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authorLi-Wen Hsu <lwhsu@FreeBSD.org>2015-04-14 21:06:08 +0000
committerLi-Wen Hsu <lwhsu@FreeBSD.org>2015-04-14 21:06:08 +0000
commit5764da7bbfceab797f79cc134f13855a7bbe608e (patch)
tree4c20dfb55dffbbe58ad041c24723dcb111076695 /zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/bsdinstall/chapter.xml
parentbbb438489b67fb551f4ee18ab3d0bf418e263b69 (diff)
downloaddoc-5764da7bbfceab797f79cc134f13855a7bbe608e.tar.gz
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Traditional Chinese handbook update:
- Catch up the latest handbook architecture - Translate "cutting-edge" chapter PR: 193066, 193715, 193750 Differential Revision: https://reviews.freebsd.org/D2284 Submitted by: RayCherng Yu <raycherng@gmail.com> Reviewed by: delphij, wblock Approved by: delphij, wblock
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=46538
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+<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
+<!--
+ The FreeBSD Documentation Project
+
+ $FreeBSD$
+-->
+
+<chapter xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
+ xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0"
+ xml:id="bsdinstall">
+
+ <info>
+ <title>Installing &os;&nbsp;9.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and
+ Later</title>
+
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author>
+ <personname>
+ <firstname>Jim</firstname>
+ <surname>Mock</surname>
+ </personname>
+
+ <contrib>Restructured, reorganized, and parts rewritten
+ by </contrib>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
+<!---
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author>
+ <personname>
+ <firstname>Randy</firstname>
+ <surname>Pratt</surname>
+ </personname>
+ <contrib>The sysinstall walkthrough, screenshots, and general
+ copy by </contrib>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>-->
+
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author>
+ <personname>
+ <firstname>Gavin</firstname>
+ <surname>Atkinson</surname>
+ </personname>
+
+ <contrib>Updated for bsdinstall by </contrib>
+ </author>
+
+ <author>
+ <personname>
+ <firstname>Warren</firstname>
+ <surname>Block</surname>
+ </personname>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
+
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author>
+ <personname>
+ <firstname>Allan</firstname>
+ <surname>Jude</surname>
+ </personname>
+
+ <contrib>Updated for root-on-ZFS by </contrib>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
+ </info>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-synopsis">
+ <title>Synopsis</title>
+
+ <indexterm><primary>installation</primary></indexterm>
+
+ <para>Beginning with &os;&nbsp;9.0-RELEASE, &os; provides an easy
+ to use, text-based installation
+ program named <application>bsdinstall</application>. This
+ chapter describes how to install &os; using
+ <application>bsdinstall</application>. The use of
+ <application>sysinstall</application>, which is the installation
+ program used by &os;&nbsp;8.x, is covered in <xref
+ linkend="install"/>.</para>
+
+ <para>In general, the installation instructions in this chapter
+ are written for the &i386; and <acronym>AMD64</acronym>
+ architectures. Where applicable, instructions specific to other
+ platforms will be listed. There may be minor differences
+ between the installer and what is shown here, so use this
+ chapter as a general guide rather than as a set of literal
+ instructions.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>Users who prefer to install &os; using a graphical
+ installer may be interested in
+ <application>pc-sysinstall</application>, the installer used
+ by the PC-BSD Project. It can be used to install either a
+ graphical desktop (PC-BSD) or a command line version of &os;.
+ Refer to the PC-BSD Users Handbook for details (<link
+ xlink:href="http://wiki.pcbsd.org/index.php/PC-BSD%C2%AE_Users_Handbook/10.1">http://wiki.pcbsd.org/index.php/PC-BSD%C2%AE_Users_Handbook/10.1</link>).</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>After reading this chapter, you will know:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The minimum hardware requirements and &os; supported
+ architectures.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>How to create the &os; installation media.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+<!-- WB: verify this, including GPT partition notation (ada0p2)
+ <listitem>
+ <para>How &os; subdivides and refers to hard disks.</para>
+ </listitem> -->
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>How to start
+ <application>bsdinstall</application>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The questions <application>bsdinstall</application> will
+ ask, what they mean, and how to answer them.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>How to troubleshoot a failed installation.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>How to access a live version of &os; before committing
+ to an installation.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>Before reading this chapter, you should:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Read the supported hardware list that shipped with the
+ version of &os; to be installed and verify that the system's
+ hardware is supported.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-hardware">
+ <title>Minimum Hardware Requirements</title>
+
+ <para>The hardware requirements to install &os; vary by the &os;
+ version and the hardware architecture. Hardware architectures
+ and devices supported by a &os; release are listed in the
+ Hardware Notes file. Usually named
+ <filename>HARDWARE.TXT</filename>, the file is located in the
+ root directory of the release media. Copies of the supported
+ hardware list are also available on the Release Information page
+ of the &os; web site (<link
+ xlink:href="&url.base;/releases/index.html">http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/index.html</link>).</para>
+
+ <para>A &os; installation will require at least 64&nbsp;MB of
+ <acronym>RAM</acronym> and 1.5&nbsp;GB of free hard drive space
+ for the most minimal installation. However, that is a
+ <emphasis>very</emphasis> minimal install, leaving almost no
+ free space. A more realistic minimum is 4&nbsp;GB without a
+ graphical environment, and 8&nbsp;GB or more if a graphical user
+ interface will be used. Third-party application software
+ requires more space. It is recommended to increase
+ <acronym>RAM</acronym> and hard drive space to meet the needs of
+ the applications that will be used and the amount of data that
+ will be stored.</para>
+
+ <para>The processor requirements for each architecture can be
+ summarized as follows:</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>&arch.amd64;</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>There are two classes of processors capable of running
+ &arch.amd64;. The first are <acronym>AMD64</acronym>
+ processors, including the &amd.athlon;64 and &amd.opteron;
+ processors.</para>
+
+ <para>The second class of processors includes those using
+ the &intel;&nbsp;EM64T architecture. Examples of these
+ processors include all multi-core &intel;&nbsp;&xeon;
+ processors except Sossaman, the single-core
+ &intel;&nbsp;&xeon; processors Nocona, Irwindale, Potomac,
+ and Cranford, the &intel;&nbsp;&core;&nbsp;2 (not Core
+ Duo) and later processors, all &intel;&nbsp;&pentium; D
+ processors, the &intel;&nbsp;&pentium; 4s and Celeron Ds
+ using the Cedar Mill core, and some &intel;&nbsp;&pentium;
+ 4s and Celeron Ds using the Prescott core.</para>
+
+ <para>Both Uniprocessor (<acronym>UP</acronym>) and
+ Symmetric Multi-processor (<acronym>SMP</acronym>)
+ configurations are supported.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>&arch.i386;</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Almost all i386-compatible processors with a floating
+ point unit are supported. All &intel; processors 486 or
+ higher are supported.</para>
+
+ <para>&os; will take advantage of Physical Address
+ Extensions (<acronym>PAE</acronym>) support on
+ <acronym>CPU</acronym>s that support this feature. A
+ kernel with the <acronym>PAE</acronym> feature enabled
+ will detect memory above 4&nbsp;GB and allow it to be used
+ by the system. This feature places constraints on the
+ device drivers and other features of &os; which may be
+ used; refer to &man.pae.4; for details.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>ia64</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Currently supported processors are the &itanium; and
+ the &itanium; 2. Supported chipsets include the HP zx1,
+ &intel; 460GX, and &intel; E8870. Both Uniprocessor
+ (<acronym>UP</acronym>) and Symmetric Multi-processor
+ (<acronym>SMP</acronym>) configurations are
+ supported.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>pc98</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>NEC PC-9801/9821 series with almost all
+ i386-compatible processors, including 80486, &pentium;,
+ &pentium; Pro, and &pentium; II, are all supported. All
+ i386-compatible processors by AMD, Cyrix, IBM, and IDT are
+ also supported. EPSON PC-386/486/586 series, which are
+ compatible with NEC PC-9801 series, are supported. The
+ NEC FC-9801/9821 and NEC SV-98 series should be
+ supported.</para>
+
+ <para>High-resolution mode is not supported. NEC
+ PC-98XA/XL/RL/XL^2, and NEC PC-H98 series are supported in
+ normal (PC-9801 compatible) mode only. The
+ <acronym>SMP</acronym>-related features of &os; are not
+ supported. The New Extend Standard Architecture
+ (<acronym>NESA</acronym>) bus used in the PC-H98, SV-H98,
+ and FC-H98 series, is not supported.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>&arch.powerpc;</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>All New World <acronym>ROM</acronym> &apple;
+ &mac; systems with built-in <acronym>USB</acronym>
+ are supported. <acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on
+ machines with multiple <acronym>CPU</acronym>s.</para>
+
+ <para>A 32-bit kernel can only use the first 2&nbsp;GB of
+ <acronym>RAM</acronym>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>&arch.sparc64;</term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Systems supported by &os;/&arch.sparc64; are listed at
+ the FreeBSD/sparc64 Project (<link
+ xlink:href="&url.base;/platforms/sparc.html">http://www.freebsd.org/platforms/sparc.html</link>).</para>
+
+ <para><acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on all systems
+ with more than 1 processor. A dedicated disk is required
+ as it is not possible to share a disk with another
+ operating system at this time.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-pre">
+ <title>Pre-Installation Tasks</title>
+
+ <para>Once it has been determined that the system meets the
+ minimum hardware requirements for installing &os;, the
+ installation file should be downloaded and the installation
+ media prepared. Before doing this, check that the system is
+ ready for an installation by verifying the items in this
+ checklist:</para>
+
+ <procedure>
+ <step>
+ <title>Back Up Important Data</title>
+
+ <para>Before installing any operating system,
+ <emphasis>always</emphasis> backup all important data first.
