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authorRuey-Cherng Yu <rcyu@FreeBSD.org>2017-02-24 10:10:35 +0000
committerRuey-Cherng Yu <rcyu@FreeBSD.org>2017-02-24 10:10:35 +0000
commit11b69aae2ec231f93817aeaec1fcd26a9bdc7fd2 (patch)
tree34c87a83a84decdfc38b82c62f0d1d45de91ed60 /zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook
parent57aa811a9d67d8de780027ccb9bcc003f12a810d (diff)
downloaddoc-11b69aae2ec231f93817aeaec1fcd26a9bdc7fd2.tar.gz
doc-11b69aae2ec231f93817aeaec1fcd26a9bdc7fd2.zip
Update po file with newest handbook document.
Update translate 4. Installing Applications: Packages and Ports Update translate 6.2. Browsers Fix translate (Gateway, MTA). Translated following chaptors or sectors: 11. Configuration and Tuning 11.13. Power and Resource Management 12. The FreeBSD Booting Process 12.1. Synopsis 12.2. FreeBSD Boot Process 12.3. Configuring Boot Time Splash Screens 12.4. Device Hints 12.5. Shutdown Sequence 13. Security 13.1. Synopsis 13.2. Introduction 17. Storage 17.8. Backup Basics 28. Network Servers 28.5. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) 28.6. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) A. Obtaining FreeBSD A.2. FTP Sites A.3. Using Subversion A.4. Using rsync Submitted by: cwlin0416@gmail.com Differential Revision: https://reviews.freebsd.org/D9761
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=50006
Diffstat (limited to 'zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook')
-rw-r--r--zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml2508
-rw-r--r--zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po23477
2 files changed, 12991 insertions, 12994 deletions
diff --git a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml
index d3b6a238cf..aaf2acee55 100644
--- a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml
+++ b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml
@@ -241,6 +241,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jlh SYSTEM "jlh.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jmb SYSTEM "jmb.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jmcneill SYSTEM "jmcneill.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.jmd SYSTEM "jmd.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jmelo SYSTEM "jmelo.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jmg SYSTEM "jmg.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jmmv SYSTEM "jmmv.key">
@@ -282,6 +283,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.lbr SYSTEM "lbr.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.le SYSTEM "le.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.leeym SYSTEM "leeym.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.ler SYSTEM "ler.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.lesi SYSTEM "lesi.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.lev SYSTEM "lev.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.lidl SYSTEM "lidl.key">
@@ -342,6 +344,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mlaier SYSTEM "mlaier.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mm SYSTEM "mm.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mmel SYSTEM "mmel.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.mmokhi SYSTEM "mmokhi.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mmoll SYSTEM "mmoll.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mnag SYSTEM "mnag.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mp SYSTEM "mp.key">
@@ -414,6 +417,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rees SYSTEM "rees.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.remko SYSTEM "remko.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rene SYSTEM "rene.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.rezny SYSTEM "rezny.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rgrimes SYSTEM "rgrimes.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rich SYSTEM "rich.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.riggs SYSTEM "riggs.key">
@@ -494,6 +498,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.tmm SYSTEM "tmm.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.tmseck SYSTEM "tmseck.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.tobez SYSTEM "tobez.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.tobik SYSTEM "tobik.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.tota SYSTEM "tota.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.trasz SYSTEM "trasz.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.trevor SYSTEM "trevor.key">
@@ -2255,7 +2260,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>預設閘道器 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址</para>
+ <para>預設通訊閘 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -3250,7 +3255,7 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID: 830b92d4.</screen>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>預設路由器 (<literal>Default Router</literal>) - <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址所在網段的預設閘道器。</para>
+ <para>預設路由器 (<literal>Default Router</literal>) - <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址所在網段的預設通訊閘。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -3298,7 +3303,7 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID: 830b92d4.</screen>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>預設路由器 (<literal>Default Router</literal>) - <acronym>IPv6</acronym> 位址所在網段的預設閘道器。</para>
+ <para>預設路由器 (<literal>Default Router</literal>) - <acronym>IPv6</acronym> 位址所在網段的預設通訊閘。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -4856,7 +4861,7 @@ root 5211 0.0 0.2 3620 1724 2 I+ 2:09AM 0:00.01 passwd</screen>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/mail/</filename></entry>
- <entry>MTA (Mail Transport Agent) 的相關設定檔,像是 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sendmail</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</entry>
+ <entry>郵件傳輸代理程式,像是 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sendmail</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 的相關設定檔。</entry>
</row>
<row>
@@ -5956,7 +5961,7 @@ Swap: 2048M Total, 2048M Free
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>ports</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm><primary>套件</primary></indexterm>
- <para>FreeBSD 已內建豐富的系統工具,此外 FreeBSD 提供了 2 種安裝第三方軟體的套件管理技術︰由原始碼安的 FreeBSD Port 套件集,以及由預先編譯好的 Binary 安裝的 Binary 套件集。 無論要用哪一種方式,都可由本地的媒體或網路來安裝軟體。</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 內建豐富的系統工具集,此外 FreeBSD 提供了兩種安裝第三方軟體的套件管理技術︰由原始碼安裝的 FreeBSD Port 套件集,以及由預先編譯好的 Binary 安裝的 Binary 套件集。兩種方法都可使用本地的媒體或網路來安裝軟體。</para>
<para>讀完這章,您將了解︰</para>
@@ -5998,7 +6003,7 @@ Swap: 2048M Total, 2048M Free
</step>
<step>
- <para>解壓縮軟體。 發佈的格式通常會使用 tarball 並以 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>compress</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gzip</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 或 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bzip2</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 壓縮。</para>
+ <para>自發佈的格式解壓縮軟體。 發佈的格式通常為 tarball 並以程式壓縮,如 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>compress</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gzip</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bzip2</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 或 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>xz</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
</step>
<step>
@@ -6014,17 +6019,19 @@ Swap: 2048M Total, 2048M Free
</step>
</procedure>
- <para>如果軟體套件未被特意移植到 FreeBSD 或測試是否可運作。 那可能需要修改一下該軟體的原始碼才能正常使用。 在搛寫此篇文章時候, 已經有超過 24,000 個第三方應用程式已經被移植到 FreeBSD。</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD <emphasis>Port</emphasis> 是指設計用來自動化從原始碼編譯應用程式整個程序的一系列檔案,組成 Port 的檔案包含了自動下載、解壓縮、修補、編譯與安裝應用程式的必要資訊。</para>
- <para>FreeBSD Binary 套件中包含了應用程式預先編譯好的指令、設定檔及文件。 套件可以使用 <application>pkg</application> 指令來管理,如 <command>pkg install</command>。</para>
+ <para>若軟體尚未被 FreeBSD 採用並測試,可能會需要經過一些修正才能正常安裝並執行。</para>
- <para>FreeBSD Port 套件則包含了已設計好從原始碼編譯成應用程式的自動化程序。 Port 套件中的檔案包含自動下載、解壓縮、修補、編譯及安裝應用程式流程中所有需要的資訊。</para>
+ <para>雖然如此,目前已有超過 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/ports/index.html">24,000</link> 個第三方應用程式已經被移植到 FreeBSD。當可行時,這些應用程式也會做成預先編譯好的 <emphasis>套件 (Package)</emphasis> 供下載。</para>
- <para>Port 系統可以透過 FreeBSD 套件管理指令來產生套件。</para>
+ <para>這些 Binary 套件可使用 FreeBSD 套件管理指令來管理。</para>
- <para>不論是 Binary 套件或者 Port 套件都有相依的功能,若以 Binary 或 Port 套件安裝應用程式,且該應用程式有相依的程式庫尚未被安裝,則會自動先安裝該程式庫。</para>
+ <para>不論是 Binary 套件或者 Port 都有相依性,若用 Binary 套件或 Port 來安裝應用程式,且該應用程式若有相依的程式庫尚未被安裝,則會自動先安裝該程式庫。</para>
- <para>雖然兩種技術非常相似,但 Binary 套件及 Port 套件有各自的優點。 要視您要安裝的應用程式需求來選擇。</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD Binary 套件中含有一個應用程式中所有預先編譯好的指令、設定檔以及文件,Binary 套件可以使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令來管理,如 <command>pkg install</command>。</para>
+
+ <para>雖然兩種技術非常相似,但 Binary 套件及 Port 有各自的優點。 要視您要安裝的應用程式需求來選擇。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<title>Binary 套件優點</title>
@@ -6191,26 +6198,35 @@ Info: Lists information about open files (similar to fstat(1))</screen>
<para><application>pkg</application> 是新一代套件管理工具用來取代舊版工具,提供許多功能讓處理 Binary 套件更快更簡單。</para>
- <para><application>pkg</application> 並不是用來取代 Port 管理工具如 <package>ports-mgmt/portmaster</package> 或 <package>ports-mgmt/portupgrade</package>,這些工具可用來安裝來自 Binary 與 Port 套件集的第三方軟體,而 <application>pkg</application> 僅能安裝 Binary 套件。</para>
+ <para>對於只想要使用在 FreeBSD 鏡像站上預先編譯 Binary 套件的站台,使用 <application>pkg</application> 管理套件便已足夠。</para>
+
+ <para>但是,對於那些想要從原始碼或使用自己的檔案庫編譯的站台,則會需要 <link linkend="ports-upgrading-tools">Port 管理工具</link>。</para>
+
+ <para>因為 <application>pkg</application> 僅能管理 Binary 套件,所以不能當做為替代 Port 管理工具,這些工具可用來安裝來自 Binary 與 Port 套件集的軟體,而 <application>pkg</application> 僅能安裝 Binary 套件。</para>
<sect2 xml:id="pkgng-initial-setup">
<title>開始使用 <application>pkg</application></title>
- <para>FreeBSD 內建啟動 (Bootstrap) 工具可用來下載並安裝 <application>pkg</application> 及其操作手冊。</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 內建啟動 (Bootstrap) 工具可用來下載並安裝 <application>pkg</application> 及其操作手冊。這個工具是設計在 FreeBSD 版本 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 之後使用。</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>不是所有 FreeBSD 版本及架構支援此啟動程序,目前支援的清單列於 <link xlink:href="http://pkg.freebsd.org/"/>,對不支援的版本,必須改透過 Port 套件集或者 Binary 套件來安裝 <application>pkg</application>。</para>
+
+ </note>
- <para>要啟動(Bootstrap)系統請執行:</para>
+ <para>要啟動 (Bootstrap) 系統請執行:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>/usr/sbin/pkg</userinput></screen>
- <para>對較舊的 FreeBSD 版本,<application>pkg</application> 必須改透過 Port 套件集或者 Binary 套件來安裝。</para>
+ <para>您必須有網際網路連線供啟動程式使用。</para>
- <para>要安裝 Port 套件,請執行:</para>
+ <para>否則,要安裝 Port 套件,則須執行:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/pkg</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
- <para>當升級原使用舊版套件系統的既有系統時,必須將資料庫轉換成新的格式,因此新的工具才會知道有那些已安裝過的套件。一旦 <application>pkg</application> 已安裝,必須執行以下指令將套件資料庫從舊版格式轉換到新版格式:</para>
+ <para>當升級原使用舊版 pkg_* 工具的既有系統時,必須將資料庫轉換成新的格式,如此新的工具才會知道有那些已安裝過的套件。<application>pkg</application> 安裝完後,必須執行以下指令將套件資料庫從舊版格式轉換到新版格式:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg2ng</userinput></screen>
@@ -6221,15 +6237,14 @@ Info: Lists information about open files (similar to fstat(1))</screen>
</important>
<note>
- <para>套件資料庫轉換的過程可能會因內容轉換為新版本產生錯誤。通常,這些錯誤皆可安全忽略,雖然如此,仍然有在執行 <command>pkg2ng</command> 後無法成功轉換的第三方軟體清單,這些應用程式則必須手動重新安裝。</para>
+ <para>套件資料庫轉換的過程可能會因內容轉換為新版本產生錯誤。通常,這些錯誤皆可安全忽略,即使如此,仍然有在執行 <command>pkg2ng</command> 後無法成功轉換的軟體清單,這些應用程式則必須手動重新安裝。</para>
</note>
- <para>為了確保 FreeBSD Port 套件集會將新軟體的資訊註冊到 <application>pkg</application> 而非舊版套件格式,FreeBSD 版本 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 之前需要在 <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> 加入此行:</para>
+ <para>為了確保 FreeBSD Port 套件集會將新軟體的資訊註冊到 <application>pkg</application> 而非舊版套件資料庫,FreeBSD 版本 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 之前需要在 <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> 加入此行:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">WITH_PKGNG= yes</programlisting>
- <para>預設 <application>pkg</application> 會使用 FreeBSD 套件鏡像站。若要取得有關編譯自訂套件檔案庫的資訊,請參考
-<xref linkend="ports-poudriere"/></para>
+ <para>預設 <application>pkg</application> 會使用 FreeBSD 套件鏡像站 (<emphasis>Repository</emphasis>) 的 Binary 套件。若要取得有關編譯自訂套件檔案庫的資訊,請參考 <xref linkend="ports-poudriere"/>。</para>
<para>其他 <application>pkg</application> 設定選項說明請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
@@ -6319,7 +6334,7 @@ Proceed with deleting packages [y/N]: <userinput>y</userinput>
<sect2 xml:id="pkgng-auditing">
<title>稽查已安裝套件</title>
- <para>偶爾可能會在第三方的應用程式中發現軟體漏洞,要找出這些程式,可使用 <application>pkg</application> 內建的稽查機制。要查詢已安裝在系統上的軟體是否有任何已知的漏洞可執行:</para>
+ <para>在第三方的應用程式中偶爾可能會發現軟體漏洞,要找出這些程式,可使用 <application>pkg</application> 內建的稽查機制。要查詢已安裝在系統上的軟體是否有任何已知的漏洞可執行:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg audit -F</userinput></screen>
</sect2>
@@ -6401,7 +6416,11 @@ Deinstalling ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1... done</screen>
<sect1 xml:id="ports-using">
<title>使用 Port 套件集</title>
- <para>Port 套件集是指一系列儲存在 <filename>/usr/ports</filename> 的 <filename>Makefiles</filename>、修補及描述檔,這一系列檔案用來編譯與安裝在 FreeBSD 上的應用程式。在使用 Port 安裝應用程式前,必須先安裝 Port 套件集,若未在安裝 FreeBSD 的過程式中安裝,可使用下列其中一種方法來安裝:</para>
+ <para>Port 套件集是指一數個 <filename>Makefiles</filename>、修補及描述檔案,每一組這些檔案可用來編譯與安裝在 FreeBSD 上的一個應用程式,即稱為一個 <emphasis>Port</emphasis>。</para>
+
+ <para>預設,Port 套件集儲存在 <filename>/usr/ports</filename> 的子目錄下。</para>
+
+ <para>在應用程式可以使用 Port 編譯之前,必須先安裝 Port 套件集。若在安裝 FreeBSD 時沒有安裝,可以使用以下其中一種方式安裝:</para>
<procedure xml:id="ports-using-portsnap-method">
<title>Portsnap 方法</title>
@@ -6462,7 +6481,7 @@ Deinstalling ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1... done</screen>
</step>
</procedure>
- <para>Port 套件集會安裝一系列代表軟體分類的目錄,每個分類底下的子目錄代表每隻應用程式。 這些子目錄又稱做 Port Skeleton,裡面檔案是用來告訴 FreeBSD 如何編譯與安裝該程式,每個 Port Skeleton 會含有以下檔案及目錄:</para>
+ <para>Port 套件集中含有代表不同軟體分類的目錄,每個分類底下的子目錄代表每個應用程式,每個內含數個用來告訴 FreeBSD 如何編譯與安裝該程式檔案的應用程式子目錄即稱作 <emphasis>Port Skeleton</emphasis>,每個 Port Skeleton 會含有以下檔案及目錄:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
@@ -6642,7 +6661,20 @@ The deinstallation will free 229 kB
<para>在嘗試升級之前,請先從檔首閱讀 <filename>/usr/ports/UPDATING</filename> 來取得最近有那些 Port 已升級或系統已安裝。這個檔案中會說明各種問題及在升級 Port 時可能會需要使用者執行的額外步驟,例如檔案格式更改、設定檔位置更改、或任何與先前版本不相容的問題。留意那些與您要升級 Port 相關的指示,並依照這些指示執行升級。</para>
</important>
- <para>要執行實際的升級,可使用 <application>Portmaster</application> 或 <application>Portupgrade</application>。</para>
+ <sect3 xml:id="ports-upgrading-tools">
+ <title>升級與管理 Port 的工具</title>
+
+ <indexterm><primary>ports</primary> <secondary>upgrading-tools</secondary></indexterm>
+
+ <para>Port 套件集含有數個工具可以進行升級,每一種工具都有其優點及缺點。</para>
+
+ <para>以往大多 Port 安裝會使用 <application>Portmaster</application> 或 <application>Portupgrade</application>,現在有較新的 <application>Synth</application> 可使用。</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>那一種工具對特定系統是最佳的選擇取決於系統管理員。建議在使用任何這些工具之前先備份資料。</para>
+ </note>
+
+ </sect3>
<sect3 xml:id="portmaster">
<title>使用 <application>Portmaster</application> 升級 Port</title>
@@ -6651,7 +6683,7 @@ The deinstallation will free 229 kB
<primary>portmaster</primary>
</indexterm>
- <para><package>ports-mgmt/portmaster</package> 是可用來升級已安裝 Port 的小巧工具,它可不需要相依其他 Port 或資料庫便可在 FreeBSD 使用,要使用 Port 安裝此工具可:</para>
+ <para><package>ports-mgmt/portmaster</package> 是可用來升級已安裝 Port 的小巧工具,它只使用了隨 FreeBSD 基礎系統安裝的工具,不需要相依其他 Port 或資料庫便可在 FreeBSD 使用,要使用 Port 安裝此工具可:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/portmaster</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
@@ -6715,6 +6747,8 @@ The deinstallation will free 229 kB
<para><application>Portmaster</application> 也可用來安裝新的 Port 到系統,在編譯及安裝新 Port 前升級所有相依模組。要使用這個功能,要指定 Port 位於 Port 套件集中的位置:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portmaster <replaceable>shells/bash</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>更多有關 <package>ports-mgmt/portmaster</package> 的資訊可至其 <filename>pkg-descr</filename> 取得。</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 xml:id="portupgrade">
@@ -6724,7 +6758,7 @@ The deinstallation will free 229 kB
<primary>portupgrade</primary>
</indexterm>
- <para>另一個可以用來升級 Port 的工具是 <application>Portupgrade</application>,可在 <package>ports-mgmt/portupgrade</package> 取得套件或 Port,此工具會安裝一套可以用來管理 Port 的應用程式,但是它需要相依 Ruby。要安裝該 Port:</para>
+ <para><package>ports-mgmt/portupgrade</package> 是另一個可以用來升級 Port 的工具,此工具會安裝一套可以用來管理 Port 的應用程式,它需要相依 Ruby。要安裝該 Port:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/portupgrade</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
@@ -6744,7 +6778,10 @@ The deinstallation will free 229 kB
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portupgrade -PP gnome3</userinput></screen>
<para>若只想要下載 Port distfiles 或套件,使用 <option>-P</option> 參數。若不要編譯或安裝任何東西,使用 <option>-F</option>。請參考 <command>portupgrade</command> 的操作手冊來取得所有可用選項的更多資訊。</para>
+
+ <para>更多有關 <package>ports-mgmt/portupgrade</package> 的資訊可至其 <filename>pkg-descr</filename> 取得。</para>
</sect3>
+
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="ports-disk-space">
@@ -6759,11 +6796,11 @@ The deinstallation will free 229 kB
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portsclean -C</userinput></screen>
- <para>除此之外,許多過時的原始碼發行檔案會儲存在 <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>。若有安裝 <application>Portupgrade</application>,此指令將會刪除所有不再被任何 Port 所引用的 distfiles:</para>
+ <para>除此之外,許多過時的原始碼發行檔案會儲存在 <filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename>。使用 <application>Portupgrade</application> 刪除所有不再被任何 Port 所引用的 distfiles:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portsclean -D</userinput></screen>
- <para>要使用 <application>Portupgrade</application> 來移除所有未被任何安裝在系統上的 Port 所引用的 distfiles:</para>
+ <para><application>Portupgrade</application> 可以移除所有未被任何安裝在系統上的 Port 所引用的 distfiles:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portsclean -DD</userinput></screen>
@@ -6771,9 +6808,9 @@ The deinstallation will free 229 kB
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>portmaster --clean-distfiles</userinput></screen>
- <para>預設這個指令會互動的方式詢問使用者確認是否要刪除 distfile。</para>
+ <para>預設,若 distfile 應要被刪除,這個指令會以互動的方式向使用者確認。</para>
- <para>除了以上指令外,<package>ports-mgmt/pkg_cutleaves</package> 套件或 Port 可自動移除不再需要使用的 Port。</para>
+ <para>除了以上指令外,<package>ports-mgmt/pkg_cutleaves</package> 可自動移除不再需要使用的 Port。</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -6786,7 +6823,7 @@ The deinstallation will free 229 kB
<para>雖然在系統上執行 <application>poudriere</application> 並不一定要使用 <acronym>ZFS</acronym>,但使用了是有幫助的。當使用了 <acronym>ZFS</acronym>,則必須在 <filename>/usr/local/etc/poudriere.conf</filename> 指定 <varname>ZPOOL</varname> 以及 <varname>FREEBSD_HOST</varname> 應設定到一個最近的鏡像站。定義 <varname>CCACHE_DIR</varname> 可開啟使用 <package role="port">devel/ccache</package> 快取的功能來快取編譯結果並減少那些需時常編譯的程式碼的編譯次數。將 <application>poudriere</application> 資料集放到一個獨立的目錄並掛載到 <filename>/poudriere</filename> 可能會比較方便,其他設定項目採用預設值便足夠。</para>
- <para>偵測到的處理器數量可用來定義要同時執行多少個編譯。並請給予足夠的虛擬記憶體,不論是 <acronym>RAM</acronym> 或交換空間,若虛擬記憶體不足,編譯 Jail 將會停止並被清除,可能會造成奇怪的錯誤訊息。</para>
+ <para>偵測到的處理器數量可用來定義要同時執行多少個編譯。並給予足夠的虛擬記憶體,不論是 <acronym>RAM</acronym> 或交換空間,若虛擬記憶體不足,編譯 Jail 的動作將會停止並被清除,會造成奇怪的錯誤訊息。</para>
<sect2 xml:id="poudriere-initialization">
<title>初始化 Jail 與 Port 樹</title>
@@ -6859,9 +6896,9 @@ ports-mgmt/pkg
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>poudriere bulk -j <replaceable>10amd64</replaceable> -p <replaceable>local</replaceable> -z <replaceable>workstation</replaceable> -f <replaceable>10amd64-local-workstation-pkglist</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para><keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>t</keycap></keycombo> 可以顯示目前編譯的狀態,<application>Poudriere</application> 也會編譯在 <filename>/poudriere/logs/bulk/<replaceable>jailname</replaceable></filename> 中的檔案,可用在網頁伺服器來顯示編譯資訊。</para>
+ <para>在執行時,按下 <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>t</keycap></keycombo> 可以顯示目前編譯的狀態,<application>Poudriere</application> 也會編譯在 <filename>/poudriere/logs/bulk/<replaceable>jailname</replaceable></filename> 中的檔案,可用在網頁伺服器來顯示編譯資訊。</para>
- <para>套件現在可以從 <application>poudriere</application> 檔案庫來安裝。</para>
+ <para>完成之後,新套件現在可以從 <application>poudriere</application> 檔案庫來安裝。</para>
<para>要取得更多使用 <application>poudriere</application> 的資訊,請參考 <citerefentry vendor="ports"><refentrytitle>poudriere</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 及主網站 <link xlink:href="https://github.com/freebsd/poudriere/wiki"/>。</para>
</sect2>
@@ -6874,7 +6911,7 @@ ports-mgmt/pkg
enabled: no
}</screen>
- <para>通常最簡單要提供 poudriere 給客戶端的方式是透過 HTTP。安裝一個網頁伺服器來提供套件目錄,通常會像:<filename>/usr/local/poudriere/data/packages/<replaceable>10amd64</replaceable></filename>,其中 <filename>10amd64</filename> 是編譯的名稱。</para>
+ <para>通常最簡單要提供 poudriere 檔案庫給客戶端的方式是透過 HTTP。安裝一個網頁伺服器來提供套件目錄,通常會像:<filename>/usr/local/poudriere/data/packages/<replaceable>10amd64</replaceable></filename>,其中 <filename>10amd64</filename> 是編譯的名稱。</para>
<para>若要連往套件檔案庫的 URL 是:<literal>http://pkg.example.com/10amd64</literal>,則在 <filename>/usr/local/etc/pkg/repos/custom.conf</filename> 的檔案庫設定檔為:</para>
@@ -6892,7 +6929,7 @@ ports-mgmt/pkg
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>大部份應用程式安裝會在 <filename>/usr/local/etc</filename> 安裝至少一個預設的設定檔,在應用程式有大量設定檔的情況會建立一個子目錄來存放這些設定檔。範例的設定檔名通常會使用 <filename>.sample</filename> 結尾,應要檢查這些檔案的內容,並可能要做一些編輯讓設定檔符合系統的需求,要編輯設定檔範本前需先複製該檔案並去除 <filename>.sample</filename> 副檔名。</para>
+ <para>大部份應用程式安裝會在 <filename>/usr/local/etc</filename> 安裝至少一個預設的設定檔,若應用程式有大量設定檔的時則會建立一個子目錄來存放這些設定檔。範例的設定檔案名稱通常使用 <filename>.sample</filename> 結尾,設定檔應要仔細查看並可能要做一些編輯讓設定檔符合系統的需求,要編輯設定檔範本前需先複製該檔案並去除 <filename>.sample</filename> 副檔名。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -6901,6 +6938,11 @@ ports-mgmt/pkg
<listitem>
<para>部份應用程式會以服務的方式執行,在啟動應用程式前前需要加入設定到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>。這些應用程式通常會安裝啟動 Script 到 <filename>/usr/local/etc/rc.d</filename>,請參考 <link linkend="configtuning-starting-services">啟動服務</link> 來取得更多資訊。</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>依設計,應用程式不會在安裝時執行其啟動 Script,也不會在解除安裝或升級時執行其中止 Script,這留給各系統的管理者去做決定。</para>
+ </note>
+
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -6927,9 +6969,9 @@ ports-mgmt/pkg
<para>尋求維護人員的協助,在 Port Skeleton 目錄中輸入 <command>make maintainer</command> 或閱讀 Port 的 <filename>Makefile</filename> 來取得維護人員的電子郵件位址。寄給維護人員的郵件內容請記得要包含 Port 的 <filename>Makefile</filename> 中的 <literal>$FreeBSD:</literal> 一整行及輸出的錯誤訊息。</para>
<note>
- <para>有一些 Port 並非由個人維護,而是由 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mailing-list-faq/article.html">郵遞論壇</link> 維護,只要郵件地址長的像 <email role="nolink">freebsd-listname@FreeBSD.org</email> 都是,寄信時記得代入實際的論壇名稱。</para>
