBSD, the architecture, and the type of file. For example, to install FreeBSD 10.2 on an amd64 system from a <acronym>DVD</acronym>, download <filename>FreeBSD-10.2-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso</filename>, burn this file to a <acronym>DVD</acronym>, and boot the system with the <acronym>DVD</acronym> inserted."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3278
+msgid "Installation files are available in several formats. The formats vary depending on computer architecture and media type."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#bsdinstall-installation-media-uefi
+#: book.translate.xml:3282
+msgid "Additional installation files are included for computers that boot with <acronym>UEFI</acronym> (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface). The names of these files include the string <filename>uefi</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3288
+msgid "File types:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3292
+msgid "<literal>-bootonly.iso</literal>: This is the smallest installation file as it only contains the installer. A working Internet connection is required during installation as the installer will download the files it needs to complete the FreeBSD installation. This file should be burned to a <acronym>CD</acronym> using a <acronym>CD</acronym> burning application."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3302
+msgid "<literal>-disc1.iso</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed to install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It should be burned to a <acronym>CD</acronym> using a <acronym>CD</acronym> burning application."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3310
+msgid "<literal>-dvd1.iso</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed to install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It also contains a set of popular binary packages for installing a window manager and some applications so that a complete system can be installed from media without requiring a connection to the Internet. This file should be burned to a <acronym>DVD</acronym> using a <acronym>DVD</acronym> burning application."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3321
+msgid "<literal>-memstick.img</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed to install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It should be burned to a <acronym>USB</acronym> stick using the instructions below."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3329
+msgid "<literal>-mini-memstick.img</literal>: Like <literal>-bootonly.iso</literal>, does not include installation files, but downloads them as needed. A working internet connection is required during installation. Write this file to a <acronym>USB</acronym> stick as shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-usb\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3338
+msgid "After downloading the image file, download <filename>CHECKSUM.SHA256</filename> from the same directory. Calculate a <firstterm>checksum</firstterm> for the image file. FreeBSD provides <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sha256</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> for this, used as <command>sha256 <replaceable>imagefilename</replaceable></command>. Other operating systems have similar programs."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3346
+msgid "Compare the calculated checksum with the one shown in <filename>CHECKSUM.SHA256</filename>. The checksums must match exactly. If the checksums do not match, the image file is corrupt and must be downloaded again."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3352
+msgid "Writing an Image File to <acronym>USB</acronym>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3354
+msgid "The <filename>*.img</filename> file is an <emphasis>image</emphasis> of the complete contents of a memory stick. It <emphasis>cannot</emphasis> be copied to the target device as a file. Several applications are available for writing the <filename>*.img</filename> to a <acronym>USB</acronym> stick. This section describes two of these utilities."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: important/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3363
+msgid "Before proceeding, back up any important data on the <acronym>USB</acronym> stick. This procedure will erase the existing data on the stick."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3369
+msgid "Using <command>dd</command> to Write the Image"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: warning/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3373
+msgid "This example uses <filename>/dev/da0</filename> as the target device where the image will be written. Be <emphasis>very careful</emphasis> that the correct device is used as this command will destroy the existing data on the specified target device."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3381
+msgid "The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> command-line utility is available on BSD, <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark>, and <trademark class=\"registered\">Mac OS</trademark> systems. To burn the image using <command>dd</command>, insert the <acronym>USB</acronym> stick and determine its device name. Then, specify the name of the downloaded installation file and the device name for the <acronym>USB</acronym> stick. This example burns the amd64 installation image to the first <acronym>USB</acronym> device on an existing FreeBSD system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:3392
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dd if=<replaceable>FreeBSD-10.2-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img</replaceable> of=/dev/<replaceable>da0</replaceable> bs=1M conv=sync</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3394
+msgid "If this command fails, verify that the <acronym>USB</acronym> stick is not mounted and that the device name is for the disk, not a partition. Some operating systems might require this command to be run with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sudo</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Systems like <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> might buffer writes. To force all writes to complete, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sync</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3405
+msgid "Using <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> to Write the Image"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: warning/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3408
+msgid "Be sure to give the correct drive letter as the existing data on the specified drive will be overwritten and destroyed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3414
+msgid "Obtaining <application>Image Writer for <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark></application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3417
+msgid "<application>Image Writer for <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark></application> is a free application that can correctly write an image file to a memory stick. Download it from <uri xlink:href=\"https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/\">https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/</uri> and extract it into a folder."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3425
+msgid "Writing the Image with Image Writer"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3427
+msgid "Double-click the <application>Win32DiskImager</application> icon to start the program. Verify that the drive letter shown under <computeroutput>Device</computeroutput> is the drive with the memory stick. Click the folder icon and select the image to be written to the memory stick. Click <guibutton>[ Save ]</guibutton> to accept the image file name. Verify that everything is correct, and that no folders on the memory stick are open in other windows. When everything is ready, click <guibutton>[ Write ]</guibutton> to write the image file to the memory stick."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3442
+msgid "You are now ready to start installing FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3448
+msgid "Starting the Installation"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: important/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3451
+msgid "By default, the installation will not make any changes to the disk(s) before the following message:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: important/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:3454
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Your changes will now be written to disk. If you\n"
+"have chosen to overwrite existing data, it will\n"
+"be PERMANENTLY ERASED. Are you sure you want to\n"
+"commit your changes?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: important/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3459
+msgid "The install can be exited at any time prior to this warning. If there is a concern that something is incorrectly configured, just turn the computer off before this point and no changes will be made to the system's disks."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3466
+msgid "This section describes how to boot the system from the installation media which was prepared using the instructions in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-installation-media\"/>. When using a bootable USB stick, plug in the <acronym>USB</acronym> stick before turning on the computer. When booting from <acronym>CD</acronym> or <acronym>DVD</acronym>, turn on the computer and insert the media at the first opportunity. How to configure the system to boot from the inserted media depends upon the architecture."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3477
+msgid "Booting on <trademark>i386</trademark> and amd64"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3479
+msgid "These architectures provide a <acronym>BIOS</acronym> menu for selecting the boot device. Depending upon the installation media being used, select the <acronym>CD</acronym>/<acronym>DVD</acronym> or <acronym>USB</acronym> device as the first boot device. Most systems also provide a key for selecting the boot device during startup without having to enter the <acronym>BIOS</acronym>. Typically, the key is either <keycap>F10</keycap>, <keycap>F11</keycap>, <keycap>F12</keycap>, or <keycap>Escape</keycap>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3490
+msgid "If the computer loads the existing operating system instead of the FreeBSD installer, then either:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3495
+msgid "The installation media was not inserted early enough in the boot process. Leave the media inserted and try restarting the computer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3501
+msgid "The <acronym>BIOS</acronym> changes were incorrect or not saved. Double-check that the right boot device is selected as the first boot device."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3507
+msgid "This system is too old to support booting from the chosen media. In this case, the <application>Plop Boot Manager</application> (<link xlink:href=\"http://www.plop.at/en/bootmanagers.html\"/>) can be used to boot the system from the selected media."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3517
+msgid "Booting on <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</trademark>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3519
+msgid "On most machines, holding <keycap>C</keycap> on the keyboard during boot will boot from the <acronym>CD</acronym>. Otherwise, hold <keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Command</keycap> <keycap>Option</keycap> <keycap>O</keycap> <keycap>F</keycap> </keycombo>, or <keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Windows</keycap> <keycap>Alt</keycap> <keycap>O</keycap> <keycap>F</keycap> </keycombo> on non-<trademark class=\"registered\">Apple</trademark> keyboards. At the <prompt>0 &gt;</prompt> prompt, enter"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:3535
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<userinput>boot cd:,\\ppc\\loader cd:0</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3539
+msgid "Booting on <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3541
+msgid "Most <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark> systems are set up to boot automatically from disk. To install FreeBSD from a <acronym>CD</acronym> requires a break into the <acronym>PROM</acronym>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3545
+msgid "To do this, reboot the system and wait until the boot message appears. The message depends on the model, but should look something like this:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:3549
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Sun Blade 100 (UltraSPARC-IIe), Keyboard Present\n"
+"Copyright 1998-2001 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved.\n"
+"OpenBoot 4.2, 128 MB memory installed, Serial #51090132.\n"
+"Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID: 830b92d4."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3554
+msgid "If the system proceeds to boot from disk at this point, press <keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>L1</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo> or <keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Stop</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo> on the keyboard, or send a <command>BREAK</command> over the serial console. When using <application>tip</application> or <application>cu</application>, <command>~#</command> will issue a BREAK. The <acronym>PROM</acronym> prompt will be <prompt>ok</prompt> on systems with one <acronym>CPU</acronym> and <prompt>ok {0} </prompt> on <acronym>SMP</acronym> systems, where the digit indicates the number of the active <acronym>CPU</acronym>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3566
+msgid "At this point, place the <acronym>CD</acronym> into the drive and type <command>boot cdrom</command> from the <acronym>PROM</acronym> prompt."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3572
+msgid "FreeBSD Boot Menu"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3574
+msgid "Once the system boots from the installation media, a menu similar to the following will be displayed:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3578
+msgid "FreeBSD Boot Loader Menu"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:3582
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3587
+msgid "By default, the menu will wait ten seconds for user input before booting into the FreeBSD installer or, if FreeBSD is already installed, before booting into FreeBSD. To pause the boot timer in order to review the selections, press <keycap>Space</keycap>. To select an option, press its highlighted number, character, or key. The following options are available."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3597
+msgid "<literal>Boot Multi User</literal>: This will continue the FreeBSD boot process. If the boot timer has been paused, press <keycap>1</keycap>, upper- or lower-case <keycap>B</keycap>, or <keycap>Enter</keycap>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3605
+msgid "<literal>Boot Single User</literal>: This mode can be used to fix an existing FreeBSD installation as described in <xref linkend=\"boot-singleuser\"/>. Press <keycap>2</keycap> or the upper- or lower-case <keycap>S</keycap> to enter this mode."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3613
+msgid "<literal>Escape to loader prompt</literal>: This will boot the system into a repair prompt that contains a limited number of low-level commands. This prompt is described in <xref linkend=\"boot-loader\"/>. Press <keycap>3</keycap> or <keycap>Esc</keycap> to boot into this prompt."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3622
+msgid "<literal>Reboot</literal>: Reboots the system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3626
+msgid "<literal>Configure Boot Options</literal>: Opens the menu shown in, and described under, <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-boot-options-menu\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3632
+msgid "FreeBSD Boot Options Menu"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:3636
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-boot-options-menu' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3641
+msgid "The boot options menu is divided into two sections. The first section can be used to either return to the main boot menu or to reset any toggled options back to their defaults."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3646
+msgid "The next section is used to toggle the available options to <literal>On</literal> or <literal>Off</literal> by pressing the option's highlighted number or character. The system will always boot using the settings for these options until they are modified. Several options can be toggled using this menu:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3655
+msgid "<literal>ACPI Support</literal>: If the system hangs during boot, try toggling this option to <literal>Off</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3661
+msgid "<literal>Safe Mode</literal>: If the system still hangs during boot even with <literal>ACPI Support</literal> set to <literal>Off</literal>, try setting this option to <literal>On</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3668
+msgid "<literal>Single User</literal>: Toggle this option to <literal>On</literal> to fix an existing FreeBSD installation as described in <xref linkend=\"boot-singleuser\"/>. Once the problem is fixed, set it back to <literal>Off</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3676
+msgid "<literal>Verbose</literal>: Toggle this option to <literal>On</literal> to see more detailed messages during the boot process. This can be useful when troubleshooting a piece of hardware."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3683
+msgid "After making the needed selections, press <keycap>1</keycap> or <keycap>Backspace</keycap> to return to the main boot menu, then press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue booting into FreeBSD. A series of boot messages will appear as FreeBSD carries out its hardware device probes and loads the installation program. Once the boot is complete, the welcome menu shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-choose-mode\"/> will be displayed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3692
+msgid "Welcome Menu"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:3696
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-choose-mode' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3701
+msgid "Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to select the default of <guibutton>[ Install ]</guibutton> to enter the installer. The rest of this chapter describes how to use this installer. Otherwise, use the right or left arrows or the colorized letter to select the desired menu item. The <guibutton>[ Shell ]</guibutton> can be used to access a FreeBSD shell in order to use command line utilities to prepare the disks before installation. The <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton> option can be used to try out FreeBSD before installing it. The live version is described in <xref linkend=\"using-live-cd\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: tip/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3714
+msgid "To review the boot messages, including the hardware device probe, press the upper- or lower-case <keycap>S</keycap> and then <keycap>Enter</keycap> to access a shell. At the shell prompt, type <command>more /var/run/dmesg.boot</command> and use the space bar to scroll through the messages. When finished, type <command>exit</command> to return to the welcome menu."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3727
+msgid "Using <application>bsdinstall</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3729
+msgid "This section shows the order of the <application>bsdinstall</application> menus and the type of information that will be asked before the system is installed. Use the arrow keys to highlight a menu option, then <keycap>Space</keycap> to select or deselect that menu item. When finished, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to save the selection and move onto the next screen."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3738
+msgid "Selecting the Keymap Menu"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3740
+msgid "Depending on the system console being used, <application>bsdinstall</application> may initially display the menu shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-keymap-select-default\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3745
+msgid "Keymap Selection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:3749
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-select-default' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3754
+msgid "To configure the keyboard layout, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> with <guibutton>[ YES ]</guibutton> selected, which will display the menu shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-config-keymap\"/>. To instead use the default layout, use the arrow key to select <guibutton>[ NO ]</guibutton> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to skip this menu screen."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3763
+msgid "Selecting Keyboard Menu"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:3767
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-keymap' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3772
+msgid "When configuring the keyboard layout, use the up and down arrows to select the keymap that most closely represents the mapping of the keyboard attached to the system. Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to save the selection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3778
+msgid "Pressing <keycap>Esc</keycap> will exit this menu and use the default keymap. If the choice of keymap is not clear, <guimenuitem>United States of America ISO-8859-1</guimenuitem> is also a safe option."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3784
+msgid "In FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE and later, this menu has been enhanced. The full selection of keymaps is shown, with the default preselected. In addition, when selecting a different keymap, a dialog is displayed that allows the user to try the keymap and ensure it is correct before proceeding."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3791
+msgid "Enhanced Keymap Menu"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:3795
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-10' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3803 book.translate.xml:3810
+msgid "Setting the Hostname"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3805
+msgid "The next <application>bsdinstall</application> menu is used to set the hostname for the newly installed system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:3814
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-hostname' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3819
+msgid "Type in a hostname that is unique for the network. It should be a fully-qualified hostname, such as <systemitem class=\"fqdomainname\">machine3.example.com</systemitem>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3824 book.translate.xml:3830
+msgid "Selecting Components to Install"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3826
+msgid "Next, <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt to select optional components to install."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:3834
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-components' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3839
+msgid "Deciding which components to install will depend largely on the intended use of the system and the amount of disk space available. The FreeBSD kernel and userland, collectively known as the <firstterm>base system</firstterm>, are always installed. Depending on the architecture, some of these components may not appear:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3848
+msgid "<literal>doc</literal> - Additional documentation, mostly of historical interest, to install into <filename>/usr/share/doc</filename>. The documentation provided by the FreeBSD Documentation Project may be installed later using the instructions in <xref linkend=\"updating-upgrading-documentation\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3856
+msgid "<literal>games</literal> - Several traditional <acronym>BSD</acronym> games, including <application>fortune</application>, <application>rot13</application>, and others."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3863
+msgid "<literal>lib32</literal> - Compatibility libraries for running 32-bit applications on a 64-bit version of FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3869
+msgid "<literal>ports</literal> - The FreeBSD Ports Collection is a collection of files which automates the downloading, compiling and installation of third-party software packages. <xref linkend=\"ports\"/> discusses how to use the Ports Collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: warning/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3876
+msgid "The installation program does not check for adequate disk space. Select this option only if sufficient hard disk space is available. The FreeBSD Ports Collection takes up about 500 MB of disk space."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3885
+msgid "<literal>src</literal> - The complete FreeBSD source code for both the kernel and the userland. Although not required for the majority of applications, it may be required to build device drivers, kernel modules, or some applications from the Ports Collection. It is also used for developing FreeBSD itself. The full source tree requires 1 GB of disk space and recompiling the entire FreeBSD system requires an additional 5 GB of space."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3898 book.translate.xml:3909
+msgid "Installing from the Network"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3900
+msgid "The menu shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-netinstall-notify\"/> only appears when installing from a <filename>-bootonly.iso</filename> <acronym>CD</acronym> as this installation media does not hold copies of the installation files. Since the installation files must be retrieved over a network connection, this menu indicates that the network interface must be first configured."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:3913
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-files' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3918
+msgid "To configure the network connection, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> and follow the instructions in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-config-network-dev\"/>. Once the interface is configured, select a mirror site that is located in the same region of the world as the computer on which FreeBSD is being installed. Files can be retrieved more quickly when the mirror is close to the target computer, reducing installation time."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3927
+msgid "Choosing a Mirror"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:3931
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-mirrorselect' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3936
+msgid "Installation will then continue as if the installation files were located on the local installation media."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3942
+msgid "Allocating Disk Space"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3944
+msgid "The next menu is used to determine the method for allocating disk space. The options available in the menu depend upon the version of FreeBSD being installed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3949
+msgid "Partitioning Choices on FreeBSD 9.x"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:3953
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-manual' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3959
+msgid "Partitioning Choices on FreeBSD 10.x and Higher"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:3963
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3968
+msgid "<literal>Guided</literal> partitioning automatically sets up the disk partitions, <literal>Manual</literal> partitioning allows advanced users to create customized partitions from menu options, and <literal>Shell</literal> opens a shell prompt where advanced users can create customized partitions using command-line utilities like <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gpart</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fdisk</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsdlabel</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. <literal>ZFS</literal> partitioning, only available in FreeBSD 10 and later, creates an optionally encrypted root-on-ZFS system with support for <firstterm>boot environments</firstterm>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3979
+msgid "This section describes what to consider when laying out the disk partitions. It then demonstrates how to use the different partitioning methods."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:3984
+msgid "Designing the Partition Layout"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:3986
+msgid "<primary>partition layout</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:3987
+msgid "<primary><filename>/etc</filename></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:3990
+msgid "<primary><filename>/var</filename></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:3993
+msgid "<primary><filename>/usr</filename></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:3997
+msgid "When laying out file systems, remember that hard drives transfer data faster from the outer tracks to the inner. Thus, smaller and heavier-accessed file systems should be closer to the outside of the drive, while larger partitions like <filename>/usr</filename> should be placed toward the inner parts of the disk. It is a good idea to create partitions in an order similar to: <filename>/</filename>, swap, <filename>/var</filename>, and <filename>/usr</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4007
+msgid "The size of the <filename>/var</filename> partition reflects the intended machine's usage. This partition is used to hold mailboxes, log files, and printer spools. Mailboxes and log files can grow to unexpected sizes depending on the number of users and how long log files are kept. On average, most users rarely need more than about a gigabyte of free disk space in <filename>/var</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4017
+msgid "Sometimes, a lot of disk space is required in <filename>/var/tmp</filename>. When new software is installed, the packaging tools extract a temporary copy of the packages under <filename>/var/tmp</filename>. Large software packages, like <application>Firefox</application>, <application>Apache OpenOffice</application> or <application>LibreOffice</application> may be tricky to install if there is not enough disk space under <filename>/var/tmp</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4028
+msgid "The <filename>/usr</filename> partition holds many of the files which support the system, including the FreeBSD Ports Collection and system source code. At least 2 gigabytes is recommended for this partition."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4033
+msgid "When selecting partition sizes, keep the space requirements in mind. Running out of space in one partition while barely using another can be a hassle."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:4037
+msgid "<primary>swap sizing</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:4040
+msgid "<primary>swap partition</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4044
+msgid "As a rule of thumb, the swap partition should be about double the size of physical memory (<acronym>RAM</acronym>). Systems with minimal <acronym>RAM</acronym> may perform better with more swap. Configuring too little swap can lead to inefficiencies in the <acronym>VM</acronym> page scanning code and might create issues later if more memory is added."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4052
+msgid "On larger systems with multiple <acronym>SCSI</acronym> disks or multiple <acronym>IDE</acronym> disks operating on different controllers, it is recommended that swap be configured on each drive, up to four drives. The swap partitions should be approximately the same size. The kernel can handle arbitrary sizes but internal data structures scale to 4 times the largest swap partition. Keeping the swap partitions near the same size will allow the kernel to optimally stripe swap space across disks. Large swap sizes are fine, even if swap is not used much. It might be easier to recover from a runaway program before being forced to reboot."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4065
+msgid "By properly partitioning a system, fragmentation introduced in the smaller write heavy partitions will not bleed over into the mostly read partitions. Keeping the write loaded partitions closer to the disk's edge will increase <acronym>I/O</acronym> performance in the partitions where it occurs the most. While <acronym>I/O</acronym> performance in the larger partitions may be needed, shifting them more toward the edge of the disk will not lead to a significant performance improvement over moving <filename>/var</filename> to the edge."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4078
+msgid "Guided Partitioning"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4080
+msgid "When this method is selected, a menu will display the available disk(s). If multiple disks are connected, choose the one where FreeBSD is to be installed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4085
+msgid "Selecting from Multiple Disks"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4089
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-disk' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4094
+msgid "Once the disk is selected, the next menu prompts to install to either the entire disk or to create a partition using free space. If <guibutton>[ Entire Disk ]</guibutton> is chosen, a general partition layout filling the whole disk is automatically created. Selecting <guibutton>[ Partition ]</guibutton> creates a partition layout from the unused space on the disk."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4104
+msgid "Selecting Entire Disk or Partition"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4108
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-entire-part' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4113
+msgid "After the partition layout has been created, review it to ensure it meets the needs of the installation. Selecting <guibutton>[ Revert ]</guibutton> will reset the partitions to their original values and pressing <guibutton>[ Auto ]</guibutton> will recreate the automatic FreeBSD partitions. Partitions can also be manually created, modified, or deleted. When the partitioning is correct, select <guibutton>[ Finish ]</guibutton> to continue with the installation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4124
+msgid "Review Created Partitions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4128
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-review' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4135
+msgid "Manual Partitioning"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4137
+msgid "Selecting this method opens the partition editor:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4140 book.translate.xml:4155 book.translate.xml:4226
+msgid "Manually Create Partitions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4144
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-create' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4149
+msgid "Highlight the installation drive (<filename>ada0</filename> in this example) and select <guibutton>[ Create ]</guibutton> to display a menu of available partition schemes:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4159
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4164
+msgid "<acronym>GPT</acronym> is usually the most appropriate choice for amd64 computers. Older computers that are not compatible with <acronym>GPT</acronym> should use <acronym>MBR</acronym>. The other partition schemes are generally used for uncommon or older computers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: table/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4171
+msgid "Partitioning Schemes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4176
+msgid "Abbreviation"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4177 book.translate.xml:7135 book.translate.xml:8478
+#: book.translate.xml:11906 book.translate.xml:23135 book.translate.xml:23314
+#: book.translate.xml:27424 book.translate.xml:31412 book.translate.xml:43245
+#: book.translate.xml:53066 book.translate.xml:53573 book.translate.xml:54332
+#: book.translate.xml:54373 book.translate.xml:55699 book.translate.xml:65535
+msgid "Description"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#. (itstool) path: glossentry/glossterm
+#. (itstool) path: glossentry/acronym
+#: book.translate.xml:4183 book.translate.xml:65535
+msgid "APM"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4184
+msgid "Apple Partition Map, used by <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</trademark>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#. (itstool) path: glossentry/glossterm
+#. (itstool) path: glossentry/acronym
+#: book.translate.xml:4188 book.translate.xml:65535
+msgid "BSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4189
+msgid "<acronym>BSD</acronym> label without an <acronym>MBR</acronym>, sometimes called <firstterm>dangerously dedicated mode</firstterm> as non-<acronym>BSD</acronym> disk utilities may not recognize it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4197
+msgid "GPT"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4198
+msgid "GUID Partition Table (<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table</link>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4202
+msgid "MBR"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4203
+msgid "Master Boot Record (<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record</link>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4207
+msgid "PC98"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4208
+msgid "<acronym>MBR</acronym> variant used by NEC PC-98 computers (<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801</link>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4213
+msgid "VTOC8"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4214
+msgid "Volume Table Of Contents used by Sun SPARC64 and UltraSPARC computers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4221
+msgid "After the partitioning scheme has been selected and created, select <guibutton>[ Create ]</guibutton> again to create the partitions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4230
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-addpart' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4235
+msgid "A standard FreeBSD <acronym>GPT</acronym> installation uses at least three partitions:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4240
+msgid "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal> - Holds the FreeBSD boot code."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4245
+msgid "<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal> - A FreeBSD <acronym>UFS</acronym> file system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4250
+msgid "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal> - FreeBSD swap space."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4255
+msgid "Another partition type worth noting is <literal>freebsd-zfs</literal>, used for partitions that will contain a FreeBSD <acronym>ZFS</acronym> file system (<xref linkend=\"zfs\"/>). Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gpart</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for descriptions of the available <acronym>GPT</acronym> partition types."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4261
+msgid "Multiple file system partitions can be created and some people prefer a traditional layout with separate partitions for <filename>/</filename>, <filename>/var</filename>, <filename>/tmp</filename>, and <filename>/usr</filename>. See <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-part-manual-splitfs\"/> for an example."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4268
+msgid "The <literal>Size</literal> may be entered with common abbreviations: <emphasis>K</emphasis> for kilobytes, <emphasis>M</emphasis> for megabytes, or <emphasis>G</emphasis> for gigabytes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: tip/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4274
+msgid "Proper sector alignment provides the best performance, and making partition sizes even multiples of 4K bytes helps to ensure alignment on drives with either 512-byte or 4K-byte sectors. Generally, using partition sizes that are even multiples of 1M or 1G is the easiest way to make sure every partition starts at an even multiple of 4K. There is one exception: the <emphasis>freebsd-boot</emphasis> partition should be no larger than 512K due to current boot code limitations."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4285
+msgid "A <literal>Mountpoint</literal> is needed if the partition will contain a file system. If only a single <acronym>UFS</acronym> partition will be created, the mountpoint should be <filename>/</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4290
+msgid "The <literal>Label</literal> is a name by which the partition will be known. Drive names or numbers can change if the drive is connected to a different controller or port, but the partition label does not change. Referring to labels instead of drive names and partition numbers in files like <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> makes the system more tolerant to hardware changes. <acronym>GPT</acronym> labels appear in <filename>/dev/gpt/</filename> when a disk is attached. Other partitioning schemes have different label capabilities and their labels appear in different directories in <filename>/dev/</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: tip/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4303
+msgid "Use a unique label on every partition to avoid conflicts from identical labels. A few letters from the computer's name, use, or location can be added to the label. For instance, use <literal>labroot</literal> or <literal>rootfslab</literal> for the <acronym>UFS</acronym> root partition on the computer named <literal>lab</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4313
+msgid "Creating Traditional Split File System Partitions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4316
+msgid "For a traditional partition layout where the <filename>/</filename>, <filename>/var</filename>, <filename>/tmp</filename>, and <filename>/usr</filename> directories are separate file systems on their own partitions, create a <acronym>GPT</acronym> partitioning scheme, then create the partitions as shown. Partition sizes shown are typical for a 20G target disk. If more space is available on the target disk, larger swap or <filename>/var</filename> partitions may be useful. Labels shown here are prefixed with <literal>ex</literal> for <quote>example</quote>, but readers should use other unique label values as described above."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4329
+msgid "By default, FreeBSD's <filename>gptboot</filename> expects the first <acronym>UFS</acronym> partition to be the <filename>/</filename> partition."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4337
+msgid "Partition Type"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4338
+msgid "Size"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4339
+msgid "Mountpoint"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4340
+msgid "Label"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4346
+msgid "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4347
+msgid "<literal>512K</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4351 book.translate.xml:4365 book.translate.xml:4372
+#: book.translate.xml:4379
+msgid "<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4352 book.translate.xml:4366
+msgid "<literal>2G</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4353 book.translate.xml:7140
+msgid "<filename>/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4354
+msgid "<literal>exrootfs</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4358
+msgid "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4359
+msgid "<literal>4G</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4361
+msgid "<literal>exswap</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4367
+msgid "<filename>/var</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4368
+msgid "<literal>exvarfs</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4373
+msgid "<literal>1G</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4374
+msgid "<filename>/tmp</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4375
+msgid "<literal>extmpfs</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4380
+msgid "accept the default (remainder of the disk)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4382
+msgid "<filename>/usr</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:4383
+msgid "<literal>exusrfs</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4390
+msgid "After the custom partitions have been created, select <guibutton>[ Finish ]</guibutton> to continue with the installation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4396
+msgid "Root-on-ZFS Automatic Partitioning"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4398
+msgid "Support for automatic creation of root-on-ZFS installations was added in FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE. This partitioning mode only works with whole disks and will erase the contents of the entire disk. The installer will automatically create partitions aligned to 4k boundaries and force <acronym>ZFS</acronym> to use 4k sectors. This is safe even with 512 byte sector disks, and has the added benefit of ensuring that pools created on 512 byte disks will be able to have 4k sector disks added in the future, either as additional storage space or as replacements for failed disks. The installer can also optionally employ <acronym>GELI</acronym> disk encryption as described in <xref linkend=\"disks-encrypting-geli\"/>. If encryption is enabled, a 2 GB unencrypted boot pool containing the <filename>/boot</filename> directory is created. It holds the kernel and other files necessary to boot the system. A swap partition of a user selectable size is also created, and all remaining space is used for the <acronym>ZFS</acronym> pool."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4417
+msgid "The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu offers a number of options to control the creation of the pool."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4422
+msgid "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> Partitioning Menu"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4426
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-menu' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4431
+msgid "Select <keycap>T</keycap> to configure the <literal>Pool Type</literal> and the disk(s) that will constitute the pool. The automatic <acronym>ZFS</acronym> installer currently only supports the creation of a single top level vdev, except in stripe mode. To create more complex pools, use the instructions in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-part-shell\"/> to create the pool. The installer supports the creation of various pool types, including stripe (not recommended, no redundancy), mirror (best performance, least usable space), and RAID-Z 1, 2, and 3 (with the capability to withstand the concurrent failure of 1, 2, and 3 disks, respectively). while selecting the pool type, a tooltip is displayed across the bottom of the screen with advice about the number of required disks, and in the case of RAID-Z, the optimal number of disks for each configuration."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4448
+msgid "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> Pool Type"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4452
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_type' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4457
+msgid "Once a <literal>Pool Type</literal> has been selected, a list of available disks is displayed, and the user is prompted to select one or more disks to make up the pool. The configuration is then validated, to ensure enough disks are selected. If not, select <guibutton>&lt;Change Selection&gt;</guibutton> to return to the list of disks, or <guibutton>&lt;Cancel&gt;</guibutton> to change the pool type."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4467
+msgid "Disk Selection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4471
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_select' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4477
+msgid "Invalid Selection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4481
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_invalid' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4486
+msgid "If one or more disks are missing from the list, or if disks were attached after the installer was started, select <guibutton>- Rescan Devices</guibutton> to repopulate the list of available disks. To avoid accidentally erasing the wrong disk, the <guibutton>- Disk Info</guibutton> menu can be used to inspect each disk, including its partition table and various other information such as the device model number and serial number, if available."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4497
+msgid "Analyzing a Disk"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4501
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_info' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4506
+msgid "The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu also allows the user to enter a pool name, disable forcing 4k sectors, enable or disable encryption, switch between <acronym>GPT</acronym> (recommended) and <acronym>MBR</acronym> partition table types, and select the amount of swap space. Once all options have been set to the desired values, select the <guibutton>&gt;&gt;&gt; Install</guibutton> option at the top of the menu."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4516
+msgid "If <acronym>GELI</acronym> disk encryption was enabled, the installer will prompt twice for the passphrase to be used to encrypt the disks."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4521
+msgid "Disk Encryption Password"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4525
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-geli_password' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4530
+msgid "The installer then offers a last chance to cancel before the contents of the selected drives are destroyed to create the <acronym>ZFS</acronym> pool."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4535
+msgid "Last Chance"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4539
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-warning' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4544
+msgid "The installation then proceeds normally."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4549
+msgid "Shell Mode Partitioning"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4551
+msgid "When creating advanced installations, the <application>bsdinstall</application> partitioning menus may not provide the level of flexibility required. Advanced users can select the <guibutton>Shell</guibutton> option from the partitioning menu in order to manually partition the drives, create the file system(s), populate <filename>/tmp/bsdinstall_etc/fstab</filename>, and mount the file systems under <filename>/mnt</filename>. Once this is done, type <command>exit</command> to return to <application>bsdinstall</application> and continue the installation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4566
+msgid "Committing to the Installation"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4568
+msgid "Once the disks are configured, the next menu provides the last chance to make changes before the selected hard drive(s) are formatted. If changes need to be made, select <guibutton>[ Back ]</guibutton> to return to the main partitioning menu. <guibutton>[ Revert &amp; Exit ]</guibutton> will exit the installer without making any changes to the hard drive."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4578
+msgid "Final Confirmation"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4582
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-confirmation' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4587
+msgid "To instead start the actual installation, select <guibutton>[ Commit ]</guibutton> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4591
+msgid "Installation time will vary depending on the distributions chosen, installation media, and speed of the computer. A series of messages will indicate the progress."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4595
+msgid "First, the installer formats the selected disk(s) and initializes the partitions. Next, in the case of a bootonly media, it downloads the selected components:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4600
+msgid "Fetching Distribution Files"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4604
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-fetching' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4609
+msgid "Next, the integrity of the distribution files is verified to ensure they have not been corrupted during download or misread from the installation media:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4614
+msgid "Verifying Distribution Files"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4618
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-verifying' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4623
+msgid "Finally, the verified distribution files are extracted to the disk:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4627
+msgid "Extracting Distribution Files"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4631
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-extracting' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4636
+msgid "Once all requested distribution files have been extracted, <application>bsdinstall</application> displays the first post-installation configuration screen. The available post-configuration options are described in the next section."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4644
+msgid "Post-Installation"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4646
+msgid "Once FreeBSD is installed, <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt to configure several options before booting into the newly installed system. This section describes these configuration options."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: tip/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4652
+msgid "Once the system has booted, <command>bsdconfig</command> provides a menu-driven method for configuring the system using these and additional options."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4659 book.translate.xml:4670
+msgid "Setting the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> Password"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4663
+msgid "First, the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> password must be set. While entering the password, the characters being typed are not displayed on the screen. After the password has been entered, it must be entered again. This helps prevent typing errors."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4674
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-post-root-passwd' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4681
+msgid "Configuring Network Interfaces"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4683
+msgid "Next, a list of the network interfaces found on the computer is shown. Select the interface to configure."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4687
+msgid "The network configuration menus will be skipped if the network was previously configured as part of a <emphasis>bootonly</emphasis> installation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4693
+msgid "Choose a Network Interface"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4697
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4702
+msgid "If an Ethernet interface is selected, the installer will skip ahead to the menu shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-configure-net-ipv4\"/>. If a wireless network interface is chosen, the system will instead scan for wireless access points:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4708
+msgid "Scanning for Wireless Access Points"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4712
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-scan' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4717
+msgid "Wireless networks are identified by a Service Set Identifier (<acronym>SSID</acronym>), a short, unique name given to each network. <acronym>SSIDs</acronym> found during the scan are listed, followed by a description of the encryption types available for that network. If the desired <acronym>SSID</acronym> does not appear in the list, select <guibutton>[ Rescan ]</guibutton> to scan again. If the desired network still does not appear, check for problems with antenna connections or try moving the computer closer to the access point. Rescan after each change is made."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4729
+msgid "Choosing a Wireless Network"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4733
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-accesspoints' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4738
+msgid "Next, enter the encryption information for connecting to the selected wireless network. <acronym>WPA2</acronym> encryption is strongly recommended as older encryption types, like <acronym>WEP</acronym>, offer little security. If the network uses <acronym>WPA2</acronym>, input the password, also known as the Pre-Shared Key (<acronym>PSK</acronym>). For security reasons, the characters typed into the input box are displayed as asterisks."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4748
+msgid "WPA2 Setup"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4752
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-wpa2setup' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4757
+msgid "Next, choose whether or not an <acronym>IPv4</acronym> address should be configured on the Ethernet or wireless interface:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4762
+msgid "Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> Networking"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4766
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4771
+msgid "There are two methods of <acronym>IPv4</acronym> configuration. <acronym>DHCP</acronym> will automatically configure the network interface correctly and should be used if the network provides a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server. Otherwise, the addressing information needs to be input manually as a static configuration."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4779
+msgid "Do not enter random network information as it will not work. If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available, obtain the information listed in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-collect-network-information\"/> from the network administrator or Internet service provider."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4786