+ Do not store the backup on the system being installed.
+ Instead, save the data to a removable disk such as a
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> drive, another system on the network,
+ or an online backup service. Test the backup before
+ starting the installation to make sure it contains all of
+ the needed files. Once the installer formats the system's
+ disk, all data stored on that disk will be lost.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <title>Decide Where to Install &os;</title>
+
+ <para>If &os; will be the only operating system installed,
+ this step can be skipped. But if &os; will share the disk
+ with another operating system, decide which disk or
+ partition will be used for &os;.</para>
+
+ <para>In the &arch.i386; and &arch.amd64; architectures, disks
+ can be divided into multiple partitions using one of two
+ partitioning schemes. A traditional <firstterm>Master Boot
+ Record</firstterm> (<acronym>MBR</acronym>) holds a
+ partition table defining up to four <firstterm>primary
+ partitions</firstterm>. For historical reasons, &os;
+ calls these primary partition
+ <firstterm>slices</firstterm>. One of these primary
+ partitions can be made into an <firstterm>extended
+ partition</firstterm> containing multiple
+ <firstterm>logical partitions</firstterm>. The
+ <firstterm>GUID Partition Table</firstterm>
+ (<acronym>GPT</acronym>) is a newer and simpler method of
+ partitioning a disk. Common <acronym>GPT</acronym>
+ implementations allow up to 128 partitions per disk,
+ eliminating the need for logical partitions.</para>
+
+ <warning>
+ <para>Some older operating systems, like &windows;&nbsp;XP,
+ are not compatible with the <acronym>GPT</acronym>
+ partition scheme. If &os; will be sharing a disk with
+ such an operating system, <acronym>MBR</acronym>
+ partitioning is required.</para>
+ </warning>
+
+ <para>The &os; boot loader requires either a primary or
+ <acronym>GPT</acronym> partition. If all of the primary or
+ <acronym>GPT</acronym> partitions are already in use, one
+ must be freed for &os;. To create a partition without
+ deleting existing data, use a partition resizing tool to
+ shrink an existing partition and create a new partition
+ using the freed space.</para>
+
+ <para>A variety of free and commercial partition resizing
+ tools are listed at <link
+ xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_disk_partitioning_software">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_disk_partitioning_software</link>.
+ <application>GParted Live</application> (<link
+ xlink:href="http://gparted.sourceforge.net/livecd.php">http://gparted.sourceforge.net/livecd.php</link>)
+ is a free live <acronym>CD</acronym> which includes the
+ <application>GParted</application> partition editor.
+ <application>GParted</application> is also included with
+ many other Linux live <acronym>CD</acronym>
+ distributions.</para>
+
+ <warning>
+ <para>When used properly, disk shrinking utilities can
+ safely create space for creating a new partition. Since
+ the possibility of selecting the wrong partition exists,
+ always backup any important data and verify the integrity
+ of the backup before modifying disk partitions.</para>
+ </warning>
+
+ <para>Disk partitions containing different operating systems
+ make it possible to install multiple operating systems on
+ one computer. An alternative is to use virtualization
+ (<xref linkend="virtualization"/>) which allows multiple
+ operating systems to run at the same time without modifying
+ any disk partitions.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <title>Collect Network Information</title>
+
+ <para>Some &os; installation methods require a network
+ connection in order to download the installation files.
+ After any installation, the installer will offer to setup
+ the system's network interfaces.</para>
+
+ <para>If the network has a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server, it
+ can be used to provide automatic network configuration. If
+ <acronym>DHCP</acronym> is not available, the following
+ network information for the system must be obtained from the
+ local network administrator or Internet service
+ provider:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist xml:id="bsdinstall-collect-network-information">
+ <title>Required Network Information</title>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><acronym>IP</acronym> address</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Subnet mask</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><acronym>IP</acronym> address of default
+ gateway</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Domain name of the network</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><acronym>IP</acronym> addresses of the network's
+ <acronym>DNS</acronym> servers</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <title>Check for &os; Errata</title>
+
+ <para>Although the &os;&nbsp;Project strives to ensure that
+ each release of &os; is as stable as possible, bugs
+ occasionally creep into the process. On very rare occasions
+ those bugs affect the installation process. As these
+ problems are discovered and fixed, they are noted in the
+ &os; Errata (<link
+ xlink:href="&url.base;/releases/&rel.current;R/errata.html">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/&rel.current;R/errata.html</link>)
+ on the &os; web site. Check the errata before installing to
+ make sure that there are no problems that might affect the
+ installation.</para>
+
+ <para>Information and errata for all the releases can be found
+ on the release information section of the &os; web site
+ (<link
+ xlink:href="&url.base;/releases/index.html">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>).</para>
+ </step>
+ </procedure>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-installation-media">
+ <title>Prepare the Installation Media</title>
+
+ <para>The &os; installer is not an application that can be run
+ from within another operating system. Instead, download a
+ &os; installation file, burn it to the media associated with
+ its file type and size (<acronym>CD</acronym>,
+ <acronym>DVD</acronym>, or <acronym>USB</acronym>), and boot
+ the system to install from the inserted media.</para>
+
+ <para>&os; installation files are available at <link
+ xlink:href="&url.base;/where.html#download">www.freebsd.org/where.html#download</link>.
+ Each installation file's name includes the release version of
+ &os;, the architecture, and the type of file. For example, to
+ install &os; 10.0 on an &arch.amd64; system from a
+ <acronym>DVD</acronym>, download
+ <filename>FreeBSD-10.0-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso</filename>, burn
+ this file to a <acronym>DVD</acronym>, and boot the system
+ with the <acronym>DVD</acronym> inserted.</para>
+
+ <para>Several file types are available, though not all file
+ types are available for all architectures. The possible file
+ types are:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>-bootonly.iso</literal>: This is the smallest
+ installation file as it only contains the installer. A
+ working Internet connection is required during
+ installation as the installer will download the files it
+ needs to complete the &os; installation. This file should
+ be burned to a <acronym>CD</acronym> using a
+ <acronym>CD</acronym> burning application.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>-disc1.iso</literal>: This file contains all
+ of the files needed to install &os;, its source, and the
+ Ports Collection. It should be burned to a
+ <acronym>CD</acronym> using a <acronym>CD</acronym>
+ burning application.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>-dvd1.iso</literal>: This file contains all
+ of the files needed to install &os;, its source, and the
+ Ports Collection. It also contains a set of popular
+ binary packages for installing a window manager and some
+ applications so that a complete system can be installed
+ from media without requiring a connection to the Internet.
+ This file should be burned to a <acronym>DVD</acronym>
+ using a <acronym>DVD</acronym> burning application.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>-memstick.img</literal>: This file contains
+ all of the files needed to install &os;, its source, and
+ the Ports Collection. It should be burned to a
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> stick using the instructions
+ below.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>Also download <filename>CHECKSUM.SHA256</filename> from
+ the same directory as the image file and use it to check the
+ image file's integrity by calculating a
+ <firstterm>checksum</firstterm>. &os; provides &man.sha256.1;
+ for this, while other operating systems have similar programs.
+ Compare the calculated checksum with the one shown in
+ <filename>CHECKSUM.SHA256</filename>. The checksums must
+ match exactly. If the checksums do not match, the file is
+ corrupt and should be downloaded again.</para>
+
+ <sect3 xml:id="bsdinstall-usb">
+ <title>Writing an Image File to <acronym>USB</acronym></title>
+
+ <para>The <filename>*.img</filename> file is an
+ <emphasis>image</emphasis> of the complete contents of a
+ memory stick. It <emphasis>cannot</emphasis> be copied to
+ the target device as a file. Several applications are
+ available for writing the <filename>*.img</filename> to a
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> stick. This section describes two of
+ these utilities.</para>
+
+ <important>
+ <para>Before proceeding, back up any important data on the
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> stick. This procedure will erase
+ the existing data on the stick.</para>
+ </important>
+
+ <procedure xml:id="bsdinstall-usb-dd">
+ <title>Using <command>dd</command> to Write the
+ Image</title>
+
+ <warning>
+ <para>This example uses <filename>/dev/da0</filename> as
+ the target device where the image will be written. Be
+ <emphasis>very careful</emphasis> that the correct
+ device is used as this command will destroy the existing
+ data on the specified target device.</para>
+ </warning>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>The &man.dd.1; command-line utility is
+ available on BSD, &linux;, and &macos; systems. To burn
+ the image using <command>dd</command>, insert the
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> stick and determine its device
+ name. Then, specify the name of the downloaded
+ installation file and the device name for the
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> stick. This example burns the
+ &arch.amd64; installation image to the first
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> device on an existing &os;
+ system.</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=<replaceable>FreeBSD-10.0-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img</replaceable> of=/dev/<replaceable>da0</replaceable> bs=64k</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>If this command fails, verify that the
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> stick is not mounted and that the
+ device name is for the disk, not a partition. Some
+ operating systems might require this command to be run
+ with &man.sudo.8;. Systems like &linux; might buffer
+ writes. To force all writes to complete, use
+ &man.sync.8;.</para>
+ </step>
+ </procedure>
+
+ <procedure>
+ <title>Using &windows; to Write the Image</title>
+
+ <warning>
+ <para>Be sure to give the correct drive letter as the
+ existing data on the specified drive will be overwritten
+ and destroyed.</para>
+ </warning>
+
+ <step>
+ <title>Obtaining <application>Image Writer for
+ &windows;</application></title>
+
+ <para><application>Image Writer for
+ &windows;</application> is a free application that can
+ correctly write an image file to a memory stick.
