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authorSergio Carlavilla Delgado <carlavilla@FreeBSD.org>2021-01-25 23:31:29 +0000
committerSergio Carlavilla Delgado <carlavilla@FreeBSD.org>2021-01-25 23:31:29 +0000
commit989d921f5d4ac8d8b7c831c13b8954ad1901be24 (patch)
treea5d768f9af4b55422fdf5b17064879ae1c7ce032 /zh_TW.UTF-8/books/fdp-primer/book.xml
parent0cff342f42461c5081b98bce7581f43df319e4f4 (diff)
downloaddoc-989d921f5d4ac8d8b7c831c13b8954ad1901be24.tar.gz
doc-989d921f5d4ac8d8b7c831c13b8954ad1901be24.zip
Migrate doc to Hugo/AsciiDoctor
I'm very pleased to announce the release of our new website and documentation using the new toolchain with Hugo and AsciiDoctor. To get more information about the new toolchain please read the FreeBSD Documentation Project Primer[1], Hugo docs[2] and AsciiDoctor docs[3]. Acknowledgment: Benedict Reuschling <bcr@> Glen Barber <gjb@> Hiroki Sato <hrs@> Li-Wen Hsu <lwhsu@> Sean Chittenden <seanc@> The FreeBSD Foundation [1] https://docs.FreeBSD.org/en/books/fdp-primer/ [2] https://gohugo.io/documentation/ [3] https://docs.asciidoctor.org/home/ Approved by: doceng, core
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--- a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/fdp-primer/book.xml
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@@ -1,8465 +0,0 @@
-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
-<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V5.0-Based Extension//EN" "http://www.FreeBSD.org/XML/share/xml/freebsd50.dtd" [
-<!ENTITY % chapters SYSTEM "chapters.ent">
-<!--
- Creates entities for each chapter in the Documentation Project Primer.
- Each entity is named chap.foo, where foo is the value of the id
- attribute on that chapter, and corresponds to the name of the
- directory in which that chapter's .xml file is stored.
-
- Chapters should be listed in the order in which they are referenced.
-
- $FreeBSD$
---><!ENTITY chap.overview SYSTEM "overview/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.tools SYSTEM "tools/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.working-copy SYSTEM "working-copy/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.structure SYSTEM "structure/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.doc-build SYSTEM "doc-build/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.the-website SYSTEM "the-website/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.xml-primer SYSTEM "xml-primer/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.xhtml-markup SYSTEM "xhtml-markup/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.docbook-markup SYSTEM "docbook-markup/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.stylesheets SYSTEM "stylesheets/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.translations SYSTEM "translations/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.po-translations SYSTEM "po-translations/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.writing-style SYSTEM "writing-style/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.editor-config SYSTEM "editor-config/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY chap.see-also SYSTEM "see-also/chapter.xml">
-<!ENTITY app.examples SYSTEM "examples/appendix.xml">
-<!-- ENTITY index SYSTEM "index.xml" -->]>
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1998, 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<book xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0" xml:lang="zh_TW">
- <info><title>給新貢獻人員的 FreeBSD 說明文件計畫入門書</title>
-
-
- <author><orgname>FreeBSD 說明文件計劃</orgname></author>
-
- <copyright><year>1998</year> <year>1999</year> <year>2000</year> <year>2001</year> <year>2002</year> <year>2003</year> <year>2004</year> <year>2005</year> <year>2006</year> <year>2007</year> <year>2008</year> <year>2009</year> <year>2010</year> <year>2011</year> <year>2012</year> <year>2013</year> <year>2014</year> <holder role="mailto:doceng@FreeBSD.org">DocEng</holder></copyright>
-
- <pubdate role="rcs" xml:lang="en">$FreeBSD$</pubdate>
-
- <releaseinfo xml:lang="en">$FreeBSD$</releaseinfo>
-
-
-<legalnotice xml:id="legalnotice">
- <title>版權</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled'
- forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
- met:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the
- above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must
- reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and
- the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other
- materials provided with the distribution.</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
-
- <important>
- <para xml:lang="en">THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION
- PROJECT "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING,
- BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND
- FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL
- THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
- INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING,
- BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS
- OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
- ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR
- TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE
- USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
- DAMAGE.</para>
- </important>
-</legalnotice>
-
-
- <abstract>
- <para>感謝您參與 FreeBSD 說明文件計劃,您的點滴貢獻,都相當寶貴。</para>
-
- <para>本入手書內容包括:如何開始著手貢獻 FreeBSD 說明文件計劃 (FreeBSD Documentation Project, <acronym>FDP</acronym>) 的各項細節,以及會用到的一些工具、軟體,以及文件計畫的宗旨。</para>
-
- <para>本入門書仍在持續撰寫中。任何修正或新增內容的建議都非常歡迎。</para>
- </abstract>
- </info>
-
- <preface xml:id="preface">
- <title>序</title>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="preface-prompts">
- <title>Shell 提示符號</title>
-
- <para>下表顯示出一般使用者帳號與 root 的提示符號,在所有的文件例子中會用提示符號 (Prompt),來提醒您該用哪種帳號才對。</para>
-
- <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>帳號</entry>
- <entry>提示符號</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry>一般使用者</entry>
- <entry><prompt>%</prompt></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry><systemitem class="username">root</systemitem></entry>
- <entry><prompt>#</prompt></entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="preface-conventions">
- <title>書中所用的編排風格</title>
-
- <para>下表為本書中所使用編排風格方式</para>
-
- <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>代表意義</entry>
- <entry>範例</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry>指令</entry>
- <entry>使用 <command>ls -l</command> 來列出所有的檔案。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>檔名</entry>
- <entry>編輯 <filename>.login</filename> 。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>螢幕上會出現的訊息</entry>
- <entry><screen>You have mail.</screen></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>輸入指令後,螢幕上會出現的對應內容。</entry>
-
- <entry><screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>date +"The time is %H:%M"</userinput>
-The time is 09:18</screen></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>要參考的線上手冊</entry>
- <entry>使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來切換帳號。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>使用者名稱和群組名稱</entry>
- <entry>只有 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 才可以做這件事。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>語氣的強調。</entry>
- <entry>使用者<emphasis>必須</emphasis>這樣做</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>打指令時,可替換的部份</entry>
-
- <entry>要搜尋線上手冊的關鍵字,請輸入 <command>man -k <replaceable>關鍵字</replaceable></command></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>環境變數。</entry>
- <entry><envar>$HOME</envar> 是指帳號的家目錄所在處。</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="preface-notes">
- <title>注意、提示、重要、警告與範例</title>
-
- <para>出現在本文中的注意、警告、與範例。</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>注意:表示需要注意的事項,其中包括您需要注意的事情,因為這些事情可能會影響到操作結果。</para>
- </note>
-
- <tip>
- <para>提示:提供可能對您有用的資訊,例如簡化操作方式的技巧說明。</para>
- </tip>
-
- <important>
- <para>重要:表示要特別注意的事情。一般來說,它們會包括操作指令時需要加的額外參數。</para>
- </important>
-
- <warning>
- <para>警告:表示警告事項,比如如果您不則可能導致的損失。這些損失可能是對您或硬體造成實際傷害,也可能是無法估計的損害,例如一時疏忽而刪除重要檔案...。</para>
- </warning>
-
- <example>
- <title>範例的範本</title>
-
- <para>這是舉例說明而已,通常包含應遵循的指令範例,或顯示某些特定動作所可能發生的結果。</para>
- </example>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="preface-acknowledgements">
- <title>感謝</title>
-
- <para>在此要感謝 Sue Blake, Patrick Durusau, Jon Hamilton, Peter Flynn, Christopher Maden 這些人的協助與閱讀初期草稿,並提供許多寶貴的潤稿意見與評論。</para>
- </sect1>
- </preface>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1998, 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="overview">
- <title>概論</title>
-
- <para>歡迎參與 FreeBSD 說明文件計劃 (FreeBSD Documentation Project, <acronym>FDP</acronym>)。維持優秀質量的文件對 FreeBSD 的成功來說十分重要,您的點滴貢獻都是十分寶貴的。</para>
-
- <para>本文件描述:『 <acronym>FDP</acronym> 的架構有哪些』、『如何撰寫並提交文件』、 『如何有效運用工具來協助撰稿』。</para>
-
- <para>歡迎大家對 <acronym>FDP</acronym> 做出貢獻。唯一的成員要求就有貢獻的意願。</para>
-
- <para>本入門書指出如何:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>瞭解有哪些文件是由 <acronym>FDP</acronym> 所維護的。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>安裝所需的說明文件工具和檔案。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>修改說明文件。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>提交修改以供審核並納入 FreeBSD 說明文件。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="overview-quick-start">
- <title>快速上手</title>
-
- <para>在編輯 FreeBSD 說明文件之前,有一些準備工作要做。首先,請訂閱 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD 文件計劃郵件論壇</link>。有些團隊成員也會出現在 <link xlink:href="http://www.efnet.org/">EFnet</link> 的<literal>#bsddocs</literal> <acronym>IRC</acronym> 頻道。這些人可以幫忙解決文件相關的問題。</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>安裝 <package>textproc/docproj</package> 套件或 Port。這個 meta-port 會安裝所有編輯和建置 FreeBSD 說明文件需要的軟體。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>在 <filename>~/doc</filename> 安裝 FreeBSD 說明文件檔案庫的本地端工作副本 (請見 <xref linkend="working-copy"/>)。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn checkout https://svn.FreeBSD.org/doc/head <replaceable>~/doc</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>設定文字編輯器:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>自動換行 (Word wrap) 設為 70 個字元。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Tab 定位點 (Tab stops) 設成 2。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>將行首每 8 個空白取代成 1 個 Tab。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>特定編輯器的設定方式列於 <xref linkend="editor-config"/>。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>更新本地端工作副本</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn up <replaceable>~/doc</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>編輯需要修改的說明文件檔案。如果檔案需要大幅度的編修,請先諮詢郵件論壇。</para>
-
- <para>標籤 (Tag) 和 Entity 的使用方式可以參考 <xref linkend="xhtml-markup"/> 和 <xref linkend="docbook-markup"/>。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>編輯完後,執行以下指令來檢查是否有問題:</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>igor -R filename.xml | less -RS</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>檢查輸出並重新編輯檔案來修正顯示的錯誤,然後重新執行指令來找出剩下的問題。重複執行直到所有錯誤都解決完。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para><emphasis>永遠要</emphasis>送出修正前請先做建置測試 (Build-test) 。在編輯的說明文件目錄最頂層執行 <userinput>make</userinput>,將會產生分頁的 HTML 格式 (Split HTML) 的文件。例如要建置 <acronym>HTML</acronym> 格式的英文版使用手冊,請在 <filename>en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/</filename> 目錄執行 <command>make</command> 。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>修改並測試完後,產生 <quote>diff 檔</quote>:</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn diff &gt; <replaceable>bsdinstall</replaceable>.diff.txt</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>設一個可辨識的檔名。如上例中,是使用手冊的 <filename>bsdinstall</filename> 部份的修改。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>使用網頁版 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/support.html#gnats">問題回報</link> 系統提交 diff 檔。如果使用網頁版,請輸入 <emphasis>[patch] <replaceable>問題簡短描述</replaceable></emphasis> 的概要 。選擇 <literal>docs</literal> 分類和 <literal>doc-bug</literal>類別。在訊息的主體中,輸入修正的簡短描述和其他相關的重要的細節。使用 <guibutton>[ Browse... ]</guibutton> 按鈕來附加 diff 檔。</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="overview-doc">
- <title>FreeBSD 說明文件集</title>
-
- <para><acronym>FDP</acronym> 負責四類 FreeBSD 說明文件。</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><emphasis>使用手冊 (Handbook)</emphasis>:使用手冊主要是給 FreeBSD 使用者提供詳盡的線上參考資料。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><emphasis>常見問答集 (FAQ)</emphasis>:主要是收集在各郵件論壇或論壇會常問到或有可能會問到的 FreeBSD 相關問題與答案。(簡單講,就是『問答集』格式) 通常會擺在這裡面的問答格式,不會放太長的詳細內容。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><emphasis>操作手冊 (Manual page)</emphasis>:英文版的系統手冊並不是由 <acronym>FDP</acronym> 所撰寫的,因為它們是屬於基礎系統 (Base system) 的部份。然而,<acronym>FDP</acronym> 可以修改這些文件,來讓這些文件寫得更清楚,甚至是勘正錯誤的地方。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><emphasis>網站</emphasis>:這是 FreeBSD 在網路上的主要部份,位於 <link xlink:href="http://www.freebsd.org/index.html">http://www.FreeBSD.org/</link> 以及許多其他鏡像站 (Mirror)。這網站是許多人第一次接觸 FreeBSD 的地方</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>翻譯團隊負責翻譯使用手冊和網站到不同的語言。線上手冊目前並未翻譯</para>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 網站、使用手冊、和 <acronym>FAQ</acronym> 的文件原始碼可以在 <literal>https://svn.FreeBSD.org/doc/</literal> 的文件檔案庫取得。</para>
-
- <para>線上手冊的原始碼則是在 <literal>https://svn.FreeBSD.org/base/</literal> 的原始碼庫可以取得。</para>
-
- <para>說明文件提交訊息可以用 <command>svn log</command> 察看。提交訊息也會封存在 <uri xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/svn-doc-all">http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/svn-doc-all</uri>。</para>
-
- <para>這些儲存庫的網頁版位於 <link xlink:href="https://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/doc/"/> 和 <link xlink:href="https://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/base/"/>。</para>
-
- <para>許多人會寫 FreeBSD 的教學文件或是 how-to 文章。有些保存在 <acronym>FDP</acronym> 的檔案中。其他一些說明文件則是作者希望放在他處。<acronym>FDP</acronym> 會盡力提供這些說明文件的連結。</para>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1998, 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="tools">
- <title>工具</title>
-
- <para>有些工具軟體用來管理 FreeBSD 說明文件,並將他轉換成不同的輸出格式。有些則是在使用接下來章節的範例之前一定要安裝。有些工具是選擇性安裝的,但是裝了之後會更容易進行文件製作工作。</para>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="tools-required">
- <title>必備工具</title>
-
- <para>從 Port 套件集安裝 <package>textproc/docproj</package>。這個 <emphasis>meta-port</emphasis> 會安裝處理 FreeBSD 說明文件需要的所有應用程式。以下列出特定元件的進一步說明。</para>
-
- <sect2>
- <title><acronym>DTD</acronym>s 與 <acronym>Entities</acronym></title>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 說明文件使用幾種文件類型定義 (<acronym>DTD</acronym>s) 與 <acronym>XML</acronym> entities 集合。這些都會經由 <package>textproc/docproj</package> Port 來安裝。</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term><acronym>XHTML</acronym> <acronym>DTD</acronym> (<package>textproc/xhtml</package>)</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><acronym>XHTML</acronym> 是全球資訊網的一種標記語言,也是整個 FreeBSD 網站所使用的格式。</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">DocBook <acronym>DTD</acronym> (<package>textproc/docbook-xml</package>)</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>DocBook 設計來製作技術說明文件的標記語言版本。FreeBSD 說明文件是以 DocBook 來撰寫。</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>ISO 8879 entities (<package>textproc/iso8879</package>)</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>在 ISO 8879:1986 之中的 entity 被許多 <acronym>DTD</acronym> 所大量使用,包括了數學符號、拉丁字母符號(尖重音等音節符號也是)以及希臘符號。</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="tools-optional">
- <title>選用工具</title>
-
- <para>以下應用程式並非必要,但有了可讓在說明文件的作業上更簡單或提升能力。</para>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>軟體</title>
-
- <variablelist>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term><application>Vim</application> (<package>editors/vim</package>)</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>一個很受歡迎的編輯器,可以處理 <acronym>XML</acronym> 和他的衍生相關文件,例如 DocBook <acronym>XML</acronym>。</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term><application>Emacs</application> 或 <application>XEmacs</application> (<package>editors/emacs</package> 或 <package>editors/xemacs</package>)</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>這兩個編輯器都包含特別模式來編輯用 <acronym>XML</acronym> <acronym>DTD</acronym> 標記的文件。這個模式包含指令來減少打字量,並可以幫忙減少錯誤的發生。</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 2013 Warren Block
- All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
- 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
- notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
- 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided
- with the distribution.
-
- THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS
- IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
- LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
- FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
- AUTHORS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
- INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
- CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR
- OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE,
- EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="working-copy">
- <title>工作副本</title>
-
- <para><emphasis>工作副本 (Working copy)</emphasis> 指的是已下載到本地電腦的 FreeBSD 說明文件樹檔案庫,所有對工作副本的更改會經過測試後再以修補檔 (Patch) 的格式提交到主要檔案庫。</para>
-
- <para>完整的說明文件樹副本會佔據 700 MB 的磁碟空間,要有空間能夠儲存暫存檔及各種輸出格式的測試版本需要 1 GB 的空間。</para>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 說明文件檔案使用 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/svn.html"><application>Subversion</application></link> 來管理,由於 <application>Subversion</application> 為 <package>textproc/docproj</package> 的必要應用程式之一,所以會隨著 <package>textproc/docproj</package> 一併安裝。</para>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="working-copy-doc-and-src">
- <title>說明文件與操作手冊</title>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 說明文件不只有書籍與文章,還有所有指令與設定檔的操作手冊 (Manual page) 也是文件的一部份,其中也有一部份是 <acronym>FDP</acronym> 的地盤。相關的檔案庫有兩個:<literal>doc</literal> 中有書籍與文章,而 <literal>base</literal> 中有作業系統以及操作手冊。要編輯操作手冊則必須另外取出 (Checkout) <literal>base</literal> 檔案庫。</para>
-
- <para>檔案庫中可能會含有數個版本的說明文件與原始碼。新的修改幾乎都只對最新版本 <literal>head</literal> 做更新。</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="working-copy-choosing-directory">
- <title>選擇一個目錄</title>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 說明文件一般會儲存在 <filename>/usr/doc/</filename>,而系統原始碼及操作手冊則會存在 <filename>/usr/src/</filename>。這些目錄樹可改放在其他地方,有些使用者可能會為了避免與現有在主要目錄的資料搞混,把工作副本放在其他的地方。以下的例子會放在 <filename>~/doc</filename> 以及 <filename>~/src</filename> 兩個在使用者家目錄下的目錄。</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="working-copy-checking-out">
- <title>取出一份副本</title>
-
- <para>從檔案庫下載工作副本的動作稱作 <emphasis>取出 (Checkout)</emphasis>,使用 <command>svn checkout</command> 來完成。本範例會取出主要說明文件樹最新版本的副本:</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn checkout https://svn.FreeBSD.org/doc/head <replaceable>~/doc</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <para>取出原始碼編輯操作手冊的動作也很相似:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn checkout https://svn.FreeBSD.org/base/head <replaceable>~/src</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="working-copy-updating">
- <title>更新工作副本</title>
-
- <para>在 FreeBSD 檔案庫中的文件與檔案每天都會更改,人們會修改檔案與提交變更的頻率非常快,即使取出 (Checkout) 只過小一段時間,本地的工作副本可能就與主要 FreeBSD 檔案庫有差異了。要更新本地版本以同步對主要檔案庫的變更可在有本地工作副本的目錄下使用 <command>svn update</command>:</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn update <replaceable>~/doc</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <para>養成良好的習慣在編輯文件檔前先執行 <command>svn update</command>,由於可能會有其他人最近才編輯完該檔案,若未更新本地工作副則不會有最新變更的內容,比其還要將舊版本地檔案與新版檔案庫檔案合併的動作來說,直接編輯最新版本的檔案要簡單多了。</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="working-copy-revert">
- <title>還原變更</title>
-
- <para>有時才做完的變更可能就變的不需要了,或者作者剛想要重新搛寫。檔案可使以使用 <command>svn revert</command> 來<quote>重設</quote>成尚未被修改過的狀態,舉例來說,要清除所有對 <filename>chapter.xml</filename> 的修改然後還原到未修改的版本可:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn revert chapter.xml</userinput></screen>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="working-copy-making-diff">
- <title>比對差異</title>
-
- <para>在編輯一個檔案或數個檔案完成之後,需將本地工作副本與 FreeBSD 檔案庫的差異儲存到一個檔案然後提交。這些 <emphasis>差異 (Diff)</emphasis> 檔可透過將 <command>svn diff</command> 的輸出轉向到檔案來建立: </para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd <replaceable>~/doc</replaceable></userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn diff &gt; <replaceable>doc-fix-spelling.diff</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <para>給檔案取一個有意義的名字來辨識這次修改的內容,上述範例為例則是要修正整個說明文件樹的拼寫。</para>
-
- <para>若 diff 檔要使用網站的 <quote><link xlink:href="https://bugs.FreeBSD.org/bugzilla/enter_bug.cgi">Submit a FreeBSD problem report</link></quote> 介面來提交,請加上 <filename>.txt</filename> 副檔名來給認真又單純的網頁表單可以辨識其內容為純文字的線索。</para>
-
- <para>請小心:<command>svn diff</command> 會產生所有在目前目錄及其子目錄的變更差異,若在該工作副本中有已經編輯過的檔案還沒有要提交,請列出需要比較差異的檔案清單:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd <replaceable>~/doc</replaceable></userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn diff <replaceable>disks/chapter.xml printers/chapter.xml</replaceable> &gt; <replaceable>disks-printers.diff</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="working-copy-subversion-references">
- <title><application>Subversion</application> 參考文獻</title>
-
- <para>以下範例會示範 <application>Subversion</application> 的基本用法,要取得更多資訊可至 <link xlink:href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/">Subversion Book</link> 與 <link xlink:href="http://subversion.apache.org/docs/">Subversion 說明文件</link>。</para>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1998, 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="structure">
- <title>說明文件目錄結構</title>
-
- <para>在 <filename>doc/</filename> 樹中的檔案與目錄需要遵守特定結構是因為:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>讓自動轉換說明文件到各種格式更簡單。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>促進不同說明文件組織之間的一致性,以便更輕鬆的在不同說明文件之間切換。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>可以很容易的決定新的說明文件應該放在文件樹中的哪個位置。</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
-
- <para>除此之外,說明文件樹必須能容納各種不同語言與編碼的說明文件。很重要的一點是,說明文件樹結構不應強制任何特定默認或文化的偏好。</para>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="structure-top">
- <title>最上層,<filename>doc/</filename></title>
-
- <para>在 <filename>doc/</filename> 底下有兩種類型的目錄,兩種都有非常明確的目錄名稱與意義。</para>
-
- <informaltable pgwide="1" frame="none">
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>目錄</entry>
- <entry>用途</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry valign="top" xml:lang="en">
- <filename>share</filename></entry>
-
- <entry>含有未特定用於各說明文件翻譯與編碼的檔案。其子目錄更進一步將不同資訊的分類,例如,構成 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 基礎設施的檔案放置於 <filename>share/mk</filename>,而額外的 <acronym>XML</acronym> 支援檔 (如 FreeBSD 延伸的 DocBook <acronym>DTD</acronym>) 則放在 <filename>share/xml</filename>。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry valign="top" xml:lang="en">
- <filename><replaceable>lang</replaceable>.<replaceable>encoding</replaceable></filename></entry>
-
- <entry>每一個目錄代表可用的說明文件翻譯與編碼,例如 <filename>en_US.ISO8859-1/</filename> 及 <filename>zh_TW.UTF-8/</filename>。名稱雖然長,但完整表達語言與編碼可以避免未來當一個翻譯團隊要以不同編碼提供同一個語言的說明文件造成的問題,這也同時避免往後要切換成萬國碼 (Unicode) 可能造成的問題。</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="structure-locale">
- <title><filename><replaceable>lang</replaceable>.<replaceable>encoding</replaceable>/</filename> 目錄</title>
-
- <para>這些目錄中含有說明文件。在此階層說明文件分成三個分類,使用不同的目錄名稱來代表。</para>
-
- <informaltable pgwide="1" frame="none">
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>目錄</entry>
- <entry>用途</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry valign="top" xml:lang="en">
- <filename>articles</filename></entry>
-
- <entry>以 DocBook <tag>article</tag> (或同等級) 標記的說明文件。非常短,且會分成幾個小節,通常取得時只會有一個 <acronym>XHTML</acronym> 檔案。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry valign="top" xml:lang="en"><filename>books</filename></entry>
-
- <entry>以 DocBook <tag>book</tag> (或同等級) 標記的說明文件。有跟書籍一樣的長度,會分成數個章。通常取得時會包含一個大型的 <acronym>XHTML</acronym> 檔 (供有較快連線速度的人使用,或者那些想直接在瀏覽器列印的人) 與數個連結的較小的檔案。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry valign="top" xml:lang="en">
- <filename>man</filename></entry>
-
- <entry>供系統操作手冊 (Manual page) 翻譯使用。這個目錄會包含一個或多個 <filename role="directory">man<replaceable>n</replaceable></filename> 目錄來對應已經翻譯的章節。</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
-
- <para>並非所有 <filename role="directory"><replaceable>lang</replaceable>.<replaceable>encoding</replaceable></filename> 的目錄都會有這些子目錄,這要看該翻譯團隊已經完成了多少翻譯來決定。</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="structure-document">
- <title>文件特定資訊</title>
-
- <para>本節內含有關由 FDP 所管理的特定文件的特定注意事項。</para>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>使用手冊 (Handbook)</title>
-
- <subtitle xml:lang="en"><filename>books/handbook/</filename></subtitle>
-
- <para>操作手冊是以使用 FreeBSD DocBook 擴充 <acronym>DTD</acronym> 的 DocBook <acronym>XML</acronym> 所撰寫。</para>
-
- <para>使用手冊使用 DocBook <tag>book</tag> 來組織,整個手冊區分成數個部份 (<tag>part</tag>),每個部份中內含數個章 (<tag>chapter</tag>),而章 (<tag>chapter</tag>) 又更進一步的細分成數個節 (<tag>sect1</tag>) 與小節 (<tag>sect2</tag>, <tag>sect3</tag>) 以此類推。</para>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>實體組織結構</title>
-
- <para>在 <filename>handbook</filename> 目錄中有數個檔案及目錄。</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>使用手冊的組織結構可能會隨時改變,本文件所詳述的組織結構可能會與現況不盡相同。有關使用手冊組織結構的問題可張貼到 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link>。</para>
- </note>
-
- <sect4>
- <title xml:lang="en"><filename>Makefile</filename></title>
-
- <para><filename>Makefile</filename> 定義了一些會影響 <acronym>XML</acronym> 原始碼要如何轉換至其他格式的變數,並列出產生使用手冊所需的各原始檔,接著會引用可處理在各種文件格式轉換的標準 <filename>doc.project.mk</filename> 程式碼。</para>
- </sect4>
-
- <sect4>
- <title xml:lang="en"><filename>book.xml</filename></title>
-
- <para>此為使用手冊的最上層文件,其中包含了使用手冊的 <link linkend="xml-primer-doctype-declaration">DOCTYPE 宣告</link>以及用來描述使用手冊結構的元素。</para>
-
- <para><filename>book.xml</filename> 會使用 <link linkend="xml-primer-parameter-entities">參數 Entities</link> 來載入 <filename>.ent</filename> 副檔名的檔案。這些檔案 (稍後會詳述) 接著會定義使用手冊剩下篇幅會使用的 <link linkend="xml-primer-general-entities">一般 Entities</link>。</para>
- </sect4>
-
- <sect4>
- <title xml:lang="en"><filename role="directory"><replaceable>directory</replaceable>/chapter.xml</filename></title>
-
- <para>每個在使用手冊的章會儲存成名稱為 <filename>chapter.xml</filename> 的檔案,分別放在不同的目錄中。每個目錄均是以在 <tag>chapter</tag> 元素中 <literal>id</literal> 屬性中的值來命名。</para>
-
- <para>例如,若有一章的檔案內容為:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">chapter id="kernelconfig"</tag>
-...