+msgid "If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is available, select <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> in the next menu to automatically configure the network interface. The installer will appear to pause for a minute or so as it finds the <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server and obtains the addressing information for the system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4794
+msgid "Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym> Configuration"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4799
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-dhcp' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4804
+msgid "If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available, select <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> and input the following addressing information in this menu:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4809
+msgid "<acronym>IPv4</acronym> Static Configuration"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4813
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-static' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4820
+msgid "<literal>IP Address</literal> - The <acronym>IPv4</acronym> address assigned to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use by another piece of equipment on the local network."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4827
+msgid "<literal>Subnet Mask</literal> - The subnet mask for the network."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4832
+msgid "<literal>Default Router</literal> - The <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the network's default gateway."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4838
+msgid "The next screen will ask if the interface should be configured for <acronym>IPv6</acronym>. If <acronym>IPv6</acronym> is available and desired, choose <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> to select it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4844
+msgid "Choose IPv6 Networking"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4848
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4853
+msgid "<acronym>IPv6</acronym> also has two methods of configuration. StateLess Address AutoConfiguration (<acronym>SLAAC</acronym>) will automatically request the correct configuration information from a local router. Refer to <link xlink:href=\"http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4862\">http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4862</link> for more information. Static configuration requires manual entry of network information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4861
+msgid "If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is available, select <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> in the next menu to automatically configure the network interface. The installer will appear to pause for a minute or so as it finds the router and obtains the addressing information for the system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4868
+msgid "Choose IPv6 SLAAC Configuration"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4872
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-slaac' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4877
+msgid "If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is not available, select <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> and input the following addressing information in this menu:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4882
+msgid "IPv6 Static Configuration"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4886
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6-static' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4893
+msgid "<literal>IPv6 Address</literal> - The <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address assigned to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use by another piece of equipment on the local network."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4900
+msgid "<literal>Default Router</literal> - The <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address of the network's default gateway."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4906
+msgid "The last network configuration menu is used to configure the Domain Name System (<acronym>DNS</acronym>) resolver, which converts hostnames to and from network addresses. If <acronym>DHCP</acronym> or <acronym>SLAAC</acronym> was used to autoconfigure the network interface, the <literal>Resolver Configuration</literal> values may already be filled in. Otherwise, enter the local network's domain name in the <literal>Search</literal> field. <literal>DNS #1</literal> and <literal>DNS #2</literal> are the <acronym>IPv4</acronym> and/or <acronym>IPv6</acronym> addresses of the <acronym>DNS</acronym> servers. At least one <acronym>DNS</acronym> server is required."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4920
+msgid "DNS Configuration"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4924
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-ipv4-dns' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4931
+msgid "Setting the Time Zone"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4933
+msgid "The next menu asks if the system clock uses <acronym>UTC</acronym> or local time. When in doubt, select <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> to choose the more commonly-used local time."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4939
+msgid "Select Local or UTC Clock"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4943
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-set-clock-local-utc' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4948
+msgid "The next series of menus are used to determine the correct local time by selecting the geographic region, country, and time zone. Setting the time zone allows the system to automatically correct for regional time changes, such as daylight savings time, and perform other time zone related functions properly."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4955
+msgid "The example shown here is for a machine located in the Eastern time zone of the United States. The selections will vary according to the geographical location."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4960
+msgid "Select a Region"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4964
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-region' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4969
+msgid "The appropriate region is selected using the arrow keys and then pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4973
+msgid "Select a Country"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4977
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-country' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4982
+msgid "Select the appropriate country using the arrow keys and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4986
+msgid "Select a Time Zone"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:4990
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-zone' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:4995
+msgid "The appropriate time zone is selected using the arrow keys and pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:4999
+msgid "Confirm Time Zone"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:5003
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-confirm' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5008
+msgid "Confirm the abbreviation for the time zone is correct. If it is, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue with the post-installation configuration."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5014
+msgid "Enabling Services"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5016
+msgid "The next menu is used to configure which system services will be started whenever the system boots. All of these services are optional. Only start the services that are needed for the system to function."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5022
+msgid "Selecting Additional Services to Enable"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:5026
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-services' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5031
+msgid "Here is a summary of the services which can be enabled in this menu:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5036
+msgid "<literal>sshd</literal> - The Secure Shell (<acronym>SSH</acronym>) daemon is used to remotely access a system over an encrypted connection. Only enable this service if the system should be available for remote logins."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5044
+msgid "<literal>moused</literal> - Enable this service if the mouse will be used from the command-line system console."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5050
+msgid "<literal>ntpd</literal> - The Network Time Protocol (<acronym>NTP</acronym>) daemon for automatic clock synchronization. Enable this service if there is a <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark>, Kerberos, or <acronym>LDAP</acronym> server on the network."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5058
+msgid "<literal>powerd</literal> - System power control utility for power control and energy saving."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5065 book.translate.xml:5073
+msgid "Enabling Crash Dumps"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5067
+msgid "The next menu is used to configure whether or not crash dumps should be enabled. Enabling crash dumps can be useful in debugging issues with the system, so users are encouraged to enable crash dumps."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:5077
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-crashdump' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5084
+msgid "Add Users"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5086
+msgid "The next menu prompts to create at least one user account. It is recommended to login to the system using a user account rather than as <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>. When logged in as <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>, there are essentially no limits or protection on what can be done. Logging in as a normal user is safer and more secure."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5093
+msgid "Select <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> to add new users."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5097
+msgid "Add User Accounts"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:5101
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser1' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5106
+msgid "Follow the prompts and input the requested information for the user account. The example shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-add-user2\"/> creates the <systemitem class=\"username\">asample</systemitem> user account."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5110
+msgid "Enter User Information"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:5114
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser2' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5119
+msgid "Here is a summary of the information to input:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5123
+msgid "<literal>Username</literal> - The name the user will enter to log in. A common convention is to use the first letter of the first name combined with the last name, as long as each username is unique for the system. The username is case sensitive and should not contain any spaces."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5132
+msgid "<literal>Full name</literal> - The user's full name. This can contain spaces and is used as a description for the user account."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5138
+msgid "<literal>Uid</literal> - User <acronym>ID</acronym>. Typically, this is left blank so the system will assign a value."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5144
+msgid "<literal>Login group</literal> - The user's group. Typically this is left blank to accept the default."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5149
+msgid "<literal>Invite <replaceable>user</replaceable> into other groups?</literal> - Additional groups to which the user will be added as a member. If the user needs administrative access, type <literal>wheel</literal> here."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5157
+msgid "<literal>Login class</literal> - Typically left blank for the default."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5162
+msgid "<literal>Shell</literal> - Type in one of the listed values to set the interactive shell for the user. Refer to <xref linkend=\"shells\"/> for more information about shells."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5169
+msgid "<literal>Home directory</literal> - The user's home directory. The default is usually correct."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5174
+msgid "<literal>Home directory permissions</literal> - Permissions on the user's home directory. The default is usually correct."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5180
+msgid "<literal>Use password-based authentication?</literal> - Typically <literal>yes</literal> so that the user is prompted to input their password at login."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5186
+msgid "<literal>Use an empty password?</literal> - Typically <literal>no</literal> as it is insecure to have a blank password."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5192
+msgid "<literal>Use a random password?</literal> - Typically <literal>no</literal> so that the user can set their own password in the next prompt."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5198
+msgid "<literal>Enter password</literal> - The password for this user. Characters typed will not show on the screen."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5204
+msgid "<literal>Enter password again</literal> - The password must be typed again for verification."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5209
+msgid "<literal>Lock out the account after creation?</literal> - Typically <literal>no</literal> so that the user can login."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5215
+msgid "After entering everything, a summary is shown for review. If a mistake was made, enter <literal>no</literal> and try again. If everything is correct, enter <literal>yes</literal> to create the new user."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5221
+msgid "Exit User and Group Management"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:5225
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser3' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5230
+msgid "If there are more users to add, answer the <literal>Add another user?</literal> question with <literal>yes</literal>. Enter <literal>no</literal> to finish adding users and continue the installation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5235
+msgid "For more information on adding users and user management, see <xref linkend=\"users-synopsis\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5240 book.translate.xml:5246
+msgid "Final Configuration"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5242
+msgid "After everything has been installed and configured, a final chance is provided to modify settings."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:5250
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-finalconfiguration' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5255
+msgid "Use this menu to make any changes or do any additional configuration before completing the installation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5260
+msgid "<literal>Add User</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-addusers\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5264
+msgid "<literal>Root Password</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-post-root\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5268
+msgid "<literal>Hostname</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-hostname\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5272
+msgid "<literal>Network</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-config-network-dev\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5276
+msgid "<literal>Services</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-sysconf\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5280
+msgid "<literal>Time Zone</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-timezone\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5284
+msgid "<literal>Handbook</literal> - Download and install the FreeBSD Handbook."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5289
+msgid "After any final configuration is complete, select <guibutton>Exit</guibutton>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5293 book.translate.xml:11492
+msgid "Manual Configuration"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:5297
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-modification-shell' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5302
+msgid "<application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt if there are any additional configuration that needs to be done before rebooting into the new system. Select <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> to exit to a shell within the new system or <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> to proceed to the last step of the installation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: figure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5311
+msgid "Complete the Installation"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:5315
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-mainexit' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5320
+msgid "If further configuration or special setup is needed, select <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton> to boot the install media into Live <acronym>CD</acronym> mode."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5325
+msgid "If the installation is complete, select <guibutton>[ Reboot ]</guibutton> to reboot the computer and start the new FreeBSD system. Do not forget to remove the FreeBSD install media or the computer may boot from it again."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5331
+msgid "As FreeBSD boots, informational messages are displayed. After the system finishes booting, a login prompt is displayed. At the <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt, enter the username added during the installation. Avoid logging in as <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>. Refer to <xref linkend=\"users-superuser\"/> for instructions on how to become the superuser when administrative access is needed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5340
+msgid "The messages that appeared during boot can be reviewed by pressing <keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> to turn on the scroll-back buffer. The <keycap>PgUp</keycap>, <keycap>PgDn</keycap>, and arrow keys can be used to scroll back through the messages. When finished, press <keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> again to unlock the display and return to the console. To review these messages once the system has been up for some time, type <command>less /var/run/dmesg.boot</command> from a command prompt. Press <keycap>q</keycap> to return to the command line after viewing."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5352
+msgid "If <application>sshd</application> was enabled in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-config-serv\"/>, the first boot may be a bit slower as the system will generate the <acronym>RSA</acronym> and <acronym>DSA</acronym> keys. Subsequent boots will be faster. The fingerprints of the keys will be displayed, as seen in this example:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:5358
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.\n"
+"Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.\n"
+"Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub.\n"
+"The key fingerprint is:\n"
+"10:a0:f5:af:93:ae:a3:1a:b2:bb:3c:35:d9:5a:b3:f3 root@machine3.example.com\n"
+"The key's randomart image is:\n"
+"+--[RSA1 1024]----+\n"
+"| o.. |\n"
+"| o . . |\n"
+"| . o |\n"
+"| o |\n"
+"| o S |\n"
+"| + + o |\n"
+"|o . + * |\n"
+"|o+ ..+ . |\n"
+"|==o..o+E |\n"
+"+-----------------+\n"
+"Generating public/private dsa key pair.\n"
+"Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.\n"
+"Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub.\n"
+"The key fingerprint is:\n"
+"7e:1c:ce:dc:8a:3a:18:13:5b:34:b5:cf:d9:d1:47:b2 root@machine3.example.com\n"
+"The key's randomart image is:\n"
+"+--[ DSA 1024]----+\n"
+"| .. . .|\n"
+"| o . . + |\n"
+"| . .. . E .|\n"
+"| . . o o . . |\n"
+"| + S = . |\n"
+"| + . = o |\n"
+"| + . * . |\n"
+"| . . o . |\n"
+"| .o. . |\n"
+"+-----------------+\n"
+"Starting sshd."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5394
+msgid "Refer to <xref linkend=\"openssh\"/> for more information about fingerprints and <acronym>SSH</acronym>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5397
+msgid "FreeBSD does not install a graphical environment by default. Refer to <xref linkend=\"x11\"/> for more information about installing and configuring a graphical window manager."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5401
+msgid "Proper shutdown of a FreeBSD computer helps protect data and hardware from damage. <emphasis>Do not turn off the power before the system has been properly shut down!</emphasis> If the user is a member of the <systemitem class=\"groupname\">wheel</systemitem> group, become the superuser by typing <command>su</command> at the command line and entering the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> password. Then, type <command>shutdown -p now</command> and the system will shut down cleanly, and if the hardware supports it, turn itself off."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5414 book.translate.xml:12444 book.translate.xml:15207
+#: book.translate.xml:20382 book.translate.xml:35665 book.translate.xml:36435
+#: book.translate.xml:48075 book.translate.xml:51321 book.translate.xml:62418
+#: book.translate.xml:64073 book.translate.xml:64796
+msgid "Troubleshooting"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:5416
+msgid "<primary>installation</primary> <secondary>troubleshooting</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5420
+msgid "This section covers basic installation troubleshooting, such as common problems people have reported."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5424
+msgid "Check the Hardware Notes (<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html\">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>) document for the version of FreeBSD to make sure the hardware is supported. If the hardware is supported and lock-ups or other problems occur, build a custom kernel using the instructions in <xref linkend=\"kernelconfig\"/> to add support for devices which are not present in the <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel. The default kernel assumes that most hardware devices are in their factory default configuration in terms of <acronym>IRQ</acronym>s, <acronym>I/O</acronym> addresses, and <acronym>DMA</acronym> channels. If the hardware has been reconfigured, a custom kernel configuration file can tell FreeBSD where to find things."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5438
+msgid "Some installation problems can be avoided or alleviated by updating the firmware on various hardware components, most notably the motherboard. Motherboard firmware is usually referred to as the <acronym>BIOS</acronym>. Most motherboard and computer manufacturers have a website for upgrades and upgrade information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5445
+msgid "Manufacturers generally advise against upgrading the motherboard <acronym>BIOS</acronym> unless there is a good reason for doing so, like a critical update. The upgrade process <emphasis>can</emphasis> go wrong, leaving the <acronym>BIOS</acronym> incomplete and the computer inoperative."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5453
+msgid "If the system hangs while probing hardware during boot, or it behaves strangely during install, <acronym>ACPI</acronym> may be the culprit. FreeBSD makes extensive use of the system <acronym>ACPI</acronym> service on the i386, amd64, and ia64 platforms to aid in system configuration if it is detected during boot. Unfortunately, some bugs still exist in both the <acronym>ACPI</acronym> driver and within system motherboards and <acronym>BIOS</acronym> firmware. <acronym>ACPI</acronym> can be disabled by setting the <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled</literal> hint in the third stage boot loader:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:5465
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<userinput>set hint.acpi.0.disabled=\"1\"</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5467
+msgid "This is reset each time the system is booted, so it is necessary to add <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled=\"1\"</literal> to the file <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>. More information about the boot loader can be found in <xref linkend=\"boot-synopsis\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5474
+msgid "Using the Live <acronym>CD</acronym>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5476
+msgid "The welcome menu of <application>bsdinstall</application>, shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-choose-mode\"/>, provides a <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton> option. This is useful for those who are still wondering whether FreeBSD is the right operating system for them and want to test some of the features before installing."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5483
+msgid "The following points should be noted before using the <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5488
+msgid "To gain access to the system, authentication is required. The username is <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> and the password is blank."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5494
+msgid "As the system runs directly from the installation media, performance will be significantly slower than that of a system installed on a hard disk."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5500
+msgid "This option only provides a command prompt and not a graphical interface."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5525
+msgid "FreeBSD Basics"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5530
+msgid "This chapter covers the basic commands and functionality of the FreeBSD operating system. Much of this material is relevant for any <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark>-like operating system. New FreeBSD users are encouraged to read through this chapter carefully."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5539
+msgid "How to use and configure virtual consoles."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5543
+msgid "How to create and manage users and groups on FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5548
+msgid "How <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> file permissions and FreeBSD file flags work."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5553
+msgid "The default FreeBSD file system layout."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5557
+msgid "The FreeBSD disk organization."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5561
+msgid "How to mount and unmount file systems."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5565
+msgid "What processes, daemons, and signals are."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5569
+msgid "What a shell is, and how to change the default login environment."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5574
+msgid "How to use basic text editors."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5578
+msgid "What devices and device nodes are."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5582
+msgid "How to read manual pages for more information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5588
+msgid "Virtual Consoles and Terminals"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:5590
+msgid "<primary>virtual consoles</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:5593 book.translate.xml:47357
+msgid "<primary>terminals</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:5596 book.translate.xml:23364
+msgid "<primary>console</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5600
+msgid "Unless FreeBSD has been configured to automatically start a graphical environment during startup, the system will boot into a command line login prompt, as seen in this example:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:5605
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD/amd64 (pc3.example.org) (ttyv0)\n"
+"\n"
+"login:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5609
+msgid "The first line contains some information about the system. The <literal>amd64</literal> indicates that the system in this example is running a 64-bit version of FreeBSD. The hostname is <systemitem>pc3.example.org</systemitem>, and <filename>ttyv0</filename> indicates that this is the <quote>system console</quote>. The second line is the login prompt."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5617
+msgid "Since FreeBSD is a multiuser system, it needs some way to distinguish between different users. This is accomplished by requiring every user to log into the system before gaining access to the programs on the system. Every user has a unique name <quote>username</quote> and a personal <quote>password</quote>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5624
+msgid "To log into the system console, type the username that was configured during system installation, as described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-addusers\"/>, and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. Then enter the password associated with the username and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. The password is <emphasis>not echoed</emphasis> for security reasons."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5632
+msgid "Once the correct password is input, the message of the day (<acronym>MOTD</acronym>) will be displayed followed by a command prompt. Depending upon the shell that was selected when the user was created, this prompt will be a <literal>#</literal>, <literal>$</literal>, or <literal>%</literal> character. The prompt indicates that the user is now logged into the FreeBSD system console and ready to try the available commands."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5642
+msgid "Virtual Consoles"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5644
+msgid "While the system console can be used to interact with the system, a user working from the command line at the keyboard of a FreeBSD system will typically instead log into a virtual console. This is because system messages are configured by default to display on the system console. These messages will appear over the command or file that the user is working on, making it difficult to concentrate on the work at hand."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5653
+msgid "By default, FreeBSD is configured to provide several virtual consoles for inputting commands. Each virtual console has its own login prompt and shell and it is easy to switch between virtual consoles. This essentially provides the command line equivalent of having several windows open at the same time in a graphical environment."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5660
+msgid "The key combinations <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></keycombo> through <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F8</keycap></keycombo> have been reserved by FreeBSD for switching between virtual consoles. Use <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></keycombo> to switch to the system console (<filename>ttyv0</filename>), <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F2</keycap></keycombo> to access the first virtual console (<filename>ttyv1</filename>), <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F3</keycap></keycombo> to access the second virtual console (<filename>ttyv2</filename>), and so on."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5676
+msgid "When switching from one console to the next, FreeBSD manages the screen output. The result is an illusion of having multiple virtual screens and keyboards that can be used to type commands for FreeBSD to run. The programs that are launched in one virtual console do not stop running when the user switches to a different virtual console."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5683
+msgid "Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kbdcontrol</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>atkbd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syscons</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for a more technical description of the FreeBSD console and its keyboard drivers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5688
+msgid "In FreeBSD, the number of available virtual consoles is configured in this section of <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:5692
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"# name getty type status comments\n"
+"#\n"
+"ttyv0 \"/usr/libexec/getty Pc\" xterm on secure\n"
+"# Virtual terminals\n"
+"ttyv1 \"/usr/libexec/getty Pc\" xterm on secure\n"
+"ttyv2 \"/usr/libexec/getty Pc\" xterm on secure\n"
+"ttyv3 \"/usr/libexec/getty Pc\" xterm on secure\n"
+"ttyv4 \"/usr/libexec/getty Pc\" xterm on secure\n"
+"ttyv5 \"/usr/libexec/getty Pc\" xterm on secure\n"
+"ttyv6 \"/usr/libexec/getty Pc\" xterm on secure\n"
+"ttyv7 \"/usr/libexec/getty Pc\" xterm on secure\n"
+"ttyv8 \"/usr/X11R6/bin/xdm -nodaemon\" xterm off secure"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5706
+msgid "To disable a virtual console, put a comment symbol (<literal>#</literal>) at the beginning of the line representing that virtual console. For example, to reduce the number of available virtual consoles from eight to four, put a <literal>#</literal> in front of the last four lines representing virtual consoles <filename>ttyv5</filename> through <filename>ttyv8</filename>. <emphasis>Do not</emphasis> comment out the line for the system console <filename>ttyv0</filename>. Note that the last virtual console (<filename>ttyv8</filename>) is used to access the graphical environment if <application>Xorg</application> has been installed and configured as described in <xref linkend=\"x11\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5720
+msgid "For a detailed description of every column in this file and the available options for the virtual consoles, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ttys</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5726
+msgid "Single User Mode"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5728
+msgid "The FreeBSD boot menu provides an option labelled as <quote>Boot Single User</quote>. If this option is selected, the system will boot into a special mode known as <quote>single user mode</quote>. This mode is typically used to repair a system that will not boot or to reset the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> password when it is not known. While in single user mode, networking and other virtual consoles are not available. However, full <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> access to the system is available, and by default, the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> password is not needed. For these reasons, physical access to the keyboard is needed to boot into this mode and determining who has physical access to the keyboard is something to consider when securing a FreeBSD system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5744
+msgid "The settings which control single user mode are found in this section of <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:5747
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"# name getty type status comments\n"
+"#\n"
+"# If console is marked \"insecure\", then init will ask for the root password\n"
+"# when going to single-user mode.\n"
+"console none unknown off secure"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5753
+msgid "By default, the status is set to <literal>secure</literal>. This assumes that who has physical access to the keyboard is either not important or it is controlled by a physical security policy. If this setting is changed to <literal>insecure</literal>, the assumption is that the environment itself is insecure because anyone can access the keyboard. When this line is changed to <literal>insecure</literal>, FreeBSD will prompt for the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> password when a user selects to boot into single user mode."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5765
+msgid "<emphasis>Be careful when changing this setting to <literal>insecure</literal></emphasis>! If the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> password is forgotten, booting into single user mode is still possible, but may be difficult for someone who is not familiar with the FreeBSD booting process."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5775
+msgid "Changing Console Video Modes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5777
+msgid "The FreeBSD console default video mode may be adjusted to 1024x768, 1280x1024, or any other size supported by the graphics chip and monitor. To use a different video mode load the <literal>VESA</literal> module:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:5782
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload vesa</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5784
+msgid "To determine which video modes are supported by the hardware, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. To get a list of supported video modes issue the following:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:5788
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>vidcontrol -i mode</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5790
+msgid "The output of this command lists the video modes that are supported by the hardware. To select a new video mode, specify the mode using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> as the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> user:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:5795
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>vidcontrol MODE_279</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5797
+msgid "If the new video mode is acceptable, it can be permanently set on boot by adding it to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:5801
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "allscreens_flags=\"MODE_279\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5818
+msgid "Users and Basic Account Management"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5820
+msgid "FreeBSD allows multiple users to use the computer at the same time. While only one user can sit in front of the screen and use the keyboard at any one time, any number of users can log in to the system through the network. To use the system, each user should have their own user account."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5826
+msgid "This chapter describes:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5830
+msgid "The different types of user accounts on a FreeBSD system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5835
+msgid "How to add, remove, and modify user accounts."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5839
+msgid "How to set limits to control the resources that users and groups are allowed to access."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5845
+msgid "How to create groups and add users as members of a group."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5851
+msgid "Account Types"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5853
+msgid "Since all access to the FreeBSD system is achieved using accounts and all processes are run by users, user and account management is important."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5857
+msgid "There are three main types of accounts: system accounts, user accounts, and the superuser account."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5861
+msgid "System Accounts"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:5863
+msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>system</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5868
+msgid "System accounts are used to run services such as DNS, mail, and web servers. The reason for this is security; if all services ran as the superuser, they could act without restriction."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:5873
+msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username\">daemon</systemitem></secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:5877
+msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username\">operator</systemitem></secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5882
+msgid "Examples of system accounts are <systemitem class=\"username\">daemon</systemitem>, <systemitem class=\"username\">operator</systemitem>, <systemitem class=\"username\">bind</systemitem>, <systemitem class=\"username\">news</systemitem>, and <systemitem class=\"username\">www</systemitem>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:5889
+msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username\">nobody</systemitem></secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5894
+msgid "<systemitem class=\"username\">nobody</systemitem> is the generic unprivileged system account. However, the more services that use <systemitem class=\"username\">nobody</systemitem>, the more files and processes that user will become associated with, and hence the more privileged that user becomes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:5903
+msgid "User Accounts"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:5905
+msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>user</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5910
+msgid "User accounts are assigned to real people and are used to log in and use the system. Every person accessing the system should have a unique user account. This allows the administrator to find out who is doing what and prevents users from clobbering the settings of other users."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5916
+msgid "Each user can set up their own environment to accommodate their use of the system, by configuring their default shell, editor, key bindings, and language settings."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5921
+msgid "Every user account on a FreeBSD system has certain information associated with it:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:5926
+msgid "User name"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5929
+msgid "The user name is typed at the <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt. Each user must have a unique user name. There are a number of rules for creating valid user names which are documented in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. It is recommended to use user names that consist of eight or fewer, all lower case characters in order to maintain backwards compatibility with applications."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:5941
+msgid "Password"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5944
+msgid "Each account has an associated password."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:5949
+msgid "User ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5952
+msgid "The User ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>) is a number used to uniquely identify the user to the FreeBSD system. Commands that allow a user name to be specified will first convert it to the <acronym>UID</acronym>. It is recommended to use a UID less than 65535, since higher values may cause compatibility issues with some software."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:5963
+msgid "Group ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5966
+msgid "The Group ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>) is a number used to uniquely identify the primary group that the user belongs to. Groups are a mechanism for controlling access to resources based on a user's <acronym>GID</acronym> rather than their <acronym>UID</acronym>. This can significantly reduce the size of some configuration files and allows users to be members of more than one group. It is recommended to use a GID of 65535 or lower as higher GIDs may break some software."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:5980
+msgid "Login class"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5983
+msgid "Login classes are an extension to the group mechanism that provide additional flexibility when tailoring the system to different users. Login classes are discussed further in <xref linkend=\"users-limiting\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:5992
+msgid "Password change time"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:5995
+msgid "By default, passwords do not expire. However, password expiration can be enabled on a per-user basis, forcing some or all users to change their passwords after a certain amount of time has elapsed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:6004
+msgid "Account expiration time"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6007
+msgid "By default, FreeBSD does not expire accounts. When creating accounts that need a limited lifespan, such as student accounts in a school, specify the account expiry date using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. After the expiry time has elapsed, the account cannot be used to log in to the system, although the account's directories and files will remain."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:6018
+msgid "User's full name"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6021
+msgid "The user name uniquely identifies the account to FreeBSD, but does not necessarily reflect the user's real name. Similar to a comment, this information can contain spaces, uppercase characters, and be more than 8 characters long."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:6030
+msgid "Home directory"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6033
+msgid "The home directory is the full path to a directory on the system. This is the user's starting directory when the user logs in. A common convention is to put all user home directories under <filename><replaceable>/home/username</replaceable></filename> or <filename><replaceable>/usr/home/username</replaceable></filename>. Each user stores their personal files and subdirectories in their own home directory."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:6044
+msgid "User shell"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6047
+msgid "The shell provides the user's default environment for interacting with the system. There are many different kinds of shells and experienced users will have their own preferences, which can be reflected in their account settings."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6058
+msgid "The Superuser Account"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6060
+msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>superuser (root)</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6065
+msgid "The superuser account, usually called <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>, is used to manage the system with no limitations on privileges. For this reason, it should not be used for day-to-day tasks like sending and receiving mail, general exploration of the system, or programming."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6072
+msgid "The superuser, unlike other user accounts, can operate without limits, and misuse of the superuser account may result in spectacular disasters. User accounts are unable to destroy the operating system by mistake, so it is recommended to login as a user account and to only become the superuser when a command requires extra privilege."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6080
+msgid "Always double and triple-check any commands issued as the superuser, since an extra space or missing character can mean irreparable data loss."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6084
+msgid "There are several ways to gain superuser privilege. While one can log in as <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>, this is highly discouraged."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6089
+msgid "Instead, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to become the superuser. If <literal>-</literal> is specified when running this command, the user will also inherit the root user's environment. The user running this command must be in the <systemitem class=\"groupname\">wheel</systemitem> group or else the command will fail. The user must also know the password for the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> user account."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6099
+msgid "In this example, the user only becomes superuser in order to run <command>make install</command> as this step requires superuser privilege. Once the command completes, the user types <command>exit</command> to leave the superuser account and return to the privilege of their user account."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6107
+msgid "Install a Program As the Superuser"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6109
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>configure</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>make</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>su -</userinput>\n"
+"Password:\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>exit</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6118
+msgid "The built-in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> framework works well for single systems or small networks with just one system administrator. An alternative is to install the <package>security/sudo</package> package or port. This software provides activity logging and allows the administrator to configure which users can run which commands as the superuser."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6129
+msgid "Managing Accounts"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6131
+msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>modifying</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6136
+msgid "FreeBSD provides a variety of different commands to manage user accounts. The most common commands are summarized in <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-utilities\"/>, followed by some examples of their usage. See the manual page for each utility for more details and usage examples."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: table/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6143
+msgid "Utilities for Managing User Accounts"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6151 book.translate.xml:58652 book.translate.xml:62184
+msgid "Command"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6152 book.translate.xml:17124 book.translate.xml:17278
+msgid "Summary"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6157
+msgid "<citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6158
+msgid "The recommended command-line application for adding new users."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6163
+msgid "<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6164
+msgid "The recommended command-line application for removing users."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6169
+msgid "<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6170
+msgid "A flexible tool for changing user database information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6175
+msgid "<citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6176
+msgid "The command-line tool to change user passwords."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6181
+msgid "<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6182
+msgid "A powerful and flexible tool for modifying all aspects of user accounts."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6190
+msgid "<command>adduser</command>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6192
+msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>adding</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#. (itstool) path: sect4/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6196 book.translate.xml:43430
+msgid "<primary><command>adduser</command></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6199
+msgid "<primary><filename>/usr/share/skel</filename></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6202
+msgid "<primary>skeleton directory</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6206
+msgid "The recommended program for adding new users is <citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. When a new user is added, this program automatically updates <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> and <filename>/etc/group</filename>. It also creates a home directory for the new user, copies in the default configuration files from <filename>/usr/share/skel</filename>, and can optionally mail the new user a welcome message. This utility must be run as the superuser."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6216
+msgid "The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> utility is interactive and walks through the steps for creating a new user account. As seen in <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-adduser\"/>, either input the required information or press <keycap>Return</keycap> to accept the default value shown in square brackets. In this example, the user has been invited into the <systemitem class=\"groupname\">wheel</systemitem> group, allowing them to become the superuser with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. When finished, the utility will prompt to either create another user or to exit."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6228
+msgid "Adding a User on FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6230
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>adduser</userinput>\n"
+"Username: <userinput>jru</userinput>\n"
+"Full name: <userinput>J. Random User</userinput>\n"
+"Uid (Leave empty for default):\n"
+"Login group [jru]:\n"
+"Login group is jru. Invite jru into other groups? []: <userinput>wheel</userinput>\n"
+"Login class [default]:\n"
+"Shell (sh csh tcsh zsh nologin) [sh]: <userinput>zsh</userinput>\n"
+"Home directory [/home/jru]:\n"
+"Home directory permissions (Leave empty for default):\n"
+"Use password-based authentication? [yes]:\n"
+"Use an empty password? (yes/no) [no]:\n"
+"Use a random password? (yes/no) [no]:\n"
+"Enter password:\n"
+"Enter password again:\n"
+"Lock out the account after creation? [no]:\n"
+"Username : jru\n"
+"Password : ****\n"
+"Full Name : J. Random User\n"
+"Uid : 1001\n"
+"Class :\n"
+"Groups : jru wheel\n"
+"Home : /home/jru\n"
+"Shell : /usr/local/bin/zsh\n"
+"Locked : no\n"
+"OK? (yes/no): <userinput>yes</userinput>\n"
+"adduser: INFO: Successfully added (jru) to the user database.\n"
+"Add another user? (yes/no): <userinput>no</userinput>\n"
+"Goodbye!\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6263
+msgid "Since the password is not echoed when typed, be careful to not mistype the password when creating the user account."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6270
+msgid "<command>rmuser</command>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6272
+msgid "<primary><command>rmuser</command></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6275
+msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>removing</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6280
+msgid "To completely remove a user from the system, run <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> as the superuser. This command performs the following steps:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6286
+msgid "Removes the user's <citerefentry><refentrytitle>crontab</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> entry, if one exists."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6291
+msgid "Removes any <citerefentry><refentrytitle>at</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> jobs belonging to the user."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6296
+msgid "Kills all processes owned by the user."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6300
+msgid "Removes the user from the system's local password file."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6305
+msgid "Optionally removes the user's home directory, if it is owned by the user."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6310
+msgid "Removes the incoming mail files belonging to the user from <filename>/var/mail</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6315
+msgid "Removes all files owned by the user from temporary file storage areas such as <filename>/tmp</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6321
+msgid "Finally, removes the username from all groups to which it belongs in <filename>/etc/group</filename>. If a group becomes empty and the group name is the same as the username, the group is removed. This complements the per-user unique groups created by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6330
+msgid "<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> cannot be used to remove superuser accounts since that is almost always an indication of massive destruction."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6334
+msgid "By default, an interactive mode is used, as shown in the following example."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6338
+msgid "<command>rmuser</command> Interactive Account Removal"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6341
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>rmuser jru</userinput>\n"
+"Matching password entry:\n"
+"jru:*:1001:1001::0:0:J. Random User:/home/jru:/usr/local/bin/zsh\n"
+"Is this the entry you wish to remove? <userinput>y</userinput>\n"
+"Remove user's home directory (/home/jru)? <userinput>y</userinput>\n"
+"Removing user (jru): mailspool home passwd.\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6352
+msgid "<command>chpass</command>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6354
+msgid "<primary><command>chpass</command></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6358
+msgid "Any user can use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to change their default shell and personal information associated with their user account. The superuser can use this utility to change additional account information for any user."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6363
+msgid "When passed no options, aside from an optional username, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> displays an editor containing user information. When the user exits from the editor, the user database is updated with the new information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6369
+msgid "This utility will prompt for the user's password when exiting the editor, unless the utility is run as the superuser."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6374
+msgid "In <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-chpass-su\"/>, the superuser has typed <command>chpass jru</command> and is now viewing the fields that can be changed for this user. If <systemitem class=\"username\">jru</systemitem> runs this command instead, only the last six fields will be displayed and available for editing. This is shown in <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-chpass-ru\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6383