+ Download it from <uri
+ xlink:href="https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/">https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/</uri>
+ and extract it into a folder.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <title>Writing the Image with Image Writer</title>
+
+ <para>Double-click the
+ <application>Win32DiskImager</application> icon to start
+ the program. Verify that the drive letter shown under
+ <computeroutput>Device</computeroutput> is the drive
+ with the memory stick. Click the folder icon and select
+ the image to be written to the memory stick. Click
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Save&nbsp;]</guibutton> to accept the
+ image file name. Verify that everything is correct, and
+ that no folders on the memory stick are open in other
+ windows. When everything is ready, click
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Write&nbsp;]</guibutton> to write the
+ image file to the memory stick.</para>
+ </step>
+ </procedure>
+
+ <para>You are now ready to start installing &os;.</para>
+ </sect3>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-start">
+ <title>Starting the Installation</title>
+
+ <important>
+ <para>By default, the installation will not make any changes to
+ the disk(s) before the following message:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>Your changes will now be written to disk. If you
+have chosen to overwrite existing data, it will
+be PERMANENTLY ERASED. Are you sure you want to
+commit your changes?</programlisting>
+
+ <para>The install can be exited at any time prior to this
+ warning. If
+ there is a concern that something is incorrectly configured,
+ just turn the computer off before this point and no changes
+ will be made to the system's disks.</para>
+ </important>
+
+ <para>This section describes how to boot the system from the
+ installation media which was prepared using the instructions in
+ <xref linkend="bsdinstall-installation-media"/>. When using a
+ bootable USB stick, plug in the <acronym>USB</acronym> stick
+ before turning on the computer. When booting from
+ <acronym>CD</acronym> or <acronym>DVD</acronym>, turn on the
+ computer and insert the media at the first opportunity. How to
+ configure the system to boot from the inserted media depends
+ upon the architecture.</para>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-starting-i386">
+ <title>Booting on &i386; and &arch.amd64;</title>
+
+ <para>These architectures provide a <acronym>BIOS</acronym>
+ menu for selecting the boot device. Depending upon the
+ installation media being used, select the
+ <acronym>CD</acronym>/<acronym>DVD</acronym> or
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> device as the first boot device. Most
+ systems also provide a key for selecting the boot device
+ during startup without having to enter the
+ <acronym>BIOS</acronym>. Typically, the key is either
+ <keycap>F10</keycap>, <keycap>F11</keycap>,
+ <keycap>F12</keycap>, or <keycap>Escape</keycap>.</para>
+
+ <para>If the computer loads the existing operating system
+ instead of the &os; installer, then either:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The installation media was not inserted early enough
+ in the boot process. Leave the media inserted and try
+ restarting the computer.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The <acronym>BIOS</acronym> changes were incorrect or
+ not saved. Double-check that the right boot device is
+ selected as the first boot device.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This system is too old to support booting from the
+ chosen media. In this case, the <application>Plop Boot
+ Manager</application> (<link
+ xlink:href="http://www.plop.at/en/bootmanager.html">http://www.plop.at/en/bootmanager.html</link>)
+ can be used to boot the system from the selected
+ media.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Booting on &powerpc;</title>
+
+ <para>On most machines, holding <keycap>C</keycap> on the
+ keyboard during boot will boot from the <acronym>CD</acronym>.
+ Otherwise, hold <keycombo action="simul">
+ <keycap>Command</keycap>
+ <keycap>Option</keycap>
+ <keycap>O</keycap>
+ <keycap>F</keycap>
+ </keycombo>, or
+ <keycombo action="simul">
+ <keycap>Windows</keycap>
+ <keycap>Alt</keycap>
+ <keycap>O</keycap>
+ <keycap>F</keycap>
+ </keycombo> on non-&apple; keyboards. At the
+ <prompt>0 &gt;</prompt> prompt, enter</para>
+
+ <screen><userinput>boot cd:,\ppc\loader cd:0</userinput></screen>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Booting on &sparc64;</title>
+
+ <para>Most &sparc64; systems are set up to boot automatically
+ from disk. To install &os; from a <acronym>CD</acronym>
+ requires a break into the <acronym>PROM</acronym>.</para>
+
+ <para>To do this, reboot the system and wait until the boot
+ message appears. The message depends on the model, but should
+ look something like this:</para>
+
+ <screen>Sun Blade 100 (UltraSPARC-IIe), Keyboard Present
+Copyright 1998-2001 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved.
+OpenBoot 4.2, 128 MB memory installed, Serial #51090132.
+Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID: 830b92d4.</screen>
+
+ <para>If the system proceeds to boot from disk at this point,
+ press <keycombo
+ action="simul"><keycap>L1</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo>
+ or <keycombo
+ action="simul"><keycap>Stop</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo>
+ on the keyboard, or send a <command>BREAK</command> over the
+ serial console. When using <application>tip</application> or
+ <application>cu</application>, <command>~#</command> will
+ issue a BREAK. The <acronym>PROM</acronym> prompt will be
+ <prompt>ok</prompt> on systems with one
+ <acronym>CPU</acronym> and <prompt>ok {0} </prompt> on
+ <acronym>SMP</acronym> systems, where the digit indicates the
+ number of the active <acronym>CPU</acronym>.</para>
+
+ <para>At this point, place the <acronym>CD</acronym> into the
+ drive and type <command>boot cdrom</command> from the
+ <acronym>PROM</acronym> prompt.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-view-probe">
+ <title>&os; Boot Menu</title>
+
+ <para>Once the system boots from the installation media, a menu
+ similar to the following will be displayed:</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu">
+ <title>&os; Boot Loader Menu</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>By default, the menu will wait ten seconds for user input
+ before booting into the &os; installer or, if &os; is already
+ installed, before booting into &os;. To pause the boot timer
+ in order to review the selections, press
+ <keycap>Space</keycap>. To select an option, press its
+ highlighted number, character, or key. The following options
+ are available.</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Boot Multi User</literal>: This will
+ continue the &os; boot process. If the boot timer has
+ been paused, press <keycap>1</keycap>, upper- or
+ lower-case <keycap>B</keycap>, or
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Boot Single User</literal>: This mode can be
+ used to fix an existing &os; installation as described in
+ <xref linkend="boot-singleuser"/>. Press
+ <keycap>2</keycap> or the upper- or lower-case
+ <keycap>S</keycap> to enter this mode.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Escape to loader prompt</literal>: This will
+ boot the system into a repair prompt that contains a
+ limited number of low-level commands. This prompt is
+ described in <xref linkend="boot-loader"/>. Press
+ <keycap>3</keycap> or <keycap>Esc</keycap> to boot into
+ this prompt.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Reboot</literal>: Reboots the system.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Configure Boot Options</literal>: Opens the
+ menu shown in, and described under, <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-boot-options-menu"/>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-boot-options-menu">
+ <title>&os; Boot Options Menu</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-boot-options-menu"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>The boot options menu is divided into two sections. The
+ first section can be used to either return to the main boot
+ menu or to reset any toggled options back to their
+ defaults.</para>
+
+ <para>The next section is used to toggle the available options
+ to <literal>On</literal> or <literal>Off</literal> by pressing
+ the option's highlighted number or character. The system will
+ always boot using the settings for these options until they
+ are modified. Several options can be toggled using this
+ menu:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>ACPI Support</literal>: If the system hangs
+ during boot, try toggling this option to
+ <literal>Off</literal>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Safe Mode</literal>: If the system still
+ hangs during boot even with <literal>ACPI
+ Support</literal> set to <literal>Off</literal>, try
+ setting this option to <literal>On</literal>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Single User</literal>: Toggle this option to
+ <literal>On</literal> to fix an existing &os; installation
+ as described in <xref linkend="boot-singleuser"/>. Once
+ the problem is fixed, set it back to
+ <literal>Off</literal>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Verbose</literal>: Toggle this option to
+ <literal>On</literal> to see more detailed messages during
+ the boot process. This can be useful when troubleshooting
+ a piece of hardware.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>After making the needed selections, press
+ <keycap>1</keycap> or <keycap>Backspace</keycap> to return to
+ the main boot menu, then press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to
+ continue booting into &os;. A series of boot messages will
+ appear as &os; carries out its hardware device probes and
+ loads the installation program. Once the boot is complete,
+ the welcome menu shown in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-choose-mode"/> will be displayed.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-choose-mode">
+ <title>Welcome Menu</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-choose-mode"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to select the default of
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Install&nbsp;]</guibutton> to enter the
+ installer. The rest of this chapter describes how to use this
+ installer. Otherwise, use the right or left arrows or the
+ colorized letter to select the desired menu item. The
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Shell&nbsp;]</guibutton> can be used to
+ access a &os; shell in order to use command line utilities to
+ prepare the disks before installation. The
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Live CD&nbsp;]</guibutton> option can be
+ used to try out &os; before installing it. The live version
+ is described in <xref linkend="using-live-cd"/>.</para>
+
+ <tip>
+ <para>To review the boot messages, including the hardware
+ device probe, press the upper- or lower-case
+ <keycap>S</keycap> and then <keycap>Enter</keycap> to access
+ a shell. At the shell prompt, type <command>more
+ /var/run/dmesg.boot</command> and use the space bar to
+ scroll through the messages. When finished, type
+ <command>exit</command> to return to the welcome
+ menu.</para>
+ </tip>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="using-bsdinstall">
+ <title>Using <application>bsdinstall</application></title>
+
+ <para>This section shows the order of the
+ <application>bsdinstall</application> menus and the type of
+ information that will be asked before the system is installed.