-<tag class="endtag">chapter</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>那麼放置這個 <filename>chapter.xml</filename> 的目錄則會命名為 <filename>kernelconfig</filename>。一般來說一章的所有內容會存放在這一個檔案。</para>
-
- <para>當有 <acronym>XHTML</acronym> 版本的使用手冊之後,會用該檔產出 <filename>kernelconfig.html</filename>,而這個名稱也是根據 <literal>id</literal> 的值而定,與目錄名稱無關。</para>
-
- <para>在早期版本的使用手冊,檔案皆儲存在與 <filename>book.xml</filename> 相同的目錄中,而名稱會以 <tag>chapter</tag> 元素中的 <literal>id</literal> 屬性的值來命名。現在可在每個章節之中引用圖片,每個使用手冊章節的圖片會儲存在 <filename>share/images/books/handbook</filename>,而在地化版本的圖片應放在與每個章節 <acronym>XML</acronym> 原始碼相同的目錄。命名空間會衝突是必然的,但以目錄多、檔案少與目錄少、檔案多的結構相比,目錄多、檔案少會較容易處理命名空間衝突的問題。</para>
-
- <para>簡單來說會有很多個內含 <filename>chapter.xml</filename> 檔案的目錄,例如 <filename>basics/chapter.xml</filename>, <filename>introduction/chapter.xml</filename> 以及 <filename>printing/chapter.xml</filename>。</para>
-
- <important>
- <para>請勿以在使用手冊中的章節順序來命名章節或目錄,因為順序是會隨使用手冊重新組織後的內容改變的。重新組織結構應不需要去重新命名檔案,除非整個章節的階層被提升或下降。</para>
- </important>
-
- <para><filename>chapter.xml</filename> 檔案並不是可以被單獨建置的完整 <acronym>XML</acronym> 文件,只能結合成整本使用手冊之後再一併建置。</para>
- </sect4>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1999 Neil Blakey-Milner, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="doc-build">
- <title>說明文件建置流程</title>
-
- <para>本章內容涵蓋了說明文件建置流程以及如何使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來控制如何建置。</para>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="doc-build-rendering">
- <title>繪製 Docbook 為其他格式</title>
-
- <para>從單一個 DocBook 原始檔可以產生各種不同類型的輸出,想要輸出的類型可用 <varname>FORMATS</varname> 變數來設定。已知的格式清單列在 <varname>KNOWN_FORMATS</varname> 中:</para>
-
- <screen xml:id="doc-build-rendering-known-formats" xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>make -V KNOWN_FORMATS</userinput></screen>
-
- <table xml:id="doc-build-rendering-common-formats" frame="none">
- <title>常見輸出格式</title>
-
- <tgroup cols="3">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry><varname>FORMATS</varname> 值</entry>
- <entry>檔案類型</entry>
- <entry>說明</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>html</literal></entry>
- <entry><acronym>HTML</acronym>,單檔</entry>
- <entry>單一 <filename>book.html</filename> 或 <filename>article.html</filename>。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>html-split</literal></entry>
- <entry><acronym>HTML</acronym>,多檔</entry>
- <entry>多個 <acronym>HTML</acronym> 檔案,每個章或節一個檔案,供一般網站使用。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>pdf</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><acronym>PDF</acronym></entry>
- <entry>可攜的文件格式</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </table>
-
- <para>預設輸出的格式會依文件而有所不同,但同常是 <literal>html-split</literal>。其他格式可設定 <varname>FORMATS</varname> 為特定值來選擇。在 <varname>FORMATS</varname> 設定所需格式的清單可一次輸出多個格式。</para>
-
- <example xml:id="doc-build-formats-example-html">
- <title>建置單頁 HTML 輸出檔</title>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>make FORMATS=html</userinput></screen>
- </example>
-
- <example xml:id="doc-build-formats-example-html-split-pdf">
- <title>建置分頁 HTML 及 <acronym>PDF</acronym> 輸出檔</title>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>make FORMATS="html-split pdf"</userinput></screen>
- </example>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="doc-build-toolset">
- <title>FreeBSD 說明文件建置工具集</title>
-
- <para>建置與安裝 <acronym>FDP</acronym> 說明文件會使用到以下工具。</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>主要的建置工具為 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,特別是 <application>Berkeley Make</application>。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>套件建置會使用 FreeBSD 的 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg-create</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來處理。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><citerefentry><refentrytitle>gzip</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 用來建立壓縮版的文件,也支援 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bzip2</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 封存。<citerefentry><refentrytitle>tar</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 則用在套件建置。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><citerefentry><refentrytitle>install</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 用來安裝說明文件。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="doc-build-makefiles">
-
- <title>了解在說明文件樹中的 <filename>Makefile</filename></title>
-
- <para>在 FreeBSD 說明文件計劃樹底下的 <filename>Makefile</filename> 主要有三個類型。</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><link linkend="sub-make">子目錄的 <filename>Makefile</filename></link> 傳遞指令給在其所在目錄底下的目錄。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><link linkend="doc-make">說明文件的 <filename>Makefile</filename>s</link> 用來描述要如何在其所在目錄產生文件。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><link linkend="make-includes"><application>Make</application> 引用檔</link> 會連結一些產生文件所需的程式,通常為 <filename>doc.<replaceable>xxx</replaceable>.mk</filename>。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="sub-make">
- <title>子目錄的 <filename>Makefile</filename></title>
-
- <para>這種 <filename>Makefile</filename> 通常採用的格式為:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">SUBDIR =articles
-SUBDIR+=books
-
-COMPAT_SYMLINK = en
-
-DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/..
-.include "${DOC_PREFIX}/share/mk/doc.project.mk"</programlisting>
-
- <para>前四行非空白的行用來定義 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 的變數 <varname>SUBDIR</varname>, <varname>COMPAT_SYMLINK</varname> 及 <varname>DOC_PREFIX</varname>。</para>
-
- <para><varname>SUBDIR</varname> 敘述與 <varname>COMPAT_SYMLINK</varname> 敘述示範了如何指派數值到一個變數,覆蓋先前的值。</para>
-
- <para><varname>SUBDIR</varname> 的第二行敘述示範如何將數值附加到目前的變數值之後,<varname>SUBDIR</varname> 變數現在變成了 <literal>articles books</literal>。</para>
-
- <para><varname>DOC_PREFIX</varname> 指派式示範了如何只在變數尚未定義時才指派數值給變數。這個功能在當 <varname>DOC_PREFIX</varname> 不在 <filename>Makefile</filename> 所認為的地方時,使用者可以覆蓋這個值,並提供正確的值。</para>
-
- <para>這所有的敘述實際代表什麼意思呢? <varname>SUBDIR</varname> 會列出接下來建置流程應傳遞作業到那些子目錄。</para>
-
- <para><varname>COMPAT_SYMLINK</varname> 是一個用來指定語言官方編碼的相容性符號連結 (<filename>doc/en</filename> 會指向 <filename>en_US.ISO-8859-1</filename>)。</para>
-
- <para><varname>DOC_PREFIX</varname> 是到 FreeBSD 說明文件計劃樹根目錄的路徑。這並非每一次都可以很輕易找到,為了增加彈性,要改寫也很簡單。<varname>.CURDIR</varname> 是一個 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 內建的變數,代表目前目錄的路徑。</para>
-
- <para>最後一行會引用 FreeBSD 說明文件計劃的全專案 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 系統檔 <filename>doc.project.mk</filename>,用來轉換這些變數成為建置的指令。</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="doc-make">
- <title>說明文件的 <filename>Makefile</filename></title>
-
- <para>這些 <filename>Makefile</filename> 用來設定 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 變數來描述要如何建置在該目錄中的說明文件。</para>
-
- <para>這裡有一個例子:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">MAINTAINER=nik@FreeBSD.org
-
-DOC?= book
-
-FORMATS?= html-split html
-
-INSTALL_COMPRESSED?= gz
-INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESSED?=
-
-# SGML content
-SRCS= book.xml
-
-DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/../../..
-
-.include "$(DOC_PREFIX)/share/mk/docproj.docbook.mk"</programlisting>
-
- <para><varname>MAINTAINER</varname> 變數讓提交者可以聲明文件在 FreeBSD 說明文件計劃中的所有權,並負責維護該文件。</para>
-
- <para><varname>DOC</varname> 是由此目錄會建立的主要文件的名稱 (不需要 <filename>.xml</filename> 副檔名)。<varname>SRCS</varname> 會列出產生文件所需的各別檔案,此處也應引用要在重新建置 (Rebuild) 使用的重要的檔案。</para>
-
- <para><varname>FORMATS</varname> 用來指定此份文件建置時預設應採用的格式。<varname>INSTALL_COMPRESSED</varname> 是為在文件建置時預設要使用的壓縮技術清單。<varname>INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESS</varname> 預設為空值的,若在建置時只想要產生壓縮後的文件則改成非空值。</para>
-
- <para><varname>DOC_PREFIX</varname> 以及 include 敘述句應不需再說明了。</para>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="make-includes">
- <title>FreeBSD 說明文件計劃 <application>Make</application> 引用檔</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> includes are best explained by inspection of
- the code. Here are the system include files:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><filename>doc.project.mk</filename> is the main project
- include file, which includes all the following include
- files, as necessary.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><filename>doc.subdir.mk</filename> handles traversing of
- the document tree during the build and install
- processes.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><filename>doc.install.mk</filename> provides variables
- that affect ownership and installation of documents.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><filename>doc.docbook.mk</filename> is included if
- <varname>DOCFORMAT</varname> is <literal>docbook</literal>
- and <varname>DOC</varname> is set.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <sect2>
- <title xml:lang="en"><filename>doc.project.mk</filename></title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">By inspection:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">DOCFORMAT?= docbook
-MAINTAINER?= doc@FreeBSD.org
-
-PREFIX?= /usr/local
-PRI_LANG?= en_US.ISO8859-1
-
-.if defined(DOC)
-.if ${DOCFORMAT} == "docbook"
-.include "doc.docbook.mk"
-.endif
-.endif
-
-.include "doc.subdir.mk"
-.include "doc.install.mk"</programlisting>
-
- <sect3>
-
- <title>變數</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><varname>DOCFORMAT</varname> and
- <varname>MAINTAINER</varname> are assigned default values,
- if these are not set by the document make file.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><varname>PREFIX</varname> is the prefix under which the
- <link linkend="tools">documentation building tools</link>
- are installed. For normal package and port installation,
- this is <filename>/usr/local</filename>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><varname>PRI_LANG</varname> should be set to whatever
- language and encoding is natural amongst users these
- documents are being built for. US English is the
- default.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en"><varname>PRI_LANG</varname> does not affect which
- documents can, or even will, be built. Its main use is
- creating links to commonly referenced documents into the
- FreeBSD documentation install root.</para>
- </note>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>條件</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <literal>.if defined(DOC)</literal> line is an
- example of a <citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> conditional which, like in other
- programs, defines behavior if some condition is true or if
- it is false. <literal>defined</literal> is a function which
- returns whether the variable given is defined or not.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>.if ${DOCFORMAT} == "docbook"</literal>, next,
- tests whether the <varname>DOCFORMAT</varname> variable is
- <literal>"docbook"</literal>, and in this case, includes
- <filename>doc.docbook.mk</filename>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The two <literal>.endif</literal>s close the two above
- conditionals, marking the end of their application.</para>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title xml:lang="en"><filename>doc.subdir.mk</filename></title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This file is too long to explain in detail. These notes
- describe the most important features.</para>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>變數</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><varname>SUBDIR</varname> is a list of
- subdirectories that the build process should go further
- down into.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><varname>ROOT_SYMLINKS</varname> is the name of
- directories that should be linked to the document
- install root from their actual locations, if the current
- language is the primary language (specified by
- <varname>PRI_LANG</varname>).</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><varname>COMPAT_SYMLINK</varname> is described in
- the
- <link linkend="sub-make">Subdirectory Makefile</link>
- section.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>目標與巨集</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Dependencies are described by
- <literal><replaceable>target</replaceable>:
- <replaceable>dependency1 dependency2
- ...</replaceable></literal> tuples, where to build
- <literal>target</literal>, the given
- dependencies must be built first.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">After that descriptive tuple, instructions on how to
- build the target may be given, if the conversion process
- between the target and its dependencies are not previously
- defined, or if this particular conversion is not the same as
- the default conversion method.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A special dependency <literal>.USE</literal> defines
- the equivalent of a macro.</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">_SUBDIRUSE: .USE
-.for entry in ${SUBDIR}
- @${ECHO} "===&gt; ${DIRPRFX}${entry}"
- @(cd ${.CURDIR}/${entry} &amp;&amp; \
- ${MAKE} ${.TARGET:S/realpackage/package/:S/realinstall/install/} DIRPRFX=${DIRPRFX}${entry}/ )
-.endfor</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In the above, <buildtarget xml:lang="en">_SUBDIRUSE</buildtarget> is now
- a macro which will execute the given commands when it is
- listed as a dependency.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">What sets this macro apart from other targets?
- Basically, it is executed <emphasis>after</emphasis> the
- instructions given in the build procedure it is listed as a
- dependency to, and it does not adjust
- <varname>.TARGET</varname>, which is the variable which
- contains the name of the target currently being
- built.</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">clean: _SUBDIRUSE
- rm -f ${CLEANFILES}</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In the above, <buildtarget xml:lang="en">clean</buildtarget> will use
- the <buildtarget xml:lang="en">_SUBDIRUSE</buildtarget> macro after it has
- executed the instruction
- <command>rm -f ${CLEANFILES}</command>. In effect, this
- causes <buildtarget xml:lang="en">clean</buildtarget> to go further and
- further down the directory tree, deleting built files as it
- goes <emphasis>down</emphasis>, not on the way back
- up.</para>
-
- <sect4>
- <title>已提供的目標</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><buildtarget xml:lang="en">install</buildtarget> and
- <buildtarget xml:lang="en">package</buildtarget> both go down the
- directory tree calling the real versions of themselves
- in the subdirectories
- (<buildtarget xml:lang="en">realinstall</buildtarget> and
- <buildtarget xml:lang="en">realpackage</buildtarget>
- respectively).</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><buildtarget xml:lang="en">clean</buildtarget> removes files
- created by the build process (and goes down the
- directory tree too).
- <buildtarget xml:lang="en">cleandir</buildtarget> does the same, and
- also removes the object directory, if any.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect4>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>更多條件</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>exists</literal> is another condition
- function which returns true if the given file
- exists.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>empty</literal> returns true if the given
- variable is empty.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>target</literal> returns true if the given
- target does not already exist.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>在 <command>make (.for)</command> 中的迴圈結構</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>.for</literal> provides a way to repeat a set
- of instructions for each space-separated element in a
- variable. It does this by assigning a variable to contain
- the current element in the list being examined.</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">_SUBDIRUSE: .USE
-.for entry in ${SUBDIR}
- @${ECHO} "===&gt; ${DIRPRFX}${entry}"
- @(cd ${.CURDIR}/${entry} &amp;&amp; \
- ${MAKE} ${.TARGET:S/realpackage/package/:S/realinstall/install/} DIRPRFX=${DIRPRFX}${entry}/ )
-.endfor</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In the above, if <varname>SUBDIR</varname> is empty, no
- action is taken; if it has one or more elements, the
- instructions between <literal>.for</literal> and
- <literal>.endfor</literal> would repeat for every element,
- with <varname>entry</varname> being replaced with the value
- of the current element.</para>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1998, 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="the-website">
- <title>網站</title>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 網站是 FreeBSD 文件的一部份。網站的檔案儲存在文件樹目錄,此例中是 <filename>~/doc</filename>,的 <filename>en_US.ISO8859-1/htdocs</filename> 子目錄。</para>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="the-website-env">
- <title>環境變數</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Several environment variables control which parts of the
- web site are built or installed, and to which
- directories.</para>
-
- <tip>
- <para xml:lang="en">The web build system uses <citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and considers
- variables to be set when they have been defined, even if they
- are empty. The examples here show the recommended ways of
- defining and using these variables. Setting or defining these
- variables with other values or methods might lead to
- unexpected surprises.</para>
- </tip>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry xml:id="the-website-env-destdir">
- <term xml:lang="en"><varname>DESTDIR</varname></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">DESTDIR specifies the path where the web site files
- are to be installed.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This variable is best set with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>env</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> or the user
- shell's method of setting environment variables,
- <command>setenv</command> for <citerefentry><refentrytitle>csh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> or
- <command>export</command> for <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry xml:id="the-website-env-englishonly">
- <term xml:lang="en"><varname>ENGLISH_ONLY</varname></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Default: undefined. Build and include all
- translations.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><userinput>ENGLISH_ONLY=yes</userinput>: use only
- the English documents and ignore all translations.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry xml:id="the-website-env-webonly">
- <term xml:lang="en"><varname>WEB_ONLY</varname></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Default: undefined. Build both the web site
- and all the books and articles.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><userinput>WEB_ONLY=yes</userinput>: build or install
- only <acronym>HTML</acronym> pages from the
- <filename>en_US.ISO8859-1/htdocs</filename> directory.
- Other directories and documents, including books and
- articles, will be ignored.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry xml:id="the-website-env-weblang">
- <term xml:lang="en"><varname>WEB_LANG</varname></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Default: undefined. Build and include all the
- available languages on the web site.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Set to a space-separated list of languages to be
- included in the build
- or install. The formats are the same as the directory
- names in the document root directory. For example, to
- include the German and French documents:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><userinput>WEB_LANG="de_DE.ISO8859-1 fr_FR.ISO8859-1"</userinput></screen>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><varname>WEB_ONLY</varname>, <varname>WEB_LANG</varname>,
- and <varname>ENGLISH_ONLY</varname> are <citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> variables
- and can be set in <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>,
- <filename>Makefile.inc</filename>, as environment variables on
- the command line, or in dot files.</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="the-website-build">
- <title>建置並安裝網頁</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Having obtained the documentation and web site source files,
- the web site can be built.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">An actual installation of the web site is run as the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
- user because the permissions on the web server directory will
- not allow files to be installed by an unprivileged user.
- For testing, it can be useful to install the files as a normal
- user to a temporary directory.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In these examples, the web site files are built by user
- <systemitem class="username">jru</systemitem> in their home
- directory, <filename>~/doc</filename>, with a full path of
- <filename>/usr/home/jru/doc</filename>.</para>
-
- <tip>
- <para xml:lang="en">The web site build uses the <filename>INDEX</filename>
- from the Ports Collection and might fail if that file or
- <filename>/usr/ports</filename> is not
- present. The simplest approach is to install the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports.html#ports-tree">Ports
- Collection</link>.</para>
- </tip>
-
- <example xml:id="the-website-examples-build">
- <title>建置完整網站與所有說明文件</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Build the web site and all documents. The resulting files
- are left in the document tree:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/htdocs/</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>make all</userinput></screen>
- </example>
-
- <example xml:id="the-website-examples-buildinstall-englishonly">
- <title>只建置英文版網站</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Build the web site only, in English, as user
- <systemitem class="username">jru</systemitem>, and install
- the resulting files into <filename>/tmp/www</filename> for
- testing:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/htdocs/</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>env DESTDIR=/tmp/www make ENGLISH_ONLY=yes WEB_ONLY=yes all install</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Changes to static files can usually be tested by viewing
- the modified files directly with a web browser. If the site
- has been built as shown above, a modified main page can be
- viewed with:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>firefox /tmp/www/data/index.html</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Modifications to dynamic files can be tested with a web
- server running on the local system. After building the site
- as shown above, this
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/apache24/httpd.conf</filename> can be
- used with <package>www/apache24</package>:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"># httpd.conf for testing the FreeBSD website
-Define TestRoot "/tmp/www/data"
-
-# directory for configuration files
-ServerRoot "/usr/local"
-
-Listen 80
-
-# minimum required modules
-LoadModule authz_core_module libexec/apache24/mod_authz_core.so
-LoadModule mime_module libexec/apache24/mod_mime.so
-LoadModule unixd_module libexec/apache24/mod_unixd.so
-LoadModule cgi_module libexec/apache24/mod_cgi.so
-LoadModule dir_module libexec/apache24/mod_dir.so
-
-# run the webserver as user and group
-User www
-Group www
-
-ServerAdmin you@example.com
-ServerName fbsdtest
-
-# deny access to all files
-&lt;Directory /&gt;
- AllowOverride none
- Require all denied
-&lt;/Directory&gt;
-
-# allow access to the website directory
-DocumentRoot "${TestRoot}"
-&lt;Directory "${TestRoot}"&gt;
- Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
- AllowOverride None
- Require all granted
-&lt;/Directory&gt;
-
-# prevent access to .htaccess and .htpasswd files
-&lt;Files ".ht*"&gt;
- Require all denied
-&lt;/Files&gt;
-
-ErrorLog "/var/log/httpd-error.log"
-LogLevel warn
-
-# set up the CGI script directory
-&lt;Directory "${TestRoot}/cgi"&gt;
- AllowOverride None
- Options None
- Require all granted
- Options +ExecCGI
- AddHandler cgi-script .cgi
-&lt;/Directory&gt;
-
-Include etc/apache24/Includes/*.conf</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Start the web server with</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service apache24 onestart</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The web site can be viewed at
- <link xlink:href="http://localhost"/>. Be aware that many
- links refer to the real FreeBSD site by name, and those links
- will still go to the external site instead of the local test
- version. Fully testing the local site will require
- temporarily setting <acronym>DNS</acronym> so
- <literal>www.FreeBSD.org</literal> resolves to
- <literal>localhost</literal> or the local
- <acronym>IP</acronym> address.</para>
- </example>
-
- <example xml:id="the-website-examples-buildinstall">
- <title>建置並安裝網站</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Build the web site and all documents as user
- <systemitem class="username">jru</systemitem>. Install the
- resulting files as
- <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> into the
- default directory,
- <filename>/root/public_html</filename>:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/htdocs</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>make all</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>su -</userinput>
-Password:
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/home/jru/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/htdocs</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install</userinput></screen>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The install process does not delete any old or outdated
- files that existed previously in the same directory. If a new
- copy of the site is built and installed every day, this command
- will find and delete all files that have not been updated in
- three days:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>find <replaceable>/usr/local/www</replaceable> -ctime 3 -delete</userinput></screen>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1998, 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="xml-primer">
- <title>XML 入門</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Most <acronym>FDP</acronym> documentation is written with
- markup languages based on <acronym>XML</acronym>. This chapter
- explains what that means, how to read and understand the
- documentation source, and the <acronym>XML</acronym> techniques
- used.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Portions of this section were inspired by Mark Galassi's
- <link xlink:href="http://www.galassi.org/mark/mydocs/docbook-intro/docbook-intro.html">Get
- Going With DocBook</link>.</para>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xml-primer-overview">
- <title>概論</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In the original days of computers, electronic text was
- simple. There were a few character sets like
- <acronym>ASCII</acronym> or <acronym>EBCDIC</acronym>, but that
- was about it. Text was text, and what you saw really was what
- you got. No frills, no formatting, no intelligence.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Inevitably, this was not enough. When text is in a
- machine-usable format, machines are expected to be able to use
- and manipulate it intelligently. Authors want to indicate that
- certain phrases should be emphasized, or added to a glossary, or
- made into hyperlinks. Filenames could be shown in a
- <quote>typewriter</quote> style font for viewing on screen, but
- as <quote>italics</quote> when printed, or any of a myriad of
- other options for presentation.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">It was once hoped that Artificial Intelligence (AI) would
- make this easy. The computer would read the document and
- automatically identify key phrases, filenames, text that the
- reader should type in, examples, and more. Unfortunately, real
- life has not happened quite like that, and computers still
- require assistance before they can meaningfully process
- text.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">More precisely, they need help identifying what is what.
- Consider this text:</para>
-
- <blockquote>
- <para xml:lang="en">To remove <filename>/tmp/foo</filename>, use
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>rm /tmp/foo</userinput></screen>
- </blockquote>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">It is easy to see which parts are filenames, which are
- commands to be typed in, which parts are references to manual
- pages, and so on. But the computer processing the document
- cannot. For this we need markup.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><quote>Markup</quote> is commonly used to describe
- <quote>adding value</quote> or <quote>increasing cost</quote>.
- The term takes on both these meanings when applied to text.
- Markup is additional text included in the document,
- distinguished from the document's content in some way, so that
- programs that process the document can read the markup and use
- it when making decisions about the document. Editors can hide
- the markup from the user, so the user is not distracted by
- it.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The extra information stored in the markup
- <emphasis>adds value</emphasis> to the document. Adding the
- markup to the document must typically be done by a
- person—after all, if computers could recognize the text
- sufficiently well to add the markup then there would be no need
- to add it in the first place. This
- <emphasis>increases the cost</emphasis> (the effort required) to
- create the document.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The previous example is actually represented in this
- document like this:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>To remove <tag class="starttag">filename</tag>/tmp/foo<tag class="endtag">filename</tag>, use &amp;man.rm.1;.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">screen</tag>&amp;prompt.user; <tag class="starttag">userinput</tag>rm /tmp/foo<tag class="endtag">userinput</tag><tag class="endtag">screen</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The markup is clearly separate from the content.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Markup languages define what the markup means and how it
- should be interpreted.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Of course, one markup language might not be enough. A
- markup language for technical documentation has very different
- requirements than a markup language that is intended for cookery
- recipes. This, in turn, would be very different from a markup
- language used to describe poetry. What is really needed is a
- first language used to write these other markup languages. A
- <emphasis>meta markup language</emphasis>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This is exactly what the eXtensible Markup
- Language (<acronym>XML</acronym>) is. Many markup languages
- have been written in <acronym>XML</acronym>, including the two
- most used by the <acronym>FDP</acronym>,
- <acronym>XHTML</acronym> and DocBook.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Each language definition is more properly called a grammar,
- vocabulary, schema or Document Type Definition
- (<acronym>DTD</acronym>). There are various languages to
- specify an <acronym>XML</acronym> grammar, or
- <emphasis>schema</emphasis>.</para>
-
- <para xml:id="xml-primer-validating" xml:lang="en">A schema is a
- <emphasis>complete</emphasis> specification of all the elements
- that are allowed to appear, the order in which they should
- appear, which elements are mandatory, which are optional, and so
- forth. This makes it possible to write an
- <acronym>XML</acronym> <emphasis>parser</emphasis> which reads
- in both the schema and a document which claims to conform to the
- schema. The parser can then confirm whether or not all the
- elements required by the vocabulary are in the document in the
- right order, and whether there are any errors in the markup.
- This is normally referred to as
- <quote>validating the document</quote>.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Validation confirms that the choice of
- elements, their ordering, and so on, conforms to that listed
- in the grammar. It does <emphasis>not</emphasis> check
- whether <emphasis>appropriate</emphasis> markup has been used
- for the content. If all the filenames in a document were
- marked up as function names, the parser would not flag this as
- an error (assuming, of course, that the schema defines
- elements for filenames and functions, and that they are
- allowed to appear in the same place).</para>
- </note>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Most contributions to the Documentation
- Project will be content marked up in either
- <acronym>XHTML</acronym> or DocBook, rather than alterations to
- the schemas. For this reason, this book will not touch on how
- to write a vocabulary.</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xml-primer-elements">
- <title>元素、標籤與屬性</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">All the vocabularies written in <acronym>XML</acronym> share
- certain characteristics. This is hardly surprising, as the
- philosophy behind <acronym>XML</acronym> will inevitably show
- through. One of the most obvious manifestations of this
- philosophy is that of <emphasis>content</emphasis> and
- <emphasis>elements</emphasis>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Documentation, whether it is a single web page, or a lengthy
- book, is considered to consist of content. This content is then
- divided and further subdivided into elements. The purpose of
- adding markup is to name and identify the boundaries of these
- elements for further processing.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">For example, consider a typical book. At the very top
- level, the book is itself an element. This <quote>book</quote>
- element obviously contains chapters, which can be considered to
- be elements in their own right. Each chapter will contain more
- elements, such as paragraphs, quotations, and footnotes. Each
- paragraph might contain further elements, identifying content
- that was direct speech, or the name of a character in the
- story.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">It may be helpful to think of this as
- <quote>chunking</quote> content. At the very top level is one
- chunk, the book. Look a little deeper, and there are more
- chunks, the individual chapters. These are chunked further into
- paragraphs, footnotes, character names, and so on.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Notice how this differentiation between different elements
- of the content can be made without resorting to any
- <acronym>XML</acronym> terms. It really is surprisingly
- straightforward. This could be done with a highlighter pen and
- a printout of the book, using different colors to indicate
- different chunks of content.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Of course, we do not have an electronic highlighter pen, so
- we need some other way of indicating which element each piece of
- content belongs to. In languages written in
- <acronym>XML</acronym> (<acronym>XHTML</acronym>, DocBook, et
- al) this is done by means of <emphasis>tags</emphasis>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A tag is used to identify where a particular element starts,
- and where the element ends. <emphasis>The tag is not part of
- the element itself</emphasis>. Because each grammar was
- normally written to mark up specific types of information, each
- one will recognize different elements, and will therefore have
- different names for the tags.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">For an element called
- <replaceable>element-name</replaceable> the start tag will
- normally look like <tag class="starttag"><replaceable>element-name</replaceable></tag>.