+ <para>有一些 Port 並非由個人維護,而是由 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/mailing-list-faq/article.html">郵遞論壇</link> 維護,有許多,但並非全部,只要郵件地址長的像 <email role="nolink">freebsd-listname@FreeBSD.org</email> 都是,寄信時記得代入實際的論壇名稱。</para>
- <para>尤其是顯示 <email role="nolink">ports@FreeBSD.org</email> 的 Port 都不是由特定個人維護,該 Port 的修正與支援來自訂閱該郵遞論壇的一般社群所提供,我們非常歡迎志工參與。</para>
+ <para>尤其是由 <email role="nolink">ports@FreeBSD.org</email> 所維護的 Port 都不是由特定個人維護,而該 Port 的修正與支援都是來自訂閱該郵遞論壇的一般社群所提供,我們隨時歡迎志工參與!</para>
</note>
<para>若寄信後沒有取得任何回應,可以依照 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/problem-reports/article.html">撰寫 FreeBSD 問題回報</link> 的說明使用 Bugzilla 提出問題回報。</para>
@@ -6977,7 +7019,7 @@ ports-mgmt/pkg
<para>使用 <application>bsdinstall</application> 安裝 FreeBSD 並不會自動安裝圖型化使用者介面。本章將說明如何安裝並設定 <application>Xorg</application>,該應用程式提供開放源碼的 X Window 系統來提供圖型化環境。接著會說明如何找到並安裝桌面環境或視窗管理程式。</para>
<note>
- <para>偏好安裝時會自動設定 <application>Xorg</application> 並且在安裝過程提供視窗管理程式選項的使用者請參考 <link xlink:href="http://www.pcbsd.org/">pcbsd.org</link> 網站。</para>
+ <para>偏好安裝時會自動設定 <application>Xorg</application> 並且在安裝過程提供視窗管理程式選項的使用者請參考 <link xlink:href="http://www.trueos.org/"/> 網站。</para>
</note>
<para>更多有關 <application>Xorg</application> 支援影像硬體資訊,請參考 <link xlink:href="http://www.x.org/">x.org</link> 網站。</para>
@@ -7084,16 +7126,16 @@ ports-mgmt/pkg
<para>在 FreeBSD,<application>Xorg</application> 可透過套件或 Port 來安裝。</para>
+ <para>使用 Binary 套件的安裝速度較快,但可用的自訂選項較少:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install xorg</userinput></screen>
+
<para>要從 Port 套件集編譯與安裝:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/x11/xorg</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
- <para>使用 Binary 套件安裝快速,但可用的自訂選項較少:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install xorg</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>兩種安裝方式皆可完整安裝 <application>Xorg</application> 系統。此方式較建議大多數使用者。</para>
+ <para>兩種安裝方式皆可完整安裝 <application>Xorg</application> 系統,對大多數使用者較建議使用 Binary 套件安裝。</para>
<para>較精簡版本的 X 系統適合給有經驗的使用者使用,可至 <package>x11/xorg-minimal</package> 取得。這個版本就不會安裝大多數的文件、函數庫以及應用程式,而部份應用程式會需要這些額外的元件才能運作。</para>
</sect1>
@@ -7117,7 +7159,11 @@ ports-mgmt/pkg
<sect2 xml:id="x-config-quick-start">
<title>快速開始</title>
- <para><application>Xorg</application> 支援大多數常見的顯示卡、鍵盤以及指標裝置,<application>Xorg</application> 會自動偵測這些裝置,並不需要手動設定。</para>
+ <para><application>Xorg</application> 支援大多數常見的顯示卡、鍵盤以及指標裝置。</para>
+
+ <tip>
+ <para>顯示卡、顯示器以及輸入裝置會自動偵測,無須任何手動設置。除非自動設置失敗,否則請勿建立 <filename>xorg.conf</filename> 或執行 <option>-configure</option> 步驟。</para>
+ </tip>
<procedure>
<step>
@@ -7166,6 +7212,8 @@ ports-mgmt/pkg
<sect2 xml:id="x-config-files">
<title>設定檔</title>
+ <para>通常不需要做手動設置,除非自動設置無法運作,否則請不要手動建立設定檔。</para>
+
<sect3 xml:id="x-config-files-directory">
<title>目錄</title>
@@ -7524,6 +7572,10 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<para>在某些情況 <application>Xorg</application> 的自動設定無法在特定硬體上運作,或需要使用不同的設定。針對這些情況會建立自訂的設定檔。</para>
+ <warning>
+ <para>非必要請勿手動建立設定檔,非必要的手動設置會造成運作不正常。</para>
+ </warning>
+
<para>設定檔可由 <application>Xorg</application> 根據偵測到的硬體產生,這個檔案對一開始自訂設定很有幫助。</para>
<para>產生 <filename>xorg.conf</filename>:</para>
@@ -7557,7 +7609,11 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<para>由於 <application>Xorg</application> 內建的預設字型用在典型的桌面出版應用程式並不是很理想,大字型會呈現鋸齒狀邊緣,看起來很不專業,小字型幾乎完全看不清楚。不過,這裡有幾個免費高品質的 Type1 (<trademark class="registered">PostScript</trademark>) 字型可用,且能容易的在 <application>Xorg</application> 使用。例如,URW 字型集 (<trademark class="registered">Times Roman</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Helvetica</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Palatino</trademark> 及其他)。 Freefont 字型集 (<package>x11-fonts/freefonts</package>) 包含了更多的字型,但其中大部分是給圖形軟體如 GIMP 所使用的字型,並不能完全作為螢幕字型使用。此外,<application>Xorg</application> 可以簡單的設定使用 <trademark class="registered">TrueType</trademark> 字型。更多有關本主題的詳細資訊,請參考 <citerefentry vendor="xfree86"><refentrytitle>X</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry> 操作手冊或 <xref linkend="truetype"/>。</para>
- <para>要從 Port 套件集安裝上述的 Type1 字型集可執行以下指令:</para>
+ <para>要由 Binary 套件安裝上述的 Type1 字型集可執行以下指令:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install urwfonts</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>或由 Port 套件集編譯,可執行以下指令:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/x11-fonts/urwfonts</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
@@ -8485,7 +8541,11 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<sect3 xml:id="moz-java-plugin">
<title>Firefox 與 <trademark>Java</trademark> 附加元件</title>
- <para><application>Firefox</application> 的安裝並不包含 <trademark>Java</trademark> 支援,雖然如此 <package>java/icedtea-web</package> 提供了免費的網頁瀏覽器附加元件來執行 Java applet,此附加元件可以用 Binary 套件安裝或者自 Port 編譯:</para>
+ <para><application>Firefox</application> 的安裝並不包含 <trademark>Java</trademark> 支援,雖然如此 <package>java/icedtea-web</package> 提供了免費的網頁瀏覽器附加元件來執行 Java applet,此附加元件可以用 Binary 套件安裝:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install icedtea-web</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>或由 Port 套件集編譯:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/java/icedtea-web</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
@@ -8595,7 +8655,11 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<para><application>Konqueror</application> 不只是個網頁瀏覽器, 它同時也是檔案管理器和多媒體瀏覽器。它包含在 <package>x11/kde4-baseapps</package> 套件或 Port 中。</para>
- <para><application>Konqueror</application> 使用支援 WebKit 以及它自有的 KTHML。WebKit 是一套被許多現代瀏覽器所使用的繪圖引擎,包含 Chromium。要在 FreeBSD 的 <application>Konqueror</application> 使用 WebKit 需安裝 <package>www/kwebkitpart</package> 套件或 Port。此範例示範使用 Port 編譯:</para>
+ <para><application>Konqueror</application> 使用支援 WebKit 以及它自有的 KTHML。WebKit 是一套被許多現代瀏覽器所使用的繪圖引擎,包含 Chromium。要在 FreeBSD 的 <application>Konqueror</application> 使用 WebKit 需安裝 <package>www/kwebkitpart</package> 套件或 Port。此範例示範使用 Binary 套件安裝:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install kwebkitpart</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>由 Port 套件集安裝:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/kwebkitpart</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
@@ -10397,7 +10461,11 @@ bktr0: Pinnacle/Miro TV, Philips SECAM tuner.</programlisting>
<sect2>
<title>設定 MythTV 後端</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">To install MythTV using the port:</para>
+ <para>要使用 Binary 套件安裝 MythTV 可:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install mythtv</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>或由 Port 套件集安裝:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/multimedia/mythtv</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install</userinput></screen>
@@ -10544,6 +10612,17 @@ Re-scan of bus 3 was successful</screen>
<package>graphics/xsane</package> installs
<application>xsane</application>.</para>
+ <para>要由 Binary 套件安裝這兩個部份可:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install xsane sane-frontends</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>或由 Port 套件集安裝:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/graphics/sane-frontends</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/graphics/xsane</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
+
<para xml:lang="en">After installing the
<package>graphics/sane-backends</package> port or package, use
<command>sane-find-scanner</command> to check the scanner
@@ -14049,7 +14128,7 @@ export PATH</programlisting>
<sect2>
<title>延伸應用程式設定</title>
- <para>現在 FreeBSD 會引用 <filename>rc.d</filename>,讓設定應用程式啟動程式更簡單且提供更多的功能。使用於 <xref linkend="configtuning-rcd"/> 所提到的關鍵字,可以設定應用程式在其他特定服務之後啟動且可以透過 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 來傳遞額外的旗標來取代寫死在啟動 Script 中的旗標。一個基本的 Script 可能會如下例所示:</para>
+ <para>現在 FreeBSD 會引用 <filename>rc.d</filename>,設定應用程式啟動變的更簡單且提供更多的功能。使用於 <xref linkend="configtuning-rcd"/> 所提到的關鍵字,可以設定應用程式在其他特定服務之後啟動且可以透過 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 來傳遞額外的旗標來取代寫死在啟動 Script 中的旗標。一個基本的 Script 可能會如下例所示:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">#!/bin/sh
#
@@ -14578,7 +14657,7 @@ ifconfig_dc1="inet 10.0.0.1 netmask 255.255.255.0 media 10baseT/UTP"</programlis
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service netif restart</userinput></screen>
<note>
- <para>若預設的閘道器已設定於 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 也同樣要下這個指令:</para>
+ <para>若預設的通訊閘已設定於 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 也同樣要下這個指令:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service routing restart</userinput></screen>
</note>
@@ -15344,18 +15423,7 @@ device_probe_and_attach: cbb0 attach returned 12</screen>
<sect1 xml:id="configtuning-disk">
<title>調校磁碟</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">The following section will discuss various tuning
- mechanisms and options which may be applied to disk
- devices. In many cases, disks with mechanical parts,
- such as <acronym>SCSI</acronym> drives, will be the
- bottleneck driving down the overall system performance. While
- a solution is to install a drive without mechanical parts,
- such as a solid state drive, mechanical drives are not
- going away anytime in the near future. When tuning disks,
- it is advisable to utilize the features of the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>iostat</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
- command to test various changes to the system. This
- command will allow the user to obtain valuable information
- on system <acronym>IO</acronym>.</para>
+ <para>接下來的章節會討論在磁碟裝置上各種可調校的機制與選項。在大多數案例中,有使用機械元件的硬碟,如 <acronym>SCSI</acronym> 磁碟機,會成為導致整體系統效能低下的瓶頸。雖然已經有不使用機械元件的磁碟機解決方案,如,固態硬碟,但使用機械元件的磁碟機短期內並不會消失。在調校磁碟時,建議可以利用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>iostat</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令的功能來測試各種對系統的變更,這個指令可讓使用者取得系統 <acronym>IO</acronym> 相關的有用資訊。</para>
<sect2>
<title>Sysctl 變數</title>
@@ -16116,56 +16184,11 @@ kern.maxvnodes: 100000</screen>
</authorgroup>
</info>
- <para xml:lang="en">It is important to utilize hardware resources in an
- efficient manner. Power and resource management allows the
- operating system to monitor system limits and to possibly
- provide an alert if the system temperature increases
- unexpectedly. An early specification for providing power
- management was the Advanced Power Management
- (<acronym>APM</acronym>) facility. <acronym>APM</acronym>
- controls the power usage of a system based on its activity.
- However, it was difficult and inflexible for operating systems
- to manage the power usage and thermal properties of a system.
- The hardware was managed by the <acronym>BIOS</acronym> and the
- user had limited configurability and visibility into the power
- management settings. The <acronym>APM</acronym>
- <acronym>BIOS</acronym> is supplied by the vendor and is
- specific to the hardware platform. An <acronym>APM</acronym>
- driver in the operating system mediates access to the
- <acronym>APM</acronym> Software Interface, which allows
- management of power levels.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">There are four major problems in <acronym>APM</acronym>.
- First, power management is done by the vendor-specific
- <acronym>BIOS</acronym>, separate from the operating system.
- For example, the user can set idle-time values for a hard drive
- in the <acronym>APM</acronym> <acronym>BIOS</acronym> so that,
- when exceeded, the <acronym>BIOS</acronym> spins down the hard
- drive without the consent of the operating system. Second, the
- <acronym>APM</acronym> logic is embedded in the
- <acronym>BIOS</acronym>, and it operates outside the scope of
- the operating system. This means that users can only fix
- problems in the <acronym>APM</acronym>
- <acronym>BIOS</acronym> by flashing a new one into the
- <acronym>ROM</acronym>, which is a dangerous procedure with the
- potential to leave the system in an unrecoverable state if it
- fails. Third, <acronym>APM</acronym> is a vendor-specific
- technology, meaning that there is a lot of duplication of
- efforts and bugs found in one vendor's <acronym>BIOS</acronym>
- may not be solved in others. Lastly, the <acronym>APM</acronym>
- <acronym>BIOS</acronym> did not have enough room to implement a
- sophisticated power policy or one that can adapt well to the
- purpose of the machine.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The Plug and Play <acronym>BIOS</acronym>
- (<acronym>PNPBIOS</acronym>) was unreliable in many situations.
- <acronym>PNPBIOS</acronym> is 16-bit technology, so the
- operating system has to use 16-bit emulation in order to
- interface with <acronym>PNPBIOS</acronym> methods. FreeBSD
- provides an <acronym>APM</acronym> driver as
- <acronym>APM</acronym> should still be used for systems
- manufactured at or before the year 2000. The driver is
- documented in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>apm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para>以有效率的方式運用硬體資源是很重要的,電源與資源管理讓作業系統可以監控系統的限制,並且在系統溫度意外升高時能夠發出警報。早期提供電源管理的規範是進階電源管理 (Advanced Power Management, <acronym>APM</acronym>),<acronym>APM</acronym> 可根據系統的使用狀況來來控制電源用量。然而,使用 <acronym>APM</acronym> 要作業系統來管理系統的電源用量和溫度屬性是困難且沒有彈性的,因為硬體是由 <acronym>BIOS</acronym> 所管理,使用者對電源管理設定只有有限的設定性與可見性,且 <acronym>APM</acronym> <acronym>BIOS</acronym> 是由供應商提供且特定於某些硬體平台,而作業系統中必透過 <acronym>APM</acronym> 驅動程式做為中介存取 <acronym>APM</acronym> 軟體介面才能夠管理電源等級。</para>
+
+ <para>在 <acronym>APM</acronym> 有四個主要的問題。第一,電源管理是由供應商特定的 <acronym>BIOS</acronym> 來完成,與作業系統是分開的。例如,使用者可在 <acronym>APM</acronym> <acronym>BIOS</acronym> 設定硬碟的閒置時間值,在超過時間時 <acronym>BIOS</acronym> 可在未徵得作業系統的同意下降低硬碟的轉速。第二,<acronym>APM</acronym> 的邏輯是內嵌在 <acronym>BIOS</acronym> 當中的,並且在作業系統範圍之外運作,這代表使用者只能夠透過燒錄新的韌體到 <acronym>ROM</acronym> 來修正 <acronym>APM</acronym> <acronym>BIOS</acronym> 中的問題,而這樣的程序是危險的,若失敗,可能會讓系統進入無法復原的狀態。第三,<acronym>APM</acronym> 是供應商特定的技術,這代表有許多重複的工作,在一個供應商的 <acronym>BIOS</acronym> 找到的問題在其他的供應商卻沒有解決。最後一點,<acronym>APM</acronym> <acronym>BIOS</acronym> 並沒有足夠的空間來實作複雜的電源管理政策或可良好適應主機用途的程式。</para>
+
+ <para>Plug and Play <acronym>BIOS</acronym> (<acronym>PNPBIOS</acronym>) 在很多情況下並不可靠,<acronym>PNPBIOS</acronym> 是 16 位元的技術,所以作業系統必須模擬 16 位元才能存取 <acronym>PNPBIOS</acronym>。FreeBSD 提供了一個 <acronym>APM</acronym> 驅動程式來做 <acronym>APM</acronym>,應可用在 2000 年之前所製造的系統,該驅動程式的說明於 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>apm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary>ACPI</primary>
@@ -16175,55 +16198,22 @@ kern.maxvnodes: 100000</screen>
<primary>APM</primary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The successor to <acronym>APM</acronym> is the Advanced
- Configuration and Power Interface (<acronym>ACPI</acronym>).
- <acronym>ACPI</acronym> is a standard written by an alliance of
- vendors to provide an interface for hardware resources and power
- management. It is a key element in <emphasis>Operating
- System-directed configuration and Power Management</emphasis>
- as it provides more control and flexibility to the operating
- system.</para>
+ <para><acronym>APM</acronym> 的後繼者是進階設置與電源介面 (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface, <acronym>ACPI</acronym>)。<acronym>ACPI</acronym> 是一套由供應商聯盟所搛寫出的標準,提供了硬體資源與電源管理的介面,它是 <emphasis>作業系統直接設置與電源管理 (Operating System-directed configuration and Power Management)</emphasis> 關鍵的要素,提供了作業系統更多的控制方式與彈性。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">This chapter demonstrates how to configure
- <acronym>ACPI</acronym> on FreeBSD. It then offers some tips on
- how to debug <acronym>ACPI</acronym> and how to submit a problem
- report containing debugging information so that developers can
- diagnosis and fix <acronym>ACPI</acronym> issues.</para>
+ <para>本章節將示範如何在 FreeBSD 設定 <acronym>ACPI</acronym>,然後提供一些如何對 <acronym>ACPI</acronym> 除錯的提示以及如何提交包含除錯資訊的問題回報,讓開發人員能夠診斷並修正 <acronym>ACPI</acronym> 的問題。</para>
<sect2 xml:id="acpi-config">
<title>設定 <acronym>ACPI</acronym></title>
- <para xml:lang="en">In FreeBSD the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>acpi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver is loaded by default at
- system boot and should <emphasis>not</emphasis> be compiled
- into the kernel. This driver cannot be unloaded after boot
- because the system bus uses it for various hardware
- interactions. However, if the system is experiencing
- problems, <acronym>ACPI</acronym> can be disabled altogether
- by rebooting after setting
- <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"</literal> in
- <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> or by setting this
- variable at the loader prompt, as described in <xref linkend="boot-loader"/>.</para>
+ <para>在 FreeBSD <citerefentry><refentrytitle>acpi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 驅動程式預設會在系統開始時載入,且<emphasis>不</emphasis>應被編譯到核心當中。這個驅動程式在開機之後無法被卸載,因為系統匯流排會使用它做各種硬體互動。雖然如此,若系統遇到問題,<acronym>ACPI</acronym> 還是可以被關閉,在 <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> 中設定 <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"</literal> 之後重新開機或在載入程式提示時設定這個變數,如 <xref linkend="boot-loader"/> 中的說明。</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>ACPI</acronym> and <acronym>APM</acronym>
- cannot coexist and should be used separately. The last one
- to load will terminate if the driver notices the other is
- running.</para>
+ <para><acronym>ACPI</acronym> 與 <acronym>APM</acronym> 不能同時存在且應分開使用,若有偵測到有另一個正在執行,要載入的後者將會中斷。</para>
</note>
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>ACPI</acronym> can be used to put the system into
- a sleep mode with <command>acpiconf</command>, the
- <option>-s</option> flag, and a number from
- <literal>1</literal> to <literal>5</literal>. Most users only
- need <literal>1</literal> (quick suspend to
- <acronym>RAM</acronym>) or <literal>3</literal> (suspend to
- <acronym>RAM</acronym>). Option <literal>5</literal> performs
- a soft-off which is the same as running
- <command>halt -p</command>.</para>
+ <para><acronym>ACPI</acronym> 可以用來讓系統進入睡眠模式,使用 <command>acpiconf</command> 與 <option>-s</option> 旗標再加上由 <literal>1</literal> 到 <literal>5</literal> 的數字。大多數使用者只需使用 <literal>1</literal> (快速待命到 <acronym>RAM</acronym>) 或 <literal>3</literal> (待命到 <acronym>RAM</acronym>),選項 <literal>5</literal> 會執行軟關機 (Soft-off),如同執行 <command>halt -p</command> 一樣。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Other options are available using
- <command>sysctl</command>. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>acpi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> and
- <citerefentry vendor="current"><refentrytitle>acpiconf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information.</para>
+ <para>其他的選項可使用 <command>sysctl</command> 來設定,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>acpi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 以及 <citerefentry vendor="current"><refentrytitle>acpiconf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 以取得更多資訊。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="ACPI-comprob">
@@ -16767,7 +16757,7 @@ debug.acpi.level="ACPI_LV_ERROR"</programlisting>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>booting</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>bootstrap</primary></indexterm>
- <para>從開啟電腦到載入作業系統的這段流程稱為<quote>開機程序</quote> (Bootstrap process) 或<quote>開機</quote> (booting)。FreeBSD 的開機程序提供大量的客製化彈性,包含可選擇安裝在同電腦的其他的作業系統、不同版本的作業系統或不同核心的作業系統的功能。</para>
+ <para>從開啟電腦到載入作業系統的這段流程稱為 <quote>開機程序</quote> (Bootstrap process) 或 <quote>開機</quote> (Booting)。FreeBSD 的開機程序提供大量的客製化彈性,包含可選擇安裝在同電腦的其他的作業系統、不同版本的作業系統或不同核心的作業系統的功能。</para>
<para>本章會詳細說明可以設定的選項。示範如何自訂 FreeBSD 開機流程,包含其中所有會發生的事,直到啟動 FreeBSD 核心、偵測裝置及啟動 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。這些事會發生在開機訊息的文字顏色會從亮白變成灰色之間。</para>
@@ -16803,48 +16793,19 @@ debug.acpi.level="ACPI_LV_ERROR"</programlisting>
<sect1 xml:id="boot-introduction">
<title>FreeBSD 開機程序</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Turning on a computer and starting the operating system
- poses an interesting dilemma. By definition, the computer does
- not know how to do anything until the operating system is
- started. This includes running programs from the disk. If the
- computer can not run a program from the disk without the
- operating system, and the operating system programs are on the
- disk, how is the operating system started?</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This problem parallels one in the book <citetitle>The
- Adventures of Baron Munchausen</citetitle>. A character had
- fallen part way down a manhole, and pulled himself out by
- grabbing his bootstraps and lifting. In the early days of
- computing, the term <firstterm>bootstrap</firstterm> was applied
- to the mechanism used to load the operating system. It has
- since become shortened to <quote>booting</quote>.</para>
+ <para>打開電腦並啟動作業系統的這個動作呈現了一個有趣的困境。照道理,電腦在啟動作業系統之前並不知道要如何做任何事情,這些事情之中包括從磁碟執行程式。如果電腦無法在沒有作業系統的情況下執行程式,而作業系統的程式本身又在磁碟上,那麼作業系統要如何啟動呢?</para>
+
+ <para>這個問題如同 <citetitle>The Adventures of Baron Munchausen</citetitle> 一書中的一個角色掉進了洞裡,他抓住了靴子上的拔靴帶 (Bootstrap) 才把自己拉了出來,因此在早期電腦領域用 <firstterm>bootstrap</firstterm> 一詞來指載入作業系統的機制,後來被縮短為 <quote>booting</quote>。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary><acronym>BIOS</acronym></primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>Basic Input/Output
System</primary><see><acronym>BIOS</acronym></see></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">On x86 hardware, the Basic Input/Output System
- (<acronym>BIOS</acronym>) is responsible for loading the
- operating system. The <acronym>BIOS</acronym> looks on the hard
- disk for the Master Boot Record (<acronym>MBR</acronym>), which
- must be located in a specific place on the disk. The
- <acronym>BIOS</acronym> has enough knowledge to load and run the
- <acronym>MBR</acronym>, and assumes that the
- <acronym>MBR</acronym> can then carry out the rest of the tasks
- involved in loading the operating system, possibly with the help
- of the <acronym>BIOS</acronym>.</para>
+ <para>在 x86 硬體上,基本輸入/輸出系統 (Basic Input/Output System, <acronym>BIOS</acronym>) 負責載入作業系統。 <acronym>BIOS</acronym> 會找到硬碟上的主開機記錄區 (Master Boot Record, <acronym>MBR</acronym>),該記錄區必須位於磁碟上的特定位置。<acronym>BIOS</acronym> 有足夠的知識可以載入並執行這個 <acronym>MBR</acronym>,並且假設這個 <acronym>MBR</acronym> 在 <acronym>BIOS</acronym> 的協助下可以完成接下來載入作業系統的工作。</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD provides for booting from both the older
- <acronym>MBR</acronym> standard, and the newer GUID Partition
- Table (<acronym>GPT</acronym>). <acronym>GPT</acronym>
- partitioning is often found on computers with the Unified
- Extensible Firmware Interface (<acronym>UEFI</acronym>).