+ Use the arrow keys to highlight a menu option, then
+ <keycap>Space</keycap> to select or deselect that menu item.
+ When finished, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to save the
+ selection and move onto the next screen.</para>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-keymap">
+ <title>Selecting the Keymap Menu</title>
+
+ <para>Depending on the system console being used,
+ <application>bsdinstall</application> may initially display
+ the menu shown in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-keymap-select-default"/>.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-keymap-select-default">
+ <title>Keymap Selection</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-select-default"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>To configure the keyboard layout, press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> with
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;YES&nbsp;]</guibutton> selected, which will
+ display the menu shown in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-config-keymap"/>. To instead use the
+ default layout, use the arrow key to select
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;NO&nbsp;]</guibutton> and press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> to skip this menu screen.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-config-keymap">
+ <title>Selecting Keyboard Menu</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-keymap"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>When configuring the keyboard layout, use the up and down
+ arrows to select the keymap that most closely represents the
+ mapping of the keyboard attached to the system. Press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> to save the selection.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>Pressing <keycap>Esc</keycap> will exit this menu and
+ use the default keymap. If the choice of keymap is not
+ clear, <guimenuitem>United States of America
+ ISO-8859-1</guimenuitem> is also a safe option.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>In &os; 10.0-RELEASE and later, this menu has been
+ enhanced. The full selection of keymaps is shown, with the
+ default preselected. In addition, when selecting a different
+ keymap, a dialog is displayed that allows the user to try the
+ keymap and ensure it is correct before proceeding.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-keymap-10">
+ <title>Enhanced Keymap Menu</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-10"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-hostname">
+ <title>Setting the Hostname</title>
+
+ <para>The next <application>bsdinstall</application> menu is
+ used to set the hostname for the newly installed
+ system.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-config-hostname">
+ <title>Setting the Hostname</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-hostname"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Type in a hostname that is unique for the network. It
+ should be a fully-qualified hostname, such as <systemitem
+ class="fqdomainname">machine3.example.com</systemitem>.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-components">
+ <title>Selecting Components to Install</title>
+
+ <para>Next, <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt to
+ select optional components to install.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-config-components">
+ <title>Selecting Components to Install</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-components"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Deciding which components to install will depend largely
+ on the intended use of the system and the amount of disk space
+ available. The &os; kernel and userland, collectively known
+ as the <firstterm>base system</firstterm>, are always
+ installed. Depending on the architecture, some of these
+ components may not appear:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>doc</literal> - Additional documentation,
+ mostly of historical interest, to install into
+ <filename>/usr/share/doc</filename>. The documentation
+ provided by the FreeBSD Documentation Project may be
+ installed later using the instructions in <xref
+ linkend="updating-upgrading-documentation"/>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>games</literal> - Several traditional
+ <acronym>BSD</acronym> games, including
+ <application>fortune</application>,
+ <application>rot13</application>, and others.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>lib32</literal> - Compatibility libraries for
+ running 32-bit applications on a 64-bit version of
+ &os;.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>ports</literal> - The &os; Ports Collection
+ is a collection of files which automates the downloading,
+ compiling and installation of third-party software
+ packages. <xref linkend="ports"/> discusses how to use
+ the Ports Collection.</para>
+
+ <warning>
+ <para>The installation program does not check for
+ adequate disk space. Select this option only if
+ sufficient hard disk space is available. The &os; Ports
+ Collection takes up about &ports.size; of disk
+ space.</para>
+ </warning>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>src</literal> - The complete &os; source code
+ for both the kernel and the userland. Although not
+ required for the majority of applications, it may be
+ required to build device drivers, kernel modules, or some
+ applications from the Ports Collection. It is also used
+ for developing &os; itself. The full source tree requires
+ 1&nbsp;GB of disk space and recompiling the entire &os;
+ system requires an additional 5&nbsp;GB of space.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-netinstall">
+ <title>Installing from the Network</title>
+
+ <para>The menu shown in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-netinstall-notify"/> only appears when
+ installing from a <filename>-bootonly.iso</filename>
+ <acronym>CD</acronym> as this installation media does not hold
+ copies of the installation files. Since the installation
+ files must be retrieved over a network connection, this menu
+ indicates that the network interface must be first
+ configured.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-netinstall-notify">
+ <title>Installing from the Network</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-files"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>To configure the network connection, press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> and follow the instructions in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-config-network-dev"/>. Once the
+ interface is configured, select a mirror site that is
+ located in the same region of the world as the computer on
+ which &os; is being installed. Files can be retrieved more
+ quickly when the mirror is close to the target computer,
+ reducing installation time.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-netinstall-mirror">
+ <title>Choosing a Mirror</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-mirrorselect"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Installation will then continue as if the installation
+ files were located on the local installation media.</para>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-partitioning">
+ <title>Allocating Disk Space</title>
+
+ <para>The next menu is used to determine the method for
+ allocating disk space. The options available in the menu
+ depend upon the version of &os; being installed.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-guided-manual">
+ <title>Partitioning Choices on &os; 9.x</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-manual"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu">
+ <title>Partitioning Choices on &os; 10.x and Higher</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para><literal>Guided</literal> partitioning automatically sets up
+ the disk partitions, <literal>Manual</literal> partitioning
+ allows advanced users to create customized partitions from menu
+ options, and <literal>Shell</literal> opens a shell prompt where
+ advanced users can create customized partitions using
+ command-line utilities like &man.gpart.8;, &man.fdisk.8;, and
+ &man.bsdlabel.8;. <literal>ZFS</literal> partitioning, only
+ available in &os; 10 and later, creates an optionally encrypted
+ root-on-ZFS system with support for <firstterm>boot
+ environments</firstterm>.</para>
+
+ <para>This section describes what to consider when laying out the
+ disk partitions. It then demonstrates how to use the different
+ partitioning methods.</para>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="configtuning-initial">
+ <title>Designing the Partition Layout</title>
+
+ <indexterm><primary>partition layout</primary></indexterm>
+ <indexterm>
+ <primary><filename>/etc</filename></primary>
+ </indexterm>
+ <indexterm>
+ <primary><filename>/var</filename></primary>
+ </indexterm>
+ <indexterm>
+ <primary><filename>/usr</filename></primary>
+ </indexterm>
+
+ <para>When laying out file systems, remember that hard drives
+ transfer data faster from the outer tracks to the inner.
+ Thus, smaller and heavier-accessed file systems should be
+ closer to the outside of the drive, while larger partitions
+ like <filename>/usr</filename> should be placed toward the
+ inner parts of the disk. It is a good idea to create
+ partitions in an order similar to: <filename>/</filename>,
+ swap, <filename>/var</filename>, and
+ <filename>/usr</filename>.</para>
+
+ <para>The size of the <filename>/var</filename> partition
+ reflects the intended machine's usage. This partition is
+ used to hold mailboxes, log files, and printer spools.
+ Mailboxes and log files can grow to unexpected sizes
+ depending on the number of users and how long log files are
+ kept. On average, most users rarely need more than about a
+ gigabyte of free disk space in
+ <filename>/var</filename>.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>Sometimes, a lot of disk space is required in
+ <filename>/var/tmp</filename>. When new software is
+ installed, the packaging tools extract a temporary copy of
+ the packages under <filename>/var/tmp</filename>. Large
+ software packages, like <application>Firefox</application>,
+ <application>OpenOffice</application> or
+ <application>LibreOffice</application> may be tricky to
+ install if there is not enough disk space under
+ <filename>/var/tmp</filename>.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>The <filename>/usr</filename> partition holds many of the
+ files which support the system, including the &os; Ports
+ Collection and system source code. At least 2 gigabytes is
+ recommended for this partition.</para>
+
+ <para>When selecting partition sizes, keep the space
+ requirements in mind. Running out of space in one partition
+ while barely using another can be a hassle.</para>
+
+ <indexterm>
+ <primary>swap sizing</primary>
+ </indexterm>
+ <indexterm>
+ <primary>swap partition</primary>
+ </indexterm>
+
+ <para>As a rule of thumb, the swap partition should be about
+ double the size of physical memory (<acronym>RAM</acronym>).