+msgid "Using <command>chpass</command> as Superuser"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6386
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"#Changing user database information for jru.\n"
+"Login: jru\n"
+"Password: *\n"
+"Uid [#]: 1001\n"
+"Gid [# or name]: 1001\n"
+"Change [month day year]:\n"
+"Expire [month day year]:\n"
+"Class:\n"
+"Home directory: /home/jru\n"
+"Shell: /usr/local/bin/zsh\n"
+"Full Name: J. Random User\n"
+"Office Location:\n"
+"Office Phone:\n"
+"Home Phone:\n"
+"Other information:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6404
+msgid "Using <command>chpass</command> as Regular User"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6407
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"#Changing user database information for jru.\n"
+"Shell: /usr/local/bin/zsh\n"
+"Full Name: J. Random User\n"
+"Office Location:\n"
+"Office Phone:\n"
+"Home Phone:\n"
+"Other information:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6417
+msgid "The commands <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chfn</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> are links to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, as are <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ypchpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ypchfn</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ypchsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Since <acronym>NIS</acronym> support is automatic, specifying the <literal>yp</literal> before the command is not necessary. How to configure NIS is covered in <xref linkend=\"network-servers\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6427
+msgid "<command>passwd</command>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6429
+msgid "<primary><command>passwd</command></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6432
+msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>changing password</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6437
+msgid "Any user can easily change their password using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. To prevent accidental or unauthorized changes, this command will prompt for the user's original password before a new password can be set:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6443
+msgid "Changing Your Password"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6445
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>passwd</userinput>\n"
+"Changing local password for jru.\n"
+"Old password:\n"
+"New password:\n"
+"Retype new password:\n"
+"passwd: updating the database...\n"
+"passwd: done"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6454
+msgid "The superuser can change any user's password by specifying the username when running <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. When this utility is run as the superuser, it will not prompt for the user's current password. This allows the password to be changed when a user cannot remember the original password."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6462
+msgid "Changing Another User's Password as the Superuser"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6465
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>passwd jru</userinput>\n"
+"Changing local password for jru.\n"
+"New password:\n"
+"Retype new password:\n"
+"passwd: updating the database...\n"
+"passwd: done"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6474
+msgid "As with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>yppasswd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is a link to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, so <acronym>NIS</acronym> works with either command."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6481
+msgid "<command>pw</command>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#. (itstool) path: sect4/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6483 book.translate.xml:43453
+msgid "<primary><command>pw</command></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6487
+msgid "The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> utility can create, remove, modify, and display users and groups. It functions as a front end to the system user and group files. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> has a very powerful set of command line options that make it suitable for use in shell scripts, but new users may find it more complicated than the other commands presented in this section."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6498
+msgid "Managing Groups"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6500
+msgid "<primary>groups</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6503
+msgid "<primary><filename>/etc/groups</filename></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6506
+msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>groups</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6511
+msgid "A group is a list of users. A group is identified by its group name and <acronym>GID</acronym>. In FreeBSD, the kernel uses the <acronym>UID</acronym> of a process, and the list of groups it belongs to, to determine what the process is allowed to do. Most of the time, the <acronym>GID</acronym> of a user or process usually means the first group in the list."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6518
+msgid "The group name to <acronym>GID</acronym> mapping is listed in <filename>/etc/group</filename>. This is a plain text file with four colon-delimited fields. The first field is the group name, the second is the encrypted password, the third the <acronym>GID</acronym>, and the fourth the comma-delimited list of members. For a more complete description of the syntax, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>group</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6526
+msgid "The superuser can modify <filename>/etc/group</filename> using a text editor. Alternatively, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> can be used to add and edit groups. For example, to add a group called <systemitem class=\"groupname\">teamtwo</systemitem> and then confirm that it exists:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6533
+msgid "Adding a Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6535
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupadd teamtwo</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupshow teamtwo</userinput>\n"
+"teamtwo:*:1100:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6540
+msgid "In this example, <literal>1100</literal> is the <acronym>GID</acronym> of <systemitem class=\"groupname\">teamtwo</systemitem>. Right now, <systemitem class=\"groupname\">teamtwo</systemitem> has no members. This command will add <systemitem class=\"username\">jru</systemitem> as a member of <systemitem class=\"groupname\">teamtwo</systemitem>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6549
+msgid "Adding User Accounts to a New Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6552
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod teamtwo -M jru</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupshow teamtwo</userinput>\n"
+"teamtwo:*:1100:jru"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6557
+msgid "The argument to <option>-M</option> is a comma-delimited list of users to be added to a new (empty) group or to replace the members of an existing group. To the user, this group membership is different from (and in addition to) the user's primary group listed in the password file. This means that the user will not show up as a member when using <option>groupshow</option> with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, but will show up when the information is queried via <citerefentry><refentrytitle>id</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> or a similar tool. When <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is used to add a user to a group, it only manipulates <filename>/etc/group</filename> and does not attempt to read additional data from <filename>/etc/passwd</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6571
+msgid "Adding a New Member to a Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6573
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod teamtwo -m db</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupshow teamtwo</userinput>\n"
+"teamtwo:*:1100:jru,db"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6578
+msgid "In this example, the argument to <option>-m</option> is a comma-delimited list of users who are to be added to the group. Unlike the previous example, these users are appended to the group and do not replace existing users in the group."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6585
+msgid "Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>id</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to Determine Group Membership"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6587
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>id jru</userinput>\n"
+"uid=1001(jru) gid=1001(jru) groups=1001(jru), 1100(teamtwo)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6591
+msgid "In this example, <systemitem class=\"username\">jru</systemitem> is a member of the groups <systemitem class=\"groupname\">jru</systemitem> and <systemitem class=\"groupname\">teamtwo</systemitem>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6596
+msgid "For more information about this command and the format of <filename>/etc/group</filename>, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>group</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6603
+msgid "Permissions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6605
+msgid "<primary>UNIX</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6609
+msgid "In FreeBSD, every file and directory has an associated set of permissions and several utilities are available for viewing and modifying these permissions. Understanding how permissions work is necessary to make sure that users are able to access the files that they need and are unable to improperly access the files used by the operating system or owned by other users."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6617
+msgid "This section discusses the traditional <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> permissions used in FreeBSD. For finer grained file system access control, refer to <xref linkend=\"fs-acl\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6621
+msgid "In <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark>, basic permissions are assigned using three types of access: read, write, and execute. These access types are used to determine file access to the file's owner, group, and others (everyone else). The read, write, and execute permissions can be represented as the letters <literal>r</literal>, <literal>w</literal>, and <literal>x</literal>. They can also be represented as binary numbers as each permission is either on or off (<literal>0</literal>). When represented as a number, the order is always read as <literal>rwx</literal>, where <literal>r</literal> has an on value of <literal>4</literal>, <literal>w</literal> has an on value of <literal>2</literal> and <literal>x</literal> has an on value of <literal>1</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6636
+msgid "Table 4.1 summarizes the possible numeric and alphabetic possibilities. When reading the <quote>Directory Listing</quote> column, a <literal>-</literal> is used to represent a permission that is set to off."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6641
+msgid "<primary>permissions</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6644
+msgid "<primary>file permissions</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: table/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6649
+msgid "<trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> Permissions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6654
+msgid "Value"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6655
+msgid "Permission"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6656
+msgid "Directory Listing"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6662
+msgid "0"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6663
+msgid "No read, no write, no execute"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6664
+msgid "<literal>---</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6668 book.translate.xml:47055 book.translate.xml:47077
+#: book.translate.xml:47167
+msgid "1"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6669
+msgid "No read, no write, execute"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6670
+msgid "<literal>--x</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6674 book.translate.xml:46947 book.translate.xml:46957
+#: book.translate.xml:47029 book.translate.xml:47039 book.translate.xml:47119
+#: book.translate.xml:47121
+msgid "2"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6675
+msgid "No read, write, no execute"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6676
+msgid "<literal>-w-</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6680 book.translate.xml:46949 book.translate.xml:46955
+#: book.translate.xml:47031 book.translate.xml:47037 book.translate.xml:47127
+#: book.translate.xml:47129
+msgid "3"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6681
+msgid "No read, write, execute"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6682
+msgid "<literal>-wx</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6686 book.translate.xml:46963 book.translate.xml:46973
+#: book.translate.xml:47045 book.translate.xml:47053 book.translate.xml:47071
+#: book.translate.xml:47079 book.translate.xml:47135 book.translate.xml:47143
+#: book.translate.xml:47185
+msgid "4"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6687
+msgid "Read, no write, no execute"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6688
+msgid "<literal>r--</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6692 book.translate.xml:46965 book.translate.xml:46971
+#: book.translate.xml:47061 book.translate.xml:47063 book.translate.xml:47151
+#: book.translate.xml:47177
+msgid "5"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6693
+msgid "Read, no write, execute"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6694
+msgid "<literal>r-x</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6698 book.translate.xml:46981 book.translate.xml:46995
+#: book.translate.xml:47047 book.translate.xml:47069 book.translate.xml:47137
+#: book.translate.xml:47159
+msgid "6"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6699
+msgid "Read, write, no execute"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6700
+msgid "<literal>rw-</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6704 book.translate.xml:46939 book.translate.xml:46941
+#: book.translate.xml:47085 book.translate.xml:47095 book.translate.xml:47153
+#: book.translate.xml:47175
+msgid "7"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6705
+msgid "Read, write, execute"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6706
+msgid "<literal>rwx</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6712
+msgid "<primary><citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6715
+msgid "<primary>directories</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6719
+msgid "Use the <option>-l</option> argument to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to view a long directory listing that includes a column of information about a file's permissions for the owner, group, and everyone else. For example, a <command>ls -l</command> in an arbitrary directory may show:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6725
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls -l</userinput>\n"
+"total 530\n"
+"-rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 512 Sep 5 12:31 myfile\n"
+"-rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 512 Sep 5 12:31 otherfile\n"
+"-rw-r--r-- 1 root wheel 7680 Sep 5 12:31 email.txt"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6731
+msgid "The first (leftmost) character in the first column indicates whether this file is a regular file, a directory, a special character device, a socket, or any other special pseudo-file device. In this example, the <literal>-</literal> indicates a regular file. The next three characters, <literal>rw-</literal> in this example, give the permissions for the owner of the file. The next three characters, <literal>r--</literal>, give the permissions for the group that the file belongs to. The final three characters, <literal>r--</literal>, give the permissions for the rest of the world. A dash means that the permission is turned off. In this example, the permissions are set so the owner can read and write to the file, the group can read the file, and the rest of the world can only read the file. According to the table above, the permissions for this file would be <literal>644</literal>, where each digit represents the three parts of the file's permission."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6748
+msgid "How does the system control permissions on devices? FreeBSD treats most hardware devices as a file that programs can open, read, and write data to. These special device files are stored in <filename>/dev/</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6753
+msgid "Directories are also treated as files. They have read, write, and execute permissions. The executable bit for a directory has a slightly different meaning than that of files. When a directory is marked executable, it means it is possible to change into that directory using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. This also means that it is possible to access the files within that directory, subject to the permissions on the files themselves."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6762
+msgid "In order to perform a directory listing, the read permission must be set on the directory. In order to delete a file that one knows the name of, it is necessary to have write <emphasis>and</emphasis> execute permissions to the directory containing the file."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6768
+msgid "There are more permission bits, but they are primarily used in special circumstances such as setuid binaries and sticky directories. For more information on file permissions and how to set them, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6775
+msgid "Symbolic Permissions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:6778 book.translate.xml:6913 book.translate.xml:6964
+#: book.translate.xml:19408 book.translate.xml:19515 book.translate.xml:19693
+#: book.translate.xml:20812 book.translate.xml:21338 book.translate.xml:23587
+#: book.translate.xml:34149 book.translate.xml:45756 book.translate.xml:65535
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Tom</firstname> <surname>Rhodes</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:6788
+msgid "<primary>permissions</primary> <secondary>symbolic</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6793
+msgid "Symbolic permissions use characters instead of octal values to assign permissions to files or directories. Symbolic permissions use the syntax of (who) (action) (permissions), where the following values are available:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6803 book.translate.xml:23313
+msgid "Option"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6804
+msgid "Letter"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6805
+msgid "Represents"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6811 book.translate.xml:6817 book.translate.xml:6823
+#: book.translate.xml:6829
+msgid "(who)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6812
+msgid "u"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6813
+msgid "User"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6818
+msgid "g"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6819
+msgid "Group owner"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6824
+msgid "o"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6825
+msgid "Other"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6830
+msgid "a"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6831
+msgid "All (<quote>world</quote>)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6835 book.translate.xml:6841 book.translate.xml:6847
+msgid "(action)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6836 book.translate.xml:31583 book.translate.xml:39442
+msgid "+"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6837
+msgid "Adding permissions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6842 book.translate.xml:31588 book.translate.xml:39447
+msgid "-"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6843
+msgid "Removing permissions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6848
+msgid "="
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6849
+msgid "Explicitly set permissions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6853 book.translate.xml:6859 book.translate.xml:6865
+#: book.translate.xml:6871 book.translate.xml:6877
+msgid "(permissions)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6854
+msgid "r"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6855
+msgid "Read"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6860
+msgid "w"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6861
+msgid "Write"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6866
+msgid "x"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6867
+msgid "Execute"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6872
+msgid "t"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6873
+msgid "Sticky bit"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6878
+msgid "s"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:6879
+msgid "Set UID or GID"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6885
+msgid "These values are used with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, but with letters instead of numbers. For example, the following command would block other users from accessing <replaceable>FILE</replaceable>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6890
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod go= FILE</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6892
+msgid "A comma separated list can be provided when more than one set of changes to a file must be made. For example, the following command removes the group and <quote>world</quote> write permission on <replaceable>FILE</replaceable>, and adds the execute permissions for everyone:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6899
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod go-w,a+x <replaceable>FILE</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6910
+msgid "FreeBSD File Flags"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6923
+msgid "In addition to file permissions, FreeBSD supports the use of <quote>file flags</quote>. These flags add an additional level of security and control over files, but not directories. With file flags, even <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> can be prevented from removing or altering files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6930
+msgid "File flags are modified using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chflags</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For example, to enable the system undeletable flag on the file <filename>file1</filename>, issue the following command:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6935
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chflags sunlink file1</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6937
+msgid "To disable the system undeletable flag, put a <quote>no</quote> in front of the <option>sunlink</option>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6941
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chflags nosunlink file1</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6943
+msgid "To view the flags of a file, use <option>-lo</option> with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6946
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls -lo file1</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:6948
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "-rw-r--r-- 1 trhodes trhodes sunlnk 0 Mar 1 05:54 file1"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6950
+msgid "Several file flags may only be added or removed by the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> user. In other cases, the file owner may set its file flags. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chflags</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chflags</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:6959
+msgid "The <literal>setuid</literal>, <literal>setgid</literal>, and <literal>sticky</literal> Permissions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6974
+msgid "Other than the permissions already discussed, there are three other specific settings that all administrators should know about. They are the <literal>setuid</literal>, <literal>setgid</literal>, and <literal>sticky</literal> permissions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6980
+msgid "These settings are important for some <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> operations as they provide functionality not normally granted to normal users. To understand them, the difference between the real user ID and effective user ID must be noted."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6985
+msgid "The real user ID is the <acronym>UID</acronym> who owns or starts the process. The effective <acronym>UID</acronym> is the user ID the process runs as. As an example, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> runs with the real user ID when a user changes their password. However, in order to update the password database, the command runs as the effective ID of the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> user. This allows users to change their passwords without seeing a <errorname>Permission Denied</errorname> error."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:6995
+msgid "The setuid permission may be set by prefixing a permission set with the number four (4) as shown in the following example:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:6999
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 4755 suidexample.sh</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7001
+msgid "The permissions on <filename><replaceable>suidexample.sh</replaceable></filename> now look like the following:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:7005
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "-rwsr-xr-x 1 trhodes trhodes 63 Aug 29 06:36 suidexample.sh"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7007
+msgid "Note that a <literal>s</literal> is now part of the permission set designated for the file owner, replacing the executable bit. This allows utilities which need elevated permissions, such as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7013
+msgid "The <literal>nosuid</literal> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> option will cause such binaries to silently fail without alerting the user. That option is not completely reliable as a <literal>nosuid</literal> wrapper may be able to circumvent it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7020
+msgid "To view this in real time, open two terminals. On one, type <command>passwd</command> as a normal user. While it waits for a new password, check the process table and look at the user information for <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7026
+msgid "In terminal A:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:7028
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Changing local password for trhodes\n"
+"Old Password:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7031
+msgid "In terminal B:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:7033
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ps aux | grep passwd</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:7035
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"trhodes 5232 0.0 0.2 3420 1608 0 R+ 2:10AM 0:00.00 grep passwd\n"
+"root 5211 0.0 0.2 3620 1724 2 I+ 2:09AM 0:00.01 passwd"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7038
+msgid "Although <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is run as a normal user, it is using the effective <acronym>UID</acronym> of <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7042
+msgid "The <literal>setgid</literal> permission performs the same function as the <literal>setuid</literal> permission; except that it alters the group settings. When an application or utility executes with this setting, it will be granted the permissions based on the group that owns the file, not the user who started the process."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7049
+msgid "To set the <literal>setgid</literal> permission on a file, provide <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> with a leading two (2):"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:7052
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 2755 sgidexample.sh</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7054
+msgid "In the following listing, notice that the <literal>s</literal> is now in the field designated for the group permission settings:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:7058
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "-rwxr-sr-x 1 trhodes trhodes 44 Aug 31 01:49 sgidexample.sh"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7061
+msgid "In these examples, even though the shell script in question is an executable file, it will not run with a different <acronym>EUID</acronym> or effective user ID. This is because shell scripts may not access the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>setuid</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> system calls."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7068
+msgid "The <literal>setuid</literal> and <literal>setgid</literal> permission bits may lower system security, by allowing for elevated permissions. The third special permission, the <literal>sticky bit</literal>, can strengthen the security of a system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7074
+msgid "When the <literal>sticky bit</literal> is set on a directory, it allows file deletion only by the file owner. This is useful to prevent file deletion in public directories, such as <filename>/tmp</filename>, by users who do not own the file. To utilize this permission, prefix the permission set with a one (1):"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:7081
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 1777 /tmp</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7083
+msgid "The <literal>sticky bit</literal> permission will display as a <literal>t</literal> at the very end of the permission set:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:7087
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls -al / | grep tmp</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:7089
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "drwxrwxrwt 10 root wheel 512 Aug 31 01:49 tmp"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:7095
+msgid "Directory Structure"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:7097
+msgid "<primary>directory hierarchy</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7101
+msgid "The FreeBSD directory hierarchy is fundamental to obtaining an overall understanding of the system. The most important directory is root or, <quote>/</quote>. This directory is the first one mounted at boot time and it contains the base system necessary to prepare the operating system for multi-user operation. The root directory also contains mount points for other file systems that are mounted during the transition to multi-user operation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7110
+msgid "A mount point is a directory where additional file systems can be grafted onto a parent file system (usually the root file system). This is further described in <xref linkend=\"disk-organization\"/>. Standard mount points include <filename>/usr/</filename>, <filename>/var/</filename>, <filename>/tmp/</filename>, <filename>/mnt/</filename>, and <filename>/cdrom/</filename>. These directories are usually referenced to entries in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>. This file is a table of various file systems and mount points and is read by the system. Most of the file systems in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> are mounted automatically at boot time from the script <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> unless their entry includes <option>noauto</option>. Details can be found in <xref linkend=\"disks-fstab\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7125
+msgid "A complete description of the file system hierarchy is available in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>hier</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The following table provides a brief overview of the most common directories."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:7134 book.translate.xml:10996
+msgid "Directory"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7141
+msgid "Root directory of the file system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7145
+msgid "<filename>/bin/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7146
+msgid "User utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7151
+msgid "<filename>/boot/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7152
+msgid "Programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7157
+msgid "<filename>/boot/defaults/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7158
+msgid "Default boot configuration files. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7163
+msgid "<filename>/dev/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7164
+msgid "Device nodes. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>intro</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7169
+msgid "<filename>/etc/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7170
+msgid "System configuration files and scripts."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7174
+msgid "<filename>/etc/defaults/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7175
+msgid "Default system configuration files. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7180
+msgid "<filename>/etc/mail/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7181
+msgid "Configuration files for mail transport agents such as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sendmail</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7186
+msgid "<filename>/etc/namedb/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7187
+msgid "<citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> configuration files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7191
+msgid "<filename>/etc/periodic/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7192
+msgid "Scripts that run daily, weekly, and monthly, via <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cron</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>periodic</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7198
+msgid "<filename>/etc/ppp/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7199
+msgid "<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> configuration files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7203
+msgid "<filename>/mnt/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7204
+msgid "Empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount point."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7209
+msgid "<filename>/proc/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7210
+msgid "Process file system. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>procfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount_procfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7215
+msgid "<filename>/rescue/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7216
+msgid "Statically linked programs for emergency recovery as described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rescue</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7221
+msgid "<filename>/root/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7222
+msgid "Home directory for the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> account."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7228
+msgid "<filename>/sbin/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7229
+msgid "System programs and administration utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7235
+msgid "<filename>/tmp/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7236
+msgid "Temporary files which are usually <emphasis>not</emphasis> preserved across a system reboot. A memory-based file system is often mounted at <filename>/tmp</filename>. This can be automated using the tmpmfs-related variables of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> or with an entry in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>; refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mdmfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7246
+msgid "<filename>/usr/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7247
+msgid "The majority of user utilities and applications."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7252
+msgid "<filename>/usr/bin/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7253
+msgid "Common utilities, programming tools, and applications."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7258
+msgid "<filename>/usr/include/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7259
+msgid "Standard C include files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7263
+msgid "<filename>/usr/lib/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7264
+msgid "Archive libraries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7269
+msgid "<filename>/usr/libdata/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7270
+msgid "Miscellaneous utility data files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7274
+msgid "<filename>/usr/libexec/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7275
+msgid "System daemons and system utilities executed by other programs."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7280
+msgid "<filename>/usr/local/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7281
+msgid "Local executables and libraries. Also used as the default destination for the FreeBSD ports framework. Within <filename>/usr/local</filename>, the general layout sketched out by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>hier</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry> for <filename>/usr</filename> should be used. Exceptions are the man directory, which is directly under <filename>/usr/local</filename> rather than under <filename>/usr/local/share</filename>, and the ports documentation is in <filename>share/doc/<replaceable>port</replaceable></filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7294
+msgid "<filename>/usr/obj/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7295
+msgid "Architecture-specific target tree produced by building the <filename>/usr/src</filename> tree."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7301
+msgid "<filename>/usr/ports/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7302
+msgid "The FreeBSD Ports Collection (optional)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7306
+msgid "<filename>/usr/sbin/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7307
+msgid "System daemons and system utilities executed by users."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7312
+msgid "<filename>/usr/share/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7313
+msgid "Architecture-independent files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7317
+msgid "<filename>/usr/src/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7318
+msgid "BSD and/or local source files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7322
+msgid "<filename>/var/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7323
+msgid "Multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files. A memory-based file system is sometimes mounted at <filename>/var</filename>. This can be automated using the varmfs-related variables in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> or with an entry in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>; refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mdmfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7334
+msgid "<filename>/var/log/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7335
+msgid "Miscellaneous system log files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7339
+msgid "<filename>/var/mail/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7340
+msgid "User mailbox files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7344
+msgid "<filename>/var/spool/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7345
+msgid "Miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling directories."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7350
+msgid "<filename>/var/tmp/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7351
+msgid "Temporary files which are usually preserved across a system reboot, unless <filename>/var</filename> is a memory-based file system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7358
+msgid "<filename>/var/yp/</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7359
+msgid "NIS maps."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:7367
+msgid "Disk Organization"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7369
+msgid "The smallest unit of organization that FreeBSD uses to find files is the filename. Filenames are case-sensitive, which means that <filename>readme.txt</filename> and <filename>README.TXT</filename> are two separate files. FreeBSD does not use the extension of a file to determine whether the file is a program, document, or some other form of data."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7376
+msgid "Files are stored in directories. A directory may contain no files, or it may contain many hundreds of files. A directory can also contain other directories, allowing a hierarchy of directories within one another in order to organize data."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7382
+msgid "Files and directories are referenced by giving the file or directory name, followed by a forward slash, <literal>/</literal>, followed by any other directory names that are necessary. For example, if the directory <filename>foo</filename> contains a directory <filename>bar</filename> which contains the file <filename>readme.txt</filename>, the full name, or <firstterm>path</firstterm>, to the file is <filename>foo/bar/readme.txt</filename>. Note that this is different from <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> which uses <literal>\\</literal> to separate file and directory names. FreeBSD does not use drive letters, or other drive names in the path. For example, one would not type <filename>c:\\foo\\bar\\readme.txt</filename> on FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7397
+msgid "Directories and files are stored in a file system. Each file system contains exactly one directory at the very top level, called the <firstterm>root directory</firstterm> for that file system. This root directory can contain other directories. One file system is designated the <firstterm>root file system</firstterm> or <literal>/</literal>. Every other file system is <firstterm>mounted</firstterm> under the root file system. No matter how many disks are on the FreeBSD system, every directory appears to be part of the same disk."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7408
+msgid "Consider three file systems, called <literal>A</literal>, <literal>B</literal>, and <literal>C</literal>. Each file system has one root directory, which contains two other directories, called <literal>A1</literal>, <literal>A2</literal> (and likewise <literal>B1</literal>, <literal>B2</literal> and <literal>C1</literal>, <literal>C2</literal>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7415
+msgid "Call <literal>A</literal> the root file system. If <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is used to view the contents of this directory, it will show two subdirectories, <literal>A1</literal> and <literal>A2</literal>. The directory tree looks like this:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:7423
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir1' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
+#: book.translate.xml:7427
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" /\n"
+" |\n"
+" +--- A1\n"
+" |\n"
+" `--- A2"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7435
+msgid "A file system must be mounted on to a directory in another file system. When mounting file system <literal>B</literal> on to the directory <literal>A1</literal>, the root directory of <literal>B</literal> replaces <literal>A1</literal>, and the directories in <literal>B</literal> appear accordingly:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:7444
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir2' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
+#: book.translate.xml:7448
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" /\n"
+" |\n"
+" +--- A1\n"
+" | |\n"
+" | +--- B1\n"
+" | |\n"
+" | `--- B2\n"
+" |\n"
+" `--- A2"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7460
+msgid "Any files that are in the <literal>B1</literal> or <literal>B2</literal> directories can be reached with the path <filename>/A1/B1</filename> or <filename>/A1/B2</filename> as necessary. Any files that were in <filename>/A1</filename> have been temporarily hidden. They will reappear if <literal>B</literal> is <firstterm>unmounted</firstterm> from <literal>A</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7469
+msgid "If <literal>B</literal> had been mounted on <literal>A2</literal> then the diagram would look like this:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:7475
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir3' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
+#: book.translate.xml:7479
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" /\n"
+" |\n"
+" +--- A1\n"
+" |\n"
+" `--- A2\n"
+" |\n"
+" +--- B1\n"
+" |\n"
+" `--- B2"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7491
+msgid "and the paths would be <filename>/A2/B1</filename> and <filename>/A2/B2</filename> respectively."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7496
+msgid "File systems can be mounted on top of one another. Continuing the last example, the <literal>C</literal> file system could be mounted on top of the <literal>B1</literal> directory in the <literal>B</literal> file system, leading to this arrangement:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:7504
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir4' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
+#: book.translate.xml:7508
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" /\n"
+" |\n"
+" +--- A1\n"
+" |\n"
+" `--- A2\n"
+" |\n"
+" +--- B1\n"
+" | |\n"
+" | +--- C1\n"
+" | |\n"
+" | `--- C2\n"
+" |\n"
+" `--- B2"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7524
+msgid "Or <literal>C</literal> could be mounted directly on to the <literal>A</literal> file system, under the <literal>A1</literal> directory:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:7530
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir5' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
+#: book.translate.xml:7534
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" /\n"
+" |\n"
+" +--- A1\n"
+" | |\n"
+" | +--- C1\n"
+" | |\n"
+" | `--- C2\n"
+" |\n"
+" `--- A2\n"
+" |\n"
+" +--- B1\n"
+" |\n"
+" `--- B2"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7550
+msgid "It is entirely possible to have one large root file system, and not need to create any others. There are some drawbacks to this approach, and one advantage."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
+#: book.translate.xml:7555
+msgid "Benefits of Multiple File Systems"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7558
+msgid "Different file systems can have different <firstterm>mount options</firstterm>. For example, the root file system can be mounted read-only, making it impossible for users to inadvertently delete or edit a critical file. Separating user-writable file systems, such as <filename>/home</filename>, from other file systems allows them to be mounted <firstterm>nosuid</firstterm>. This option prevents the <firstterm>suid</firstterm>/<firstterm>guid</firstterm> bits on executables stored on the file system from taking effect, possibly improving security."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7572
+msgid "FreeBSD automatically optimizes the layout of files on a file system, depending on how the file system is being used. So a file system that contains many small files that are written frequently will have a different optimization to one that contains fewer, larger files. By having one big file system this optimization breaks down."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7581
+msgid "FreeBSD's file systems are robust if power is lost. However, a power loss at a critical point could still damage the structure of the file system. By splitting data over multiple file systems it is more likely that the system will still come up, making it easier to restore from backup as necessary."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
+#: book.translate.xml:7591
+msgid "Benefit of a Single File System"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7594
+msgid "File systems are a fixed size. If you create a file system when you install FreeBSD and give it a specific size, you may later discover that you need to make the partition bigger. This is not easily accomplished without backing up, recreating the file system with the new size, and then restoring the backed up data."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: important/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7602
+msgid "FreeBSD features the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>growfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command, which makes it possible to increase the size of file system on the fly, removing this limitation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7609
+msgid "File systems are contained in partitions. This does not have the same meaning as the common usage of the term partition (for example, <trademark class=\"registered\">MS-DOS</trademark> partition), because of FreeBSD's <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> heritage. Each partition is identified by a letter from <literal>a</literal> through to <literal>h</literal>. Each partition can contain only one file system, which means that file systems are often described by either their typical mount point in the file system hierarchy, or the letter of the partition they are contained in."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7619
+msgid "FreeBSD also uses disk space for <firstterm>swap space</firstterm> to provide <firstterm>virtual memory</firstterm>. This allows your computer to behave as though it has much more memory than it actually does. When FreeBSD runs out of memory, it moves some of the data that is not currently being used to the swap space, and moves it back in (moving something else out) when it needs it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7628
+msgid "Some partitions have certain conventions associated with them."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7638
+msgid "Partition"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7639
+msgid "Convention"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7645
+msgid "<literal>a</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7646
+msgid "Normally contains the root file system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7650
+msgid "<literal>b</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7651
+msgid "Normally contains swap space."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7655
+msgid "<literal>c</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7656
+msgid "Normally the same size as the enclosing slice. This allows utilities that need to work on the entire slice, such as a bad block scanner, to work on the <literal>c</literal> partition. A file system would not normally be created on this partition."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7664
+msgid "<literal>d</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7665
+msgid "Partition <literal>d</literal> used to have a special meaning associated with it, although that is now gone and <literal>d</literal> may work as any normal partition."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7674
+msgid "Disks in FreeBSD are divided into slices, referred to in <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> as partitions, which are numbered from 1 to 4. These are then divided into partitions, which contain file systems, and are labeled using letters."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:7679
+msgid "<primary>slices</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:7682 book.translate.xml:32053 book.translate.xml:32149
+msgid "<primary>partitions</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:7685
+msgid "<primary>dangerously dedicated</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7689
+msgid "Slice numbers follow the device name, prefixed with an <literal>s</literal>, starting at 1. So <quote>da0<emphasis>s1</emphasis></quote> is the first slice on the first SCSI drive. There can only be four physical slices on a disk, but there can be logical slices inside physical slices of the appropriate type. These extended slices are numbered starting at 5, so <quote>ada0<emphasis>s5</emphasis></quote> is the first extended slice on the first SATA disk. These devices are used by file systems that expect to occupy a slice."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7699
+msgid "Slices, <quote>dangerously dedicated</quote> physical drives, and other drives contain <firstterm>partitions</firstterm>, which are represented as letters from <literal>a</literal> to <literal>h</literal>. This letter is appended to the device name, so <quote>da0<emphasis>a</emphasis></quote> is the <literal>a</literal> partition on the first <literal>da</literal> drive, which is <quote>dangerously dedicated</quote>. <quote>ada1s3<emphasis>e</emphasis></quote> is the fifth partition in the third slice of the second SATA disk drive."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7712
+msgid "Finally, each disk on the system is identified. A disk name starts with a code that indicates the type of disk, and then a number, indicating which disk it is. Unlike slices, disk numbering starts at 0. Common codes are listed in <xref linkend=\"disks-naming\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7718
+msgid "When referring to a partition, include the disk name, <literal>s</literal>, the slice number, and then the partition letter. Examples are shown in <xref linkend=\"basics-disk-slice-part\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7723
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"basics-concept-disk-model\"/> shows a conceptual model of a disk layout."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7726
+msgid "When installing FreeBSD, configure the disk slices, create partitions within the slice to be used for FreeBSD, create a file system or swap space in each partition, and decide where each file system will be mounted."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: table/title
+#: book.translate.xml:7732
+msgid "Disk Device Names"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7740
+msgid "Drive Type"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7741
+msgid "Drive Device Name"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7747
+msgid "<acronym>SATA</acronym> and <acronym>IDE</acronym> hard drives"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7749
+msgid "<literal>ada</literal> or <literal>ad</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7754
+msgid "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> hard drives and <acronym>USB</acronym> storage devices"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7756
+msgid "<literal>da</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7760
+msgid "<acronym>SATA</acronym> and <acronym>IDE</acronym> <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> drives"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7762
+msgid "<literal>cd</literal> or <literal>acd</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7767
+msgid "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> drives"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7769
+msgid "<literal>cd</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7773
+msgid "Floppy drives"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7774
+msgid "<literal>fd</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7778
+msgid "Assorted non-standard <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> drives"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7780
+msgid "<literal>mcd</literal> for Mitsumi <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> and <literal>scd</literal> for Sony <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> devices"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7786
+msgid "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> tape drives"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7787
+msgid "<literal>sa</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7791
+msgid "<acronym>IDE</acronym> tape drives"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7792
+msgid "<literal>ast</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7796
+msgid "RAID drives"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7797
+msgid "Examples include <literal>aacd</literal> for <trademark class=\"registered\">Adaptec</trademark> AdvancedRAID, <literal>mlxd</literal> and <literal>mlyd</literal> for <trademark class=\"registered\">Mylex</trademark>, <literal>amrd</literal> for AMI <trademark class=\"registered\">MegaRAID</trademark>, <literal>idad</literal> for Compaq Smart RAID, <literal>twed</literal> for <trademark class=\"registered\">3ware</trademark> RAID."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:7809
+msgid "Sample Disk, Slice, and Partition Names"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7818
+msgid "Name"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7819 book.translate.xml:62841
+msgid "Meaning"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7825
+msgid "<literal>ada0s1a</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7826
+msgid "The first partition (<literal>a</literal>) on the first slice (<literal>s1</literal>) on the first <acronym>SATA</acronym> disk (<literal>ada0</literal>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7833
+msgid "<literal>da1s2e</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:7834
+msgid "The fifth partition (<literal>e</literal>) on the second slice (<literal>s2</literal>) on the second SCSI disk (<literal>da1</literal>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:7844
+msgid "Conceptual Model of a Disk"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7846
+msgid "This diagram shows FreeBSD's view of the first <acronym>SATA</acronym> disk attached to the system. Assume that the disk is 250 GB in size, and contains an 80 GB slice and a 170 GB slice (<trademark class=\"registered\">MS-DOS</trademark> partitions). The first slice contains a <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> <acronym>NTFS</acronym> file system, <filename>C:</filename>, and the second slice contains a FreeBSD installation. This example FreeBSD installation has four data partitions and a swap partition."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7856