- The corresponding closing tag for this element is <tag class="endtag"><replaceable>element-name</replaceable></tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>使用元素 (開始與結束標籤)</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>XHTML</acronym> has an element for indicating
- that the content enclosed by the element is a paragraph,
- called <tag>p</tag>.</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is a paragraph. It starts with the start tag for
- the 'p' element, and it will end with the end tag for the 'p'
- element.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is another paragraph. But this one is much shorter.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Some elements have no content. For example, in
- <acronym>XHTML</acronym>, a horizontal line can be included in
- the document. For these <quote>empty</quote> elements,
- <acronym>XML</acronym> introduced a shorthand form that is
- completely equivalent to the two-tag version:</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>使用沒有內容的元素</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>XHTML</acronym> has an element for indicating a
- horizontal rule, called <tag>hr</tag>. This element
- does not wrap content, so it looks like this:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>One paragraph.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-<tag class="starttag">hr</tag><tag class="endtag">hr</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is another paragraph. A horizontal rule separates this
- from the previous paragraph.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The shorthand version consists of a single tag:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>One paragraph.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-<tag class="emptytag">hr</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is another paragraph. A horizontal rule separates this
- from the previous paragraph.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">As shown above, elements can contain other elements. In the
- book example earlier, the book element contained all the chapter
- elements, which in turn contained all the paragraph elements,
- and so on.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>在元素中的元素; <tag>em</tag></title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is a simple <tag class="starttag">em</tag>paragraph<tag class="endtag">em</tag> where some
- of the <tag class="starttag">em</tag>words<tag class="endtag">em</tag> have been <tag class="starttag">em</tag>emphasized<tag class="endtag">em</tag>.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The grammar consists of rules that describe which elements
- can contain other elements, and exactly what they can
- contain.</para>
-
- <important>
- <para xml:lang="en">People often confuse the terms tags and elements, and use
- the terms as if they were interchangeable. They are
- not.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">An element is a conceptual part of your document. An
- element has a defined start and end. The tags mark where the
- element starts and ends.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When this document (or anyone else knowledgeable about
- <acronym>XML</acronym>) refers to
- <quote>the <tag class="starttag">p</tag> tag</quote>
- they mean the literal text consisting of the three characters
- <literal>&lt;</literal>, <literal>p</literal>, and
- <literal>&gt;</literal>. But the phrase
- <quote>the <tag>p</tag> element</quote> refers to the
- whole element.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This distinction <emphasis>is</emphasis> very subtle. But
- keep it in mind.</para>
- </important>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Elements can have attributes. An attribute has a name and a
- value, and is used for adding extra information to the element.
- This might be information that indicates how the content should
- be rendered, or might be something that uniquely identifies that
- occurrence of the element, or it might be something else.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">An element's attributes are written
- <emphasis>inside</emphasis> the start tag for that element, and
- take the form
- <literal><replaceable>attribute-name</replaceable>="<replaceable>attribute-value</replaceable>"</literal>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In <acronym>XHTML</acronym>, the <tag>p</tag>
- element has an attribute called
- <tag class="attribute">align</tag>, which suggests an
- alignment (justification) for the paragraph to the program
- displaying the <acronym>XHTML</acronym>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <tag class="attribute">align</tag> attribute can
- take one of four defined values, <literal>left</literal>,
- <literal>center</literal>, <literal>right</literal> and
- <literal>justify</literal>. If the attribute is not specified
- then the default is <literal>left</literal>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>使用元素的屬性</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p align="left"</tag>The inclusion of the align attribute
- on this paragraph was superfluous, since the default is left.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">p align="center"</tag>This may appear in the center.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Some attributes only take specific values, such as
- <literal>left</literal> or <literal>justify</literal>. Others
- allow any value.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>屬性的單引號</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p align='right'</tag>I am on the right!<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Attribute values in <acronym>XML</acronym> must be enclosed
- in either single or double quotes. Double quotes are
- traditional. Single quotes are useful when the attribute value
- contains double quotes.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Information about attributes, elements, and tags is stored
- in catalog files. The Documentation Project uses standard
- DocBook catalogs and includes additional catalogs for
- FreeBSD-specific features. Paths to the catalog files are defined
- in an environment variable so they can be found by the document
- build tools.</para>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>待辦事項...</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Before running the examples in this document, install
- <package>textproc/docproj</package> from
- the FreeBSD Ports Collection. This is a
- <emphasis>meta-port</emphasis> that downloads and installs
- the standard programs and supporting files needed by the
- Documentation Project. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>csh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> users must use
- <command>rehash</command> for the shell to recognize new
- programs after they have been installed, or log out
- and then log back in again.</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Create <filename>example.xml</filename>, and enter
- this text:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">head</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>An Example XHTML File<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">head</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">body</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is a paragraph containing some text.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">p</tag>This paragraph contains some more text.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">p align="right"</tag>This paragraph might be right-justified.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">body</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">html</tag></programlisting>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Try to validate this file using an
- <acronym>XML</acronym> parser.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><package>textproc/docproj</package>
- includes the <command>xmllint</command>
- <link linkend="xml-primer-validating">validating
- parser</link>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Use <command>xmllint</command> to validate the
- document:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>xmllint --valid --noout example.xml</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><command>xmllint</command> returns without displaying
- any output, showing that the document validated
- successfully.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">See what happens when required elements are omitted.
- Delete the line with the
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag> and
- <tag class="endtag">title</tag> tags, and re-run
- the validation.</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>xmllint --valid --noout example.xml</userinput>
-example.xml:5: element head: validity error : Element head content does not follow the DTD, expecting ((script | style | meta | link | object | isindex)* , ((title , (script | style | meta | link | object | isindex)* , (base , (script | style | meta | link | object | isindex)*)?) | (base , (script | style | meta | link | object | isindex)* , title , (script | style | meta | link | object | isindex)*))), got ()</screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This shows that the validation error comes from the
- <replaceable>fifth</replaceable> line of the
- <replaceable>example.xml</replaceable> file and that the
- content of the <tag class="starttag">head</tag> is
- the part which does not follow the rules of the
- <acronym>XHTML</acronym> grammar.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Then <command>xmllint</command> shows the line where
- the error was found and marks the exact character position
- with a <literal>^</literal> sign.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Replace the <tag>title</tag> element.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xml-primer-doctype-declaration">
- <title>DOCTYPE 宣告</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The beginning of each document can specify the name of the
- <acronym>DTD</acronym> to which the document conforms. This
- DOCTYPE declaration is used by <acronym>XML</acronym> parsers to
- identify the <acronym>DTD</acronym> and ensure that the document
- does conform to it.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A typical declaration for a document written to conform with
- version 1.0 of the <acronym>XHTML</acronym>
- <acronym>DTD</acronym> looks like this:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">That line contains a number of different components.</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>&lt;!</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <emphasis>indicator</emphasis> shows
- this is an <acronym>XML</acronym> declaration.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>DOCTYPE</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Shows that this is an <acronym>XML</acronym>
- declaration of the document type.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>html</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Names the first
- <link linkend="xml-primer-elements">element</link> that
- will appear in the document.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Lists the Formal Public Identifier
- (<acronym>FPI</acronym>)
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Formal Public Identifier</primary>
- </indexterm>
- for the <acronym>DTD</acronym> to which this document
- conforms. The <acronym>XML</acronym> parser uses this to
- find the correct <acronym>DTD</acronym> when processing
- this document.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>PUBLIC</literal> is not a part of the
- <acronym>FPI</acronym>, but indicates to the
- <acronym>XML</acronym> processor how to find the
- <acronym>DTD</acronym> referenced in the
- <acronym>FPI</acronym>. Other ways of telling the
- <acronym>XML</acronym> parser how to find the
- <acronym>DTD</acronym> are shown <link linkend="xml-primer-fpi-alternatives">later</link>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd"</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">A local filename or a <acronym>URL</acronym> to find
- the <acronym>DTD</acronym>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>&gt;</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Ends the declaration and returns to the
- document.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>正式公用識別碼 (<acronym>FPI</acronym>)</title>
-
- <indexterm significance="preferred" xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Formal Public Identifier</primary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">It is not necessary to know this, but it is useful
- background, and might help debug problems when the
- <acronym>XML</acronym> processor can not locate the
- <acronym>DTD</acronym>.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>FPI</acronym>s must follow a specific
- syntax:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">"<replaceable>Owner</replaceable>//<replaceable>Keyword</replaceable> <replaceable>Description</replaceable>//<replaceable>Language</replaceable>"</programlisting>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><replaceable>Owner</replaceable></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The owner of the <acronym>FPI</acronym>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The beginning of the string identifies the owner of
- the <acronym>FPI</acronym>. For example, the
- <acronym>FPI</acronym>
- <literal>"ISO 8879:1986//ENTITIES Greek
- Symbols//EN"</literal> lists
- <literal>ISO 8879:1986</literal> as being the owner for
- the set of entities for Greek symbols.
- <acronym>ISO</acronym> 8879:1986 is the International
- Organization for Standardization
- (<acronym>ISO</acronym>) number for the
- <acronym>SGML</acronym> standard, the predecessor (and a
- superset) of <acronym>XML</acronym>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Otherwise, this string will either look like
- <literal>-//<replaceable>Owner</replaceable></literal>
- or
- <literal>+//<replaceable>Owner</replaceable></literal>
- (notice the only difference is the leading
- <literal>+</literal> or <literal>-</literal>).</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">If the string starts with <literal>-</literal> then
- the owner information is unregistered, with a
- <literal>+</literal> identifying it as
- registered.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>ISO</acronym> 9070:1991 defines how
- registered names are generated. It might be derived
- from the number of an <acronym>ISO</acronym>
- publication, an <acronym>ISBN</acronym> code, or an
- organization code assigned according to
- <acronym>ISO</acronym> 6523. Additionally, a
- registration authority could be created in order to
- assign registered names. The <acronym>ISO</acronym>
- council delegated this to the American National
- Standards Institute (<acronym>ANSI</acronym>).</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Because the FreeBSD Project has not been registered,
- the owner string is <literal>-//FreeBSD</literal>. As seen
- in the example, the <acronym>W3C</acronym> are not a
- registered owner either.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><replaceable>Keyword</replaceable></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">There are several keywords that indicate the type of
- information in the file. Some of the most common
- keywords are <literal>DTD</literal>,
- <literal>ELEMENT</literal>, <literal>ENTITIES</literal>,
- and <literal>TEXT</literal>. <literal>DTD</literal> is
- used only for <acronym>DTD</acronym> files,
- <literal>ELEMENT</literal> is usually used for
- <acronym>DTD</acronym> fragments that contain only
- entity or element declarations. <literal>TEXT</literal>
- is used for <acronym>XML</acronym> content (text and
- tags).</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><replaceable>Description</replaceable></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Any description can be given for the contents
- of this file. This may include version numbers or any
- short text that is meaningful and unique for the
- <acronym>XML</acronym> system.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><replaceable>Language</replaceable></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">An <acronym>ISO</acronym> two-character code that
- identifies the native language for the file.
- <literal>EN</literal> is used for English.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <sect3>
- <title><filename>catalog</filename> 檔案</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">With the syntax above, an <acronym>XML</acronym>
- processor needs to have some way of turning the
- <acronym>FPI</acronym> into the name of the file containing
- the <acronym>DTD</acronym>. A catalog file (typically
- called <filename>catalog</filename>) contains lines that map
- <acronym>FPI</acronym>s to filenames. For example, if the
- catalog file contained the line:</para>
-
-<!-- XXX: mention XML catalog or maybe replace this totally and only cover XML catalog -->
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "1.0/transitional.dtd"</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>XML</acronym> processor knows that the
- <acronym>DTD</acronym> is called
- <filename>transitional.dtd</filename> in the
- <filename>1.0</filename> subdirectory of the directory that
- held <filename>catalog</filename>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Examine the contents of
- <filename>/usr/local/share/xml/dtd/xhtml/catalog.xml</filename>.
- This is the catalog file for the <acronym>XHTML</acronym>
- <acronym>DTD</acronym>s that were installed as part of the
- <package>textproc/docproj</package> port.</para>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xml-primer-fpi-alternatives">
- <title><acronym>FPI</acronym> 的替代方案</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Instead of using an <acronym>FPI</acronym> to indicate the
- <acronym>DTD</acronym> to which the document conforms (and
- therefore, which file on the system contains the
- <acronym>DTD</acronym>), the filename can be explicitly
- specified.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The syntax is slightly different:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">!DOCTYPE html SYSTEM "/path/to/file.dtd"</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <literal>SYSTEM</literal> keyword indicates that the
- <acronym>XML</acronym> processor should locate the
- <acronym>DTD</acronym> in a system specific fashion. This
- typically (but not always) means the <acronym>DTD</acronym>
- will be provided as a filename.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Using <acronym>FPI</acronym>s is preferred for reasons of
- portability. If the <literal>SYSTEM</literal> identifier is
- used, then the <acronym>DTD</acronym> must be provided and
- kept in the same location for everyone.</para>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xml-primer-xml-escape">
- <title>跳脫回 <acronym>XML</acronym></title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Some of the underlying <acronym>XML</acronym> syntax can be
- useful within documents. For example, comments can be included
- in the document, and will be ignored by the parser. Comments
- are entered using <acronym>XML</acronym> syntax. Other uses for
- <acronym>XML</acronym> syntax will be shown later.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>XML</acronym> sections begin with a
- <literal>&lt;!</literal> tag and end with a
- <literal>&gt;</literal>. These sections contain instructions
- for the parser rather than elements of the document. Everything
- between these tags is <acronym>XML</acronym> syntax. The
- <link linkend="xml-primer-doctype-declaration">DOCTYPE
- declaration</link> shown earlier is an example of
- <acronym>XML</acronym> syntax included in the document.</para>
-
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xml-primer-comments">
- <title>註解</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">An <acronym>XML</acronym> document may contain comments.
- They may appear anywhere as long as they are not inside tags.
- They are even allowed in some locations inside the
- <acronym>DTD</acronym> (e.g., between <link linkend="xml-primer-entities">entity
- declarations</link>).</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>XML</acronym> comments start with the string
- <quote><literal>&lt;!--</literal></quote> and end with the
- string <quote><literal>--&gt;</literal></quote>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Here are some examples of valid <acronym>XML</acronym>
- comments:</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><acronym>XML</acronym> 通用註解</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!-- This is inside the comment --&gt;
-
-&lt;!--This is another comment--&gt;
-
-&lt;!-- This is how you
- write multiline comments --&gt;
-
-&lt;p&gt;A simple &lt;!-- Comment inside an element's content --&gt; paragraph.&lt;/p&gt;</programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>XML</acronym> comments may contain any strings
- except <quote><literal>--</literal></quote>:</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>錯誤的<acronym>XML</acronym> 註解</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!-- This comment--is wrong --&gt;</programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>待辦事項...</title>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Add some comments to
- <filename>example.xml</filename>, and check that the file
- still validates using <command>xmllint</command>.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Add some invalid comments to
- <filename>example.xml</filename>, and see the error
- messages that <command>xmllint</command> gives when it
- encounters an invalid comment.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xml-primer-entities">
- <title>Entities</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Entities are a mechanism for assigning names to chunks of
- content. As an <acronym>XML</acronym> parser processes a
- document, any entities it finds are replaced by the content of
- the entity.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This is a good way to have re-usable, easily changeable
- chunks of content in <acronym>XML</acronym> documents. It is
- also the only way to include one marked up file inside another
- using <acronym>XML</acronym>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">There are two types of entities for two different
- situations: <emphasis>general entities</emphasis> and
- <emphasis>parameter entities</emphasis>.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xml-primer-general-entities">
- <title>一般 Entities</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">General entities are used to assign names to reusable
- chunks of text. These entities can only be used in the
- document. They cannot be used in an
- <acronym>XML</acronym> context.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To include the text of a general entity in the document,
- include
- <literal>&amp;<replaceable>entity-name</replaceable>;</literal>
- in the text. For example, consider a general entity called
- <literal>current.version</literal> which expands to the
- current version number of a product. To use it in the
- document, write:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>The current version of our product is
- &amp;current.version;.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When the version number changes, edit the definition of
- the general entity, replacing the value. Then reprocess the
- document.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">General entities can also be used to enter characters that
- could not otherwise be included in an <acronym>XML</acronym>
- document. For example, <literal>&lt;</literal> and
- <literal>&amp;</literal> cannot normally appear in an
- <acronym>XML</acronym> document. The <acronym>XML</acronym>
- parser sees the <literal>&lt;</literal> symbol as the start of
- a tag. Likewise, when the <literal>&amp;</literal> symbol is
- seen, the next text is expected to be an entity name.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">These symbols can be included by using two predefined
- general entities: <literal>&amp;lt;</literal> and
- <literal>&amp;amp;</literal>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">General entities can only be defined within an
- <acronym>XML</acronym> context. Such definitions are usually
- done immediately after the DOCTYPE declaration.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>定義一般 Entities</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
-"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd" [
-&lt;!ENTITY current.version "3.0-RELEASE"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY last.version "2.2.7-RELEASE"&gt;
-]&gt;</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The DOCTYPE declaration has been extended by adding a
- square bracket at the end of the first line. The two
- entities are then defined over the next two lines, the
- square bracket is closed, and then the DOCTYPE declaration
- is closed.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The square brackets are necessary to indicate that the
- DTD indicated by the DOCTYPE declaration is being
- extended.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xml-primer-parameter-entities">
- <title>參數 Entities</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Parameter entities, like
- <link linkend="xml-primer-general-entities">general
- entities</link>, are used to assign names to reusable chunks
- of text. But parameter entities can only be used within an
- <link linkend="xml-primer-xml-escape">XML
- context</link>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Parameter entity definitions are similar to those for
- general entities. However, parameter entries are included
- with
- <literal>%<replaceable>entity-name</replaceable>;</literal>.
- The definition also includes the <literal>%</literal> between
- the <literal>ENTITY</literal> keyword and the name of the
- entity.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">For a mnemonic, think
- <quote><emphasis>P</emphasis>arameter entities use the
- <emphasis>P</emphasis>ercent symbol</quote>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>定義參數 Entities</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
-"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd" [
-&lt;!ENTITY % param.some "some"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY % param.text "text"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY % param.new "%param.some more %param.text"&gt;
-
-&lt;!-- %param.new now contains "some more text" --&gt;
-]&gt;</programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>待辦事項...</title>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Add a general entity to
- <filename>example.xml</filename>.</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
-"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd" [
-&lt;!ENTITY version "1.1"&gt;
-]&gt;
-
-<tag class="starttag">html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">head</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>An Example XHTML File<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">head</tag>
-
- &lt;!-- There may be some comments in here as well --&gt;
-
- <tag class="starttag">body</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is a paragraph containing some text.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">p</tag>This paragraph contains some more text.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">p align="right"</tag>This paragraph might be right-justified.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">p</tag>The current version of this document is: &amp;version;<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">body</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">html</tag></programlisting>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Validate the document using
- <command>xmllint</command>.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Load <filename>example.xml</filename> into a web
- browser. It may have to be copied to
- <filename>example.html</filename> before the browser
- recognizes it as an <acronym>XHTML</acronym>
- document.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Older browsers with simple parsers may not render this
- file as expected. The entity reference
- <literal>&amp;version;</literal> may not be replaced by
- the version number, or the <acronym>XML</acronym> context
- closing <literal>]&gt;</literal> may not be recognized and
- instead shown in the output.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">The solution is to <emphasis>normalize</emphasis> the
- document with an <acronym>XML</acronym> normalizer. The
- normalizer reads valid <acronym>XML</acronym> and writes
- equally valid <acronym>XML</acronym> which has been
- transformed in some way. One way the normalizer
- transforms the input is by expanding all the entity
- references in the document, replacing the entities with
- the text that they represent.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><command>xmllint</command> can be used for this. It
- also has an option to drop the initial
- <acronym>DTD</acronym> section so that the closing
- <literal>]&gt;</literal> does not confuse browsers:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>xmllint --noent --dropdtd example.xml &gt; example.html</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A normalized copy of the document with entities
- expanded is produced in <filename>example.html</filename>,
- ready to load into a web browser.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xml-primer-include">
- <title>在引用檔使用 Entities</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Both
- <link linkend="xml-primer-general-entities">general</link> and
- <link linkend="xml-primer-parameter-entities">parameter</link>
- entities are particularly useful for including one file inside
- another.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xml-primer-include-using-gen-entities">
- <title>在引用檔使用一般 Entities</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Consider some content for an <acronym>XML</acronym> book
- organized into files, one file per chapter, called
- <filename>chapter1.xml</filename>,
- <filename>chapter2.xml</filename>, and so forth, with a
- <filename>book.xml</filename> that will contain these
- chapters.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In order to use the contents of these files as the values
- for entities, they are declared with the
- <literal>SYSTEM</literal> keyword. This directs the
- <acronym>XML</acronym> parser to include the contents of the
- named file as the value of the entity.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>在引用檔使用一般 Entities</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
-"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd" [
-&lt;!ENTITY chapter.1 SYSTEM "chapter1.xml"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY chapter.2 SYSTEM "chapter2.xml"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY chapter.3 SYSTEM "chapter3.xml"&gt;
-&lt;!-- And so forth --&gt;
-]&gt;
-
-<tag class="starttag">html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"</tag>
- &lt;!-- Use the entities to load in the chapters --&gt;
-
- &amp;chapter.1;
- &amp;chapter.2;
- &amp;chapter.3;
-<tag class="endtag">html</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <warning>
- <para xml:lang="en">When using general entities to include other files
- within a document, the files being included
- (<filename>chapter1.xml</filename>,
- <filename>chapter2.xml</filename>, and so on)
- <emphasis>must not</emphasis> start with a DOCTYPE
- declaration. This is a syntax error because entities are
- low-level constructs and they are resolved before any
- parsing happens.</para>
- </warning>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>在引用檔使用參數 Entities</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Parameter entities can only be used inside an
- <acronym>XML</acronym> context. Including a file in an
- <acronym>XML</acronym> context can be used
- to ensure that general entities are reusable.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Suppose that there are many chapters in the document, and
- these chapters were reused in two different books, each book
- organizing the chapters in a different fashion.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The entities could be listed at the top of each book, but
- that quickly becomes cumbersome to manage.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Instead, place the general entity definitions inside one
- file, and use a parameter entity to include that file within
- the document.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>在引用檔使用參數 Entities</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Place the entity definitions in a separate file
- called <filename>chapters.ent</filename> and
- containing this text:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!ENTITY chapter.1 SYSTEM "chapter1.xml"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY chapter.2 SYSTEM "chapter2.xml"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY chapter.3 SYSTEM "chapter3.xml"&gt;</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Create a parameter entity to refer to the contents
- of the file. Then use the parameter entity to load the file
- into the document, which will then make all the general
- entities available for use. Then use the general entities
- as before:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
-"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd" [
-&lt;!-- Define a parameter entity to load in the chapter general entities --&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY % chapters SYSTEM "chapters.ent"&gt;
-
-&lt;!-- Now use the parameter entity to load in this file --&gt;
-%chapters;
-]&gt;
-
-<tag class="starttag">html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"</tag>
- &amp;chapter.1;
- &amp;chapter.2;
- &amp;chapter.3;
-<tag class="endtag">html</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>待辦事項...</title>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>在引用檔使用一般 Entities</title>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Create three files, <filename>para1.xml</filename>,
- <filename>para2.xml</filename>, and
- <filename>para3.xml</filename>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Put content like this in each file:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is the first paragraph.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Edit <filename>example.xml</filename> so that it
- looks like this:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
-"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd" [
-&lt;!ENTITY version "1.1"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY para1 SYSTEM "para1.xml"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY para2 SYSTEM "para2.xml"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY para3 SYSTEM "para3.xml"&gt;
-]&gt;
-
-<tag class="starttag">html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">head</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>An Example XHTML File<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">head</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">body</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">p</tag>The current version of this document is: &amp;version;<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
- &amp;para1;
- &amp;para2;
- &amp;para3;
- <tag class="endtag">body</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">html</tag></programlisting>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Produce <filename>example.html</filename> by
- normalizing <filename>example.xml</filename>.</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>xmllint --dropdtd --noent example.xml &gt; example.html</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Load <filename>example.html</filename> into the web
- browser and confirm that the
- <filename>para<replaceable>n</replaceable>.xml</filename>
- files have been included in
- <filename>example.html</filename>.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>在引用檔使用參數 Entities</title>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">The previous steps must have completed before this
- step.</para>
- </note>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Edit <filename>example.xml</filename> so that it
- looks like this:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"
-"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd" [
-&lt;!ENTITY % entities SYSTEM "entities.ent"&gt; %entities;
-]&gt;
-
-<tag class="starttag">html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">head</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>An Example XHTML File<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">head</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">body</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">p</tag>The current version of this document is: &amp;version;<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
- &amp;para1;
- &amp;para2;
- &amp;para3;
- <tag class="endtag">body</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">html</tag></programlisting>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Create a new file called
- <filename>entities.ent</filename> with this
- content:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!ENTITY version "1.1"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY para1 SYSTEM "para1.xml"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY para2 SYSTEM "para2.xml"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY para3 SYSTEM "para3.xml"&gt;</programlisting>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Produce <filename>example.html</filename> by
- normalizing <filename>example.xml</filename>.</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>xmllint --dropdtd --noent example.xml &gt; example.html</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Load <filename>example.html</filename> into the web
- browser and confirm that the
- <filename>para<replaceable>n</replaceable>.xml</filename>
- files have been included in
- <filename>example.html</filename>.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xml-primer-marked-sections">
- <title>已標記小節</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>XML</acronym> provides a mechanism to indicate that
- particular pieces of the document should be processed in a
- special way. These are called
- <quote>marked sections</quote>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>已標記的結構</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;![<replaceable>KEYWORD</replaceable>[
- Contents of marked section
-]]&gt;</programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">As expected of an <acronym>XML</acronym> construct, a marked
- section starts with <literal>&lt;!</literal>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The first square bracket begins the marked section.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><replaceable>KEYWORD</replaceable> describes how this marked
- section is to be processed by the parser.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The second square bracket indicates the start of the
- marked section's content.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The marked section is finished by closing the two square
- brackets, and then returning to the document context from the
- <acronym>XML</acronym> context with
- <literal>&gt;</literal>.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xml-primer-marked-section-keywords">
- <title>已標記關鍵字</title>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="xml-primer-cdata">
- <title xml:lang="en"><literal>CDATA</literal></title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">These keywords denote the marked sections
- <emphasis>content model</emphasis>, and allow you to change
- it from the default.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When an <acronym>XML</acronym> parser is processing a
- document, it keeps track of the
- <quote>content model</quote>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The content model describes the
- content the parser is expecting to see and what it will do
- with that content.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <literal>CDATA</literal> content model is one of the
- most useful.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>CDATA</literal> is for
- <quote>Character Data</quote>. When the parser is in this
- content model, it expects to see only characters. In this
- model the <literal>&lt;</literal> and
- <literal>&amp;</literal> symbols lose their special status,
- and will be treated as ordinary characters.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">When using <literal>CDATA</literal> in examples of
- text marked up in <acronym>XML</acronym>, remember that
- the content of <literal>CDATA</literal> is not validated.
- The included text must be check with other means. For
- example, the content could be written in another document,
- validated, and then pasted into the
- <literal>CDATA</literal> section.</para>
- </note>
-
- <example>
- <title>使用 <literal>CDATA</literal> 已標記小節</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>Here is an example of how to include some text that contains
- many <tag class="starttag">literal</tag>&amp;lt;<tag class="endtag">literal</tag> and <tag class="starttag">literal</tag>&amp;amp;<tag class="endtag">literal</tag>
- symbols. The sample text is a fragment of
- <tag class="starttag">acronym</tag>XHTML<tag class="endtag">acronym</tag>. The surrounding text (<tag class="starttag">para</tag> and
- <tag class="starttag">programlisting</tag>) are from DocBook.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">programlisting</tag>&lt;![CDATA[<tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is a sample that shows some of the
- elements within <tag class="starttag">acronym</tag>XHTML<tag class="endtag">acronym</tag>. Since the angle
- brackets are used so many times, it is simpler to say the whole
- example is a CDATA marked section than to use the entity names for
- the left and right angle brackets throughout.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">ul</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag>This is a listitem<tag class="endtag">li</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag>This is a second listitem<tag class="endtag">li</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag>This is a third listitem<tag class="endtag">li</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">ul</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is the end of the example.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>]]&gt;<tag class="endtag">programlisting</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="xml-primer-include-ignore">
- <title><literal>INCLUDE</literal> 與 <literal>IGNORE</literal></title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When the keyword is <literal>INCLUDE</literal>, then the
- contents of the marked section will be processed. When the
- keyword is <literal>IGNORE</literal>, the marked section
- is ignored and will not be processed. It will not appear in
- the output.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>在已標記小節中使用 <literal>INCLUDE</literal> 及 <literal>IGNORE</literal></title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;![INCLUDE[
- This text will be processed and included.
-]]&gt;
-
-&lt;![IGNORE[
- This text will not be processed or included.
-]]&gt;</programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">By itself, this is not too useful. Text to be
- removed from the document could be cut out, or wrapped
- in comments.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">It becomes more useful when controlled by
- <link linkend="xml-primer-parameter-entities">parameter
- entities</link>, yet this usage is limited
- to entity files.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">For example, suppose that documentation was produced in
- a hard-copy version and an electronic version. Some extra
- text is desired in the electronic version content that was
- not to appear in the hard-copy.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Create an entity file that defines general entities to
- include each chapter and guard these definitions with a
- parameter entity that can be set to either
- <literal>INCLUDE</literal> or <literal>IGNORE</literal> to
- control whether the entity is defined. After these
- conditional general entity definitions, place one more
- definition for each general entity to set them to an empty
- value. This technique makes use of the fact that entity
- definitions cannot be overridden but the first definition
- always takes effect. So the inclusion of the chapter is
- controlled with the corresponding parameter entity. Set to
- <literal>INCLUDE</literal>, the first general entity
- definition will be read and the second one will be ignored.