+ Systems with minimal <acronym>RAM</acronym> may perform
+ better with more swap. Configuring too little swap can lead
+ to inefficiencies in the <acronym>VM</acronym> page scanning
+ code and might create issues later if more memory is
+ added.</para>
+
+ <para>On larger systems with multiple <acronym>SCSI</acronym>
+ disks or multiple <acronym>IDE</acronym> disks operating on
+ different controllers, it is recommended that swap be
+ configured on each drive, up to four drives. The swap
+ partitions should be approximately the same size. The
+ kernel can handle arbitrary sizes but internal data structures
+ scale to 4 times the largest swap partition. Keeping the swap
+ partitions near the same size will allow the kernel to
+ optimally stripe swap space across disks. Large swap sizes
+ are fine, even if swap is not used much. It might be easier
+ to recover from a runaway program before being forced to
+ reboot.</para>
+
+ <para>By properly partitioning a system, fragmentation
+ introduced in the smaller write heavy partitions will not
+ bleed over into the mostly read partitions. Keeping the
+ write loaded partitions closer to the disk's edge will
+ increase <acronym> I/O</acronym> performance in the
+ partitions where it occurs the most. While
+ <acronym>I/O</acronym> performance in the larger partitions
+ may be needed, shifting them more toward the edge of the disk
+ will not lead to a significant performance improvement over
+ moving <filename>/var</filename> to the edge.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-part-guided">
+ <title>Guided Partitioning</title>
+
+ <para>When this method is selected, a menu will display the
+ available disk(s). If multiple disks are connected, choose
+ the one where &os; is to be installed.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-guided-disk">
+ <title>Selecting from Multiple Disks</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-disk"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Once the disk is selected, the next menu prompts to
+ install to either the entire disk or to create a partition
+ using free space. If
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Entire&nbsp;Disk&nbsp;]</guibutton> is
+ chosen, a general partition layout filling the whole disk is
+ automatically created. Selecting
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Partition&nbsp;]</guibutton> creates a
+ partition layout from the unused space on the disk.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-entire-part">
+ <title>Selecting Entire Disk or Partition</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-entire-part"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>After the partition layout has been created, review it to
+ ensure it meets the needs of the installation. Selecting
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Revert&nbsp;]</guibutton> will reset the
+ partitions to their original values and pressing
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Auto&nbsp;]</guibutton> will recreate the
+ automatic &os; partitions. Partitions can also be manually
+ created, modified, or deleted. When the partitioning is
+ correct, select <guibutton>[&nbsp;Finish&nbsp;]</guibutton> to
+ continue with the installation.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-review">
+ <title>Review Created Partitions</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-review"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-part-manual">
+ <title>Manual Partitioning</title>
+
+ <para>Selecting this method opens the partition editor:</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-manual-create">
+ <title>Manually Create Partitions</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-create"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Highlight the installation drive
+ (<filename>ada0</filename> in this example) and select
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Create&nbsp;]</guibutton> to display a menu
+ of available partition schemes:</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme">
+ <title>Manually Create Partitions</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para><acronym>GPT</acronym> is usually the most appropriate
+ choice for &arch.amd64; computers. Older computers that are
+ not compatible with <acronym>GPT</acronym> should use
+ <acronym>MBR</acronym>. The other partition schemes are
+ generally used for uncommon or older computers.</para>
+
+ <table frame="none" rowsep="1" pgwide="1">
+ <title>Partitioning Schemes</title>
+
+ <tgroup cols="2" align="left">
+ <thead>
+ <row>
+ <entry align="left">Abbreviation</entry>
+ <entry align="left">Description</entry>
+ </row>
+ </thead>
+
+ <tbody>
+ <row>
+ <entry>APM</entry>
+ <entry>Apple Partition Map, used by &powerpc;.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>BSD</entry>
+ <entry><acronym>BSD</acronym> label without an
+ <acronym>MBR</acronym>, sometimes called
+ <firstterm>dangerously dedicated mode</firstterm> as
+ non-<acronym>BSD</acronym> disk utilities may not
+ recognize it.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>GPT</entry>
+ <entry>GUID Partition Table (<link
+ xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table</link>).</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>MBR</entry>
+ <entry>Master Boot Record (<link
+ xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record</link>).</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>PC98</entry>
+ <entry><acronym>MBR</acronym> variant used by NEC PC-98
+ computers (<link
+ xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801</link>).</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>VTOC8</entry>
+ <entry>Volume Table Of Contents used by Sun SPARC64 and
+ UltraSPARC computers.</entry>
+ </row>
+ </tbody>
+ </tgroup>
+ </table>
+
+ <para>After the partitioning scheme has been selected and
+ created, select <guibutton>[&nbsp;Create&nbsp;]</guibutton>
+ again to create the partitions.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-manual-addpart">
+ <title>Manually Create Partitions</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-addpart"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>A standard &os; <acronym>GPT</acronym> installation uses
+ at least three partitions:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>freebsd-boot</literal> - Holds the &os; boot
+ code.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>freebsd-ufs</literal> - A &os;
+ <acronym>UFS</acronym> file system.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>freebsd-swap</literal> - &os; swap
+ space.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>Another partition type worth noting is
+ <literal>freebsd-zfs</literal>, used for partitions that will
+ contain a &os; <acronym>ZFS</acronym> file system (<xref
+ linkend="zfs"/>). Refer to &man.gpart.8; for
+ descriptions of the available <acronym>GPT</acronym> partition
+ types.</para>
+
+ <para>Multiple file system partitions can be created and some
+ people prefer a traditional layout with separate partitions
+ for <filename>/</filename>, <filename>/var</filename>,
+ <filename>/tmp</filename>, and <filename>/usr</filename>. See
+ <xref linkend="bsdinstall-part-manual-splitfs"/> for an
+ example.</para>
+
+ <para>The <literal>Size</literal> may be entered with common
+ abbreviations: <emphasis>K</emphasis> for kilobytes,
+ <emphasis>M</emphasis> for megabytes, or
+ <emphasis>G</emphasis> for gigabytes.</para>
+
+ <tip>
+ <para>Proper sector alignment provides the best performance,
+ and making partition sizes even multiples of 4K-bytes helps
+ to ensure alignment on drives with either 512-byte or
+ 4K-byte sectors. Generally, using partition sizes that are
+ even multiples of 1M or 1G is the easiest way to make sure
+ every partition starts at an even multiple of 4K. There is
+ one exception: the <emphasis>freebsd-boot</emphasis>
+ partition should be no larger than 512K due to current boot
+ code limitations.</para>
+ </tip>
+
+ <para>A <literal>Mountpoint</literal> is needed if the partition
+ will contain a file system. If only a single
+ <acronym>UFS</acronym> partition will be created, the
+ mountpoint should be <filename>/</filename>.</para>
+
+ <para>The <literal>Label</literal> is a name by which the
+ partition will be known. Drive names or numbers can change if
+ the drive is connected to a different controller or port, but
+ the partition label does not change. Referring to labels
+ instead of drive names and partition numbers in files like
+ <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> makes the system more tolerant
+ to hardware changes. <acronym>GPT</acronym> labels appear in
+ <filename>/dev/gpt/</filename> when a disk is attached. Other
+ partitioning schemes have different label capabilities and
+ their labels appear in different directories in
+ <filename>/dev/</filename>.</para>
+
+ <tip>
+ <para>Use a unique label on every partition to avoid
+ conflicts from identical labels. A few letters from the
+ computer's name, use, or location can be added to the label.