- However, FreeBSD can boot from <acronym>GPT</acronym> partitions
- even on machines with only a legacy <acronym>BIOS</acronym>
- with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gptboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Work is under way to provide direct
- <acronym>UEFI</acronym> booting.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 在較舊的 <acronym>MBR</acronym> 標準與較新的 GUID 分割區表 (GUID Partition Table, <acronym>GPT</acronym>) 上都能夠開機 (Booting)。<acronym>GPT</acronym> 磁碟分割通常會在有支援統一可延伸韌體介面 (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface, <acronym>UEFI</acronym>) 的電腦上找到。不論如何,FreeBSD 即使在只有傳統 <acronym>BIOS</acronym> 的機器上,也可以使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gptboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 由 <acronym>GPT</acronym> 分割區開機。直接使用 <acronym>UEFI</acronym> 開機的開發工作正在進行中。</para>
</note>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>Master Boot Record
@@ -16854,49 +16815,18 @@ debug.acpi.level="ACPI_LV_ERROR"</programlisting>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>Boot Loader</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The code within the <acronym>MBR</acronym> is typically
- referred to as a <emphasis>boot manager</emphasis>, especially
- when it interacts with the user. The boot manager usually has
- more code in the first track of the disk or within the file
- system. Examples of boot managers include the standard FreeBSD
- boot manager <application>boot0</application>, also called
- <application>Boot Easy</application>, and
- <application>Grub</application>, which is used by many <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark>
- distributions.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">If only one operating system is installed, the
- <acronym>MBR</acronym> searches for the first bootable (active)
- slice on the disk, and then runs the code on that slice to load
- the remainder of the operating system. When multiple operating
- systems are present, a different boot manager can be installed
- to display a list of operating systems so the user
- can select one to boot.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The remainder of the FreeBSD bootstrap system is divided into
- three stages. The first stage knows just enough to get the
- computer into a specific state and run the second stage. The
- second stage can do a little bit more, before running the third
- stage. The third stage finishes the task of loading the
- operating system. The work is split into three stages because
- the <acronym>MBR</acronym> puts limits on the size of the
- programs that can be run at stages one and two. Chaining the
- tasks together allows FreeBSD to provide a more flexible
- loader.</para>
+ <para>在 <acronym>MBR</acronym> 中的程式通常會稱作開機管理程式 (<emphasis>Boot manager</emphasis>),特別是那些會與使用者互動的程式。開機管理程式通常會另一部份的程式會存放於磁碟的第一個磁軌或檔案系統。開機管理程式的例子有標準 FreeBSD 開機管理程式 <application>boot0</application> 又稱 <application>Boot Easy</application> 以及 <application>Grub</application> 常用於各種 <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> 發行版。</para>
+
+ <para>若只有安裝一個作業系統,<acronym>MBR</acronym> 會搜尋磁碟上第一個可開機的 (使用中) 切割區 (Slice),然後執行在該切割區上的程式來載入剩下的作業系統。當有多個作業系統存在時,可以安裝可顯示作業系統清單的開機管理程式,以讓使用者可以選擇要啟動的作業系統。</para>
+
+ <para>剩餘的 FreeBSD 開機系統分成三個階段,第一個階段只知道如何讓電腦進入特定狀態並執行第二階段,第二個階段在執行第三階段之前會做的事比較多一點,第三個階段會完成載入作業系統的工作。把工作分成三個階段的原因是 <acronym>MBR</acronym> 有限制在階段一與階段二能夠執行程式的大小。將這些工作連結在一起讓 FreeBSD 能夠提供更有彈性的載入程式。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>kernel</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary><citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry></primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The kernel is then started and begins to probe for devices
- and initialize them for use. Once the kernel boot process is
- finished, the kernel passes control to the user process
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, which makes sure the disks are in a usable state,
- starts the user-level resource configuration which mounts file
- systems, sets up network cards to communicate on the network,
- and starts the processes which have been configured to run at
- startup.</para>
+ <para>核心會接著開始偵測裝置並初始化這些裝置供使用。核心開機程序完成之後,核心便會傳送控制權給使用者程序 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,這個程序會確保磁碟在可以使用的狀態,然後啟動使用者層級的資源設置來掛載檔案系統、設定網路卡以能夠連線網路、啟動那些被設定在開機時要啟動的程序。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">This section describes these stages in more detail and
- demonstrates how to interact with the FreeBSD boot process.</para>
+ <para>本章節將更詳細介紹這些階段並示範如何與 FreeBSD 開機程序互動。</para>
<sect2 xml:id="boot-boot0">
<title>開機管理程式</title>
@@ -16906,19 +16836,9 @@ debug.acpi.level="ACPI_LV_ERROR"</programlisting>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>Master Boot Record
(<acronym>MBR</acronym>)</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The boot manager code in the <acronym>MBR</acronym> is
- sometimes referred to as <emphasis>stage zero</emphasis> of
- the boot process. By default, FreeBSD uses the
- <application>boot0</application> boot manager.</para>
+ <para>有時會稱在 <acronym>MBR</acronym> 中的開機管理程式為開機程序的 <emphasis>第零階段 (Stage zero)</emphasis>,FreeBSD 預設會使用 <application>boot0</application> 開機管理程式。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>MBR</acronym> installed by the FreeBSD installer
- is based on <filename>/boot/boot0</filename>. The size and
- capability of <application>boot0</application> is restricted
- to 446 bytes due to the slice table and
- <literal>0x55AA</literal> identifier at the end of the
- <acronym>MBR</acronym>. If <application>boot0</application>
- and multiple operating systems are installed, a message
- similar to this example will be displayed at boot time:</para>
+ <para>由 FreeBSD 安裝程式所安裝的 <acronym>MBR</acronym> 便是以 <filename>/boot/boot0</filename> 為基礎。<application>boot0</application> 的大小與容量被限制在 446 個位元組是由於切割表與 <literal>0x55AA</literal> 識別碼位於 <acronym>MBR</acronym> 的最末端。若安裝多個作業系統使用 <application>boot0</application> ,則會在開機時顯示如下範例的訊息:</para>
<example xml:id="boot-boot0-example">
<title><filename>boot0</filename> 螢幕截圖</title>
@@ -16929,54 +16849,23 @@ F2 FreeBSD
Default: F2</screen>
</example>
- <para xml:lang="en">Other operating systems will overwrite an existing
- <acronym>MBR</acronym> if they are installed after FreeBSD. If
- this happens, or to replace the existing
- <acronym>MBR</acronym> with the FreeBSD <acronym>MBR</acronym>,
- use the following command:</para>
+ <para>其作他作業統若在 FreeBSD 之後才安裝則會覆蓋現有的 <acronym>MBR</acronym>,若這件事發生了,或者要使用 FreeBSD <acronym>MBR</acronym> 取代現有的 <acronym>MBR</acronym> 可使用以下指令:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>fdisk -B -b /boot/boot0 <replaceable>device</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">where <replaceable>device</replaceable> is the boot disk,
- such as <filename>ad0</filename> for the first
- <acronym>IDE</acronym> disk, <filename>ad2</filename> for the
- first <acronym>IDE</acronym> disk on a second
- <acronym>IDE</acronym> controller, or <filename>da0</filename>
- for the first <acronym>SCSI</acronym> disk. To create a
- custom configuration of the <acronym>MBR</acronym>, refer to
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot0cfg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para>其中 <replaceable>device</replaceable> 開機磁碟,例如第一個 <acronym>IDE</acronym> 磁碟為 <filename>ad0</filename>,第二個 <acronym>IDE</acronym> 控制器的第一個 <acronym>IDE</acronym>磁碟為 <filename>ad2</filename>,第一個 <acronym>SCSI</acronym> 磁碟為 <filename>da0</filename>。要建立自訂的 <acronym>MBR</acronym> 設定請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot0cfg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="boot-boot1">
<title>階段一與階段二</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Conceptually, the first and second stages are part of the
- same program on the same area of the disk. Because of space
- constraints, they have been split into two, but are always
- installed together. They are copied from the combined
- <filename>/boot/boot</filename> by the FreeBSD installer or
- <command>bsdlabel</command>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">These two stages are located outside file systems, in the
- first track of the boot slice, starting with the first sector.
- This is where <application>boot0</application>, or any other
- boot manager, expects to find a program to run which will
- continue the boot process.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The first stage, <filename>boot1</filename>, is very
- simple, since it can only be 512 bytes in size. It knows just
- enough about the FreeBSD <firstterm>bsdlabel</firstterm>, which
- stores information about the slice, to find and execute
- <filename>boot2</filename>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Stage two, <filename>boot2</filename>, is slightly more
- sophisticated, and understands the FreeBSD file system enough to
- find files. It can provide a simple interface to choose the
- kernel or loader to run. It runs
- <application>loader</application>, which is much more
- sophisticated and provides a boot configuration file. If the
- boot process is interrupted at stage two, the following
- interactive screen is displayed:</para>
+ <para>概念上,第一與第二個階段均為磁碟上同一個區域上同一個程式的一部份,由於空間上的限制,它們被分成兩部份,但是會一併安裝。它們會由 FreeBSD 安裝程式或 <command>bsdlabel</command> 從 <filename>/boot/boot</filename> 複製而來。</para>
+
+ <para>這兩個階段均位於檔案系統之外,在開機切割區的第一個磁軌,從第一個磁碟扇區 (Sector) 開始,這個位置便是 <application>boot0</application> 或其他開機管理程式所會儲存的地方,並會尋找可以執行的程式以繼續開機程序。</para>
+
+ <para>第一個階段的 <filename>boot1</filename> 非常的簡單,因為它只能有 512 位元組的大小。它只能認得儲存切割區資訊的 FreeBSD <firstterm>bsdlabel</firstterm> 以及尋找並執行 <filename>boot2</filename>。</para>
+
+ <para>階段二 <filename>boot2</filename> 稍微複雜一點,能夠理解 FreeBSD 檔案系統來搜尋檔案。它可以提供一個簡單的介面來選擇要執行的核心或載入程式。它所執行的載入程式 (<application>loader</application>) 更複雜並能讀取開機設定檔。若開機程序在階段二中斷,則會顯示以下的互動畫面:</para>
<example xml:id="boot-boot2-example">
<title><filename>boot2</filename> 螢幕截圖</title>
@@ -16986,22 +16875,12 @@ Default: 0:ad(0,a)/boot/loader
boot:</screen>
</example>
- <para xml:lang="en">To replace the installed <filename>boot1</filename> and
- <filename>boot2</filename>, use <command>bsdlabel</command>,
- where <replaceable>diskslice</replaceable> is the disk and
- slice to boot from, such as <filename>ad0s1</filename> for the
- first slice on the first <acronym>IDE</acronym> disk:</para>
+ <para>要更換已安裝的 <filename>boot1</filename> 與 <filename>boot2</filename> 可使用 <command>bsdlabel</command>,其中 <replaceable>diskslice</replaceable> 是要開機的磁碟與切割區,例如 <filename>ad0s1</filename> 代表第一個 <acronym>IDE</acronym> 磁碟的第一個切割區:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bsdlabel -B <replaceable>diskslice</replaceable></userinput></screen>
<warning>
- <para xml:lang="en">If just the disk name is used, such as
- <filename>ad0</filename>, <command>bsdlabel</command> will
- create the disk in <quote>dangerously dedicated
- mode</quote>, without slices. This is probably not the
- desired action, so double check the
- <replaceable>diskslice</replaceable> before pressing
- <keycap>Return</keycap>.</para>
+ <para>若只使用磁碟名稱,如 <filename>ad0</filename>,<command>bsdlabel</command> 便會以 <quote>危險專用的模式</quote> 來建立磁碟,而不會建立任何分割區。這個可能與預期的動作不同,所以在按下 <keycap>Return</keycap> 鍵之前請再次確認 <replaceable>diskslice</replaceable>。</para>
</warning>
</sect2>
@@ -17010,43 +16889,18 @@ boot:</screen>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>boot-loader</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <application>loader</application> is the final stage
- of the three-stage bootstrap process. It is located on the
- file system, usually as
- <filename>/boot/loader</filename>.</para>
+ <para><application>loader</application> 是三階段開機程多的最後一個階段,載入程式位於檔案系統之中,通常在 <filename>/boot/loader</filename>。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <application>loader</application> is intended as an
- interactive method for configuration, using a built-in command
- set, backed up by a more powerful interpreter which has a more
- complex command set.</para>
+ <para><application>loader</application> 主要目地是利用擁有更複雜指令集的強大直譯器做為基礎的內建指令集提供一個互動的方式來做設定。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">During initialization, <application>loader</application>
- will probe for a console and for disks, and figure out which
- disk it is booting from. It will set variables accordingly,
- and an interpreter is started where user commands can be
- passed from a script or interactively.</para>
+ <para>在初始化的過程中,<application>loader</application> 會偵測 Console 與磁碟,並找出可以用來開機的磁碟。在由 Script 或互動輸入使用者指令的地方會設定相對的變數並啟動直譯器。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>loader</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>loader configuration</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <application>loader</application> will then read
- <filename>/boot/loader.rc</filename>, which by default reads
- in <filename>/boot/defaults/loader.conf</filename> which sets
- reasonable defaults for variables and reads
- <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> for local changes to
- those variables. <filename>loader.rc</filename> then acts on
- these variables, loading whichever modules and kernel are
- selected.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Finally, by default, <application>loader</application>
- issues a 10 second wait for key presses, and boots the kernel
- if it is not interrupted. If interrupted, the user is
- presented with a prompt which understands the command set,
- where the user may adjust variables, unload all modules, load
- modules, and then finally boot or reboot. <xref linkend="boot-loader-commands"/> lists the most commonly
- used <application>loader</application> commands. For a
- complete discussion of all available commands, refer to
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para><application>loader</application> 接著會讀取 <filename>/boot/loader.rc</filename>,這個程式預設又會讀取 <filename>/boot/defaults/loader.conf</filename> 來設定合理的變數預設值以及讀取 <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> 來對這些變數做本地的更改。<filename>loader.rc</filename> 接著會依這些變數來運作,讀取選擇模組與核心。</para>
+
+ <para>最後,預設情況下 <application>loader</application> 會待候鍵盤輸入 10 秒鐘,若沒有被中斷的話會接著啟動核心。若被使用者中斷,則會向使用者顯示提示字元,此時使用可以使用指令集來調整變數、卸載所有模組、載入模組,然後最後開機或重新開機。<xref linkend="boot-loader-commands"/> 中列出了最常使用的 <application>loader</application> 指令。要完整了解所有可用的指令,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
<table xml:id="boot-loader-commands" frame="none" pgwide="1">
<title>載入程式內建指令</title>
@@ -17063,141 +16917,99 @@ boot:</screen>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en">autoboot
<replaceable>seconds</replaceable></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Proceeds to boot the kernel if not interrupted
- within the time span given, in seconds. It displays a
- countdown, and the default time span is 10
- seconds.</entry>
+ <entry>若在指定時間 (秒) 內沒有中斷,會繼續啟動核心。此指令會顯示倒數,預設的時間為 10 秒鐘。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en">boot
<optional><replaceable>-options</replaceable></optional>
<optional><replaceable>kernelname</replaceable></optional></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Immediately proceeds to boot the kernel, with
- any specified options or kernel name. Providing a
- kernel name on the command-line is only applicable
- after an <command>unload</command> has been issued.
- Otherwise, the previously-loaded kernel will be
- used. If <emphasis>kernelname</emphasis> is not
- qualified it will be searched under
- <emphasis>/boot/kernel</emphasis> and
- <emphasis>/boot/modules</emphasis>.</entry>
+ <entry>使用指定的選項或核心名稱立即啟動核心。由指令列指定核心名稱前必須先執行 <command>unload</command>,否則會使用先前載入過的核心。若 <emphasis>kernelname</emphasis> 不是完整的路徑則會搜尋 <emphasis>/boot/kernel</emphasis> 及 <emphasis>/boot/modules</emphasis> 底下。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en">boot-conf</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Goes through the same automatic configuration of
- modules based on specified variables, most commonly
- <envar>kernel</envar>. This only makes sense if
- <command>unload</command> is used first, before
- changing some variables.</entry>
+ <entry>依據指定的變數及最常用的 <envar>kernel</envar> 再做一次相同的自動模組設置。這只有在執行 <command>unload</command> 之後,尚未變更變數之前方可使用。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en">help
<optional><replaceable>topic</replaceable></optional></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Shows help messages read from
- <filename>/boot/loader.help</filename>. If the topic
- given is <literal>index</literal>, the list of
- available topics is displayed.</entry>
+ <entry>顯示自 <filename>/boot/loader.help</filename> 取得的說明訊息。若指定的主題為 <literal>index</literal> 則會顯示所有可用的主題。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en">include <replaceable>filename</replaceable>
…</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Reads the specified file and interprets it line
- by line. An error immediately stops the
- <command>include</command>.</entry>
+ <entry>讀取指定的檔案並直譯每一行。若有錯誤則會立即中止 <command>include</command>。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en">load <optional>-t
<replaceable>type</replaceable></optional>
<replaceable>filename</replaceable></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Loads the kernel, kernel module, or file of the
- type given, with the specified filename. Any
- arguments after <replaceable>filename</replaceable>
- are passed to the file. If
- <emphasis>filename</emphasis> is not qualified it
- will be searched under
- <emphasis>/boot/kernel</emphasis>
- and <emphasis>/boot/modules</emphasis>.</entry>
+ <entry>由指定的檔案名稱載入核心、核心模組或指定類型的檔案。任何於 <replaceable>filename</replaceable> 之後的參數都會被傳遞到該檔案。若 <emphasis>filename</emphasis> 不是絕對位置則會搜尋 <emphasis>/boot/kernel</emphasis> 及 <emphasis>/boot/modules</emphasis> 底下。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en">ls <optional>-l</optional>
<optional><replaceable>path</replaceable></optional></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Displays a listing of files in the given path, or
- the root directory, if the path is not specified. If
- <option>-l</option> is specified, file sizes will
- also be shown.</entry>
+ <entry>顯示指定路徑中的檔案,若未指定路徑則會顯示根目錄中的檔案。若有指定 <option>-l</option>,則會連檔案大小一同顯示。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en">lsdev <optional>-v</optional></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Lists all of the devices from which it may be
- possible to load modules. If <option>-v</option> is
- specified, more details are printed.</entry>
+ <entry>列出所有的裝置,這些裝置可能可以用來載入模組。若有指定 <option>-v</option> 則會顯示更詳細的資訊。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en">lsmod <optional>-v</optional></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Displays loaded modules. If <option>-v</option>
- is specified, more details are shown.</entry>
+ <entry>顯示已載入的模組。若有指定 <option>-v</option> 則會顯示更詳細的資訊。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en">more <replaceable>filename</replaceable></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Displays the files specified, with a pause at
- each <varname>LINES</varname> displayed.</entry>
+ <entry>顯示指定的檔案,並於每 <varname>LINES</varname> 行顯示後會暫停。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en">reboot</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Immediately reboots the system.</entry>
+ <entry>立即重新啟動系統。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en">set <replaceable>variable</replaceable>, set
<replaceable>variable</replaceable>=<replaceable>value</replaceable></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Sets the specified environment variables.</entry>
+ <entry>設定指定的環境變數。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en">unload</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Removes all loaded modules.</entry>
+ <entry>移除所有已載入的模組。</entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</table>
- <para xml:lang="en">Here are some practical examples of loader usage. To boot
- the usual kernel in single-user mode
- <indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>single-user
- mode</primary></indexterm>:</para>
+ <para>這裡有一些 loader 用法的實務範例。要使用一般的核心開機進入單使用者模式 (Single-user mode<indexterm><primary>single-user
+ mode</primary></indexterm>) 可:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><userinput>boot -s</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">To unload the usual kernel and modules and then load the
- previous or another, specified kernel:</para>
+ <para>要卸載一般的核心與模組,然後載入先前或另一個指定的核心可:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><userinput>unload</userinput>
<userinput>load <replaceable>kernel.old</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Use <filename>kernel.GENERIC</filename> to refer to the
- default kernel that comes with an installation, or
- <filename>kernel.old</filename>, to refer to the previously
- installed kernel before a system upgrade or before configuring
- a custom kernel.</para>
+ <para>使用 <filename>kernel.GENERIC</filename> 來代表安裝程式使用的預設核心,或 <filename>kernel.old</filename> 來代表在系統升級之前或設定自訂核心前安裝的核心。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Use the following to load the usual modules with another
- kernel:</para>
+ <para>使用以下指令來使用另一個核心載入一般的模組:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><userinput>unload</userinput>
<userinput>set kernel="<replaceable>kernel.old</replaceable>"</userinput>
<userinput>boot-conf</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">To load an automated kernel configuration script:</para>
+ <para>要載入一個已自動化的核心設置 Script 可:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><userinput>load -t userconfig_script <replaceable>/boot/kernel.conf</replaceable></userinput></screen>
@@ -17214,13 +17026,7 @@ boot:</screen>
<primary><citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry></primary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">Once the kernel is loaded by either
- <application>loader</application> or by
- <application>boot2</application>, which bypasses
- <application>loader</application>, it examines any boot flags
- and adjusts its behavior as necessary. <xref linkend="boot-kernel"/> lists the commonly used boot flags.
- Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information on the other boot
- flags.</para>
+ <para>由 <application>loader</application> 或由會繞開 <application>loader</application> 的 <application>boot2</application> 載入核心之後,載入程式便會檢查是不有使用任何開機旗標,並根據需要調整開機的方式。<xref linkend="boot-kernel"/> 列出了常用的開機旗標,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 取得更多其他開機旗標的資訊。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary>kernel</primary>
@@ -17241,44 +17047,30 @@ boot:</screen>
<tbody>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><option>-a</option></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">During kernel initialization, ask for the device
- to mount as the root file system.</entry>
+ <entry>核心初始化時,會詢問要掛載為根檔案系統的裝置。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><option>-C</option></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Boot the root file system from a
- <acronym>CDROM</acronym>.</entry>
+ <entry>由 <acronym>CDROM</acronym> 做為根檔案系統開機。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><option>-s</option></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Boot into single-user mode.</entry>
+ <entry>開機進入單使用者模式。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><option>-v</option></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Be more verbose during kernel startup.</entry>
+ <entry>核心啟動時提供更多詳細資訊。</entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</table>
- <para xml:lang="en">Once the kernel has finished booting, it passes control to
- the user process <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, which is located at
- <filename>/sbin/init</filename>, or the program path specified
- in the <envar>init_path</envar> variable in
- <command>loader</command>. This is the last stage of the boot
- process.</para>
+ <para>一旦核心完成開機程序後,便會傳送控制權給使用者程序 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,該程序位於 <filename>/sbin/init</filename> 或在 <command>loader</command> 中的 <envar>init_path</envar> 變數所指的程式路徑。這是開機程序的最後一個階段。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The boot sequence makes sure that the file systems
- available on the system are consistent. If a
- <acronym>UFS</acronym> file system is not, and
- <command>fsck</command> cannot fix the inconsistencies,
- <application>init</application> drops the system into
- single-user mode so that the system administrator can resolve
- the problem directly. Otherwise, the system boots into
- multi-user mode.</para>
+ <para>開機程序會確保系統上的檔案系統的一致性 (Consistency),若 <acronym>UFS</acronym> 檔案系統不一致且 <command>fsck</command> 無法修時,<application>init</application> 會讓系統進入單使用者模式,以讓系統管理者能夠直接解決問題,否則系統會開機進入多使用者模式。</para>
<sect3 xml:id="boot-singleuser">
<title>單使用者模式</title>
@@ -17286,42 +17078,17 @@ boot:</screen>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>single-user mode</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>console</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">A user can specify this mode by booting with
- <option>-s</option> or by setting the
- <envar>boot_single</envar> variable in
- <application>loader</application>. It can also be reached
- by running <command>shutdown now</command> from multi-user
- mode. Single-user mode begins with this message:</para>
+ <para>使用者可以在開機時指定 <option>-s</option> 或在 <application>loader</application> 設定 <envar>boot_single</envar> 變數進入這個模式。也可以透過在多使用者模式執行 <command>shutdown now</command> 進入此模式。進入單使用者模式時會出現此訊息:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">Enter full pathname of shell or RETURN for /bin/sh:</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">If the user presses <keycap>Enter</keycap>, the system
- will enter the default Bourne shell. To specify a different
- shell, input the full path to the shell.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Single-user mode is usually used to repair a system that
- will not boot due to an inconsistent file system or an error
- in a boot configuration file. It can also be used to reset
- the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> password
- when it is unknown. These actions are possible as the
- single-user mode prompt gives full, local access to the
- system and its configuration files. There is no networking
- in this mode.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">While single-user mode is useful for repairing a system,
- it poses a security risk unless the system is in a
- physically secure location. By default, any user who can
- gain physical access to a system will have full control of
- that system after booting into single-user mode.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">If the system <literal>console</literal> is changed to
- <literal>insecure</literal> in
- <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>, the system will first prompt
- for the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
- password before initiating single-user mode. This adds a
- measure of security while removing the ability to reset the
- <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> password when
- it is unknown.</para>
+ <para>若使用者按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>,系統便會進入預設的 Bourne shell。要指定使用其他的 Shell 則輸入該 Shell 的完整路徑。</para>
+
+ <para>單使用者模式通常用來修復因檔案系統不一致或開機設定檔發生錯誤造成的無法開機,也可以用來重設遺忘的 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 的密碼,因為在單使用者模式會給予對本地系統及設定檔完整的存取權。在這個模式下沒有網路功能。</para>
+
+ <para>雖然單使用者模式對修復系統很有幫助,但若系統放在不安全的場所便會有安全上的風險。預設,開機進入單使用者模式後,任何能夠存取實體主機的使用者便擁有系統的完整控制權。</para>
+
+ <para>若在 <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> 系統 <literal>console</literal> 更改為 <literal>insecure</literal>,系統便會在初始化單使用者模式前先詢問 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 的密碼。這可增加一定程度的安全性,但便無法在忘記 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 密碼時重設密碼。</para>
<example xml:id="boot-insecure-console">
<title>在 <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> 設定不安全的 Console</title>
@@ -17333,10 +17100,7 @@ boot:</screen>
console none unknown off <replaceable>insecure</replaceable></programlisting>
</example>
- <para xml:lang="en">An <literal>insecure</literal> console means that
- physical security to the console is considered to be
- insecure, so only someone who knows the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> password may use
- single-user mode.</para>
+ <para>不安全 (<literal>insecure</literal>) console 代表對 Console 的實體安全性評估為不安全 (insecure),所以只有知道 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 密碼的人可以使用單使用者模式。</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 xml:id="boot-multiuser">
@@ -17344,27 +17108,13 @@ console none unknown off <replaceable>insecure</repla
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>multi-user mode</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">If <application>init</application> finds the file
- systems to be in order, or once the user has finished their
- commands in single-user mode and has typed
- <command>exit</command> to leave single-user mode, the
- system enters multi-user mode, in which it starts the
- resource configuration of the system.</para>
+ <para>若 <application>init</application> 正常找到檔案系統或在單使用者模式的使用者完成了操作並輸入 <command>exit</command> 離開單使用者模式,系統便會進入多使用者模式,在這個模式便會開始系統的資源設置。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>rc files</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The resource configuration system reads in configuration
- defaults from <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> and
- system-specific details from
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>. It then proceeds to
- mount the system file systems listed in
- <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>. It starts up networking
- services, miscellaneous system daemons, then the startup
- scripts of locally installed packages.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To learn more about the resource configuration system,
- refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and examine the scripts located in
- <filename>/etc/rc.d</filename>.</para>
+ <para>資源設置系統 (Resource configuration system) 會從 <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> 讀取設定預設值以及從 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 讀取系統特定的設定,接著會繼續掛載系統列於 <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> 的檔案系統,也會啟動網路服務、其他的系統 Daemon,然後執行本地已安裝套件的啟動 Script。</para>
+
+ <para>要了解更多有關資源設置系統,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 以及查看位於 <filename>/etc/rc.d</filename> 的 Script。</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -17390,120 +17140,60 @@ console none unknown off <replaceable>insecure</repla
</authorgroup>
</info>
- <para xml:lang="en">Typically when a FreeBSD system boots, it displays its progress
- as a series of messages at the console. A boot splash screen
- creates an alternate boot screen that hides all of the boot
- probe and service startup messages. A few boot loader messages,
- including the boot options menu and a timed wait countdown
- prompt, are displayed at boot time, even when the splash screen
- is enabled. The display of the splash screen can be turned off
- by hitting any key on the keyboard during the boot
- process.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">There are two basic environments available in FreeBSD. The
- first is the default legacy virtual console command line
- environment. After the system finishes booting, a console login
- prompt is presented. The second environment is a configured
- graphical environment. Refer to <xref linkend="x11"/> for more
- information on how to install and configure a graphical display
- manager and a graphical login manager.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Once the system has booted, the splash screen defaults to
- being a screen saver. After a time period of non-use, the
- splash screen will display and will cycle through steps of
- changing intensity of the image, from bright to very dark and
- over again. The configuration of the splash screen saver can be
- overridden by adding a <literal>saver=</literal> line to
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>. Several built-in screen
- savers are available and described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>splash</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The
- <literal>saver=</literal> option only applies to virtual
- consoles and has no effect on graphical display managers.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Sample splash screen files can be downloaded from the
- gallery at <link xlink:href="http://artwork.freebsdgr.org/node/3/">http://artwork.freebsdgr.org</link>.