- Set to <literal>IGNORE</literal>, the first definition will
- be ignored and the second one will take effect.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>使用參數 Entities 來控制已標記小節</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!ENTITY % electronic.copy "INCLUDE"&gt;
-
-&lt;![%electronic.copy;[
-&lt;!ENTITY chap.preface SYSTEM "preface.xml"&gt;
-]]&gt;
-
-&lt;!ENTITY chap.preface ""&gt;</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When producing the hard-copy version, change the
- parameter entity's definition to:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!ENTITY % electronic.copy "IGNORE"&gt;</programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>待辦事項...</title>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Modify <filename>entities.ent</filename> to
- contain the following:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!ENTITY version "1.1"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY % conditional.text "IGNORE"&gt;
-
-&lt;![%conditional.text;[
-&lt;!ENTITY para1 SYSTEM "para1.xml"&gt;
-]]&gt;
-
-&lt;!ENTITY para1 ""&gt;
-
-&lt;!ENTITY para2 SYSTEM "para2.xml"&gt;
-&lt;!ENTITY para3 SYSTEM "para3.xml"&gt;</programlisting>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Normalize <filename>example.xml</filename>
- and notice that the conditional text is not present in the
- output document. Set the parameter entity
- guard to <literal>INCLUDE</literal> and regenerate the
- normalized document and the text will appear again.
- This method makes sense if there are more
- conditional chunks depending on the same condition. For
- example, to control generating printed or online
- text.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xml-primer-conclusion">
- <title>結論</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">That is the conclusion of this <acronym>XML</acronym>
- primer. For reasons of space and complexity, several things
- have not been covered in depth (or at all). However, the
- previous sections cover enough <acronym>XML</acronym> to
- introduce the organization of the <acronym>FDP</acronym>
- documentation.</para>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1998, 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="xhtml-markup">
- <title><acronym>XHTML</acronym> 標籤</title>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xhtml-markup-introduction">
- <title>簡介</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This chapter describes usage of the <acronym>XHTML</acronym>
- markup language used for the FreeBSD web site.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>XHTML</acronym> is the <acronym>XML</acronym>
- version of the HyperText Markup Language, the markup language of
- choice on the World Wide Web. More information can be found at
- <uri xlink:href="http://www.w3.org/">http://www.w3.org/</uri>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>XHTML</acronym> is used to mark up pages on the
- FreeBSD web site. It is usually not used to mark up other
- documentation, since DocBook offers a far richer set of elements
- from which to choose. Consequently, <acronym>XHTML</acronym>
- pages will normally only be encountered when writing for the web
- site.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>HTML</acronym> has gone through a number of
- versions. The <acronym>XML</acronym>-compliant version
- described here is called <acronym>XHTML</acronym>. The latest
- widespread version is <acronym>XHTML</acronym> 1.0, available in
- both <emphasis>strict</emphasis> and
- <emphasis>transitional</emphasis> variants.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>XHTML</acronym> <acronym>DTDs</acronym> are
- available from the Ports Collection in
- <package>textproc/xhtml</package>. They are
- automatically installed by the <package>textproc/docproj</package> port.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">This is <emphasis>not</emphasis> an exhaustive list of
- elements, since that would just repeat the documentation for
- <acronym>XHTML</acronym>. The aim is to list those elements
- most commonly used. Please post questions about elements or
- uses not covered here to the <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link>.</para>
- </note>
-
- <note>
- <title xml:lang="en">Inline Versus Block</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In the remainder of this document, when describing
- elements, <emphasis>inline</emphasis> means that the element
- can occur within a block element, and does not cause a line
- break. A <emphasis>block</emphasis> element, by comparison,
- will cause a line break (and other processing) when it is
- encountered.</para>
- </note>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xhtml-markup-fpi">
- <title>正式公用識別碼 (<acronym>FPI</acronym>)</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">There are a number of <acronym>XHTML</acronym>
- <acronym>FPI</acronym>s, depending upon the version, or
- <emphasis>level</emphasis> of <acronym>XHTML</acronym> to which
- a document conforms. Most <acronym>XHTML</acronym> documents on
- the FreeBSD web site comply with the transitional version of
- <acronym>XHTML</acronym> 1.0.</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"</programlisting>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xhtml-markup-sectional-elements">
- <title>分節元素</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">An <acronym>XHTML</acronym> document is normally split into
- two sections. The first section, called the
- <emphasis>head</emphasis>, contains meta-information about the
- document, such as its title, the name of the author, the parent
- document, and so on. The second section, the
- <emphasis>body</emphasis>, contains content that will be
- displayed to the user.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">These sections are indicated with <tag>head</tag>
- and <tag>body</tag> elements respectively. These
- elements are contained within the top-level
- <tag>html</tag> element.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>一般的 <acronym>XHTML</acronym> 文件結構</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">head</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag><replaceable>The Document's Title</replaceable><tag class="endtag">title</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">head</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">body</tag>
-
- …
-
- <tag class="endtag">body</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">html</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements">
- <title>區塊元素</title>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements-headings">
- <title>標題</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>XHTML</acronym> has tags to denote headings in
- the document at up to six different levels.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The largest and most prominent heading is
- <tag>h1</tag>, then <tag>h2</tag>,
- continuing down to <tag>h6</tag>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The element's content is the text of the heading.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>h1</tag>, <tag>h2</tag>, 以及其他標題標籤</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">h1</tag>First section<tag class="endtag">h1</tag>
-
-&lt;!-- Document introduction goes here --&gt;
-
-<tag class="starttag">h2</tag>This is the heading for the first section<tag class="endtag">h2</tag>
-
-&lt;!-- Content for the first section goes here --&gt;
-
-<tag class="starttag">h3</tag>This is the heading for the first sub-section<tag class="endtag">h3</tag>
-
-&lt;!-- Content for the first sub-section goes here --&gt;
-
-<tag class="starttag">h2</tag>This is the heading for the second section<tag class="endtag">h2</tag>
-
-&lt;!-- Content for the second section goes here --&gt;</programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Generally, an <acronym>XHTML</acronym> page should have
- one first level heading (<tag>h1</tag>). This can
- contain many second level headings (<tag>h2</tag>),
- which can in turn contain many third level headings. Do not
- leave gaps in the numbering.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements-paragraphs">
- <title>段落</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>XHTML</acronym> supports a single paragraph
- element, <tag>p</tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>p</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is a paragraph. It can contain just about any
- other element.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements-block-quotations">
- <title>區塊引言</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A block quotation is an extended quotation from another
- document that will appear in a separate paragraph.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>blockquote</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>A small excerpt from the US Constitution:<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">blockquote</tag>We the People of the United States, in Order to form
- a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic
- Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general
- Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our
- Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the
- United States of America.<tag class="endtag">blockquote</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements-lists">
- <title>清單</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>XHTML</acronym> can present the user with three
- types of lists: ordered, unordered, and definition.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Entries in an ordered list will be numbered, while entries
- in an unordered list will be preceded by bullet points.
- Definition lists have two sections for each entry. The first
- section is the term being defined, and the second section is
- the definition.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Ordered lists are indicated by the <tag>ol</tag>
- element, unordered lists by the <tag>ul</tag>
- element, and definition lists by the <tag>dl</tag>
- element.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Ordered and unordered lists contain listitems, indicated
- by the <tag>li</tag> element. A listitem can
- contain textual content, or it may be further wrapped in one
- or more <tag>p</tag> elements.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Definition lists contain definition terms
- (<tag>dt</tag>) and definition descriptions
- (<tag>dd</tag>). A definition term can only contain
- inline elements. A definition description can contain other
- block elements.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>ul</tag> 與 <tag>ol</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>An unordered list. Listitems will probably be
- preceded by bullets.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">ul</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag>First item<tag class="endtag">li</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag>Second item<tag class="endtag">li</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag>Third item<tag class="endtag">li</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">ul</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">p</tag>An ordered list, with list items consisting of multiple
- paragraphs. Each item (note: not each paragraph) will be
- numbered.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">ol</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag><tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is the first item. It only has one paragraph.<tag class="endtag">p</tag><tag class="endtag">li</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag><tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is the first paragraph of the second item.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is the second paragraph of the second item.<tag class="endtag">p</tag><tag class="endtag">li</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag><tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is the first and only paragraph of the third
- item.<tag class="endtag">p</tag><tag class="endtag">li</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">ol</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <example>
- <title>使用 <tag>dl</tag> 列定義清單</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">dl</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">dt</tag>Term 1<tag class="endtag">dt</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">dd</tag><tag class="starttag">p</tag>Paragraph 1 of definition 1.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">p</tag>Paragraph 2 of definition 1.<tag class="endtag">p</tag><tag class="endtag">dd</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">dt</tag>Term 2<tag class="endtag">dt</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">dd</tag><tag class="starttag">p</tag>Paragraph 1 of definition 2.<tag class="endtag">p</tag><tag class="endtag">dd</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">dt</tag>Term 3<tag class="endtag">dt</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">dd</tag><tag class="starttag">p</tag>Paragraph 1 of definition 3.<tag class="endtag">p</tag><tag class="endtag">dd</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">dl</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements-preformatted-text">
- <title>已預排文字</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Pre-formatted text is shown to the user exactly as it is
- in the file. Text is shown in a fixed font. Multiple spaces
- and line breaks are shown exactly as they are in the
- file.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Wrap pre-formatted text in the <tag>pre</tag>
- element.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>pre</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">For example, the <tag>pre</tag> tags could be
- used to mark up an email message:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">pre</tag> From: nik@FreeBSD.org
- To: freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org
- Subject: New documentation available
-
- There is a new copy of my primer for contributors to the FreeBSD
- Documentation Project available at
-
- &amp;lt;URL:http://people.FreeBSD.org/~nik/primer/index.html&amp;gt;
-
- Comments appreciated.
-
- N<tag class="endtag">pre</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Keep in mind that <literal>&lt;</literal> and
- <literal>&amp;</literal> still are recognized as special
- characters in pre-formatted text. This is why the example
- shown had to use <literal>&amp;lt;</literal> instead of
- <literal>&lt;</literal>. For consistency,
- <literal>&amp;gt;</literal> was used in place of
- <literal>&gt;</literal>, too. Watch out for the special
- characters that may appear in text copied from a plain-text
- source, like an email message or program code.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements-tables">
- <title>表格</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Mark up tabular information using the
- <tag>table</tag> element. A table consists of one or
- more table rows (<tag>tr</tag>), each containing one
- or more cells of table data (<tag>td</tag>). Each
- cell can contain other block elements, such as paragraphs or
- lists. It can also contain another table (this nesting can
- repeat indefinitely). If the cell only contains one paragraph
- then the <tag>p</tag>element is not needed.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>table</tag> 的簡單用法</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is a simple 2x2 table.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">table</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Top left cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Top right cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom left cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom right cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">table</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A cell can span multiple rows and columns by adding the
- <tag class="attribute">rowspan</tag> or
- <tag class="attribute">colspan</tag> attributes with
- values for the number of rows or columns to be spanned.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>使用 <tag class="attribute">rowspan</tag></title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>One tall thin cell on the left, two short cells next to
- it on the right.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">table</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td rowspan="2"</tag>Long and thin<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Top cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">table</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <example>
- <title>使用 <tag class="attribute">colspan</tag></title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>One long cell on top, two short cells below it.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">table</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td colspan="2"</tag>Top cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom left cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom right cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">table</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag class="attribute">rowspan</tag> 與 <tag class="attribute">colspan</tag> 一起使用</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>On a 3x3 grid, the top left block is a 2x2 set of
- cells merged into one. The other cells are normal.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">table</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td colspan="2" rowspan="2"</tag>Top left large cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Top right cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- &lt;!-- Because the large cell on the left merges into
- this row, the first &lt;td&gt; will occur on its
- right --&gt;
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Middle right cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom left cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom middle cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom right cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">table</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xhtml-markup-inline-elements">
- <title>行內元素</title>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-inline-elements-emphasizing-information">
- <title>強調資訊</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Two levels of emphasis are available in
- <acronym>XHTML</acronym>, <tag>em</tag> and
- <tag>strong</tag>. <tag>em</tag> is for a
- normal level of emphasis and <tag>strong</tag>
- indicates stronger emphasis.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><tag>em</tag> is typically rendered in italic
- and <tag>strong</tag> is rendered in bold. This is
- not always the case, and should not be relied upon. According
- to best practices, web pages only hold structural and
- semantical information, and stylesheets are later applied to
- them. Think of semantics, not formatting, when using these
- tags.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>em</tag> 與 <tag>strong</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag><tag class="starttag">em</tag>This<tag class="endtag">em</tag> has been emphasized, while
- <tag class="starttag">strong</tag>this<tag class="endtag">strong</tag> has been strongly emphasized.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-inline-elements-fixed-pitch-text">
- <title>標示等寬文字</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Content that should be rendered in a fixed pitch
- (typewriter) typeface is tagged with <tag>tt</tag>
- (for <quote>teletype</quote>).</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>tt</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>Many system settings are stored in
- <tag class="starttag">tt</tag>/etc<tag class="endtag">tt</tag>.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-inline-elements-links">
- <title>連結</title>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Links are also inline elements.</para>
- </note>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="xhtml-markup-inline-elements-linking">
- <title>連結在網站上的其他文件</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A link points to the <acronym>URL</acronym> of a
- document on the web. The link is indicated with
- <tag>a</tag>, and the
- <tag class="attribute">href</tag> attribute contains
- the <acronym>URL</acronym> of the target document. The
- content of the element becomes the link, indicated to the
- user by showing it in a different color or with an
- underline.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>使用 <tag class="starttag">a href="..."</tag></title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>More information is available at the
- <tag class="starttag">a href="http://www.&amp;os;.org/"</tag>&amp;os; web site<tag class="endtag">a</tag>.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This link always takes the user to the top of the linked
- document.</para>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="xhtml-markup-inline-elements-specific-parts">
- <title>連結說明文件的特定章節</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To link to a specific point within a document, that
- document must include an <emphasis>anchor</emphasis> at the
- desired point. Anchors are included by setting the
- <tag class="attribute">id</tag> attribute of an
- element to a name. This example creates an anchor by
- setting the <tag class="attribute">id</tag>
- attribute of a <tag class="element">p</tag>
- element.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>建立錨點</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p id="samplepara"</tag>This paragraph can be referenced
- in other links with the name <tag class="starttag">tt</tag>samplepara<tag class="endtag">tt</tag>.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Links to anchors are similar to plain links, but include
- a <literal>#</literal> symbol and the anchor's
- <acronym>ID</acronym> at the end of the
- <acronym>URL</acronym>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>連結到另一份文件中已命名的段落</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <literal>samplepara</literal> example is part of a
- document called <filename>foo.html</filename>. A link to
- that specific paragraph in the document is constructed in
- this example.</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>More information can be found in the
- <tag class="starttag">a href="foo.html#samplepara"</tag>sample paragraph<tag class="endtag">a</tag> of
- <tag class="starttag">tt</tag>foo.html<tag class="endtag">tt</tag>.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To link to a named anchor within the same document, omit
- the document's <acronym>URL</acronym>, and just use the
- <literal>#</literal> symbol followed by the name of the
- anchor.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>連結到同一份文件已命名的段茖</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <literal>samplepara</literal> example
- resides in this document. To link to it:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">p</tag>More information can be found in the
- <tag class="starttag">a href="#samplepara"</tag>sample paragraph<tag class="endtag">a</tag> of this
- document.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1998, 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="docbook-markup">
-
- <title>DocBook 標籤</title>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="docbook-markup-introduction">
- <title>簡介</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This chapter is an introduction to DocBook as it is used for
- FreeBSD documentation. DocBook is a large and complex markup
- system, but the subset described here covers the parts that are
- most widely used for FreeBSD documentation. While a moderate
- subset is covered, it is impossible to anticipate every
- situation. Please post questions that this document does
- not answer to the <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">DocBook was originally developed by HaL Computer Systems and
- O'Reilly &amp; Associates to be a Document Type Definition
- (<acronym>DTD</acronym>) for writing technical documentation
- <footnote><para xml:lang="en">A short history can be found under <link xlink:href="http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/intro.shtml#d0e41">http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/intro.shtml#d0e41</link>.</para></footnote>.
- Since 1998 it is maintained by the <link xlink:href="http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/tc_home.php?wg_abbrev=docbook">
- DocBook Technical Committee</link>. As such, and unlike
- LinuxDoc and <acronym>XHTML</acronym>, DocBook is very heavily
- oriented towards markup that describes <emphasis>what</emphasis>
- something is, rather than describing <emphasis>how</emphasis> it
- should be presented.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The DocBook <acronym>DTD</acronym> is available from the
- Ports Collection in the
- <package>textproc/docbook-xml</package>
- port. It is automatically installed as part of the
- <package>textproc/docproj</package>
- port.</para>
-
- <note>
- <title xml:lang="en">Formal Versus Informal</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Some elements may exist in two forms,
- <emphasis>formal</emphasis> and <emphasis>informal</emphasis>.
- Typically, the formal version of the element will consist of a
- title followed by the informal version of the element. The
- informal version will not have a title.</para>
- </note>
-
- <note>
- <title xml:lang="en">Inline Versus Block</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In the remainder of this document, when describing
- elements, <emphasis>inline</emphasis> means that the element
- can occur within a block element, and does not cause a line
- break. A <emphasis>block</emphasis> element, by comparison,
- will cause a line break (and other processing) when it is
- encountered.</para>
- </note>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="docbook-markup-freebsd-extensions">
- <title>FreeBSD 擴充項目</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The FreeBSD Documentation Project has extended the DocBook
- <acronym>DTD</acronym> with additional elements and entities.
- These additions serve to make some of the markup easier or more
- precise.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Throughout the rest of this document, the term
- <quote>DocBook</quote> is used to mean the FreeBSD-extended
- DocBook <acronym>DTD</acronym>.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Most of these extensions are not unique to FreeBSD, it was
- just felt that they were useful enhancements for this
- particular project. Should anyone from any of the other *nix
- camps (NetBSD, OpenBSD, Linux, …) be interested in
- collaborating on a standard DocBook extension set, please
- contact Documentation Engineering Team <email>doceng@FreeBSD.org</email>.</para>
- </note>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-freebsd-extensions-elements">
- <title>FreeBSD 元素</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The additional FreeBSD elements are not (currently) in the
- Ports Collection. They are stored in the FreeBSD Subversion
- tree, as <link xlink:href="http://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/doc/head/share/xml/freebsd.dtd">head/share/xml/freebsd.dtd</link>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD-specific elements used in the examples below are
- clearly marked.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-freebsd-extensions-entities">
- <title>FreeBSD Entities</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This table shows some of the most useful entities
- available in the <acronym>FDP</acronym>. For a complete list,
- see the <filename>*.ent</filename> files in
- <filename>doc/share/xml</filename>.</para>
-
- <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
- <tgroup cols="3">
- <colspec colname="entity"/>
- <colspec colname="expandsto"/>
- <colspec colname="notes"/>
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry/>
- <entry/>
- <entry/>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody valign="top">
- <row>
- <entry namest="entity" nameend="notes" xml:lang="en"><emphasis>FreeBSD
- Name Entities</emphasis></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;os;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>FreeBSD</literal></entry>
- <entry/>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;os.stable;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>FreeBSD-STABLE</literal></entry>
- <entry/>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;os.current;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>FreeBSD-CURRENT</literal></entry>
- <entry/>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/>
- <entry/>
- <entry/>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry namest="entity" nameend="notes" xml:lang="en">Manual Page
- Entities</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;man.ls.1;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Usage: <literal>&amp;man.ls.1; is the manual page
- for
- &lt;command&gt;ls&lt;/command&gt;.</literal></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;man.cp.1;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><citerefentry><refentrytitle>cp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Usage: <literal>The manual page for
- &lt;command&gt;cp&lt;/command&gt; is
- &amp;man.cp.1;.</literal></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;man.<replaceable>command</replaceable>.<replaceable>sectionnumber</replaceable>;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><emphasis>link to
- <replaceable>command</replaceable> manual page in
- section
- <replaceable>sectionnumber</replaceable></emphasis></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Entities are defined for all the
- <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/cgi/man.cgi">FreeBSD manual
- pages</link>.</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/>
- <entry/>
- <entry/>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry namest="entity" nameend="notes" xml:lang="en">FreeBSD Mailing List
- Entities</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;a.doc;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link></literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Usage: <literal>A link to the
- &amp;a.doc;.</literal></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;a.questions;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-questions">FreeBSD general questions mailing list</link></literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Usage: <literal>A link to the
- &amp;a.questions;.</literal></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;a.<replaceable>listname</replaceable>;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><emphasis>link to
- <replaceable>listname</replaceable></emphasis></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Entities are defined for all the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources.html#eresources-mail">FreeBSD
- mailing lists</link>.</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/>
- <entry/>
- <entry/>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry namest="entity" nameend="notes" xml:lang="en">FreeBSD Document
- Link Entities</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;url.books.handbook;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Usage: <literal>A link to the &lt;link
- xlink:href="&amp;url.books.handbook;/advanced-networking.html"&gt;Advanced
- Networking&lt;/link&gt; chapter of the
- Handbook.</literal></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;url.books.<replaceable>bookname</replaceable>;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><emphasis>relative path to
- <replaceable>bookname</replaceable></emphasis></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Entities are defined for all the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/">FreeBSD
- books</link>.</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;url.articles.committers-guide;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/committers-guide</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Usage: <literal>A link to the &lt;link
- xlink:href="&amp;url.articles.committers-guide;"&gt;Committer's
- Guide&lt;/link&gt;
- article.</literal></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;url.articles.<replaceable>articlename</replaceable>;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><emphasis>relative path to
- <replaceable>articlename</replaceable></emphasis></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Entities are defined for all the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/">FreeBSD
- articles</link>.</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/>
- <entry/>
- <entry/>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry namest="entity" nameend="notes" xml:lang="en">Other Operating
- System Name Entities</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;linux;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">The <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> operating system.</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;unix;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">The <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> operating system.</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;windows;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">The <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> operating system.</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry/>
- <entry/>
- <entry/>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry namest="entity" nameend="notes" xml:lang="en">Miscellaneous
- Entities</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;prompt.root;</literal></entry>
- <entry><prompt>#</prompt></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">The <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user
- prompt.</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;prompt.user;</literal></entry>
- <entry><prompt>%</prompt></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">A prompt for an unprivileged user.</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;postscript;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><trademark class="registered">PostScript</trademark></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">The
- <trademark class="registered">PostScript</trademark> programming language.</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;tex;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><application>TeX</application></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">The
- <application>TeX</application> typesetting language.</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;xorg;</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Xorg</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">The Xorg open source X
- Window System.</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="docbook-markup-fpi">
- <title>正式公用識別碼 (FPI)</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In compliance with the DocBook guidelines for writing
- <acronym>FPI</acronym>s for DocBook customizations, the
- <acronym>FPI</acronym> for the FreeBSD extended DocBook
- <acronym>DTD</acronym> is:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook V4.2-Based Extension//EN"</programlisting>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="docbook-markup-document-structure">
- <title>文件結構</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">DocBook allows structuring documentation in several ways.
- The FreeBSD Documentation Project uses two primary types of DocBook
- document: the book and the article.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Books are organized into <tag>chapter</tag>s.
- This is a mandatory requirement. There may be
- <tag>part</tag>s between the book and the chapter to
- provide another layer of organization. For example, the
- Handbook is arranged in this way.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A chapter may (or may not) contain one or more sections.
- These are indicated with the <tag>sect1</tag> element.
- If a section contains another section then use the
- <tag>sect2</tag> element, and so on, up to
- <tag>sect5</tag>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Chapters and sections contain the remainder of the
- content.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">An article is simpler than a book, and does not use
- chapters. Instead, the content of an article is organized into
- one or more sections, using the same <tag>sect1</tag>
- (and <tag>sect2</tag> and so on) elements that are used
- in books.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The nature of the document being written should be used to
- determine whether it is best marked up as a book or an article.
- Articles are well suited to information that does not need to be
- broken down into several chapters, and that is, relatively
- speaking, quite short, at up to 20-25 pages of content. Books
- are best suited to information that can be broken up into
- several chapters, possibly with appendices and similar content
- as well.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/docs.html">FreeBSD
- tutorials</link> are all marked up as articles, while this
- document, the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/index.html">FAQ</link>,
- and the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/index.html">Handbook</link> are all marked up as books, for
- example.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-starting-a-book">
- <title>開始撰寫書籍</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The content of a book is contained within the
- <tag>book</tag> element. As well as containing
- structural markup, this element can contain elements that
- include additional information about the book. This is either
- meta-information, used for reference purposes, or additional
- content used to produce a title page.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This additional information is contained within
- <tag>info</tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>使用 <tag>info</tag> 的 <tag>book</tag> 樣板</title>
-
- <!-- Cannot put this in a marked section because of the
- replaceable elements -->
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">book</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">info</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag><replaceable>Your Title Here</replaceable><tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">author</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">personname</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">firstname</tag><replaceable>Your first name</replaceable><tag class="endtag">firstname</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">surname</tag><replaceable>Your surname</replaceable><tag class="endtag">surname</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">personname</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">affiliation</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">address</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">email</tag><replaceable>Your email address</replaceable><tag class="endtag">email</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">address</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">affiliation</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">author</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">copyright</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">year</tag><replaceable>1998</replaceable><tag class="endtag">year</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">holder role="mailto:<replaceable>your email address</replaceable>"</tag><replaceable>Your name</replaceable><tag class="endtag">holder</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">copyright</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">releaseinfo</tag>$FreeBSD$<tag class="endtag">releaseinfo</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">abstract</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag><replaceable>Include an abstract of the book's contents here.</replaceable><tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">abstract</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">info</tag>
-
- …
-
-<tag class="endtag">book</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-starting-an-article">
- <title>開始撰寫文章</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The content of the article is contained within the
- <tag>article</tag> element. As well as containing
- structural markup, this element can contain elements that
- include additional information about the article. This is
- either meta-information, used for reference purposes, or
- additional content used to produce a title page.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This additional information is contained within
- <tag>info</tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>使用 <tag>info</tag> 的 <tag>article</tag> 樣板</title>
-
- <!-- Cannot put this in a marked section because of the
- replaceable elements -->
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">article</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">info</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag><replaceable>Your title here</replaceable><tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">author</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">personname</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">firstname</tag><replaceable>Your first name</replaceable><tag class="endtag">firstname</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">surname</tag><replaceable>Your surname</replaceable><tag class="endtag">surname</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">personname</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">affiliation</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">address</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">email</tag><replaceable>Your email address</replaceable><tag class="endtag">email</tag><tag class="endtag">address</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">address</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">affiliation</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">author</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">copyright</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">year</tag><replaceable>1998</replaceable><tag class="endtag">year</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">holder role="mailto:<replaceable>your email address</replaceable>"</tag><replaceable>Your name</replaceable><tag class="endtag">holder</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">copyright</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">releaseinfo</tag>$FreeBSD$<tag class="endtag">releaseinfo</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">abstract</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag><replaceable>Include an abstract of the article's contents here.</replaceable><tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">abstract</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">info</tag>
-
- …
-
-<tag class="endtag">article</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-indicating-chapters">
- <title>標示章節</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Use <tag>chapter</tag> to mark up your chapters.
- Each chapter has a mandatory <tag>title</tag>.
- Articles do not contain chapters, they are reserved for
- books.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>簡單的章節</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">chapter</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>The Chapter's Title<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- ...
-<tag class="endtag">chapter</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A chapter cannot be empty; it must contain elements in
- addition to <tag>title</tag>. If you need to
- include an empty chapter then just use an empty
- paragraph.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>空白章節</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">chapter</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>This is An Empty Chapter<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag><tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">chapter</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-sections-below-chapters">
- <title>章底下的小節</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In books, chapters may (but do not need to) be broken up
- into sections, subsections, and so on. In articles, sections
- are the main structural element, and each article must contain
- at least one section. Use the
- <tag>sect<replaceable>n</replaceable></tag> element.
- The <replaceable>n</replaceable> indicates the section number,
- which identifies the section level.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The first
- <tag>sect<replaceable>n</replaceable></tag> is
- <tag>sect1</tag>. You can have one or more of these
- in a chapter. They can contain one or more
- <tag>sect2</tag> elements, and so on, down to
- <tag>sect5</tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>章中的小節</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">chapter</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>A Sample Chapter<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>Some text in the chapter.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">sect1</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>First Section<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- …
- <tag class="endtag">sect1</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">sect1</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>Second Section<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">sect2</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>First Sub-Section<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">sect3</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>First Sub-Sub-Section<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- …
- <tag class="endtag">sect3</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">sect2</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">sect2</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>Second Sub-Section (1.2.2)<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- …
- <tag class="endtag">sect2</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">sect1</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">chapter</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Section numbers are automatically generated and
- prepended to titles when the document is rendered to an
- output format. The generated section numbers and titles
- from the example above will be:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">1.1. First Section</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">1.2. Second Section</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">1.2.1. First Sub-Section</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">1.2.1.1. First Sub-Sub-Section</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">1.2.2. Second Sub-Section</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </note>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-subdividing-part">
- <title>使用 <tag>part</tag> 元素來分部</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><tag>part</tag>s introduce another level of
- organization between <tag>book</tag> and
- <tag>chapter</tag> with one or more
- <tag>part</tag>s. This cannot be done in an
- <tag>article</tag>.</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">part</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>Introduction<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">chapter</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>Overview<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- ...