+ For instance, use <literal>labroot</literal> or
+ <literal>rootfslab</literal> for the <acronym>UFS</acronym>
+ root partition on the computer named
+ <literal>lab</literal>.</para>
+ </tip>
+
+ <example xml:id="bsdinstall-part-manual-splitfs">
+ <title>Creating Traditional Split File System
+ Partitions</title>
+
+ <para>For a traditional partition layout where the
+ <filename>/</filename>, <filename>/var</filename>,
+ <filename>/tmp</filename>, and <filename>/usr</filename>
+ directories are separate file systems on their own
+ partitions, create a <acronym>GPT</acronym> partitioning
+ scheme, then create the partitions as shown. Partition
+ sizes shown are typical for a 20G target disk. If more
+ space is available on the target disk, larger swap or
+ <filename>/var</filename> partitions may be useful. Labels
+ shown here are prefixed with <literal>ex</literal> for
+ <quote>example</quote>, but readers should use other unique
+ label values as described above.</para>
+
+ <para>By default, &os;'s <filename>gptboot</filename> expects
+ the first <acronym>UFS</acronym> partition to be the
+ <filename>/</filename> partition.</para>
+
+ <informaltable frame="none">
+ <tgroup cols="4">
+ <thead>
+ <row>
+ <entry>Partition Type</entry>
+ <entry>Size</entry>
+ <entry>Mountpoint</entry>
+ <entry>Label</entry>
+ </row>
+ </thead>
+
+ <tbody>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>freebsd-boot</literal></entry>
+ <entry><literal>512K</literal></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>freebsd-ufs</literal></entry>
+ <entry><literal>2G</literal></entry>
+ <entry><filename>/</filename></entry>
+ <entry><literal>exrootfs</literal></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>freebsd-swap</literal></entry>
+ <entry><literal>4G</literal></entry>
+ <entry></entry>
+ <entry><literal>exswap</literal></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>freebsd-ufs</literal></entry>
+ <entry><literal>2G</literal></entry>
+ <entry><filename>/var</filename></entry>
+ <entry><literal>exvarfs</literal></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>freebsd-ufs</literal></entry>
+ <entry><literal>1G</literal></entry>
+ <entry><filename>/tmp</filename></entry>
+ <entry><literal>extmpfs</literal></entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>freebsd-ufs</literal></entry>
+ <entry>accept the default (remainder of the
+ disk)</entry>
+ <entry><filename>/usr</filename></entry>
+ <entry><literal>exusrfs</literal></entry>
+ </row>
+ </tbody>
+ </tgroup>
+ </informaltable>
+ </example>
+
+ <para>After the custom partitions have been created, select
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Finish&nbsp;]</guibutton> to continue with
+ the installation.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-part-zfs">
+ <title>Root-on-ZFS Automatic Partitioning</title>
+
+ <para>Support for automatic creation of root-on-ZFS
+ installations was added in &os; 10.0-RELEASE. This
+ partitioning mode only works with whole disks and will erase
+ the contents of the entire disk. The installer will
+ automatically create partitions aligned to 4k boundaries and
+ force <acronym>ZFS</acronym> to use 4k sectors. This is safe
+ even with 512 byte sector disks, and has the added benefit of
+ ensuring that pools created on 512 byte disks will be able to
+ have 4k sector disks added in the future, either as additional
+ storage space or as replacements for failed disks. The
+ installer can also optionally employ <acronym>GELI</acronym>
+ disk encryption as described in <xref
+ linkend="disks-encrypting-geli"/>.
+ If encryption is enabled, a 2&nbsp;GB unencrypted boot pool
+ containing the <filename>/boot</filename> directory is
+ created. It holds the kernel and other files necessary to
+ boot the system. A swap partition of a user selectable size
+ is also created, and all remaining space is used for the
+ <acronym>ZFS</acronym> pool.</para>
+
+ <para>The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu offers
+ a number of options to control the creation of the
+ pool.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-menu">
+ <title><acronym>ZFS</acronym> Partitioning Menu</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-menu"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Select <keycap>T</keycap> to configure the <literal>Pool
+ Type</literal> and the disk(s) that will constitute the
+ pool. The automatic <acronym>ZFS</acronym> installer
+ currently only supports the creation of a single top level
+ vdev, except in stripe mode. To create more complex pools,
+ use the instructions in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-part-shell"/> to create the pool. The
+ installer supports the creation of various pool types,
+ including stripe (not recommended, no redundancy), mirror
+ (best performance, least usable space), and RAID-Z 1, 2, and 3
+ (with the capability to withstand the concurrent failure of 1,
+ 2, and 3 disks, respectively). while selecting the pool type,
+ a tooltip is displayed across the bottom of the screen with
+ advice about the number of required disks, and in the case of
+ RAID-Z, the optimal number of disks for each
+ configuration.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_type">
+ <title><acronym>ZFS</acronym> Pool Type</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_type"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Once a <literal>Pool Type</literal> has been selected, a
+ list of available disks is displayed, and the user is prompted
+ to select one or more disks to make up the pool. The
+ configuration is then validated, to ensure enough disks are
+ selected. If not, select <guibutton>&lt;Change
+ Selection&gt;</guibutton> to return to the list of disks, or
+ <guibutton>&lt;Cancel&gt;</guibutton> to change the pool
+ type.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-disk_select">
+ <title>Disk Selection</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_select"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_invalid">
+ <title>Invalid Selection</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_invalid"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>If one or more disks are missing from the list, or if
+ disks were attached after the installer was started, select
+ <guibutton>- Rescan Devices</guibutton> to repopulate the list
+ of available disks. To ensure that the correct disks are
+ selected, so as not to accidently destroy the wrong disks, the
+ <guibutton>- Disk Info</guibutton> menu can be used to inspect
+ each disk, including its partition table and various other
+ information such as the device model number and serial number,
+ if available.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-disk_info">
+ <title>Analysing a Disk</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_info"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu also
+ allows the user to enter a pool name, disable forcing 4k
+ sectors, enable or disable encryption, switch between
+ <acronym>GPT</acronym> (recommended) and
+ <acronym>MBR</acronym> partition table types, and select the
+ amount of swap space. Once all options have been set to the
+ desired values, select the
+ <guibutton>&gt;&gt;&gt;&nbsp;Install</guibutton> option at the
+ top of the menu.</para>
+
+ <para>If <acronym>GELI</acronym> disk encryption was enabled,
+ the installer will prompt twice for the passphrase to be used
+ to encrypt the disks.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-geli_password">
+ <title>Disk Encryption Password</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-geli_password"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>The installer then offers a last chance to cancel before
+ the contents of the selected drives are destroyed to create
+ the <acronym>ZFS</acronym> pool.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-warning">
+ <title>Last Chance</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-warning"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>The installation then proceeds normally.</para>
+
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-part-shell">
+ <title>Shell Mode Partitioning</title>
+
+ <para>When creating advanced installations, the
+ <application>bsdinstall</application> paritioning menus may
+ not provide the level of flexibility required. Advanced users
+ can select the <guibutton>Shell</guibutton> option from the
+ partitioning menu in order to manually partition the drives,
+ create the file system(s), populate
+ <filename>/tmp/bsdinstall_etc/fstab</filename>, and mount the
+ file systems under <filename>/mnt</filename>. Once this is
+ done, type <command>exit</command> to return to
+ <application>bsdinstall</application> and continue the
+ installation.</para>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-final-warning">
+ <title>Committing to the Installation</title>
+
+ <para>Once the disks are configured, the next menu provides the
+ last chance to make changes before the selected hard drive(s)
+ are formatted. If changes need to be made, select
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Back&nbsp;]</guibutton> to return to the main
+ partitioning menu.
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Revert&nbsp;&amp;&nbsp;Exit&nbsp;]</guibutton>
+ will exit the installer without making any changes to the hard
+ drive.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-final-confirmation">
+ <title>Final Confirmation</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-confirmation"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>To instead start the actual installation, select
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Commit&nbsp;]</guibutton> and press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
+
+ <para>Installation time will vary depending on the distributions
+ chosen, installation media, and speed of the computer. A series
+ of messages will indicate the progress.</para>
+
+ <para>First, the installer formats the selected disk(s) and
+ initializes the partitions. Next, in the case of a bootonly
+ media, it downloads the selected components:</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-distfile-fetching">
+ <title>Fetching Distribution Files</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-fetching"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Next, the integrity of the distribution files is verified
+ to ensure they have not been corrupted during download or
+ misread from the installation media:</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-distfile-verify">
+ <title>Verifying Distribution Files</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-verifying"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Finally, the verified distribution files are extracted to
+ the disk:</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-distfile-extract">
+ <title>Extracting Distribution Files</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-extracting"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Once all requested distribution files have been extracted,
+ <application>bsdinstall</application> displays the first
+ post-installation configuration screen. The available
+ post-configuration options are described in the next
+ section.</para>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-post">
+ <title>Post-Installation</title>
+
+ <para>Once &os; is installed,
+ <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt to configure
+ several options before booting into the newly installed system.
+ This section describes these configuration options.</para>
+
+ <tip>
+ <para>Once the system has booted,
+ <command>bsdconfig</command> provides a menu-driven method for
+ configuring the system using these and additional
+ options.</para>
+ </tip>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-post-root">
+ <title>Setting the <systemitem
+ class="username">root</systemitem> Password</title>
+
+ <para>First, the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
+ password must be set. While entering the password, the
+ characters being typed are not displayed on the screen. After
+ the password has been entered, it must be entered again. This
+ helps prevent typing errors.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-post-set-root-passwd">
+ <title>Setting the <systemitem
+ class="username">root</systemitem> Password</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-post-root-passwd"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-config-network-dev">
+ <title>Configuring Network Interfaces</title>
+
+ <para>Next, a list of the network interfaces found on the
+ computer is shown. Select the interface to configure.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>The network configuration menus will be skipped if the
+ network was previously configured as part of a
+ <emphasis>bootonly</emphasis> installation.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-configure-net-interface">
+ <title>Choose a Network Interface</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>If an Ethernet interface is selected, the installer will
+ skip ahead to the menu shown in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-configure-net-ipv4"/>. If a wireless
+ network interface is chosen, the system will instead scan for
+ wireless access points:</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-wireless-scan">
+ <title>Scanning for Wireless Access Points</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-scan"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Wireless networks are identified by a Service Set
+ Identifier (<acronym>SSID</acronym>), a short, unique name
+ given to each network. <acronym>SSIDs</acronym> found during
+ the scan are listed, followed by a description of the
+ encryption types available for that network. If the desired
+ <acronym>SSID</acronym> does not appear in the list, select
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Rescan&nbsp;]</guibutton> to scan again. If
+ the desired network still does not appear, check for problems
+ with antenna connections or try moving the computer closer to
+ the access point. Rescan after each change is made.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-wireless-accesspoints">
+ <title>Choosing a Wireless Network</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-accesspoints"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Next, enter the encryption information for connecting to
+ the selected wireless network. <acronym>WPA2</acronym>
+ encryption is strongly recommended as older encryption types,
+ like <acronym>WEP</acronym>, offer little security. If the
+ network uses <acronym>WPA2</acronym>, input the password, also
+ known as the Pre-Shared Key (<acronym>PSK</acronym>). For
+ security reasons, the characters typed into the input box are
+ displayed as asterisks.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-wireless-wpa2">
+ <title>WPA2 Setup</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-wpa2setup"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Next, choose whether or not an <acronym>IPv4</acronym>
+ address should be configured on the Ethernet or wireless
+ interface:</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-configure-net-ipv4">
+ <title>Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> Networking</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>There are two methods of <acronym>IPv4</acronym>
+ configuration. <acronym>DHCP</acronym> will automatically
+ configure the network interface correctly and should be used
+ if the network provides a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server.