- By installing the <package>sysutils/bsd-splash-changer</package>
- package or port, a random splash image from a collection will
- display at boot.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The splash screen function supports 256-colors in the
- bitmap (<filename>.bmp</filename>), ZSoft
- <acronym>PCX</acronym> (<filename>.pcx</filename>), or
- TheDraw (<filename>.bin</filename>) formats. The
- <filename>.bmp</filename>, <filename>.pcx</filename>, or
- <filename>.bin</filename> image has to be placed on the root
- partition, for example in <filename>/boot</filename>. The
- splash image files must have a resolution of 320 by 200 pixels
- or less in order to work on standard <acronym>VGA</acronym>
- adapters. For the default boot display resolution of 256-colors
- and 320 by 200 pixels or less, add the following lines to
- <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>. Replace
- <replaceable>splash.bmp</replaceable> with the name of the
- bitmap file to use:</para>
+ <para>正常 FreeBSD 系統開機會在 Console 顯示以一系列訊息來表示開機進度。開機啟動畫面 (Boot splash screen) 是另一種可以把所有開機偵測與服務啟動訊息隱藏的開機畫面,但即使開啟了啟動畫面,仍有有少數的開機載入程式的訊息,如:開機選項選單以及倒數時間的提示,仍會在開機時顯示。在開機程序時可以按下鍵盤上的按鍵來關閉顯示中的啟動畫面。</para>
+
+ <para>FreeBSD 有兩種基本的環境可以使用,一種是預設的傳統虛擬 Console 指令列環境,在系統完成開機之後,便會顯示 Console 登入提示。另一種環境則是設定好的圖型化環境,請參考 <xref linkend="x11"/> 以取得更多有關如何安裝與設定圖型化顯示管理程式與圖型化登入管理程式的資訊。</para>
+
+ <para>系統開機之後,啟動畫面預設會作為螢幕保護程式,一段時間未使用便會顯示啟動畫面,並且會循環更改影像的亮度,從明亮到非常暗,然後再繼續循環。啟動螢幕保護程式的設定可在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 增加一行 <literal>saver=</literal> 來更改。有許多內建的螢幕保護程式可用,在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>splash</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 中有說明。<literal>saver=</literal> 的選項只會套用至虛擬 Console,對圖型化顯示管理程式並不會有任何影響。</para>
+
+ <para>範例啟動畫面檔可到位於 <link xlink:href="http://artwork.freebsdgr.org/node/3/">http://artwork.freebsdgr.org</link> 的圖庫下載。安裝 <package>sysutils/bsd-splash-changer</package> 套件或 Port,可以在開機時隨機顯示圖片集中的啟動畫面。</para>
+
+ <para>啟動畫面功能支援 256 色的點陣圖 (<filename>.bmp</filename>)、ZSoft <acronym>PCX</acronym> (<filename>.pcx</filename>) 或 TheDraw (<filename>.bin</filename>) 格式。<filename>.bmp</filename>, <filename>.pcx</filename> 或 <filename>.bin</filename> 圖片必須放在根分割區,例如於 <filename>/boot</filename>。啟動圖片檔必須使用 320x200 像素或更低的解析度以能夠在標準 <acronym>VGA</acronym> 介面卡上運作,要在預設 256 色、 320x200 像素或更低的解析度設定開機啟動圖片,可加入下行到 <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>,並替換 <replaceable>splash.bmp</replaceable> 為實際要使用的點陣圖檔:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">splash_bmp_load="YES"
bitmap_load="YES"
bitmap_name="/boot/<replaceable>splash.bmp</replaceable>"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">To use a <acronym>PCX</acronym> file instead of a bitmap
- file:</para>
+ <para>要使用 <acronym>PCX</acronym> 檔則可替換點陣圖檔:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">splash_pcx_load="YES"
bitmap_load="YES"
bitmap_name="/boot/<replaceable>splash.pcx</replaceable>"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">To instead use ASCII art in the <link xlink:href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TheDraw">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TheDraw</link>
- format:</para>
+ <para>若要改使用 <link xlink:href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TheDraw">https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TheDraw</link> 格式的 ASCII 圖可:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">splash_txt="YES"
bitmap_load="YES"
bitmap_name="/boot/<replaceable>splash.bin</replaceable>"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">To use larger images that fill the whole display screen, up
- to the maximum resolution of 1024 by 768 pixels, the
- <acronym>VESA</acronym> module must also be loaded during system
- boot. If using a custom kernel, ensure that the custom kernel
- configuration file includes the <literal>VESA</literal> kernel
- configuration option. To load the <acronym>VESA</acronym>
- module for the splash screen, add this line to
- <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> before the three lines
- mentioned in the above examples:</para>
+ <para>要使用較大的圖片來填滿整個顯示畫面支援的解析度最大可至 1024x768 像素,<acronym>VESA</acronym> 模組也必須在系統開機時載入。若使用自訂的核心,請確定自訂核心設定檔中有含有 <literal>VESA</literal> 核心設定選項。要載入 <acronym>VESA</acronym> 模組來顯示啟動畫面可在 <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> 上述例子中提到的三行之前加入下行:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">vesa_load="YES"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">Other interesting <filename>loader.conf</filename> options
- include:</para>
+ <para>其他有用的 <filename>loader.conf</filename> 選項還有:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry><term xml:lang="en"><literal>beastie_disable="YES"</literal></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">This will stop the boot options menu from being
- displayed, but the timed wait count down prompt will still
- be present. Even with the display of the boot options
- menu disabled, entering an option selection at the timed
- wait count down prompt will enact the corresponding boot
- option.</para>
+ <para>這個會關閉開機選項選單的顯示,但倒數計時提示仍會在。即使關閉了開機選項選單,在倒數計時提示時輸入選擇的選項還是會啟動對應的開機選項。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry><term xml:lang="en"><literal>loader_logo="beastie"</literal></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">This will replace the default words
- <quote>FreeBSD</quote>, which are displayed to the right of
- the boot options menu, with the colored beastie
- logo.</para>
+ <para>這個選項會替換預設與上色的小惡魔圖示一起顯示於開機選項選單右側的 <quote>FreeBSD</quote> 文字,</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
- <para xml:lang="en">For more information, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>splash</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vga</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para>要取得更多資訊,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>splash</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 以及 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vga</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
</sect1>
<sect1 xml:id="device-hints">
<info>
- <title xml:lang="en">Device Hints</title>
+ <title>裝置提示</title>
<authorgroup>
<author xml:lang="en">
@@ -17520,81 +17210,53 @@ bitmap_name="/boot/<replaceable>splash.bin</replaceable>"</programlisting>
<primary>device.hints</primary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">During initial system startup, the boot <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> reads
- <citerefentry vendor="current"><refentrytitle>device.hints</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. This file stores kernel boot information
- known as variables, sometimes referred to as
- <quote>device hints</quote>. These <quote>device hints</quote>
- are used by device drivers for device configuration.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Device hints may also be specified at the Stage 3 boot
- loader prompt, as demonstrated in <xref linkend="boot-loader"/>.
- Variables can be added using <command>set</command>, removed
- with <command>unset</command>, and viewed
- <command>show</command>. Variables set in
- <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename> can also be overridden.
- Device hints entered at the boot loader are not permanent and
- will not be applied on the next reboot.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Once the system is booted, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kenv</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> can be used to dump
- all of the variables.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The syntax for <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename>
- is one variable per line, using the hash
- <quote>#</quote> as comment markers. Lines are constructed as
- follows:</para>
+ <para>在一開始系統啟動時,開機 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 會讀取 <citerefentry vendor="current"><refentrytitle>device.hints</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,這個檔中儲存了核心開機資訊,即變數,有時我們又會稱其為 <quote>裝置提示 (Device hints)</quote>。這些 <quote>裝置提示 (Device hints)</quote> 會傳送給裝置驅動程式做裝置的設置使用。</para>
+
+ <para>裝置提示也可在階段 3 開機載入程式提示時指定,如 <xref linkend="boot-loader"/> 中的示範,其變數也可以使用 <command>set</command> 增加、使用 <command>unset</command> 移除、使用 <command>show</command> 檢視,也可覆蓋設定在 <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename> 的變數,但在開機載入程式輸入的裝置提示並不是永久有效的,在下一次重新開機久後便會失效。</para>
+
+ <para>一旦系統開機後,便可使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kenv</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來列出所有的變數。</para>
+
+ <para><filename>/boot/device.hints</filename> 的語法為一個變數一行,使用井字號 <quote>#</quote> 做為註解符號,每一行的結構如下:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><userinput>hint.driver.unit.keyword="<replaceable>value</replaceable>"</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The syntax for the Stage 3 boot loader is:</para>
+ <para>在階段 3 開機載入程式的語法則為:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><userinput>set hint.driver.unit.keyword=<replaceable>value</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">where <literal>driver</literal> is the device driver name,
- <literal>unit</literal> is the device driver unit number, and
- <literal>keyword</literal> is the hint keyword. The keyword may
- consist of the following options:</para>
+ <para>其中 <literal>driver</literal> 為裝置驅動程式名稱、<literal>unit</literal> 為裝置驅動程式單位編號及 <literal>keyword</literal> 為提示關鍵字,關鍵字由以下選項所組成:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>at</literal>: specifies the bus which the
- device is attached to.</para>
+ <para><literal>at</literal>: 指定裝置所連結的匯流排 (Bus)。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>port</literal>: specifies the start address of
- the <acronym>I/O</acronym> to be used.</para>
+ <para><literal>port</literal>: 指定要使用的 <acronym>I/O</acronym> 開始位置。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>irq</literal>: specifies the interrupt request
- number to be used.</para>
+ <para><literal>irq</literal>: 指定要使用的中斷請求編號。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>drq</literal>: specifies the DMA channel
- number.</para>
+ <para><literal>drq</literal>: 指定 DMA 頻道編號。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>maddr</literal>: specifies the physical memory
- address occupied by the device.</para>
+ <para><literal>maddr</literal>: 指定裝置所使用的實體記憶體位置。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>flags</literal>: sets various flag bits for the
- device.</para>
+ <para><literal>flags</literal>: 設定提供給裝置的各種旗標位元。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><literal>disabled</literal>: if set to
- <literal>1</literal> the device is disabled.</para>
+ <para><literal>disabled</literal>: 若設為 <literal>1</literal> 則可關閉該裝置。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
- <para xml:lang="en">Since device drivers may accept or require more hints not
- listed here, viewing a driver's manual page is recommended.
- For more information, refer to <citerefentry vendor="current"><refentrytitle>device.hints</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kenv</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para>由於裝置驅動程式可能會接受或請求更多未列於此處的提示,建議先閱讀驅動程式的操作手冊。要取得更多資訊請參考 <citerefentry vendor="current"><refentrytitle>device.hints</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kenv</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 以及 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
</sect1>
<sect1 xml:id="boot-shutdown">
@@ -17604,31 +17266,14 @@ bitmap_name="/boot/<replaceable>splash.bin</replaceable>"</programlisting>
<primary><citerefentry><refentrytitle>shutdown</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry></primary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">Upon controlled shutdown using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>shutdown</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will attempt to run the script
- <filename>/etc/rc.shutdown</filename>, and then proceed to send
- all processes the <literal>TERM</literal> signal, and
- subsequently the <literal>KILL</literal> signal to any that do
- not terminate in a timely manner.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To power down a FreeBSD machine on architectures and systems
- that support power management, use
+ <para>在使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>shutdown</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 控制關閉時,<citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 會嘗試執行 <filename>/etc/rc.shutdown</filename> Script 接著傳送 <literal>TERM</literal> 信號給所有的程序,然後傳送 <literal>KILL</literal> 信號給未在時間內中止的程序。</para>
- <command>shutdown -p now</command> to turn the power off
- immediately. To reboot a FreeBSD system, use
- <command>shutdown -r now</command>. One must be
- <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> or a member of
- <systemitem class="groupname">operator</systemitem> in order to
- run <citerefentry><refentrytitle>shutdown</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. One can also use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>halt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Refer to their manual pages and to
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>shutdown</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information.</para>
+ <para>要在支援電源管理的架構與系統關閉 FreeBSD 主機電源,可使用 <command>shutdown -p now</command> 來立即關閉電源,要重新啟動 FreeBSD 系統可使用 <command>shutdown -r now</command>。操作人必須為 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 或為 <systemitem class="groupname">operator</systemitem> 的成員才可執行 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>shutdown</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,擁有這些身份的人也可使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>halt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 與 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reboot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,參考這些指令與 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>shutdown</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 的操作手冊來取得更多資訊。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Modify group membership by referring to
- <xref linkend="users-synopsis"/>.</para>
+ <para>要修改群組成員可參考 <xref linkend="users-synopsis"/>。</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Power management requires <citerefentry><refentrytitle>acpi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> to be loaded as
- a module or statically compiled into a custom kernel.</para>
+ <para>電源管理需要以載入 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>acpi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 模組或將其靜態編譯至自訂核心中。</para>
</note>
</sect1>
</chapter>
@@ -17730,121 +17375,44 @@ bitmap_name="/boot/<replaceable>splash.bin</replaceable>"</programlisting>
<sect1 xml:id="security-intro">
<title>簡介</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Security is everyone's responsibility. A weak entry point
- in any system could allow intruders to gain access to critical
- information and cause havoc on an entire network. One of the
- core principles of information security is the
- <acronym>CIA</acronym> triad, which stands for the
- Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability of information
- systems.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>CIA</acronym> triad is a bedrock concept of
- computer security as customers and users expect their data to be
- protected. For example, a customer expects that their credit
- card information is securely stored (confidentiality), that
- their orders are not changed behind the scenes (integrity), and
- that they have access to their order information at all times
- (availablility).</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To provide <acronym>CIA</acronym>, security professionals
- apply a defense in depth strategy. The idea of defense in depth
- is to add several layers of security to prevent one single layer
- failing and the entire security system collapsing. For example,
- a system administrator cannot simply turn on a firewall and
- consider the network or system secure. One must also audit
- accounts, check the integrity of binaries, and ensure malicious
- tools are not installed. To implement an effective security
- strategy, one must understand threats and how to defend against
- them.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">What is a threat as it pertains to computer security?
- Threats are not limited to remote attackers who attempt to
- access a system without permission from a remote location.
- Threats also include employees, malicious software, unauthorized
- network devices, natural disasters, security vulnerabilities,
- and even competing corporations.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Systems and networks can be accessed without permission,
- sometimes by accident, or by remote attackers, and in some
- cases, via corporate espionage or former employees. As a user,
- it is important to prepare for and admit when a mistake has led
- to a security breach and report possible issues to the security
- team. As an administrator, it is important to know of the
- threats and be prepared to mitigate them.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When applying security to systems, it is recommended to
- start by securing the basic accounts and system configuration,
- and then to secure the network layer so that it adheres to the
- system policy and the organization's security procedures. Many
- organizations already have a security policy that covers the
- configuration of technology devices. The policy should include
- the security configuration of workstations, desktops, mobile
- devices, phones, production servers, and development servers.
- In many cases, standard operating procedures
- (<acronym>SOP</acronym>s) already exist. When in doubt, ask the
- security team.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The rest of this introduction describes how some of these
- basic security configurations are performed on a FreeBSD system.
- The rest of this chapter describes some specific tools which can
- be used when implementing a security policy on a FreeBSD
- system.</para>
+ <para>保安是每個人的責任,任何系統中的弱點都可讓入侵者取得對關鍵資訊的存取權並導致整個網路的浩劫。資訊安全的其中一個核心原則便是 <acronym>CIA</acronym> 三字訣,代表著資訊系統的機密性 (Confidentiality)、完整性 (Integrity) 以及可用性 (Availability)。</para>
+
+ <para><acronym>CIA</acronym> 三字訣是電腦安全的基石,就如同客戶與使用者期望他們的資料得到保護一樣重要。例如,一個客戶會期望他們的信用卡資訊被安全的保存 (機密性)、他們的訂單不會在私底下被竄改 (完整性) 以及他們隨時可以存取他們的訂單資訊 (可用性)。</para>
+
+ <para>要提供 <acronym>CIA</acronym>,安全專家會應用防禦深度的策略。防禦深度的概念是增加數個保全階層來避免單一階層失效便導致整個安全系統瓦解。例如,系統管理者不能直接打開防火牆與評估網路或系統的安全性,還要同時稽查帳號、檢查 Binary 的完整性與確保未被安裝惡意工具。要執行有效的保安策略,必須了解威脅以及如何抵禦威脅。</para>
+
+ <para>什麼威脅影響到電腦安全性? 威脅並不僅限於在遠端嘗試未經授權存取系統的遠端攻擊者,威脅也包含員工、惡意軟體、未經許可的網路裝置、天然災害、安全性漏洞甚至是公司競爭對手。</para>
+
+ <para>系統與網路可以被未經授權存取,有時是因為意外,或是因遠端攻擊者,或在某些案例中,是因商業間諜或者前員工。做為使用者,重要的是做好防範準備以及當有失誤造成安全漏洞能夠承認並回報可能的問題給安全團隊。做為管理者,重要的是了解威脅並準備在發生時能夠減緩威脅。</para>
+
+ <para>當要應用保安到系統上時,建議由基本帳號以及系統設定開始保全,接著確保網路層,使其遵守系統政策以及組織的安全程序。許多組織已經有涵蓋科技裝置設置的安全性政策,該政策應包含工作站、桌上型電腦、行動裝置、手機、上線伺服器、開發伺服器的安全設置。在大多數案例中,也都已經有標準操作程序 (<acronym>SOP</acronym>),當有疑慮時,請向安全團隊諮詢。</para>
+
+ <para>簡介接下來的部份將說明如何在 FreeBSD 系統上執行這些基礎的安全設置。本章接下來的部份將介紹在 FreeBSD 系統執行安全性政策時會用到的特定工具。</para>
<sect2 xml:id="security-accounts">
<title>防止登入</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">In securing a system, a good starting point is an audit of
- accounts. Ensure that <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> has a strong password and
- that this password is not shared. Disable any accounts that
- do not need login access.</para>
+ <para>要確保一個系統的安全最好的起點便是做好帳號的稽查,確保 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 使用了一個強而有力的密碼,並這個密碼未在其他地方使用過,然後關閉任何無須登入存取權的帳號。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">To deny login access to accounts, two methods exist. The
- first is to lock the account. This example locks the
- <systemitem class="username">toor</systemitem> account:</para>
+ <para>要關閉帳號的存取權登入有兩種方法,第一種是鎖定帳號,以下範例會鎖定 <systemitem class="username">toor</systemitem> 帳號:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw lock <replaceable>toor</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The second method is to prevent login access by changing
- the shell to <filename>/sbin/nologin</filename>. Only the
- superuser can change the shell for other users:</para>
+ <para>第二個關閉登入存取權的方式是更改 Shell 為 <filename>/sbin/nologin</filename>,只有超級使用者可以更改其他使用者的 Shell:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chsh -s /usr/sbin/nologin <replaceable>toor</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <filename>/usr/sbin/nologin</filename> shell prevents
- the system from assigning a shell to the user when they
- attempt to login.</para>
+ <para><filename>/usr/sbin/nologin</filename> shell 可以避免系統分配 Shell 給嘗試登入的使用者。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="security-accountmgmt">
<title>帳號升級授權</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">In some cases, system administration needs to be shared
- with other users. FreeBSD has two methods to handle this. The
- first one, which is not recommended, is a shared root password
- used by members of the <systemitem class="groupname">wheel</systemitem> group. With this
- method, a user types <command>su</command> and enters the
- password for <systemitem class="groupname">wheel</systemitem>
- whenever superuser access is needed. The user should then
- type <command>exit</command> to leave privileged access after
- finishing the commands that required administrative access.
- To add a user to this group, edit
- <filename>/etc/group</filename> and add the user to the end of
- the <literal>wheel</literal> entry. The user must be
- separated by a comma character with no space.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The second, and recommended, method to permit privilege
- escalation is to install the <package>security/sudo</package>
- package or port. This software provides additional auditing,
- more fine-grained user control, and can be configured to lock
- users into running only the specified privileged
- commands.</para>
+ <para>在有一些案例,需要與其他使用者共用系統管理權限,FreeBSD 有兩種方式可以處理這種情況。第一種,也是較不建議的方式,是與 <systemitem class="groupname">wheel</systemitem> 群組的成員共用 root 的密碼,這種方式使用者可以在需要超級使用者的存取權時輸入 <command>su</command> 然後輸入 <systemitem class="groupname">wheel</systemitem> 的密碼,在完成需要管理存取權的指令之後,使用應輸入 <command>exit</command> 離開。要加入使用者到這個群組,可編輯 <filename>/etc/group</filename> 然後加入該使用者到 <literal>wheel</literal> 項目的最後,使用者必須以逗號字元分隔並不可有空白。</para>
+
+ <para>第二種方式,也是較建議的方式,安裝 <package>security/sudo</package> 套件或 Port 來提升權限。這個軟體提供了額外的稽查、更細微的使用者控制,然後可以設定鎖定使用者只能執行特定需權限的指令。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">After installation, use <command>visudo</command> to edit
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/sudoers</filename>. This example
- creates a new <systemitem class="groupname">webadmin</systemitem> group, adds the
- <systemitem class="username">trhodes</systemitem> account to
- that group, and configures that group access to restart
- <package>apache24</package>:</para>
+ <para>在安裝之後,使用 <command>visudo</command> 來編輯 <filename>/usr/local/etc/sudoers</filename>。這個範例會建立新 <systemitem class="groupname">webadmin</systemitem> 群組,並加入 <systemitem class="username">trhodes</systemitem> 帳號到該群組,然後設定該群組可重新啟動 <package>apache24</package> 的存取權:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupadd webadmin -M trhodes -g 6000</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>visudo</userinput>
@@ -17854,122 +17422,46 @@ bitmap_name="/boot/<replaceable>splash.bin</replaceable>"</programlisting>
<sect2 xml:id="security-passwords">
<title>密碼編碼方式</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Passwords are a necessary evil of technology. When they
- must be used, they should be complex and a powerful hash
- mechanism should be used to encrypt the version that is stored
- in the password database. FreeBSD supports the
- <acronym>DES</acronym>, <acronym>MD5</acronym>,
- <acronym>SHA256</acronym>, <acronym>SHA512</acronym>, and
- Blowfish hash algorithms in its <function>crypt()</function>
- library. The default of <acronym>SHA512</acronym> should not
- be changed to a less secure hashing algorithm, but can be
- changed to the more secure Blowfish algorithm.</para>
+ <para>密碼是資訊科技的必要之惡,當必須使用密碼時,應要有複雜且強大的雜湊機制來加密儲存在密碼資料庫中的密碼。FreeBSD 支援 <acronym>DES</acronym>, <acronym>MD5</acronym>, <acronym>SHA256</acronym>, <acronym>SHA512</acronym> 以及 Blowfish 雜湊演算法於其 <function>crypt()</function> 程式庫。預設使用 <acronym>SHA512</acronym>,不建議改成更不安全的雜湊演算法,但可改成更安全的 Blowfish 演算法。</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Blowfish is not part of <acronym>AES</acronym> and is
- not considered compliant with any Federal Information
- Processing Standards (<acronym>FIPS</acronym>). Its use may
- not be permitted in some environments.</para>
+ <para>Blowfish 不是 <acronym>AES</acronym> 的一部份且不符合任何聯邦資訊處理標準 (Federal Information Processing Standards, <acronym>FIPS</acronym>),在某些環境可能不會允許使用這種加密方式。</para>
</note>
- <para xml:lang="en">To determine which hash algorithm is used to encrypt a
- user's password, the superuser can view the hash for the user
- in the FreeBSD password database. Each hash starts with a symbol
- which indicates the type of hash mechanism used to encrypt the
- password. If <acronym>DES</acronym> is used, there is no
- beginning symbol. For <acronym>MD5</acronym>, the symbol is
- <literal>$</literal>. For <acronym>SHA256</acronym> and
- <acronym>SHA512</acronym>, the symbol is
- <literal>$6$</literal>. For Blowfish, the symbol is
- <literal>$2a$</literal>. In this example, the password for
- <systemitem class="username">dru</systemitem> is hashed using
- the default <acronym>SHA512</acronym> algorithm as the hash
- starts with <literal>$6$</literal>. Note that the encrypted
- hash, not the password itself, is stored in the password
- database:</para>
+ <para>要知道目前用何種雜湊演算法來加密某位使用者密碼,超級使用者可以檢視在 FreeBSD 密碼資料庫中該使用者的雜湊,每個雜湊的一開始便會以符號標示其用來加密密碼所使用的雜湊機制。若使用 <acronym>DES</acronym> 則開始不會有任何符號,而 <acronym>MD5</acronym> 的符號則是 <literal>$</literal>,<acronym>SHA256</acronym> 及 <acronym>SHA512</acronym> 的符號是 <literal>$6$</literal>,Blowfish 的符號是 <literal>$2a$</literal>。在以下例子中 <systemitem class="username">dru</systemitem> 的密碼使以預設的 <acronym>SHA512</acronym> 演算法加密,因為其雜湊的開始為 <literal>$6$</literal>。注意,該加密過的雜湊,不是原來的密碼,會儲存於密碼資料庫中:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>grep dru /etc/master.passwd</userinput>
dru:$6$pzIjSvCAn.PBYQBA$PXpSeWPx3g5kscj3IMiM7tUEUSPmGexxta.8Lt9TGSi2lNQqYGKszsBPuGME0:1001:1001::0:0:dru:/usr/home/dru:/bin/csh</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The hash mechanism is set in the user's login class. For
- this example, the user is in the <literal>default</literal>
- login class and the hash algorithm is set with this line in
- <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para>雜湊機制是設定在該使用者的登入類別 (Login class),以此為例,該使用者屬於 <literal>default</literal> 登入類別,且雜湊演算法是以下行設定在 <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en"> :passwd_format=sha512:\</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">To change the algorithm to Blowfish, modify that line to
- look like this:</para>
+ <para>要更改演算法為 Blowfish,可修改該行如下:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en"> :passwd_format=blf:\</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">Then run <command>cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf</command> as
- described in <xref linkend="users-limiting"/>. Note that this
- change will not affect any existing password hashes. This
- means that all passwords should be re-hashed by asking users
- to run <command>passwd</command> in order to change their
- password.</para>
+ <para>然後依 <xref linkend="users-limiting"/> 中所描述的方式執行 <command>cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf</command>。注意,這個動作不會影響任何已存在的密碼雜湊,但這代表必須要求所有使用者執行 <command>passwd</command> 來更改其密碼才有辦法重新加密所有密碼。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">For remote logins, two-factor authentication should be
- used. An example of two-factor authentication is
- <quote>something you have</quote>, such as a key, and
- <quote>something you know</quote>, such as the passphrase for
- that key. Since <application>OpenSSH</application> is part of
- the FreeBSD base system, all network logins should be over an
- encrypted connection and use key-based authentication instead
- of passwords. For more information, refer to <xref linkend="openssh"/>. Kerberos users may need to make
- additional changes to implement
- <application>OpenSSH</application> in their network. These
- changes are described in <xref linkend="kerberos5"/>.</para>
+ <para>針對遠端登入,應使用雙重認證 (Two-factor authentication),舉例來說您同時要 <quote>有某樣東西</quote>,如:鑰匙,以及 <quote>知道某個資訊</quote>,如:密碼。自從 <application>OpenSSH</application> 是 FreeBSD 基礎系統的一部份,所有來算網路的登入應透過加密過的連線且使用以金鑰為基礎的認証來替代密碼。要了解更多資訊請參考 <xref linkend="openssh"/>。Kerberos 的使用者可能會需要多做一些額外的更改才能在其網路上使用 <application>OpenSSH</application>,這些更改在 <xref linkend="kerberos5"/> 中會有說明。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="security-pwpolicy">
<title>強制密碼政策</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Enforcing a strong password policy for local accounts is a
- fundamental aspect of system security. In FreeBSD, password
- length, password strength, and password complexity can be
- implemented using built-in Pluggable Authentication Modules
- (<acronym>PAM</acronym>).</para>
+ <para>強制在本地帳號使用高強度密碼的政策是系統安全的基礎之一。在 FreeBSD 密碼長度、密碼強度以及密碼複雜性可使用內建的可插拔認証模組 (Pluggable Authentication Modules, <acronym>PAM</acronym>) 來執行。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">This section demonstrates how to configure the minimum and
- maximum password length and the enforcement of mixed
- characters using the <filename>pam_passwdqc.so</filename>
- module. This module is enforced when a user changes their
- password.</para>
+ <para>本節將示範如何設定密碼長度下限與上限以及使用 <filename>pam_passwdqc.so</filename> 來強制使用混合字元的密碼,此模組可在使用者更改其密碼時強制要求。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">To configure this module, become the superuser and
- uncomment the line containing
- <literal>pam_passwdqc.so</literal> in
- <filename>/etc/pam.d/passwd</filename>. Then, edit that line
- to match the password policy:</para>
+ <para>要設定此模組,需要先成為超級使用者,然後取消註解在 <filename>/etc/pam.d/passwd</filename> 中含有 <literal>pam_passwdqc.so</literal> 的行。然後編輯該行來配合密碼政策:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">password requisite pam_passwdqc.so <replaceable>min=disabled,disabled,disabled,12,10 similar=deny retry=3</replaceable> enforce=users</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">This example sets several requirements for new passwords.