+msgid "The four partitions each hold a file system. Partition <literal>a</literal> is used for the root file system, <literal>d</literal> for <filename>/var/</filename>, <literal>e</literal> for <filename>/tmp/</filename>, and <literal>f</literal> for <filename>/usr/</filename>. Partition letter <literal>c</literal> refers to the entire slice, and so is not used for ordinary partitions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: imageobject/imagedata
+#. This is a reference to an external file such as an image or video. When
+#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
+#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
+#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
+#: book.translate.xml:7866
+msgctxt "_"
+msgid "external ref='basics/disk-layout' md5='__failed__'"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:7873
+msgid "Mounting and Unmounting File Systems"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7875
+msgid "The file system is best visualized as a tree, rooted, as it were, at <filename>/</filename>. <filename>/dev</filename>, <filename>/usr</filename>, and the other directories in the root directory are branches, which may have their own branches, such as <filename>/usr/local</filename>, and so on."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:7884
+msgid "<primary>root file system</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7888
+msgid "There are various reasons to house some of these directories on separate file systems. <filename>/var</filename> contains the directories <filename>log/</filename>, <filename>spool/</filename>, and various types of temporary files, and as such, may get filled up. Filling up the root file system is not a good idea, so splitting <filename>/var</filename> from <filename>/</filename> is often favorable."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7899
+msgid "Another common reason to contain certain directory trees on other file systems is if they are to be housed on separate physical disks, or are separate virtual disks, such as Network File System mounts, described in <xref linkend=\"network-nfs\"/>, or CDROM drives."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:7906
+msgid "The <filename>fstab</filename> File"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:7908
+msgid "<primary>file systems</primary> <secondary>mounted with fstab</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7913
+msgid "During the boot process (<xref linkend=\"boot\"/>), file systems listed in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> are automatically mounted except for the entries containing <option>noauto</option>. This file contains entries in the following format:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:7919
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<replaceable>device</replaceable> <replaceable>/mount-point</replaceable> <replaceable>fstype</replaceable> <replaceable>options</replaceable> <replaceable>dumpfreq</replaceable> <replaceable>passno</replaceable>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:7923
+msgid "<literal>device</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7925
+msgid "An existing device name as explained in <xref linkend=\"disks-naming\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:7931
+msgid "<literal>mount-point</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7934
+msgid "An existing directory on which to mount the file system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:7940
+msgid "<literal>fstype</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7943
+msgid "The file system type to pass to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The default FreeBSD file system is <literal>ufs</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:7950
+msgid "<literal>options</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7953
+msgid "Either <option>rw</option> for read-write file systems, or <option>ro</option> for read-only file systems, followed by any other options that may be needed. A common option is <option>noauto</option> for file systems not normally mounted during the boot sequence. Other options are listed in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:7964
+msgid "<literal>dumpfreq</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7967
+msgid "Used by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to determine which file systems require dumping. If the field is missing, a value of zero is assumed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:7974
+msgid "<literal>passno</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7977
+msgid "Determines the order in which file systems should be checked. File systems that should be skipped should have their <literal>passno</literal> set to zero. The root file system needs to be checked before everything else and should have its <literal>passno</literal> set to one. The other file systems should be set to values greater than one. If more than one file system has the same <literal>passno</literal>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsck</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will attempt to check file systems in parallel if possible."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:7991
+msgid "Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fstab</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information on the format of <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> and its options."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:7996
+msgid "Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:7998
+msgid "<primary>file systems</primary> <secondary>mounting</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8003
+msgid "File systems are mounted using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The most basic syntax is as follows:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: informalexample/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8007
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount <replaceable>device</replaceable> <replaceable>mountpoint</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8010
+msgid "This command provides many options which are described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, The most commonly used options include:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: variablelist/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8014
+msgid "Mount Options"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8017 book.translate.xml:23320
+msgid "<option>-a</option>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8020
+msgid "Mount all the file systems listed in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>, except those marked as <quote>noauto</quote>, excluded by the <option>-t</option> flag, or those that are already mounted."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:8029
+msgid "<option>-d</option>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8033
+msgid "Do everything except for the actual mount system call. This option is useful in conjunction with the <option>-v</option> flag to determine what <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is actually trying to do."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:8041 book.translate.xml:26441
+msgid "<option>-f</option>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8044
+msgid "Force the mount of an unclean file system (dangerous), or the revocation of write access when downgrading a file system's mount status from read-write to read-only."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:8052
+msgid "<option>-r</option>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8055
+msgid "Mount the file system read-only. This is identical to using <option>-o ro</option>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:8061
+msgid "<option>-t</option> <replaceable>fstype</replaceable>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8065
+msgid "Mount the specified file system type or mount only file systems of the given type, if <option>-a</option> is included. <quote>ufs</quote> is the default file system type."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:8073
+msgid "<option>-u</option>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8076
+msgid "Update mount options on the file system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8081 book.translate.xml:23337
+msgid "<option>-v</option>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8084
+msgid "Be verbose."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:8089
+msgid "<option>-w</option>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8092
+msgid "Mount the file system read-write."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8097
+msgid "The following options can be passed to <option>-o</option> as a comma-separated list:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:8102
+msgid "nosuid"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8105
+msgid "Do not interpret setuid or setgid flags on the file system. This is also a useful security option."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8114
+msgid "Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>umount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8116
+msgid "<primary>file systems</primary> <secondary>unmounting</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8121
+msgid "To unmount a file system use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>umount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. This command takes one parameter which can be a mountpoint, device name, <option>-a</option> or <option>-A</option>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8125
+msgid "All forms take <option>-f</option> to force unmounting, and <option>-v</option> for verbosity. Be warned that <option>-f</option> is not generally a good idea as it might crash the computer or damage data on the file system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8130
+msgid "To unmount all mounted file systems, or just the file system types listed after <option>-t</option>, use <option>-a</option> or <option>-A</option>. Note that <option>-A</option> does not attempt to unmount the root file system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8139
+msgid "Processes and Daemons"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8141
+msgid "FreeBSD is a multi-tasking operating system. Each program running at any one time is called a <firstterm>process</firstterm>. Every running command starts at least one new process and there are a number of system processes that are run by FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8147
+msgid "Each process is uniquely identified by a number called a <firstterm>process ID</firstterm> (<acronym>PID</acronym>). Similar to files, each process has one owner and group, and the owner and group permissions are used to determine which files and devices the process can open. Most processes also have a parent process that started them. For example, the shell is a process, and any command started in the shell is a process which has the shell as its parent process. The exception is a special process called <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> which is always the first process to start at boot time and which always has a <acronym>PID</acronym> of <literal>1</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8159
+msgid "Some programs are not designed to be run with continuous user input and disconnect from the terminal at the first opportunity. For example, a web server responds to web requests, rather than user input. Mail servers are another example of this type of application. These types of programs are known as <firstterm>daemons</firstterm>. The term daemon comes from Greek mythology and represents an entity that is neither good nor evil, and which invisibly performs useful tasks. This is why the BSD mascot is the cheerful-looking daemon with sneakers and a pitchfork."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8170
+msgid "There is a convention to name programs that normally run as daemons with a trailing <quote>d</quote>. For example, <application>BIND</application> is the Berkeley Internet Name Domain, but the actual program that executes is <command>named</command>. The <application>Apache</application> web server program is <command>httpd</command> and the line printer spooling daemon is <command>lpd</command>. This is only a naming convention. For example, the main mail daemon for the <application>Sendmail</application> application is <command>sendmail</command>, and not <literal>maild</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8184
+msgid "Viewing Processes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8186
+msgid "To see the processes running on the system, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>top</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. To display a static list of the currently running processes, their <acronym>PID</acronym>s, how much memory they are using, and the command they were started with, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. To display all the running processes and update the display every few seconds in order to interactively see what the computer is doing, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>top</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8194
+msgid "By default, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> only shows the commands that are running and owned by the user. For example:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8197
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ps</userinput>\n"
+" PID TT STAT TIME COMMAND\n"
+"8203 0 Ss 0:00.59 /bin/csh\n"
+"8895 0 R+ 0:00.00 ps"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8202
+msgid "The output from <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is organized into a number of columns. The <literal>PID</literal> column displays the process ID. <acronym>PID</acronym>s are assigned starting at 1, go up to 99999, then wrap around back to the beginning. However, a <acronym>PID</acronym> is not reassigned if it is already in use. The <literal>TT</literal> column shows the tty the program is running on and <literal>STAT</literal> shows the program's state. <literal>TIME</literal> is the amount of time the program has been running on the CPU. This is usually not the elapsed time since the program was started, as most programs spend a lot of time waiting for things to happen before they need to spend time on the CPU. Finally, <literal>COMMAND</literal> is the command that was used to start the program."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8217
+msgid "A number of different options are available to change the information that is displayed. One of the most useful sets is <literal>auxww</literal>, where <option>a</option> displays information about all the running processes of all users, <option>u</option> displays the username and memory usage of the process' owner, <option>x</option> displays information about daemon processes, and <option>ww</option> causes <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to display the full command line for each process, rather than truncating it once it gets too long to fit on the screen."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8228
+msgid "The output from <citerefentry><refentrytitle>top</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is similar:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8230
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>top</userinput>\n"
+"last pid: 9609; load averages: 0.56, 0.45, 0.36 up 0+00:20:03 10:21:46\n"
+"107 processes: 2 running, 104 sleeping, 1 zombie\n"
+"CPU: 6.2% user, 0.1% nice, 8.2% system, 0.4% interrupt, 85.1% idle\n"
+"Mem: 541M Active, 450M Inact, 1333M Wired, 4064K Cache, 1498M Free\n"
+"ARC: 992M Total, 377M MFU, 589M MRU, 250K Anon, 5280K Header, 21M Other\n"
+"Swap: 2048M Total, 2048M Free\n"
+"\n"
+" PID USERNAME THR PRI NICE SIZE RES STATE C TIME WCPU COMMAND\n"
+" 557 root 1 -21 r31 136M 42296K select 0 2:20 9.96% Xorg\n"
+" 8198 dru 2 52 0 449M 82736K select 3 0:08 5.96% kdeinit4\n"
+" 8311 dru 27 30 0 1150M 187M uwait 1 1:37 0.98% firefox\n"
+" 431 root 1 20 0 14268K 1728K select 0 0:06 0.98% moused\n"
+" 9551 dru 1 21 0 16600K 2660K CPU3 3 0:01 0.98% top\n"
+" 2357 dru 4 37 0 718M 141M select 0 0:21 0.00% kdeinit4\n"
+" 8705 dru 4 35 0 480M 98M select 2 0:20 0.00% kdeinit4\n"
+" 8076 dru 6 20 0 552M 113M uwait 0 0:12 0.00% soffice.bin\n"
+" 2623 root 1 30 10 12088K 1636K select 3 0:09 0.00% powerd\n"
+" 2338 dru 1 20 0 440M 84532K select 1 0:06 0.00% kwin\n"
+" 1427 dru 5 22 0 605M 86412K select 1 0:05 0.00% kdeinit4"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8251
+msgid "The output is split into two sections. The header (the first five or six lines) shows the <acronym>PID</acronym> of the last process to run, the system load averages (which are a measure of how busy the system is), the system uptime (time since the last reboot) and the current time. The other figures in the header relate to how many processes are running, how much memory and swap space has been used, and how much time the system is spending in different CPU states. If the <acronym>ZFS</acronym> file system module has been loaded, an <literal>ARC</literal> line indicates how much data was read from the memory cache instead of from disk."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8263
+msgid "Below the header is a series of columns containing similar information to the output from <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, such as the <acronym>PID</acronym>, username, amount of CPU time, and the command that started the process. By default, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>top</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> also displays the amount of memory space taken by the process. This is split into two columns: one for total size and one for resident size. Total size is how much memory the application has needed and the resident size is how much it is actually using now."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8273
+msgid "<citerefentry><refentrytitle>top</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> automatically updates the display every two seconds. A different interval can be specified with <option>-s</option>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8279
+msgid "Killing Processes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8281
+msgid "One way to communicate with any running process or daemon is to send a <firstterm>signal</firstterm> using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. There are a number of different signals; some have a specific meaning while others are described in the application's documentation. A user can only send a signal to a process they own and sending a signal to someone else's process will result in a permission denied error. The exception is the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> user, who can send signals to anyone's processes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8291
+msgid "The operating system can also send a signal to a process. If an application is badly written and tries to access memory that it is not supposed to, FreeBSD will send the process the <quote>Segmentation Violation</quote> signal (<literal>SIGSEGV</literal>). If an application has been written to use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>alarm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry> system call to be alerted after a period of time has elapsed, it will be sent the <quote>Alarm</quote> signal (<literal>SIGALRM</literal>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8301
+msgid "Two signals can be used to stop a process: <literal>SIGTERM</literal> and <literal>SIGKILL</literal>. <literal>SIGTERM</literal> is the polite way to kill a process as the process can read the signal, close any log files it may have open, and attempt to finish what it is doing before shutting down. In some cases, a process may ignore <literal>SIGTERM</literal> if it is in the middle of some task that cannot be interrupted."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: footnote/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8313
+msgid "There are a few tasks that cannot be interrupted. For example, if the process is trying to read from a file that is on another computer on the network, and the other computer is unavailable, the process is said to be <quote>uninterruptible</quote>. Eventually the process will time out, typically after two minutes. As soon as this time out occurs the process will be killed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8310
+msgid "<literal>SIGKILL</literal> cannot be ignored by a process. Sending a <literal>SIGKILL</literal> to a process will usually stop that process there and then. <_:footnote-1/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8322
+msgid "Other commonly used signals are <literal>SIGHUP</literal>, <literal>SIGUSR1</literal>, and <literal>SIGUSR2</literal>. Since these are general purpose signals, different applications will respond differently."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8327
+msgid "For example, after changing a web server's configuration file, the web server needs to be told to re-read its configuration. Restarting <command>httpd</command> would result in a brief outage period on the web server. Instead, send the daemon the <literal>SIGHUP</literal> signal. Be aware that different daemons will have different behavior, so refer to the documentation for the daemon to determine if <literal>SIGHUP</literal> will achieve the desired results."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8338
+msgid "Sending a Signal to a Process"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: procedure/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8340
+msgid "This example shows how to send a signal to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>inetd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>inetd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> configuration file is <filename>/etc/inetd.conf</filename>, and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>inetd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will re-read this configuration file when it is sent a <literal>SIGHUP</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8347
+msgid "Find the <acronym>PID</acronym> of the process to send the signal to using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pgrep</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. In this example, the <acronym>PID</acronym> for <citerefentry><refentrytitle>inetd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is 198:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8351
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>pgrep -l inetd</userinput>\n"
+"198 inetd -wW"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8357
+msgid "Use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to send the signal. Because <citerefentry><refentrytitle>inetd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is owned by <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to become <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> first."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8364
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>su</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>Password:</prompt>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>/bin/kill -s HUP 198</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8368
+msgid "Like most <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> commands, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> will not print any output if it is successful. If a signal is sent to a process not owned by that user, the message <errorname>kill: <replaceable>PID</replaceable>: Operation not permitted</errorname> will be displayed. Mistyping the <acronym>PID</acronym> will either send the signal to the wrong process, which could have negative results, or will send the signal to a <acronym>PID</acronym> that is not currently in use, resulting in the error <errorname>kill: <replaceable>PID</replaceable>: No such process</errorname>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8381
+msgid "Why Use <command>/bin/kill</command>?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8383
+msgid "Many shells provide <command>kill</command> as a built in command, meaning that the shell will send the signal directly, rather than running <filename>/bin/kill</filename>. Be aware that different shells have a different syntax for specifying the name of the signal to send. Rather than try to learn all of them, it can be simpler to specify <command>/bin/kill</command>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8395
+msgid "When sending other signals, substitute <literal>TERM</literal> or <literal>KILL</literal> with the name of the signal."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: important/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8400
+msgid "Killing a random process on the system is a bad idea. In particular, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <acronym>PID</acronym> 1, is special. Running <command>/bin/kill -s KILL 1</command> is a quick, and unrecommended, way to shutdown the system. <emphasis>Always</emphasis> double check the arguments to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> <emphasis>before</emphasis> pressing <keycap>Return</keycap>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8412
+msgid "Shells"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8414
+msgid "<primary>shells</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8417
+msgid "<primary>command line</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8421
+msgid "A <firstterm>shell</firstterm> provides a command line interface for interacting with the operating system. A shell receives commands from the input channel and executes them. Many shells provide built in functions to help with everyday tasks such as file management, file globbing, command line editing, command macros, and environment variables. FreeBSD comes with several shells, including the Bourne shell (<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>) and the extended C shell (<citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>). Other shells are available from the FreeBSD Ports Collection, such as <command>zsh</command> and <command>bash</command>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8432
+msgid "The shell that is used is really a matter of taste. A C programmer might feel more comfortable with a C-like shell such as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. A <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> user might prefer <command>bash</command>. Each shell has unique properties that may or may not work with a user's preferred working environment, which is why there is a choice of which shell to use."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8439
+msgid "One common shell feature is filename completion. After a user types the first few letters of a command or filename and presses <keycap>Tab</keycap>, the shell completes the rest of the command or filename. Consider two files called <filename>foobar</filename> and <filename>football</filename>. To delete <filename>foobar</filename>, the user might type <command>rm foo</command> and press <keycap>Tab</keycap> to complete the filename."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8448
+msgid "But the shell only shows <command>rm foo</command>. It was unable to complete the filename because both <filename>foobar</filename> and <filename>football</filename> start with <literal>foo</literal>. Some shells sound a beep or show all the choices if more than one name matches. The user must then type more characters to identify the desired filename. Typing a <literal>t</literal> and pressing <keycap>Tab</keycap> again is enough to let the shell determine which filename is desired and fill in the rest."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8458
+msgid "<primary>environment variables</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8462
+msgid "Another feature of the shell is the use of environment variables. Environment variables are a variable/key pair stored in the shell's environment. This environment can be read by any program invoked by the shell, and thus contains a lot of program configuration. <xref linkend=\"shell-env-vars\"/> provides a list of common environment variables and their meanings. Note that the names of environment variables are always in uppercase."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: table/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8472
+msgid "Common Environment Variables"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8477 book.translate.xml:23134
+msgid "Variable"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8484
+msgid "<envar>USER</envar>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8485
+msgid "Current logged in user's name."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8489
+msgid "<envar>PATH</envar>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8490
+msgid "Colon-separated list of directories to search for binaries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8495
+msgid "<envar>DISPLAY</envar>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8496
+msgid "Network name of the <application>Xorg</application> display to connect to, if available."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8502
+msgid "<envar>SHELL</envar>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8503
+msgid "The current shell."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8507
+msgid "<envar>TERM</envar>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8509
+msgid "The name of the user's type of terminal. Used to determine the capabilities of the terminal."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8514
+msgid "<envar>TERMCAP</envar>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8516
+msgid "Database entry of the terminal escape codes to perform various terminal functions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8521
+msgid "<envar>OSTYPE</envar>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8522
+msgid "Type of operating system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8526
+msgid "<envar>MACHTYPE</envar>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8527
+msgid "The system's CPU architecture."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8531
+msgid "<envar>EDITOR</envar>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8532
+msgid "The user's preferred text editor."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8536
+msgid "<envar>PAGER</envar>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8537
+msgid "The user's preferred utility for viewing text one page at a time."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8542
+msgid "<envar>MANPATH</envar>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:8543
+msgid "Colon-separated list of directories to search for manual pages."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8550
+msgid "<primary>Bourne shells</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8554
+msgid "How to set an environment variable differs between shells. In <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>csh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, use <command>setenv</command> to set environment variables. In <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <command>bash</command>, use <command>export</command> to set the current environment variables. This example sets the default <envar>EDITOR</envar> to <filename>/usr/local/bin/emacs</filename> for the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> shell:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8563
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>setenv EDITOR /usr/local/bin/emacs</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8565
+msgid "The equivalent command for <command>bash</command> would be:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8568
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>export EDITOR=\"/usr/local/bin/emacs\"</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8570
+msgid "To expand an environment variable in order to see its current setting, type a <literal>$</literal> character in front of its name on the command line. For example, <command>echo $TERM</command> displays the current <envar>$TERM</envar> setting."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8576
+msgid "Shells treat special characters, known as meta-characters, as special representations of data. The most common meta-character is <literal>*</literal>, which represents any number of characters in a filename. Meta-characters can be used to perform filename globbing. For example, <command>echo *</command> is equivalent to <command>ls</command> because the shell takes all the files that match <literal>*</literal> and <command>echo</command> lists them on the command line."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8586
+msgid "To prevent the shell from interpreting a special character, escape it from the shell by starting it with a backslash (<literal>\\</literal>). For example, <command>echo $TERM</command> prints the terminal setting whereas <command>echo \\$TERM</command> literally prints the string <literal>$TERM</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8594
+msgid "Changing the Shell"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8596
+msgid "The easiest way to permanently change the default shell is to use <command>chsh</command>. Running this command will open the editor that is configured in the <envar>EDITOR</envar> environment variable, which by default is set to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Change the <literal>Shell:</literal> line to the full path of the new shell."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8603
+msgid "Alternately, use <command>chsh -s</command> which will set the specified shell without opening an editor. For example, to change the shell to <command>bash</command>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8607
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chsh -s /usr/local/bin/bash</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8610
+msgid "The new shell <emphasis>must</emphasis> be present in <filename>/etc/shells</filename>. If the shell was installed from the FreeBSD Ports Collection as described in <xref linkend=\"ports\"/>, it should be automatically added to this file. If it is missing, add it using this command, replacing the path with the path of the shell:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8617
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>echo <replaceable>/usr/local/bin/bash</replaceable> &gt;&gt; /etc/shells</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8619
+msgid "Then, rerun <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8625
+msgid "Advanced Shell Techniques"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:8628 book.translate.xml:31198 book.translate.xml:35719
+#: book.translate.xml:35799 book.translate.xml:37408 book.translate.xml:44260
+#: book.translate.xml:54712 book.translate.xml:57147
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Tom</firstname> <surname>Rhodes</surname> </personname> <contrib>Written by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8638
+msgid "The <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> shell is not just a command interpreter, it acts as a powerful tool which allows users to execute commands, redirect their output, redirect their input and chain commands together to improve the final command output. When this functionality is mixed with built in commands, the user is provided with an environment that can maximize efficiency."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8646
+msgid "Shell redirection is the action of sending the output or the input of a command into another command or into a file. To capture the output of the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> command, for example, into a file, redirect the output:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8651
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls &gt; directory_listing.txt</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8653
+msgid "The directory contents will now be listed in <filename>directory_listing.txt</filename>. Some commands can be used to read input, such as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sort</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. To sort this listing, redirect the input:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8658
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>sort &lt; directory_listing.txt</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8660
+msgid "The input will be sorted and placed on the screen. To redirect that input into another file, one could redirect the output of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sort</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> by mixing the direction:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8664
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>sort &lt; directory_listing.txt &gt; sorted.txt</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8666
+msgid "In all of the previous examples, the commands are performing redirection using file descriptors. Every <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> system has file descriptors, which include standard input (stdin), standard output (stdout), and standard error (stderr). Each one has a purpose, where input could be a keyboard or a mouse, something that provides input. Output could be a screen or paper in a printer. And error would be anything that is used for diagnostic or error messages. All three are considered <acronym>I/O</acronym> based file descriptors and sometimes considered streams."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8677
+msgid "Through the use of these descriptors, the shell allows output and input to be passed around through various commands and redirected to or from a file. Another method of redirection is the pipe operator."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8682
+msgid "The <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> pipe operator, <quote>|</quote> allows the output of one command to be directly passed or directed to another program. Basically, a pipe allows the standard output of a command to be passed as standard input to another command, for example:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8688
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cat directory_listing.txt | sort | less</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8690
+msgid "In that example, the contents of <filename>directory_listing.txt</filename> will be sorted and the output passed to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>less</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. This allows the user to scroll through the output at their own pace and prevent it from scrolling off the screen."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8699
+msgid "Text Editors"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8701
+msgid "<primary>text editors</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8704 book.translate.xml:8740
+msgid "<primary>editors</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8708
+msgid "Most FreeBSD configuration is done by editing text files. Because of this, it is a good idea to become familiar with a text editor. FreeBSD comes with a few as part of the base system, and many more are available in the Ports Collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8713
+msgid "<primary><command>ee</command></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8716
+msgid "<primary>editors</primary> <secondary><citerefentry><refentrytitle>ee</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry></secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8721
+msgid "A simple editor to learn is <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ee</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, which stands for easy editor. To start this editor, type <command>ee <replaceable>filename</replaceable></command> where <replaceable>filename</replaceable> is the name of the file to be edited. Once inside the editor, all of the commands for manipulating the editor's functions are listed at the top of the display. The caret (<literal>^</literal>) represents <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>, so <literal>^e</literal> expands to <keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>e</keycap> </keycombo>. To leave <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ee</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, press <keycap>Esc</keycap>, then choose the <quote>leave editor</quote> option from the main menu. The editor will prompt to save any changes if the file has been modified."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8737
+msgid "<primary><command>vi</command></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8743
+msgid "<primary><command>emacs</command></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8747
+msgid "FreeBSD also comes with more powerful text editors, such as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, as part of the base system. Other editors, like <package>editors/emacs</package> and <package>editors/vim</package>, are part of the FreeBSD Ports Collection. These editors offer more functionality at the expense of being more complicated to learn. Learning a more powerful editor such as <application>vim</application> or <application>Emacs</application> can save more time in the long run."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8757
+msgid "Many applications which modify files or require typed input will automatically open a text editor. To change the default editor, set the <envar>EDITOR</envar> environment variable as described in <xref linkend=\"shells\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8764
+msgid "Devices and Device Nodes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8766
+msgid "A device is a term used mostly for hardware-related activities in a system, including disks, printers, graphics cards, and keyboards. When FreeBSD boots, the majority of the boot messages refer to devices being detected. A copy of the boot messages are saved to <filename>/var/run/dmesg.boot</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8773
+msgid "Each device has a device name and number. For example, <filename>ada0</filename> is the first SATA hard drive, while <filename>kbd0</filename> represents the keyboard."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8778
+msgid "Most devices in a FreeBSD must be accessed through special files called device nodes, which are located in <filename>/dev</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8784
+msgid "Manual Pages"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8786
+msgid "<primary>manual pages</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8790
+msgid "The most comprehensive documentation on FreeBSD is in the form of manual pages. Nearly every program on the system comes with a short reference manual explaining the basic operation and available arguments. These manuals can be viewed using <command>man</command>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8796
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>man <replaceable>command</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8798
+msgid "where <replaceable>command</replaceable> is the name of the command to learn about. For example, to learn more about <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, type:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8802
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>man ls</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8804
+msgid "Manual pages are divided into sections which represent the type of topic. In FreeBSD, the following sections are available:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8810
+msgid "User commands."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8814
+msgid "System calls and error numbers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8818
+msgid "Functions in the C libraries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8822
+msgid "Device drivers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8826
+msgid "File formats."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8830
+msgid "Games and other diversions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8834
+msgid "Miscellaneous information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8838
+msgid "System maintenance and operation commands."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8842
+msgid "System kernel interfaces."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8846
+msgid "In some cases, the same topic may appear in more than one section of the online manual. For example, there is a <command>chmod</command> user command and a <function>chmod()</function> system call. To tell <citerefentry><refentrytitle>man</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> which section to display, specify the section number:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8852
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>man 1 chmod</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8854
+msgid "This will display the manual page for the user command <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. References to a particular section of the online manual are traditionally placed in parenthesis in written documentation, so <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> refers to the user command and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> refers to the system call."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8860
+msgid "If the name of the manual page is unknown, use <command>man -k</command> to search for keywords in the manual page descriptions:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8864
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>man -k <replaceable>mail</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8866
+msgid "This command displays a list of commands that have the keyword <quote>mail</quote> in their descriptions. This is equivalent to using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>apropos</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8870
+msgid "To read the descriptions for all of the commands in <filename>/usr/bin</filename>, type:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8873
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/bin</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>man -f * | more</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8876 book.translate.xml:49681
+msgid "or"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8878
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/bin</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>whatis * |more</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8882
+msgid "GNU Info Files"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8888
+msgid "FreeBSD includes several applications and utilities produced by the Free Software Foundation (FSF). In addition to manual pages, these programs may include hypertext documents called <literal>info</literal> files. These can be viewed using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>info</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> or, if <package>editors/emacs</package> is installed, the info mode of <application>emacs</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8896
+msgid "To use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>info</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, type:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:8898
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>info</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8900
+msgid "For a brief introduction, type <literal>h</literal>. For a quick command reference, type <literal>?</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8914
+msgid "Installing Applications: Packages and Ports"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8919
+msgid "<primary>ports</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:8920
+msgid "<primary>packages</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8921
+msgid "FreeBSD is bundled with a rich collection of system tools as part of the base system. In addition, FreeBSD provides two complementary technologies for installing third-party software: the FreeBSD Ports Collection, for installing from source, and packages, for installing from pre-built binaries. Either method may be used to install software from local media or from the network."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8933
+msgid "The difference between binary packages and ports."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8937
+msgid "How to find third-party software that has been ported to FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8942
+msgid "How to manage binary packages using <application>pkg</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8947
+msgid "How to build third-party software from source using the Ports Collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8952
+msgid "How to find the files installed with the application for post-installation configuration."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8957
+msgid "What to do if a software installation fails."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:8963
+msgid "Overview of Software Installation"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8965
+msgid "The typical steps for installing third-party software on a <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> system include:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8970
+msgid "Find and download the software, which might be distributed in source code format or as a binary."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8975
+msgid "Unpack the software from its distribution format. This is typically a tarball compressed with a program such as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>compress</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gzip</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bzip2</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>xz</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8981
+msgid "Locate the documentation in <filename>INSTALL</filename>, <filename>README</filename> or some file in a <filename>doc/</filename> subdirectory and read up on how to install the software."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8988
+msgid "If the software was distributed in source format, compile it. This may involve editing a <filename>Makefile</filename> or running a <command>configure</command> script."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8995
+msgid "Test and install the software."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:8999
+msgid "A FreeBSD <emphasis>port</emphasis> is a collection of files designed to automate the process of compiling an application from source code. The files that comprise a port contain all the necessary information to automatically download, extract, patch, compile, and install the application."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9006
+msgid "If the software has not already been adapted and tested on FreeBSD, the source code might need editing in order for it to install and run properly."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9010
+msgid "However, over <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/ports/index.html\">24,000</link> third-party applications have already been ported to FreeBSD. When feasible, these applications are made available for download as pre-compiled <emphasis>packages</emphasis>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9016
+msgid "Packages can be manipulated with the FreeBSD package management commands."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9020
+msgid "Both packages and ports understand dependencies. If a package or port is used to install an application and a dependent library is not already installed, the library will automatically be installed first."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9025
+msgid "A FreeBSD package contains pre-compiled copies of all the commands for an application, as well as any configuration files and documentation. A package can be manipulated with the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> commands, such as <command>pkg install</command>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9031
+msgid "While the two technologies are similar, packages and ports each have their own strengths. Select the technology that meets your requirements for installing a particular application."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9037
+msgid "Package Benefits"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9040
+msgid "A compressed package tarball is typically smaller than the compressed tarball containing the source code for the application."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9046
+msgid "Packages do not require compilation time. For large applications, such as <application>Mozilla</application>, <application>KDE</application>, or <application>GNOME</application>, this can be important on a slow system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9054
+msgid "Packages do not require any understanding of the process involved in compiling software on FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9060
+msgid "Port Benefits"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9063
+msgid "Packages are normally compiled with conservative options because they have to run on the maximum number of systems. By compiling from the port, one can change the compilation options."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9070
+msgid "Some applications have compile-time options relating to which features are installed. For example, <application>Apache</application> can be configured with a wide variety of different built-in options."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9075
+msgid "In some cases, multiple packages will exist for the same application to specify certain settings. For example, <application>Ghostscript</application> is available as a <filename>ghostscript</filename> package and a <filename>ghostscript-nox11</filename> package, depending on whether or not <application>Xorg</application> is installed. Creating multiple packages rapidly becomes impossible if an application has more than one or two different compile-time options."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9087
+msgid "The licensing conditions of some software forbid binary distribution. Such software must be distributed as source code which must be compiled by the end-user."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9093
+msgid "Some people do not trust binary distributions or prefer to read through source code in order to look for potential problems."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9099
+msgid "Source code is needed in order to apply custom patches."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9104
+msgid "To keep track of updated ports, subscribe to the <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-ports\">FreeBSD ports mailing list</link> and the <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-ports-bugs\">FreeBSD ports bugs mailing list</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: warning/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9108
+msgid "Before installing any application, check <link xlink:href=\"http://vuxml.freebsd.org/\"/> for security issues related to the application or type <command>pkg audit -F</command> to check all installed applications for known vulnerabilities."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9114
+msgid "The remainder of this chapter explains how to use packages and ports to install and manage third-party software on FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9120
+msgid "Finding Software"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9122
+msgid "FreeBSD's list of available applications is growing all the time. There are a number of ways to find software to install:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9128
+msgid "The FreeBSD web site maintains an up-to-date searchable list of all the available applications, at <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/ports/index.html\">http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/</link>. The ports can be searched by application name or by software category."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:9135
+msgid "<primary>FreshPorts</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9137
+msgid "Dan Langille maintains <link xlink:href=\"http://www.FreshPorts.org/\">FreshPorts.org</link> which provides a comprehensive search utility and also tracks changes to the applications in the Ports Collection. Registered users can create a customized watch list in order to receive an automated email when their watched ports are updated."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:9146
+msgid "<primary>SourceForge</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9148
+msgid "If finding a particular application becomes challenging, try searching a site like <link xlink:href=\"http://www.sourceforge.net/\">SourceForge.net</link> or <link xlink:href=\"http://www.github.com/\">GitHub.com</link> then check back at the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/ports/index.html\">FreeBSD site</link> to see if the application has been ported."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:9156
+msgid "<primary>pkg</primary> <secondary>search</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#pkg-search
+#: book.translate.xml:9161
+msgid "To search the binary package repository for an application:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9164
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg search <replaceable>subversion</replaceable></userinput>\n"
+"git-subversion-<replaceable>1.9.2</replaceable>\n"
+"java-subversion-<replaceable>1.8.8_2</replaceable>\n"
+"p5-subversion-<replaceable>1.8.8_2</replaceable>\n"
+"py27-hgsubversion-<replaceable>1.6</replaceable>\n"
+"py27-subversion-<replaceable>1.8.8_2</replaceable>\n"
+"ruby-subversion-<replaceable>1.8.8_2</replaceable>\n"
+"subversion-<replaceable>1.8.8_2</replaceable>\n"
+"subversion-book-<replaceable>4515</replaceable>\n"
+"subversion-static-<replaceable>1.8.8_2</replaceable>\n"
+"subversion16-<replaceable>1.6.23_4</replaceable>\n"
+"subversion17-<replaceable>1.7.16_2</replaceable>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9177
+msgid "Package names include the version number and in case of ports based on python, the version number of the version of python the package was built with. Some ports also have multiple versions available. In case of <application>subversion</application> there are different versions available, as well as different compile options. In this case, the statically linked version of <application>subversion</application>. When indicating which package to install, it is best to specify the application by the port origin, which is the path in the ports tree. Repeat the <command>pkg search</command> with <option>-o</option> to list the origin of each package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9191
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg search -o <replaceable>subversion</replaceable></userinput>\n"
+"devel/git-subversion\n"
+"java/java-subversion\n"
+"devel/p5-subversion\n"
+"devel/py-hgsubversion\n"
+"devel/py-subversion\n"
+"devel/ruby-subversion\n"
+"devel/subversion16\n"
+"devel/subversion17\n"
+"devel/subversion\n"
+"devel/subversion-book\n"
+"devel/subversion-static"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9204