+ Otherwise, the addressing information needs to be input
+ manually as a static configuration.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>Do not enter random network information as it will not
+ work. If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available,
+ obtain the information listed in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-collect-network-information"/> from
+ the network administrator or Internet service
+ provider.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is available, select
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Yes&nbsp;]</guibutton> in the next menu to
+ automatically configure the network interface. The installer
+ will appear to pause for a minute or so as it finds the
+ <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server and obtains the addressing
+ information for the system.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-net-ipv4-dhcp">
+ <title>Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym>
+ Configuration</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-dhcp"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available,
+ select <guibutton>[&nbsp;No&nbsp;]</guibutton> and input the
+ following addressing information in this menu:</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-net-ipv4-static">
+ <title><acronym>IPv4</acronym> Static Configuration</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-static"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>IP Address</literal> - The
+ <acronym>IPv4</acronym> address assigned to this computer.
+ The address must be unique and not already in use by
+ another piece of equipment on the local network.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Subnet Mask</literal> - The subnet mask for
+ the network.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Default Router</literal> - The
+ <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the network's default
+ gateway.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>The next screen will ask if the interface should be
+ configured for <acronym>IPv6</acronym>. If
+ <acronym>IPv6</acronym> is available and desired, choose
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Yes&nbsp;]</guibutton> to select it.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-net-ipv6">
+ <title>Choose IPv6 Networking</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para><acronym>IPv6</acronym> also has two methods of
+ configuration. StateLess Address AutoConfiguration
+ (<acronym>SLAAC</acronym>) will automatically request the
+ correct configuration information from a local router. Refer
+ to <link
+ xlink:href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4862">http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4862</link>
+ for more information. Static configuration requires manual
+ entry of network information.</para>
+
+ <para>If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is available, select
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Yes&nbsp;]</guibutton> in the next menu to
+ automatically configure the network interface. The installer
+ will appear to pause for a minute or so as it finds the router
+ and obtains the addressing information for the system.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-net-ipv6-slaac">
+ <title>Choose IPv6 SLAAC Configuration</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-slaac"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is not available,
+ select <guibutton>[&nbsp;No&nbsp;]</guibutton> and input the
+ following addressing information in this menu:</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-net-ipv6-static">
+ <title>IPv6 Static Configuration</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6-static"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>IPv6 Address</literal> - The
+ <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address assigned to this computer.
+ The address must be unique and not already in use by
+ another piece of equipment on the local network.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Default Router</literal> - The
+ <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address of the network's default
+ gateway.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>The last network configuration menu is used to configure
+ the Domain Name System (<acronym>DNS</acronym>) resolver,
+ which converts hostnames to and from network addresses. If
+ <acronym>DHCP</acronym> or <acronym>SLAAC</acronym> was used
+ to autoconfigure the network interface, the <literal>Resolver
+ Configuration</literal> values may already be filled in.
+ Otherwise, enter the local network's domain name in the
+ <literal>Search</literal> field. <literal>DNS #1</literal>
+ and <literal>DNS #2</literal> are the <acronym>IPv4</acronym>
+ and/or <acronym>IPv6</acronym> addresses of the
+ <acronym>DNS</acronym> servers. At least one
+ <acronym>DNS</acronym> server is required.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-net-dns-config">
+ <title>DNS Configuration</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-ipv4-dns"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-timezone">
+ <title>Setting the Time Zone</title>
+
+ <para>The next menu asks if the system clock uses
+ <acronym>UTC</acronym> or local time. When in doubt, select
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;No&nbsp;]</guibutton> to choose the more
+ commonly-used local time.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-local-utc">
+ <title>Select Local or UTC Clock</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-set-clock-local-utc"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>The next series of menus are used to determine the correct
+ local time by selecting the geographic region, country, and
+ time zone. Setting the time zone allows the system to
+ automatically correct for regional time changes, such as
+ daylight savings time, and perform other time zone related
+ functions properly.</para>
+
+ <para>The example shown here is for a machine located in the
+ Eastern time zone of the United States. The selections will
+ vary according to the geographical location.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-timezone-region">
+ <title>Select a Region</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-region"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>The appropriate region is selected using the arrow keys
+ and then pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-timezone-country">
+ <title>Select a Country</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-country"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Select the appropriate country using the arrow keys and
+ press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-timezone-zone">
+ <title>Select a Time Zone</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-zone"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>The appropriate time zone is selected using the arrow keys
+ and pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-timezone-confirmation">
+ <title>Confirm Time Zone</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-confirm"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Confirm the abbreviation for the time zone is correct. If
+ it is, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue with the
+ post-installation configuration.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-sysconf">
+ <title>Enabling Services</title>
+
+ <para>The next menu is used to configure which system services
+ will be started whenever the system boots. All of these
+ services are optional. Only start the services that are
+ needed for the system to function.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-config-serv">
+ <title>Selecting Additional Services to Enable</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-services"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Here is a summary of the services which can be enabled in
+ this menu:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>sshd</literal> - The Secure Shell
+ (<acronym>SSH</acronym>) daemon is used to remotely access
+ a system over an encrypted connection. Only enable this
+ service if the system should be available for remote
+ logins.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>moused</literal> - Enable this service if the
+ mouse will be used from the command-line system
+ console.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>ntpd</literal> - The Network Time Protocol
+ (<acronym>NTP</acronym>) daemon for automatic clock
+ synchronization. Enable this service if there is a
+ &windows;, Kerberos, or <acronym>LDAP</acronym> server on
+ the network.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>powerd</literal> - System power control
+ utility for power control and energy saving.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-crashdump">
+ <title>Enabling Crash Dumps</title>
+
+ <para>The next menu is used to configure whether or not crash
+ dumps should be enabled. Enabling crash dumps can be useful
+ in debugging issues with the system, so users are encouraged
+ to enable crash dumps.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-config-crashdump">
+ <title>Enabling Crash Dumps</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-crashdump"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-addusers">
+ <title>Add Users</title>
+
+ <para>The next menu prompts to create at least one user account.
+ It is recommended to login to the system using a user account
+ rather than as <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>.
+ When logged in as <systemitem
+ class="username">root</systemitem>, there are essentially no
+ limits or protection on what can be done. Logging in as a
+ normal user is safer and more secure.</para>
+
+ <para>Select <guibutton>[&nbsp;Yes&nbsp;]</guibutton> to add new
+ users.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-add-user1">
+ <title>Add User Accounts</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser1"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Follow the prompts and input the requested information for
+ the user account. The example shown in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-add-user2"/> creates the <systemitem
+ class="username">asample</systemitem> user account.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-add-user2">
+ <title>Enter User Information</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser2"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Here is a summary of the information to input:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Username</literal> - The name the user will
+ enter to log in. A common convention is to use the first
+ letter of the first name combined with the last name, as
+ long as each username is unique for the system. The
+ username is case sensitive and should not contain any
+ spaces.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Full name</literal> - The user's full name.
+ This can contain spaces and is used as a description for
+ the user account.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Uid</literal> - User <acronym>ID</acronym>.
+ Typically, this is left blank so the system will assign a
+ value.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Login group</literal> - The user's group.
+ Typically this is left blank to accept the default.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Invite <replaceable>user</replaceable> into
+ other groups?</literal> - Additional groups to which the
+ user will be added as a member. If the user needs
+ administrative access, type <literal>wheel</literal>
+ here.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Login class</literal> - Typically left blank
+ for the default.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Shell</literal> - Type in one of the listed
+ values to set the interactive shell for the user. Refer
+ to <xref linkend="shells"/> for more information about
+ shells.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Home directory</literal> - The user's home
+ directory. The default is usually correct.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Home directory permissions</literal> -
+ Permissions on the user's home directory. The default is
+ usually correct.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Use password-based authentication?</literal>
+ - Typically <literal>yes</literal> so that the user is
+ prompted to input their password at login.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Use an empty password?</literal> -
+ Typically <literal>no</literal> as it is insecure to have
+ a blank password.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Use a random password?</literal> - Typically
+ <literal>no</literal> so that the user can set their own
+ password in the next prompt.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Enter password</literal> - The password for
+ this user. Characters typed will not show on the
+ screen.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Enter password again</literal> - The password
+ must be typed again for verification.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Lock out the account after
+ creation?</literal> - Typically <literal>no</literal> so
+ that the user can login.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>After entering everything, a summary is shown for review.