- <tag class="endtag">chapter</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">chapter</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>What is FreeBSD?<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- ...
- <tag class="endtag">chapter</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">chapter</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>History<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- ...
- <tag class="endtag">chapter</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">part</tag></programlisting>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="docbook-markup-block-elements">
- <title>區塊元素</title>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-paragraphs">
- <title>段落</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">DocBook supports three types of paragraphs:
- <tag>formalpara</tag>, <tag>para</tag>, and
- <tag>simpara</tag>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Almost all paragraphs in FreeBSD documentation use
- <tag>para</tag>. <tag>formalpara</tag>
- includes a <tag>title</tag> element, and
- <tag>simpara</tag> disallows some elements from
- within <tag>para</tag>. Stick with
- <tag>para</tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>para</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>This is a paragraph. It can contain just about any
- other element.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This is a paragraph. It can contain just about any
- other element.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-block-quotations">
- <title>區塊引言</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A block quotation is an extended quotation from another
- document that should not appear within the current paragraph.
- These are rarely needed.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Blockquotes can optionally contain a title and an
- attribution (or they can be left untitled and
- unattributed).</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>blockquote</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>A small excerpt from the US Constitution:<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">blockquote</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>Preamble to the Constitution of the United States<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">attribution</tag>Copied from a web site somewhere<tag class="endtag">attribution</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more
- perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility,
- provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and
- secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do
- ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of
- America.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">blockquote</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A small excerpt from the US Constitution:</para>
-
- <blockquote>
- <title xml:lang="en">Preamble to the Constitution of the United
- States</title>
-
- <attribution xml:lang="en">Copied from a web site
- somewhere</attribution>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">We the People of the United States, in Order to form
- a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic
- Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the
- general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to
- ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish
- this Constitution for the United States of
- America.</para>
- </blockquote>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-tips-notes">
- <title>提示、注意、警告、注意事項及重要資訊</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Extra information may need to be separated from
- the main body of the text. Typically this is
- <quote>meta</quote> information of which the user should be
- aware.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Several types of admonitions are available:
- <tag>tip</tag>, <tag>note</tag>,
- <tag>warning</tag>, <tag>caution</tag>, and
- <tag>important</tag>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Which admonition to choose depends on the situation.
- The DocBook
- documentation suggests:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Note is for information that should be heeded by
- all readers.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Important is a variation on Note.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Caution is for information regarding possible data
- loss or software damage.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Warning is for information regarding possible
- hardware damage or injury to life or limb.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>tip</tag> 與 <tag>important</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">tip</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>&amp;os; may reduce stress.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">tip</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">important</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>Please use admonitions sparingly. Too many admonitions
- are visually jarring and can have the opposite of the
- intended effect.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">important</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
- <!-- Need to do this outside of the example -->
- <tip>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD may reduce stress.</para>
- </tip>
-
- <important>
- <para xml:lang="en">Please use admonitions sparingly. Too many admonitions
- are visually jarring and can have the opposite of the
- intended effect.</para>
- </important>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-example">
- <title>範例</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Examples can be shown with <tag>example</tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>example</tag> 原始碼</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">example</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>Empty files can be created easily:<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">screen</tag>&amp;prompt.user; <tag class="starttag">userinput</tag>touch file1 file2 file3<tag class="endtag">userinput</tag><tag class="endtag">screen</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">example</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <!-- Need to do this outside of the example -->
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>example</tag> 的結果</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Empty files can be created easily:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>touch file1 file2 file3</userinput></screen>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-lists-and-procedures">
- <title>清單與步驟</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Information often needs to be presented as lists, or as a
- number of steps that must be carried out in order to
- accomplish a particular goal.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To do this, use <tag>itemizedlist</tag>,
- <tag>orderedlist</tag>, <tag>variablelist</tag>, or
- <tag>procedure</tag>. There are other types of list
- elements in DocBook, but we will not cover them here.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><tag>itemizedlist</tag> and
- <tag>orderedlist</tag> are similar to their
- counterparts in <acronym>HTML</acronym>, <tag>ul</tag>
- and <tag>ol</tag>. Each one consists of one or more
- <tag>listitem</tag> elements, and each
- <tag>listitem</tag> contains one or more block
- elements. The <tag>listitem</tag> elements are
- analogous to <acronym>HTML</acronym>'s <tag>li</tag>
- tags. However, unlike HTML, they are required.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>itemizedlist</tag> 與 <tag>orderedlist</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">itemizedlist</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">listitem</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>This is the first itemized item.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">listitem</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">listitem</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>This is the second itemized item.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">listitem</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">itemizedlist</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">orderedlist</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">listitem</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>This is the first ordered item.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">listitem</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">listitem</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>This is the second ordered item.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">listitem</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">orderedlist</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">This is the first itemized item.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">This is the second itemized item.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">This is the first ordered item.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">This is the second ordered item.</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:id="docbook-markup-varlist" xml:lang="en">An alternate and often
- useful way of presenting information is the
- <tag>variablelist</tag>. These are lists where each entry has
- a term and a description. They are well suited for many types
- of descriptions, and present information in a form that is
- often easier for the reader than sections and
- subsections.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A <tag>variablelist</tag> has a <tag>title</tag>, and then
- pairs of <tag>term</tag> and <tag>listitem</tag>
- entries.</para>
-
- <example xml:id="docbook-markup-variablelist-example">
- <title><tag>variablelist</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">variablelist</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">varlistentry</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">term</tag>Parallel<tag class="endtag">term</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">listitem</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>In parallel communications, groups of bits arrive
- at the same time over multiple communications
- channels.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">listitem</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">varlistentry</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">varlistentry</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">term</tag>Serial<tag class="endtag">term</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">listitem</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>In serial communications, bits arrive one at a
- time over a single communications
- channel.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">listitem</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">varlistentry</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">variablelist</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">Parallel</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In parallel communications, groups of bits arrive
- at the same time over multiple communications
- channels.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">Serial</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In serial communications, bits arrive one at a
- time over a single communications channel.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A <tag>procedure</tag> shows a series of
- <tag>step</tag>s, which may in turn
- consist of more <tag>step</tag>s or
- <tag>substep</tag>s. Each <tag>step</tag>
- contains block elements and may include an optional title.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Sometimes, steps are not sequential, but present a choice:
- do <emphasis>this</emphasis> or do <emphasis>that</emphasis>,
- but not both. For these alternative choices, use
- <tag>stepalternatives</tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>procedure</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">procedure</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">step</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>Do this.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">step</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">step</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>Then do this.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">step</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">step</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>And now do this.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">step</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">step</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>Finally, do one of these.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">stepalternatives</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">step</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>Go left.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">step</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">step</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>Go right.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">step</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">stepalternatives</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">step</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">procedure</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Do this.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Then do this.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">And now do this.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Finally, do one of these:</para>
-
- <stepalternatives>
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Go left.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Go right.</para>
- </step>
- </stepalternatives>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-showing-file-samples">
- <title>顯示檔案範本</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Fragments of a file (or perhaps a complete file) are shown
- by wrapping them in the <tag>programlisting</tag>
- element.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">White space and line breaks within
- <tag>programlisting</tag> <emphasis>are</emphasis>
- significant. In particular, this means that the opening tag
- should appear on the same line as the first line of the
- output, and the closing tag should appear on the same line
- as the last line of the output, otherwise spurious blank
- lines may be included.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>programlisting</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>When finished, the program will look like
- this:<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">programlisting</tag>#include &amp;lt;stdio.h&amp;gt;
-
-int
-main(void)
-{
- printf("hello, world\n");
-}<tag class="endtag">programlisting</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Notice how the angle brackets in the
- <literal>#include</literal> line need to be referenced by
- their entities instead of being included literally.</para>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When finished, the program will look like this:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;
-
-int
-main(void)
-{
- printf("hello, world\n");
-}</programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-callouts">
- <title>標註</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A callout is a visual marker for referring to a
- piece of text or specific position within an
- example.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Callouts are marked with the <tag>co</tag>
- element. Each element must have a unique
- <literal>id</literal> assigned to it. After the example,
- include a <tag>calloutlist</tag> that describes each
- callout.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>co</tag> 與 <tag>calloutlist</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>When finished, the program will look like
- this:<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">programlisting</tag>#include &amp;lt;stdio.h&amp;gt; <tag class="emptytag">co xml:id="co-ex-include"</tag>
-
-int <tag class="emptytag">co xml:id="co-ex-return"</tag>
-main(void)
-{
- printf("hello, world\n"); <tag class="emptytag">co xml:id="co-ex-printf"</tag>
-}<tag class="endtag">programlisting</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">calloutlist</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">callout arearefs="co-ex-include"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>Includes the standard IO header file.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">callout</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">callout arearefs="co-ex-return"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>Specifies that <tag class="starttag">function</tag>main()<tag class="endtag">function</tag> returns an
- int.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">callout</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">callout arearefs="co-ex-printf"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>The <tag class="starttag">function</tag>printf()<tag class="endtag">function</tag> call that writes
- <tag class="starttag">literal</tag>hello, world<tag class="endtag">literal</tag> to standard output.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">callout</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">calloutlist</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When finished, the program will look like this:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">#include &lt;stdio.h&gt; <co xml:id="co-ex-include"/>
-
-int <co xml:id="co-ex-return"/>
-main(void)
-{
- printf("hello, world\n"); <co xml:id="co-ex-printf"/>
-}</programlisting>
-
- <calloutlist>
- <callout arearefs="co-ex-include">
- <para xml:lang="en">Includes the standard IO header file.</para>
- </callout>
-
- <callout arearefs="co-ex-return">
- <para xml:lang="en">Specifies that <function>main()</function> returns
- an int.</para>
- </callout>
-
- <callout arearefs="co-ex-printf">
- <para xml:lang="en">The <function>printf()</function> call that writes
- <literal>hello, world</literal> to standard
- output.</para>
- </callout>
- </calloutlist>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-tables">
- <title>表格</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Unlike <acronym>HTML</acronym>, DocBook does not need
- tables for layout purposes, as the stylesheet handles those
- issues. Instead, just use tables for marking up tabular
- data.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In general terms (and see the DocBook documentation for
- more detail) a table (which can be either formal or informal)
- consists of a <tag>table</tag> element. This contains
- at least one <tag>tgroup</tag> element, which
- specifies (as an attribute) the number of columns in this
- table group. Within the tablegroup there is one
- <tag>thead</tag> element, which contains elements for
- the table headings (column headings), and one
- <tag>tbody</tag> which contains the body of the
- table.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Both <tag>tgroup</tag> and
- <tag>thead</tag> contain <tag>row</tag>
- elements, which in turn contain <tag>entry</tag>
- elements. Each <tag>entry</tag> element specifies
- one cell in the table.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>informaltable</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">informaltable pgwide="1"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">tgroup cols="2"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">thead</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">row</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">entry</tag>This is Column Head 1<tag class="endtag">entry</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">entry</tag>This is Column Head 2<tag class="endtag">entry</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">row</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">thead</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">tbody</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">row</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">entry</tag>Row 1, column 1<tag class="endtag">entry</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">entry</tag>Row 1, column 2<tag class="endtag">entry</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">row</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">row</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">entry</tag>Row 2, column 1<tag class="endtag">entry</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">entry</tag>Row 2, column 2<tag class="endtag">entry</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">row</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tbody</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tgroup</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">informaltable</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <informaltable pgwide="1">
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">This is Column Head 1</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">This is Column Head 2</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Row 1, column 1</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Row 1, column 2</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Row 2, column 1</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Row 2, column 2</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Always use the <literal>pgwide</literal> attribute with
- a value of <literal>1</literal> with the
- <tag>informaltable</tag> element. A bug in Internet
- Explorer can cause the table to render incorrectly if this
- is omitted.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Table borders can be suppressed by setting the
- <literal>frame</literal> attribute to <literal>none</literal>
- in the <tag>informaltable</tag> element. For example,
- <literal>informaltable frame="none"</literal>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>表格使用 <literal>frame="none"</literal> 範例</title>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">This is Column Head 1</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">This is Column Head 2</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Row 1, column 1</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Row 1, column 2</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Row 2, column 1</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Row 2, column 2</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-examples">
- <title>給使用者遵循的範例</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Examples for the user to follow are often necessary.
- Typically, these will consist of dialogs with the computer;
- the user types in a command, the user gets a response back,
- the user types another command, and so on.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A number of distinct elements and entities come into
- play here.</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><tag>screen</tag></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Everything the user sees in this example will be
- on the computer screen, so the next element is
- <tag>screen</tag>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Within <tag>screen</tag>, white space is
- significant.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><tag>prompt</tag>,
- <literal>&amp;prompt.root;</literal> and
- <literal>&amp;prompt.user;</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Some of the things the user will be seeing on the
- screen are prompts from the computer (either from the
- operating system, command shell, or application). These
- should be marked up using
- <tag>prompt</tag>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">As a special case, the two shell prompts for the
- normal user and the root user have been provided as
- entities. To indicate the user is at a shell prompt,
- use one of <literal>&amp;prompt.root;</literal> and
- <literal>&amp;prompt.user;</literal> as necessary. They
- do not need to be inside
- <tag>prompt</tag>.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;prompt.root;</literal> and
- <literal>&amp;prompt.user;</literal> are FreeBSD
- extensions to DocBook, and are not part of the
- original <acronym>DTD</acronym>.</para>
- </note>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><tag>userinput</tag></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">When displaying text that the user should type in,
- wrap it in <tag>userinput</tag> tags. It will
- be displayed differently than system output text.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>screen</tag>, <tag>prompt</tag> 與 <tag>userinput</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">screen</tag>&amp;prompt.user; <tag class="starttag">userinput</tag>ls -1<tag class="endtag">userinput</tag>
-foo1
-foo2
-foo3
-&amp;prompt.user; <tag class="starttag">userinput</tag>ls -1 | grep foo2<tag class="endtag">userinput</tag>
-foo2
-&amp;prompt.user; <tag class="starttag">userinput</tag>su<tag class="endtag">userinput</tag>
-<tag class="starttag">prompt</tag>Password: <tag class="endtag">prompt</tag>
-&amp;prompt.root; <tag class="starttag">userinput</tag>cat foo2<tag class="endtag">userinput</tag>
-This is the file called 'foo2'<tag class="endtag">screen</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls -1</userinput>
-foo1
-foo2
-foo3
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls -1 | grep foo2</userinput>
-foo2
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>su</userinput>
-<prompt>Password: </prompt>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cat foo2</userinput>
-This is the file called 'foo2'</screen>
- </example>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Even though we are displaying the contents of the file
- <filename>foo2</filename>, it is <emphasis>not</emphasis>
- marked up as <tag>programlisting</tag>. Reserve
- <tag>programlisting</tag> for showing fragments of
- files outside the context of user actions.</para>
- </note>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="docbook-markup-inline-elements">
- <title>行內元素</title>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-inline-emphasizing">
- <title>強調資訊</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To emphasize a particular word or phrase, use
- <tag>emphasis</tag>. This may be presented as
- italic, or bold, or might be spoken differently with a
- text-to-speech system.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">There is no way to change the presentation of the
- emphasis within the document, no equivalent of
- <acronym>HTML</acronym>'s <tag>b</tag> and
- <tag>i</tag>. If the information being presented is
- important, then consider presenting it in
- <tag>important</tag> rather than
- <tag>emphasis</tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>emphasis</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>&amp;os; is without doubt <tag class="starttag">emphasis</tag>the<tag class="endtag">emphasis</tag>
- premiere &amp;unix;-like operating system for the Intel
- architecture.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD is without doubt <emphasis>the</emphasis>
- premiere <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>-like operating system for the Intel
- architecture.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-acronyms">
- <title>縮寫</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Many computer terms are <emphasis>acronyms</emphasis>,
- words formed from the first letter of each word in a
- phrase. Acronyms are marked up into
- <tag>acronym</tag> elements. It is helpful to the
- reader when an acronym is defined on the first use, as shown
- in the example below.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>acronym</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>Request For Comments (<tag class="starttag">acronym</tag>RFC<tag class="endtag">acronym</tag>) 1149
- defined the use of avian carriers for transmission of
- Internet Protocol (<tag class="starttag">acronym</tag>IP<tag class="endtag">acronym</tag>) data. The
- quantity of <tag class="starttag">acronym</tag>IP<tag class="endtag">acronym</tag> data currently
- transmitted in that manner is unknown.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Request For Comments (<acronym>RFC</acronym>) 1149
- defined the use of avian carriers for transmission of
- Internet Protocol (<acronym>IP</acronym>) data. The
- quantity of <acronym>IP</acronym> data currently
- transmitted in that manner is unknown.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-quotations">
- <title>引言</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To quote text from another document or source, or to
- denote a phrase that is used figuratively, use
- <tag>quote</tag>. Most of the markup tags available
- for normal text are also available from within a
- <tag>quote</tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>quote</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>However, make sure that the search does not go beyond the
- <tag class="starttag">quote</tag>boundary between local and public administration<tag class="endtag">quote</tag>,
- as <tag class="starttag">acronym</tag>RFC<tag class="endtag">acronym</tag> 1535 calls it.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">However, make sure that the search does not go beyond
- the <quote>boundary between local and public
- administration</quote>, as <acronym>RFC</acronym> 1535
- calls it.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-keys">
- <title>鍵盤按鍵、滑鼠按鍵及組合鍵</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To refer to a specific key on the keyboard, use
- <tag>keycap</tag>. To refer to a mouse button, use
- <tag>mousebutton</tag>. And to refer to
- combinations of key presses or mouse clicks, wrap them all
- in <tag>keycombo</tag>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><tag>keycombo</tag> has an attribute called
- <literal>action</literal>, which may be one of
- <literal>click</literal>, <literal>double-click</literal>,
- <literal>other</literal>, <literal>press</literal>,
- <literal>seq</literal>, or <literal>simul</literal>. The
- last two values denote whether the keys or buttons should be
- pressed in sequence, or simultaneously.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The stylesheets automatically add any connecting
- symbols, such as <literal>+</literal>, between the key
- names, when wrapped in <tag>keycombo</tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>鍵盤按鍵、滑鼠案件及組合鍵範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>To switch to the second virtual terminal, press
- <tag class="starttag">keycombo action="simul"</tag><tag class="starttag">keycap</tag>Alt<tag class="endtag">keycap</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">keycap</tag>F1<tag class="endtag">keycap</tag><tag class="endtag">keycombo</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag>To exit <tag class="starttag">command</tag>vi<tag class="endtag">command</tag> without saving changes, type
- <tag class="starttag">keycombo action="seq"</tag><tag class="starttag">keycap</tag>Esc<tag class="endtag">keycap</tag><tag class="starttag">keycap</tag>:<tag class="endtag">keycap</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">keycap</tag>q<tag class="endtag">keycap</tag><tag class="starttag">keycap</tag>!<tag class="endtag">keycap</tag><tag class="endtag">keycombo</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag>My window manager is configured so that
- <tag class="starttag">keycombo action="simul"</tag><tag class="starttag">keycap</tag>Alt<tag class="endtag">keycap</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">mousebutton</tag>right<tag class="endtag">mousebutton</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">keycombo</tag> mouse button is used to move windows.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To switch to the second virtual terminal, press
- <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Alt</keycap>
- <keycap>F1</keycap></keycombo>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To exit <command>vi</command> without saving changes,
- type <keycombo action="seq">
- <keycap>Esc</keycap>
- <keycap>:</keycap>
- <keycap>q</keycap>
- <keycap>!</keycap></keycombo>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">My window manager is configured so that
- <keycombo action="simul">
- <keycap>Alt</keycap>
- <mousebutton>right</mousebutton></keycombo> mouse button
- is used to move windows.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-applications">
- <title>應用程式、指令、選項與引用</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Both applications and commands are frequently referred to
- when writing documentation. The distinction between them is
- that an application is the name of a program or suite of
- programs that fulfill a particular task. A command is the
- filename of a program that the user can type and run at a
- command line.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">It is often necessary to show some of the options that a
- command might take.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Finally, it is often useful to list a command with its
- manual section number, in the <quote>command(number)</quote>
- format so common in Unix manuals.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Mark up application names with
- <tag>application</tag>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To list a command with its manual section
- number (which should be most of the time) the DocBook
- element is <tag>citerefentry</tag>. This will
- contain a further two elements,
- <tag>refentrytitle</tag> and
- <tag>manvolnum</tag>. The content of
- <tag>refentrytitle</tag> is the name of the command,
- and the content of <tag>manvolnum</tag> is the
- manual page section.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This can be cumbersome to write, and so a series of
- <link linkend="xml-primer-general-entities">general
- entities</link> have been created to make this easier.
- Each entity takes the form
- <literal>&amp;man.<replaceable>manual-page</replaceable>.<replaceable>manual-section</replaceable>;</literal>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The file that contains these entities is in
- <filename>doc/share/xml/man-refs.ent</filename>, and can be
- referred to using this <acronym>FPI</acronym>:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Manual Page Entities//EN"</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Therefore, the introduction to FreeBSD documentation will
- usually include this:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook V4.1-Based Extension//EN" [
-
-&lt;!ENTITY % man PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Manual Page Entities//EN"&gt;
-%man;
-
-…
-
-]&gt;</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Use <tag>command</tag> to include a command
- name <quote>in-line</quote> but present it as something the
- user should type.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Use <tag>option</tag> to mark up the options
- which will be passed to a command.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When referring to the same command multiple times in
- close proximity, it is preferred to use the
- <literal>&amp;man.<replaceable>command</replaceable>.<replaceable>section</replaceable>;</literal>
- notation to markup the first reference and use
- <tag>command</tag> to markup subsequent references.
- This makes the generated output, especially
- <acronym>HTML</acronym>, appear visually better.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>應用程式、指令、選項範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag><tag class="starttag">application</tag>Sendmail<tag class="endtag">application</tag> is the most
- widely used Unix mail application.<tag class="starttag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag><tag class="starttag">application</tag>Sendmail<tag class="endtag">application</tag> includes the
- <tag class="starttag">citerefentry</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">refentrytitle</tag>sendmail<tag class="endtag">refentrytitle</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">manvolnum</tag>8<tag class="endtag">manvolnum</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">citerefentry</tag>, &amp;man.mailq.1;, and &amp;man.newaliases.1;
- programs.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag>One of the command line parameters to <tag class="starttag">citerefentry</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">refentrytitle</tag>sendmail<tag class="endtag">refentrytitle</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">manvolnum</tag>8<tag class="endtag">manvolnum</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">citerefentry</tag>, <tag class="starttag">option</tag>-bp<tag class="endtag">option</tag>, will display the current
- status of messages in the mail queue. Check this on the command
- line by running <tag class="starttag">command</tag>sendmail -bp<tag class="endtag">command</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Sendmail</application> is the most widely
- used Unix mail application.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Sendmail</application> includes the
- <citerefentry>
- <refentrytitle>sendmail</refentrytitle>
- <manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
- </citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mailq</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newaliases</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>
- programs.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">One of the command line parameters to
- <citerefentry>
- <refentrytitle>sendmail</refentrytitle>
- <manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
- </citerefentry>, <option>-bp</option>, will display the
- current status of messages in the mail queue. Check this
- on the command line by running
- <command>sendmail -bp</command>.</para>
- </example>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Notice how the
- <literal>&amp;man.<replaceable>command</replaceable>.<replaceable>section</replaceable>;</literal>
- notation is easier to follow.</para>
- </note>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-files">
- <title>檔案、目錄、副檔名、裝置名稱</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To refer to the name of a file, a directory, a file
- extension, or a device name, use <tag>filename</tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>filename</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>The source for the Handbook in English is found in
- <tag class="starttag">filename</tag>/usr/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/<tag class="endtag">filename</tag>.
- The main file is called <tag class="starttag">filename</tag>book.xml<tag class="endtag">filename</tag>.
- There is also a <tag class="starttag">filename</tag>Makefile<tag class="endtag">filename</tag> and a
- number of files with a <tag class="starttag">filename</tag>.ent<tag class="endtag">filename</tag> extension.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag><tag class="starttag">filename</tag>kbd0<tag class="endtag">filename</tag> is the first keyboard detected
- by the system, and appears in
- <tag class="starttag">filename</tag>/dev<tag class="endtag">filename</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The source for the Handbook in English is found in
- <filename>/usr/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/</filename>.
- The main file is called <filename>book.xml</filename>.
- There is also a <filename>Makefile</filename> and a number
- of files with a <filename>.ent</filename> extension.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><filename>kbd0</filename> is the first keyboard detected
- by the system, and appears in
- <filename>/dev</filename>.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-name-of-ports">
- <title>Port 名稱</title>
-
- <note>
- <title xml:lang="en">FreeBSD Extension</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">These elements are part of the FreeBSD extension to
- DocBook, and do not exist in the original DocBook
- <acronym>DTD</acronym>.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To include the name of a program from the FreeBSD
- Ports Collection in the document, use the <tag>package</tag>
- tag. Since the Ports Collection can be installed in any
- number of locations, only include the category and the port
- name; do not include <filename>/usr/ports</filename>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">By default, <tag>package</tag> refers to a binary package.