+msgid "Searching by shell globs, regular expressions, exact match, by description, or any other field in the repository database is also supported by <command>pkg search</command>. After installing <package>ports-mgmt/pkg</package> or <package>ports-mgmt/pkg-devel</package>, see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg-search</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9213
+msgid "If the Ports Collection is already installed, there are several methods to query the local version of the ports tree. To find out which category a port is in, type <command>whereis <replaceable>file</replaceable></command>, where <replaceable>file</replaceable> is the program to be installed:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9220
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>whereis lsof</userinput>\n"
+"lsof: /usr/ports/sysutils/lsof"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9223
+msgid "Alternately, an <citerefentry><refentrytitle>echo</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> statement can be used:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9226
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>echo /usr/ports/*/*lsof*</userinput>\n"
+"/usr/ports/sysutils/lsof"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9229
+msgid "Note that this will also return any matched files downloaded into the <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> directory."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9235
+msgid "Another way to find software is by using the Ports Collection's built-in search mechanism. To use the search feature, <application>cd</application> to <filename>/usr/ports</filename> then run <command>make search name=program-name</command> where <replaceable>program-name</replaceable> is the name of the software. For example, to search for <command>lsof</command>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9244
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make search name=lsof</userinput>\n"
+"Port: lsof-4.88.d,8\n"
+"Path: /usr/ports/sysutils/lsof\n"
+"Info: Lists information about open files (similar to fstat(1))\n"
+"Maint: ler@lerctr.org\n"
+"Index: sysutils\n"
+"B-deps:\n"
+"R-deps: "
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: tip/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9255
+msgid "The built-in search mechanism uses a file of index information. If a message indicates that the <filename>INDEX</filename> is required, run <command>make fetchindex</command> to download the current index file. With the <filename>INDEX</filename> present, <command>make search</command> will be able to perform the requested search."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9264
+msgid "The <quote>Path:</quote> line indicates where to find the port."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9267
+msgid "To receive less information, use the <command>quicksearch</command> feature:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9270
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make quicksearch name=lsof</userinput>\n"
+"Port: lsof-4.88.d,8\n"
+"Path: /usr/ports/sysutils/lsof\n"
+"Info: Lists information about open files (similar to fstat(1))"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9276
+msgid "For more in-depth searching, use <command>make search key=<replaceable>string</replaceable></command> or <command>make quicksearch key=<replaceable>string</replaceable></command>, where <replaceable>string</replaceable> is some text to search for. The text can be in comments, descriptions, or dependencies in order to find ports which relate to a particular subject when the name of the program is unknown."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/buildtarget
+#: book.translate.xml:9287
+msgid "search"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/buildtarget
+#: book.translate.xml:9288
+msgid "quicksearch"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9287
+msgid "When using <_:buildtarget-1/> or <_:buildtarget-2/>, the search string is case-insensitive. Searching for <quote>LSOF</quote> will yield the same results as searching for <quote>lsof</quote>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9297
+msgid "Using <application>pkg</application> for Binary Package Management"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9300
+msgid "<application>pkg</application> is the next generation replacement for the traditional FreeBSD package management tools, offering many features that make dealing with binary packages faster and easier."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9305
+msgid "For sites wishing to only use prebuilt binary packages from the FreeBSD mirrors, managing packages with <application>pkg</application> can be sufficient."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9309
+msgid "However, for those sites building from source or using their own repositories, a separate <link linkend=\"ports-upgrading-tools\">port management tool</link> will be needed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9314
+msgid "Since <application>pkg</application> only works with binary packages, it is not a replacement for such tools. Those tools can be used to install software from both binary packages and the Ports Collection, while <application>pkg</application> installs only binary packages."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9323
+msgid "Getting Started with <application>pkg</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9326
+msgid "FreeBSD includes a bootstrap utility which can be used to download and install <application>pkg</application> and its manual pages. This utility is designed to work with versions of FreeBSD starting with 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9333
+msgid "Not all FreeBSD versions and architectures support this bootstrap process. The current list is at <link xlink:href=\"http://pkg.freebsd.org/\"/>. For other cases, <application>pkg</application> must instead be installed from the Ports Collection or as a binary package."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9342
+msgid "To bootstrap the system, run:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9344
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>/usr/sbin/pkg</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9346
+msgid "You must have a working Internet connection for the bootstrap process to suceed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9349
+msgid "Otherwise, to install the port, run:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9351
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/pkg</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9355
+msgid "When upgrading an existing system that originally used the older pkg_* tools, the database must be converted to the new format, so that the new tools are aware of the already installed packages. Once <application>pkg</application> has been installed, the package database must be converted from the traditional format to the new format by running this command:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9363
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg2ng</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9365
+msgid "This step is not required for new installations that do not yet have any third-party software installed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: important/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9370
+msgid "This step is not reversible. Once the package database has been converted to the <application>pkg</application> format, the traditional <literal>pkg_*</literal> tools should no longer be used."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9377
+msgid "The package database conversion may emit errors as the contents are converted to the new version. Generally, these errors can be safely ignored. However, a list of software that was not successfully converted is shown after <command>pkg2ng</command> finishes. These applications must be manually reinstalled."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9385
+msgid "To ensure that the Ports Collection registers new software with <application>pkg</application> instead of the traditional packages database, FreeBSD versions earlier than 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> require this line in <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:9391
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "WITH_PKGNG=\tyes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9393
+msgid "By default, <application>pkg</application> uses the binary packages from the FreeBSD package mirrors (the <emphasis>repository</emphasis>). For information about building a custom package repository, see <xref linkend=\"ports-poudriere\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9400
+msgid "Additional <application>pkg</application> configuration options are described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9403
+msgid "Usage information for <application>pkg</application> is available in the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page or by running <command>pkg</command> without additional arguments."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9407
+msgid "Each <application>pkg</application> command argument is documented in a command-specific manual page. To read the manual page for <command>pkg install</command>, for example, run either of these commands:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9412
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg help install</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9414
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>man pkg-install</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9416
+msgid "The rest of this section demonstrates common binary package management tasks which can be performed using <application>pkg</application>. Each demonstrated command provides many switches to customize its use. Refer to a command's help or man page for details and more examples."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9425
+msgid "Obtaining Information About Installed Packages"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9427
+msgid "Information about the packages installed on a system can be viewed by running <command>pkg info</command> which, when run without any switches, will list the package version for either all installed packages or the specified package."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9433
+msgid "For example, to see which version of <application>pkg</application> is installed, run:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9436
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg info pkg</userinput>\n"
+"pkg-1.1.4_1"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9441
+msgid "Installing and Removing Packages"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9443
+msgid "To install a binary package use the following command, where <replaceable>packagename</replaceable> is the name of the package to install:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9447
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install <replaceable>packagename</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9449
+msgid "This command uses repository data to determine which version of the software to install and if it has any uninstalled dependencies. For example, to install <application>curl</application>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9454
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install curl</userinput>\n"
+"Updating repository catalogue\n"
+"/usr/local/tmp/All/curl-7.31.0_1.txz 100% of 1181 kB 1380 kBps 00m01s\n"
+"\n"
+"/usr/local/tmp/All/ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1.txz 100% of 288 kB 1700 kBps 00m00s\n"
+"\n"
+"Updating repository catalogue\n"
+"The following 2 packages will be installed:\n"
+"\n"
+" Installing ca_root_nss: 3.15.1_1\n"
+" Installing curl: 7.31.0_1\n"
+"\n"
+"The installation will require 3 MB more space\n"
+"\n"
+"0 B to be downloaded\n"
+"\n"
+"Proceed with installing packages [y/N]: <userinput>y</userinput>\n"
+"Checking integrity... done\n"
+"[1/2] Installing ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1... done\n"
+"[2/2] Installing curl-7.31.0_1... done\n"
+"Cleaning up cache files...Done"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9476
+msgid "The new package and any additional packages that were installed as dependencies can be seen in the installed packages list:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9480
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg info</userinput>\n"
+"ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1\tThe root certificate bundle from the Mozilla Project\n"
+"curl-7.31.0_1\tNon-interactive tool to get files from FTP, GOPHER, HTTP(S) servers\n"
+"pkg-1.1.4_6\tNew generation package manager"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9485
+msgid "Packages that are no longer needed can be removed with <command>pkg delete</command>. For example:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9488
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg delete curl</userinput>\n"
+"The following packages will be deleted:\n"
+"\n"
+"\tcurl-7.31.0_1\n"
+"\n"
+"The deletion will free 3 MB\n"
+"\n"
+"Proceed with deleting packages [y/N]: <userinput>y</userinput>\n"
+"[1/1] Deleting curl-7.31.0_1... done"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9500
+msgid "Upgrading Installed Packages"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9502
+msgid "Installed packages can be upgraded to their latest versions by running:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9505
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg upgrade</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9507
+msgid "This command will compare the installed versions with those available in the repository catalogue and upgrade them from the repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9513
+msgid "Auditing Installed Packages"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9515
+msgid "Software vulnerabilities are regularly discovered in third-party applications. To address this, <application>pkg</application> includes a built-in auditing mechanism. To determine if there are any known vulnerabilities for the software installed on the system, run:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9522 book.translate.xml:26871
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg audit -F</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9526
+msgid "Automatically Removing Leaf Dependencies"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9528
+msgid "Removing a package may leave behind dependencies which are no longer required. Unneeded packages that were installed as dependencies can be automatically detected and removed using:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9533
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg autoremove</userinput>\n"
+"Packages to be autoremoved:\n"
+"\tca_root_nss-3.15.1_1\n"
+"\n"
+"The autoremoval will free 723 kB\n"
+"\n"
+"Proceed with autoremoval of packages [y/N]: <userinput>y</userinput>\n"
+"Deinstalling ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1... done"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9544
+msgid "Restoring the Package Database"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9546
+msgid "Unlike the traditional package management system, <application>pkg</application> includes its own package database backup mechanism. This functionality is enabled by default."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: tip/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9552
+msgid "To disable the periodic script from backing up the package database, set <literal>daily_backup_pkgdb_enable=\"NO\"</literal> in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>periodic.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9558
+msgid "To restore the contents of a previous package database backup, run the following command replacing <replaceable>/path/to/pkg.sql</replaceable> with the location of the backup:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9563
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg backup -r <replaceable>/path/to/pkg.sql</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9566
+msgid "If restoring a backup taken by the periodic script, it must be decompressed prior to being restored."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9570
+msgid "To run a manual backup of the <application>pkg</application> database, run the following command, replacing <replaceable>/path/to/pkg.sql</replaceable> with a suitable file name and location:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9575
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg backup -d <replaceable>/path/to/pkg.sql</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9579
+msgid "Removing Stale Packages"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9581
+msgid "By default, <application>pkg</application> stores binary packages in a cache directory defined by <envar>PKG_CACHEDIR</envar> in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Only copies of the latest installed packages are kept. Older versions of <application>pkg</application> kept all previous packages. To remove these outdated binary packages, run:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9588
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9590
+msgid "The entire cache may be cleared by running:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9592
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg clean -a</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9596
+msgid "Modifying Package Metadata"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9598
+msgid "Software within the FreeBSD Ports Collection can undergo major version number changes. To address this, <application>pkg</application> has a built-in command to update package origins. This can be useful, for example, if <package>lang/php5</package> is renamed to <package>lang/php53</package> so that <package>lang/php5</package> can now represent version <literal>5.4</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9607
+msgid "To change the package origin for the above example, run:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9610
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg set -o lang/php5:lang/php53</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9612
+msgid "As another example, to update <package>lang/ruby18</package> to <package>lang/ruby19</package>, run:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9616
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg set -o lang/ruby18:lang/ruby19</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9618
+msgid "As a final example, to change the origin of the <filename>libglut</filename> shared libraries from <package>graphics/libglut</package> to <package>graphics/freeglut</package>, run:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9623
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg set -o graphics/libglut:graphics/freeglut</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9626
+msgid "When changing package origins, it is important to reinstall packages that are dependent on the package with the modified origin. To force a reinstallation of dependent packages, run:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9631
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install -Rf <replaceable>graphics/freeglut</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9637
+msgid "Using the Ports Collection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9639
+msgid "The Ports Collection is a set of <filename>Makefiles</filename>, patches, and description files. Each set of these files is used to compile and install an individual application on FreeBSD, and is called a <emphasis>port</emphasis>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9644
+msgid "By default, the Ports Collection itself is stored as a subdirectory of <filename>/usr/ports</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9647
+msgid "Before an application can be compiled using a port, the Ports Collection must first be installed. If it was not installed during the installation of FreeBSD, use one of the following methods to install it:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9654
+msgid "Portsnap Method"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: procedure/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9656
+msgid "The base system of FreeBSD includes <application>Portsnap</application>. This is a fast and user-friendly tool for retrieving the Ports Collection and is the recommended choice for most users. This utility connects to a FreeBSD site, verifies the secure key, and downloads a new copy of the Ports Collection. The key is used to verify the integrity of all downloaded files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9665
+msgid "To download a compressed snapshot of the Ports Collection into <filename>/var/db/portsnap</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9669
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portsnap fetch</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9673
+msgid "When running <application>Portsnap</application> for the first time, extract the snapshot into <filename>/usr/ports</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9677
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portsnap extract</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9681
+msgid "After the first use of <application>Portsnap</application> has been completed as shown above, <filename>/usr/ports</filename> can be updated as needed by running:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9686
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portsnap fetch</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portsnap update</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9689
+msgid "When using <literal>fetch</literal>, the <literal>extract</literal> or the <literal>update</literal> operation may be run consecutively, like so:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9693
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portsnap fetch update</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9698
+msgid "Subversion Method"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: procedure/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9700
+msgid "If more control over the ports tree is needed or if local changes need to be maintained, <application>Subversion</application> can be used to obtain the Ports Collection. Refer to <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/committers-guide/subversion-primer.html\">the Subversion Primer</link> for a detailed description of <application>Subversion</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9708
+msgid "<application>Subversion</application> must be installed before it can be used to check out the ports tree. If a copy of the ports tree is already present, install <application>Subversion</application> like this:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9713 book.translate.xml:65535
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/devel/subversion</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9716
+msgid "If the ports tree is not available, or <application>pkg</application> is being used to manage packages, <application>Subversion</application> can be installed as a package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9721 book.translate.xml:65535
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install subversion</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9726
+msgid "Check out a copy of the ports tree:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9728 book.translate.xml:65535
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>svn checkout https://svn.FreeBSD.org/ports/head /usr/ports</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9732
+msgid "As needed, update <filename>/usr/ports</filename> after the initial <application>Subversion</application> checkout:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9736 book.translate.xml:65535
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>svn update /usr/ports</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9740
+msgid "The Ports Collection contains directories for software categories. Inside each category are subdirectories for individual applications. Each application subdirectory contains a set of files that tells FreeBSD how to compile and install that program, called a <emphasis>ports skeleton</emphasis>. Each port skeleton includes these files and directories:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9750
+msgid "<filename>Makefile</filename>: contains statements that specify how the application should be compiled and where its components should be installed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9756
+msgid "<filename>distinfo</filename>: contains the names and checksums of the files that must be downloaded to build the port."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9762
+msgid "<filename>files/</filename>: this directory contains any patches needed for the program to compile and install on FreeBSD. This directory may also contain other files used to build the port."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9769
+msgid "<filename>pkg-descr</filename>: provides a more detailed description of the program."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9774
+msgid "<filename>pkg-plist</filename>: a list of all the files that will be installed by the port. It also tells the ports system which files to remove upon deinstallation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9781
+msgid "Some ports include <filename>pkg-message</filename> or other files to handle special situations. For more details on these files, and on ports in general, refer to the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/porters-handbook/index.html\">FreeBSD Porter's Handbook</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9786
+msgid "The port does not include the actual source code, also known as a <filename>distfile</filename>. The extract portion of building a port will automatically save the downloaded source to <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9792
+msgid "Installing Ports"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:9794
+msgid "<primary>ports</primary> <secondary>installing</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9799
+msgid "This section provides basic instructions on using the Ports Collection to install or remove software. The detailed description of available <command>make</command> targets and environment variables is available in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ports</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: warning/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9805
+msgid "Before compiling any port, be sure to update the Ports Collection as described in the previous section. Since the installation of any third-party software can introduce security vulnerabilities, it is recommended to first check <link xlink:href=\"http://vuxml.freebsd.org/\"/> for known security issues related to the port. Alternately, run <command>pkg audit -F</command> before installing a new port. This command can be configured to automatically perform a security audit and an update of the vulnerability database during the daily security system check. For more information, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg-audit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>periodic</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9819
+msgid "Using the Ports Collection assumes a working Internet connection. It also requires superuser privilege."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9822
+msgid "To compile and install the port, change to the directory of the port to be installed, then type <command>make install</command> at the prompt. Messages will indicate the progress:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9827
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/sysutils/lsof</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install</userinput>\n"
+"&gt;&gt; lsof_4.88D.freebsd.tar.gz doesn't seem to exist in /usr/ports/distfiles/.\n"
+"&gt;&gt; Attempting to fetch from ftp://lsof.itap.purdue.edu/pub/tools/unix/lsof/.\n"
+"===&gt; Extracting for lsof-4.88\n"
+"...\n"
+"[extraction output snipped]\n"
+"...\n"
+"&gt;&gt; Checksum OK for lsof_4.88D.freebsd.tar.gz.\n"
+"===&gt; Patching for lsof-4.88.d,8\n"
+"===&gt; Applying FreeBSD patches for lsof-4.88.d,8\n"
+"===&gt; Configuring for lsof-4.88.d,8\n"
+"...\n"
+"[configure output snipped]\n"
+"...\n"
+"===&gt; Building for lsof-4.88.d,8\n"
+"...\n"
+"[compilation output snipped]\n"
+"...\n"
+"\n"
+"===&gt; Installing for lsof-4.88.d,8\n"
+"...\n"
+"[installation output snipped]\n"
+"...\n"
+"===&gt; Generating temporary packing list\n"
+"===&gt; Compressing manual pages for lsof-4.88.d,8\n"
+"===&gt; Registering installation for lsof-4.88.d,8\n"
+"===&gt; SECURITY NOTE:\n"
+" This port has installed the following binaries which execute with\n"
+" increased privileges.\n"
+"/usr/local/sbin/lsof\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9860
+msgid "Since <command>lsof</command> is a program that runs with increased privileges, a security warning is displayed as it is installed. Once the installation is complete, the prompt will be returned."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9865
+msgid "Some shells keep a cache of the commands that are available in the directories listed in the <envar>PATH</envar> environment variable, to speed up lookup operations for the executable file of these commands. Users of the <command>tcsh</command> shell should type <command>rehash</command> so that a newly installed command can be used without specifying its full path. Use <command>hash -r</command> instead for the <command>sh</command> shell. Refer to the documentation for the shell for more information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9876
+msgid "During installation, a working subdirectory is created which contains all the temporary files used during compilation. Removing this directory saves disk space and minimizes the chance of problems later when upgrading to the newer version of the port:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9882
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make clean</userinput>\n"
+"===&gt; Cleaning for lsof-88.d,8\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9887
+msgid "To save this extra step, instead use <command>make install clean</command> when compiling the port."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9892
+msgid "Customizing Ports Installation"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9894
+msgid "Some ports provide build options which can be used to enable or disable application components, provide security options, or allow for other customizations. Examples include <package>www/firefox</package>, <package>security/gpgme</package>, and <package>mail/sylpheed-claws</package>. If the port depends upon other ports which have configurable options, it may pause several times for user interaction as the default behavior is to prompt the user to select options from a menu. To avoid this, run <command>make config-recursive</command> within the port skeleton to do this configuration in one batch. Then, run <command>make install [clean]</command> to compile and install the port."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/buildtarget
+#: book.translate.xml:9911
+msgid "config-recursive"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/buildtarget
+#: book.translate.xml:9913
+msgid "all-depends-list"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: tip/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9910
+msgid "When using <_:buildtarget-1/>, the list of ports to configure are gathered by the <_:buildtarget-2/> target. It is recommended to run <command>make config-recursive</command> until all dependent ports options have been defined, and ports options screens no longer appear, to be certain that all dependency options have been configured."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9921
+msgid "There are several ways to revisit a port's build options menu in order to add, remove, or change these options after a port has been built. One method is to <command>cd</command> into the directory containing the port and type <command>make config</command>. Another option is to use <command>make showconfig</command>. Another option is to execute <command>make rmconfig</command> which will remove all selected options and allow you to start over. All of these options, and others, are explained in great detail in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ports</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9933
+msgid "The ports system uses <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fetch</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to download the source files, which supports various environment variables. The <envar>FTP_PASSIVE_MODE</envar>, <envar>FTP_PROXY</envar>, and <envar>FTP_PASSWORD</envar> variables may need to be set if the FreeBSD system is behind a firewall or FTP/HTTP proxy. See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fetch</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry> for the complete list of supported variables."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9941
+msgid "For users who cannot be connected to the Internet all the time, <command>make fetch</command> can be run within <filename>/usr/ports</filename>, to fetch all distfiles, or within a category, such as <filename>/usr/ports/net</filename>, or within the specific port skeleton. Note that if a port has any dependencies, running this command in a category or ports skeleton will <emphasis>not</emphasis> fetch the distfiles of ports from another category. Instead, use <command>make fetch-recursive</command> to also fetch the distfiles for all the dependencies of a port."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9953
+msgid "In rare cases, such as when an organization has a local distfiles repository, the <varname>MASTER_SITES</varname> variable can be used to override the download locations specified in the <filename>Makefile</filename>. When using, specify the alternate location:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9959
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/<replaceable>directory</replaceable></userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make MASTER_SITE_OVERRIDE= \\\n"
+"<replaceable>ftp://ftp.organization.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/</replaceable> fetch</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9963
+msgid "The <varname>WRKDIRPREFIX</varname> and <varname>PREFIX</varname> variables can override the default working and target directories. For example:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9967
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make WRKDIRPREFIX=/usr/home/example/ports install</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9969
+msgid "will compile the port in <filename>/usr/home/example/ports</filename> and install everything under <filename>/usr/local</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9973
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make PREFIX=/usr/home/example/local install</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9975
+msgid "will compile the port in <filename>/usr/ports</filename> and install it in <filename>/usr/home/example/local</filename>. And:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:9979
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make WRKDIRPREFIX=../ports PREFIX=../local install</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9981
+msgid "will combine the two."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9983
+msgid "These can also be set as environmental variables. Refer to the manual page for your shell for instructions on how to set an environmental variable."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:9990
+msgid "Removing Installed Ports"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:9992
+msgid "<primary>ports</primary> <secondary>removing</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:9997
+msgid "Installed ports can be uninstalled using <command>pkg delete</command>. Examples for using this command can be found in the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg-delete</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10001
+msgid "Alternately, <command>make deinstall</command> can be run in the port's directory:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10004
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/sysutils/lsof</userinput>\n"
+"<userinput>make deinstall</userinput>\n"
+"===&gt; Deinstalling for sysutils/lsof\n"
+"===&gt; Deinstalling\n"
+"Deinstallation has been requested for the following 1 packages:\n"
+"\n"
+"\tlsof-4.88.d,8\n"
+"\n"
+"The deinstallation will free 229 kB\n"
+"[1/1] Deleting lsof-4.88.d,8... done"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10015
+msgid "It is recommended to read the messages as the port is uninstalled. If the port has any applications that depend upon it, this information will be displayed but the uninstallation will proceed. In such cases, it may be better to reinstall the application in order to prevent broken dependencies."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10024
+msgid "Upgrading Ports"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:10026
+msgid "<primary>ports</primary> <secondary>upgrading</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10031
+msgid "Over time, newer versions of software become available in the Ports Collection. This section describes how to determine which software can be upgraded and how to perform the upgrade."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10036
+msgid "To determine if newer versions of installed ports are available, ensure that the latest version of the ports tree is installed, using the updating command described in either <xref linkend=\"ports-using-portsnap-method\"/> or <xref linkend=\"ports-using-subversion-method\"/>. On FreeBSD 10 and later, or if the system has been converted to <application>pkg</application>, the following command will list the installed ports which are out of date:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10045
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg version -l \"&lt;\"</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10047
+msgid "For FreeBSD 9.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and lower, the following command will list the installed ports that are out of date:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10051
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg_version -l \"&lt;\"</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: important/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10054
+msgid "Before attempting an upgrade, read <filename>/usr/ports/UPDATING</filename> from the top of the file to the date closest to the last time ports were upgraded or the system was installed. This file describes various issues and additional steps users may encounter and need to perform when updating a port, including such things as file format changes, changes in locations of configuration files, or any incompatibilities with previous versions. Make note of any instructions which match any of the ports that need upgrading and follow these instructions when performing the upgrade."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10069
+msgid "Tools To Upgrade And Manage Ports"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:10071
+msgid "<primary>ports</primary> <secondary>upgrading-tools</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10076
+msgid "The Ports Collection contains several utilities to perform the actual upgrade. Each has its strengths and weaknesses."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10079
+msgid "Historically, most installations used either <application>Portmaster</application> or <application>Portupgrade</application>. <application>Synth</application> is a newer alternative."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10086
+msgid "The choice of which tool is best for a particular system is up to the system administrator. It is recommended practice to back up your data before using any of these tools."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10094
+msgid "Upgrading Ports Using <application>Portmaster</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:10097
+msgid "<primary>portmaster</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10101
+msgid "<package>ports-mgmt/portmaster</package> is a very small utility for upgrading installed ports. It is designed to use the tools installed with the FreeBSD base system without depending on other ports or databases. To install this utility as a port:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10109
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/portmaster</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10112
+msgid "<application>Portmaster</application> defines four categories of ports:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10117
+msgid "Root port: has no dependencies and is not a dependency of any other ports."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10122
+msgid "Trunk port: has no dependencies, but other ports depend upon it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10127
+msgid "Branch port: has dependencies and other ports depend upon it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10132
+msgid "Leaf port: has dependencies but no other ports depend upon it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10137
+msgid "To list these categories and search for updates:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10139
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portmaster -L</userinput>\n"
+"===&gt;&gt;&gt; Root ports (No dependencies, not depended on)\n"
+"===&gt;&gt;&gt; ispell-3.2.06_18\n"
+"===&gt;&gt;&gt; screen-4.0.3\n"
+" ===&gt;&gt;&gt; New version available: screen-4.0.3_1\n"
+"===&gt;&gt;&gt; tcpflow-0.21_1\n"
+"===&gt;&gt;&gt; 7 root ports\n"
+"...\n"
+"===&gt;&gt;&gt; Branch ports (Have dependencies, are depended on)\n"
+"===&gt;&gt;&gt; apache22-2.2.3\n"
+" ===&gt;&gt;&gt; New version available: apache22-2.2.8\n"
+"...\n"
+"===&gt;&gt;&gt; Leaf ports (Have dependencies, not depended on)\n"
+"===&gt;&gt;&gt; automake-1.9.6_2\n"
+"===&gt;&gt;&gt; bash-3.1.17\n"
+" ===&gt;&gt;&gt; New version available: bash-3.2.33\n"
+"...\n"
+"===&gt;&gt;&gt; 32 leaf ports\n"
+"\n"
+"===&gt;&gt;&gt; 137 total installed ports\n"
+" ===&gt;&gt;&gt; 83 have new versions available"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10161
+msgid "This command is used to upgrade all outdated ports:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10164
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portmaster -a</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10167
+msgid "By default, <application>Portmaster</application> makes a backup package before deleting the existing port. If the installation of the new version is successful, <application>Portmaster</application> deletes the backup. Using <option>-b</option> instructs <application>Portmaster</application> not to automatically delete the backup. Adding <option>-i</option> starts <application>Portmaster</application> in interactive mode, prompting for confirmation before upgrading each port. Many other options are available. Read through the manual page for <citerefentry vendor=\"ports\"><refentrytitle>portmaster</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details regarding their usage."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10181
+msgid "If errors are encountered during the upgrade process, add <option>-f</option> to upgrade and rebuild all ports:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10185 book.translate.xml:44701
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portmaster -af</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10187
+msgid "<application>Portmaster</application> can also be used to install new ports on the system, upgrading all dependencies before building and installing the new port. To use this function, specify the location of the port in the Ports Collection:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10193
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portmaster <replaceable>shells/bash</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10195
+msgid "More information about <package>ports-mgmt/portmaster</package> may be found in its <filename>pkg-descr</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10200
+msgid "Upgrading Ports Using Portupgrade"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:10202
+msgid "<primary>portupgrade</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10206
+msgid "<package>ports-mgmt/portupgrade</package> is another utility that can be used to upgrade ports. It installs a suite of applications which can be used to manage ports. However, it is dependent upon Ruby. To install the port:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10212
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/portupgrade</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10215
+msgid "Before performing an upgrade using this utility, it is recommended to scan the list of installed ports using <command>pkgdb -F</command> and to fix all the inconsistencies it reports."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10220
+msgid "To upgrade all the outdated ports installed on the system, use <command>portupgrade -a</command>. Alternately, include <option>-i</option> to be asked for confirmation of every individual upgrade:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10225
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portupgrade -ai</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10227
+msgid "To upgrade only a specified application instead of all available ports, use <command>portupgrade <replaceable>pkgname</replaceable></command>. It is very important to include <option>-R</option> to first upgrade all the ports required by the given application:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10233
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portupgrade -R firefox</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10235
+msgid "If <option>-P</option> is included, <application>Portupgrade</application> searches for available packages in the local directories listed in <envar>PKG_PATH</envar>. If none are available locally, it then fetches packages from a remote site. If packages can not be found locally or fetched remotely, <application>Portupgrade</application> will use ports. To avoid using ports entirely, specify <option>-PP</option>. This last set of options tells <application>Portupgrade</application> to abort if no packages are available:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10248
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portupgrade -PP gnome3</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10250
+msgid "To just fetch the port distfiles, or packages, if <option>-P</option> is specified, without building or installing anything, use <option>-F</option>. For further information on all of the available switches, refer to the manual page for <command>portupgrade</command>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10256
+msgid "More information about <package>ports-mgmt/portupgrade</package> may be found in its <filename>pkg-descr</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10263
+msgid "Ports and Disk Space"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:10265
+msgid "<primary>ports</primary> <secondary>disk-space</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10270
+msgid "Using the Ports Collection will use up disk space over time. After building and installing a port, running <command>make clean</command> within the ports skeleton will clean up the temporary <filename>work</filename> directory. If <application>Portmaster</application> is used to install a port, it will automatically remove this directory unless <option>-K</option> is specified. If <application>Portupgrade</application> is installed, this command will remove all <filename>work</filename> directories found within the local copy of the Ports Collection:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10281
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portsclean -C</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10283
+msgid "In addition, outdated source distribution files accumulate in <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> over time. To use <application>Portupgrade</application> to delete all the distfiles that are no longer referenced by any ports:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10289
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portsclean -D</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10291
+msgid "<application>Portupgrade</application> can remove all distfiles not referenced by any port currently installed on the system:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10295
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portsclean -DD</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10297
+msgid "If <application>Portmaster</application> is installed, use:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10300
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portmaster --clean-distfiles</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10302
+msgid "By default, this command is interactive and prompts the user to confirm if a distfile should be deleted."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10305
+msgid "In addition to these commands, <package>ports-mgmt/pkg_cutleaves</package> automates the task of removing installed ports that are no longer needed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10313
+msgid "Building Packages with <application>Poudriere</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10316
+msgid "<application>Poudriere</application> is a <acronym>BSD</acronym>-licensed utility for creating and testing FreeBSD packages. It uses FreeBSD jails to set up isolated compilation environments. These jails can be used to build packages for versions of FreeBSD that are different from the system on which it is installed, and also to build packages for i386 if the host is an amd64 system. Once the packages are built, they are in a layout identical to the official mirrors. These packages are usable by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and other package management tools."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10327
+msgid "<application>Poudriere</application> is installed using the <package role=\"port\">ports-mgmt/poudriere</package> package or port. The installation includes a sample configuration file <filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.conf.sample</filename>. Copy this file to <filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.conf</filename>. Edit the copied file to suit the local configuration."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10335
+msgid "While <acronym>ZFS</acronym> is not required on the system running <application>poudriere</application>, it is beneficial. When <acronym>ZFS</acronym> is used, <varname>ZPOOL</varname> must be specified in <filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.conf</filename> and <varname>FREEBSD_HOST</varname> should be set to a nearby mirror. Defining <varname>CCACHE_DIR</varname> enables the use of <package role=\"port\">devel/ccache</package> to cache compilation and reduce build times for frequently-compiled code. It may be convenient to put <application>poudriere</application> datasets in an isolated tree mounted at <filename>/poudriere</filename>. Defaults for the other configuration values are adequate."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10349
+msgid "The number of processor cores detected is used to define how many builds will run in parallel. Supply enough virtual memory, either with <acronym>RAM</acronym> or swap space. If virtual memory runs out, the compilation jails will stop and be torn down, resulting in weird error messages."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10356
+msgid "Initialize Jails and Port Trees"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10358
+msgid "After configuration, initialize <application>poudriere</application> so that it installs a jail with the required FreeBSD tree and a ports tree. Specify a name for the jail using <option>-j</option> and the FreeBSD version with <option>-v</option>. On systems running FreeBSD/amd64, the architecture can be set with <option>-a</option> to either <literal>i386</literal> or <literal>amd64</literal>. The default is the architecture shown by <command>uname</command>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10368
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>poudriere jail -c -j <replaceable>10amd64</replaceable> -v <replaceable>10.0-RELEASE</replaceable></userinput>\n"
+"====&gt;&gt; Creating 10amd64 fs... done\n"
+"====&gt;&gt; Fetching base.txz for FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE amd64\n"
+"/poudriere/jails/10amd64/fromftp/base.txz 100% of 59 MB 1470 kBps 00m42s\n"
+"====&gt;&gt; Extracting base.txz... done\n"
+"====&gt;&gt; Fetching src.txz for FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE amd64\n"
+"/poudriere/jails/10amd64/fromftp/src.txz 100% of 107 MB 1476 kBps 01m14s\n"
+"====&gt;&gt; Extracting src.txz... done\n"
+"====&gt;&gt; Fetching games.txz for FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE amd64\n"
+"/poudriere/jails/10amd64/fromftp/games.txz 100% of 865 kB 734 kBps 00m01s\n"
+"====&gt;&gt; Extracting games.txz... done\n"
+"====&gt;&gt; Fetching lib32.txz for FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE amd64\n"
+"/poudriere/jails/10amd64/fromftp/lib32.txz 100% of 14 MB 1316 kBps 00m12s\n"
+"====&gt;&gt; Extracting lib32.txz... done\n"
+"====&gt;&gt; Cleaning up... done\n"
+"====&gt;&gt; Jail 10amd64 10.0-RELEASE amd64 is ready to be used"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10385
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>poudriere ports -c -p <replaceable>local</replaceable></userinput>\n"
+"====&gt;&gt; Creating local fs... done\n"
+"====&gt;&gt; Extracting portstree \"local\"...\n"
+"Looking up portsnap.FreeBSD.org mirrors... 7 mirrors found.\n"
+"Fetching public key from ec2-eu-west-1.portsnap.freebsd.org... done.\n"
+"Fetching snapshot tag from ec2-eu-west-1.portsnap.freebsd.org... done.\n"
+"Fetching snapshot metadata... done.\n"
+"Fetching snapshot generated at Tue Feb 11 01:07:15 CET 2014:\n"
+"94a3431f0ce567f6452ffde4fd3d7d3c6e1da143efec76100% of 69 MB 1246 kBps 00m57s\n"
+"Extracting snapshot... done.\n"
+"Verifying snapshot integrity... done.\n"
+"Fetching snapshot tag from ec2-eu-west-1.portsnap.freebsd.org... done.\n"
+"Fetching snapshot metadata... done.\n"
+"Updating from Tue Feb 11 01:07:15 CET 2014 to Tue Feb 11 16:05:20 CET 2014.\n"
+"Fetching 4 metadata patches... done.\n"
+"Applying metadata patches... done.\n"
+"Fetching 0 metadata files... done.\n"
+"Fetching 48 patches.\n"
+"(48/48) 100.00% done.\n"
+"done.\n"
+"Applying patches...\n"
+"done.\n"
+"Fetching 1 new ports or files... done.\n"
+"/poudriere/ports/tester/CHANGES\n"
+"/poudriere/ports/tester/COPYRIGHT\n"
+"\n"
+"[...]\n"
+"\n"
+"Building new INDEX files... done."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10415
+msgid "On a single computer, <application>poudriere</application> can build ports with multiple configurations, in multiple jails, and from different port trees. Custom configurations for these combinations are called <emphasis>sets</emphasis>. See the CUSTOMIZATION section of <citerefentry vendor=\"ports\"><refentrytitle>poudriere</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details after <package>ports-mgmt/poudriere</package> or <package>ports-mgmt/poudriere-devel</package> is installed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10424
+msgid "The basic configuration shown here puts a single jail-, port-, and set-specific <filename>make.conf</filename> in <filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.d</filename>. The filename in this example is created by combining the jail name, port name, and set name: <filename><replaceable>10amd64-local-workstation</replaceable>-make.conf</filename>. The system <filename>make.conf</filename> and this new file are combined at build time to create the <filename>make.conf</filename> used by the build jail."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10434
+msgid "Packages to be built are entered in <filename><replaceable>10amd64-local-workstation</replaceable>-pkglist</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:10437
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"editors/emacs\n"
+"devel/git\n"
+"ports-mgmt/pkg\n"
+"..."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10442
+msgid "Options and dependencies for the specified ports are configured:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10445
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>poudriere options -j <replaceable>10amd64</replaceable> -p <replaceable>local</replaceable> -z <replaceable>workstation</replaceable> -f <replaceable>10amd64-local-workstation-pkglist</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10447
+msgid "Finally, packages are built and a package repository is created:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10450
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>poudriere bulk -j <replaceable>10amd64</replaceable> -p <replaceable>local</replaceable> -z <replaceable>workstation</replaceable> -f <replaceable>10amd64-local-workstation-pkglist</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10452
+msgid "While running, pressing <keycombo action=\"simul\"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>t</keycap></keycombo> displays the current state of the build. <application>Poudriere</application> also builds files in <filename>/poudriere/logs/bulk/<replaceable>jailname</replaceable></filename> that can be used with a web server to display build information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10459
+msgid "After completion, the new packages are now available for installation from the <application>poudriere</application> repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10463
+msgid "For more information on using <application>poudriere</application>, see <citerefentry vendor=\"ports\"><refentrytitle>poudriere</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and the main web site, <link xlink:href=\"https://github.com/freebsd/poudriere/wiki\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10468
+msgid "Configuring pkg Clients to Use a Poudriere Repository"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10471
+msgid "While it is possible to use both a custom repository along side of the official repository, sometimes it is useful to disable the official repository. This is done by creating a configuration file that overrides and disables the official configuration file. Create <filename>/usr/local/etc/pkg/repos/FreeBSD.conf</filename> that contains the following:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10479
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD: {\n"
+"\tenabled: no\n"
+"}"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10483
+msgid "Usually it is easiest to serve a poudriere repository to the client machines via HTTP. Set up a webserver to serve up the package directory, for instance: <filename>/usr/local/poudriere/data/packages/<replaceable>10amd64</replaceable></filename>, where <filename><replaceable>10amd64</replaceable></filename> is the name of the build."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10490
+msgid "If the URL to the package repository is: <literal>http://pkg.example.com/10amd64</literal>, then the repository configuration file in <filename>/usr/local/etc/pkg/repos/custom.conf</filename> would look like:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10496
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"custom: {\n"