- The <literal>min</literal> setting controls the minimum
- password length. It has five values because this module
- defines five different types of passwords based on their
- complexity. Complexity is defined by the type of characters
- that must exist in a password, such as letters, numbers,
- symbols, and case. The types of passwords are described in
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pam_passwdqc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. In this example, the first three types
- of passwords are disabled, meaning that passwords that meet
- those complexity requirements will not be accepted, regardless
- of their length. The <literal>12</literal> sets a minimum
- password policy of at least twelve characters, if the password
- also contains characters with three types of complexity. The
- <literal>10</literal> sets the password policy to also allow
- passwords of at least ten characters, if the password contains
- characters with four types of complexity.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <literal>similar</literal> setting denies passwords
- that are similar to the user's previous password. The
- <literal>retry</literal> setting provides a user with three
- opportunities to enter a new password.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Once this file is saved, a user changing their password
- will see a message similar to the following:</para>
+ <para>這個例子會設定新密碼所需符合的需求。<literal>min</literal> 設定可以控制密碼長度下限,它有五個值因為這個模組根據密碼的複雜度定義了五種類型。而複雜度是由必須在密碼中存在的字元類型來定義,例如:文字、數字、符號以及大小寫,這些密碼類型在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pam_passwdqc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 有詳細的說明。在這個例子,密碼類型的前三項為關閉的,代表不會接受只滿足這些複雜度的密碼,不論長度為何。<literal>12</literal> 設定密碼政策可接受滿足三種字元類型複雜度且至少 12 個字元的密碼,<literal>10</literal> 設定密碼政策接受滿足四種字元類型複雜度且至少 10 個字元的密碼。</para>
+
+ <para><literal>similar</literal> 設定則會拒絕以使用者前一次類似的密碼。<literal>retry</literal> 設定會提供使用者三次輸入新密碼的機會。</para>
+
+ <para>一這個檔案儲存之後,更改密碼的使用者將會看到如下的訊息:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>passwd</userinput>
Changing local password for trhodes
@@ -17986,125 +17478,52 @@ Alternatively, if noone else can see your terminal now, you can
pick this as your password: "trait-useful&amp;knob".
Enter new password:</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">If a password that does not match the policy is entered,
- it will be rejected with a warning and the user will have an
- opportunity to try again, up to the configured number of
- retries.</para>
+ <para>若輸入了一個不符何密碼政策的密碼,則會被拒絕並顯示警告,然後使用者會有機會再重試,直到超過設定的允許重試次數。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Most password policies require passwords to expire after
- so many days. To set a password age time in FreeBSD, set
- <option>passwordtime</option> for the user's login class in
- <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename>. The
- <literal>default</literal> login class contains an
- example:</para>
+ <para>大多數密碼政策會讓密碼在多日過後過期。要在 FreeBSD 設定密碼年齡日期,可在 <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename> 中該使用者的登入類別設定 <option>passwordtime</option>。在 <literal>default</literal> 登入類別已有設定範例:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en"># :passwordtime=90d:\</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">So, to set an expiry of 90 days for this login class,
- remove the comment symbol (<literal>#</literal>), save the
- edit, and run <command>cap_mkdb
- /etc/login.conf</command>.</para>
+ <para>因此,要設定此登入類別的密碼在 90 天之後過期只需要移除註解符號 (<literal>#</literal>),然後儲存編輯結果並執行 <command>cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf</command>。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">To set the expiration on individual users, pass an
- expiration date or the number of days to expiry and a username
- to <command>pw</command>:</para>
+ <para>要在個別使用者設定期限,可將有效日期或到期的天數與使用者名稱傳給 <command>pw</command>:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw usermod -p <replaceable>30-apr-2015</replaceable> -n <replaceable>trhodes</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">As seen here, an expiration date is set in the form of
- day, month, and year. For more information, see
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para>如這個例子,有效日期的格式為天、月以及年。要取得更多資訊可參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="security-rkhunter">
- <title>偵測 Rootkits</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A <firstterm>rootkit</firstterm> is any unauthorized
- software that attempts to gain <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> access to a system. Once
- installed, this malicious software will normally open up
- another avenue of entry for an attacker. Realistically, once
- a system has been compromised by a rootkit and an
- investigation has been performed, the system should be
- reinstalled from scratch. There is tremendous risk that even
- the most prudent security or systems engineer will miss
- something an attacker left behind.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A rootkit does do one thing usefulfor administrators: once
- detected, it is a sign that a compromise happened at some
- point. But, these types of applications tend to be very well
- hidden. This section demonstrates a tool that can be used to
- detect rootkits, <package>security/rkhunter</package>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">After installation of this package or port, the system may
- be checked using the following command. It will produce a lot
- of information and will require some manual pressing of
- <keycap>ENTER</keycap>:</para>
+ <title>偵測 Root 工具 (Rootkit)</title>
+
+ <para><firstterm>rootkit</firstterm> 指的是嘗試未經授權取得系統 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 存取權的軟體。一旦安裝之後,這個惡意軟體將可以光明正大的開啟給另一個給攻擊者進入的大門。現實上,一但系統已被 rootkit 滲透且執行了搜索動作之後,該系統就應該從頭重新安裝,因為即使非常謹真的資安或系統工程式也可能會遺漏攻擊者留下的動西。</para>
+
+ <para>rootkit 所做過的事可提供管理者一個非常有用的資訊:一但偵測到,便代表某處已經被滲透,但這類的應用程式躲藏的非常好,本節將會示範一個可以用來偵測 rootkit 的工具,<package>security/rkhunter</package>。</para>
+
+ <para>安裝此套件或 Port 之後,系統便可使用以下指令檢查。該指令提供許多資訊且會需要手動按下 <keycap>ENTER</keycap> 確認:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>rkhunter -c</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">After the process completes, a status message will be
- printed to the screen. This message will include the amount
- of files checked, suspect files, possible rootkits, and more.
- During the check, some generic security warnings may
- be produced about hidden files, the
- <application>OpenSSH</application> protocol selection, and
- known vulnerable versions of installed software. These can be
- handled now or after a more detailed analysis has been
- performed.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Every administrator should know what is running on the
- systems they are responsible for. Third-party tools like
- <application>rkhunter</application> and
- <package>sysutils/lsof</package>, and native commands such
- as <command>netstat</command> and <command>ps</command>, can
- show a great deal of information on the system. Take notes on
- what is normal, ask questions when something seems out of
- place, and be paranoid. While preventing a compromise is
- ideal, detecting a compromise is a must.</para>
+ <para>該程序完成之後,目前狀態的訊息便會顯示在畫面上。這個訊息包含了已檢查過多少檔案、可疑的檔案、可能的 rootkit 以及其他更多資訊。在檢查的過程中,可能會產生一些有關隱藏檔案、<application>OpenSSH</application> 通訊協定選擇及已安裝軟體已知漏洞版本的通用的安全性警告、這些問題可以立即處理或在更詳細的分析之後再處理。</para>
+
+ <para>每位管理者應了解在系統上執行了那些程式以及這些程式的用途。第三方工具如 <application>rkhunter</application> 與 <package>sysutils/lsof</package> 以及原生指令如 <command>netstat</command> 與 <command>ps</command> 可以系統上大量的資訊,記錄下那一些是正常的,當有不適當的程式出現時提出疑問,然後找出答案。雖然理想要避免滲透,但也必須偵測是否已被滲透了。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="security-ids">
<title>Binary 檢驗</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Verification of system files and binaries is important
- because it provides the system administration and security
- teams information about system changes. A software
- application that monitors the system for changes is called an
- Intrusion Detection System (<acronym>IDS</acronym>).</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD provides native support for a basic
- <acronym>IDS</acronym> system. While the nightly security
- emails will notify an administrator of changes, the
- information is stored locally and there is a chance that a
- malicious user could modify this information in order to hide
- their changes to the system. As such, it is recommended to
- create a separate set of binary signatures and store them on a
- read-only, root-owned directory or, preferably, on a removable
- <acronym>USB</acronym> disk or remote
- <application>rsync</application> server.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The built-in <command>mtree</command> utility can be used
- to generate a specification of the contents of a directory. A
- seed, or a numeric constant, is used to generate the
- specification and is required to check that the specification
- has not changed. This makes it possible to determine if a
- file or binary has been modified. Since the seed value is
- unknown by an attacker, faking or checking the checksum values
- of files will be difficult to impossible. The following
- example generates a set of <acronym>SHA256</acronym> hashes,
- one for each system binary in <filename>/bin</filename>, and
- saves those values to a hidden file in <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>'s home directory,
- <filename>/root/.bin_chksum_mtree</filename>:</para>
+ <para>檢驗系統檔案與 Binary 是很重要的,因為它可以提供系統管理者與資安團隊有關系統變更的資訊,能夠監視系統變更的軟體應用程式稱為入侵偵測系統 (Intrusion Detection System, <acronym>IDS</acronym>)。</para>
+
+ <para>FreeBSD 原生提供了基礎的 <acronym>IDS</acronym> 系統,雖然每天晚上會有安全性的信件會通知管理者相關的變更,但這些資訊是儲存在本地的,這讓惡意的使用者有機會能夠修改這些資訊來隱藏其對系統的變更。也因此,會建議建立一個獨立的 Binary 簽名並將這些簽名儲存在唯度、root 擁有的目錄或在可移除的 <acronym>USB</acronym> 磁碟或遠端 <application>rsync</application> 伺服器更好。</para>
+
+ <para>內建 <command>mtree</command> 工具可以對一個目錄中的內容產生一個規格檔,產生規格檔會用到一個種子碼 (Seed) 或常數,然後在檢查規格是否有更改過時會也會需要使用這個種子碼或常數。這讓檢查一個檔案或 Binary 是否被修改變成可能的一件事。由於攻擊者並不知道種子碼,要仿冒或檢查檔案的校驗碼 (Checksum) 數值是幾乎不可能的。以下例子會產生一組 <acronym>SHA256</acronym> 雜湊,每一個在 <filename>/bin</filename> 的系統 Binary 都會有一個,並姐會將這些值以隱藏黨儲存在 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 的家目錄,<filename>/root/.bin_chksum_mtree</filename>:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mtree -s <replaceable>3483151339707503</replaceable> -c -K cksum,sha256digest -p <replaceable>/bin</replaceable> &gt; <replaceable>/root/.bin_chksum_mtree</replaceable></userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> mtree: /bin checksum: 3427012225</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <replaceable>3483151339707503</replaceable> represents
- the seed. This value should be remembered, but not
- shared.</para>
+ <para><replaceable>3483151339707503</replaceable> 代表種子碼,這個值應要記錄下來且不可給其它人看。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Viewing <filename>/root/.bin_cksum_mtree</filename> should
- yield output similar to the following:</para>
+ <para>檢視 <filename>/root/.bin_cksum_mtree</filename> 應會產生類似以下的輸出結果:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en"># user: root
# machine: dreadnaught
@@ -18127,29 +17546,14 @@ Enter new password:</screen>
chmod size=8640 time=1380277975.000000000 cksum=2214429708 \
sha256digest=a435972263bf814ad8df082c0752aa2a7bdd8b74ff01431ccbd52ed1e490bbe7</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">The machine's hostname, the date and time the
- specification was created, and the name of the user who
- created the specification are included in this report. There
- is a checksum, size, time, and <acronym>SHA</acronym>256
- digest for each binary in the directory.</para>
+ <para>機器的主機名稱、建立規格檔的日期與時間、以及建立此規格檔的使用者名稱皆會記錄在此報告當中,報告當中還會有在目錄中每個 Binary 的校驗碼、大小、時間以及 <acronym>SHA</acronym>256 編碼。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">To verify that the binary signatures have not changed,
- compare the current contents of the directory to the
- previously generated specification, and save the results to a
- file. This command requires the seed that was used to
- generate the original specification:</para>
+ <para>要檢驗 Binary 簽名是否有被變更過,可使用先前產生的規格檔比對目前目錄的內容,然後儲存結果到檔案。這個指令需要當初產生原規格檔所使用的種子碼:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mtree -s <replaceable>3483151339707503</replaceable> -p <replaceable>/bin</replaceable> &lt; <replaceable>/root/.bin_chksum_mtree</replaceable> &gt;&gt; <replaceable>/root/.bin_chksum_output</replaceable></userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> mtree: /bin checksum: 3427012225</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">This should produce the same checksum for
- <filename>/bin</filename> that was produced when the
- specification was created. If no changes have occurred to the
- binaries in this directory, the
- <filename>/root/.bin_chksum_output</filename> output file will
- be empty. To simulate a change, change the date on
- <filename>/bin/cat</filename> using <command>touch</command>
- and run the verification command again:</para>
+ <para>這個動作應會產生與上次建立 <filename>/bin</filename> 規格檔時產生的校驗碼相同,若在此目錄的 Binary 沒有被變更過,那麼 <filename>/root/.bin_chksum_output</filename> 這個輸出檔將會是空的。要模擬變更,可以使用 <command>touch</command> 更改 <filename>/root/.bin_chksum_output</filename> 的日期然後再執行檢驗指令一次:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>touch /bin/cat</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mtree -s <replaceable>3483151339707503</replaceable> -p <replaceable>/bin</replaceable> &lt; <replaceable>/root/.bin_chksum_mtree</replaceable> &gt;&gt; <replaceable>/root/.bin_chksum_output</replaceable></userinput>
@@ -18157,110 +17561,35 @@ Enter new password:</screen>
cat changed
modification time expected Fri Sep 27 06:32:55 2013 found Mon Feb 3 10:28:43 2014</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">It is recommended to create specifications for the
- directories which contain binaries and configuration files, as
- well as any directories containing sensitive data. Typically,
- specifications are created for <filename>/bin</filename>,
- <filename>/sbin</filename>, <filename>/usr/bin</filename>,
- <filename>/usr/sbin</filename>,
- <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename>,
- <filename>/etc</filename>, and
- <filename>/usr/local/etc</filename>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">More advanced <acronym>IDS</acronym> systems exist, such
- as <package>security/aide</package>. In most cases,
- <command>mtree</command> provides the functionality
- administrators need. It is important to keep the seed value
- and the checksum output hidden from malicious users. More
- information about <command>mtree</command> can be found in
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mtree</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para>建議對含有 Binary 以及設定檔的目錄建立規格檔,對含有敏感資料的目錄也是。通常會為 <filename>/bin</filename>, <filename>/sbin</filename>, <filename>/usr/bin</filename>, <filename>/usr/sbin</filename>, <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename>, <filename>/etc</filename> 及 <filename>/usr/local/etc</filename> 建立規格檔。</para>
+
+ <para>也有更進階的 <acronym>IDS</acronym> 系統,例如 <package>security/aide</package>。大多數情況 <command>mtree</command> 已可提供管理者所需的功能。將種子碼與校驗碼結果保存在惡意使用者無法存取的地方是非常重要的一件事。更多有關 <command>mtree</command> 的資訊可在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mtree</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 找到。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="security-tuning">
<title>系統安全性調校</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">In FreeBSD, many system features can be tuned using
- <command>sysctl</command>. A few of the security features
- which can be tuned to prevent Denial of Service
- (<acronym>DoS</acronym>) attacks will be covered in this
- section. More information about using
- <command>sysctl</command>, including how to temporarily change
- values and how to make the changes permanent after testing,
- can be found in <xref linkend="configtuning-sysctl"/>.</para>
+ <para>在 FreeBSD,有許多系統功能可以使用 <command>sysctl</command> 調校,本節會涵蓋少數可以調校來避免阻斷服務 (Denial of Service, <acronym>DoS</acronym>) 攻擊的安全性功能。更多有關使用 <command>sysctl</command> 的資訊包含:如何暫時更改數值及如何在測試之後做永久更改可在 <xref linkend="configtuning-sysctl"/> 找到。</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Any time a setting is changed with
- <command>sysctl</command>, the chance to cause undesired
- harm is increased, affecting the availability of the system.
- All changes should be monitored and, if possible, tried on a
- testing system before being used on a production
- system.</para>
+ <para>任何時間使用 <xref linkend="configtuning-sysctl"/> 做的設定變更都會讓造成不想要的傷害的可能性上升,影響到系統的可用性。因此應要對所有的變更做監視,若可能的話,先在測試系統上實驗,再到上線的系統上使用。</para>
</note>
- <para xml:lang="en">By default, the FreeBSD kernel boots with a security level of
- <literal>-1</literal>. This is called <quote>insecure
- mode</quote> because immutable file flags may be turned off
- and all devices may be read from or written to. The security
- level will remain at <literal>-1</literal> unless it is
- altered through <command>sysctl</command> or by a setting in
- the startup scripts. The security level may be increased
- during system startup by setting
- <varname>kern_securelevel_enable</varname> to
- <literal>YES</literal> in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>,
- and the value of <varname>kern_securelevel</varname> to the
- desired security level. See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>security</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
- for more information on these settings and the available
- security levels.</para>
+ <para>預設 FreeBSD 核心會使用安全性層級 <literal>-1</literal> 來開機,這又稱作<quote>不安全模式</quote>,因為不可變 (Immutable) 檔案旗標可以被關閉且可以讀取或寫入所有的裝置。除非有使用 <command>sysctl</command> 或在啟動 Script 設定修改該值,否則安全性層級將會在 <literal>-1</literal>。安全性層級可以在系統啟動時透過在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 設定 <varname>kern_securelevel_enable</varname> 為 <literal>YES</literal> 以及 設定 <varname>kern_securelevel</varname> 的值為想要的安全層級來提升。請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>security</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry> 以及 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 以取得更多與這些設定及可用的安全性層級相關的資訊。</para>
<warning>
- <para xml:lang="en">Increasing the <varname>securelevel</varname> can break
- <application>Xorg</application> and cause other issues. Be
- prepared to do some debugging.</para>
+ <para>提高 <varname>securelevel</varname> 會導致 <application>Xorg</application> 無法執行以及造成其他問題,請做好除錯的準備。</para>
</warning>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <varname>net.inet.tcp.blackhole</varname> and
- <varname>net.inet.udp.blackhole</varname> settings can be used
- to drop incoming <acronym>SYN</acronym> packets on closed
- ports without sending a return <acronym>RST</acronym>
- response. The default behavior is to return an
- <acronym>RST</acronym> to show a port is closed. Changing the
- default provides some level of protection against ports scans,
- which are used to determine which applications are running on
- a system. Set <varname>net.inet.tcp.blackhole</varname> to
- <literal>2</literal> and
- <varname>net.inet.udp.blackhole</varname> to
- <literal>1</literal>. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>blackhole</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more
- information about these settings.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <varname>net.inet.icmp.drop_redirect</varname> and
- <varname>net.inet.ip.redirect</varname> settings help prevent
- against <firstterm>redirect attacks</firstterm>. A redirect
- attack is a type of <acronym>DoS</acronym> which sends mass
- numbers of <acronym>ICMP</acronym> type 5 packets. Since
- these packets are not required, set
- <varname>net.inet.icmp.drop_redirect</varname> to
- <literal>1</literal> and set
- <varname>net.inet.ip.redirect</varname> to
- <literal>0</literal>.</para>
+ <para><varname>net.inet.tcp.blackhole</varname> 以及 <varname>net.inet.udp.blackhole</varname> 設定可以用來丟棄在已關閉連接埠 (Port) 收到的 <acronym>SYN</acronym> 封包且不會回傳 <acronym>RST</acronym> 回應,預設的動作是會回傳 <acronym>RST</acronym> 來表示該連接埠已被關閉,更改預設的動作可對連接埠掃描 (用在查看在系統上執行的應用程式) 提供一定程度的保護,要這麼做可設定 <varname>net.inet.tcp.blackhole</varname> 為 <literal>2</literal> 及 <varname>net.inet.udp.blackhole</varname> 為 <literal>1</literal>。請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>blackhole</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 以取得更多有關這些設定的資訊。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Source routing is a method for detecting and accessing
- non-routable addresses on the internal network. This should
- be disabled as non-routable addresses are normally not
- routable on purpose. To disable this feature, set
- <varname>net.inet.ip.sourceroute</varname> and
- <varname>net.inet.ip.accept_sourceroute</varname> to
- <literal>0</literal>.</para>
+ <para><varname>net.inet.icmp.drop_redirect</varname> 以及 <varname>net.inet.ip.redirect</varname> 設定可以幫助避免 <firstterm>重新導向攻擊 (Redirect attacks)</firstterm>,重新導向攻擊是 <acronym>DoS</acronym> 的一種,會傳送大量 <acronym>ICMP</acronym> 類型 5 的封包,由於這些封包並不是必要的,設定 <varname>net.inet.icmp.drop_redirect</varname> 為 <literal>1</literal> 以及設定 <varname>net.inet.ip.redirect</varname> 為 <literal>0</literal> 可丟棄這些封包。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">When a machine on the network needs to send messages to
- all hosts on a subnet, an <acronym>ICMP</acronym> echo request
- message is sent to the broadcast address. However, there is
- no reason for an external host to perform such an action. To
- reject all external broadcast requests, set
- <varname>net.inet.icmp.bmcastecho</varname> to
- <literal>0</literal>.</para>
+ <para>來源路由 (Source routing) 是一種偵測與存取在內部網路中不可路由位址的方法,由於不可路由位址通常是固故讓它不可路由的,因此可以關閉這個功能。要關閉這個功能可設定 <varname>net.inet.ip.sourceroute</varname> 以及 <varname>net.inet.ip.accept_sourceroute</varname> 為 <literal>0</literal>。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Some additional settings are documented in
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>security</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para>當一台在網路上的機器需要傳送訊息給所有在子網路上的主機時,會發送 <acronym>ICMP</acronym> 回應請求訊息到廣播位址。然而,外部的主機是沒有理由可以執行這個動作的。要拒絕所有來自外部的廣播請求可設定 <varname>net.inet.icmp.bmcastecho</varname> 為 <literal>0</literal>。</para>
+
+ <para>還有一些額外的設定在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>security</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry> 有說明。</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -27060,50 +26389,31 @@ scsibus1:
</authorgroup>
-->
- <para xml:lang="en">Implementing a backup plan is essential in order to have the
- ability to recover from disk failure, accidental file deletion,
- random file corruption, or complete machine destruction,
- including destruction of on-site backups.</para>
+ <para>為了要能夠從磁碟故障、意外刪除文件、隨機文件損壞或完全機器毀壞,包含本地備份毀壞進行恢復,執行備份計劃是必要的。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The backup type and schedule will vary, depending upon the
- importance of the data, the granularity needed for file
- restores, and the amount of acceptable downtime. Some possible
- backup techniques include:</para>
+ <para>備份的類型與排程會依情況有所不同,取決於資料的重要性、檔案還原所需的程度以及可接受的停機時間。一些可用來備份的技術有:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Archives of the whole system, backed up onto permanent,
- off-site media. This provides protection against all of the
- problems listed above, but is slow and inconvenient to
- restore from, especially for non-privileged users.</para>
+ <para>封存整個檔案系統,備份至永久、異地媒體。這可在以上所列的所有問題發生時提供保護,但要還原會較慢且不方便,特別是對於沒有權限的使用者。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">File system snapshots, which are useful for restoring
- deleted files or previous versions of files.</para>
+ <para>檔案系統快照 (Snapshot),對於還原已刪除的檔案或先前版本的檔案非常有用。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Copies of whole file systems or disks which are
- synchronized with another system on the network using a
- scheduled <package>net/rsync</package>.</para>
+ <para>整個檔案系統或磁碟的複本,使用排程的 <package>net/rsync</package> 來與網路上的另一個系統同步。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Hardware or software <acronym>RAID</acronym>, which
- minimizes or avoids downtime when a disk fails.</para>
+ <para>硬體或軟體 <acronym>RAID</acronym>,來最小化或避免當磁碟故障時的停機時間。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
- <para xml:lang="en">Typically, a mix of backup techniques is used. For
- example, one could create a schedule to automate a weekly, full
- system backup that is stored off-site and to supplement this
- backup with hourly ZFS snapshots. In addition, one could make a
- manual backup of individual directories or files before making
- file edits or deletions.</para>
+ <para>通常會混合使用各種備份技術,例如,建立一個排程每週自動做儲存於異地的完整系統備份,並使用每小時的 ZFS 快照來輔助備份。此外,在對檔案做編輯或刪除前手動備份各別目錄或檔案。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">This section describes some of the utilities which can be
- used to create and manage backups on a FreeBSD system.</para>
+ <para>本章節會介紹一些可以用來在 FreeBSD 上建立與管理系統備份的工具。</para>
<sect2>
<title>檔案系統備份</title>
@@ -27119,55 +26429,22 @@ scsibus1:
<primary><command>restore</command></primary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The traditional <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> programs for backing up a file
- system are <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, which creates the backup, and
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>restore</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, which restores the backup. These utilities
- work at the disk block level, below the abstractions of the
- files, links, and directories that are created by file
- systems. Unlike other backup software,
- <command>dump</command> backs up an entire file system and is
- unable to backup only part of a file system or a directory
- tree that spans multiple file systems. Instead of writing
- files and directories, <command>dump</command> writes the raw
- data blocks that comprise files and directories.</para>
+ <para>要備份一個檔案系統,會用到 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 這個傳統 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 程式來建立備份,並可使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>restore</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來還原備份。這兩個工具可在磁碟區塊的層級運作,這個層級比由檔案系統建立檔案、連結與目錄的抽象層級還要低,因此不像其他的備份軟體,<command>dump</command> 必須一次備份整個檔案系統,且無法只備份部份檔案系統或跨多個檔案系統的目錄樹,<command>dump</command> 會備份構成檔案與目錄的原始資料區塊,而非直接備份檔案與目錄。</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">If <command>dump</command> is used on the root
- directory, it will not back up <filename>/home</filename>,
- <filename>/usr</filename> or many other directories since
- these are typically mount points for other file systems or
- symbolic links into those file systems.</para>
+ <para>在根目錄使用 <command>dump</command>,會無法備份 <filename>/home</filename>, <filename>/usr</filename> 或其他許多的目錄,由於這些目錄通常是其他檔案系統的掛載點或連結到其他檔案系統的符號連結。</para>
</note>
- <para xml:lang="en">When used to restore data, <command>restore</command>
- stores temporary files in <filename>/tmp/</filename> by
- default. When using a recovery disk with a small
- <filename>/tmp</filename>, set <envar>TMPDIR</envar> to a
- directory with more free space in order for the restore to
- succeed.</para>
+ <para>還原資料時,<command>restore</command> 預設會儲存暫存檔案於 <filename>/tmp/</filename>,當使用一個 <filename>/tmp</filename> 較小的復原磁碟時,請設定 <envar>TMPDIR</envar> 到一個擁有較多可用空間的目錄以讓還原可以順利執行。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">When using <command>dump</command>, be aware that some
- quirks remain from its early days in Version 6 of
- AT&amp;T <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>,circa 1975. The default parameters assume a
- backup to a 9-track tape, rather than to another type of media
- or to the high-density tapes available today. These defaults
- must be overridden on the command line.</para>
+ <para>當使用 <command>dump</command> 時,請小心最早自 AT&amp;T <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>,circa 1975 的版本 6 仍有一些問題存在,預設的參數會假設備份到一個 9 軌的磁帶,這並非其他類型的媒體或現今可用的高密度磁帶,必須另外在指令列修改這個預設值。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary><filename>.rhosts</filename></primary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">It is possible to backup a file system across the network
- to a another system or to a tape drive attached to another
- computer. While the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rdump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rrestore</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
- utilities can be used for this purpose, they are not
- considered to be secure.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Instead, one can use <command>dump</command> and
- <command>restore</command> in a more secure fashion over an
- <acronym>SSH</acronym> connection. This example creates a
- full, compressed backup of <filename>/usr</filename> and sends
- the backup file to the specified host over a
- <acronym>SSH</acronym> connection.</para>
+ <para>雖然可以使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rdump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 與 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rrestore</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 工具可以跨網路備份一個檔案系統到另一個系統或備份到連結另一台電腦的磁帶機,但這使用兩個工具備份的安全性並不足夠。</para>