+ If a mistake was made, enter <literal>no</literal> and try
+ again. If everything is correct, enter <literal>yes</literal>
+ to create the new user.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-add-user3">
+ <title>Exit User and Group Management</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser3"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>If there are more users to add, answer the <literal>Add
+ another user?</literal> question with
+ <literal>yes</literal>. Enter <literal>no</literal> to finish
+ adding users and continue the installation.</para>
+
+ <para>For more information on adding users and user management,
+ see <xref linkend="users-synopsis"/>.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-final-conf">
+ <title>Final Configuration</title>
+
+ <para>After everything has been installed and configured, a
+ final chance is provided to modify settings.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-final-config">
+ <title>Final Configuration</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-finalconfiguration"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Use this menu to make any changes or do any additional
+ configuration before completing the installation.</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Add User</literal> - Described in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-addusers"/>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Root Password</literal> - Described in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-post-root"/>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Hostname</literal> - Described in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-hostname"/>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Network</literal> - Described in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-config-network-dev"/>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Services</literal> - Described in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-sysconf"/>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Time Zone</literal> - Described in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-timezone"/>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><literal>Handbook</literal> - Download and install the
+ &os; Handbook.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>After any final configuration is complete, select
+ <guibutton>Exit</guibutton>.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-final-modification-shell">
+ <title>Manual Configuration</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata
+ fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-modification-shell"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para><application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt if there
+ are any additional configuration that needs to be done before
+ rebooting into the new system. Select
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Yes&nbsp;]</guibutton> to exit to a shell
+ within the new system or
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;No&nbsp;]</guibutton> to proceed to the last
+ step of the installation.</para>
+
+ <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-final-main">
+ <title>Complete the Installation</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-mainexit"/>
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>If further configuration or special setup is needed,
+ select <guibutton>[&nbsp;Live&nbsp;CD&nbsp;]</guibutton> to
+ boot the install media into Live <acronym>CD</acronym>
+ mode.</para>
+
+ <para>If the installation is complete, select
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Reboot&nbsp;]</guibutton> to reboot the
+ computer and start the new &os; system. Do not forget to
+ remove the &os; install media or the computer may boot from it
+ again.</para>
+
+ <para>As &os; boots, informational messages are displayed.
+ After the system finishes booting, a login prompt is
+ displayed. At the <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt, enter the
+ username added during the installation. Avoid logging in as
+ <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>. Refer to
+ <xref linkend="users-superuser"/> for instructions on how to
+ become the superuser when administrative access is
+ needed.</para>
+
+ <para>The messages that appeared during boot can be reviewed by
+ pressing <keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> to turn on the
+ scroll-back buffer. The <keycap>PgUp</keycap>,
+ <keycap>PgDn</keycap>, and arrow keys can be used to scroll
+ back through the messages. When finished, press
+ <keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> again to unlock the display and
+ return to the console. To review these messages once the
+ system has been up for some time, type <command>less
+ /var/run/dmesg.boot</command> from a command prompt. Press
+ <keycap>q</keycap> to return to the command line after
+ viewing.</para>
+
+ <para>If <application>sshd</application> was enabled in <xref
+ linkend="bsdinstall-config-serv"/>, the first boot may be
+ a bit slower as the system will generate the
+ <acronym>RSA</acronym> and <acronym>DSA</acronym> keys.
+ Subsequent boots will be faster. The fingerprints of the keys
+ will be displayed, as seen in this example:</para>
+
+ <screen>Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.
+Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.
+Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub.
+The key fingerprint is:
+10:a0:f5:af:93:ae:a3:1a:b2:bb:3c:35:d9:5a:b3:f3 root@machine3.example.com
+The key's randomart image is:
++--[RSA1 1024]----+
+| o.. |
+| o . . |
+| . o |
+| o |
+| o S |
+| + + o |
+|o . + * |
+|o+ ..+ . |
+|==o..o+E |
++-----------------+
+Generating public/private dsa key pair.
+Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.
+Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub.
+The key fingerprint is:
+7e:1c:ce:dc:8a:3a:18:13:5b:34:b5:cf:d9:d1:47:b2 root@machine3.example.com
+The key's randomart image is:
++--[ DSA 1024]----+
+| .. . .|
+| o . . + |
+| . .. . E .|
+| . . o o . . |
+| + S = . |
+| + . = o |
+| + . * . |
+| . . o . |
+| .o. . |
++-----------------+
+Starting sshd.</screen>
+
+ <para>Refer to <xref linkend="openssh"/> for more information
+ about fingerprints and <acronym>SSH</acronym>.</para>
+
+ <para>&os; does not install a graphical environment by default.
+ Refer to <xref linkend="x11"/> for more information about
+ installing and configuring a graphical window manager.</para>
+
+ <para>Proper shutdown of a &os; computer helps protect data and
+ hardware from damage. <emphasis>Do not turn off the power
+ before the system has been properly shut down!</emphasis> If
+ the user is a member of the <systemitem
+ class="groupname">wheel</systemitem> group, become the
+ superuser by typing <command>su</command> at the command line
+ and entering the <systemitem
+ class="username">root</systemitem> password. Then, type
+ <command>shutdown -p now</command> and the system will shut
+ down cleanly, and if the hardware supports it, turn itself
+ off.</para>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-install-trouble">
+ <title>Troubleshooting</title>
+
+ <indexterm>
+ <primary>installation</primary>
+ <secondary>troubleshooting</secondary>
+ </indexterm>
+ <para>This section covers basic installation
+ troubleshooting, such as common problems people have
+ reported.</para>
+
+ <para>Check the Hardware Notes (<link
+ xlink:href="&url.base;/releases/index.html">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>)
+ document for the version of &os; to make sure the hardware is
+ supported. If the hardware is supported and lock-ups or other
+ problems occur, build a custom kernel using the instructions in
+ <xref linkend="kernelconfig"/> to add support for devices which
+ are not present in the <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel. The
+ default kernel assumes that most hardware devices are in their
+ factory default configuration in terms of
+ <acronym>IRQ</acronym>s, <acronym>I/O</acronym> addresses, and
+ <acronym>DMA</acronym> channels. If the hardware has been
+ reconfigured, a custom kernel configuration file can tell &os;
+ where to find things.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>Some installation problems can be avoided or alleviated by
+ updating the firmware on various hardware components, most
+ notably the motherboard. Motherboard firmware is usually
+ referred to as the <acronym>BIOS</acronym>. Most motherboard
+ and computer manufacturers have a website for upgrades and
+ upgrade information.</para>
+
+ <para>Manufacturers generally advise against upgrading the
+ motherboard <acronym>BIOS</acronym> unless there is a good
+ reason for doing so, like a critical update. The upgrade
+ process <emphasis>can</emphasis> go wrong, leaving the
+ <acronym>BIOS</acronym> incomplete and the computer
+ inoperative.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>If the system hangs while probing hardware during boot, or
+ it behaves strangely during install, <acronym>ACPI</acronym> may
+ be the culprit. &os; makes extensive use of the system
+ <acronym>ACPI</acronym> service on the &arch.i386;,
+ &arch.amd64;, and ia64 platforms to aid in system configuration
+ if it is detected during boot. Unfortunately, some bugs still
+ exist in both the <acronym>ACPI</acronym> driver and within
+ system motherboards and <acronym>BIOS</acronym> firmware.
+ <acronym>ACPI</acronym> can be disabled by setting the
+ <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled</literal> hint in the third stage
+ boot loader:</para>
+
+ <screen><userinput>set hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>This is reset each time the system is booted, so it is
+ necessary to add <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"</literal> to
+ the file <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>. More
+ information about the boot loader can be found in <xref
+ linkend="boot-synopsis"/>.</para>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="using-live-cd">
+ <title>Using the Live <acronym>CD</acronym></title>
+
+ <para>The welcome menu of <application>bsdinstall</application>,
+ shown in <xref linkend="bsdinstall-choose-mode"/>, provides a
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Live&nbsp;CD&nbsp;]</guibutton> option. This
+ is useful for those who are still wondering whether &os; is the
+ right operating system for them and want to test some of the
+ features before installing.</para>
+
+ <para>The following points should be noted before using the
+ <guibutton>[&nbsp;Live&nbsp;CD&nbsp;]</guibutton>:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>To gain access to the system, authentication is
+ required. The username is <systemitem
+ class="username">root</systemitem> and the password is
+ blank.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>As the system runs directly from the installation media,
+ performance will be significantly slower than that of a
+ system installed on a hard disk.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This option only provides a command prompt and not a
+ graphical interface.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect1>
+</chapter>