- To refer to a port that will be built from source, set the
- <literal>role</literal> attribute to
- <literal>port</literal>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>package</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>Install the <tag class="starttag">package</tag>net/wireshark<tag class="endtag">package</tag> binary
- package to view network traffic.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag><tag class="starttag">package role="port"</tag>net/wireshark<tag class="endtag">package</tag> can also be
- built and installed from the Ports Collection.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Install the <package>net/wireshark</package> binary
- package to view network traffic.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><package role="port">net/wireshark</package> can also be
- built and installed from the Ports Collection.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-hosts">
- <title>主機、網域、IP 位址、使用名稱、群組名稱及其他系統項目</title>
-
- <note>
- <title xml:lang="en">FreeBSD Extension</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">These elements are part of the FreeBSD extension to
- DocBook, and do not exist in the original DocBook
- <acronym>DTD</acronym>.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Information for <quote>system items</quote> is marked up
- with <tag>systemitem</tag>. The <literal>class</literal>
- attribute is used to identify the particular type of
- information shown.</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>class="domainname"</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The text is a domain name, such as
- <literal>FreeBSD.org</literal> or
- <literal>ngo.org.uk</literal>. There is no hostname
- component.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>class="etheraddress"</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The text is an Ethernet <acronym>MAC</acronym>
- address, expressed as a series of 2 digit hexadecimal
- numbers separated by colons.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>class="fqdomainname"</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The text is a Fully Qualified Domain Name, with
- both hostname and domain name parts.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>class="ipaddress"</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The text is an <acronym>IP</acronym> address,
- probably expressed as a dotted quad.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>class="netmask"</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The text is a network mask, which might be
- expressed as a dotted quad, a hexadecimal string, or as
- a <literal>/</literal> followed by a number
- (<acronym>CIDR</acronym> notation).</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>class="systemname"</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">With <literal>class="systemname"</literal>
- the marked up information is the simple hostname, such
- as <literal>freefall</literal> or
- <literal>wcarchive</literal>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>class="username"</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The text is a username, like
- <literal>root</literal>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>class="groupname"</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The text is a groupname, like
- <literal>wheel</literal>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>systemitem</tag> 與類別 (Class) 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>The local machine can always be referred to by the
- name <tag class="starttag">systemitem class="systemname"</tag>localhost<tag class="endtag">systemitem</tag>, which will have the IP
- address <tag class="starttag">systemitem class="ipaddress"</tag>127.0.0.1<tag class="endtag">systemitem</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag>The <tag class="starttag">systemitem class="domainname"</tag>FreeBSD.org<tag class="endtag">systemitem</tag>
- domain contains a number of different hosts, including
- <tag class="starttag">systemitem class="fqdomainname"</tag>freefall.FreeBSD.org<tag class="endtag">systemitem</tag> and
- <tag class="starttag">systemitem class="fqdomainname"</tag>bento.FreeBSD.org<tag class="endtag">systemitem</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag>When adding an <tag class="starttag">acronym</tag>IP<tag class="endtag">acronym</tag> alias to an
- interface (using <tag class="starttag">command</tag>ifconfig<tag class="endtag">command</tag>)
- <tag class="starttag">emphasis</tag>always<tag class="endtag">emphasis</tag> use a netmask of
- <tag class="starttag">systemitem class="netmask"</tag>255.255.255.255<tag class="endtag">systemitem</tag> (which can
- also be expressed as
- <tag class="starttag">systemitem class="netmask"</tag>0xffffffff<tag class="endtag">systemitem</tag>).<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag>The <tag class="starttag">acronym</tag>MAC<tag class="endtag">acronym</tag> address uniquely identifies
- every network card in existence. A typical
- <tag class="starttag">acronym</tag>MAC<tag class="endtag">acronym</tag> address looks like
- <tag class="starttag">systemitem class="etheraddress"</tag>08:00:20:87:ef:d0<tag class="endtag">systemitem</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag>To carry out most system administration functions
- requires logging in as <tag class="starttag">systemitem class="username"</tag>root<tag class="endtag">systemitem</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The local machine can always be referred to by the name
- <systemitem>localhost</systemitem>, which will have the IP
- address
- <systemitem class="ipaddress">127.0.0.1</systemitem>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">FreeBSD.org</systemitem>
- domain contains a number of different hosts, including
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">freefall.FreeBSD.org</systemitem> and
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">bento.FreeBSD.org</systemitem>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When adding an <acronym>IP</acronym> alias to an
- interface (using <command>ifconfig</command>)
- <emphasis>always</emphasis> use a netmask of
- <systemitem class="netmask">255.255.255.255</systemitem>
- (which can also be expressed as
- <systemitem class="netmask">0xffffffff</systemitem>).</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>MAC</acronym> address uniquely identifies
- every network card in existence. A typical
- <acronym>MAC</acronym> address looks like <systemitem class="etheraddress">08:00:20:87:ef:d0</systemitem>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To carry out most system administration functions
- requires logging in as
- <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-uri">
- <title>統一資源識別碼 (<acronym>URI</acronym>)</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Occasionally it is useful to show a
- Uniform Resource Identifier (<acronym>URI</acronym>) without
- making it an active hyperlink. The <tag>uri</tag> element
- makes this possible:</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>uri</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>This <acronym>URL</acronym> shows only as text:
- <tag class="starttag">uri</tag>https://www.FreeBSD.org<tag class="endtag">uri</tag>. It does not
- create a link.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This <acronym>URL</acronym> shows only as text:
- <uri>https://www.FreeBSD.org</uri>. It does not
- create a link.</para>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To create links, see
- <xref linkend="docbook-markup-links"/>.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-email-addresses">
- <title>郵件地址</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Email addresses are marked up as <tag>email</tag>
- elements. In the <acronym>HTML</acronym> output format, the
- wrapped text becomes a hyperlink to the email address. Other
- output formats that support hyperlinks may also make the email
- address into a link.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>有超連結的 <tag>email</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>An email address that does not actually exist, like
- <tag class="starttag">email</tag>notreal@example.com<tag class="endtag">email</tag>, can be used as an
- example.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">An email address that does not actually exist, like
- <email>notreal@example.com</email>, can be used as an
- example.</para>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A FreeBSD-specific extension allows setting the
- <literal>role</literal> attribute to <literal>nolink</literal>
- to prevent the creation of the hyperlink to the email
- address.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>沒有超連結的 <tag>email</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>Sometimes a link to an email address like
- <tag class="starttag">email role="nolink"</tag>notreal@example.com<tag class="endtag">email</tag> is not
- desired.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Sometimes a link to an email address like
- <email role="nolink">notreal@example.com</email> is not
- desired.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-describing-makefiles">
- <title>說明 <filename>Makefile</filename></title>
-
- <note>
- <title xml:lang="en">FreeBSD Extension</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">These elements are part of the FreeBSD extension to
- DocBook, and do not exist in the original DocBook
- <acronym>DTD</acronym>.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Two elements exist to describe parts of
- <filename>Makefile</filename>s, <tag>buildtarget</tag>
- and <tag>varname</tag>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><tag>buildtarget</tag> identifies a build target
- exported by a <filename>Makefile</filename> that can be
- given as a parameter to <command>make</command>.
- <tag>varname</tag> identifies a variable that can be
- set (in the environment, on the command line with
- <command>make</command>, or within the
- <filename>Makefile</filename>) to influence the
- process.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>buildtarget</tag> 與 <tag>varname</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>Two common targets in a <tag class="starttag">filename</tag>Makefile<tag class="endtag">filename</tag>
- are <tag class="starttag">buildtarget</tag>all<tag class="endtag">buildtarget</tag> and
- <tag class="starttag">buildtarget</tag>clean<tag class="endtag">buildtarget</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag>Typically, invoking <tag class="starttag">buildtarget</tag>all<tag class="endtag">buildtarget</tag> will
- rebuild the application, and invoking
- <tag class="starttag">buildtarget</tag>clean<tag class="endtag">buildtarget</tag> will remove the temporary
- files (<tag class="starttag">filename</tag>.o<tag class="endtag">filename</tag> for example) created by the
- build process.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag><tag class="starttag">buildtarget</tag>clean<tag class="endtag">buildtarget</tag> may be controlled by a
- number of variables, including <tag class="starttag">varname</tag>CLOBBER<tag class="endtag">varname</tag>
- and <tag class="starttag">varname</tag>RECURSE<tag class="endtag">varname</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Two common targets in a <filename>Makefile</filename>
- are <buildtarget xml:lang="en">all</buildtarget> and
- <buildtarget xml:lang="en">clean</buildtarget>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Typically, invoking <buildtarget xml:lang="en">all</buildtarget> will
- rebuild the application, and invoking
- <buildtarget xml:lang="en">clean</buildtarget> will remove the temporary
- files (<filename>.o</filename> for example) created by the
- build process.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><buildtarget xml:lang="en">clean</buildtarget> may be controlled by a
- number of variables, including <varname>CLOBBER</varname>
- and <varname>RECURSE</varname>.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-literal-text">
- <title>實際文字 (Literal)</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Literal text, or text which should be entered verbatim, is
- often needed in documentation. This is text that is excerpted
- from another file, or which should be copied exactly as shown
- from the documentation into another file.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Some of the time, <tag>programlisting</tag> will
- be sufficient to denote this text. But
- <tag>programlisting</tag> is not always appropriate,
- particularly when you want to include a portion of a file
- <quote>in-line</quote> with the rest of the
- paragraph.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">On these occasions, use
- <tag>literal</tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>literal</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>The <tag class="starttag">literal</tag>maxusers 10<tag class="endtag">literal</tag> line in the kernel
- configuration file determines the size of many system tables, and is
- a rough guide to how many simultaneous logins the system will
- support.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <literal>maxusers 10</literal> line in the kernel
- configuration file determines the size of many system
- tables, and is a rough guide to how many simultaneous
- logins the system will support.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-replaceable">
- <title>顯示使用者<emphasis>必填</emphasis>的項目</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">There will often be times when the user is shown
- what to do, or referred to a file or command line, but
- cannot simply copy the example provided. Instead, they
- must supply some information themselves.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><tag>replaceable</tag> is designed for this
- eventuality. Use it <emphasis>inside</emphasis> other
- elements to indicate parts of that element's content that
- the user must replace.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>replaceable</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">screen</tag>&amp;prompt.user; <tag class="starttag">userinput</tag>man <tag class="starttag">replaceable</tag>command<tag class="endtag">replaceable</tag><tag class="endtag">userinput</tag><tag class="endtag">screen</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <informalexample>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>man <replaceable>command</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- </informalexample>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><tag>replaceable</tag> can be used in many
- different elements, including <tag>literal</tag>.
- This example also shows that <tag>replaceable</tag>
- should only be wrapped around the content that the user
- <emphasis>is</emphasis> meant to provide. The other content
- should be left alone.</para>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>The <tag class="starttag">literal</tag>maxusers <tag class="starttag">replaceable</tag>n<tag class="endtag">replaceable</tag><tag class="endtag">literal</tag>
- line in the kernel configuration file determines the size of many system
- tables, and is a rough guide to how many simultaneous logins the system will
- support.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag>For a desktop workstation, <tag class="starttag">literal</tag>32<tag class="endtag">literal</tag> is a good value
- for <tag class="starttag">replaceable</tag>n<tag class="endtag">replaceable</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The
- <literal>maxusers <replaceable>n</replaceable></literal>
- line in the kernel configuration file determines the size
- of many system tables, and is a rough guide to how many
- simultaneous logins the system will support.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">For a desktop workstation, <literal>32</literal> is a
- good value for <replaceable>n</replaceable>.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-gui-buttons">
- <title>顯示 <acronym>GUI</acronym> 按鈕</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Buttons presented by a graphical user interface are marked
- with <tag>guibutton</tag>. To make the text look more
- like a graphical button, brackets and non-breaking spaces are
- added surrounding the text.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>guibutton</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>Edit the file, then click
- <tag class="starttag">guibutton</tag>[&amp;nbsp;Save&amp;nbsp;]<tag class="endtag">guibutton</tag> to save the
- changes.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Edit the file, then click
- <guibutton>[ Save ]</guibutton> to save the
- changes.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-system-errors">
- <title>引用系統錯誤</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">System errors generated by FreeBSD are marked with
- <tag>errorname</tag>. This indicates the exact error
- that appears.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>errorname</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">screen</tag><tag class="starttag">errorname</tag>Panic: cannot mount root<tag class="endtag">errorname</tag><tag class="endtag">screen</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <informalexample>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><errorname>Panic: cannot mount root</errorname></screen>
- </informalexample>
- </example>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="docbook-markup-images">
- <title>圖片</title>
-
- <important>
- <para xml:lang="en">Image support in the documentation is somewhat
- experimental. The mechanisms described here are unlikely to
- change, but that is not guaranteed.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To provide conversion between different image formats, the
- <package>graphics/ImageMagick</package>
- port must be installed. This port is not included in the
- <package>textproc/docproj</package> meta
- port, and must be installed separately.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A good example of the use of images is the
- <filename>doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/vm-design/</filename>
- document. Examine the files in that directory to see how
- these elements are used together. Build different output
- formats to see how the format determines what images are shown
- in the rendered document.</para>
- </important>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-image-formats">
- <title>圖片格式</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The following image formats are currently supported. An
- image file will automatically be converted to bitmap or vector
- image depending on the output document format.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">These are the <emphasis>only</emphasis> formats in which
- images should be committed to the documentation
- repository.</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><acronym>EPS</acronym> (Encapsulated
- Postscript)</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Images that are primarily vector based, such as
- network diagrams, time lines, and similar, should be in
- this format. These images have a
- <filename>.eps</filename> extension.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><acronym>PNG</acronym> (Portable Network
- Graphic)</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">For bitmaps, such as screen captures, use this
- format. These images have the <filename>.png</filename>
- extension.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><acronym>PIC</acronym> (PIC graphics language)</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>PIC</acronym> is a language for drawing
- simple vector-based figures used in the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pic</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>
- utility. These images have the
- <filename>.pic</filename> extension.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><acronym>SCR</acronym> (SCReen capture)</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">This format is specific to screenshots of console
- output. The following command generates an SCR file
- <filename>shot.scr</filename> from video buffer of
- <filename>/dev/ttyv0</filename>:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput><command>vidcontrol -p</command> &lt; <filename><replaceable>/dev/ttyv0</replaceable></filename> &gt; <filename><replaceable>shot.scr</replaceable></filename></userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This is preferable to <acronym>PNG</acronym> format
- for screenshots because the <acronym>SCR</acronym> file
- contains plain text of the command lines so that it can
- be converted to a <acronym>PNG</acronym> image or a
- plain text depending on the output document
- format.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Use the appropriate format for each image. Documentation
- will often have a mix of <acronym>EPS</acronym> and
- <acronym>PNG</acronym> images. The
- <filename>Makefile</filename>s ensure that the correct format
- image is chosen depending on the output format used.
- <emphasis>Do not commit the same image to the repository in
- two different formats</emphasis>.</para>
-
- <important>
- <para xml:lang="en">The Documentation Project may eventually switch to using
- the <acronym>SVG</acronym> (Scalable Vector Graphic) format
- for vector images. However, the current state of
- <acronym>SVG</acronym> capable editing tools makes this
- impractical.</para>
- </important>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-image-file-locations">
- <title>圖片檔案位置</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Image files can be stored in one of several locations,
- depending on the document and image:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In the same directory as the document itself, usually
- done for articles and small books that keep all their
- files in a single directory.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In a subdirectory of the main document. Typically
- done when a large book uses separate subdirectories to
- organize individual chapters.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When images are stored in a subdirectory of the
- main document directory, the subdirectory name must be
- included in their paths in the
- <filename>Makefile</filename> and the
- <tag>imagedata</tag> element.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In a subdirectory of
- <filename>doc/share/images</filename> named after the
- document. For example, images for the Handbook are stored
- in <filename>doc/share/images/books/handbook</filename>.
- Images that work for multiple translations are stored in
- this upper level of the documentation file tree.
- Generally, these are images that can be used unchanged in
- non-English translations of the document.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-image-markup">
- <title>圖片標籤</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Images are included as part of a <tag>mediaobject</tag>.
- The <tag>mediaobject</tag> can contain other, more specific
- objects. We are concerned with two, the
- <tag>imageobject</tag> and the <tag>textobject</tag>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Include one <tag>imageobject</tag>, and two
- <tag>textobject</tag> elements. The <tag>imageobject</tag>
- will point to the name of the image file without the
- extension. The <tag>textobject</tag> elements contain
- information that will be presented to the user as well as, or
- instead of, the image itself.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Text elements are shown to the reader in several
- situations. When the document is viewed in
- <acronym>HTML</acronym>, text elements are shown while the
- image is loading, or if the mouse pointer is hovered over the
- image, or if a text-only browser is being used. In formats
- like plain text where graphics are not possible, the text
- elements are shown instead of the graphical ones.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This example shows how to include an image called
- <filename>fig1.png</filename> in a document. The image is a
- rectangle with an A inside it:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">mediaobject</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">imageobject</tag>
- <tag class="emptytag">imagedata fileref="fig1"</tag> <co xml:id="co-image-ext"/>
- <tag class="endtag">imageobject</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">textobject</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">literallayout class="monospaced"</tag>+---------------+ <co xml:id="co-image-literal"/>
-| A |
-+---------------+<tag class="endtag">literallayout</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">textobject</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">textobject</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">phrase</tag>A picture<tag class="endtag">phrase</tag> <co xml:id="co-image-phrase"/>
- <tag class="endtag">textobject</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">mediaobject</tag></programlisting>
-
- <calloutlist>
- <callout arearefs="co-image-ext">
- <para xml:lang="en">Include an <tag>imagedata</tag> element
- inside the <tag>imageobject</tag> element. The
- <literal>fileref</literal> attribute should contain the
- filename of the image to include, without the extension.
- The stylesheets will work out which extension should be
- added to the filename automatically.</para>
- </callout>
-
- <callout arearefs="co-image-literal">
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The first <tag>textobject</tag> contains a
- <tag>literallayout</tag> element, where the
- <literal>class</literal> attribute is set to
- <literal>monospaced</literal>. This is an opportunity to
- demonstrate <acronym>ASCII</acronym> art skills. This
- content will be used if the document is converted to plain
- text.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Notice how the first and last lines of the content
- of the <tag>literallayout</tag> element butt up
- next to the element's tags. This ensures no extraneous
- white space is included.</para>
- </callout>
-
- <callout arearefs="co-image-phrase">
- <para xml:lang="en">The second <tag>textobject</tag> contains a
- single <tag>phrase</tag> element. The contents of
- this phrase will become the <literal>alt</literal>
- attribute for the image when this document is converted to
- <acronym>HTML</acronym>.</para>
- </callout>
- </calloutlist>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-image-makefile-entries">
- <title>圖片 <filename>Makefile</filename> 項目</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Images must be listed in the <filename>Makefile</filename>
- in the <varname>IMAGES</varname> variable. This variable must
- contain the names of all the <emphasis>source</emphasis>
- images. For example, if there are three figures,
- <filename>fig1.eps</filename>, <filename>fig2.png</filename>,
- <filename>fig3.png</filename>, then the
- <filename>Makefile</filename> should have lines like this in
- it.</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">…
-IMAGES= fig1.eps fig2.png fig3.png
-…</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">or</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">…
-IMAGES= fig1.eps
-IMAGES+= fig2.png
-IMAGES+= fig3.png
-…</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Again, the <filename>Makefile</filename> will work out the
- complete list of images it needs to build the source document,
- you only need to list the image files <emphasis>you</emphasis>
- provided.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-images-in-subdirectories">
- <title>在子目錄中的圖片與章節</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Be careful when separating documentation into smaller
- files in different directories (see <xref linkend="xml-primer-include-using-gen-entities"/>).</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Suppose there is a book with three chapters, and the
- chapters are stored in their own directories, called
- <filename>chapter1/chapter.xml</filename>,
- <filename>chapter2/chapter.xml</filename>, and
- <filename>chapter3/chapter.xml</filename>. If each chapter
- has images associated with it, place those images in each
- chapter's subdirectory (<filename>chapter1/</filename>,
- <filename>chapter2/</filename>, and
- <filename>chapter3/</filename>).</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">However, doing this requires including the directory
- names in the <varname>IMAGES</varname> variable in the
- <filename>Makefile</filename>, <emphasis>and</emphasis>
- including the directory name in the <tag>imagedata</tag>
- element in the document.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">For example, if the book has
- <filename>chapter1/fig1.png</filename>, then
- <filename>chapter1/chapter.xml</filename> should
- contain:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">mediaobject</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">imageobject</tag>
- <tag class="emptytag">imagedata fileref="chapter1/fig1"</tag> <co xml:id="co-image-dir"/>
- <tag class="endtag">imageobject</tag>
-
- …
-
-<tag class="endtag">mediaobject</tag></programlisting>
-
- <calloutlist>
- <callout arearefs="co-image-dir">
- <para xml:lang="en">The directory name must be included in the
- <literal>fileref</literal> attribute.</para>
- </callout>
- </calloutlist>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <filename>Makefile</filename> must contain:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">…
-IMAGES= chapter1/fig1.png
-…</programlisting>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="docbook-markup-links">
- <title>連結</title>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Links are also in-line elements. To show a
- <acronym>URI</acronym> without creating a link, see
- <xref linkend="docbook-markup-uri"/>.</para>
- </note>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-links-ids">
- <title><literal>xml:id</literal> 屬性</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Most DocBook elements accept an <literal>xml:id</literal>
- attribute to give that part of the document a unique name.
- The <literal>xml:id</literal> can be used as a target for a
- crossreference or link.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Any portion of the document that will be a link target
- must have an <literal>xml:id</literal> attribute. Assigning
- an <literal>xml:id</literal> to all chapters and sections,
- even if there are no current plans to link to them, is a good
- idea. These <literal>xml:id</literal>s can be used as unique
- reference points by anyone referring to the
- <acronym>HTML</acronym> version of the document.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>在章與節上加 <literal>xml:id</literal> 的範例</title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">chapter xml:id="introduction"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>Introduction<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>This is the introduction. It contains a subsection,
- which is identified as well.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">sect1 xml:id="introduction-moredetails"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>More Details<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>This is a subsection.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">sect1</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">chapter</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Use descriptive values for <literal>xml:id</literal>
- names. The values must be unique within the entire document,
- not just in a single file. In the example, the subsection
- <literal>xml:id</literal> is constructed by appending text to
- the chapter <literal>xml:id</literal>. This ensures that the
- <literal>xml:id</literal>s are unique. It also helps both
- reader and anyone editing the document to see where the link
- is located within the document, similar to a directory path to
- a file.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-links-crossreferences">
- <title>使用 <literal>xref</literal> 交叉參照</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><tag>xref</tag> provides the reader with a link to jump to
- another section of the document. The target
- <literal>xml:id</literal> is specified in the
- <literal>linkend</literal> attribute, and <tag>xref</tag>
- generates the link text automatically.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>xref</tag> 範例</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Assume that this fragment appears somewhere in a
- document that includes the <literal>xml:id</literal>
- example shown above:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>More information can be found
- in <tag class="emptytag">xref linkend="introduction"</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag>More specific information can be found
- in <tag class="emptytag">xref linkend="introduction-moredetails"</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The link text will be generated automatically, looking
- like (<emphasis>emphasized</emphasis> text indicates the
- link text):</para>
-
- <blockquote>
- <para xml:lang="en">More information can be found in <emphasis>Chapter
- 1, Introduction</emphasis>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">More specific information can be found in
- <emphasis>Section 1.1,
- <quote>More Details</quote></emphasis>.</para>
- </blockquote>
- </example>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The link text is generated automatically from the chapter
- and section number and <literal>title</literal>
- elements.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="docbook-markup-links-to-web-documents">
- <title>連結在網站上的其他文件</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The link element described here allows the writer to
- define the link text. When link text is used, it is very important to be descriptive
- to give the reader an idea of where the link goes.
- Remember that DocBook can be rendered to multiple
- types of media. The reader might be looking at a printed book
- or other form of media where there are no links. If the link
- text is not descriptive enough, the reader might not be able to
- locate the linked section.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <literal>xlink:href</literal> attribute
- is the <acronym>URL</acronym> of the page,
- and the content of the element is the text that
- will be displayed for the user to activate.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In many situations, it is preferable to show the actual
- <acronym>URL</acronym> rather than text. This can be done by
- leaving out the element text entirely.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>link</tag> 到 FreeBSD 說明文件網頁範例</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Link to the book or article <acronym>URL</acronym>
- entity. To link to a specific chapter in a book, add a
- slash and the chapter file name, followed by an optional
- anchor within the chapter. For articles, link to the
- article <acronym>URL</acronym> entity, followed by an
- optional anchor within the article.
- <acronym>URL</acronym> entities can be found in
- <filename>doc/share/xml/urls.ent</filename>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Usage for FreeBSD book links:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>Read the <tag class="starttag">link
- xlink:href="&amp;url.books.handbook;/svn.html#svn-intro"</tag>SVN
- introduction<tag class="endtag">link</tag>, then pick the nearest mirror from
- the list of <tag class="starttag">link
- xlink:href="&amp;url.books.handbook;/svn.html#svn-mirrors"</tag>Subversion
- mirror sites<tag class="endtag">link</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Read the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/svn.html#svn-intro">SVN
- introduction</link>, then pick the nearest mirror from
- the list of <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/svn.html#svn-mirrors">Subversion
- mirror sites</link>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Usage for FreeBSD article links:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>Read this
- <tag class="starttag">link xlink:href="&amp;url.articles.bsdl-gpl;"</tag>article
- about the BSD license<tag class="endtag">link</tag>, or just the
- <tag class="starttag">link xlink:href="&amp;url.articles.bsdl-gpl;#intro"</tag>introduction<tag class="endtag">link</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Read this
- <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/bsdl-gpl">article
- about the BSD license</link>, or just the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/bsdl-gpl#intro">introduction</link>.</para>
- </example>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>link</tag> 到 FreeBSD 網頁範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>Of course, you could stop reading this document and go to the
- <tag class="starttag">link xlink:href="&amp;url.base;/index.html"</tag>FreeBSD home page<tag class="endtag">link</tag> instead.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Of course, you could stop reading this document and go
- to the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html">FreeBSD
- home page</link> instead.</para>
- </example>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>link</tag> 到外部網頁範例</title>
-
- <para>用法:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>Wikipedia has an excellent reference on
- <tag class="starttag">link
- xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table"</tag>GUID
- Partition Tables<tag class="endtag">link</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>輸出結果:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Wikipedia has an excellent reference on <link xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table">GUID
- Partition Tables</link>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The link text can be omitted to show the actual
- URL:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>Wikipedia has an excellent reference on
- GUID Partition Tables: <tag class="starttag">link
- xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table"</tag><tag class="endtag">link</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The same link can be entered using shorter
- notation instead of a separate ending tag:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>Wikipedia has an excellent reference on
- GUID Partition Tables: <tag class="emptytag">link
- xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table"</tag>.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The two methods are equivalent. Appearance:</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Wikipedia has an excellent reference on GUID Partition
- Tables: <uri xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table</uri>.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1998, 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="stylesheets">
- <title>樣式表</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>XML</acronym> is concerned with content, and says
- nothing about how that content should be presented to the reader
- or rendered on paper. Multiple <emphasis>style sheet</emphasis>
- languages have been developed to describe visual layout, including
- Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation
- (<acronym>XSLT</acronym>), Document Style Semantics and
- Specification Language (<acronym>DSSSL</acronym>), and Cascading
- Style Sheets (<acronym>CSS</acronym>).</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>FDP</acronym> documents use
- <acronym>XSLT</acronym> stylesheets to transform DocBook into
- <acronym>XHTML</acronym>, and then <acronym>CSS</acronym>
- formatting is applied to the <acronym>XHTML</acronym> pages.