+
+ <para>可改以在較安全的 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 連線上使用 <command>dump</command> 與 <command>restore</command>。以下例子會建立一個完整、壓縮的 <filename>/usr</filename> 備份並透過 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 連線傳送備份檔案到指定的主機。</para>
<example>
<title>在 <application>ssh</application> 使用 <command>dump</command></title>
@@ -27176,9 +26453,7 @@ scsibus1:
targetuser@targetmachine.example.com dd of=/mybigfiles/dump-usr-l0.gz</userinput></screen>
</example>
- <para xml:lang="en">This example sets <envar>RSH</envar> in order to write the
- backup to a tape drive on a remote system over a
- <acronym>SSH</acronym> connection:</para>
+ <para>這個例子會設定 <envar>RSH</envar>,以便透過 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 連線寫入備份到遠端系統的磁帶機:</para>
<example>
<title>在 <application>ssh</application> 使用 <command>dump</command> 透過 <envar>RSH</envar> 設定</title>
@@ -27195,23 +26470,13 @@ scsibus1:
<secondary><command>tar</command></secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">Several built-in utilities are available for backing up
- and restoring specified files and directories as
- needed.</para>
+ <para>系統已有內建數個工具可在需要時用來備份與還原指定的檔案與目錄。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">A good choice for making a backup of all of the files in a
- directory is <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tar</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. This utility dates back to Version
- 6 of AT&amp;T <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> and by default assumes a recursive backup
- to a local tape device. Switches can be used to instead
- specify the name of a backup file.</para>
+ <para>要備份一個目錄中的所有檔案最好的選擇是 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tar</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,這個工具最早可以追朔自 AT&amp;T <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 版本 6 時,因此預設會做一個遞迴備份到一個磁帶機,可以使用參數來改指定備份檔案的名稱。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary><command>tar</command></primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">This example creates a compressed backup of the current
- directory and saves it to
- <filename>/tmp/mybackup.tgz</filename>. When creating a
- backup file, make sure that the backup is not saved to the
- same directory that is being backed up.</para>
+ <para>這個例子會建立目前目錄的壓縮備份並儲存至 <filename>/tmp/mybackup.tgz</filename>,在建立備份檔案時,要確認備份檔案不要儲存到與目前備份目錄相同的目錄。</para>
<example>
<title>使用 <command>tar</command> 備份目前目錄</title>
@@ -27219,12 +26484,7 @@ scsibus1:
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tar czvf <replaceable>/tmp/mybackup.tgz</replaceable> . </userinput></screen>
</example>
- <para xml:lang="en">To restore the entire backup, <command>cd</command> into
- the directory to restore into and specify the name of the
- backup. Note that this will overwrite any newer versions of
- files in the restore directory. When in doubt, restore to a
- temporary directory or specify the name of the file within the
- backup to restore.</para>
+ <para>要還原整個備份,先 <command>cd</command> 進入要放置還原檔的目錄並指定備份的名稱。注意,這個動作會覆寫任何在該還原目錄中任何較新版的檔案,當不確定時,可先還原到一個暫時的目錄或指定備份檔中的檔案做還原。</para>
<example>
<title>使用 <command>tar</command> 還原目前目錄</title>
@@ -27232,29 +26492,16 @@ scsibus1:
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tar xzvf <replaceable>/tmp/mybackup.tgz</replaceable></userinput></screen>
</example>
- <para xml:lang="en">There are dozens of available switches which are described
- in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tar</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. This utility also supports the use of exclude
- patterns to specify which files should not be included when
- backing up the specified directory or restoring files from a
- backup.</para>
+ <para>除此之外還有許多可用的參數在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tar</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 中會有說明。本工具也支援使用排除模式 (Exclude pattern) 來指定那些檔案應該在備份指定目錄或自備份還原檔案時排除。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary>backup software</primary>
<secondary><command>cpio</command></secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">To create a backup using a specified list of files and
- directories, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cpio</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is a good choice. Unlike
- <command>tar</command>, <command>cpio</command> does not know
- how to walk the directory tree and it must be provided the
- list of files to backup.</para>
+ <para>要使用指定的檔案與目錄清單做備份使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cpio</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 是不錯的選擇。它並不像 <command>tar</command>,<command>cpio</command> 並不知道如何走訪目錄樹,所以必須提供檔案的清單才能做備份。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">For example, a list of files can be created using
- <command>ls</command> or <command>find</command>. This
- example creates a recursive listing of the current directory
- which is then piped to <command>cpio</command> in order to
- create an output backup file named
- <filename>/tmp/mybackup.cpio</filename>.</para>
+ <para>例如,檔案的清單可以使用 <command>ls</command> 或 <command>find</command> 來產生。以下例子會建立一個目前目錄的遞迴清單然後轉送 (Piped) 給 <command>cpio</command> 來建立名稱為 <filename>/tmp/mybackup.cpio</filename> 的備份檔。</para>
<example>
<title>使用 <command>ls</command> 與 <command>cpio</command> 來製作目前目錄的遞迴備份</title>
@@ -27270,17 +26517,9 @@ scsibus1:
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>POSIX</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>IEEE</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">A backup utility which tries to bridge the features
- provided by <command>tar</command> and <command>cpio</command>
- is <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pax</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Over the years, the various versions of
- <command>tar</command> and <command>cpio</command> became
- slightly incompatible. <trademark class="registered">POSIX</trademark> created <command>pax</command>
- which attempts to read and write many of the various
- <command>cpio</command> and <command>tar</command> formats,
- plus new formats of its own.</para>
+ <para>有一個備份工具嘗試整合 <command>tar</command> 與 <command>cpio</command> 所提供的功能,便是 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pax</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>。經歷數年,各種版本的 <command>tar</command> 與 <command>cpio</command> 變的有一些無法相容。<trademark class="registered">POSIX</trademark> 開發出 <command>pax</command>,嘗試讀取與寫入各種版本的 <command>cpio</command> and <command>tar</command> 格式並加入自己的新格式。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <command>pax</command> equivalent to the previous
- examples would be:</para>
+ <para>以先前的例子改使用 <command>pax</command> 會是:</para>
<example>
<title>使用 <command>pax</command> 備份目前目錄</title>
@@ -27294,57 +26533,29 @@ scsibus1:
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>tape media</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">While tape technology has continued to evolve, modern
- backup systems tend to combine off-site backups with local
- removable media. FreeBSD supports any tape drive that uses
- <acronym>SCSI</acronym>, such as <acronym>LTO</acronym> or
- <acronym>DAT</acronym>. There is limited support for
- <acronym>SATA</acronym> and <acronym>USB</acronym> tape
- drives.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">For <acronym>SCSI</acronym> tape devices, FreeBSD uses the
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sa</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver and the <filename>/dev/sa0</filename>,
- <filename>/dev/nsa0</filename>, and
- <filename>/dev/esa0</filename> devices. The physical device
- name is <filename>/dev/sa0</filename>. When
- <filename>/dev/nsa0</filename> is used, the backup application
- will not rewind the tape after writing a file, which allows
- writing more than one file to a tape. Using
- <filename>/dev/esa0</filename> ejects the tape after the
- device is closed.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In FreeBSD, <command>mt</command> is used to control
- operations of the tape drive, such as seeking through files on
- a tape or writing tape control marks to the tape. For
- example, the first three files on a tape can be preserved by
- skipping past them before writing a new file:</para>
+ <para>隨著磁帶的技術持續發展,當今的備份系統將異地備份與本地可移除媒體做了結合。FreeBSD 支援任何使用 <acronym>SCSI</acronym> 的磁帶機,如 <acronym>LTO</acronym> 或 <acronym>DAT</acronym>,並有限制的支援 <acronym>SATA</acronym> 與 <acronym>USB</acronym> 磁帶機。</para>
+
+ <para><acronym>SCSI</acronym> 磁帶機在 FreeBSD 會使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sa</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 驅動程式以及 <filename>/dev/sa0</filename>, <filename>/dev/nsa0</filename> 與 <filename>/dev/esa0</filename> 裝置,實體裝置名稱為 <filename>/dev/sa0</filename>,當使用 <filename>/dev/nsa0</filename> 時,備份程式在寫入檔案之後不會倒帶,這可允許寫入超過一個檔案到磁帶,而使用 <filename>/dev/esa0</filename> 時,當關閉裝置後便會退出磁帶。</para>
+
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 中會使用 <command>mt</command> 來做磁帶機的控制操作,例如在磁帶中搜尋檔案或寫入磁帶控制記號到磁帶。例如,要保留磁帶上的前三個檔案,可以在寫入新檔案前跳過這些檔案:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mt -f /dev/nsa0 fsf 3</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">This utility supports many operations. Refer to
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details.</para>
+ <para>這個工具尚支援許多操作,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mt</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 了解詳情。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">To write a single file to tape using
- <command>tar</command>, specify the name of the tape device
- and the file to backup:</para>
+ <para>要使用 <command>tar</command> 寫入單一檔案到磁帶,可指定磁帶裝置的名稱以及要備份的檔案:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tar cvf /dev/sa0 <replaceable>file</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">To recover files from a <command>tar</command> archive
- on tape into the current directory:</para>
+ <para>要從磁帶上的 <command>tar</command> 封存檔還原檔案到目前的目錄可:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tar xvf /dev/sa0</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">To backup a <acronym>UFS</acronym> file system, use
- <command>dump</command>. This examples backs up
- <filename>/usr</filename> without rewinding the tape when
- finished:</para>
+ <para>要備份一個 <acronym>UFS</acronym> 檔案系統可使用 <command>dump</command>。以下例子會備份 <filename>/usr</filename> 並在完成時不做倒帶:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dump -0aL -b64 -f /dev/nsa0 /usr</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">To interactively restore files from a
- <command>dump</command> file on tape into the current
- directory:</para>
+ <para>要以互動的方式從磁帶上的 <command>dump</command> 檔案還原到目前目錄:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>restore -i -f /dev/nsa0</userinput></screen>
</sect2>
@@ -27356,32 +26567,20 @@ scsibus1:
<primary>backup software</primary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The FreeBSD Ports Collection provides many third-party
- utilities which can be used to schedule the creation of
- backups, simplify tape backup, and make backups easier and
- more convenient. Many of these applications are client/server
- based and can be used to automate the backups of a single
- system or all of the computers in a network.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD Port 套件集提供了許多第三方工具可用於排程建立備份,簡化磁帶備份並讓備份更簡單方便。許多這類的應用程式是以客戶端/伺服器為基礎,可用來自動化單一系統或網路上所有電腦的備份。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Popular utilities include
- <application>Amanda</application>,
- <application>Bacula</application>,
- <application>rsync</application>, and
- <application>duplicity</application>.</para>
+ <para>較熱門的工具包含 <application>Amanda</application>, <application>Bacula</application>, <application>rsync</application> 以及 <application>duplicity</application>。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>緊急還原</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">In addition to regular backups, it is recommended to
- perform the following steps as part of an emergency
- preparedness plan.</para>
+ <para>除了正常的備份外,建議將下以步驟做為緊急準備計劃的一部份。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary><command>bsdlabel</command></primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">Create a print copy of the output of the following
- commands:</para>
+ <para>替以下指令的輸出建立一份可列印的複本:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
@@ -27400,31 +26599,15 @@ scsibus1:
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>livefs
<acronym>CD</acronym></primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">Store this printout and a copy of the installation media
- in a secure location. Should an emergency restore be
- needed, boot into the installation media and select
- <literal>Live CD</literal> to access a rescue shell. This
- rescue mode can be used to view the current state of the
- system, and if needed, to reformat disks and restore data
- from backups.</para>
+ <para>在安全的地方保存這份列印結果與安裝媒體的複本,在緊急還原時可能會需要,接著開機進入安裝媒體並選擇 <literal>Live CD</literal> 以存取救援 Shell (Rescue shell),這個救援模式可以用來檢視目前系統的狀態,若有需要,可重新格式化磁碟然後自備份還原資料。</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">The installation media for
- FreeBSD/i386 10.3-RELEASE does not
- include a rescue shell. For this version, instead
- download and burn a Livefs <acronym>CD</acronym> image from
- <uri xlink:href="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/ISO-IMAGES/10.3/FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-i386-livefs.iso">ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/ISO-IMAGES/10.3/FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-i386-livefs.iso</uri>.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD/i386 10.3-RELEASE 的安裝媒體未含救援 Shell,針對該版本,可改自 <uri xlink:href="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/ISO-IMAGES/10.3/FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-i386-livefs.iso">ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/ISO-IMAGES/10.3/FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-i386-livefs.iso</uri> 下載 <acronym>CD</acronym> 映像檔並燒錄。</para>
</note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Next, test the rescue shell and the backups. Make notes
- of the procedure. Store these notes with the media, the
- printouts, and the backups. These notes may prevent the
- inadvertent destruction of the backups while under the stress
- of performing an emergency recovery.</para>
+ <para>然後,測試救援 Shell 下的備份。記錄下整個程序,將這份記錄隨媒體、列印結果、備份檔一併保存,這份記錄可以避免在緊張壓力下做緊急還原時因不慎造成備份的毀壞。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">For an added measure of security, store the latest backup
- at a remote location which is physically separated from the
- computers and disk drives by a significant distance.</para>
+ <para>要再安全性一點,則可將最新的備份儲存在與實體電腦與磁碟機有一段明顯距離的遠端位置。</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -33041,13 +32224,13 @@ vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size="5M"</programlisting>
<row>
<entry xml:id="zfs-term-l2arc" xml:lang="en"><acronym>L2ARC</acronym></entry>
- <entry><acronym>L2ARC</acronym> 是 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 快取系統的第二層,主要的 <acronym>ARC</acronym> 會儲存在 <acronym>RAM</acronym> 當中,但因為 <acronym>RAM</acronym> 可用的空間量通常有限,因此 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 也可以使用 <link linkend="zfs-term-vdev-cache">快取 vdev (Cache vdev)</link>。固態磁碟 (Solid State Disk, <acronym>SSD</acronym>) 常被拿來此處作為快取裝置,因為比起傳統旋轉碟片的磁碟,固體磁碟有較快的速度與較低的延遲。<acronym>L2ARC</acronym> 是選用的,但使用可以明顯增進那些已使用 <acronym>SSD</acronym> 快取的檔案讀取速度,無須從一般磁碟讀取。<acronym>L2ARC</acronym> 也同樣可以加速去重複 (<link linkend="zfs-term-deduplication">Deduplication</link>),因為 <acronym>DDT</acronym> 並不適合放在 <acronym>RAM</acronym>,但適合放在 <acronym>L2ARC</acronym>,比起要從磁碟讀取,可以加快不少速度。為了避免 <acronym>SSD</acronym> 因寫入次速過多而過早耗損,加入到快取裝置的資料速率會被限制,直到快取用盡 (去除第一個資料區塊來騰出空間) 之前,寫入到 <acronym>L2ARC</acronym> 的資料速率會限制在寫入限制 (Write limit) 與加速限制 (Boost limit) 的總合,之後則會限制為寫入限制,可以控制這兩個速度限制的 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 數值分別為 <link linkend="zfs-advanced-tuning-l2arc_write_max"><varname>vfs.zfs.l2arc_write_max</varname></link> 控制每秒有多少數位元組可寫入到快取,而 <link linkend="zfs-advanced-tuning-l2arc_write_boost"><varname>vfs.zfs.l2arc_write_boost</varname></link> 可在 <quote>渦輪預熱階段</quote> (即寫入加速) 時增加寫入限制。</entry>
+ <entry><acronym>L2ARC</acronym> 是 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 快取系統的第二層,主要的 <acronym>ARC</acronym> 會儲存在 <acronym>RAM</acronym> 當中,但因為 <acronym>RAM</acronym> 可用的空間量通常有限,因此 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 也可以使用 <link linkend="zfs-term-vdev-cache">快取 vdev (Cache vdev)</link>。固態磁碟 (Solid State Disk, <acronym>SSD</acronym>) 常被拿來此處作為快取裝置,因為比起傳統旋轉碟片的磁碟,固態磁碟有較快的速度與較低的延遲。<acronym>L2ARC</acronym> 是選用的,但使用可以明顯增進那些已使用 <acronym>SSD</acronym> 快取的檔案讀取速度,無須從一般磁碟讀取。<acronym>L2ARC</acronym> 也同樣可以加速去重複 (<link linkend="zfs-term-deduplication">Deduplication</link>),因為 <acronym>DDT</acronym> 並不適合放在 <acronym>RAM</acronym>,但適合放在 <acronym>L2ARC</acronym>,比起要從磁碟讀取,可以加快不少速度。為了避免 <acronym>SSD</acronym> 因寫入次速過多而過早耗損,加入到快取裝置的資料速率會被限制,直到快取用盡 (去除第一個資料區塊來騰出空間) 之前,寫入到 <acronym>L2ARC</acronym> 的資料速率會限制在寫入限制 (Write limit) 與加速限制 (Boost limit) 的總合,之後則會限制為寫入限制,可以控制這兩個速度限制的 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 數值分別為 <link linkend="zfs-advanced-tuning-l2arc_write_max"><varname>vfs.zfs.l2arc_write_max</varname></link> 控制每秒有多少數位元組可寫入到快取,而 <link linkend="zfs-advanced-tuning-l2arc_write_boost"><varname>vfs.zfs.l2arc_write_boost</varname></link> 可在 <quote>渦輪預熱階段</quote> (即寫入加速) 時增加寫入限制。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:id="zfs-term-zil" xml:lang="en"><acronym>ZIL</acronym></entry>
- <entry><acronym>ZIL</acronym> 會使用儲存裝置,例如,比那些用在主要儲存池還快的 <acronym>SSD</acronym> 來加速同步交易 (Synchronous transaction)。當應用程式請求做一個同步的寫入時 (保証資料會安全的儲存到磁碟,而不是先快取稍後再寫入),資料會先寫入到速度較快的 <acronym>ZIL</acronym> 儲存空間,之後再一併寫入到一般的磁碟。這可大量的減少延遲並增進效能。<acronym>ZIL</acronym> 只會有利於使用像資料庫這類的同步工作,一般非同步的寫入像複製檔案,則完全不會用到 <acronym>ZIL</acronym>。</entry>
+ <entry><acronym>ZIL</acronym> 會使用比主要儲存池還更快的儲存裝置來加速同步寫入動作 (Synchronous transaction),如 <acronym>SSD</acronym>。當應用程式請求做一個同步的寫入時 (保証資料會安全的儲存到磁碟,而不是先快取稍後再寫入),資料會先寫入到速度較快的 <acronym>ZIL</acronym> 儲存空間,之後再一併寫入到一般的磁碟。這可大量的減少延遲並增進效能。<acronym>ZIL</acronym> 只會有利於使用像資料庫這類的同步工作,一般非同步的寫入像複製檔案,則完全不會用到 <acronym>ZIL</acronym>。</entry>
</row>
<row>
@@ -33117,7 +32300,7 @@ vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size="5M"</programlisting>
</listitem>
<listitem xml:id="zfs-term-compression-lzjb">
- <para><emphasis><acronym>LZJB</acronym></emphasis> - 預設的壓縮演算法。由 Jeff Bonwick 所開發 (<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 的創始人之一)。<acronym>LZJB</acronym>與 <acronym>GZIP</acronym> 相比,可以較低的 <acronym>CPU</acronym> 提供較佳的壓縮功能。在未來預設的壓縮演算法將會更換為 <acronym>LZ4</acronym>。</para>
+ <para><emphasis><acronym>LZJB</acronym></emphasis> - 預設的壓縮演算法。由 Jeff Bonwick 所開發 (<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 的創始人之一)。<acronym>LZJB</acronym> 與 <acronym>GZIP</acronym> 相比,可以較低的 <acronym>CPU</acronym> 提供較佳的壓縮功能。在未來預設的壓縮演算法將會更換為 <acronym>LZ4</acronym>。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem xml:id="zfs-term-compression-gzip">
@@ -34341,7 +33524,7 @@ grub&gt; <userinput>boot</userinput></screen>
<para xml:lang="en">Now that the <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> kernel is loaded, the guest can be
started:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyve -A -H -P -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 1:0,lpc -s 2:0,virtio-net,<replaceable>tap1</replaceable> -s 3:0,virtio-blk,<replaceable>./linux.img</replaceable> \
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyve -A -H -P -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 1:0,lpc -s 2:0,virtio-net,<replaceable>tap0</replaceable> -s 3:0,virtio-blk,<replaceable>./linux.img</replaceable> \
-s 4:0,ahci-cd,<replaceable>./somelinux.iso</replaceable> -l com1,stdio -c <replaceable>4</replaceable> -m <replaceable>1024M</replaceable> <replaceable>linuxguest</replaceable></userinput></screen>
<para xml:lang="en">The system will boot and start the installer. After
@@ -34369,7 +33552,7 @@ grub&gt; <userinput>boot</userinput></screen>
<para xml:lang="en">Boot the virtual machine:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyve -A -H -P -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 1:0,lpc -s 2:0,virtio-net,<replaceable>tap1</replaceable> \
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyve -A -H -P -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 1:0,lpc -s 2:0,virtio-net,<replaceable>tap0</replaceable> \
-s 3:0,virtio-blk,<replaceable>./linux.img</replaceable> -l com1,stdio -c <replaceable>4</replaceable> -m <replaceable>1024M</replaceable> <replaceable>linuxguest</replaceable></userinput></screen>
<para xml:lang="en"><trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> will now boot in the virtual machine and
@@ -34395,7 +33578,7 @@ grub&gt; <userinput>boot</userinput></screen>
<para xml:lang="en">When starting the <acronym>VM</acronym>, specify the
<acronym>ZFS</acronym> volume as the disk drive:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyve -A -H -P -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 1:0,lpc -s 2:0,virtio-net,<replaceable>tap1</replaceable> -s3:0,virtio-blk,<replaceable>/dev/zvol/zroot/linuxdisk0</replaceable> \
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyve -A -H -P -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 1:0,lpc -s 2:0,virtio-net,<replaceable>tap0</replaceable> -s3:0,virtio-blk,<replaceable>/dev/zvol/zroot/linuxdisk0</replaceable> \
-l com1,<replaceable>stdio</replaceable> -c <replaceable>4</replaceable> -m <replaceable>1024M</replaceable> <replaceable>linuxguest</replaceable></userinput></screen>
</sect2>
@@ -34420,7 +33603,7 @@ grub&gt; <userinput>boot</userinput></screen>
information.</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload nmdm</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyve -A -H -P -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 1:0,lpc -s 2:0,virtio-net,<replaceable>tap1</replaceable> -s 3:0,virtio-blk,<replaceable>./linux.img</replaceable> \
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyve -A -H -P -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 1:0,lpc -s 2:0,virtio-net,<replaceable>tap0</replaceable> -s 3:0,virtio-blk,<replaceable>./linux.img</replaceable> \
-l com1,<replaceable>/dev/nmdm0A</replaceable> -c <replaceable>4</replaceable> -m <replaceable>1024M</replaceable> <replaceable>linuxguest</replaceable></userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cu -l <replaceable>/dev/nmdm0B</replaceable></userinput>
Connected
@@ -41254,7 +40437,7 @@ tun0: flags=8051&lt;UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">Mail User Agent (<acronym>MUA</acronym>)</term>
+ <term>郵件使用者代理程式 (Mail User Agent, <acronym>MUA</acronym>)</term>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">The Mail User Agent (<acronym>MUA</acronym>) is an
application which is used to compose, send, and receive
@@ -41276,7 +40459,7 @@ tun0: flags=8051&lt;UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">Mail Transfer Agent (<acronym>MTA</acronym>)</term>
+ <term>郵件傳輸代理程式 (Mail Transfer Agent, <acronym>MTA</acronym>)</term>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">The Mail Transfer Agent (<acronym>MTA</acronym>) is
responsible for receiving incoming mail and delivering
@@ -41298,7 +40481,7 @@ tun0: flags=8051&lt;UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">Mail Host and Mailboxes</term>
+ <term>郵件主機 (Mail Host) 與郵件信箱 (Mailbox)</term>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">The mail host is a server that is responsible for
delivering and receiving mail for a host or a network.
@@ -41347,7 +40530,7 @@ tun0: flags=8051&lt;UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term>網域名稱系統 (<acronym>DNS</acronym>)</term>
+ <term>網域名稱系統 (Domain Name System, <acronym>DNS</acronym>)</term>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">The Domain Name System (<acronym>DNS</acronym>) and
its daemon <command>named</command> play a large role in
@@ -45228,49 +44411,16 @@ TWO (,hotel,test-domain)
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>LDAP</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
- (<acronym>LDAP</acronym>) is an application layer protocol used
- to access, modify, and authenticate objects using a distributed
- directory information service. Think of it as a phone or record
- book which stores several levels of hierarchical, homogeneous
- information. It is used in Active Directory and
- <application>OpenLDAP</application> networks and allows users to
- access to several levels of internal information utilizing a
- single account. For example, email authentication, pulling
- employee contact information, and internal website
- authentication might all make use of a single user account in
- the <acronym>LDAP</acronym> server's record base.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This section provides a quick start guide for configuring an
- <acronym>LDAP</acronym> server on a FreeBSD system. It assumes
- that the administrator already has a design plan which includes
- the type of information to store, what that information will be
- used for, which users should have access to that information,
- and how to secure this information from unauthorized
- access.</para>
+ <para>輕量級目錄存取協定 (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, <acronym>LDAP</acronym>) 是一個利用分散式目錄資訊服務來做到存取、修改與認証物件的應用層通訊協定,可以想像成是一本可以儲存數個階層、同質資訊的電話簿或記錄簿。它用在 Active Directory 及 <application>OpenLDAP</application> 網路,允許使用者利用一個帳號來存取數個階層的內部資訊,例如:電子郵件認証、取得員工聯絡資訊及內部網站的認証皆可使用 <acronym>LDAP</acronym> 伺服器資料庫中的單一使用者帳號來存取。</para>
+
+ <para>本章節將介紹在 FreeBSD 系統上如何快速的設定一個 <acronym>LDAP</acronym> 伺服器。本章節假設管理者已做好規劃,這包含:要儲存何種類型的資訊、這些資訊要來做什麼、那些使用者擁有存取這些資訊的權限以及如何確保這些資訊不會被未經授權存取。</para>
<sect2>
<title><acronym>LDAP</acronym> 術語與結構</title>
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>LDAP</acronym> uses several terms which should be
- understood before starting the configuration. All directory
- entries consist of a group of
- <firstterm>attributes</firstterm>. Each of these attribute
- sets contains a unique identifier known as a
- <firstterm>Distinguished Name</firstterm>
- (<acronym>DN</acronym>) which is normally built from several
- other attributes such as the common or
- <firstterm>Relative Distinguished Name</firstterm>
- (<acronym>RDN</acronym>). Similar to how directories have
- absolute and relative paths, consider a <acronym>DN</acronym>
- as an absolute path and the <acronym>RDN</acronym> as the
- relative path.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">An example <acronym>LDAP</acronym> entry looks like the
- following. This example searches for the entry for the
- specified user account (<literal>uid</literal>),
- organizational unit (<literal>ou</literal>), and organization
- (<literal>o</literal>):</para>
+ <para><acronym>LDAP</acronym> 使用了數個術語在開始設置之前必須先了解。所有的目錄項目由一群屬性 (<firstterm>attributes</firstterm>) 所組成,每個屬性集皆有一個獨特的辨識碼稱為辨識名稱 (<firstterm>Distinguished Name</firstterm>, <acronym>DN</acronym>),這個辨識碼會由數個其他的屬性,如:常用或相對辨識名稱 (<firstterm>Relative Distinguished Name</firstterm>, <acronym>RDN</acronym>) 所組成,這就像目錄有絕對路徑與相對路徑,可以把 <acronym>DN</acronym> 當做絕對路徑,<acronym>RDN</acronym> 當做相對路徑。</para>
+
+ <para><acronym>LDAP</acronym> 項目的例子如下。這個例子會搜尋指定使用者帳號 (<literal>uid</literal>)、組織單位 (<literal>ou</literal>) 及組織的項目 (<literal>o</literal>):</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ldapsearch -xb "uid=<replaceable>trhodes</replaceable>,ou=<replaceable>users</replaceable>,o=<replaceable>example.com</replaceable>"</userinput>
# extended LDIF
@@ -45295,15 +44445,9 @@ result: 0 Success
# numResponses: 2
# numEntries: 1</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">This example entry shows the values for the
- <literal>dn</literal>, <literal>mail</literal>,
- <literal>cn</literal>, <literal>uid</literal>, and
- <literal>telephoneNumber</literal> attributes. The
- <acronym>cn</acronym> attribute is the
- <acronym>RDN</acronym>.</para>
+ <para>這個範例項目會顯示 <literal>dn</literal>, <literal>mail</literal>, <literal>cn</literal>, <literal>uid</literal> 以及 <literal>telephoneNumber</literal> 屬性的數值。而 <acronym>cn</acronym> 屬性則是 <acronym>RDN</acronym>。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">More information about <acronym>LDAP</acronym> and its
- terminology can be found at <uri xlink:href="http://www.openldap.org/doc/admin24/intro.html">http://www.openldap.org/doc/admin24/intro.html</uri>.</para>
+ <para>更多有關 <acronym>LDAP</acronym> 以及其術語的資訊可在 <uri xlink:href="http://www.openldap.org/doc/admin24/intro.html">http://www.openldap.org/doc/admin24/intro.html</uri> 找到。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="ldap-config">
@@ -45311,88 +44455,49 @@ result: 0 Success
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>LDAP Server</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD does not provide a built-in <acronym>LDAP</acronym>
- server. Begin the configuration by installing the <package role="port">net/openldap24-server</package> package or port.