+"\turl: \"<replaceable>http://pkg.example.com/10amd64</replaceable>\",\n"
+"\tenabled: yes,\n"
+"}"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10504
+msgid "Post-Installation Considerations"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10506
+msgid "Regardless of whether the software was installed from a binary package or port, most third-party applications require some level of configuration after installation. The following commands and locations can be used to help determine what was installed with the application."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10514
+msgid "Most applications install at least one default configuration file in <filename>/usr/local/etc</filename>. In cases where an application has a large number of configuration files, a subdirectory will be created to hold them. Often, sample configuration files are installed which end with a suffix such as <filename>.sample</filename>. The configuration files should be reviewed and possibly edited to meet the system's needs. To edit a sample file, first copy it without the <filename>.sample</filename> extension."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10527
+msgid "Applications which provide documentation will install it into <filename>/usr/local/share/doc</filename> and many applications also install manual pages. This documentation should be consulted before continuing."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10534
+msgid "Some applications run services which must be added to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> before starting the application. These applications usually install a startup script in <filename>/usr/local/etc/rc.d</filename>. See <link linkend=\"configtuning-starting-services\">Starting Services</link> for more information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10542
+msgid "By design, applications do not run their startup script upon installation, nor do they run their stop script upon deinstallation or upgrade. This decision is left to the individual system administrator."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10551
+msgid "Users of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>csh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> should run <command>rehash</command> to rebuild the known binary list in the shells <envar>PATH</envar>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10557
+msgid "Use <command>pkg info</command> to determine which files, man pages, and binaries were installed with the application."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10565
+msgid "Dealing with Broken Ports"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10567
+msgid "When a port does not build or install, try the following:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10572
+msgid "Search to see if there is a fix pending for the port in the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/support.html\">Problem Report database</link>. If so, implementing the proposed fix may fix the issue."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10579
+msgid "Ask the maintainer of the port for help. Type <command>make maintainer</command> in the ports skeleton or read the port's <filename>Makefile</filename> to find the maintainer's email address. Remember to include the <literal>$FreeBSD:</literal> line from the port's <filename>Makefile</filename> and the output leading up to the error in the email to the maintainer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10589
+msgid "Some ports are not maintained by an individual but instead by a group maintainer represented by a <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mailing-list-faq/article.html\">mailing list</link>. Many, but not all, of these addresses look like <email role=\"nolink\">freebsd-<replaceable>listname</replaceable>@FreeBSD.org</email>. Please take this into account when sending an email."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10595
+msgid "In particular, ports maintained by <email role=\"nolink\">ports@FreeBSD.org</email> are not maintained by a specific individual. Instead, any fixes and support come from the general community who subscribe to that mailing list. More volunteers are always needed!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10603
+msgid "If there is no response to the email, use Bugzilla to submit a bug report using the instructions in <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/problem-reports/article.html\">Writing FreeBSD Problem Reports</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10610
+msgid "Fix it! The <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/porters-handbook/index.html\">Porter's Handbook</link> includes detailed information on the ports infrastructure so that you can fix the occasional broken port or even submit your own!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10617
+msgid "Install the package instead of the port using the instructions in <xref linkend=\"pkgng-intro\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10647
+msgid "The X Window System"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10652
+msgid "An installation of FreeBSD using <application>bsdinstall</application> does not automatically install a graphical user interface. This chapter describes how to install and configure <application>Xorg</application>, which provides the open source X Window System used to provide a graphical environment. It then describes how to find and install a desktop environment or window manager."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10661
+msgid "Users who prefer an installation method that automatically configures the <application>Xorg</application> and offers a choice of window managers during installation should refer to the <link xlink:href=\"http://www.trueos.org/\"/> website."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10668
+msgid "For more information on the video hardware that <application>Xorg</application> supports, refer to the <link xlink:href=\"http://www.x.org/\">x.org</link> website."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10675
+msgid "The various components of the X Window System, and how they interoperate."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10680
+msgid "How to install and configure <application>Xorg</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10685
+msgid "How to install and configure several window managers and desktop environments."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10690
+msgid "How to use <trademark class=\"registered\">TrueType</trademark> fonts in <application>Xorg</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10695
+msgid "How to set up your system for graphical logins (<application>XDM</application>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10704
+msgid "Know how to install additional third-party software as described in <xref linkend=\"ports\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10711
+msgid "Terminology"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10713
+msgid "While it is not necessary to understand all of the details of the various components in the X Window System and how they interact, some basic knowledge of these components can be useful."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:10720
+msgid "X server"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10723
+msgid "X was designed from the beginning to be network-centric, and adopts a <quote>client-server</quote> model. In this model, the <quote>X server</quote> runs on the computer that has the keyboard, monitor, and mouse attached. The server's responsibility includes tasks such as managing the display, handling input from the keyboard and mouse, and handling input or output from other devices such as a tablet or a video projector. This confuses some people, because the X terminology is exactly backward to what they expect. They expect the <quote>X server</quote> to be the big powerful machine down the hall, and the <quote>X client</quote> to be the machine on their desk."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:10740
+msgid "X client"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10743
+msgid "Each X application, such as <application>XTerm</application> or <application>Firefox</application>, is a <quote>client</quote>. A client sends messages to the server such as <quote>Please draw a window at these coordinates</quote>, and the server sends back messages such as <quote>The user just clicked on the OK button</quote>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10752
+msgid "In a home or small office environment, the X server and the X clients commonly run on the same computer. It is also possible to run the X server on a less powerful computer and to run the X applications on a more powerful system. In this scenario, the communication between the X client and server takes place over the network."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:10762
+msgid "window manager"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10765
+msgid "X does not dictate what windows should look like on-screen, how to move them around with the mouse, which keystrokes should be used to move between windows, what the title bars on each window should look like, whether or not they have close buttons on them, and so on. Instead, X delegates this responsibility to a separate window manager application. There are <link xlink:href=\"http://xwinman.org/\">dozens of window managers</link> available. Each window manager provides a different look and feel: some support virtual desktops, some allow customized keystrokes to manage the desktop, some have a <quote>Start</quote> button, and some are themeable, allowing a complete change of the desktop's look-and-feel. Window managers are available in the <filename>x11-wm</filename> category of the Ports Collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10781
+msgid "Each window manager uses a different configuration mechanism. Some expect configuration file written by hand while others provide graphical tools for most configuration tasks."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:10789
+msgid "desktop environment"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10792
+msgid "<application>KDE</application> and <application>GNOME</application> are considered to be desktop environments as they include an entire suite of applications for performing common desktop tasks. These may include office suites, web browsers, and games."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:10801
+msgid "focus policy"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10804
+msgid "The window manager is responsible for the mouse focus policy. This policy provides some means for choosing which window is actively receiving keystrokes and it should also visibly indicate which window is currently active."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10810
+msgid "One focus policy is called <quote>click-to-focus</quote>. In this model, a window becomes active upon receiving a mouse click. In the <quote>focus-follows-mouse</quote> policy, the window that is under the mouse pointer has focus and the focus is changed by pointing at another window. If the mouse is over the root window, then this window is focused. In the <quote>sloppy-focus</quote> model, if the mouse is moved over the root window, the most recently used window still has the focus. With sloppy-focus, focus is only changed when the cursor enters a new window, and not when exiting the current window. In the <quote>click-to-focus</quote> policy, the active window is selected by mouse click. The window may then be raised and appear in front of all other windows. All keystrokes will now be directed to this window, even if the cursor is moved to another window."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10828
+msgid "Different window managers support different focus models. All of them support click-to-focus, and the majority of them also support other policies. Consult the documentation for the window manager to determine which focus models are available."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:10837
+msgid "widgets"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10840
+msgid "Widget is a term for all of the items in the user interface that can be clicked or manipulated in some way. This includes buttons, check boxes, radio buttons, icons, and lists. A widget toolkit is a set of widgets used to create graphical applications. There are several popular widget toolkits, including Qt, used by <application>KDE</application>, and GTK+, used by <application>GNOME</application>. As a result, applications will have a different look and feel, depending upon which widget toolkit was used to create the application."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10857
+msgid "Installing <application>Xorg</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10859
+msgid "On FreeBSD, <application>Xorg</application> can be installed as a package or port."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10862
+msgid "The binary package can be installed quickly but with fewer options for customization:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10865
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install xorg</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10867
+msgid "To build and install from the Ports Collection:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10869
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/x11/xorg</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10872
+msgid "Either of these installations results in the complete <application>Xorg</application> system being installed. Binary packages are the best option for most users."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10876
+msgid "A smaller version of the X system suitable for experienced users is available in <package>x11/xorg-minimal</package>. Most of the documents, libraries, and applications will not be installed. Some applications require these additional components to function."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10884
+msgid "<application>Xorg</application> Configuration"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/author
+#: book.translate.xml:10887
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Warren</firstname> <surname>Block</surname> </personname> <contrib>Originally contributed by</contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:10896
+msgid "<primary>Xorg</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:10897
+msgid "<primary><application>Xorg</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10900 book.translate.xml:16927 book.translate.xml:62626
+msgid "Quick Start"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10902
+msgid "<application>Xorg</application> supports most common video cards, keyboards, and pointing devices."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: tip/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10906
+msgid "Video cards, monitors, and input devices are automatically detected and do not require any manual configuration. Do not create <filename>xorg.conf</filename> or run a <option>-configure</option> step unless automatic configuration fails."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10915
+msgid "If <application>Xorg</application> has been used on this computer before, move or remove any existing configuration files:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10919
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mv /etc/X11/xorg.conf ~/xorg.conf.etc</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mv /usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf ~/xorg.conf.localetc</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10924
+msgid "Add the user who will run <application>Xorg</application> to the <literal>video</literal> or <literal>wheel</literal> group to enable 3D acceleration when available. To add user <replaceable>jru</replaceable> to whichever group is available:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10932
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod video -m <replaceable>jru</replaceable> || pw groupmod wheel -m <replaceable>jru</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10936
+msgid "The <acronym>TWM</acronym> window manager is included by default. It is started when <application>Xorg</application> starts:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10940
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>startx</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10944
+msgid "On some older versions of FreeBSD, the system console must be set to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> before switching back to the text console will work properly. See <xref linkend=\"x-config-kms\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10953
+msgid "User Group for Accelerated Video"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10955
+msgid "Access to <filename>/dev/dri</filename> is needed to allow 3D acceleration on video cards. It is usually simplest to add the user who will be running X to either the <literal>video</literal> or <literal>wheel</literal> group. Here, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is used to add user <replaceable>slurms</replaceable> to the <literal>video</literal> group, or to the <literal>wheel</literal> group if there is no <literal>video</literal> group:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:10965
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod video -m <replaceable>slurms</replaceable> || pw groupmod wheel -m <replaceable>slurms</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10969
+msgid "Kernel Mode Setting (<acronym>KMS</acronym>)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10971
+msgid "When the computer switches from displaying the console to a higher screen resolution for X, it must set the video output <emphasis>mode</emphasis>. Recent versions of <acronym>Xorg</acronym> use a system inside the kernel to do these mode changes more efficiently. Older versions of FreeBSD use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, which is not aware of the <acronym>KMS</acronym> system. The end result is that after closing X, the system console is blank, even though it is still working. The newer <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> console avoids this problem."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10982
+msgid "Add this line to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> to enable <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:10985
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "kern.vty=vt"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:10989 book.translate.xml:21062 book.translate.xml:31623
+#: book.translate.xml:45614 book.translate.xml:55775
+msgid "Configuration Files"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10991
+msgid "Manual configuration is usually not necessary. Please do not manually create configuration files unless autoconfiguration does not work."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:10998
+msgid "<application>Xorg</application> looks in several directories for configuration files. <filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/</filename> is the recommended directory for these files on FreeBSD. Using this directory helps keep application files separate from operating system files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11005
+msgid "Storing configuration files in the legacy <filename>/etc/X11/</filename> still works. However, this mixes application files with the base FreeBSD files and is not recommended."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11012
+msgid "Single or Multiple Files"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11014
+msgid "It is easier to use multiple files that each configure a specific setting than the traditional single <filename>xorg.conf</filename>. These files are stored in the <filename>xorg.conf.d/</filename> subdirectory of the main configuration file directory. The full path is typically <filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11022
+msgid "Examples of these files are shown later in this section."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11025
+msgid "The traditional single <filename>xorg.conf</filename> still works, but is neither as clear nor as flexible as multiple files in the <filename>xorg.conf.d/</filename> subdirectory."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11033
+msgid "Video Cards"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:11037
+msgid "<trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11040
+msgid "3D acceleration is supported on most <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> graphics up to Ivy Bridge (HD Graphics 2500, 4000, and P4000), including Iron Lake (HD Graphics) and Sandy Bridge (HD Graphics 2000)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11045
+msgid "Driver name: <literal>intel</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11047
+msgid "For reference, see <link xlink:href=\"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_graphics_processing_units\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:11052
+msgid "<trademark class=\"registered\">AMD</trademark> Radeon"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11055
+msgid "2D and 3D acceleration is supported on Radeon cards up to and including the HD6000 series."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11058
+msgid "Driver name: <literal>radeon</literal>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11060
+msgid "For reference, see <link xlink:href=\"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_AMD_graphics_processing_units\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:11065
+msgid "NVIDIA"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11068
+msgid "Several NVIDIA drivers are available in the <filename>x11</filename> category of the Ports Collection. Install the driver that matches the video card."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11073
+msgid "For reference, see <link xlink:href=\"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Nvidia_graphics_processing_units\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:11078
+msgid "Hybrid Combination Graphics"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11081
+msgid "Some notebook computers add additional graphics processing units to those built into the chipset or processor. <emphasis>Optimus</emphasis> combines <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> and NVIDIA hardware. <emphasis>Switchable Graphics</emphasis> or <emphasis>Hybrid Graphics</emphasis> are a combination of an <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> or <trademark class=\"registered\">AMD</trademark> processor and an <trademark class=\"registered\">AMD</trademark> Radeon <acronym>GPU</acronym>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11090
+msgid "Implementations of these hybrid graphics systems vary, and <application>Xorg</application> on FreeBSD is not able to drive all versions of them."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11094
+msgid "Some computers provide a <acronym>BIOS</acronym> option to disable one of the graphics adapters or select a <emphasis>discrete</emphasis> mode which can be used with one of the standard video card drivers. For example, it is sometimes possible to disable the NVIDIA <acronym>GPU</acronym> in an Optimus system. The <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> video can then be used with an <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> driver."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11103
+msgid "<acronym>BIOS</acronym> settings depend on the model of computer. In some situations, both <acronym>GPU</acronym>s can be left enabled, but creating a configuration file that only uses the main <acronym>GPU</acronym> in the <literal>Device</literal> section is enough to make such a system functional."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:11114
+msgid "Other Video Cards"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11117
+msgid "Drivers for some less-common video cards can be found in the <filename>x11-drivers</filename> directory of the Ports Collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11121
+msgid "Cards that are not supported by a specific driver might still be usable with the <package>x11-drivers/xf86-video-vesa</package> driver. This driver is installed by <package>x11/xorg</package>. It can also be installed manually as <package>x11-drivers/xf86-video-vesa</package>. <application>Xorg</application> attempts to use this driver when a specific driver is not found for the video card."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11131
+msgid "<package>x11-drivers/xf86-video-scfb</package> is a similar nonspecialized video driver that works on many <acronym>UEFI</acronym> and <trademark class=\"registered\">ARM</trademark> computers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:11138
+msgid "Setting the Video Driver in a File"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11141
+msgid "To set the <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> driver in a configuration file:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11145
+msgid "Select <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> Video Driver in a File"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11147
+msgid "<filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/driver-intel.conf</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11149
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"Device\"\n"
+"\tIdentifier \"Card0\"\n"
+"\tDriver \"intel\"\n"
+"\t# BusID \"PCI:1:0:0\"\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11155
+msgid "If more than one video card is present, the <literal>BusID</literal> identifier can be uncommented and set to select the desired card. A list of video card bus <acronym>ID</acronym>s can be displayed with <command>pciconf -lv | grep -B3 display</command>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11163
+msgid "To set the Radeon driver in a configuration file:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11167
+msgid "Select Radeon Video Driver in a File"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11169
+msgid "<filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/driver-radeon.conf</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11171
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"Device\"\n"
+"\tIdentifier \"Card0\"\n"
+"\tDriver \"radeon\"\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11177
+msgid "To set the <acronym>VESA</acronym> driver in a configuration file:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11181
+msgid "Select <acronym>VESA</acronym> Video Driver in a File"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11184
+msgid "<filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/driver-vesa.conf</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11186
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"Device\"\n"
+"\tIdentifier \"Card0\"\n"
+"\tDriver \"vesa\"\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11192
+msgid "To set the <literal>scfb</literal> driver for use with a <acronym>UEFI</acronym> or <trademark class=\"registered\">ARM</trademark> computer:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11196
+msgid "Select <literal>scfb</literal> Video Driver in a File"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11199
+msgid "<filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/driver-scfb.conf</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11201
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"Device\"\n"
+"\tIdentifier \"Card0\"\n"
+"\tDriver \"scfb\"\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11212
+msgid "Monitors"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11214
+msgid "Almost all monitors support the Extended Display Identification Data standard (<acronym>EDID</acronym>). <application>Xorg</application> uses <acronym>EDID</acronym> to communicate with the monitor and detect the supported resolutions and refresh rates. Then it selects the most appropriate combination of settings to use with that monitor."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11222
+msgid "Other resolutions supported by the monitor can be chosen by setting the desired resolution in configuration files, or after the X server has been started with <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xrandr</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:11229
+msgid "Using <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xrandr</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11232
+msgid "Run <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xrandr</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> without any parameters to see a list of video outputs and detected monitor modes:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11235
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>xrandr</userinput>\n"
+"Screen 0: minimum 320 x 200, current 3000 x 1920, maximum 8192 x 8192\n"
+"DVI-0 connected primary 1920x1200+1080+0 (normal left inverted right x axis y axis) 495mm x 310mm\n"
+" 1920x1200 59.95*+\n"
+" 1600x1200 60.00\n"
+" 1280x1024 85.02 75.02 60.02\n"
+" 1280x960 60.00\n"
+" 1152x864 75.00\n"
+" 1024x768 85.00 75.08 70.07 60.00\n"
+" 832x624 74.55\n"
+" 800x600 75.00 60.32\n"
+" 640x480 75.00 60.00\n"
+" 720x400 70.08\n"
+"DisplayPort-0 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)\n"
+"HDMI-0 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11251
+msgid "This shows that the <literal>DVI-0</literal> output is being used to display a screen resolution of 1920x1200 pixels at a refresh rate of about 60 Hz. Monitors are not attached to the <literal>DisplayPort-0</literal> and <literal>HDMI-0</literal> connectors."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11258
+msgid "Any of the other display modes can be selected with <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xrandr</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For example, to switch to 1280x1024 at 60 Hz:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11262
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>xrandr --mode 1280x1024 --rate 60</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11264
+msgid "A common task is using the external video output on a notebook computer for a video projector."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11267
+msgid "The type and quantity of output connectors varies between devices, and the name given to each output varies from driver to driver. What one driver calls <literal>HDMI-1</literal>, another might call <literal>HDMI1</literal>. So the first step is to run <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xrandr</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to list all the available outputs:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11275
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>xrandr</userinput>\n"
+"Screen 0: minimum 320 x 200, current 1366 x 768, maximum 8192 x 8192\n"
+"LVDS1 connected 1366x768+0+0 (normal left inverted right x axis y axis) 344mm x 193mm\n"
+" 1366x768 60.04*+\n"
+" 1024x768 60.00\n"
+" 800x600 60.32 56.25\n"
+" 640x480 59.94\n"
+"VGA1 connected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)\n"
+" 1280x1024 60.02 + 75.02\n"
+" 1280x960 60.00\n"
+" 1152x864 75.00\n"
+" 1024x768 75.08 70.07 60.00\n"
+" 832x624 74.55\n"
+" 800x600 72.19 75.00 60.32 56.25\n"
+" 640x480 75.00 72.81 66.67 60.00\n"
+" 720x400 70.08\n"
+"HDMI1 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)\n"
+"DP1 disconnected (normal left inverted right x axis y axis)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11294
+msgid "Four outputs were found: the built-in panel <literal>LVDS1</literal>, and external <literal>VGA1</literal>, <literal>HDMI1</literal>, and <literal>DP1</literal> connectors."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11299
+msgid "The projector has been connected to the <literal>VGA1</literal> output. <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xrandr</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is now used to set that output to the native resolution of the projector and add the additional space to the right side of the desktop:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11305
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>xrandr --output VGA1 --auto --right-of LVDS1</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11307
+msgid "<literal>--auto</literal> chooses the resolution and refresh rate detected by <acronym>EDID</acronym>. If the resolution is not correctly detected, a fixed value can be given with <literal>--mode</literal> instead of the <literal>--auto</literal> statement. For example, most projectors can be used with a 1024x768 resolution, which is set with <literal>--mode 1024x768</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11316
+msgid "<citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xrandr</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is often run from <filename>.xinitrc</filename> to set the appropriate mode when X starts."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:11323
+msgid "Setting Monitor Resolution in a File"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11326
+msgid "To set a screen resolution of 1024x768 in a configuration file:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11330
+msgid "Set Screen Resolution in a File"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11332
+msgid "<filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/screen-resolution.conf</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11334
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"Screen\"\n"
+"\tIdentifier \"Screen0\"\n"
+"\tDevice \"Card0\"\n"
+"\tSubSection \"Display\"\n"
+"\tModes \"1024x768\"\n"
+"\tEndSubSection\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11343
+msgid "The few monitors that do not have <acronym>EDID</acronym> can be configured by setting <literal>HorizSync</literal> and <literal>VertRefresh</literal> to the range of frequencies supported by the monitor."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11350
+msgid "Manually Setting Monitor Frequencies"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11352
+msgid "<filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/monitor0-freq.conf</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11354
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"Monitor\"\n"
+"\tIdentifier \"Monitor0\"\n"
+"\tHorizSync 30-83 # kHz\n"
+"\tVertRefresh 50-76 # Hz\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11366
+msgid "Input Devices"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11369
+msgid "Keyboards"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:11373
+msgid "Keyboard Layout"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11376
+msgid "The standardized location of keys on a keyboard is called a <emphasis>layout</emphasis>. Layouts and other adjustable parameters are listed in <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xkeyboard-config</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11381
+msgid "A United States layout is the default. To select an alternate layout, set the <literal>XkbLayout</literal> and <literal>XkbVariant</literal> options in an <literal>InputClass</literal>. This will be applied to all input devices that match the class."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11388
+msgid "This example selects a French keyboard layout with the <literal>oss</literal> variant."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11392
+msgid "Setting a Keyboard Layout"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11394
+msgid "<filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/keyboard-fr-oss.conf</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11396
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section\t\"InputClass\"\n"
+"\tIdentifier\t\"KeyboardDefaults\"\n"
+"\tDriver\t\t\"keyboard\"\n"
+"\tMatchIsKeyboard\t\"on\"\n"
+"\tOption\t\t\"XkbLayout\" \"fr\"\n"
+"\tOption\t\t\"XkbVariant\" \"oss\"\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11406
+msgid "Setting Multiple Keyboard Layouts"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11408
+msgid "Set United States, Spanish, and Ukrainian keyboard layouts. Cycle through these layouts by pressing <keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Alt</keycap> <keycap>Shift</keycap> </keycombo>. <package>x11/xxkb</package> or <package>x11/sbxkb</package> can be used for improved layout switching control and current layout indicators."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11419
+msgid "<filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/kbd-layout-multi.conf</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11421
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section\t\"InputClass\"\n"
+"\tIdentifier\t\"All Keyboards\"\n"
+"\tMatchIsKeyboard\t\"yes\"\n"
+"\tOption\t\t\"XkbLayout\" \"us, es, ua\"\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:11431
+msgid "Closing <application>Xorg</application> From the Keyboard"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11435
+msgid "X can be closed with a combination of keys. By default, that key combination is not set because it conflicts with keyboard commands for some applications. Enabling this option requires changes to the keyboard <literal>InputDevice</literal> section:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11443
+msgid "Enabling Keyboard Exit from X"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11445
+msgid "<filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/keyboard-zap.conf</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11447
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section\t\"InputClass\"\n"
+"\tIdentifier\t\"KeyboardDefaults\"\n"
+"\tDriver\t\t\"keyboard\"\n"
+"\tMatchIsKeyboard\t\"on\"\n"
+"\tOption\t\t\"XkbOptions\" \"terminate:ctrl_alt_bksp\"\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11460
+msgid "Mice and Pointing Devices"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11462
+msgid "Many mouse parameters can be adjusted with configuration options. See <citerefentry vendor=\"xorg\"><refentrytitle>mousedrv</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for a full list."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
+#: book.translate.xml:11467
+msgid "Mouse Buttons"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11470
+msgid "The number of buttons on a mouse can be set in the mouse <literal>InputDevice</literal> section of <filename>xorg.conf</filename>. To set the number of buttons to 7:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11476
+msgid "Setting the Number of Mouse Buttons"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11478
+msgid "<filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/mouse0-buttons.conf</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: example/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11480
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"InputDevice\"\n"
+"\tIdentifier \"Mouse0\"\n"
+"\tOption \"Buttons\" \"7\"\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11494
+msgid "In some cases, <application>Xorg</application> autoconfiguration does not work with particular hardware, or a different configuration is desired. For these cases, a custom configuration file can be created."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: warning/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11500
+msgid "Do not create manual configuration files unless required. Unnecessary manual configuration can prevent proper operation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11505
+msgid "A configuration file can be generated by <application>Xorg</application> based on the detected hardware. This file is often a useful starting point for custom configurations."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11510
+msgid "Generating an <filename>xorg.conf</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11512
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>Xorg -configure</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11514
+msgid "The configuration file is saved to <filename>/root/xorg.conf.new</filename>. Make any changes desired, then test that file with:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11518
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>Xorg -config /root/xorg.conf.new</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11520
+msgid "After the new configuration has been adjusted and tested, it can be split into smaller files in the normal location, <filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11538
+msgid "Using Fonts in <application>Xorg</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11541
+msgid "Type1 Fonts"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11543
+msgid "The default fonts that ship with <application>Xorg</application> are less than ideal for typical desktop publishing applications. Large presentation fonts show up jagged and unprofessional looking, and small fonts are almost completely unintelligible. However, there are several free, high quality Type1 (<trademark class=\"registered\">PostScript</trademark>) fonts available which can be readily used with <application>Xorg</application>. For instance, the URW font collection (<package>x11-fonts/urwfonts</package>) includes high quality versions of standard type1 fonts (<trademark class=\"registered\">Times Roman</trademark>, <trademark class=\"registered\">Helvetica</trademark>, <trademark class=\"registered\">Palatino</trademark> and others). The Freefonts collection (<package>x11-fonts/freefonts</package>) includes many more fonts, but most of them are intended for use in graphics software such as the <application>Gimp</application>, and are not complete enough to serve as screen fonts. In addition, <application>Xorg</application> can be configured to use <trademark class=\"registered\">TrueType</trademark> fonts with a minimum of effort. For more details on this, see the <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>X</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page or <xref linkend=\"truetype\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11562
+msgid "To install the above Type1 font collections from binary packages, run the following commands:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11565
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install urwfonts</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11567
+msgid "Alternatively, to build from the Ports Collection, run the following commands:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11570
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/x11-fonts/urwfonts</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11573
+msgid "And likewise with the freefont or other collections. To have the X server detect these fonts, add an appropriate line to the X server configuration file (<filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>), which reads:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11578
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "FontPath \"/usr/local/share/fonts/urwfonts/\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11580
+msgid "Alternatively, at the command line in the X session run:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11583
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>xset fp+ /usr/local/share/fonts/urwfonts</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>xset fp rehash</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11586
+msgid "This will work but will be lost when the X session is closed, unless it is added to the startup file (<filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> for a normal <command>startx</command> session, or <filename>~/.xsession</filename> when logging in through a graphical login manager like <application>XDM</application>). A third way is to use the new <filename>/usr/local/etc/fonts/local.conf</filename> as demonstrated in <xref linkend=\"antialias\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11598
+msgid "<trademark class=\"registered\">TrueType</trademark> Fonts"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:11600
+msgid "<primary>TrueType Fonts</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:11603
+msgid "<primary>fonts</primary> <secondary>TrueType</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11608
+msgid "<application>Xorg</application> has built in support for rendering <trademark class=\"registered\">TrueType</trademark> fonts. There are two different modules that can enable this functionality. The freetype module is used in this example because it is more consistent with the other font rendering back-ends. To enable the freetype module just add the following line to the <literal>\"Module\"</literal> section of <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11616
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Load \"freetype\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11618
+msgid "Now make a directory for the <trademark class=\"registered\">TrueType</trademark> fonts (for example, <filename>/usr/local/share/fonts/TrueType</filename>) and copy all of the <trademark class=\"registered\">TrueType</trademark> fonts into this directory. Keep in mind that <trademark class=\"registered\">TrueType</trademark> fonts cannot be directly taken from an <trademark class=\"registered\">Apple</trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">Mac</trademark>; they must be in <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark>/<trademark class=\"registered\">MS-DOS</trademark>/<trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> format for use by <application>Xorg</application>. Once the files have been copied into this directory, use <application>mkfontdir</application> to create a <filename>fonts.dir</filename>, so that the X font renderer knows that these new files have been installed. <command>mkfontdir</command> can be installed as a package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11632
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install mkfontdir</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11634
+msgid "Then create an index of X font files in a directory:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11637
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/local/share/fonts/TrueType</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mkfontdir</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11640
+msgid "Now add the <trademark class=\"registered\">TrueType</trademark> directory to the font path. This is just the same as described in <xref linkend=\"type1\"/>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11643
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>xset fp+ /usr/local/share/fonts/TrueType</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>xset fp rehash</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11646
+msgid "or add a <literal>FontPath</literal> line to <filename>xorg.conf</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11649
+msgid "Now <application>Gimp</application>, <application>Apache OpenOffice</application>, and all of the other X applications should now recognize the installed <trademark class=\"registered\">TrueType</trademark> fonts. Extremely small fonts (as with text in a high resolution display on a web page) and extremely large fonts (within <application><trademark>StarOffice</trademark></application>) will look much better now."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11670
+msgid "Anti-Aliased Fonts"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:11672
+msgid "<primary>anti-aliased fonts</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:11675
+msgid "<primary>fonts</primary> <secondary>anti-aliased</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11680
+msgid "All fonts in <application>Xorg</application> that are found in <filename>/usr/local/share/fonts/</filename> and <filename>~/.fonts/</filename> are automatically made available for anti-aliasing to Xft-aware applications. Most recent applications are Xft-aware, including <application>KDE</application>, <application>GNOME</application>, and <application>Firefox</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11689
+msgid "To control which fonts are anti-aliased, or to configure anti-aliasing properties, create (or edit, if it already exists) the file <filename>/usr/local/etc/fonts/local.conf</filename>. Several advanced features of the Xft font system can be tuned using this file; this section describes only some simple possibilities. For more details, please see <citerefentry vendor=\"xorg\"><refentrytitle>fonts-conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:11698
+msgid "<primary>XML</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11700
+msgid "This file must be in XML format. Pay careful attention to case, and make sure all tags are properly closed. The file begins with the usual XML header followed by a DOCTYPE definition, and then the <literal>&lt;fontconfig&gt;</literal> tag:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11706
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"&lt;?xml version=\"1.0\"?&gt;\n"
+" &lt;!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM \"fonts.dtd\"&gt;\n"
+" &lt;fontconfig&gt;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11710
+msgid "As previously stated, all fonts in <filename>/usr/local/share/fonts/</filename> as well as <filename>~/.fonts/</filename> are already made available to Xft-aware applications. To add another directory outside of these two directory trees, add a line like this to <filename>/usr/local/etc/fonts/local.conf</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11718
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "&lt;dir&gt;/path/to/my/fonts&lt;/dir&gt;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11720
+msgid "After adding new fonts, and especially new font directories, rebuild the font caches:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11724
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>fc-cache -f</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11726
+msgid "Anti-aliasing makes borders slightly fuzzy, which makes very small text more readable and removes <quote>staircases</quote> from large text, but can cause eyestrain if applied to normal text. To exclude font sizes smaller than 14 point from anti-aliasing, include these lines:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11733
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" &lt;match target=\"font\"&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;test name=\"size\" compare=\"less\"&gt;\n"
+"\t\t&lt;double&gt;14&lt;/double&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/test&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;edit name=\"antialias\" mode=\"assign\"&gt;\n"
+"\t\t&lt;bool&gt;false&lt;/bool&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/edit&gt;\n"
+"\t&lt;/match&gt;\n"
+"\t&lt;match target=\"font\"&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;test name=\"pixelsize\" compare=\"less\" qual=\"any\"&gt;\n"
+"\t\t&lt;double&gt;14&lt;/double&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/test&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;edit mode=\"assign\" name=\"antialias\"&gt;\n"
+"\t\t&lt;bool&gt;false&lt;/bool&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/edit&gt;\n"
+"\t&lt;/match&gt;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:11750
+msgid "<primary>fonts</primary> <secondary>spacing</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11755
+msgid "Spacing for some monospaced fonts might also be inappropriate with anti-aliasing. This seems to be an issue with <application>KDE</application>, in particular. One possible fix is to force the spacing for such fonts to be 100. Add these lines:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11761
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"\t&lt;match target=\"pattern\" name=\"family\"&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;test qual=\"any\" name=\"family\"&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;string&gt;fixed&lt;/string&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/test&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;edit name=\"family\" mode=\"assign\"&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;string&gt;mono&lt;/string&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/edit&gt;\n"
+"\t&lt;/match&gt;\n"
+"\t&lt;match target=\"pattern\" name=\"family\"&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;test qual=\"any\" name=\"family\"&gt;\n"
+"\t\t&lt;string&gt;console&lt;/string&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/test&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;edit name=\"family\" mode=\"assign\"&gt;\n"
+"\t\t&lt;string&gt;mono&lt;/string&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/edit&gt;\n"
+"\t&lt;/match&gt;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11778
+msgid "(this aliases the other common names for fixed fonts as <literal>\"mono\"</literal>), and then add:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11781
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" &lt;match target=\"pattern\" name=\"family\"&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;test qual=\"any\" name=\"family\"&gt;\n"
+"\t\t &lt;string&gt;mono&lt;/string&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/test&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;edit name=\"spacing\" mode=\"assign\"&gt;\n"
+"\t\t &lt;int&gt;100&lt;/int&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/edit&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/match&gt; "
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11790
+msgid "Certain fonts, such as Helvetica, may have a problem when anti-aliased. Usually this manifests itself as a font that seems cut in half vertically. At worst, it may cause applications to crash. To avoid this, consider adding the following to <filename>local.conf</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11796
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" &lt;match target=\"pattern\" name=\"family\"&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;test qual=\"any\" name=\"family\"&gt;\n"
+"\t\t &lt;string&gt;Helvetica&lt;/string&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/test&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;edit name=\"family\" mode=\"assign\"&gt;\n"
+"\t\t &lt;string&gt;sans-serif&lt;/string&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/edit&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/match&gt; "
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11805
+msgid "After editing <filename>local.conf</filename>, make certain to end the file with the <literal>&lt;/fontconfig&gt;</literal> tag. Not doing this will cause changes to be ignored."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11810
+msgid "Users can add personalized settings by creating their own <filename>~/.config/fontconfig/fonts.conf</filename>. This file uses the same <acronym>XML</acronym> format described above."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:11815
+msgid "<primary>LCD screen</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:11816
+msgid "<primary>Fonts</primary> <secondary>LCD screen</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11819
+msgid "One last point: with an LCD screen, sub-pixel sampling may be desired. This basically treats the (horizontally separated) red, green and blue components separately to improve the horizontal resolution; the results can be dramatic. To enable this, add the line somewhere in <filename>local.conf</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:11826
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"\t &lt;match target=\"font\"&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;test qual=\"all\" name=\"rgba\"&gt;\n"
+"\t\t &lt;const&gt;unknown&lt;/const&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/test&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;edit name=\"rgba\" mode=\"assign\"&gt;\n"
+"\t\t &lt;const&gt;rgb&lt;/const&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/edit&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;/match&gt;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11836
+msgid "Depending on the sort of display, <literal>rgb</literal> may need to be changed to <literal>bgr</literal>, <literal>vrgb</literal> or <literal>vbgr</literal>: experiment and see which works best."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11847
+msgid "The X Display Manager"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:11850
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Seth</firstname> <surname>Kingsley</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:11860
+msgid "<primary>X Display Manager</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11861
+msgid "<application>Xorg</application> provides an X Display Manager, <application>XDM</application>, which can be used for login session management. <application>XDM</application> provides a graphical interface for choosing which display server to connect to and for entering authorization information such as a login and password combination."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11868
+msgid "This section demonstrates how to configure the X Display Manager on FreeBSD. Some desktop environments provide their own graphical login manager. Refer to <xref linkend=\"x11-wm-gnome\"/> for instructions on how to configure the GNOME Display Manager and <xref linkend=\"x11-wm-kde\"/> for instructions on how to configure the KDE Display Manager."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11875
+msgid "Configuring <application>XDM</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11877
+msgid "To install <application>XDM</application>, use the <package>x11/xdm</package> package or port. Once installed, <application>XDM</application> can be configured to run when the machine boots up by editing this entry in <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:11883
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "ttyv8 \"/usr/local/bin/xdm -nodaemon\" xterm off secure"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11885
+msgid "Change the <literal>off</literal> to <literal>on</literal> and save the edit. The <literal>ttyv8</literal> in this entry indicates that <application>XDM</application> will run on the ninth virtual terminal."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11890
+msgid "The <application>XDM</application> configuration directory is located in <filename>/usr/local/lib/X11/xdm</filename>. This directory contains several files used to change the behavior and appearance of <application>XDM</application>, as well as a few scripts and programs used to set up the desktop when <application>XDM</application> is running. <xref linkend=\"xdm-config-files\"/> summarizes the function of each of these files. The exact syntax and usage of these files is described in <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: table/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11900
+msgid "XDM Configuration Files"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11905 book.translate.xml:55698
+msgid "File"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11912
+msgid "<filename>Xaccess</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11913
+msgid "The protocol for connecting to <application>XDM</application> is called the X Display Manager Connection Protocol (<acronym>XDMCP</acronym>) This file is a client authorization ruleset for controlling <acronym>XDMCP</acronym> connections from remote machines. By default, this file does not allow any remote clients to connect."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11923
+msgid "<filename>Xresources</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11924