- Printable output is currently rendered with legacy
- <acronym>DSSSL</acronym> stylesheets, but this will probably
- change in the future.</para>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="stylesheets-css">
- <title xml:lang="en"><acronym>CSS</acronym></title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Cascading Style Sheets (<acronym>CSS</acronym>) are a
- mechanism for attaching style information (font, weight, size,
- color, and so forth) to elements in an <acronym>XHTML</acronym>
- document without abusing <acronym>XHTML</acronym> to do
- so.</para>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>DocBook 文件</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The FreeBSD <acronym>XSLT</acronym> and
- <acronym>DSSSL</acronym> stylesheets refer to
- <filename>docbook.css</filename>, which is expected to be
- present in the same directory as the <acronym>XHTML</acronym>
- files. The project-wide <acronym>CSS</acronym> file is copied
- from <filename>doc/share/misc/docbook.css</filename> when
- documents are converted to <acronym>XHTML</acronym>, and is
- installed automatically.</para>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="translations">
- <title>翻譯</title>
-
- <para>本章節是供要翻譯 FreeBSD 說明文件 (常見問答集 (FAQ)、使用手冊 (Handbook)、教學 (Tutorial)、操作手冊 (Manual page) 等) 到各種語言的常見問答集 (FAQ)。</para>
-
- <para>本文件 <emphasis>主要</emphasis> 是以 FreeBSD 德文說明文件計劃的翻譯常見問答集為母本而來的,原始撰稿者為 Frank Gründer <email>elwood@mc5sys.in-berlin.de</email>,並由 Bernd Warken <email>bwarken@mayn.de</email> 再翻譯回英文版。</para>
-
- <para>本常見問答集是由文件工程團隊 Documentation Engineering Team <email>doceng@FreeBSD.org</email> 所維護。</para>
-
- <qandaset>
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para><phrase>i18n</phrase> 與 <phrase>l10n</phrase> 代表的是什麼意思?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para><phrase>i18n</phrase> 指的是國際化 (<phrase>Internationalization</phrase>) 而 <phrase>l10n</phrase> 指的是在地化 (<phrase>Localization</phrase>)。這些都是為了書寫方便而用的簡寫。</para>
-
- <para><phrase>i18n</phrase> 就是開頭為 <quote>i</quote> 後面有 18 個字母,最後接 <quote>n</quote>。同樣地,<phrase>l10n</phrase> 是開頭為 <quote>l</quote> 後面有 10 個字母,最後接 <quote>n</quote>。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>有給翻譯人員參與討論的郵遞論壇 (Mailing list) 嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>有的,不同的語系翻譯人員都各自有自屬的郵遞論壇。這份 <link xlink:href="http://www.freebsd.org/docproj/translations.html"> 翻譯計劃清單</link> 有列出各翻譯計劃的詳細 mailing lists 及相關網站。此外,有一般翻譯討論的<email>freebsd-translators@freebsd.org</email>郵件論壇。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>需要更多人一起參與翻譯嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>當然囉,越多人參與翻譯,那麼就能夠越快翻完,而且英文版說明文件若有增減、更新的話,各翻譯版也可以儘快同步囉。</para>
-
- <para>不一定得是專業譯者,才能參與翻譯的。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>有要求哪些語言能力呢</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>理論上,必須要對英文非常熟稔,而且很明顯地,對想翻譯的語言必須要能運用自如。</para>
-
- <para>英文也並非一定要會的。比如說,可以把西班牙文 (Spanish) 的 FAQ 翻譯為匈牙利文 (Hungarian)。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>該學會哪些程式的使用呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>強烈建議在自己機器上也建立 FreeBSD Subversion 檔案庫的備份 (至少要有說明文件的部分),這可以執行:</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn checkout https://svn.FreeBSD.org/doc/head/ head</userinput></screen>
-
- <para><link xlink:href="https://svn.FreeBSD.org/">svn.FreeBSD.org</link> 是公共的 <literal>SVN</literal> 伺服器。可以從 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/svn.html#svn-mirrors">Subversion 鏡像站</link> 清單檢查認證的伺服器。</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>這需要安裝 <package>devel/subversion</package> 套件。</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>你可以很自在地使用 <application>svn</application>。他可以讓你察看說明文件檔案不同版本之間的修改差異。</para>
-
- <para>例如你要看 <filename>en_US.ISO8859-1/books/fdp-primer/book.xml</filename> 版本<literal>r33733</literal> 和 <literal>r33734</literal> 的差異,請執行:</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn diff -r<replaceable>33733</replaceable>:<replaceable>33734</replaceable> en_US.ISO8859-1/books/fdp-primer/book.xml</userinput></screen>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>要怎麼找出來還有誰要跟我一起翻譯的呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/docproj/translations.html">說明文件計劃翻譯頁 </link> 列了目前已知的各翻譯者成果,如果已經有其他人也在做跟你一樣的翻譯工作,那麼請不要重複浪費人力,請與他們聯繫看看還有哪些地方可以幫上忙的。</para>
-
- <para>若上面並未列出你母語的翻譯,或是也有人要翻譯但還未公開宣布的話,那麼就寄信到 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD 說明文件計劃郵遞論壇 </link>。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>都沒人翻譯為我所使用的語言,該怎麼辦?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>恭喜啊,你剛好踏上 <quote>FreeBSD <replaceable>您的語言</replaceable> 說明文件翻譯計劃</quote>的啟程之路,歡迎登船。</para>
-
- <para>首先呢,先判斷是否有妥善規劃時間,因為你只有一個人在翻而已,因此,相關翻譯成果的公布、與其他可能會幫忙的志工們聯繫這些工作都是你的職責所在。</para>
-
- <para>寫信到文件計劃郵遞論壇 (Documentation Project mailing list) 向大家宣布你正準備要翻譯,然後文件計劃的翻譯部分就會更新相關資料。</para>
-
- <para>若你的國家已經有人提供 FreeBSD 的鏡像站 (Mirror) 服務的話,那麼就先跟他們聯繫,並詢問你是否在上面可以有網頁空間來放相關計劃資料,以及是否可以有提供電子郵件帳號或郵遞論壇服務。</para>
-
- <para>然後,就開始翻文件囉,一開始翻譯的時候,先找些篇幅較短的文件會比較容易些 —— 像是 FAQ 啦,或是如何上手之類的說明文章。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>已經翻好一些說明文件了,該寄到哪呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>這要看情況而定。若你是在翻譯團隊內做的話 (像是日本團隊、德國團隊),他們會有自己內部流程來決定翻譯文件怎麼送,這些大致流程會在他們網頁上面有寫。</para>
-
- <para>若你是某語系的唯一翻譯者 (或你是負責某翻譯計劃,並想把成果回饋給 FreeBSD 計劃),那麼你就應該把自己的翻譯成果寄給 FreeBSD 計劃。(細節請看下個問題)</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>我是該語系的唯一翻譯者,該怎麼把翻譯成果寄出去呢?</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">or</para>
-
- <para>我們是翻譯團隊,該怎麼把我們成員翻譯成果寄出去呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>首先,請先確定你的翻譯成果組織條理分明,並可正確編譯,也就是說: 把它擺到現有說明文件樹內是可以正確編譯成功的。</para>
-
- <para>目前,FreeBSD 說明文件都是放在最上層的 <filename>head/</filename> 目錄內。而該目錄下的則根據其 ISO639 所定義的語系代碼來做分類命名的 (在 1999/1/20 之後的 FreeBSD 版本中的 <filename>/usr/share/misc/iso639</filename>)。</para>
-
- <para>若你這個語系可能會有不同編碼方式 (像是:中文) 那麼就應該會像下面這樣,來依你所使用的編碼方式細分。</para>
-
- <para>最後,你應該建立好各文件的目錄了。</para>
-
- <para>舉例來說,假設有瑞典文 (Swedish) 版的翻譯,那麼應該會長像:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">head/
- sv_SE.ISO8859-1/
- Makefile
- htdocs/
- docproj/
- books/
- faq/
- Makefile
- book.xml</programlisting>
-
- <para><literal>sv_SE.ISO8859-1</literal>是依照 <filename><replaceable>語系 (Lang)</replaceable>.<replaceable>編碼 (Encoding)</replaceable></filename> 的規則來建立的譯名。請注意:其中有兩個 Makefile 檔,它們是用來建置說明文件的。</para>
-
- <para>然後請用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tar</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 與 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gzip</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來把你的說明文件壓縮起來,並寄到本計劃來。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd doc</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>tar cf swedish-docs.tar sv_SE.ISO8859-1</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>gzip -9 swedish-docs.tar</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>接著,把 <filename>swedish-docs.tar.gz</filename> 放到網頁空間上,若你沒有自己網頁空間的話 (ISP 不提供),那麼可以該檔寄到文件工程團隊 Documentation Engineering Team <email>doceng@FreeBSD.org</email> 來。</para>
-
- <para>還有,記得用 Bugzilla 提交一個回報來通知大家你已經提交說明文件了,還有,若有人可以幫忙檢閱、複審文件的話,對翻譯品質較好,因為這也有助於提升翻譯品質的流暢度。</para>
-
- <para>最後,會有人 (可能是文件計劃管理者,或是文件工程團隊 Documentation Engineering Team <email>doceng@FreeBSD.org</email> 成員) 會檢閱你的翻譯文件,並確認是否可正常編譯。此外,他們會特別注意下列幾點:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>你的檔案是否都有用 RCS tag (像是 "ID" 之類的)?</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><filename>sv_SE.ISO8859-1</filename> 是否可以順利<command>make all</command> 編譯呢?</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><command>make install</command> 是否結果有正確</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
-
- <para>若有問題的話,那麼檢閱者會叮嚀你,來讓這些翻譯成果可以正確使用。</para>
-
- <para>若沒問題的話,那麼就會很快把你的翻譯成果提交。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>可以加入某語系或某國家才有的東西到翻譯內容內嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>我們希望不要這麼做。</para>
-
- <para>舉例來說,假設你正準備把使用手冊 (Handbook) 翻譯為韓文版,並希望把韓國零售商也加到你翻譯的韓文版使用手冊內。</para>
-
- <para>我們想不出來有啥原因,為什麼不把這些資訊提供給英文版呢?(或是德文、西班牙文、日文等 …) 因為,有可能英語讀者跑去韓國時,會想買 FreeBSD 相關產品。此外,這也可以提升 FreeBSD 的可見度,很顯然的,這並不是件壞事啊。</para>
-
- <para>若你有某國才有的資料,請提供給英文版使用手冊以作為修訂 (用 Bugzilla),然後再把英文版的修訂部分翻為你要翻譯的使用手冊吧。</para>
-
- <para>謝謝。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>要怎麼把該語系特有的字元寫進去翻譯內容呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>說明文件內所有的非 ASCII (Non-ASCII) 的字元,都要使用 SGML entities 才能寫進去。</para>
-
- <para>簡單來說,長相一開頭會是 and 符號 (&amp;),然後是該 Entity 名稱,最後接上分號 (;)。</para>
-
- <para>這些 Entity 名稱都是 ISO8879 所制訂的,其在 Port 樹內的 <package>textproc/iso8879</package>。</para>
-
- <para>以下舉一些例子:</para>
-
- <segmentedlist>
- <segtitle>Entity 名稱</segtitle>
-
- <segtitle>外觀</segtitle>
-
- <segtitle>說明</segtitle>
-
- <seglistitem>
- <seg>&amp;eacute;</seg>
- <seg>é</seg>
- <seg>小 <quote>e</quote>,並帶尖、重音 (Acute accent)</seg>
- </seglistitem>
-
- <seglistitem>
- <seg>&amp;Eacute;</seg>
- <seg>É</seg>
- <seg>大 <quote>E</quote>,並帶尖、重音 (Acute accent)</seg>
- </seglistitem>
-
- <seglistitem>
- <seg>&amp;uuml;</seg>
- <seg>ü</seg>
- <seg>小 <quote>u</quote>,並帶日耳曼語系中的母音變化 (Umlaut)</seg>
- </seglistitem>
- </segmentedlist>
-
- <para>在裝了 iso8879 這個 Port 之後,就可以在 <filename>/usr/local/share/xml/iso8879</filename> 找到這些的詳細列表。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>如何稱呼讀者呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>在英文文件內,讀者都是以 <quote>you</quote> 來稱呼,而有些語言並沒有正式/非正式的區隔。</para>
-
- <para>若你所要翻的語言可以區別這些差異,那麼請用該語系在一般技術說明文件上所使用的稱呼吧。如果容易造成困惑的話,那麼請改用較中性的稱呼來取代。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>翻譯成果內要不要附上一些其他訊息呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>要。</para>
-
- <para>每份英文版原稿的開頭,通常會有像下面的內容:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!--
- The FreeBSD Documentation Project
-
- $FreeBSD$
---&gt;</programlisting>
-
- <para>實際上的內容可能稍有不同,但每份原稿都會附上 $FreeBSD$ 這一行以及 <literal>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</literal> 宣告。請注意:$FreeBSD$ 開頭的這行是會由 Subversion 隨著每次異動而自動更改的,所以新檔案的話請保持原狀 (也就是只要寫 $FreeBSD$ 就好了)。</para>
-
- <para>翻譯文件中,必須都要有 $FreeBSD$ 這行,並且把 <literal>FreeBSD Documentation Project</literal> 這行改為 <literal>The FreeBSD <replaceable>language</replaceable> Documentation Project</literal>。</para>
-
- <para>此外,還必須加上第三行來指出你所翻譯的,到底是以英文版原稿的哪一版本為母本所做的翻譯。</para>
-
- <para>因此呢,西班牙文版 (Spanish) 的檔案開頭應該是長像這樣:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!--
- The FreeBSD Spanish Documentation Project
-
- $FreeBSD$
- Original revision: r38674
---&gt;</programlisting>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
- </qandaset>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!--
- The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="po-translations">
-
- <title><acronym>PO</acronym> 翻譯</title>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="po-translations-introduction">
- <title>簡介</title>
-
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/"><acronym>GNU</acronym> <application>gettext</application></link> 系統提供翻譯者一個簡單的方法來建立和維護文件的翻譯。翻譯的字串從原始文件題取出來到 <acronym>PO</acronym> (Portable Object) 檔。字串的翻譯用另外的編輯器輸入。翻譯的字串可以直接使用,或是編譯成原始文件的完整翻譯版本。</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="po-translations-quick-start">
- <title>快速上手</title>
-
- <para>我們會假設您已做過在 <xref linkend="overview-quick-start"/> 中的步驟,除此之外還必須打開 <package role="port">textproc/docproj</package> Port 中的 <literal>TRANSLATOR</literal> 選項。如果沒有打開這個選項,請打開選項後重新安裝 Port。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/textproc/docproj</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make config</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make clean deinstall install clean</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>這個範例示範如何建立 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/leap-seconds">Leap Seconds</link> 短文的西班牙文翻譯。</para>
-
- <procedure xml:id="po-translations-quick-start-install-po-editor">
- <title>安裝 <acronym>PO</acronym> 編輯器</title>
-
- <step>
- <para>編輯翻譯檔案需要 <acronym>PO</acronym> 編輯器。這個範例使用 <package role="ports">editors/poedit</package>。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/editors/poedit</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
- </step>
- </procedure>
-
- <procedure xml:id="po-translations-quick-start-initial-setup">
- <title>初始設定</title>
-
- <para>第一次建立新的翻譯時,目錄結構和 <filename>Makefile</filename> 必須建立或是從英文版複製過來。</para>
-
- <step>
- <para>建立新翻譯的目錄。英文文章原始碼位於 <filename>~/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/leap-seconds/</filename> 。西班牙文翻譯將會放在 <filename>~/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/leap-seconds/</filename> 。除了語系目錄的名稱外,其他路徑相同。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn mkdir --parents ~/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/leap-seconds/</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>從原始文件處將 <filename>Makefile</filename> 複製到翻譯目錄。</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn cp ~/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/leap-seconds/Makefile \
- ~/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/leap-seconds/</userinput></screen>
- </step>
- </procedure>
-
- <procedure xml:id="po-translations-quick-start-translation">
- <title>翻譯</title>
-
- <para>翻譯文件公有兩個步驟:將可翻譯的字串從原始文件提去出來,然後翻譯這些字串。重複這些步驟,直到翻譯者認為文件的翻譯部份已經足夠用來產生可讀的翻譯文件。</para>
-
- <step>
- <para>從英文的原始文件提取字串到 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔:</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/leap-seconds/</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>make po</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>使用 <acronym>PO</acronym> 編輯器將翻譯輸入 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔。有幾個不同的編輯器可以使用。這裡用的是 <package role="port">editors/poedit</package> 的 <filename>poedit</filename> 。</para>
-
- <para><acronym>PO</acronym> 檔名是兩個字元的語系碼後面接底線和兩個字元的區域碼。以西班牙語來說,檔名是 <filename>es_ES.po</filename> 。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>poedit es_ES.po</userinput></screen>
- </step>
- </procedure>
-
- <procedure xml:id="po-translations-quick-generating-a-translated-document">
- <title>產生翻譯文件</title>
-
- <step>
- <para>產生翻譯文件</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/leap-seconds/</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>make tran</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>產生的文件名稱與英文原始文件名稱相符,文章通常是 <filename>article.xml</filename>,書籍是 <filename>book.xml</filename> 。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>可以轉換成 <acronym>HTML</acronym> 來檢查產生的檔案,並用瀏覽器來察看。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>make FORMATS=html</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>firefox article.html</userinput></screen>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="po-translations-creating">
- <title>建立新翻譯</title>
-
- <para>建立新翻譯文件的第一步是找到或建立一個目錄來放它。FreeBSD 將翻譯文件放在子目錄,用語系和區域以 <filename><replaceable>語系 (lang)</replaceable>_<replaceable>區域 (REGION)</replaceable></filename> 來命名。<replaceable>語系 (lang)</replaceable> 是小寫的兩個字元碼,接著是底線和兩個字元的大寫 <replaceable>REGION</replaceable> 碼。</para>
-
- <table xml:id="po-translations-language-names" frame="none">
- <title>語系名稱</title>
-
- <tgroup cols="5">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>語言</entry>
- <entry>地區</entry>
- <entry>翻譯目錄名稱</entry>
- <entry><acronym>PO</acronym> 檔名稱</entry>
- <entry>字元集</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry>英文</entry>
- <entry>美國</entry>
- <entry><filename>en_US.ISO8859-1</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>en_US.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-1</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>孟加拉文</entry>
- <entry>孟加拉</entry>
- <entry><filename>bn_BD.UTF-8</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>bn_BD.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>UTF</acronym>-8</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>丹麥文</entry>
- <entry>丹麥</entry>
- <entry><filename>da_DK.ISO8859-1</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>da_DK.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-1</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>德文</entry>
- <entry>德國</entry>
- <entry><filename>de_DE.ISO8859-1</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>de_DE.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-1</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>希臘文</entry>
- <entry>希臘</entry>
- <entry><filename>el_GR.ISO8859-7</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>el_GR.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-7</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>西班牙文</entry>
- <entry>西班牙</entry>
- <entry><filename>es_ES.ISO8859-1</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>es_ES.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-1</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>法文</entry>
- <entry>法國</entry>
- <entry><filename>fr_FR.ISO8859-1</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>fr_FR.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-1</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>匈牙利文</entry>
- <entry>匈牙利</entry>
- <entry><filename>hu_HU.ISO8859-2</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>hu_HU.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-2</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>義大利文</entry>
- <entry>義大利</entry>
- <entry><filename>it_IT.ISO8859-15</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>it_IT.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-15</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>日文</entry>
- <entry>日本</entry>
- <entry><filename>ja_JP.eucJP</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>ja_JP.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>EUC</acronym> JP</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>韓文</entry>
- <entry>韓國</entry>
- <entry><filename>ko_KR.UTF-8</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>ko_KR.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>UTF</acronym>-8</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>蒙古文</entry>
- <entry>蒙古</entry>
- <entry><filename>mn_MN.UTF-8</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>mn_MN.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>UTF</acronym>-8</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>荷蘭文</entry>
- <entry>荷蘭</entry>
- <entry><filename>nl_NL.ISO8859-1</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>nl_NL.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-1</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>挪威文</entry>
- <entry>挪威</entry>
- <entry><filename>no_NO.ISO8859-1</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>no_NO.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-1</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>波蘭文</entry>
- <entry>波蘭</entry>
- <entry><filename>pl_PL.ISO8859-2</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>pl_PL.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-2</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>葡萄牙文</entry>
- <entry>巴西</entry>
- <entry><filename>pt_BR.ISO8859-1</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>pt_BR.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-1</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>俄文</entry>
- <entry>俄羅斯</entry>
- <entry><filename>ru_RU.KOI8-R</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>ru_RU.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>KOI</acronym>8-R</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>賽爾維亞</entry>
- <entry>賽爾維亞文</entry>
- <entry><filename>sr_YU.ISO8859-2</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>sr_YU.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-2</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>土耳其文</entry>
- <entry>土耳其</entry>
- <entry><filename>tr_TR.ISO8859-9</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>tr_TR.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ISO</acronym> 8859-9</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>中文</entry>
- <entry>中國</entry>
- <entry><filename>zh_CN.UTF-8</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>zh_CN.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>UTF</acronym>-8</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>中文</entry>
- <entry>台灣</entry>
- <entry><filename>zh_TW.UTF-8</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>zh_TW.po</filename></entry>
- <entry><acronym>UTF</acronym>-8</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </table>
-
- <para>翻譯位於主要說明文件目錄的子目錄,這裡假設如 <xref linkend="overview-quick-start"/> 所示,是 <filename>~/doc/</filename>。例如德文位於 <filename>~/doc/de_DE.ISO8859-1/</filename>,法文位於 <filename>~/doc/fr_FR.ISO8859-1/</filename>。</para>
-
- <para>每個語系目錄包含不同文件類型的子目錄,通常是 <filename>articles/</filename> 和 <filename>books/</filename>。</para>
-
- <para>將目錄名稱組合起來就是文章或書的完整路徑。例如,NanoBSD 文章的法語翻譯在 <filename>~/doc/fr_FR.ISO8859-1/articles/nanobsd/</filename> 。而使用手冊的蒙古文翻譯在<filename>~/doc/mn_MN.UTF-8/books/handbook/</filename> 。</para>
-
- <para>當翻譯到一個新語系時必須建立一個新的語系目錄。如果語系目錄已經存在,那只需要有 <filename>articles/</filename> 或 <filename>books/</filename> 的子目錄。</para>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 說明文件的編譯是由同一個目錄的 <filename>Makefile</filename> 控制。簡單的文章可以從原始的英語目錄直接複製 <filename>Makefile</filename> 過來。書籍的翻譯流程結合多個獨立的 <filename>book.xml</filename> 和 <filename>chapter.xml</filename> 成為一個檔案,所以書籍翻譯的 <filename>Makefile</filename> 必須複製並修改。</para>
-
- <example xml:id="po-translations-creating-example">
- <title>建立 Porter 手冊的西班牙語翻譯</title>
-
- <para>建立 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/porters-handbook">Porter 手冊</link> 的西班牙文翻譯。原文是位於 <filename>~/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/porters-handbook/</filename> 的書籍。</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>西班牙文 books 目錄 <filename>~/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/books/</filename> 已經存在,所以只要建立 Porter 手冊的子目錄:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/books/</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn mkdir porters-handbook</userinput>
-A porters-handbook</screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>從原始文件的目錄複製 <filename>Makefile</filename>:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/books/porters-handbook</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn cp ~/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/porters-handbook/Makefile .</userinput>
-A Makefile</screen>
-
- <para>修改 <filename>Makefile</filename> 內容以產生單一的 <filename>book.xml</filename>:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">#
-# $FreeBSD$
-#
-# Build the FreeBSD Porter's Handbook.
-#
-
-MAINTAINER=doc@FreeBSD.org
-
-DOC?= book
-
-FORMATS?= html-split
-
-INSTALL_COMPRESSED?= gz
-INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESSED?=
-
-# XML content
-SRCS= book.xml
-
-# Images from the cross-document image library
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/1.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/2.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/3.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/4.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/5.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/6.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/7.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/8.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/9.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/10.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/11.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/12.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/13.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/14.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/15.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/16.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/17.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/18.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/19.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/20.png
-IMAGES_LIB+= callouts/21.png
-
-URL_RELPREFIX?= ../../../..
-DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/../../..
-
-.include "${DOC_PREFIX}/share/mk/doc.project.mk"</programlisting>
-
- <para>現在文件結構已經準備好讓翻譯者執行 <command>make po</command> 開始翻譯。</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </example>
-
- <example xml:id="po-translations-creating-example-french">
- <title>建立 <acronym>PGP</acronym> 金鑰文章的法語翻譯。</title>
-
- <para>建立 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/pgpkeys"><acronym>PGP</acronym> 金鑰文章</link> 的法文翻譯。原文是位於 <filename>~/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/pgpkeys/</filename> 的文章。</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>法文文章目錄 <filename>~/doc/fr_FR.ISO8859-1/articles/</filename> 已經存在,所以只要建立 <acronym>PGP</acronym> 金鑰文章的子目錄:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/fr_FR.ISO8859-1/articles/</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn mkdir pgpkeys</userinput>
-A pgpkeys</screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>從原始文件的目錄複製 <filename>Makefile</filename>:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/fr_FR.ISO8859-1/articles/pgpkeys</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn cp ~/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/pgpkeys/Makefile .</userinput>
-A Makefile</screen>
-
- <para>檢查 <filename>Makefile</filename> 的內容。因為這是簡單的文章,此例的 <filename>Makefile</filename> 不用修改。第二行的 <literal>$FreeBSD...$</literal> 版本字串將會在檔案提交時被版本控制系統替換掉。</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">#
-# $FreeBSD$
-#
-# Article: PGP Keys
-
-DOC?= article
-
-FORMATS?= html
-WITH_ARTICLE_TOC?= YES
-
-INSTALL_COMPRESSED?= gz
-INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESSED?=
-
-SRCS= article.xml
-
-# To build with just key fingerprints, set FINGERPRINTS_ONLY.
-
-URL_RELPREFIX?= ../../../..
-DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/../../..
-
-.include "${DOC_PREFIX}/share/mk/doc.project.mk"</programlisting>
-
- <para>文章結構處理好後,可以執行建立 <command>make po</command> 建立 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔。</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </example>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="po-translations-translating">
- <title>翻譯</title>
-
- <para><application>gettext</application> 系統大幅減少翻譯者要追蹤的事情。字串從原始文件提取到 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔。再用 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔編輯器輸入字串的翻譯。</para>
-
- <para>FreeBSD <acronym>PO</acronym> 翻譯系統不會覆蓋掉 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔。所以提取步驟可以在任何時候重複執行來更新 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔。</para>
-
- <para>用 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔編輯器來編輯檔案。此例是用 <package role="port">editors/poedit</package>,因為它很簡單而且系統需求低。其他的 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔編輯器提供一些特點,能使翻譯工作更輕鬆。Port 套件集裡有數個編輯器,包括 <package role="port">devel/gtranslator</package> 。</para>
-
- <para>保留 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔是很重要的。它包含所有的翻譯成果。</para>
-
- <example xml:id="po-translations-translating-example">
- <title>翻譯 Porter 手冊到西班牙文</title>
-
- <para>輸入 Porter 手冊的西班牙文內容</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>切換到西班牙文 Porter 手冊的目錄並更新 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔。產生的 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔如 <xref linkend="po-translations-language-names"/> 所示,名叫 <filename>es_ES.po</filename> 。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/books/porters-handbook</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>make po</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>使用 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔編輯器輸入翻譯:</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>poedit es_ES.po</userinput></screen>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </example>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="po-translations-tips">
- <title>給翻譯者的提示</title>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="po-translations-tips-xmltags">
- <title>保留 <acronym>XML</acronym> 標籤</title>
-
- <para>保留在英文原文的 <acronym>XML</acronym> 標籤。</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>保留 <acronym>XML</acronym> 標籤</title>
-
- <para>英文原文:</para>
-
- <programlisting>If <tag class="starttag">acronym</tag>NTP<tag class="endtag">acronym</tag> is not being used</programlisting>
-
- <para>西班牙文翻譯:</para>
-
- <programlisting>Si <tag class="starttag">acronym</tag>NTP<tag class="endtag">acronym</tag> no se utiliza</programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="po-translations-tips-spaces">
- <title>保留空白</title>
-
- <para>保留要翻譯字串前後的空白,翻譯過的版本也需要有這些空白。</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="po-translations-tips-verbatim">
- <title>不要翻譯的標籤</title>
-
- <para>有些標籤的內容要一字不差地保留,不要翻譯。</para>
-
- <itemizedlist xml:id="po-translations-tips-verbatim-list">
- <listitem>
- <para><tag class="starttag">citerefentry</tag></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><tag class="starttag">command</tag></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><tag class="starttag">filename</tag></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><tag class="starttag">literal</tag></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><tag class="starttag">manvolnum</tag></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><tag class="starttag">orgname</tag></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><tag class="starttag">package</tag></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><tag class="starttag">programlisting</tag></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><tag class="starttag">prompt</tag></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><tag class="starttag">refentrytitle</tag></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><tag class="starttag">screen</tag></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><tag class="starttag">userinput</tag></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><tag class="starttag">varname</tag></para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="po-translations-literal-dollar">
- <title><literal>$FreeBSD$</literal> 字串</title>
-
- <para>在檔案中使用到的 $FreeBSD$ 版本字串都需要特別處理,例如在 <xref linkend="po-translations-creating-example"/>,使用這些字串的用意並非要展開成版本。英文的說明文件會使用 <literal>&amp;dollar;</literal> Entity 來避免在檔案中用到錢字符號:</para>
-
- <programlisting>&amp;dollar;FreeBSD&amp;dollar;</programlisting>
-
- <para>版本控制符號不會把 <literal>&amp;dollar;</literal> entities 看成金錢符號,所以不會把字串展開成版本字串。</para>
-
- <para>當 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔建立之後,在範例中使用到的 <literal>&amp;dollar;</literal> Entity 會被取代成實際的錢字符號,這會使的 <literal>$FreeBSD$</literal> 字串在提交時錯誤的被版本控制系統展開成版本字串。</para>
-
- <para>在英文文件上使用的方法也可以用在翻譯上,翻譯時在 <acronym>PO</acronym> 編輯器用 <literal>&amp;dollar;</literal> 來取代金錢符號:</para>
-
- <programlisting>&amp;dollar;FreeBSD&amp;dollar;</programlisting>
- </sect2>
-
- <!--
- <sect2 xml:id="po-translations-tips-makefile">
- <title>Modifying the <filename>Makefile</filename></title>
-
- <para>What needs to be changed in the
- <filename>Makefile</filename>?</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="po-translations-tips-locale">
- <title>Setting Locales for Editing</title>
-
- <para>Locale settings so the <acronym>PO</acronym> editor works
- correctly?</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="po-translations-tips-poeditors">
- <title>Settings for Specific <acronym>PO</acronym>
- Editors</title>
-
- <para>Per bcr: turn off "intelligent quotes" in
- Mac poedit.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="po-translations-tips-tm">
- <title>Using Translation Memory</title>
-
- <para>Using translation memory. Saving, updating, sharing
- with other members of a translation team.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="po-translations-tips-submitting">
- <title>Submitting Translations</title>
-
- <para>Submitting translations as diffs, committing
- <acronym>PO</acronym> files.</para>
- </sect2>
- -->
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="po-translations-building">
- <title>編譯翻譯的文件</title>
-
- <para>原文的翻譯版本可以在任何時候被建立。未翻譯的部份會以英文呈獻。大部份 <acronym>PO</acronym> 編輯器有指標可以顯示翻譯完成度。這讓翻譯者更容易看翻譯好的字串是否足夠來編譯最終的文件。</para>
-
- <example xml:id="po-translations-building-example">
- <title>編譯西班牙文 Porter 手冊</title>
-
- <para>編譯和預覽之前範例翻譯的西班牙文版 Porter 手冊</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>編譯翻譯好的文件。因為原文是書籍,所以產生的文件是 <filename>book.xml</filename>。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/books/porters-handbook</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>make tran</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>轉換翻譯好的 <filename>book.xml</filename> 成 <acronym>HTML</acronym> 並用 <application>Firefox</application> 來瀏覽。這和英文版是相同的步驟,其他 <varname>FORMATS</varname> 也可以這樣做。請見 <xref linkend="doc-build-rendering-common-formats"/> 。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>make FORMATS=html</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>firefox book.html</userinput></screen>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </example>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="po-translations-submitting">
- <title>提交新翻譯</title>
-
- <para>準備要提交的新翻譯。這包含新增檔案到版本控制系統,對檔案設定額外的屬性,並建立 diff 來提交。</para>
-
- <para>範例中產生的 diff 檔可以被附加到 <link xlink:href="https://bugs.freebsd.org/bugzilla/enter_bug.cgi?product=Documentation">文件問題回報 (Documentation bug report)</link> 或 <link xlink:href="https://reviews.freebsd.org/">程式碼審查 (Code review)</link> 。</para>
-
- <example xml:id="po-translations-submitting-spanish">
- <title>NanoBSD 文章的西班牙文翻譯</title>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>增加 FreeBSD 版本字串註解到 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔的第一行:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">#$FreeBSD$</programlisting>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>增加 <filename>Makefile</filename> 、<acronym>PO</acronym> 檔和產生的 <acronym>XML</acronym> 翻譯到版本控制系統:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/nanobsd/</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls</userinput>
-Makefile article.xml es_ES.po
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn add Makefile article.xml es_ES.po</userinput>
-A Makefile
-A article.xml
-A es_ES.po</screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>在這些檔案設定 <application>Subversion</application> <literal>svn:keywords</literal> 屬性為 <literal>FreeBSD=%H</literal> 讓 <literal>$FreeBSD$</literal> 字串可以在提交時被展開成為路徑、修訂、日期以及作者:</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn propset svn:keywords FreeBSD=%H Makefile article.xml es_ES.po</userinput>
-property 'svn:keywords' set on 'Makefile'
-property 'svn:keywords' set on 'article.xml'
-property 'svn:keywords' set on 'es_ES.po'</screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>設定檔案的 <acronym>MIME</acronym> 類型。書籍和文章是 <literal>text/xml</literal>,<acronym>PO</acronym> 檔是 <literal>text/x-gettext-translation</literal> 。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn propset svn:mime-type text/x-gettext-translation es_ES.po</userinput>
-property 'svn:mime-type' set on 'es_ES.po'
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn propset svn:mime-type text/xml article.xml</userinput>
-property 'svn:mime-type' set on 'article.xml'</screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>從 <filename>~/doc/</filename> 建立這些新檔案的 diff,讓檔名顯示完整的路徑。這可以幫助提交者辨識目標語系目錄。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc</userinput>
-<userinput>svn diff es_ES.ISO8859-1/articles/nanobsd/ &gt; /tmp/es_nanobsd.diff</userinput></screen>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </example>
-
- <example xml:id="po-translations-submitting-korean-utf8">
- <title>Explaining-BSD 文章的韓文 <acronym>UTF-8</acronym> 翻譯</title>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>增加 FreeBSD 版本字串註解到 <acronym>PO</acronym> 檔的第一行:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">#$FreeBSD$</programlisting>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>增加 <filename>Makefile</filename> 、<acronym>PO</acronym> 檔和產生的 <acronym>XML</acronym> 翻譯到版本控制系統:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc/ko_KR.UTF-8/articles/explaining-bsd/</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls</userinput>
-Makefile article.xml ko_KR.po
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn add Makefile article.xml ko_KR.po</userinput>
-A Makefile
-A article.xml
-A ko_KR.po</screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>在這些檔案設定 <application>Subversion</application> <literal>svn:keywords</literal> 屬性為 <literal>FreeBSD=%H</literal> 讓 <literal>$FreeBSD$</literal> 字串可以在提交時被展開成為路徑、修訂、日期以及作者:</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn propset svn:keywords FreeBSD=%H Makefile article.xml ko_KR.po</userinput>
-property 'svn:keywords' set on 'Makefile'
-property 'svn:keywords' set on 'article.xml'
-property 'svn:keywords' set on 'ko_KR.po'</screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>設定檔案的 <acronym>MIME</acronym> 類型。因為這些檔案使用 <acronym>UTF-8</acronym> 字元集,這也需要指定。為了防止版本控制系統將這些檔案誤認為二進位資料,<literal>fbsd:notbinary</literal> 屬性也需要設定。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn propset svn:mime-type 'text/x-gettext-translation;charset=UTF-8' ko_KR.po</userinput>
-property 'svn:mime-type' set on 'ko_KR.po'
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn propset fbsd:notbinary yes ko_KR.po</userinput>
-property 'fbsd:notbinary' set on 'ko_KR.po'
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn propset svn:mime-type 'text/xml;charset=UTF-8' article.xml</userinput>
-property 'svn:mime-type' set on 'article.xml'
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>svn propset fbsd:notbinary yes article.xml</userinput>
-property 'fbsd:notbinary' set on 'article.xml'</screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>從 <filename>~/doc/</filename> 建立這些新檔案的 diff。</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd ~/doc</userinput>
-<userinput>svn diff ko_KR.UTF-8/articles/explaining-bsd &gt; /tmp/ko-explaining.diff</userinput></screen>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </example>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1998 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
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- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="writing-style">
- <title>寫作風格</title>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="writing-style-tips">
- <title>叮嚀</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Technical documentation can be improved by consistent use of
- several principles. Most of these can be classified into three
- goals: <emphasis>be clear</emphasis>,
- <emphasis>be complete</emphasis>, and
- <emphasis>be concise</emphasis>. These goals can conflict with
- each other. Good writing consists of a balance between
- them.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="writing-style-be-clear">
- <title>要明瞭</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Clarity is extremely important. The reader may be a
- novice, or reading the document in a second language. Strive
- for simple, uncomplicated text that clearly explains the
- concepts.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Avoid flowery or embellished speech, jokes, or colloquial
- expressions. Write as simply and clearly as possible. Simple
- text is easier to understand and translate.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Keep explanations as short, simple, and clear as possible.