- Since the port has many configurable options, it is
- recommended that the default options are reviewed to see if
- the package is sufficient, and to instead compile the port if
- any options should be changed. In most cases, the defaults
- are fine. However, if SQL support is needed, this option must
- be enabled and the port compiled using the instructions in
- <xref linkend="ports-using"/>.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 並未提供內建的 <acronym>LDAP</acronym> 伺服器,因此要從安裝 <package role="port">net/openldap24-server</package> 套件或 Port 開始設置。由於 Port 有許多可以設定的選項,建議安裝套件使用預設的選項,若選項必須做修改才改用編譯 Port 的方式安裝,大多數的案例皆可使用預設值。然而,若需要支援 SQL,則必須開啟選項並依 <xref linkend="ports-using"/> 的指示編譯 Port。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Next, create the directories to hold the data and to store
- the certificates:</para>
+ <para>接著,建立目錄來儲存資枓以及儲存憑證:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mkdir /var/db/openldap-data</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mkdir /usr/local/etc/openldap/private</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Copy over the database configuration file:</para>
+ <para>複製資料庫設定檔:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cp /usr/local/etc/openldap/DB_CONFIG.example /var/db/openldap-data/DB_CONFIG</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The next phase is to configure the certificate authority.
- The following commands must be executed from
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/private</filename>. This is
- important as the file permissions need to be restrictive and
- users should not have access to these files. To create the
- certificate authority, start with this command and follow the
- prompts:</para>
+ <para>下一個階段是設定憑証機構 (Certificate authority)。以下指令必須在 <filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/private</filename> 執行,這很重要是由於檔案權限須要被限制且使用者不應有這些檔案的存取權限。要建立憑証授權,需先輸人這個指令並依提示作業:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>openssl req -days <replaceable>365</replaceable> -nodes -new -x509 -keyout ca.key -out ../ca.crt</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The entries for the prompts may be generic
- <emphasis>except</emphasis> for the
- <literal>Common Name</literal>. This entry must be
- <emphasis>different</emphasis> than the system hostname. If
- this will be a self signed certificate, prefix the hostname
- with <literal>CA</literal> for certificate authority.</para>
+ <para>提示的輸入項目除了通用名稱 (<literal>Common Name</literal>) 其他是可以一樣的,這個項目必須使用與系統主機名稱 <emphasis>不同</emphasis> 的名稱。若這是一個自行簽署的憑証 (Self signed certificate),則在憑証機構 <literal>CA</literal> 的前面加上主機名稱。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The next task is to create a certificate signing request
- and a private key. Input this command and follow the
- prompts:</para>
+ <para>接下來的工作是建立一個憑証簽署的請求及私鑰。請輸入以下指令然後依提示操作:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>openssl req -days <replaceable>365</replaceable> -nodes -new -keyout server.key -out server.csr</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">During the certificate generation process, be sure to
- correctly set the <literal>Common Name</literal> attribute.
- Once complete, sign the key:</para>
+ <para>在憑証產生程序的過程中請確認 <literal>Common Name</literal> 屬性設定正確。完成之後便可簽署金鑰:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>openssl x509 -req -days <replaceable>365</replaceable> -in server.csr -out ../server.crt -CA ../ca.crt -CAkey ca.key -CAcreateserial</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The final part of the certificate generation process is to
- generate and sign the client certificates:</para>
+ <para>在憑証產生程序的最後一步是產生並簽署用戶憑証:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>openssl req -days <replaceable>365</replaceable> -nodes -new -keyout client.key -out client.csr</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>openssl x509 -req -days 3650 -in client.csr -out ../client.crt -CA ../ca.crt -CAkey ca.key</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Remember to use the same <literal>Common Name</literal>
- attribute when prompted. When finished, ensure that a total
- of eight (8) new files have been generated through the
- proceeding commands. If so, the next step is to edit
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.conf</filename> and
- add the following options:</para>
+ <para>要記得當提示是要使用同樣的 <literal>Common Name</literal> 屬性。完成之後,請確認執行的指令產生了共 8 個新檔案。若正確無誤,下個步驟便是編輯 <filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.conf</filename> 並加入以下選項:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">TLSCipherSuite HIGH:MEDIUM:+SSLv3
TLSCertificateFile /usr/local/etc/openldap/server.crt
TLSCertificateKeyFile /usr/local/etc/openldap/private/server.key
TLSCACertificateFile /usr/local/etc/openldap/ca.crt</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">Then, edit
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/ldap.conf</filename> and add
- the following lines:</para>
+ <para>接著編輯 <filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/ldap.conf</filename> 然後加入下行:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">TLS_CACERT /usr/local/etc/openldap/ca.crt
TLS_CIPHER_SUITE HIGH:MEDIUM:+SSLv3</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">While editing this file, uncomment the following entries
- and set them to the desired values: <option>BASE</option>,
- <option>URI</option>, <option>SIZELIMIT</option> and
- <option>TIMELIMIT</option>. Set the <option>URI</option> to
- contain <option>ldap://</option> and
- <option>ldaps://</option>. Then, add two entries pointing to
- the certificate authority. When finished, the entries should
- look similar to the following:</para>
+ <para>在編輯這個檔案的時候,取消註解以下項目然後設定這些項目使用實際要使用的數值:<option>BASE</option>, <option>URI</option>, <option>SIZELIMIT</option> 以 <option>TIMELIMIT</option>。設定 <option>URI</option> 要包含 <option>ldap://</option> 及 <option>ldaps://</option>。然後加入兩個項目指向憑証機構。完成之後,所有的設定項目會如下:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">BASE dc=example,dc=com
URI ldap:// ldaps://
@@ -45403,34 +44508,18 @@ TIMELIMIT 15
TLS_CACERT /usr/local/etc/openldap/ca.crt
TLS_CIPHER_SUITE HIGH:MEDIUM:+SSLv3</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">The default password for the server should then be
- changed:</para>
+ <para>給伺服器用的預設密碼應該要更換:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>slappasswd -h "{SHA}" &gt;&gt; /usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.conf</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">This command will prompt for the password and, if the
- process does not fail, a password hash will be added to the
- end of <filename>slapd.conf</filename>. Several hashing
- formats are supported. Refer to the manual page for
- <command>slappasswd</command> for more information.</para>
+ <para>這個指令會提示輸入密碼,若程序沒有失敗,便會將編碼過的密碼加到 <filename>slapd.conf</filename> 的最後。支援的編碼格式有許多種,請參考 <command>slappasswd</command> 的操作手冊以取得更多資訊。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Next, edit
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.conf</filename> and
- add the following lines:</para>
+ <para>接著編輯 <filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.conf</filename> 並加入下行:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">password-hash {sha}
allow bind_v2</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <option>suffix</option> in this file must be updated
- to match the <option>BASE</option> used in
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/ldap.conf</filename> and
- <option>rootdn</option> should also be set. A recommended
- value for <option>rootdn</option> is something like
- <option>cn=Manager</option>. Before saving this file, place
- the <option>rootpw</option> in front of the password output
- from <command>slappasswd</command> and delete the old
- <option>rootpw</option>. The end result should
- look similar to this:</para>
+ <para>在這個設定檔的 <option>suffix</option> 必須更新為與在 <filename>/usr/local/etc/openldap/ldap.conf</filename> 及 <option>rootdn</option> 使用的 <option>BASE</option> 相同。<option>rootdn</option> 建議的值為 <option>cn=Manager</option>。在儲存這個檔案之前,將 <option>rootpw</option> 放到由 <command>slappasswd</command> 產生的密碼之前,然後刪除原有的 <option>rootpw</option>。最後的結果應該如下:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">TLSCipherSuite HIGH:MEDIUM:+SSLv3
TLSCertificateFile /usr/local/etc/openldap/server.crt
@@ -45438,20 +44527,16 @@ TLSCertificateKeyFile /usr/local/etc/openldap/private/server.key
TLSCACertificateFile /usr/local/etc/openldap/ca.crt
rootpw {SHA}W6ph5Mm5Pz8GgiULbPgzG37mj9g=</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">Finally, enable the <application>OpenLDAP</application>
- service in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and set the
- <acronym>URI</acronym>:</para>
+ <para>最後,在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 開啟 <application>OpenLDAP</application> 服務並設定 <acronym>URI</acronym>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">slapd_enable="YES"
slapd_flags="-4 -h ldaps:///"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">At this point the server can be started and tested:</para>
+ <para>此時便可啟動並測試伺服器:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service slapd start</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">If everything is configured correctly, a search of the
- directory should show a successful connection with a single
- response as in this example:</para>
+ <para>若所有的設定均正確,搜尋目錄應會如此範例顯示成功連線並有一筆回應:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ldapsearch -Z</userinput>
# extended LDIF
@@ -45469,18 +44554,13 @@ result: 32 No such object
# numResponses: 1</screen>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">If the command fails and the configuration looks
- correct, stop the <command>slapd</command> service and
- restart it with debugging options:</para>
+ <para>若指令失敗且設定看起來沒有問題,可先停止 <command>slapd</command> 服務並開啟除錯選項並重新啟動:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service slapd stop</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>/usr/local/libexec/slapd -d -1</userinput></screen>
</note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Once the service is responding, the directory can be
- populated using <command>ldapadd</command>. In this example,
- a file containing this list of users is first created. Each
- user should use the following format:</para>
+ <para>服務有回應之後,便可使用 <command>ldapadd</command> 匯入資料到目錄。在此例中,會先建立一個含有使用者清單的檔案,每位使用者應使用以下格式定義:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">dn: dc=<replaceable>example</replaceable>,dc=<replaceable>com</replaceable>
objectclass: dcObject
@@ -45492,9 +44572,7 @@ dn: cn=<replaceable>Manager</replaceable>,dc=<replaceable>example</replaceable>,
objectclass: organizationalRole
cn: <replaceable>Manager</replaceable></programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">To import this file, specify the file name. The following
- command will prompt for the password specified earlier and the
- output should look something like this:</para>
+ <para>要匯入這個檔案,可指定檔案名稱。以下指令會提示輸入先前設定過的密碼然後輸入如下的結果:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ldapadd -Z -D "cn=<replaceable>Manager</replaceable>,dc=<replaceable>example</replaceable>,dc=<replaceable>com</replaceable>" -W -f <replaceable>import.ldif</replaceable></userinput>
Enter LDAP Password:
@@ -45502,8 +44580,7 @@ adding new entry "dc=example,dc=com"
adding new entry "cn=Manager,dc=example,dc=com"</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Verify the data was added by issuing a search on the
- server using <command>ldapsearch</command>:</para>
+ <para>使用 <command>ldapsearch</command> 發出一個查詢到伺服器來確認資料已新增:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ldapsearch -Z</userinput>
# extended LDIF
@@ -45533,8 +44610,7 @@ result: 0 Success
# numResponses: 3
# numEntries: 2</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">At this point, the server should be configured and
- functioning properly.</para>
+ <para>此時,伺服器應已設定完成並可正常運作。</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -45550,7 +44626,7 @@ result: 0 Success
</authorgroup>
</sect1info>
-->
- <title>動態主機設定協定 (<acronym>DHCP</acronym>)</title>
+ <title>動態主機設置協定 (<acronym>DHCP</acronym>)</title>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary>Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol</primary>
@@ -45560,142 +44636,70 @@ result: 0 Success
<primary>Internet Systems Consortium (ISC)</primary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
- (<acronym>DHCP</acronym>) allows a system to connect to a
- network in order to be assigned the necessary addressing
- information for communication on that network. FreeBSD includes
- the OpenBSD version of <command>dhclient</command> which is used
- by the client to obtain the addressing information. FreeBSD does
- not install a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server, but several
- servers are available in the FreeBSD Ports Collection. The
- <acronym>DHCP</acronym> protocol is fully described in <link xlink:href="http://www.freesoft.org/CIE/RFC/2131/">RFC
- 2131</link>.
- Informational resources are also available at <link xlink:href="http://www.isc.org/downloads/dhcp/">isc.org/downloads/dhcp/</link>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This section describes how to use the built-in
- <acronym>DHCP</acronym> client. It then describes how to
- install and configure a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server.</para>
+ <para>動態主機設置協定 (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, <acronym>DHCP</acronym>) 可分配必要的位置資訊給一個連線到網路的系統以在該網路通訊。FreeBSD 內含 OpenBSD 版本的 <command>dhclient</command>,可用來做為客戶端來取得位置資訊。FreeBSD 預設並不會安裝 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器,但在 FreeBSD Port 套件集中有許多可用的伺服器。有關 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 通訊協定的完整說明位於 <link xlink:href="http://www.freesoft.org/CIE/RFC/2131/">RFC 2131</link>,相關資源也可至 <link xlink:href="http://www.isc.org/downloads/dhcp/">isc.org/downloads/dhcp/</link> 取得。</para>
+
+ <para>本節將介紹如何使用內建的 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 客戶端,接著會介紹如何安裝並設定一個 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器。</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">In FreeBSD, the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> device is needed by both the
- <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server and <acronym>DHCP</acronym>
- client. This device is included in the
- <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel that is installed with
- FreeBSD. Users who prefer to create a custom kernel need to keep
- this device if <acronym>DHCP</acronym> is used.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">It should be noted that <filename>bpf</filename> also
- allows privileged users to run network packet sniffers on
- that system.</para>
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 中,<citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 裝置同時會被 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器與 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 客戶端所使用。這個裝置會在 <filename>GENERIC</filename> 核心中被引用並隨著 FreeBSD 安裝。想要建立自訂核心的使用者若要使用 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 則須保留這個裝置。</para>
+
+ <para>另外要注意 <filename>bpf</filename> 也會讓有權限的使用者在該系統上可執行網路封包監聽程式。</para>
</note>
<sect2>
<title>設定 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 客戶端</title>
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>DHCP</acronym> client support is included in the
- FreeBSD installer, making it easy to configure a newly installed
- system to automatically receive its networking addressing
- information from an existing <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server.
- Refer to <xref linkend="bsdinstall-post"/> for examples of
- network configuration.</para>
+ <para><acronym>DHCP</acronym> 客戶端內含在 FreeBSD 安裝程式當中,這讓在新安裝的系統上設定自動從 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器接收網路位置資訊變的更簡單。請參考 <xref linkend="bsdinstall-post"/> 取得網路設置的範例。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary><acronym>UDP</acronym></primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">When <command>dhclient</command> is executed on the client
- machine, it begins broadcasting requests for configuration
- information. By default, these requests use
- <acronym>UDP</acronym> port 68. The server replies on
- <acronym>UDP</acronym> port 67, giving the client an
- <acronym>IP</acronym> address and other relevant network
- information such as a subnet mask, default gateway, and
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> server addresses. This information is
- in the form of a <acronym>DHCP</acronym>
- <quote>lease</quote> and is valid for a configurable time.
- This allows stale <acronym>IP</acronym> addresses for clients
- no longer connected to the network to automatically be reused.
- <acronym>DHCP</acronym> clients can obtain a great deal of
- information from the server. An exhaustive list may be found
- in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dhcp-options</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">By default, when a FreeBSD system boots, its
- <acronym>DHCP</acronym> client runs in the background, or
- <firstterm>asynchronously</firstterm>. Other startup scripts
- continue to run while the <acronym>DHCP</acronym> process
- completes, which speeds up system startup.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Background <acronym>DHCP</acronym> works well when the
- <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server responds quickly to the
- client's requests. However, <acronym>DHCP</acronym> may take
- a long time to complete on some systems. If network services
- attempt to run before <acronym>DHCP</acronym> has assigned the
- network addressing information, they will fail. Using
- <acronym>DHCP</acronym> in <firstterm>synchronous</firstterm>
- mode prevents this problem as it pauses startup until the
- <acronym>DHCP</acronym> configuration has completed.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This line in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> is used to
- configure background or asynchronous mode:</para>
+ <para>當 <command>dhclient</command> 在客戶端機器上執行時,它便會開始廣播請求取得設置資訊。預設這些請求會使用 <acronym>UDP</acronym> 埠號 68。而伺服器則會在 <acronym>UDP</acronym> 埠號 67 來回覆,將 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址與其他相關的網路資訊,如:子網路遮罩、預設閘道及 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器位址告訴客戶端,詳細的清單可在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dhcp-options</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 找到。</para>
+
+ <para>預設當 FreeBSD 系統開機時,其 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 客戶端會在背景執行或稱非同步 (<firstterm>Asynchronously</firstterm>) 執行,在完成 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 程序的同時其他啟動 Script 會繼續執行,來加速系統啟動。</para>
+
+ <para>背景 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 在 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器可以快速的回應客戶端請求時可運作的很好。然而 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 在某些系統可能需要較長的時間才能完成,若網路服務嘗試在 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 尚未分配網路位置資訊前執行則會失敗。使用同步 (<firstterm>Synchronous</firstterm>) 模式執行 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 可避免這個問題,因為同步模式會暫停啟動直到 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 已設置完成。</para>
+
+ <para>在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 中的這行用來設定採用背景 (非同步模式):</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">ifconfig_<replaceable>fxp0</replaceable>="DHCP"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">This line may already exist if the system was configured
- to use <acronym>DHCP</acronym> during installation. Replace
- the <replaceable>fxp0</replaceable> shown in these examples
- with the name of the interface to be dynamically configured,
- as described in <xref linkend="config-network-setup"/>.</para>
+ <para>若系統已經在安裝時設定使用 <acronym>DHCP</acronym>,這行可能會已存在。替換在例子中的 <replaceable>fxp0</replaceable> 為實際要動態設置的網路介面名稱,如 <xref linkend="config-network-setup"/> 中的說明。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">To instead configure the system to use synchronous mode,
- and to pause during startup while <acronym>DHCP</acronym>
- completes, use
- <quote><literal>SYNCDHCP</literal></quote>:</para>
+ <para>要改設定系統採用同步模式,會在啟動時暫停動後 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 完成,使用 <quote><literal>SYNCDHCP</literal></quote>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">ifconfig_<replaceable>fxp0</replaceable>="SYNCDHCP"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">Additional client options are available. Search for
- <literal>dhclient</literal> in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for
- details.</para>
+ <para>尚有其他可用的客戶端選項,請在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 搜尋 <literal>dhclient</literal> 來取得詳細資訊。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary><acronym>DHCP</acronym></primary>
<secondary>configuration files</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>DHCP</acronym> client uses the following
- files:</para>
+ <para><acronym>DHCP</acronym> 客戶端會使用到以下檔案:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/dhclient.conf</filename></para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The configuration file used by
- <command>dhclient</command>. Typically, this file
- contains only comments as the defaults are suitable for
- most clients. This configuration file is described in
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dhclient.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para><command>dhclient</command> 用到的設定檔。通常這個檔案只會有註解,因為預設便適用大多數客戶端。這個設定檔在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dhclient.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 中有說明。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><filename>/sbin/dhclient</filename></para>
- <para xml:lang="en">More information about the command itself can
- be found in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dhclient</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para>有關指令本身的更多資訊可於 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dhclient</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 找到。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><filename>/sbin/dhclient-script</filename></para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The
- FreeBSD-specific <acronym>DHCP</acronym> client configuration
- script. It is described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dhclient-script</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, but
- should not need any user modification to function
- properly.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 特定的 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 客戶端設定 Script。在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dhclient-script</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 中有說明,但應不須做任何修改便可正常運作。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><filename>/var/db/dhclient.leases.<replaceable>interface</replaceable></filename></para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>DHCP</acronym> client keeps a database of
- valid leases in this file, which is written as a log and
- is described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dhclient.leases</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para><acronym>DHCP</acronym> 客戶端會在這個檔案中儲存有效租約的資料,寫入的格式類似日誌,在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dhclient.leases</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 有說明。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</sect2>
@@ -45703,13 +44707,7 @@ result: 0 Success
<sect2 xml:id="network-dhcp-server">
<title>安裝並設定 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">This section demonstrates how to configure a FreeBSD system
- to act as a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server using the Internet
- Systems Consortium (<acronym>ISC</acronym>) implementation of
- the <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server. This implementation and
- its documentation can be installed using the
- <package>net/isc-dhcp43-server</package> package or
- port.</para>
+ <para>本節將示範如何設定 FreeBSD 系統成為 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器,使用 Internet Systems Consortium (<acronym>ISC</acronym>) 所實作的 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器,這個伺服器及其文件可使用 <package>net/isc-dhcp43-server</package> 套件或 Port 安裝。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary><acronym>DHCP</acronym></primary>
@@ -45721,21 +44719,13 @@ result: 0 Success
<secondary>installation</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The installation of
- <package>net/isc-dhcp43-server</package> installs a sample
- configuration file. Copy
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/dhcpd.conf.example</filename> to
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/dhcpd.conf</filename> and make any
- edits to this new file.</para>
+ <para><package>net/isc-dhcp43-server</package> 的安裝程式會安裝一份範例設定檔,複製 <filename>/usr/local/etc/dhcpd.conf.example</filename> 到 <filename>/usr/local/etc/dhcpd.conf</filename> 並在這個新檔案做編輯。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary><acronym>DHCP</acronym></primary>
<secondary>dhcpd.conf</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The configuration file is comprised of declarations for
- subnets and hosts which define the information that is
- provided to <acronym>DHCP</acronym> clients. For example,
- these lines configure the following:</para>
+ <para>這個設定檔內容包括了子網路及主機的宣告,用來定義要提供給 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 客戶端的資訊。如以下行設定:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">option domain-name "example.org";<co xml:id="domain-name"/>
option domain-name-servers ns1.example.org;<co xml:id="domain-name-servers"/>
@@ -45757,105 +44747,62 @@ host fantasia {
<calloutlist>
<callout arearefs="domain-name">
- <para xml:lang="en">This option specifies the default search domain that
- will be provided to clients. Refer to
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>resolv.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information.</para>
+ <para>這個選項指定了要提供給客戶端的預設搜尋網域。請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>resolv.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 取得更多資訊。</para>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="domain-name-servers">
- <para xml:lang="en">This option specifies a comma separated list of
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> servers that the client should use.