+msgid "This file controls the look and feel of the <application>XDM</application> display chooser and login screens. The default configuration is a simple rectangular login window with the hostname of the machine displayed at the top in a large font and <quote>Login:</quote> and <quote>Password:</quote> prompts below. The format of this file is identical to the app-defaults file described in the <application>Xorg</application> documentation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11937
+msgid "<filename>Xservers</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11938
+msgid "The list of local and remote displays the chooser should provide as login choices."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11943
+msgid "<filename>Xsession</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11944
+msgid "Default session script for logins which is run by <application>XDM</application> after a user has logged in. Normally each user will have a customized session script in <filename>~/.xsession</filename> that overrides this script"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11952
+msgid "<filename>Xsetup_</filename>*"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11953
+msgid "Script to automatically launch applications before displaying the chooser or login interfaces. There is a script for each display being used, named <filename>Xsetup_*</filename>, where <literal>*</literal> is the local display number. Typically these scripts run one or two programs in the background such as <command>xconsole</command>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11964
+msgid "<filename>xdm-config</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11965
+msgid "Global configuration for all displays running on this machine."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11970
+msgid "<filename>xdm-errors</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11971
+msgid "Contains errors generated by the server program. If a display that <application>XDM</application> is trying to start hangs, look at this file for error messages. These messages are also written to the user's <filename>~/.xsession-errors</filename> on a per-session basis."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11980
+msgid "<filename>xdm-pid</filename>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:11981
+msgid "The running process <acronym>ID</acronym> of <application>XDM</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:11990
+msgid "Configuring Remote Access"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11992
+msgid "By default, only users on the same system can login using <application>XDM</application>. To enable users on other systems to connect to the display server, edit the access control rules and enable the connection listener."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:11997
+msgid "To configure <application>XDM</application> to listen for any remote connection, comment out the <literal>DisplayManager.requestPort</literal> line in <filename>/usr/local/lib/X11/xdm/xdm-config</filename> by putting a <literal>!</literal> in front of it:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12003
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"! SECURITY: do not listen for XDMCP or Chooser requests\n"
+"! Comment out this line if you want to manage X terminals with xdm\n"
+"DisplayManager.requestPort: 0"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12007
+msgid "Save the edits and restart <application>XDM</application>. To restrict remote access, look at the example entries in <filename>/usr/local/lib/X11/xdm/Xaccess</filename> and refer to <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> for further information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12016
+msgid "Desktop Environments"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:12019
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Valentino</firstname> <surname>Vaschetto</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12030
+msgid "This section describes how to install three popular desktop environments on a FreeBSD system. A desktop environment can range from a simple window manager to a complete suite of desktop applications. Over a hundred desktop environments are available in the <filename>x11-wm</filename> category of the Ports Collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12038
+msgid "GNOME"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12041
+msgid "<application>GNOME</application> is a user-friendly desktop environment. It includes a panel for starting applications and displaying status, a desktop, a set of tools and applications, and a set of conventions that make it easy for applications to cooperate and be consistent with each other. More information regarding <application>GNOME</application> on FreeBSD can be found at <link xlink:href=\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/gnome\">http://www.FreeBSD.org/gnome</link>. That web site contains additional documentation about installing, configuring, and managing <application>GNOME</application> on FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12052
+msgid "This desktop environment can be installed from a package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12055
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install gnome3</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12057
+msgid "To instead build <application>GNOME</application> from ports, use the following command. <application>GNOME</application> is a large application and will take some time to compile, even on a fast computer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12063
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/x11/gnome3</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12066
+msgid "<application>GNOME</application> requires <filename>/proc</filename> to be mounted. Add this line to <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> to mount this file system automatically during system startup:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12071 book.translate.xml:12162
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "proc /proc procfs rw 0 0"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12073
+msgid "<application>GNOME</application> uses <application>D-Bus</application> and <application>HAL</application> for a message bus and hardware abstraction. These applications are automatically installed as dependencies of <application>GNOME</application>. Enable them in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> so they will be started when the system boots:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12081 book.translate.xml:12172
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"dbus_enable=\"YES\"\n"
+"hald_enable=\"YES\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12084
+msgid "After installation, configure <application>Xorg</application> to start <application>GNOME</application>. The easiest way to do this is to enable the GNOME Display Manager, <application>GDM</application>, which is installed as part of the <application>GNOME</application> package or port. It can be enabled by adding this line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12093
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "gdm_enable=\"YES\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12095
+msgid "It is often desirable to also start all <application>GNOME</application> services. To achieve this, add a second line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12099
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "gnome_enable=\"YES\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12101
+msgid "<application>GDM</application> will start automatically when the system boots."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12104
+msgid "A second method for starting <application>GNOME</application> is to type <command>startx</command> from the command-line after configuring <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename>. If this file already exists, replace the line that starts the current window manager with one that starts <filename>/usr/local/bin/gnome-session</filename>. If this file does not exist, create it with this command:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12113
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo \"exec /usr/local/bin/gnome-session\" &gt; ~/.xinitrc</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12115
+msgid "A third method is to use <application>XDM</application> as the display manager. In this case, create an executable <filename>~/.xsession</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12119
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo \"#!/bin/sh\" &gt; ~/.xsession</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo \"exec /usr/local/bin/gnome-session\" &gt;&gt; ~/.xsession</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod +x ~/.xsession</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12125
+msgid "KDE"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12129
+msgid "<application>KDE</application> is another easy-to-use desktop environment. This desktop provides a suite of applications with a consistent look and feel, a standardized menu and toolbars, keybindings, color-schemes, internationalization, and a centralized, dialog-driven desktop configuration. More information on <application>KDE</application> can be found at <link xlink:href=\"http://www.kde.org/\">http://www.kde.org/</link>. For FreeBSD-specific information, consult <link xlink:href=\"http://freebsd.kde.org/\">http://freebsd.kde.org</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12138
+msgid "To install the <application>KDE</application> package, type:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12141
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install x11/kde4</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12143
+msgid "To instead build the <application>KDE</application> port, use the following command. Installing the port will provide a menu for selecting which components to install. <application>KDE</application> is a large application and will take some time to compile, even on a fast computer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12149
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/x11/kde4</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:12152
+msgid "<primary>KDE</primary> <secondary>display manager</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12157
+msgid "<application>KDE</application> requires <filename>/proc</filename> to be mounted. Add this line to <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> to mount this file system automatically during system startup:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12164
+msgid "<application>KDE</application> uses <application>D-Bus</application> and <application>HAL</application> for a message bus and hardware abstraction. These applications are automatically installed as dependencies of <application>KDE</application>. Enable them in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> so they will be started when the system boots:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12175
+msgid "The installation of <application>KDE</application> includes the KDE Display Manager, <application>KDM</application>. To enable this display manager, add this line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12181
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "kdm4_enable=\"YES\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12183
+msgid "A second method for launching <application>KDE</application> is to type <command>startx</command> from the command line. For this to work, the following line is needed in <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12189
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "exec /usr/local/bin/startkde"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12191
+msgid "A third method for starting <application>KDE</application> is through <application>XDM</application>. To do so, create an executable <filename>~/.xsession</filename> as follows:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12196
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo \"#!/bin/sh\" &gt; ~/.xsession</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo \"exec /usr/local/bin/startkde\" &gt;&gt; ~/.xsession</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod +x ~/.xsession</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12200
+msgid "Once <application>KDE</application> is started, refer to its built-in help system for more information on how to use its various menus and applications."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12206
+msgid "Xfce"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12208
+msgid "<application>Xfce</application> is a desktop environment based on the GTK+ toolkit used by <application>GNOME</application>. However, it is more lightweight and provides a simple, efficient, easy-to-use desktop. It is fully configurable, has a main panel with menus, applets, and application launchers, provides a file manager and sound manager, and is themeable. Since it is fast, light, and efficient, it is ideal for older or slower machines with memory limitations. More information on <application>Xfce</application> can be found at <link xlink:href=\"http://www.xfce.org/\">http://www.xfce.org</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12219
+msgid "To install the <application>Xfce</application> package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12222
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install xfce</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12224
+msgid "Alternatively, to build the port:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12226
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/x11-wm/xfce4</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12229
+msgid "Unlike <application>GNOME</application> or <application>KDE</application>, <application>Xfce</application> does not provide its own login manager. In order to start <application>Xfce</application> from the command line by typing <command>startx</command>, first add its entry to <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12236
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo \"exec /usr/local/bin/startxfce4 --with-ck-launch\" &gt; ~/.xinitrc</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12238
+msgid "An alternate method is to use <application>XDM</application>. To configure this method, create an executable <filename>~/.xsession</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12242
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo \"#!/bin/sh\" &gt; ~/.xsession</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo \"exec /usr/local/bin/startxfce4 --with-ck-launch\" &gt;&gt; ~/.xsession</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod +x ~/.xsession</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12249
+msgid "Installing Compiz Fusion"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12251
+msgid "One way to make using a desktop computer more pleasant is with nice 3D effects."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12254
+msgid "Installing the <application>Compiz Fusion</application> package is easy, but configuring it requires a few steps that are not described in the port's documentation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12259
+msgid "Setting up the FreeBSD nVidia Driver"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12261
+msgid "Desktop effects can cause quite a load on the graphics card. For an nVidia-based graphics card, the proprietary driver is required for good performance. Users of other graphics cards can skip this section and continue with the <filename>xorg.conf</filename> configuration."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12267
+msgid "To determine which nVidia driver is needed see the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/x.html#idp59950544\">FAQ question on the subject</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12270
+msgid "Having determined the correct driver to use for your card, installation is as simple as installing any other package."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12274
+msgid "For example, to install the latest driver:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12276
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install x11/nvidia-driver</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12278
+msgid "The driver will create a kernel module, which needs to be loaded at system startup. Add the following line to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12282
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "nvidia_load=\"YES\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12285
+msgid "To immediately load the kernel module into the running kernel by issuing a command like <command>kldload nvidia</command>, however it has been noted that the some versions of <application>Xorg</application> will not function properly if the driver is not loaded at boot time. After editing <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>, a reboot is recommended."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12294
+msgid "With the kernel module loaded, you normally only need to change a single line in <filename>xorg.conf</filename> to enable the proprietary driver:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12298
+msgid "Find the following line in <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12301
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Driver \"nv\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12303
+msgid "and change it to:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12305
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Driver \"nvidia\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12307
+msgid "Start the GUI as usual, and you should be greeted by the nVidia splash. Everything should work as usual."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12312
+msgid "Configuring xorg.conf for Desktop Effects"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12314
+msgid "To enable <application>Compiz Fusion</application>, <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename> needs to be modified:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12318
+msgid "Add the following section to enable composite effects:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12321
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"Extensions\"\n"
+" Option \"Composite\" \"Enable\"\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12325
+msgid "Locate the <quote>Screen</quote> section which should look similar to the one below:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12328
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"Screen\"\n"
+" Identifier \"Screen0\"\n"
+" Device \"Card0\"\n"
+" Monitor \"Monitor0\"\n"
+" ..."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12334
+msgid "and add the following two lines (after <quote>Monitor</quote> will do):"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12337
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"DefaultDepth 24\n"
+"Option \"AddARGBGLXVisuals\" \"True\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12340
+msgid "Locate the <quote>Subsection</quote> that refers to the screen resolution that you wish to use. For example, if you wish to use 1280x1024, locate the section that follows. If the desired resolution does not appear in any subsection, you may add the relevant entry by hand:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12346
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"SubSection \"Display\"\n"
+" Viewport 0 0\n"
+" Modes \"1280x1024\"\n"
+"EndSubSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12351
+msgid "A color depth of 24 bits is needed for desktop composition, change the above subsection to:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12354
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"SubSection \"Display\"\n"
+" Viewport 0 0\n"
+" Depth 24\n"
+" Modes \"1280x1024\"\n"
+"EndSubSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12360
+msgid "Finally, confirm that the <quote>glx</quote> and <quote>extmod</quote> modules are loaded in the <quote>Module</quote> section:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12364
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"Module\"\n"
+" Load \"extmod\"\n"
+" Load \"glx\"\n"
+" ..."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12369
+msgid "The preceding can be done automatically with <package>x11/nvidia-xconfig</package> by running (as root):"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12373
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>nvidia-xconfig --add-argb-glx-visuals</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>nvidia-xconfig --composite</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>nvidia-xconfig --depth=24</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12379
+msgid "Installing and Configuring Compiz Fusion"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12381
+msgid "Installing <application>Compiz Fusion</application> is as simple as any other package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12384
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install x11-wm/compiz-fusion</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12386
+msgid "When the installation is finished, start your graphic desktop and at a terminal, enter the following commands (as a normal user):"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12390
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>compiz --replace --sm-disable --ignore-desktop-hints ccp &amp;</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>emerald --replace &amp;</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12393
+msgid "Your screen will flicker for a few seconds, as your window manager (e.g. <application>Metacity</application> if you are using <application>GNOME</application>) is replaced by <application>Compiz Fusion</application>. <application>Emerald</application> takes care of the window decorations (i.e. close, minimize, maximize buttons, title bars and so on)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12401
+msgid "You may convert this to a trivial script and have it run at startup automatically (e.g. by adding to <quote>Sessions</quote> in a <application>GNOME</application> desktop):"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12406
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"#! /bin/sh\n"
+"compiz --replace --sm-disable --ignore-desktop-hints ccp &amp;\n"
+"emerald --replace &amp;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12410
+msgid "Save this in your home directory as, for example, <filename>start-compiz</filename> and make it executable:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12414
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod +x ~/start-compiz</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12416
+msgid "Then use the GUI to add it to <guimenuitem>Startup Programs</guimenuitem> (located in <guimenuitem>System</guimenuitem>, <guimenuitem>Preferences</guimenuitem>, <guimenuitem>Sessions</guimenuitem> on a <application>GNOME</application> desktop)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12423
+msgid "To actually select all the desired effects and their settings, execute (again as a normal user) the <application>Compiz Config Settings Manager</application>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12427
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ccsm</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12430
+msgid "In <application>GNOME</application>, this can also be found in the <guimenuitem>System</guimenuitem>, <guimenuitem>Preferences</guimenuitem> menu."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12435
+msgid "If you have selected <quote>gconf support</quote> during the build, you will also be able to view these settings using <command>gconf-editor</command> under <literal>apps/compiz</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12446
+msgid "If the mouse does not work, you will need to first configure it before proceeding. In recent <application>Xorg</application> versions, the <literal>InputDevice</literal> sections in <filename>xorg.conf</filename> are ignored in favor of the autodetected devices. To restore the old behavior, add the following line to the <literal>ServerLayout</literal> or <literal>ServerFlags</literal> section of this file:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12455
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Option \"AutoAddDevices\" \"false\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12457
+msgid "Input devices may then be configured as in previous versions, along with any other options needed (e.g., keyboard layout switching)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12462
+msgid "As previously explained the <application>hald</application> daemon will, by default, automatically detect your keyboard. There are chances that your keyboard layout or model will not be correct, desktop environments like <application>GNOME</application>, <application>KDE</application> or <application>Xfce</application> provide tools to configure the keyboard. However, it is possible to set the keyboard properties directly either with the help of the <citerefentry vendor=\"xorg\"><refentrytitle>setxkbmap</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> utility or with a <application>hald</application>'s configuration rule."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12474
+msgid "For example if, one wants to use a PC 102 keys keyboard coming with a french layout, we have to create a keyboard configuration file for <application>hald</application> called <filename>x11-input.fdi</filename> and saved in the <filename>/usr/local/etc/hal/fdi/policy</filename> directory. This file should contain the following lines:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12482
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"&lt;?xml version=\"1.0\" encoding=\"iso-8859-1\"?&gt;\n"
+"&lt;deviceinfo version=\"0.2\"&gt;\n"
+" &lt;device&gt;\n"
+" &lt;match key=\"info.capabilities\" contains=\"input.keyboard\"&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;merge key=\"input.x11_options.XkbModel\" type=\"string\"&gt;pc102&lt;/merge&gt;\n"
+"\t &lt;merge key=\"input.x11_options.XkbLayout\" type=\"string\"&gt;fr&lt;/merge&gt;\n"
+" &lt;/match&gt;\n"
+" &lt;/device&gt;\n"
+"&lt;/deviceinfo&gt;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12492
+msgid "If this file already exists, just copy and add to your file the lines regarding the keyboard configuration."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12495
+msgid "You will have to reboot your machine to force <application>hald</application> to read this file."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12498
+msgid "It is possible to do the same configuration from an X terminal or a script with this command line:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12501
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>setxkbmap -model pc102 -layout fr</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12503
+msgid "<filename>/usr/local/share/X11/xkb/rules/base.lst</filename> lists the various keyboard, layouts and options available."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:12508
+msgid "<primary><application>Xorg</application> tuning</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12511
+msgid "The <filename>xorg.conf.new</filename> configuration file may now be tuned to taste. Open the file in a text editor such as <citerefentry vendor=\"ports\"><refentrytitle>emacs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ee</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. If the monitor is an older or unusual model that does not support autodetection of sync frequencies, those settings can be added to <filename>xorg.conf.new</filename> under the <literal>\"Monitor\"</literal> section:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12519
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"Monitor\"\n"
+"\tIdentifier \"Monitor0\"\n"
+"\tVendorName \"Monitor Vendor\"\n"
+"\tModelName \"Monitor Model\"\n"
+"\tHorizSync 30-107\n"
+"\tVertRefresh 48-120\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12527
+msgid "Most monitors support sync frequency autodetection, making manual entry of these values unnecessary. For the few monitors that do not support autodetection, avoid potential damage by only entering values provided by the manufacturer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12533
+msgid "X allows DPMS (Energy Star) features to be used with capable monitors. The <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xset</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> program controls the time-outs and can force standby, suspend, or off modes. If you wish to enable DPMS features for your monitor, you must add the following line to the monitor section:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12539
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Option \"DPMS\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:12541
+msgid "<primary><filename>xorg.conf</filename></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12545
+msgid "While the <filename>xorg.conf.new</filename> configuration file is still open in an editor, select the default resolution and color depth desired. This is defined in the <literal>\"Screen\"</literal> section:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12550
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"Screen\"\n"
+"\tIdentifier \"Screen0\"\n"
+"\tDevice \"Card0\"\n"
+"\tMonitor \"Monitor0\"\n"
+"\tDefaultDepth 24\n"
+"\tSubSection \"Display\"\n"
+"\t\tViewport 0 0\n"
+"\t\tDepth 24\n"
+"\t\tModes \"1024x768\"\n"
+"\tEndSubSection\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12562
+msgid "The <literal>DefaultDepth</literal> keyword describes the color depth to run at by default. This can be overridden with the <option>-depth</option> command line switch to <citerefentry vendor=\"xorg\"><refentrytitle>Xorg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The <literal>Modes</literal> keyword describes the resolution to run at for the given color depth. Note that only VESA standard modes are supported as defined by the target system's graphics hardware. In the example above, the default color depth is twenty-four bits per pixel. At this color depth, the accepted resolution is 1024 by 768 pixels."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12573
+msgid "Finally, write the configuration file and test it using the test mode given above."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12577
+msgid "One of the tools available to assist you during troubleshooting process are the <application>Xorg</application> log files, which contain information on each device that the <application>Xorg</application> server attaches to. <application>Xorg</application> log file names are in the format of <filename>/var/log/Xorg.0.log</filename>. The exact name of the log can vary from <filename>Xorg.0.log</filename> to <filename>Xorg.8.log</filename> and so forth."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12589
+msgid "If all is well, the configuration file needs to be installed in a common location where <citerefentry vendor=\"xorg\"><refentrytitle>Xorg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> can find it. This is typically <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename> or <filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12594
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cp xorg.conf.new /etc/X11/xorg.conf</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12596
+msgid "The <application>Xorg</application> configuration process is now complete. <application>Xorg</application> may be now started with the <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>startx</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> utility. The <application>Xorg</application> server may also be started with the use of <citerefentry vendor=\"xfree86\"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12603
+msgid "Configuration with <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> <literal>i810</literal> Graphics Chipsets"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:12606
+msgid "<primary>Intel i810 graphic chipset</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12610
+msgid "Configuration with <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> i810 integrated chipsets requires the <filename>agpgart</filename> AGP programming interface for <application>Xorg</application> to drive the card. See the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>agp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver manual page for more information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12616
+msgid "This will allow configuration of the hardware as any other graphics board. Note on systems without the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>agp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver compiled in the kernel, trying to load the module with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kldload</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will not work. This driver has to be in the kernel at boot time through being compiled in or using <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12625
+msgid "Adding a Widescreen Flatpanel to the Mix"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:12627
+msgid "<primary>widescreen flatpanel configuration</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12631
+msgid "This section assumes a bit of advanced configuration knowledge. If attempts to use the standard configuration tools above have not resulted in a working configuration, there is information enough in the log files to be of use in getting the setup working. Use of a text editor will be necessary."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12638
+msgid "Current widescreen (WSXGA, WSXGA+, WUXGA, WXGA, WXGA+, et.al.) formats support 16:10 and 10:9 formats or aspect ratios that can be problematic. Examples of some common screen resolutions for 16:10 aspect ratios are:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12645
+msgid "2560x1600"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12649
+msgid "1920x1200"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12653
+msgid "1680x1050"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12657
+msgid "1440x900"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12661
+msgid "1280x800"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12665
+msgid "At some point, it will be as easy as adding one of these resolutions as a possible <literal>Mode</literal> in the <literal>Section \"Screen\"</literal> as such:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12669
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"Screen\"\n"
+"Identifier \"Screen0\"\n"
+"Device \"Card0\"\n"
+"Monitor \"Monitor0\"\n"
+"DefaultDepth 24\n"
+"SubSection \"Display\"\n"
+"\tViewport 0 0\n"
+"\tDepth 24\n"
+"\tModes \"1680x1050\"\n"
+"EndSubSection\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12681
+msgid "<application>Xorg</application> is smart enough to pull the resolution information from the widescreen via I2C/DDC information so it knows what the monitor can handle as far as frequencies and resolutions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12686
+msgid "If those <literal>ModeLines</literal> do not exist in the drivers, one might need to give <application>Xorg</application> a little hint. Using <filename>/var/log/Xorg.0.log</filename> one can extract enough information to manually create a <literal>ModeLine</literal> that will work. Simply look for information resembling this:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12694
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"(II) MGA(0): Supported additional Video Mode:\n"
+"(II) MGA(0): clock: 146.2 MHz Image Size: 433 x 271 mm\n"
+"(II) MGA(0): h_active: 1680 h_sync: 1784 h_sync_end 1960 h_blank_end 2240 h_border: 0\n"
+"(II) MGA(0): v_active: 1050 v_sync: 1053 v_sync_end 1059 v_blanking: 1089 v_border: 0\n"
+"(II) MGA(0): Ranges: V min: 48 V max: 85 Hz, H min: 30 H max: 94 kHz, PixClock max 170 MHz"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12700
+msgid "This information is called EDID information. Creating a <literal>ModeLine</literal> from this is just a matter of putting the numbers in the correct order:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12704
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "ModeLine &lt;name&gt; &lt;clock&gt; &lt;4 horiz. timings&gt; &lt;4 vert. timings&gt;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12706
+msgid "So that the <literal>ModeLine</literal> in <literal>Section \"Monitor\"</literal> for this example would look like this:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:12710
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Section \"Monitor\"\n"
+"Identifier \"Monitor1\"\n"
+"VendorName \"Bigname\"\n"
+"ModelName \"BestModel\"\n"
+"ModeLine \"1680x1050\" 146.2 1680 1784 1960 2240 1050 1053 1059 1089\n"
+"Option \"DPMS\"\n"
+"EndSection"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12718
+msgid "Now having completed these simple editing steps, X should start on your new widescreen monitor."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12723
+msgid "Troubleshooting Compiz Fusion"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: question/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12728
+msgid "I have installed <application>Compiz Fusion</application>, and after running the commands you mention, my windows are left without title bars and buttons. What is wrong?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: answer/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12736
+msgid "You are probably missing a setting in <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>. Review this file carefully and check especially the <literal>DefaultDepth</literal> and <literal>AddARGBGLXVisuals</literal> directives."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: question/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12747
+msgid "When I run the command to start <application>Compiz Fusion</application>, the X server crashes and I am back at the console. What is wrong?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: answer/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12754
+msgid "If you check <filename>/var/log/Xorg.0.log</filename>, you will probably find error messages during the X startup. The most common would be:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: answer/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12759
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"(EE) NVIDIA(0): Failed to initialize the GLX module; please check in your X\n"
+"(EE) NVIDIA(0): log file that the GLX module has been loaded in your X\n"
+"(EE) NVIDIA(0): server, and that the module is the NVIDIA GLX module. If\n"
+"(EE) NVIDIA(0): you continue to encounter problems, Please try\n"
+"(EE) NVIDIA(0): reinstalling the NVIDIA driver."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: answer/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12765
+msgid "This is usually the case when you upgrade <application>Xorg</application>. You will need to reinstall the <package>x11/nvidia-driver</package> package so glx is built again."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: part/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12779
+msgid "Common Tasks"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: partintro/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12782
+msgid "Now that the basics have been covered, this part of the book discusses some frequently used features of FreeBSD. These chapters:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12788
+msgid "Introduce popular and useful desktop applications: browsers, productivity tools, document viewers, and more."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12794
+msgid "Introduce a number of multimedia tools available for FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12799
+msgid "Explain the process of building a customized FreeBSD kernel to enable extra functionality."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12804
+msgid "Describe the print system in detail, both for desktop and network-connected printer setups."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12809
+msgid "Show how to run Linux applications on the FreeBSD system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: partintro/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12814
+msgid "Some of these chapters recommend prior reading, and this is noted in the synopsis at the beginning of each chapter."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12837
+msgid "Desktop Applications"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12842
+msgid "While FreeBSD is popular as a server for its performance and stability, it is also suited for day-to-day use as a desktop. With over 24,000 applications available as FreeBSD packages or ports, it is easy to build a customized desktop that runs a wide variety of desktop applications. This chapter demonstrates how to install numerous desktop applications, including web browsers, productivity software, document viewers, and financial software."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12852
+msgid "Users who prefer to install a pre-built desktop version of FreeBSD rather than configuring one from scratch should refer to the <link xlink:href=\"http://www.trueos.org/\">trueos.org website.</link>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12859
+msgid "Readers of this chapter should know how to:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12863
+msgid "Install additional software using packages or ports as described in <xref linkend=\"ports\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12868
+msgid "Install X and a window manager as described in <xref linkend=\"x11\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12873
+msgid "For information on how to configure a multimedia environment, refer to <xref linkend=\"multimedia\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12878
+msgid "Browsers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:12880
+msgid "<primary>browsers</primary> <secondary>web</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12885
+msgid "FreeBSD does not come with a pre-installed web browser. Instead, the <link xlink:href=\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/www.html\">www</link> category of the Ports Collection contains many browsers which can be installed as a package or compiled from the Ports Collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12891
+msgid "The <application>KDE</application> and <application>GNOME</application> desktop environments include their own HTML browser. Refer to <xref linkend=\"x11-wm\"/> for more information on how to set up these complete desktops."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12897
+msgid "Some lightweight browsers include <package>www/dillo2</package>, <package>www/links</package>, and <package>www/w3m</package>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12901
+msgid "This section demonstrates how to install the following popular web browsers and indicates if the application is resource-heavy, takes time to compile from ports, or has any major dependencies."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12910 book.translate.xml:13276 book.translate.xml:13586
+#: book.translate.xml:13810
+msgid "Application Name"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12911 book.translate.xml:13277 book.translate.xml:13587
+#: book.translate.xml:13811
+msgid "Resources Needed"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12912 book.translate.xml:13278 book.translate.xml:13588
+#: book.translate.xml:13812
+msgid "Installation from Ports"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12913 book.translate.xml:17239 book.translate.xml:65535
+msgid "Notes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12919
+msgid "<application>Firefox</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12920 book.translate.xml:12935 book.translate.xml:12943
+msgid "medium"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12921 book.translate.xml:12936 book.translate.xml:12944
+#: book.translate.xml:13287 book.translate.xml:13302 book.translate.xml:13309
+#: book.translate.xml:13626 book.translate.xml:13821 book.translate.xml:13828
+#: book.translate.xml:13835
+msgid "heavy"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12922
+msgid "FreeBSD, <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark>, and localized versions are available"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12927
+msgid "<application>Opera</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12928 book.translate.xml:12929 book.translate.xml:13286
+#: book.translate.xml:13293 book.translate.xml:13294 book.translate.xml:13301
+#: book.translate.xml:13596 book.translate.xml:13597 book.translate.xml:13603
+#: book.translate.xml:13604 book.translate.xml:13610 book.translate.xml:13611
+#: book.translate.xml:13618 book.translate.xml:13619 book.translate.xml:13625
+#: book.translate.xml:13820 book.translate.xml:13827 book.translate.xml:13834
+msgid "light"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12930
+msgid "FreeBSD and <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> versions are available"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12934
+msgid "<application>Konqueror</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12937
+msgid "Requires <application>KDE</application> libraries"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12942
+msgid "<application>Chromium</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:12945
+msgid "Requires <application>Gtk+</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12952
+msgid "Firefox"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:12954
+msgid "<primary><application>Firefox</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12958
+msgid "<application>Firefox</application> is an open source browser that is fully ported to FreeBSD. It features a standards-compliant HTML display engine, tabbed browsing, popup blocking, extensions, improved security, and more. <application>Firefox</application> is based on the <application>Mozilla</application> codebase."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12965
+msgid "To install the package of the latest release version of <application>Firefox</application>, type:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12968
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install firefox</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12970
+msgid "To instead install <application>Firefox</application> Extended Support Release (ESR) version, use:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12973
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install firefox-esr</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12975
+msgid "Localized versions are available in <package>www/firefox-i18n</package> and <package>www/firefox-esr-i18n</package>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12979
+msgid "The Ports Collection can instead be used to compile the desired version of <application>Firefox</application> from source code. This example builds <package>www/firefox</package>, where <literal>firefox</literal> can be replaced with the ESR or localized version to install."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12986
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/firefox</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:12990
+msgid "Firefox and <trademark>Java</trademark> Plugin"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:12992
+msgid "The installation of <application>Firefox</application> does not include <trademark>Java</trademark> support. However, <package>java/icedtea-web</package> provides a free software web browser plugin for running Java applets. It can be installed as a package by running:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:12998
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install icedtea-web</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13000
+msgid "Alternatively, to compile from the Ports Collection:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13002
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/java/icedtea-web</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13005
+msgid "Keep the default configuration options when compiling the port."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13008
+msgid "Once installed, start <application>firefox</application>, enter <literal>about:plugins</literal> in the location bar and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. A page listing the installed plugins will be displayed. The <application><trademark>Java</trademark></application> plugin should be listed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13015
+msgid "If the browser is unable to find the plugin, each user will have to run the following command and relaunch the browser:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13019
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ln -s /usr/local/lib/IcedTeaPlugin.so \\\n"
+" $HOME/.mozilla/plugins/</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13025
+msgid "Firefox and <trademark class=\"registered\">Adobe</trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">Flash</trademark> Plugin"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13027
+msgid "<primary>Flash</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13031
+msgid "A native <trademark class=\"registered\">Adobe</trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">Flash</trademark> plugin is not available for FreeBSD. However, a software wrapper for running the <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> version of the plugin is available. This wrapper also provides support for other browser plugins such as <trademark class=\"registered\">RealPlayer</trademark>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13036
+msgid "To install and enable this plugin, perform these steps:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13041
+msgid "Install <package role=\"port\">www/nspluginwrapper</package> from the port. Due to licensing restrictions, a package is not available. This port requires <package>emulators/linux_base-c6</package>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13048
+msgid "Install <package role=\"port\">www/linux-c6-flashplugin11</package> from the port. Due to licensing restrictions, a package is not available."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13054
+msgid "Before the plugin is first used, each user must run:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13057
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>nspluginwrapper -v -a -i</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13059
+msgid "When the plugin port has been updated and reinstalled, each user must run:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13062
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>nspluginwrapper -v -a -u</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13064
+msgid "Start the browser, enter <literal>about:plugins</literal> in the location bar and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. A list of all the currently available plugins will be shown."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13074
+msgid "Firefox and Swfdec <trademark class=\"registered\">Flash</trademark> Plugin"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13076
+msgid "<application>Swfdec</application> is a decoder and renderer for <trademark class=\"registered\">Flash</trademark> animations. <application>Swfdec-Mozilla</application> is a plugin for <application>Firefox</application> browsers that uses the Swfdec library for playing SWF files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13082 book.translate.xml:13407
+msgid "To install the package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13084
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install swfdec-plugin</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13086
+msgid "If the package is not available, compile and install it from the Ports Collection:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13089
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/swfdec-plugin</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13092
+msgid "Restart the browser to activate this plugin."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13097
+msgid "Opera"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13099
+msgid "<primary><application>Opera</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13103
+msgid "<application>Opera</application> is a full-featured and standards-compliant browser which is still lightweight and fast. It comes with a built-in mail and news reader, an IRC client, an RSS/Atom feeds reader, and more. It is available as a native FreeBSD version and as a version that runs under <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> emulation."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13110
+msgid "This command installs the package of the FreeBSD version of <application>Opera</application>. Replace <literal>opera</literal> with <literal>linux-opera</literal> to instead install the <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> version."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13115
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install opera</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13117
+msgid "Alternately, install either version through the Ports Collection. This example compiles the native version:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13120
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/opera</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13123
+msgid "To install the <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> version, substitute <literal>linux-opera</literal> in place of <literal>opera</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13127
+msgid "To install <trademark class=\"registered\">Adobe</trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">Flash</trademark> plugin support, first compile the <package role=\"port\">www/linux-c6-flashplugin11</package> port. Licensing restrictions prevent making a package available. Then install <package role=\"port\">www/opera-linuxplugins</package>. This example compiles both applications from ports:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13133
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/linux-c6-flashplugin11</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/opera-linuxplugins</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13138
+msgid "Once installed, check the presence of the plugin by starting the browser, entering <literal>opera:plugins</literal> in the location bar and pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap>. A list should appear with all the currently available plugins."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13144
+msgid "To add the <application><trademark>Java</trademark></application> plugin, follow the instructions in <xref linkend=\"moz-java-plugin\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13149
+msgid "Konqueror"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13151
+msgid "<primary><application>Konqueror</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13155
+msgid "<application>Konqueror</application> is more than a web browser as it is also a file manager and a multimedia viewer. It is included in the <package>x11/kde4-baseapps</package> package or port."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13160
+msgid "<application>Konqueror</application> supports WebKit as well as its own KHTML. WebKit is a rendering engine used by many modern browsers including Chromium. To use WebKit with <application>Konqueror</application> on FreeBSD, install the <package>www/kwebkitpart</package> package or port. This example installs the package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13167
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install kwebkitpart</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13169
+msgid "To install from the Ports Colloction:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13171
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/kwebkitpart</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13174
+msgid "To enable WebKit within <application>Konqueror</application>, click <quote>Settings</quote>, <quote>Configure Konqueror</quote>. In the <quote>General</quote> settings page, click the drop-down menu next to <quote>Default web browser engine</quote> and change <quote>KHTML</quote> to <quote>WebKit</quote>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13182
+msgid "<application>Konqueror</application> also supports <application><trademark class=\"registered\">Flash</trademark></application>. A <quote>How To</quote> guide for getting <application><trademark class=\"registered\">Flash</trademark></application> support on <application>Konqueror</application> is available at <uri xlink:href=\"http://freebsd.kde.org/howtos/konqueror-flash.php\">http://freebsd.kde.org/howtos/konqueror-flash.php</uri>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13189
+msgid "Chromium"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13191
+msgid "<primary><application>Chromium</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13195
+msgid "<application>Chromium</application> is an open source browser project that aims to build a safer, faster, and more stable web browsing experience. <application>Chromium</application> features tabbed browsing, popup blocking, extensions, and much more. <application>Chromium</application> is the open source project upon which the Google Chrome web browser is based."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13203
+msgid "<application>Chromium</application> can be installed as a package by typing:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13206
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install chromium</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13208
+msgid "Alternatively, <application>Chromium</application> can be compiled from source using the Ports Collection:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13211
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/chromium</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13215
+msgid "The executable for <application>Chromium</application> is <filename>/usr/local/bin/chrome</filename>, not <filename>/usr/local/bin/chromium</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13221
+msgid "Chromium and <trademark>Java</trademark> Plugin"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13223
+msgid "The installation of <application>Chromium</application> does not include <trademark>Java</trademark> support. To install <trademark>Java</trademark> plugin support, follow the instructions in <xref linkend=\"moz-java-plugin\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13228
+msgid "Once <trademark>Java</trademark> support is installed, start <application>Chromium</application> and enter <literal>about:plugins</literal> in the address bar. IcedTea-Web should be listed as one of the installed plugins."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13234
+msgid "If <application>Chromium</application> does not display the IcedTea-Web plugin, run the following commands and restart the web browser:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13238
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mkdir -p /usr/local/share/chromium/plugins\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> ln -s /usr/local/lib/IcedTeaPlugin.so \\\n"
+" /usr/local/share/chromium/plugins/</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13244
+msgid "Chromium and <trademark class=\"registered\">Adobe</trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">Flash</trademark> Plugin"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13246