- Avoid empty phrases like <quote>in order to</quote>, which
- usually just means <quote>to</quote>. Avoid potentially
- patronizing words like <quote>basically</quote>. Avoid Latin
- terms like <quote>i.e.</quote> or <quote>cf.</quote>, which
- may be unknown outside of academic or scientific
- groups.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Write in a formal style. Avoid addressing the reader
- as <quote>you</quote>. For example, say
- <quote>copy the file to <filename>/tmp</filename></quote>
- rather than <quote>you can copy the file to
- <filename>/tmp</filename></quote>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Give clear, correct, <emphasis>tested</emphasis> examples.
- A trivial example is better than no example. A good example
- is better yet. Do not give bad examples, identifiable by
- apologies or sentences like <quote>but really it should never
- be done that way</quote>. Bad examples are worse than no
- examples. Give good examples, because <emphasis>even when
- warned not to use the example as shown</emphasis>, the
- reader will usually just use the example as shown.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Avoid <emphasis>weasel words</emphasis> like
- <quote>should</quote>, <quote>might</quote>,
- <quote>try</quote>, or <quote>could</quote>. These words
- imply that the speaker is unsure of the facts, and
- create doubt in the reader.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Similarly, give instructions as imperative commands: not
- <quote>you should do this</quote>, but merely
- <quote>do this</quote>.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="writing-style-be-complete">
- <title>要完整</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Do not make assumptions about the reader's abilities or
- skill level. Tell them what they need to know. Give links to
- other documents to provide background information without
- having to recreate it. Put yourself in the reader's place,
- anticipate the questions they will ask, and answer
- them.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="writing-style-be-concise">
- <title>要簡潔</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">While features should be documented completely, sometimes
- there is so much information that the reader cannot easily
- find the specific detail needed. The balance between being
- complete and being concise is a challenge. One approach is to
- have an introduction, then a <quote>quick start</quote>
- section that describes the most common situation, followed by
- an in-depth reference section.</para>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="writing-style-guidelines">
- <title>準則</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To promote consistency between the myriad authors of the
- FreeBSD documentation, some guidelines have been drawn up for
- authors to follow.</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>使用美式英語拼寫</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">There are several variants of English, with different
- spellings for the same word. Where spellings differ, use
- the American English variant. <quote>color</quote>, not
- <quote>colour</quote>, <quote>rationalize</quote>, not
- <quote>rationalise</quote>, and so on.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">The use of British English may be accepted in the
- case of a contributed article, however the spelling must
- be consistent within the whole document. The other
- documents such as books, web site, manual pages, etc.
- will have to use American English.</para>
- </note>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>不要使用縮寫式</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Do not use contractions. Always spell the phrase out
- in full. <quote>Don't use contractions</quote> is
- wrong.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Avoiding contractions makes for a more formal tone, is
- more precise, and is slightly easier for
- translators.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>使用逗號串行</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In a list of items within a paragraph, separate each
- item from the others with a comma. Separate the last item
- from the others with a comma and the word
- <quote>and</quote>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">For example:</para>
-
- <blockquote>
- <para xml:lang="en">This is a list of one, two and three items.</para>
- </blockquote>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Is this a list of three items, <quote>one</quote>,
- <quote>two</quote>, and <quote>three</quote>, or a list of
- two items, <quote>one</quote> and <quote>two and
- three</quote>?</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">It is better to be explicit and include a serial
- comma:</para>
-
- <blockquote>
- <para xml:lang="en">This is a list of one, two, and three items.</para>
- </blockquote>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>避免多餘的語句</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Do not use redundant phrases. In particular,
- <quote>the command</quote>, <quote>the file</quote>, and
- <quote>man command</quote> are often redundant.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">For example, commands:</para>
-
- <informalexample>
- <para xml:lang="en">Wrong: Use the <command>svn</command> command to
- update sources.</para>
- </informalexample>
-
- <informalexample>
- <para xml:lang="en">Right: Use <command>svn</command> to update
- sources.</para>
- </informalexample>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Filenames:</para>
-
- <informalexample>
- <para xml:lang="en">Wrong: … in the filename
- <filename>/etc/rc.local</filename>…</para>
- </informalexample>
-
- <informalexample>
- <para xml:lang="en">Right: … in
- <filename>/etc/rc.local</filename>…</para>
- </informalexample>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Manual page references (the second example uses
- <tag>citerefentry</tag> with the
- <literal>&amp;man.csh.1;</literal> entity):.</para>
-
- <informalexample>
- <para xml:lang="en">Wrong: See <command>man csh</command> for more
- information.</para>
- </informalexample>
-
- <informalexample>
- <para xml:lang="en">Right: See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>csh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
- </informalexample>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>在句子之間空兩個空白</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Always use two spaces between sentences, as it
- improves readability and eases use of tools such as
- <application>Emacs</application>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A period and spaces followed by a capital letter
- does not always mark a new sentence, especially in names.
- <quote>Jordan K. Hubbard</quote> is a good example. It
- has a capital <literal>H</literal> following a period and
- a space, and is certainly not a new sentence.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">For more information about writing style, see <link xlink:href="http://www.bartleby.com/141/">Elements of
- Style</link>, by William Strunk.</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="writing-style-guide">
- <title>風格指南</title>
-
- <para>由於說明文件是由眾多作者所維護,為了保持寫作風格的一貫性,請遵守下列撰寫風格慣例。</para>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>大小寫</title>
-
- <para>Tag 的部份都是用小寫字母,譬如是用 <tag>para</tag>,<emphasis>而非</emphasis><tag>PARA</tag>。</para>
-
- <para>而 SGML 內文則是用大寫字母表示,像是: <literal>&lt;!ENTITY…&gt;</literal> 及 <literal>&lt;!DOCTYPE…&gt;</literal>,<emphasis>而不是</emphasis> <literal>&lt;!entity…&gt;</literal> 及 <literal>&lt;!doctype…&gt;</literal>。</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="writing-style-acronyms">
- <title>縮寫</title>
-
- <para>縮寫字 (Acronym) 通常在書中第一次提到時,必須同時列出完整拼法,比如:<quote>Network Time Protocol (<acronym>NTP</acronym>)</quote>。定義縮寫字之後,應該儘量只使用該縮寫字(而非完整詞彙,除非使用完整詞彙可以更能表達語意)來表達即可。通常每本書只會第一次提到時,才會列出完整詞彙,但若您高興也可以在每章第一次提到時又列出完整詞彙。</para>
-
- <para>所有縮寫要包在<tag>acronym</tag>標籤內。</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="writing-style-indentation">
- <title>縮排</title>
-
- <para><emphasis>無論</emphasis>檔案縮排設定為何,每個檔案的第一行都不縮排。</para>
-
- <para>未完的標籤會以多兩個空白來增加縮排,結尾的標籤則少兩個空白來縮減縮排。若已達 8 個空白,則以 tab 取代之。此外,在 tab 前面不要再用空白,也不要在每行後面加上空白。每個 tag 的內文若超過一行的話,則接下來的就多兩個空白以做縮排。</para>
-
- <para>舉個例子,這節所用的寫法大致是下面這樣:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">chapter</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>...<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">sect1</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>...<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">sect2</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>Indentation<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>The first line in each file starts with no indentation,
- <tag class="starttag">emphasis</tag>regardless<tag class="endtag">emphasis</tag> of the indentation level of
- the file which might contain the current file.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
- ...
- <tag class="endtag">sect2</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">sect1</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">chapter</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>有長屬性的標籤也是遵循一樣的原則。遵守縮排規則可以幫助編輯和作者了解哪些內容在標籤內:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>See the <tag class="starttag">link
- linkend="gmirror-troubleshooting"</tag>Troubleshooting<tag class="endtag">link</tag>
- section if there are problems booting. Powering down and
- disconnecting the original <tag class="starttag">filename</tag>ada0<tag class="endtag">filename</tag> disk
- will allow it to be kept as an offline backup.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">para</tag>It is also possible to journal the boot disk of a &amp;os;
- system. Refer to the article <tag class="starttag">link
- xlink:href="&amp;url.articles.gjournal-desktop;"</tag>Implementing UFS
- Journaling on a Desktop PC<tag class="endtag">link</tag> for detailed
- instructions.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When an element is too long to fit on the remainder of a
- line without wrapping, moving the start tag to the next line
- can make the source easier to read. In this example, the
- <literal>systemitem</literal> element has been moved to the
- next line to avoid wrapping and indenting:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">para</tag>With file flags, even
- <tag class="starttag">systemitem class="username"</tag>root<tag class="endtag">systemitem</tag> can be
- prevented from removing or altering files.<tag class="endtag">para</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Configurations to help various text editors conform to
- these guidelines can be found in
- <xref linkend="editor-config"/>.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="writing-style-tag-style">
- <title>標籤風格</title>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="writing-style-tag-style-spacing">
- <title>標籤間距</title>
-
- <para>同一縮排階層的標籤要以空一行來做區隔,而不同縮排階層的則不必。比如:</para>
-
- <informalexample>
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">article lang='en'</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">articleinfo</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>NIS<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">pubdate</tag>October 1999<tag class="endtag">pubdate</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">abstract</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>...
- ...
- ...<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">abstract</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">articleinfo</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">sect1</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>...<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>...<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">sect1</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">sect1</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>...<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>...<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">sect1</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">article</tag></programlisting>
- </informalexample>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="writing-style-tag-style-separating">
- <title>分隔標籤</title>
-
- <para>像是 <tag>itemizedlist</tag> 這類的標籤事實上本身不含任何文字資料,必須得由其他標籤來補充內文。這類的標籤會獨用一整行。</para>
-
- <para>另外,像是 <tag>para</tag> 及 <tag>term</tag> 這類的標籤並不需搭配其他標籤,就可附上文字資料,並且在標籤後面的<emphasis>同一行</emphasis>內即可立即寫上這些內文。</para>
-
- <para>當然,這兩類的標籤結尾時也是跟上面道理相同。</para>
-
- <para>不過,當上述這兩種標籤混用時,會有很明顯的困擾。</para>
-
- <para>當第一類標籤的後面接上第二類標籤的話,那麼要把這兩類標籤各自分行來寫。後者標籤的段落,也是需要做適當縮排調整。</para>
-
- <para>而第二類標籤結尾時,可以與第一類標籤的結尾放在同一行。</para>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="writing-style-whitespace-changes">
- <title>空白變更</title>
-
- <para><emphasis>在提交修改時,請別在修改內容的同時也一起更改編排格式</emphasis>。</para>
-
- <para>如此一來,像是翻譯團隊才能迅速找出你改了哪些內容,而不用費心思去判斷該行的改變,是由於格式重排或者內容異動。</para>
-
- <para>舉例說明,若要在某段加上兩個句子,如此一來該段落的某行勢必會超出 80 縱列,這時請先 commmit 修改。接著,再修飾過長行落的換行,然後再次 commit 之。而第二次的 commit 紀錄,請明確說明這只是 whitespace-only (修改空白而已) 的更改,如此一來,翻譯團隊就可以忽略第二次 commit 了 。</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="writing-style-nonbreaking-space">
- <title>不斷行空白</title>
-
- <para>請避免一些情況下的斷行:造成版面醜醜的、或是須連貫表達的同一句子。斷行的情況會隨所閱讀的工具不同而有所不同。尤其是透過純文字瀏覽器來看 HTML 說明文件時會更明顯看到類似下面這樣不好的編排段落:</para>
-
- <literallayout class="monospaced" xml:lang="en">Data capacity ranges from 40 MB to 15
-GB. Hardware compression …</literallayout>
-
- <para>請使用 <literal>&amp;nbsp;</literal> 以避免同句子之間的斷行,以下示範如何使用不斷行空白:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>在數字與單位之間:</para>
- <programlisting>57600&amp;nbsp;bps</programlisting>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>在程式名稱與版號之間:</para>
- <programlisting>&amp;os;&amp;nbsp;9.2</programlisting>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>多個單字的名稱之間 (在套用到如 <quote>The FreeBSD Brazilian Portuguese Documentation Project</quote> 這種由三到四個字所組成的名稱時請小心):</para>
- <programlisting>Sun&amp;nbsp;Microsystems</programlisting>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="writing-style-word-list">
- <title>詞彙表</title>
-
- <para>以下詞彙表列出使用在 FreeBSD 文件的正確拼法和大小寫。若找不到要找的詞彙,請詢問 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link> 。</para>
-
- <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="0">
- <tgroup cols="3">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>字詞</entry>
- <entry>XML 程式碼</entry>
- <entry>備註</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry>CD-ROM</entry>
-
- <entry><tag class="starttag">acronym</tag><literal>CD-ROM</literal><tag class="endtag">acronym</tag></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>DoS (Denial of Service)</entry>
- <entry><tag class="starttag">acronym</tag><literal>DoS</literal><tag class="endtag">acronym</tag></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>email</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>file system</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>IPsec</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>Internet</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>manual page</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>mail server</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>name server</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>Ports Collection</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>read-only</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>Soft Updates</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>stdin</entry>
- <entry><tag class="starttag">varname</tag>stdin<tag class="endtag">varname</tag></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>stdout</entry>
- <entry><tag class="starttag">varname</tag>stdout<tag class="endtag">varname</tag></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>stderr</entry>
- <entry><tag class="starttag">varname</tag>stderr<tag class="endtag">varname</tag></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>Subversion</entry>
-
- <entry><tag class="starttag">application</tag><literal>Subversion</literal><tag class="endtag">application</tag></entry>
- <entry>不要用大寫 <literal>SVN</literal> 來表示 Subversion 應用程式。若要表示指令,請使用 <tag class="starttag">command</tag><literal>svn</literal><tag class="endtag">command</tag>。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>&amp;unix;</literal></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>userland</entry>
- <entry/>
- <entry>指那些要會用在使用者空間 (User space) 而非核心的東西。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>web server</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 2013 Warren Block
- All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
- 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
- notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
- 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided
- with the distribution.
-
- THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHORS AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS
- IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
- LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
- FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
- AUTHORS OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
- INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
- CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR
- OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE,
- EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="editor-config">
-
- <title>編輯器設定</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Adjusting text editor configuration can make working on
- document files quicker and easier, and help documents conform to
- <acronym>FDP</acronym> guidelines.</para>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="editor-config-vim">
- <title xml:lang="en"><application>Vim</application></title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Install from <package>editors/vim</package> or
- <package>editors/vim-lite</package>, then follow the
- configuration instructions in
- <xref linkend="editor-config-vim-config"/>.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="editor-config-vim-use">
- <title>使用</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Press <keycap>P</keycap> to reformat paragraphs or text
- that has been selected in Visual mode. Press
- <keycap>T</keycap> to replace groups of eight spaces with a
- tab.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="editor-config-vim-config">
- <title>設置</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Edit <filename>~/.vimrc</filename>, adding these
- lines to the end of the file:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">if has("autocmd")
- au BufNewFile,BufRead *.sgml,*.ent,*.xsl,*.xml call Set_SGML()
- au BufNewFile,BufRead *.[1-9] call ShowSpecial()
-endif " has(autocmd)
-
-function Set_Highlights()
- "match ExtraWhitespace /^\s* \s*\|\s\+$/
- highlight default link OverLength ErrorMsg
- match OverLength /\%71v.\+/
- return 0
-endfunction
-
-function ShowSpecial()
- setlocal list listchars=tab:&gt;&gt;,trail:*,eol:$
- hi def link nontext ErrorMsg
- return 0
-endfunction " ShowSpecial()
-
-function Set_SGML()
- setlocal number
- syn match sgmlSpecial "&amp;[^;]*;"
- setlocal syntax=sgml
- setlocal filetype=xml
- setlocal shiftwidth=2
- setlocal textwidth=70
- setlocal tabstop=8
- setlocal softtabstop=2
- setlocal formatprg="fmt -p"
- setlocal autoindent
- setlocal smartindent
- " Rewrap paragraphs
- noremap P gqj
- " Replace spaces with tabs
- noremap T :s/ /\t/&lt;CR&gt;
- call ShowSpecial()
- call Set_Highlights()
- return 0
-endfunction " Set_SGML()</programlisting>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="editor-config-emacs">
- <title xml:lang="en"><application>Emacs</application></title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Install from <package>editors/emacs</package> or
- <package>editors/emacs-devel</package>.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="editor-config-emacs-validation">
- <title>檢驗</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Emacs's nxml-mode uses compact relax NG schemas for
- validating XML. A compact relax NG schema for FreeBSD's
- extension to DocBook 5.0 is included in the documentation
- repository. To configure nxml-mode to validate using this
- schema, create
- <filename>~/.emacs.d/schema/schemas.xml</filename> and add
- these lines to the file:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"><tag class="starttag">locatingRules xmlns="http://thaiopensource.com/ns/locating-rules/1.0"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">documentElement localName="section" typeId="DocBook"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">documentElement localName="chapter" typeId="DocBook"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">documentElement localName="article" typeId="DocBook"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">documentElement localName="book" typeId="DocBook"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">typeId id="DocBook" uri="/usr/local/share/xml/docbook/5.0/rng/docbook.rnc"</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">locatingRules</tag></programlisting>
-
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="editor-config-emacs-igor">
- <title>使用 Flycheck 和 Igor 自動化校對</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The Flycheck package is available from Milkypostman's
- Emacs Lisp Package Archive (<acronym>MELPA</acronym>). If
- <acronym>MELPA</acronym> is not already in Emacs's
- packages-archives, it can be added by evaluating</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">(add-to-list 'package-archives '("melpa" . "http://stable.melpa.org/packages/") t)</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Add the line to Emacs's initialization file (one of
- <filename>~/.emacs</filename>,
- <filename>~/.emacs.el</filename>, or
- <filename>~.emacs.d/init.el</filename>) to make this change
- permanent.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To install Flycheck, evaluate</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">(package-install 'flycheck)</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Create a Flycheck checker for
- <package>textproc/igor</package> by evaluating</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">(flycheck-define-checker igor
- "FreeBSD Documentation Project sanity checker.
-
-See URLs http://www.freebsd.org/docproj/ and
-http://www.freshports.org/textproc/igor/."
- :command ("igor" "-X" source-inplace)
- :error-parser flycheck-parse-checkstyle
- :modes (nxml-mode)
- :standard-input t)
-
- (add-to-list 'flycheck-checkers 'igor 'append)</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Again, add these lines to Emacs's initialization file to
- make the changes permanent.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="editor-config-emacs-specifc">
- <title>FreeBSD 說明文件特定的設定</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To apply settings specific to the FreeBSD documentation
- project, create <filename>.dir-locals.el</filename> in the
- root directory of the documentation repository and add these
- lines to the file:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">;;; Directory Local Variables
-;;; For more information see (info "(emacs) Directory Variables")
-
-((nxml-mode
- (eval . (turn-on-auto-fill))
- (fill-column . 70)
- (eval . (require 'flycheck))
- (eval . (flycheck-mode 1))
- (flycheck-checker . igor)
- (eval . (add-to-list 'rng-schema-locating-files "~/.emacs.d/schema/schemas.xml"))))</programlisting>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="editor-config-nano">
- <title xml:lang="en"><application>nano</application></title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Install from
- <package>editors/nano</package> or
- <package>editors/nano-devel</package>.</para>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="editor-config-nano-config">
- <title>設置</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Copy the sample <acronym>XML</acronym> syntax highlight
- file to the user's home directory:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cp /usr/local/share/nano/xml.nanorc ~/.nanorc</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Add these lines to the new
- <filename>~/.nanorc</filename>.</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">syntax "xml" "\.([jrs]html?|xml|xslt?)$"
-# trailing whitespace
-color ,blue "[[:space:]]+$"
-# multiples of eight spaces at the start a line
-# (after zero or more tabs) should be a tab
-color ,blue "^([TAB]*[ ]{8})+"
-# tabs after spaces
-color ,yellow "( )+TAB"
-# highlight indents that have an odd number of spaces
-color ,red "^(([ ]{2})+|(TAB+))*[ ]{1}[^ ]{1}"
-# lines longer than 70 characters
-color ,yellow "^(.{71})|(TAB.{63})|(TAB{2}.{55})|(TAB{3}.{47}).+$"</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Process the file to create embedded tabs:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>perl -i'' -pe 's/TAB/\t/g' ~/.nanorc</userinput></screen>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="editor-config-nano-use">
- <title>使用</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Specify additional helpful options when running the
- editor:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>nano -AKipwz -r 70 -T8 <replaceable>chapter.xml</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Users of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>csh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> can define an alias in
- <filename>~/.cshrc</filename> to automate these
- options:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">alias nano "nano -AKipwz -r 70 -T8"</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">After the alias is defined, the options will be added
- automatically:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>nano <replaceable>chapter.xml</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1998, 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="see-also">
- <title>他山之石</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This document is deliberately not an exhaustive discussion of
- XML, the DTDs listed, and the FreeBSD Documentation Project. For
- more information about these, you are encouraged to see the
- following web sites.</para>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="see-also-fdp">
- <title>FreeBSD 說明文件計劃</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/docproj/index.html">FreeBSD 說明文件計劃網頁</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/index.html">FreeBSD 使用手冊</link></para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="see-also-xml">
- <title>XML</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.w3.org/XML/">W3C's XML 網頁 SGML/XML 網頁</link></para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="see-also-html">
- <title>HTML</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.w3.org/">全球資訊網協會</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-html40/">The HTML 4.0 規格表</link></para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="see-also-docbook">
- <title>DocBook</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.oasis-open.org/docbook/">The DocBook 技術委員會</link>,DocBook DTD的維護者</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.docbook.org/">DocBook:The Definitive Guide</link>,DocBook DTD 的線上說明文件。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://docbook.sourceforge.net/">The DocBook
- Open Repository</link> contains DSSSL stylesheets and
- other resources for people using DocBook</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect1>
-
-</chapter>
-
-
-
-<!-- Copyright (c) 2000 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD$
--->
-<appendix version="5.0" xml:id="examples">
-
- <title>範例</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">These examples are not exhaustive—they do not contain
- all the elements that might be desirable to use, particularly in a
- document's front matter. For more examples of DocBook markup,
- examine the <acronym>XML</acronym> source for this and other
- documents available in the <application>Subversion</application>
- <literal>doc</literal> repository, or available online starting at
- <uri xlink:href="http://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/doc/">http://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/doc/</uri>.</para>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="examples-docbook-book">
- <title>DocBook <tag>book</tag></title>
-
- <example>
- <title>DocBook <tag>book</tag></title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V5.0-Based Extension//EN"
- "http://www.FreeBSD.org/XML/share/xml/freebsd50.dtd"&gt;
-
-<tag class="starttag">book xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
- xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0"
- xml:lang="en"</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">info</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>An Example Book<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">author</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">personname</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">firstname</tag>Your first name<tag class="endtag">firstname</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">surname</tag>Your surname<tag class="endtag">surname</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">personname</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">affiliation</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">address</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">email</tag>foo@example.com<tag class="endtag">email</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">address</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">affiliation</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">author</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">copyright</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">year</tag>2000<tag class="endtag">year</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">holder</tag>Copyright string here<tag class="endtag">holder</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">copyright</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">abstract</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>If your book has an abstract then it should go here.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">abstract</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">info</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">preface</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>Preface<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>Your book may have a preface, in which case it should be placed
- here.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">preface</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">chapter</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>My First Chapter<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>This is the first chapter in my book.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">sect1</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>My First Section<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>This is the first section in my book.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">sect1</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">chapter</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">book</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="examples-docbook-article">
- <title>DocBook <tag>article</tag></title>
-
- <example>
- <title>DocBook <tag>article</tag></title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V5.0-Based Extension//EN"
- "http://www.FreeBSD.org/XML/share/xml/freebsd50.dtd"&gt;
-
-<tag class="starttag">article xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
- xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0"
- xml:lang="en"</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">info</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>An Example Article<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">author</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">personname</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">firstname</tag>Your first name<tag class="endtag">firstname</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">surname</tag>Your surname<tag class="endtag">surname</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">personname</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">affiliation</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">address</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">email</tag>foo@example.com<tag class="endtag">email</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">address</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">affiliation</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">author</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">copyright</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">year</tag>2000<tag class="endtag">year</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">holder</tag>Copyright string here<tag class="endtag">holder</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">copyright</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">abstract</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>If your article has an abstract then it should go here.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">abstract</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">info</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">sect1</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>My First Section<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>This is the first section in my article.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">sect2</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag>My First Sub-Section<tag class="endtag">title</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">para</tag>This is the first sub-section in my article.<tag class="endtag">para</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">sect2</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">sect1</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">article</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect1>
-</appendix>
-
-
- <index/>
-</book>