+msgid "Configuring <application>Chromium</application> and <trademark class=\"registered\">Adobe</trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">Flash</trademark> is similar to the instructions in <xref linkend=\"moz-flash-plugin\"/>. No additional configuration should be necessary, since <application>Chromium</application> is able to use some plugins from other browsers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13257
+msgid "Productivity"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13259
+msgid "When it comes to productivity, new users often look for an office suite or an easy-to-use word processor. While some <link linkend=\"x11-wm\">desktop environments</link> like <application>KDE</application> provide an office suite, there is no default productivity package. Several office suites and graphical word processors are available for FreeBSD, regardless of the installed window manager."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13267
+msgid "This section demonstrates how to install the following popular productivity software and indicates if the application is resource-heavy, takes time to compile from ports, or has any major dependencies."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13279 book.translate.xml:13589 book.translate.xml:13813
+msgid "Major Dependencies"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13285
+msgid "<application>Calligra</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13288 book.translate.xml:13627 book.translate.xml:13836
+msgid "<application>KDE</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13292
+msgid "<application>AbiWord</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13295 book.translate.xml:13612
+msgid "<application>Gtk+</application> or <application>GNOME</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13300
+msgid "<application>The Gimp</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13303 book.translate.xml:13620
+msgid "<application>Gtk+</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13307
+msgid "<application>Apache OpenOffice</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13310 book.translate.xml:13318
+msgid "huge"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13311
+msgid "<application><trademark>JDK</trademark></application> and <application>Mozilla</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13316
+msgid "<application>LibreOffice</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13317
+msgid "somewhat heavy"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13319
+msgid "<application>Gtk+</application>, or <application>KDE</application>/ <application>GNOME</application>, or <application><trademark>JDK</trademark></application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13329
+msgid "Calligra"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13331
+msgid "<primary><application>Calligra</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13334
+msgid "<primary>office suite</primary> <secondary><application>Calligra</application></secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13339
+msgid "The KDE desktop environment includes an office suite which can be installed separately from <application>KDE</application>. <application>Calligra</application> includes standard components that can be found in other office suites. <application>Words</application> is the word processor, <application>Sheets</application> is the spreadsheet program, <application>Stage</application> manages slide presentations, and <application>Karbon</application> is used to draw graphical documents."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13350
+msgid "In FreeBSD, <package>editors/calligra</package> can be installed as a package or a port. To install the package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13354
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install calligra</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13356
+msgid "If the package is not available, use the Ports Collection instead:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13359
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/editors/calligra</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13364
+msgid "AbiWord"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13366
+msgid "<primary><application>AbiWord</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13370
+msgid "<application>AbiWord</application> is a free word processing program similar in look and feel to <application><trademark class=\"registered\">Microsoft</trademark> Word</application>. It is fast, contains many features, and is user-friendly."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13375
+msgid "<application>AbiWord</application> can import or export many file formats, including some proprietary ones like <trademark class=\"registered\">Microsoft</trademark> <filename>.rtf</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13379
+msgid "To install the <application>AbiWord</application> package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13382
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install abiword</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13384
+msgid "If the package is not available, it can be compiled from the Ports Collection:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13387
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/editors/abiword</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13392
+msgid "The GIMP"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13394
+msgid "<primary><application>The GIMP</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13398
+msgid "For image authoring or picture retouching, <application>The GIMP</application> provides a sophisticated image manipulation program. It can be used as a simple paint program or as a quality photo retouching suite. It supports a large number of plugins and features a scripting interface. <application>The GIMP</application> can read and write a wide range of file formats and supports interfaces with scanners and tablets."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13409
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install gimp</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13411
+msgid "Alternately, use the Ports Collection:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13413
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/graphics/gimp</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13416
+msgid "The graphics category (<link xlink:href=\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/graphics.html\">freebsd.org/ports/graphics.html</link>) of the Ports Collection contains several <application>GIMP</application>-related plugins, help files, and user manuals."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13424
+msgid "Apache OpenOffice"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13426
+msgid "<primary> <application>Apache OpenOffice</application> </primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13431
+msgid "<primary>office suite</primary> <secondary> <application>Apache OpenOffice</application> </secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13438
+msgid "<application>Apache OpenOffice</application> is an open source office suite which is developed under the wing of the Apache Software Foundation's Incubator. It includes all of the applications found in a complete office productivity suite: a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation manager, and drawing program. Its user interface is similar to other office suites, and it can import and export in various popular file formats. It is available in a number of different languages and internationalization has been extended to interfaces, spell checkers, and dictionaries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13449
+msgid "The word processor of <application>Apache OpenOffice</application> uses a native XML file format for increased portability and flexibility. The spreadsheet program features a macro language which can be interfaced with external databases. <application>Apache OpenOffice</application> is stable and runs natively on <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark>, <trademark>Solaris</trademark>, <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark>, FreeBSD, and <trademark class=\"registered\">Mac OS</trademark> X. More information about <application>Apache OpenOffice</application> can be found at <link xlink:href=\"http://openoffice.org/\">openoffice.org</link>. For FreeBSD specific information refer to <link xlink:href=\"http://porting.openoffice.org/freebsd/\">porting.openoffice.org/freebsd/</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13460
+msgid "To install the <application>Apache OpenOffice</application> package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13463
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install apache-openoffice</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13465
+msgid "Once the package is installed, type the following command to launch <application>Apache OpenOffice</application>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13468
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>openoffice-<replaceable>X.Y.Z</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13470
+msgid "where <replaceable>X.Y.Z</replaceable> is the version number of the installed version of <application>Apache OpenOffice</application>. The first time <application>Apache OpenOffice</application> launches, some questions will be asked and a <filename>.openoffice.org</filename> folder will be created in the user's home directory."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13478
+msgid "If the desired <application>Apache OpenOffice</application> package is not available, compiling the port is still an option. However, this requires a lot of disk space and a fairly long time to compile:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13483
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/editors/openoffice-4</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13487
+msgid "To build a localized version, replace the previous command with:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13490
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make LOCALIZED_LANG=<replaceable>your_language</replaceable> install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13492
+msgid "Replace <replaceable>your_language</replaceable> with the correct language ISO-code. A list of supported language codes is available in <filename>files/Makefile.localized</filename>, located in the port's directory."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13502
+msgid "LibreOffice"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13504
+msgid "<primary><application>LibreOffice</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13507
+msgid "<primary>office suite</primary> <secondary><application>LibreOffice</application></secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13512
+msgid "<application>LibreOffice</application> is a free software office suite developed by <link xlink:href=\"http://www.documentfoundation.org/\">documentfoundation.org</link>. It is compatible with other major office suites and available on a variety of platforms. It is a rebranded fork of <application>Apache OpenOffice</application> and includes applications found in a complete office productivity suite: a word processor, spreadsheet, presentation manager, drawing program, database management program, and a tool for creating and editing mathematical formulæ. It is available in a number of different languages and internationalization has been extended to interfaces, spell checkers, and dictionaries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13525
+msgid "The word processor of <application>LibreOffice</application> uses a native XML file format for increased portability and flexibility. The spreadsheet program features a macro language which can be interfaced with external databases. <application>LibreOffice</application> is stable and runs natively on <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark>, <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark>, FreeBSD, and <trademark class=\"registered\">Mac OS</trademark> X. More information about <application>LibreOffice</application> can be found at <link xlink:href=\"http://www.libreoffice.org/\">libreoffice.org</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13535
+msgid "To install the English version of the <application>LibreOffice</application> package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13538
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install libreoffice</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13540
+msgid "The editors category (<link xlink:href=\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/editors.html\">freebsd.org/ports/editors.html</link>) of the Ports Collection contains several localizations for <application>LibreOffice</application>. When installing a localized package, replace <literal>libreoffice</literal> with the name of the localized package."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13546
+msgid "Once the package is installed, type the following command to run <application>LibreOffice</application>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13549
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>libreoffice</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13551
+msgid "During the first launch, some questions will be asked and a <filename>.libreoffice</filename> folder will be created in the user's home directory."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13555
+msgid "If the desired <application>LibreOffice</application> package is not available, compiling the port is still an option. However, this requires a lot of disk space and a fairly long time to compile. This example compiles the English version:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13561
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/editors/libreoffice</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13565
+msgid "To build a localized version, <command>cd</command> into the port directory of the desired language. Supported languages can be found in the editors category (<link xlink:href=\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/editors.html\">freebsd.org/ports/editors.html</link>) of the Ports Collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13575
+msgid "Document Viewers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13577
+msgid "Some new document formats have gained popularity since the advent of <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> and the viewers they require may not be available in the base system. This section demonstrates how to install the following document viewers:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13595
+msgid "<application>Xpdf</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13598
+msgid "<application>FreeType</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13602 book.translate.xml:13667
+msgid "<application>gv</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13605
+msgid "<application>Xaw3d</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13609
+msgid "<application>Geeqie</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13617
+msgid "<application>ePDFView</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13624
+msgid "<application>Okular</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13634
+msgid "Xpdf"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13636
+msgid "<primary><application>Xpdf</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13639 book.translate.xml:13672 book.translate.xml:13738
+msgid "<primary>PDF</primary> <secondary>viewing</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13644
+msgid "For users that prefer a small FreeBSD PDF viewer, <application>Xpdf</application> provides a light-weight and efficient viewer which requires few resources. It uses the standard X fonts and does not require any additional toolkits."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13650
+msgid "To install the <application>Xpdf</application> package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13653
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install xpdf</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13655 book.translate.xml:13725 book.translate.xml:13870
+#: book.translate.xml:13904 book.translate.xml:13937
+msgid "If the package is not available, use the Ports Collection:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13658
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/graphics/xpdf</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13661
+msgid "Once the installation is complete, launch <command>xpdf</command> and use the right mouse button to activate the menu."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13669
+msgid "<primary><application>gv</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13676
+msgid "<primary>PostScript</primary> <secondary>viewing</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13681
+msgid "<application>gv</application> is a <trademark class=\"registered\">PostScript</trademark> and PDF viewer. It is based on <application>ghostview</application>, but has a nicer look as it is based on the <application>Xaw3d</application> widget toolkit. <application>gv</application> has many configurable features, such as orientation, paper size, scale, and anti-aliasing. Almost any operation can be performed with either the keyboard or the mouse."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13690
+msgid "To install <application>gv</application> as a package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13693
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install gv</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13695 book.translate.xml:13757 book.translate.xml:13787
+msgid "If a package is unavailable, use the Ports Collection:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13698
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/print/gv</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13703
+msgid "Geeqie"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13705
+msgid "<primary><application>Geeqie</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13709
+msgid "<application>Geeqie</application> is a fork from the unmaintained <application>GQView</application> project, in an effort to move development forward and integrate the existing patches. <application>Geeqie</application> is an image manager which supports viewing a file with a single click, launching an external editor, and thumbnail previews. It also features a slideshow mode and some basic file operations, making it easy to manage image collections and to find duplicate files. <application>Geeqie</application> supports full screen viewing and internationalization."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13720
+msgid "To install the <application>Geeqie</application> package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13723
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install geeqie</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13728
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/graphics/geeqie</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13733
+msgid "ePDFView"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13735
+msgid "<primary><application>ePDFView</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13743
+msgid "<application>ePDFView</application> is a lightweight <acronym>PDF</acronym> document viewer that only uses the <application>Gtk+</application> and <application>Poppler</application> libraries. It is currently under development, but already opens most <acronym>PDF</acronym> files (even encrypted), save copies of documents, and has support for printing using <application>CUPS</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13752
+msgid "To install <application>ePDFView</application> as a package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13755
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install epdfview</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13760
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/graphics/epdfview</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13765
+msgid "Okular"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13767
+msgid "<primary><application>Okular</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13770
+msgid "<primary><acronym>PDF</acronym></primary> <secondary>viewing</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13775
+msgid "<application>Okular</application> is a universal document viewer based on <application>KPDF</application> for <application>KDE</application>. It can open many document formats, including <acronym>PDF</acronym>, <trademark class=\"registered\">PostScript</trademark>, DjVu, <acronym>CHM</acronym>, <acronym>XPS</acronym>, and ePub."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13782
+msgid "To install <application>Okular</application> as a package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13785
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install okular</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13790
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/graphics/okular</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13796
+msgid "Finance"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13798
+msgid "For managing personal finances on a FreeBSD desktop, some powerful and easy-to-use applications can be installed. Some are compatible with widespread file formats, such as the formats used by <application>Quicken</application> and <application>Excel</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13804
+msgid "This section covers these programs:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13819
+msgid "<application>GnuCash</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13822 book.translate.xml:13829
+msgid "<application>GNOME</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13826
+msgid "<application>Gnumeric</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:13833
+msgid "<application>KMyMoney</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13843
+msgid "GnuCash"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13845
+msgid "<primary><application>GnuCash</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13849
+msgid "<application>GnuCash</application> is part of the <application>GNOME</application> effort to provide user-friendly, yet powerful, applications to end-users. <application>GnuCash</application> can be used to keep track of income and expenses, bank accounts, and stocks. It features an intuitive interface while remaining professional."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13857
+msgid "<application>GnuCash</application> provides a smart register, a hierarchical system of accounts, and many keyboard accelerators and auto-completion methods. It can split a single transaction into several more detailed pieces. <application>GnuCash</application> can import and merge <application>Quicken</application> QIF files. It also handles most international date and currency formats."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13865
+msgid "To install the <application>GnuCash</application> package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13868
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install gnucash</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13873
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/finance/gnucash</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13878
+msgid "Gnumeric"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13880
+msgid "<primary><application>Gnumeric</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13883
+msgid "<primary>spreadsheet</primary> <secondary><application>Gnumeric</application></secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13888
+msgid "<application>Gnumeric</application> is a spreadsheet program developed by the <application>GNOME</application> community. It features convenient automatic guessing of user input according to the cell format with an autofill system for many sequences. It can import files in a number of popular formats, including <application>Excel</application>, <application>Lotus 1-2-3</application>, and <application>Quattro Pro</application>. It has a large number of built-in functions and allows all of the usual cell formats such as number, currency, date, time, and much more."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13899
+msgid "To install <application>Gnumeric</application> as a package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13902
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install gnumeric</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13907
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/math/gnumeric</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13912
+msgid "KMyMoney"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13914
+msgid "<primary><application>KMyMoney</application></primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:13916
+msgid "<primary>spreadsheet</primary> <secondary><application>KMyMoney</application></secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13921
+msgid "<application>KMyMoney</application> is a personal finance application created by the <application>KDE</application> community. <application>KMyMoney</application> aims to provide the important features found in commercial personal finance manager applications. It also highlights ease-of-use and proper double-entry accounting among its features. <application>KMyMoney</application> imports from standard <application>Quicken</application> QIF files, tracks investments, handles multiple currencies, and provides a wealth of reports."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13932
+msgid "To install <application>KMyMoney</application> as a package:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13935
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install kmymoney-kde4</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:13940
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/finance/kmymoney-kde4</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:13955
+msgid "Multimedia"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:13958
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Ross</firstname> <surname>Lippert</surname> </personname> <contrib>Edited by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13971
+msgid "FreeBSD supports a wide variety of sound cards, allowing users to enjoy high fidelity output from a FreeBSD system. This includes the ability to record and playback audio in the MPEG Audio Layer 3 (<acronym>MP3</acronym>), Waveform Audio File (<acronym>WAV</acronym>), Ogg Vorbis, and other formats. The FreeBSD Ports Collection contains many applications for editing recorded audio, adding sound effects, and controlling attached MIDI devices."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13980
+msgid "FreeBSD also supports the playback of video files and <acronym>DVD</acronym>s. The FreeBSD Ports Collection contains applications to encode, convert, and playback various video media."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13985
+msgid "This chapter describes how to configure sound cards, video playback, TV tuner cards, and scanners on FreeBSD. It also describes some of the applications which are available for using these devices."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13990
+msgid "After reading this chapter, you will know how to:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13994
+msgid "Configure a sound card on FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:13998
+msgid "Troubleshoot the sound setup."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14002
+msgid "Playback and encode MP3s and other audio."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14006
+msgid "Prepare a FreeBSD system for video playback."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14010
+msgid "Play <acronym>DVD</acronym>s, <filename>.mpg</filename>, and <filename>.avi</filename> files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14015
+msgid "Rip <acronym>CD</acronym> and <acronym>DVD</acronym> content into files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14020
+msgid "Configure a TV card."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14024
+msgid "Install and setup MythTV on FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14028
+msgid "Configure an image scanner."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14035
+msgid "Know how to install applications as described in <xref linkend=\"ports\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14042
+msgid "Setting Up the Sound Card"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:14045
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Moses</firstname> <surname>Moore</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:14055
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Marc</firstname> <surname>Fonvieille</surname> </personname> <contrib>Enhanced by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:14065
+msgid "<primary>PCI</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:14066
+msgid "<primary>sound cards</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14067
+msgid "Before beginning the configuration, determine the model of the sound card and the chip it uses. FreeBSD supports a wide variety of sound cards. Check the supported audio devices list of the <link xlink:href=\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/11.0R/hardware.html\">Hardware Notes</link> to see if the card is supported and which FreeBSD driver it uses."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:14074
+msgid "<primary>kernel</primary> <secondary>configuration</secondary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14079
+msgid "In order to use the sound device, its device driver must be loaded. The easiest way is to load a kernel module for the sound card with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kldload</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. This example loads the driver for a built-in audio chipset based on the Intel specification:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14085
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload snd_hda</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14087
+msgid "To automate the loading of this driver at boot time, add the driver to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>. The line for this driver is:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:14091
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "snd_hda_load=\"YES\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14093
+msgid "Other available sound modules are listed in <filename>/boot/defaults/loader.conf</filename>. When unsure which driver to use, load the <filename>snd_driver</filename> module:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14098
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload snd_driver</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14100
+msgid "This is a metadriver which loads all of the most common sound drivers and can be used to speed up the search for the correct driver. It is also possible to load all sound drivers by adding the metadriver to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14106
+msgid "To determine which driver was selected for the sound card after loading the <filename>snd_driver</filename> metadriver, type <command>cat /dev/sndstat</command>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14111
+msgid "Configuring a Custom Kernel with Sound Support"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14113
+msgid "This section is for users who prefer to statically compile in support for the sound card in a custom kernel. For more information about recompiling a kernel, refer to <xref linkend=\"kernelconfig\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14117
+msgid "When using a custom kernel to provide sound support, make sure that the audio framework driver exists in the custom kernel configuration file:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:14121
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "device sound"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14123
+msgid "Next, add support for the sound card. To continue the example of the built-in audio chipset based on the Intel specification from the previous section, use the following line in the custom kernel configuration file:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:14128
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "device snd_hda"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14130
+msgid "Be sure to read the manual page of the driver for the device name to use for the driver."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14133
+msgid "Non-PnP ISA sound cards may require the IRQ and I/O port settings of the card to be added to <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename>. During the boot process, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> reads this file and passes the settings to the kernel. For example, an old Creative <trademark class=\"registered\">SoundBlaster</trademark> 16 ISA non-PnP card will use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>snd_sbc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver in conjunction with <literal>snd_sb16</literal>. For this card, the following lines must be added to the kernel configuration file:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:14143
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"device snd_sbc\n"
+"device snd_sb16"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14146
+msgid "If the card uses the <literal>0x220</literal> I/O port and IRQ <literal>5</literal>, these lines must also be added to <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:14150
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"hint.sbc.0.at=\"isa\"\n"
+"hint.sbc.0.port=\"0x220\"\n"
+"hint.sbc.0.irq=\"5\"\n"
+"hint.sbc.0.drq=\"1\"\n"
+"hint.sbc.0.flags=\"0x15\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14156
+msgid "The syntax used in <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename> is described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sound</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> and the manual page for the driver of the sound card."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14160
+msgid "The settings shown above are the defaults. In some cases, the IRQ or other settings may need to be changed to match the card. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>snd_sbc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information about this card."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14167
+msgid "Testing Sound"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14169
+msgid "After loading the required module or rebooting into the custom kernel, the sound card should be detected. To confirm, run <command>dmesg | grep pcm</command>. This example is from a system with a built-in Conexant CX20590 chipset:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14174
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"pcm0: &lt;NVIDIA (0x001c) (HDMI/DP 8ch)&gt; at nid 5 on hdaa0\n"
+"pcm1: &lt;NVIDIA (0x001c) (HDMI/DP 8ch)&gt; at nid 6 on hdaa0\n"
+"pcm2: &lt;Conexant CX20590 (Analog 2.0+HP/2.0)&gt; at nid 31,25 and 35,27 on hdaa1"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14178
+msgid "The status of the sound card may also be checked using this command:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14181
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cat /dev/sndstat</userinput>\n"
+"FreeBSD Audio Driver (newpcm: 64bit 2009061500/amd64)\n"
+"Installed devices:\n"
+"pcm0: &lt;NVIDIA (0x001c) (HDMI/DP 8ch)&gt; (play)\n"
+"pcm1: &lt;NVIDIA (0x001c) (HDMI/DP 8ch)&gt; (play)\n"
+"pcm2: &lt;Conexant CX20590 (Analog 2.0+HP/2.0)&gt; (play/rec) default"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14188
+msgid "The output will vary depending upon the sound card. If no <filename>pcm</filename> devices are listed, double-check that the correct device driver was loaded or compiled into the kernel. The next section lists some common problems and their solutions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14194
+msgid "If all goes well, the sound card should now work in FreeBSD. If the <acronym>CD</acronym> or <acronym>DVD</acronym> drive is properly connected to the sound card, one can insert an audio <acronym>CD</acronym> in the drive and play it with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cdcontrol</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14200
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cdcontrol -f /dev/acd0 play 1</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: warning/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14203
+msgid "Audio <acronym>CD</acronym>s have specialized encodings which means that they should not be mounted using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14208
+msgid "Various applications, such as <package>audio/workman</package>, provide a friendlier interface. The <package>audio/mpg123</package> port can be installed to listen to MP3 audio files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14213
+msgid "Another quick way to test the card is to send data to <filename>/dev/dsp</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14216
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cat <replaceable>filename</replaceable> &gt; /dev/dsp</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14218
+msgid "where <filename><replaceable>filename</replaceable></filename> can be any type of file. This command should produce some noise, confirming that the sound card is working."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14224
+msgid "The <filename>/dev/dsp*</filename> device nodes will be created automatically as needed. When not in use, they do not exist and will not appear in the output of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14232
+msgid "Troubleshooting Sound"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:14234
+msgid "<primary>device nodes</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:14235
+msgid "<primary>I/O port</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:14236
+msgid "<primary>IRQ</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:14237
+msgid "<primary>DSP</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14239
+msgid "<xref linkend=\"multimedia-sound-common-error-messages\"/> lists some common error messages and their solutions:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: table/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14243
+msgid "Common Error Messages"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:14248
+msgid "Error"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:14249
+msgid "Solution"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:14255
+msgid "<errorname>sb_dspwr(XX) timed out</errorname>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: entry/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14257
+msgid "The I/O port is not set correctly."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:14262
+msgid "<errorname>bad irq XX</errorname>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: entry/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14263
+msgid "The IRQ is set incorrectly. Make sure that the set IRQ and the sound IRQ are the same."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:14269
+msgid "<errorname>xxx: gus pcm not attached, out of memory</errorname>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: entry/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14271
+msgid "There is not enough available memory to use the device."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: row/entry
+#: book.translate.xml:14276
+msgid "<errorname>xxx: can't open /dev/dsp!</errorname>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: entry/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14278
+msgid "Type <command>fstat | grep dsp</command> to check if another application is holding the device open. Noteworthy troublemakers are <application>esound</application> and <application>KDE</application>'s sound support."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14289
+msgid "Modern graphics cards often come with their own sound driver for use with <acronym>HDMI</acronym>. This sound device is sometimes enumerated before the sound card meaning that the sound card will not be used as the default playback device. To check if this is the case, run <application>dmesg</application> and look for <literal>pcm</literal>. The output looks something like this:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:14298
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"...\n"
+"hdac0: HDA Driver Revision: 20100226_0142\n"
+"hdac1: HDA Driver Revision: 20100226_0142\n"
+"hdac0: HDA Codec #0: NVidia (Unknown)\n"
+"hdac0: HDA Codec #1: NVidia (Unknown)\n"
+"hdac0: HDA Codec #2: NVidia (Unknown)\n"
+"hdac0: HDA Codec #3: NVidia (Unknown)\n"
+"pcm0: &lt;HDA NVidia (Unknown) PCM #0 DisplayPort&gt; at cad 0 nid 1 on hdac0\n"
+"pcm1: &lt;HDA NVidia (Unknown) PCM #0 DisplayPort&gt; at cad 1 nid 1 on hdac0\n"
+"pcm2: &lt;HDA NVidia (Unknown) PCM #0 DisplayPort&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac0\n"
+"pcm3: &lt;HDA NVidia (Unknown) PCM #0 DisplayPort&gt; at cad 3 nid 1 on hdac0\n"
+"hdac1: HDA Codec #2: Realtek ALC889\n"
+"pcm4: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #0 Analog&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1\n"
+"pcm5: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #1 Analog&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1\n"
+"pcm6: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #2 Digital&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1\n"
+"pcm7: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #3 Digital&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1\n"
+"..."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14316
+msgid "In this example, the graphics card (<literal>NVidia</literal>) has been enumerated before the sound card (<literal>Realtek ALC889</literal>). To use the sound card as the default playback device, change <varname>hw.snd.default_unit</varname> to the unit that should be used for playback:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14323
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl hw.snd.default_unit=<replaceable>n</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14325
+msgid "where <literal>n</literal> is the number of the sound device to use. In this example, it should be <literal>4</literal>. Make this change permanent by adding the following line to <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:14331
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "hw.snd.default_unit=<replaceable>4</replaceable>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14336
+msgid "Utilizing Multiple Sound Sources"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:14339
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Munish</firstname> <surname>Chopra</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14349
+msgid "It is often desirable to have multiple sources of sound that are able to play simultaneously. FreeBSD uses <quote>Virtual Sound Channels</quote> to multiplex the sound card's playback by mixing sound in the kernel."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14354
+msgid "Three <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> knobs are available for configuring virtual channels:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14357
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl dev.pcm.0.play.vchans=4</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl dev.pcm.0.rec.vchans=4</userinput>\n"
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl hw.snd.maxautovchans=4</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14361
+msgid "This example allocates four virtual channels, which is a practical number for everyday use. Both <varname>dev.pcm.0.play.vchans=4</varname> and <varname>dev.pcm.0.rec.vchans=4</varname> are configurable after a device has been attached and represent the number of virtual channels <filename>pcm0</filename> has for playback and recording. Since the <filename>pcm</filename> module can be loaded independently of the hardware drivers, <varname>hw.snd.maxautovchans</varname> indicates how many virtual channels will be given to an audio device when it is attached. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pcm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: note/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14374
+msgid "The number of virtual channels for a device cannot be changed while it is in use. First, close any programs using the device, such as music players or sound daemons."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14379
+msgid "The correct <filename>pcm</filename> device will automatically be allocated transparently to a program that requests <filename>/dev/dsp0</filename>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14386
+msgid "Setting Default Values for Mixer Channels"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:14389
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Josef</firstname> <surname>El-Rayes</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14399
+msgid "The default values for the different mixer channels are hardcoded in the source code of the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pcm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver. While sound card mixer levels can be changed using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mixer</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> or third-party applications and daemons, this is not a permanent solution. To instead set default mixer values at the driver level, define the appropriate values in <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename>, as seen in this example:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:14408
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "hint.pcm.0.vol=\"50\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14410
+msgid "This will set the volume channel to a default value of <literal>50</literal> when the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pcm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> module is loaded."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14418
+msgid "MP3 Audio"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:14421 book.translate.xml:60315
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Chern</firstname> <surname>Lee</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14431
+msgid "This section describes some <acronym>MP3</acronym> players available for FreeBSD, how to rip audio <acronym>CD</acronym> tracks, and how to encode and decode <acronym>MP3</acronym>s."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14437
+msgid "MP3 Players"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14439
+msgid "A popular graphical <acronym>MP3</acronym> player is <application>XMMS</application>. It supports <application>Winamp</application> skins and additional plugins. The interface is intuitive, with a playlist, graphic equalizer, and more. Those familiar with <application>Winamp</application> will find <application>XMMS</application> simple to use. On FreeBSD, <application>XMMS</application> can be installed from the <package>multimedia/xmms</package> port or package."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14449
+msgid "The <package>audio/mpg123</package> package or port provides an alternative, command-line <acronym>MP3</acronym> player. Once installed, specify the <acronym>MP3</acronym> file to play on the command line. If the system has multiple audio devices, the sound device can also be specifed:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14455
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mpg123 <replaceable>-a /dev/dsp1.0 Foobar-GreatestHits.mp3</replaceable></userinput>\n"
+"High Performance MPEG 1.0/2.0/2.5 Audio Player for Layers 1, 2 and 3\n"
+" version 1.18.1; written and copyright by Michael Hipp and others\n"
+" free software (LGPL) without any warranty but with best wishes\n"
+"\n"
+"Playing MPEG stream from Foobar-GreatestHits.mp3 ...\n"
+"MPEG 1.0 layer III, 128 kbit/s, 44100 Hz joint-stereo"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14463
+msgid "Additional <acronym>MP3</acronym> players are available in the FreeBSD Ports Collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14468
+msgid "Ripping <acronym>CD</acronym> Audio Tracks"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14470
+msgid "Before encoding a <acronym>CD</acronym> or <acronym>CD</acronym> track to <acronym>MP3</acronym>, the audio data on the <acronym>CD</acronym> must be ripped to the hard drive. This is done by copying the raw <acronym>CD</acronym> Digital Audio (<acronym>CDDA</acronym>) data to <acronym>WAV</acronym> files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14477
+msgid "The <command>cdda2wav</command> tool, which is installed with the <package>sysutils/cdrtools</package> suite, can be used to rip audio information from <acronym>CD</acronym>s."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14482
+msgid "With the audio <acronym>CD</acronym> in the drive, the following command can be issued as <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> to rip an entire <acronym>CD</acronym> into individual, per track, <acronym>WAV</acronym> files:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14488
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cdda2wav -D <replaceable>0,1,0</replaceable> -B</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14490
+msgid "In this example, the <option>-D <replaceable>0,1,0</replaceable></option> indicates the <acronym>SCSI</acronym> device <filename>0,1,0</filename> containing the <acronym>CD</acronym> to rip. Use <command>cdrecord -scanbus</command> to determine the correct device parameters for the system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14497
+msgid "To rip individual tracks, use <option>-t</option> to specify the track:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14500
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cdda2wav -D <replaceable>0,1,0</replaceable> -t 7</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14502
+msgid "To rip a range of tracks, such as track one to seven, specify a range:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14505
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cdda2wav -D <replaceable>0,1,0</replaceable> -t 1+7</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14507
+msgid "To rip from an <acronym>ATAPI</acronym> (<acronym>IDE</acronym>) <acronym>CDROM</acronym> drive, specify the device name in place of the <acronym>SCSI</acronym> unit numbers. For example, to rip track 7 from an IDE drive:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14513
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cdda2wav -D <replaceable>/dev/acd0 -t 7</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14515
+msgid "Alternately, <command>dd</command> can be used to extract audio tracks on <acronym>ATAPI</acronym> drives, as described in <xref linkend=\"duplicating-audiocds\"/>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14521
+msgid "Encoding and Decoding MP3s"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14523
+msgid "<application>Lame</application> is a popular <acronym>MP3</acronym> encoder which can be installed from the <package>audio/lame</package> port. Due to patent issues, a package is not available."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14528
+msgid "The following command will convert the ripped <acronym>WAV</acronym> file <filename><replaceable>audio01.wav</replaceable></filename> to <filename><replaceable>audio01.mp3</replaceable></filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14533
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>lame -h -b <replaceable>128</replaceable> --tt \"<replaceable>Foo Song Title</replaceable>\" --ta \"<replaceable>FooBar Artist</replaceable>\" --tl \"<replaceable>FooBar Album</replaceable>\" \\\n"
+"--ty \"<replaceable>2014</replaceable>\" --tc \"<replaceable>Ripped and encoded by Foo</replaceable>\" --tg \"<replaceable>Genre</replaceable>\" <replaceable>audio01.wav audio01.mp3</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14536
+msgid "The specified 128 kbits is a standard <acronym>MP3</acronym> bitrate while the 160 and 192 bitrates provide higher quality. The higher the bitrate, the larger the size of the resulting <acronym>MP3</acronym>. The <option>-h</option> turns on the <quote>higher quality but a little slower</quote> mode. The options beginning with <option>--t</option> indicate <acronym>ID3</acronym> tags, which usually contain song information, to be embedded within the <acronym>MP3</acronym> file. Additional encoding options can be found in the <application>lame</application> manual page."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14549
+msgid "In order to burn an audio <acronym>CD</acronym> from <acronym>MP3</acronym>s, they must first be converted to a non-compressed file format. <application>XMMS</application> can be used to convert to the <acronym>WAV</acronym> format, while <application>mpg123</application> can be used to convert to the raw Pulse-Code Modulation (<acronym>PCM</acronym>) audio data format."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14557
+msgid "To convert <filename>audio01.mp3</filename> using <application>mpg123</application>, specify the name of the <acronym>PCM</acronym> file:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14561
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mpg123 -s <replaceable>audio01.mp3</replaceable> &gt; <replaceable>audio01.pcm</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14563
+msgid "To use <application>XMMS</application> to convert a <acronym>MP3</acronym> to <acronym>WAV</acronym> format, use these steps:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14568
+msgid "Converting to <acronym>WAV</acronym> Format in <application>XMMS</application>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14572
+msgid "Launch <application>XMMS</application>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14576
+msgid "Right-click the window to bring up the <application>XMMS</application> menu."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14581
+msgid "Select <literal>Preferences</literal> under <literal>Options</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14586
+msgid "Change the Output Plugin to <quote>Disk Writer Plugin</quote>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14591
+msgid "Press <literal>Configure</literal>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14595
+msgid "Enter or browse to a directory to write the uncompressed files to."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14600
+msgid "Load the <acronym>MP3</acronym> file into <application>XMMS</application> as usual, with volume at 100% and EQ settings turned off."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14606
+msgid "Press <literal>Play</literal>. The <application>XMMS</application> will appear as if it is playing the <acronym>MP3</acronym>, but no music will be heard. It is actually playing the <acronym>MP3</acronym> to a file."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: step/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14614
+msgid "When finished, be sure to set the default Output Plugin back to what it was before in order to listen to <acronym>MP3</acronym>s again."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14620
+msgid "Both the <acronym>WAV</acronym> and <acronym>PCM</acronym> formats can be used with <application>cdrecord</application>. When using <acronym>WAV</acronym> files, there will be a small tick sound at the beginning of each track. This sound is the header of the <acronym>WAV</acronym> file. The <package>audio/sox</package> port or package can be used to remove the header:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14628
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>sox -t wav -r 44100 -s -w -c 2 <replaceable>track.wav track.raw</replaceable></userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14630
+msgid "Refer to <xref linkend=\"creating-cds\"/> for more information on using a <acronym>CD</acronym> burner in FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: info/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14638
+msgid "Video Playback"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
+#: book.translate.xml:14641
+msgid "<personname> <firstname>Ross</firstname> <surname>Lippert</surname> </personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14651
+msgid "Before configuring video playback, determine the model and chipset of the video card. While <application>Xorg</application> supports a wide variety of video cards, not all provide good playback performance. To obtain a list of extensions supported by the <application>Xorg</application> server using the card, run <command>xdpyinfo</command> while <application>Xorg</application> is running."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14660
+msgid "It is a good idea to have a short MPEG test file for evaluating various players and options. Since some <acronym>DVD</acronym> applications look for <acronym>DVD</acronym> media in <filename>/dev/dvd</filename> by default, or have this device name hardcoded in them, it might be useful to make a symbolic link to the proper device:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
+#: book.translate.xml:14667
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ln -sf /dev/cd0 /dev/dvd</userinput>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14669
+msgid "Due to the nature of <citerefentry vendor=\"current\"><refentrytitle>devfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>, manually created links will not persist after a system reboot. In order to recreate the symbolic link automatically when the system boots, add the following line to <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:14674
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "link cd0 dvd"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14676
+msgid "<acronym>DVD</acronym> decryption invokes certain functions that require write permission to the <acronym>DVD</acronym> device."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14680
+msgid "To enhance the shared memory <application>Xorg</application> interface, it is recommended to increase the values of these <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> variables:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/programlisting
+#: book.translate.xml:14685
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"kern.ipc.shmmax=67108864\n"
+"kern.ipc.shmall=32768"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:14689
+msgid "Determining Video Capabilities"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:14691
+msgid "<primary>XVideo</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:14692
+msgid "<primary>SDL</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:14693
+msgid "<primary>DGA</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14695
+msgid "There are several possible ways to display video under <application>Xorg</application> and what works is largely hardware dependent. Each method described below will have varying quality across different hardware."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14700
+msgid "Common video interfaces include:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14704
+msgid "<application>Xorg</application>: normal output using shared memory."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:14709
+msgid "XVideo: an extension to the <application>Xorg</application> interface which allows video to be directly displayed in drawable objects through a special acceleration. This extension provides good quality playback even on low-end machines. The next section describes how to determine if this extension is running."
+msgstr ""