- They can be listed by their Fully Qualified Domain Names
- (<acronym>FQDN</acronym>), as seen in the example, or by
- their <acronym>IP</acronym> addresses.</para>
+ <para>這個選項指定了客戶端應使用的 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器清單 (以逗號分隔)。如範例中所示,可使用伺服器的完整網域名稱 (Fully Qualified Domain Names, <acronym>FQDN</acronym>) 或伺服器的 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址。</para>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="subnet-mask">
- <para xml:lang="en">The subnet mask that will be provided to
- clients.</para>
+ <para>要提供給客戶端的子網路遮罩。</para>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="default-lease-time">
- <para xml:lang="en">The default lease expiry time in seconds. A client
- can be configured to override this value. </para>
+ <para>預設租約到期時間 (秒)。客戶端可以自行設定覆蓋這個數值。</para>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="max-lease-time">
- <para xml:lang="en">The maximum allowed length of time, in seconds, for a
- lease. Should a client request a longer lease, a lease
- will still be issued, but it will only be valid for
- <literal>max-lease-time</literal>.</para>
+ <para>一個租約最多允許的時間長度 (秒)。若客戶端請求更長的租約,仍會發出租約,但最多只會在 <literal>max-lease-time</literal> 內有效。</para>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="ddns-update-style">
- <para xml:lang="en">The default of <option>none</option> disables dynamic
- DNS updates. Changing this to <option>interim</option>
- configures the <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server to update a
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> server whenever it hands out a
- lease so that the <acronym>DNS</acronym> server knows
- which <acronym>IP</acronym> addresses are associated with
- which computers in the network. Do not change the default
- setting unless the <acronym>DNS</acronym> server has been
- configured to support dynamic
- <acronym>DNS</acronym>.</para>
+ <para>預設的 <option>none</option> 會關閉動態 DNS 更新。更改此值為 <option>interim</option> 可讓 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器每當發出一個租約便通知 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器更新,如此一來 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器便知道網路中該電腦的 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址。不要更改此預設值,除非 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器已設定為支援動態 <acronym>DNS</acronym>。</para>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="range">
- <para xml:lang="en">This line creates a pool of available
- <acronym>IP</acronym> addresses which are reserved for
- allocation to <acronym>DHCP</acronym> clients. The range
- of addresses must be valid for the network or subnet
- specified in the previous line.</para>
+ <para>此行會建立一個可用 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址的儲存池來保留這些要分配給 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 客戶端的位址。位址範圍必須在前一行所指定的網路或子網路中有效。</para>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="routers">
- <para xml:lang="en">Declares the default gateway that is valid for the
- network or subnet specified before the opening
- <literal>{</literal> bracket.</para>
+ <para>宣告在開始的 <literal>{</literal> 括號之前所指定的網路或子網路中有效的預設通訊閘。</para>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="hardware">
- <para xml:lang="en">Specifies the hardware <acronym>MAC</acronym> address
- of a client so that the <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server can
- recognize the client when it makes a request.</para>
+ <para>指定客戶端的硬體 <acronym>MAC</acronym> 位址,好讓 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器在客戶端發出請求時可以辨識客戶端。</para>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="fixed-address">
- <para xml:lang="en">Specifies that this host should always be given the
- same <acronym>IP</acronym> address. Using the hostname is
- correct, since the <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server will
- resolve the hostname before returning the lease
- information.</para>
+ <para>指定這個主機應分配相同的 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址。在此處用主機名稱是正確的,由於 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器會在回傳租約資訊前先解析主機名稱。</para>
</callout>
</calloutlist>
- <para xml:lang="en">This configuration file supports many more options. Refer
- to dhcpd.conf(5), installed with the server, for details and
- examples.</para>
+ <para>此設定檔還支援其他選項,請參考隨伺服器一併安裝的 dhcpd.conf(5) 來取得詳細資訊與範例。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Once the configuration of <filename>dhcpd.conf</filename>
- is complete, enable the <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server in
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para>完成 <filename>dhcpd.conf</filename> 的設定之後,在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 啟動 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">dhcpd_enable="YES"
dhcpd_ifaces="dc0"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">Replace the <literal>dc0</literal> with the interface (or
- interfaces, separated by whitespace) that the
- <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server should listen on for
- <acronym>DHCP</acronym> client requests.</para>
+ <para>替換 <literal>dc0</literal> 為 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器要傾聽 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 客戶端請求的網路介面 (多個介面可以空白分隔)。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Start the server by issuing the following command:</para>
+ <para>執行以下指令來啟動伺服器:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service isc-dhcpd start</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Any future changes to the configuration of the server will
- require the <application>dhcpd</application> service to be
- stopped and then started using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para>往後任何對伺服器設定的變更會需要使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 中止 <application>dhcpd</application> 服務然後啟動。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server uses the following
- files. Note that the manual pages are installed with the
- server software.</para>
+ <para><acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器會使用到以下檔案。注意,操作手冊會與伺服器軟體一同安裝。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary><acronym>DHCP</acronym></primary>
@@ -45865,39 +44812,25 @@ dhcpd_ifaces="dc0"</programlisting>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><filename>/usr/local/sbin/dhcpd</filename></para>
- <para xml:lang="en">More information about the
- <application>dhcpd</application> server can be found in
- dhcpd(8).</para>
+ <para>更多有關 <application>dhcpd</application> 伺服器的資訊可在 dhcpd(8) 找到。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><filename>/usr/local/etc/dhcpd.conf</filename></para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The server configuration file needs to contain all the
- information that should be provided to clients, along with
- information regarding the operation of the server. This
- configuration file is described in dhcpd.conf(5).</para>
+ <para>伺服器設定檔需要含有所有要提供給客戶端的資訊以及有關伺服器運作的資訊。在 dhcpd.conf(5) 有此設定檔的說明。 </para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><filename>/var/db/dhcpd.leases</filename></para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server keeps a database of
- leases it has issued in this file, which is written as a
- log. Refer to dhcpd.leases(5), which gives a slightly
- longer description.</para>
+ <para><acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器會儲存一份已發出租約的資料於這個檔案,寫入的格式類似日誌。參考 dhcpd.leases(5) 會有更完整的說明。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><filename>/usr/local/sbin/dhcrelay</filename></para>
- <para xml:lang="en">This daemon is used in advanced environments where one
- <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server forwards a request from a
- client to another <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server on a
- separate network. If this functionality is required,
- install the <package>net/isc-dhcp43-relay</package>
- package or port. The installation includes dhcrelay(8)
- which provides more detail.</para>
+ <para>這個 Daemon 會用在更進階的環境中,在一個 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器要轉發來自客戶端的請求到另一個網路的另一個 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 伺服器的環境。若需要使用此功能,請安裝 <package>net/isc-dhcp43-relay</package> 套件或 Port,安裝會包含 dhcrelay(8),裡面有提供更詳細的資訊。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</sect2>
@@ -45925,7 +44858,7 @@ dhcpd_ifaces="dc0"</programlisting>
</authorgroup>
</sect1info>
-->
- <title>網域名稱系統 (<acronym>DNS</acronym>)</title>
+ <title>網域名稱系統 (Domain Name System, <acronym>DNS</acronym>)</title>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>DNS</primary></indexterm>
@@ -49385,7 +48318,7 @@ pass proto udp to any port $udp_services keep state</programlisting>
</tip>
<sect3 xml:id="pftut-gateway">
- <title>使用 NAT 的簡單閘道器</title>
+ <title>使用 NAT 的簡單通訊閘</title>
<para xml:lang="en">This section demonstrates how to configure a FreeBSD system
running <application>PF</application> to act as a gateway
@@ -50193,7 +49126,7 @@ rdr pass on $ext_if inet proto tcp from !&lt;spamd-white&gt; to \
<programlisting xml:lang="en">scrub in all</programlisting>
<para xml:lang="en">Some services, such as <acronym>NFS</acronym>, require
- specific fragment handling options. Refer to <link xlink:href="http://www.openbsd.gr/faq/pf/scrub.html">http://www.openbsd.gr/faq/pf/scrub.html</link>
+ specific fragment handling options. Refer to <link xlink:href="https://home.nuug.no/~peter/pf/en/scrub.html">https://home.nuug.no/~peter/pf/en/scrub.html</link>
for more information.</para>
<para xml:lang="en">This example reassembles fragments, clears the
@@ -50719,7 +49652,7 @@ $cmd 00231 allow tcp from any to any 110 out via $pif setup keep-state
$cmd 00250 allow icmp from any to any out via $pif keep-state
# Allow outbound NTP
-$cmd 00260 allow udp from any to any 123 out via $pif setup keep-state
+$cmd 00260 allow udp from any to any 123 out via $pif keep-state
# Allow outbound SSH
$cmd 00280 allow tcp from any to any 22 out via $pif setup keep-state
@@ -55631,7 +54564,7 @@ bridge0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; metric 0 mtu 1
package can be used to retrieve the data.</para>
<para xml:lang="en">To enable monitoring on the bridge, uncomment this line in
- <filename>/etc/snmp.config</filename> by removing the
+ <filename>/etc/snmpd.config</filename> by removing the
beginning <literal>#</literal> symbol:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">begemotSnmpdModulePath."bridge" = "/usr/lib/snmp_bridge.so"</programlisting>
@@ -57570,8 +56503,7 @@ ifconfig_<replaceable>em0</replaceable>_<replaceable>5</replaceable>="inet 192.1
<sect1 xml:id="mirrors-cdrom">
<title><acronym>CD</acronym> 與 <acronym>DVD</acronym> 合集</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD <acronym>CD</acronym> and <acronym>DVD</acronym> sets
- are available from several online retailers:</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD <acronym>CD</acronym> 以及 <acronym>DVD</acronym> 組可從以下幾個線上零售商取得:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
@@ -57655,31 +56587,12 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<sect1 xml:id="mirrors-ftp">
<title><acronym>FTP</acronym> 站</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">The official sources for FreeBSD are available via anonymous
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> from a worldwide set of mirror sites.
- The site <uri xlink:href="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</uri>
- is available via <acronym>HTTP</acronym> and
- <acronym>FTP</acronym>. It is made up of many machines operated
- by the project cluster administrators and behind GeoDNS to
- direct users to the closest available mirror.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Additionally, FreeBSD is available via anonymous
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> from the following mirror sites. When
- obtaining FreeBSD via anonymous <acronym>FTP</acronym>,
- please try to use a nearby site. The mirror sites listed as
- <quote>Primary Mirror Sites</quote> typically have the entire
- FreeBSD archive (all the currently available versions for each of
- the architectures) but faster download speeds are probably
- available from a site that is in your country or region. The
- regional sites carry the most recent versions for the most
- popular architecture(s) but might not carry the entire FreeBSD
- archive. All sites provide access via anonymous
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> but some sites also provide access via
- other methods. The access methods available for each site are
- provided in parentheses after the hostname.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 的官方原始碼可從全球任一鏡像站透過匿名 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 取得。其中 <uri xlink:href="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</uri> 站可使用 <acronym>HTTP</acronym> 及 <acronym>FTP</acronym>,該站是由多台由計畫叢集管理員所維護的主機所組成,且在 GeoDNS 之後,可導向使用者到最近可用的鏡像站。</para>
+
+ <para>除此之外,FreeBSD 也可透過匿名 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 從下列鏡像站取得。要透過匿名 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 取得 FreeBSD 時,請先嘗試使用臨近的站台。列在 <quote>主要鏡像站</quote> 中的鏡像站通常會有完整的 FreeBSD 封存檔 (每一個架構目前所有可用的版本),但若要考慮下載速度,可能要使用您所在國家或區域的站台。區域的站台會有熱門架構最近期的版本,但不會有完整的 FreeBSD 封存檔。所有站台皆提供匿名 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 存取只有部份站台會以其他方式提供存取。每個站台可用的存取方式會列在主機名稱後的括號當中。</para>
-<para xml:lang="en"><link linkend="central-ftp">Central Servers</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-primary-ftp">Primary Mirror Sites</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-am-ftp">Armenia</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-au-ftp">Australia</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-at-ftp">Austria</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-br-ftp">Brazil</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-cn-ftp">China</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-cz-ftp">Czech Republic</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-dk-ftp">Denmark</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-ee-ftp">Estonia</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-fi-ftp">Finland</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-fr-ftp">France</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-de-ftp">Germany</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-gr-ftp">Greece</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-hk-ftp">Hong Kong</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-ie-ftp">Ireland</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-jp-ftp">Japan</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-kr-ftp">Korea</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-lv-ftp">Latvia</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-lt-ftp">Lithuania</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-nl-ftp">Netherlands</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-nz-ftp">New Zealand</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-no-ftp">Norway</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-pl-ftp">Poland</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-ru-ftp">Russia</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-sa-ftp">Saudi Arabia</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-si-ftp">Slovenia</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-za-ftp">South Africa</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-es-ftp">Spain</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-se-ftp">Sweden</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-ch-ftp">Switzerland</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-tw-ftp">Taiwan</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-ua-ftp">Ukraine</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-uk-ftp">United Kingdom</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-us-ftp">USA</link>.</para>
+<para><link linkend="central-ftp">中央伺服器</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-primary-ftp">主要鏡像站</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-am-ftp">亞美尼亞 (Armenia)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-au-ftp">澳洲 (Australia)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-at-ftp">奧地利 (Austria)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-br-ftp">巴西 (Brazil)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-cn-ftp">中國 (China)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-cz-ftp">捷克 (Czech Republic)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-dk-ftp">丹麥 (Denmark)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-ee-ftp">愛沙尼亞 (Estonia)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-fi-ftp">芬蘭 (Finland)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-fr-ftp">法國 (France)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-de-ftp">德國 (Germany)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-gr-ftp">希臘 (Greece)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-hk-ftp">香港 (Hong Kong)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-ie-ftp">愛爾蘭 (Ireland)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-jp-ftp">日本 (Japan)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-kr-ftp">韓國 (Korea)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-lv-ftp">拉脫維亞 (Latvia)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-lt-ftp">立陶宛 (Lithuania)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-nl-ftp">荷蘭 (Netherlands)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-nz-ftp">紐西蘭 (New Zealand)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-no-ftp">挪威 (Norway)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-pl-ftp">波蘭 (Poland)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-ru-ftp">俄羅斯 (Russia)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-sa-ftp">沙烏地阿拉伯 (Saudi Arabia)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-si-ftp">斯洛維尼亞 (Slovenia)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-za-ftp">南非 (South Africa)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-es-ftp">西班牙 (Spain)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-se-ftp">瑞典 (Sweden)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-ch-ftp">瑞士 (Switzerland)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-tw-ftp">台灣 (Taiwan)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-ua-ftp">烏克蘭 (Ukraine)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-uk-ftp">英國 (United Kingdom)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-us-ftp">美國 (USA)</link>。</para>
@@ -57689,7 +56602,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="central-ftp"/>Central Servers</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="central-ftp"/>中央伺服器</term>
<listitem>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
@@ -57699,10 +56612,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-primary-ftp"/>Primary Mirror Sites</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-primary-ftp"/>主要鏡像站</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>mirror-admin@FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>mirror-admin@FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp1.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp1.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -57741,10 +56653,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-am-ftp"/>Armenia</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-am-ftp"/>亞美尼亞 (Armenia)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@am.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@am.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp1.am.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp1.am.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / <link xlink:href="http://ftp1.am.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">http://ftp1.am.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> / rsync) </para>
@@ -57753,10 +56664,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-au-ftp"/>Australia</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-au-ftp"/>澳洲 (Australia)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@au.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@au.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.au.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.au.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -57771,10 +56681,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-at-ftp"/>Austria</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-at-ftp"/>奧地利 (Austria)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@at.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@at.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.at.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.at.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / ftpv6 / <link xlink:href="http://ftp.at.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">http://ftp.at.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> / <link xlink:href="http://ftp.at.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">http://ftp.at.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link>) </para>
@@ -57783,10 +56692,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-br-ftp"/>Brazil</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-br-ftp"/>巴西 (Brazil)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@br.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@br.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp2.br.FreeBSD.org/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp2.br.FreeBSD.org/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / <link xlink:href="http://ftp2.br.FreeBSD.org/">http://ftp2.br.FreeBSD.org/</link>) </para>
@@ -57801,10 +56709,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-cn-ftp"/>China</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-cn-ftp"/>中國 (China)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@cn.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@cn.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.cn.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.cn.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -57813,10 +56720,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-cz-ftp"/>Czech Republic</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-cz-ftp"/>捷克 (Czech Republic)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@cz.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@cz.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.cz.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.cz.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / <link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.cz.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.cz.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> / <link xlink:href="http://ftp.cz.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">http://ftp.cz.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> / <link xlink:href="http://ftp.cz.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">http://ftp.cz.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> / rsync / rsyncv6) </para>
@@ -57828,10 +56734,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-dk-ftp"/>Denmark</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-dk-ftp"/>丹麥 (Denmark)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@dk.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@dk.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.dk.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.dk.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / ftpv6 / <link xlink:href="http://ftp.dk.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">http://ftp.dk.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> / <link xlink:href="http://ftp.dk.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">http://ftp.dk.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link>) </para>
@@ -57840,10 +56745,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-ee-ftp"/>Estonia</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-ee-ftp"/>愛沙尼亞 (Estonia)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@ee.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@ee.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.ee.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.ee.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -57852,10 +56756,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-fi-ftp"/>Finland</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-fi-ftp"/>芬蘭 (Finland)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@fi.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@fi.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.fi.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.fi.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -57864,10 +56767,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-fr-ftp"/>France</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-fr-ftp"/>法國 (France)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@fr.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@fr.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.fr.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.fr.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -57894,10 +56796,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-de-ftp"/>Germany</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-de-ftp"/>德國 (Germany)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>de-bsd-hubs@de.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@de.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.de.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.de.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -57924,10 +56825,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-gr-ftp"/>Greece</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-gr-ftp"/>希臘 (Greece)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@gr.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@gr.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.gr.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.gr.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -57939,7 +56839,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-hk-ftp"/>Hong Kong</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-hk-ftp"/>香港 (Hong Kong)</term>
<listitem>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
@@ -57949,7 +56849,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-ie-ftp"/>Ireland</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-ie-ftp"/>愛爾蘭 (Ireland)</term>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
<email>hostmaster@ie.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
@@ -57961,10 +56861,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-jp-ftp"/>Japan</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-jp-ftp"/>日本 (Japan)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@jp.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@jp.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.jp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.jp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -57997,10 +56896,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-kr-ftp"/>Korea</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-kr-ftp"/>韓國 (Korea)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@kr.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@kr.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.kr.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.kr.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / rsync) </para>
@@ -58012,10 +56910,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-lv-ftp"/>Latvia</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-lv-ftp"/>拉脫維亞 (Latvia)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@lv.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@lv.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.lv.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.lv.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / <link xlink:href="http://ftp.lv.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">http://ftp.lv.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link>) </para>
@@ -58024,10 +56921,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-lt-ftp"/>Lithuania</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-lt-ftp"/>立陶宛 (Lithuania)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@lt.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@lt.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.lt.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.lt.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / <link xlink:href="http://ftp.lt.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">http://ftp.lt.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link>) </para>
@@ -58036,10 +56932,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-nl-ftp"/>Netherlands</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-nl-ftp"/>荷蘭 (Netherlands)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@nl.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@nl.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.nl.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.nl.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / <link xlink:href="http://ftp.nl.FreeBSD.org/os/FreeBSD/">http://ftp.nl.FreeBSD.org/os/FreeBSD/</link> / rsync) </para>
@@ -58051,7 +56946,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-nz-ftp"/>New Zealand</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-nz-ftp"/>紐西蘭 (New Zealand)</term>
<listitem>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
@@ -58061,10 +56956,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-no-ftp"/>Norway</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-no-ftp"/>挪威 (Norway)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@no.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@no.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.no.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.no.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / rsync) </para>
@@ -58073,10 +56967,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-pl-ftp"/>Poland</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-pl-ftp"/>波蘭 (Poland)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@pl.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@pl.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.pl.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.pl.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -58088,10 +56981,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-ru-ftp"/>Russia</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-ru-ftp"/>俄羅斯 (Russia)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@ru.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@ru.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.ru.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.ru.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / <link xlink:href="http://ftp.ru.FreeBSD.org/FreeBSD/">http://ftp.ru.FreeBSD.org/FreeBSD/</link> / rsync) </para>
@@ -58112,10 +57004,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-sa-ftp"/>Saudi Arabia</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-sa-ftp"/>沙烏地阿拉伯 (Saudi Arabia)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>ftpadmin@isu.net.sa</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>ftpadmin@isu.net.sa</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.isu.net.sa/pub/ftp.freebsd.org/">ftp://ftp.isu.net.sa/pub/ftp.freebsd.org/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -58124,10 +57015,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-si-ftp"/>Slovenia</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-si-ftp"/>斯洛維尼亞 (Slovenia)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@si.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@si.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.si.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.si.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -58136,10 +57026,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-za-ftp"/>South Africa</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-za-ftp"/>南非 (South Africa)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@za.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@za.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.za.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.za.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -58154,10 +57043,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-es-ftp"/>Spain</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-es-ftp"/>西班牙 (Spain)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@es.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@es.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.es.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.es.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / <link xlink:href="http://ftp.es.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">http://ftp.es.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link>) </para>
@@ -58169,10 +57057,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-se-ftp"/>Sweden</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-se-ftp"/>瑞典 (Sweden)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@se.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@se.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.se.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.se.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -58193,10 +57080,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-ch-ftp"/>Switzerland</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-ch-ftp"/>瑞士 (Switzerland)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@ch.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@ch.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.ch.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.ch.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / <link xlink:href="http://ftp.ch.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">http://ftp.ch.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link>) </para>
@@ -58205,10 +57091,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-tw-ftp"/>Taiwan</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-tw-ftp"/>台灣 (Taiwan)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@tw.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@tw.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.tw.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.tw.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp / <link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.tw.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.tw.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> / rsync / rsyncv6) </para>
@@ -58250,7 +57135,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-ua-ftp"/>Ukraine</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-ua-ftp"/>烏克蘭 (Ukraine)</term>
<listitem>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
@@ -58266,10 +57151,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-uk-ftp"/>United Kingdom</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-uk-ftp"/>英國 (United Kingdom)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@uk.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@uk.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.uk.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.uk.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -58290,10 +57174,9 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><anchor xml:id="mirrors-us-ftp"/>USA</term>
+ <term><anchor xml:id="mirrors-us-ftp"/>美國 (USA)</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">In case of problems, please contact the hostmaster
- <email>hostmaster@us.FreeBSD.org</email> for this domain.</para>
+ <para>若有任何問題,請聯絡此區域的主機管理者 <email>hostmaster@us.FreeBSD.org</email>。</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="ftp://ftp1.us.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp1.us.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</link> (ftp) </para>
@@ -58348,40 +57231,24 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<sect2 xml:id="svn-intro">
<title>簡介</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">As of July 2012, FreeBSD uses
- <application>Subversion</application> as the only version
- control system for storing all of FreeBSD's source code,
- documentation, and the Ports Collection.</para>
+ <para>自 2012 年 7 月起,FreeBSD 儲存所有 FreeBSD 的原始碼、文件與 Port 套件集均使用 <application>Subversion</application> 作為其唯一的版本控制系統。</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Subversion</application> is generally a
- developer tool. Users may prefer to use
- <command>freebsd-update</command> (<xref linkend="updating-upgrading-freebsdupdate"/>) to update
- the FreeBSD base system, and <command>portsnap</command> (<xref linkend="ports-using"/>) to update the FreeBSD Ports
- Collection.</para>
+ <para><application>Subversion</application> 只是一套開發人員工具。一般使用者可能會較喜歡使用 <command>freebsd-update</command> (<xref linkend="updating-upgrading-freebsdupdate"/>) 來更新 FreeBSD 基礎系統及 <command>portsnap</command> (<xref linkend="ports-using"/>) 來更新 FreeBSD Port 套件集。</para>
</note>
- <para xml:lang="en">This section demonstrates how to install
- <application>Subversion</application> on a FreeBSD system and
- use it to create a local copy of a FreeBSD repository.
- Additional information on the use of
- <application>Subversion</application> is included.</para>
+ <para>本節將示範如何在 FreeBSD 系統安裝 <application>Subversion</application> 以及使用它建立一個本地的 FreeBSD 檔案庫複本,也包含使用 <application>Subversion</application> 的其他資訊。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="svn-ssl-certificates">
<title>根 <acronym>SSL</acronym> 憑證</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Installing
- <package role="port">security/ca_root_nss</package> allows
- <application>Subversion</application> to verify the identity
- of <acronym>HTTPS</acronym> repository servers. The root
- <acronym>SSL</acronym> certificates can be installed from a
- port:</para>
+ <para>安裝 <package role="port">security/ca_root_nss</package> 可讓 <application>Subversion</application> 能夠驗証 <acronym>HTTPS</acronym> 檔案庫伺服器的身份。root <acronym>SSL</acronym> 憑証可從 Port 安裝:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/security/ca_root_nss</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">or as a package:</para>
+ <para>或從套件:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install ca_root_nss</userinput></screen>
</sect2>
@@ -58389,33 +57256,22 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<sect2 xml:id="svn-svnlite">
<title xml:lang="en"><application>Svnlite</application></title>
- <para xml:lang="en">A lightweight version of
- <application>Subversion</application> is already installed
- on FreeBSD as <command>svnlite</command>. The port or package
- version of <application>Subversion</application> is only
- needed if the Python or Perl <acronym>API</acronym> is needed,
- or if a later version of Subversion is desired.</para>
+ <para><command>svnlite</command> 為輕量化版的 <application>Subversion</application>,會隨 FreeBSD 安裝。<application>Subversion</application> 的 Port 或套件版本僅在要使用其 Python 或 Perl <acronym>API</acronym> 或想要使用最新版本 Subversion 時才需安裝,</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The only difference from normal
- <application>Subversion</application> use is that the command
- name is <literal>svnlite</literal>.</para>
+ <para>與正常 <application>Subversion</application> 唯一的差別只是指令名稱改為 <literal>svnlite</literal>。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="svn-install">
<title>安裝</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">If <command>svnlite</command> is unavailable or the full
- version of <application>Subversion</application> is needed,
- then it must be installed.</para>
+ <para>若無法使用 <command>svnlite</command> 或需要完整版本的 <application>Subversion</application> 就必須安裝。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Subversion</application> can be installed
- from the Ports Collection:</para>
+ <para><application>Subversion</application> 可從 Port 套件集安裝:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/devel/subversion</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Subversion</application> can also be
- installed as a package:</para>
+ <para><application>Subversion</application> 也可以以套件安裝:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install subversion</userinput></screen>
</sect2>
@@ -58423,36 +57279,17 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<sect2 xml:id="svn-usage">
<title>執行 <application>Subversion</application></title>
- <para xml:lang="en">To fetch a clean copy of the sources into a local
- directory, use <command>svn</command>. The files in this
- directory are called a <emphasis>local working
- copy</emphasis>.</para>
+ <para>要下載原始碼乾淨的複本到本地目錄可使用 <command>svn</command>。在此目錄中的檔案稱作 <emphasis>本地工作複本 (Local working copy)</emphasis>。</para>
<warning>
- <para xml:lang="en">Move or delete an existing destination directory before
- using <command>checkout</command> for the first time.</para>
+ <para>在第一次使用 <command>checkout</command> 前請先移動或刪除目地現有的目錄。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Checkout over an existing
- non-<command>svn</command> directory can cause conflicts
- between the existing files and those brought in from the
- repository.</para>
+ <para>在現有非 <command>svn</command> 目錄存在的情況下做取出 (Checkout) 的動作會導致現有檔案與檔案庫中的檔案發生衝突。</para>
</warning>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Subversion</application> uses
- <acronym>URL</acronym>s to designate a repository, taking the
- form of <replaceable>protocol://hostname/path</replaceable>.
- The first component of the path is the FreeBSD repository to
- access. There are three different repositories,
- <literal>base</literal> for the FreeBSD base system source code,
- <literal>ports</literal> for the Ports Collection, and
- <literal>doc</literal> for documentation. For example, the
- URL
- <literal>https://svn.FreeBSD.org/ports/head/</literal>
- specifies the main branch of the ports repository,
- using the <literal>https</literal> protocol.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A checkout from a given repository is performed with a
- command like this:</para>
+ <para><application>Subversion</application> 使用 <acronym>URL</acronym> 來指定檔案庫,使用的格式為 <replaceable>protocol://hostname/path</replaceable>。路徑的第一個部份為要存取的 FreeBSD 檔案庫,目前有三個檔案庫,<literal>base</literal> 為 FreeBSD 基礎系統原始碼、<literal>ports</literal> 為 Port 套件集以及 <literal>doc</literal> 為說明文件。舉例來說,URL <literal>https://svn.FreeBSD.org/ports/head/</literal> 代表 Port 檔案庫的主要分支,使用 <literal>https</literal> 通訊協定。</para>
+
+ <para>使用指令從指定的檔案庫取出 (Checkout) 原始碼如下:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>svn checkout https://svn.FreeBSD.org/<replaceable>repository</replaceable>/<replaceable>branch</replaceable> <replaceable>lwcdir</replaceable></userinput></screen>
@@ -58460,75 +57297,35 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><replaceable>repository</replaceable> is one of the
- Project repositories: <literal>base</literal>,
- <literal>ports</literal>, or
- <literal>doc</literal>.</para>
+ <para><replaceable>repository</replaceable> 要是下列專案檔案庫其中之一:<literal>base</literal>, <literal>ports</literal> 或 <literal>doc</literal>。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><replaceable>branch</replaceable> depends on the
- repository used. <literal>ports</literal> and
- <literal>doc</literal> are mostly updated in the
- <literal>head</literal> branch, while
- <literal>base</literal> maintains the latest version of
- -CURRENT under <literal>head</literal> and the respective
- latest versions of the -STABLE branches under
- <literal>stable/9</literal>
- (9.<replaceable>x</replaceable>) and
- <literal>stable/10</literal>
- (10.<replaceable>x</replaceable>).</para>
+ <para><replaceable>branch</replaceable> 則依據使用的檔案庫來決定。<literal>ports</literal> 與 <literal>doc</literal> 大部份的更新皆在 <literal>head</literal> 分支,而 <literal>base</literal> 則會將 -CURRENT 的最新版本存放在 <literal>head</literal> 下,-STABLE 分支各自最新的版本則會放在 <literal>stable/9</literal> (9.<replaceable>x</replaceable>) 與 <literal>stable/10</literal> (10.<replaceable>x</replaceable>) 下。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><replaceable>lwcdir</replaceable> is the target
- directory where the contents of the specified branch
- should be placed. This is usually
- <filename>/usr/ports</filename> for
- <literal>ports</literal>,
- <filename>/usr/src</filename> for
- <literal>base</literal>, and
- <filename>/usr/doc</filename> for
- <literal>doc</literal>.</para>
+ <para><replaceable>lwcdir</replaceable> 則是要存放指定分支內容的目標目錄,通常 <literal>ports</literal> 會置於 <filename>/usr/ports</filename>,<literal>base</literal> 會置於 <filename>/usr/src</filename> 以及 <literal>doc</literal> 會置於 <filename>/usr/doc</filename>。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
- <para xml:lang="en">This example checks out the Ports Collection from the
- FreeBSD repository using the <acronym>HTTPS</acronym>
- protocol, placing the local working copy in
- <filename>/usr/ports</filename>. If
- <filename>/usr/ports</filename> is already
- present but was not created by <command>svn</command>,
- remember to rename or delete it before the checkout.</para>
+ <para>以下範例會使用 <acronym>HTTPS</acronym> 協定從 FreeBSD 的檔案庫取出 Port 套件集,並將本地工作複本放置於 <filename>/usr/ports</filename>。若 <filename>/usr/ports</filename> 已存在,且不是由 <command>svn</command> 所建立的,記得要在取出之前重新命名或刪除。</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>svn checkout https://svn.FreeBSD.org/ports/head /usr/ports</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Because the initial checkout must download the full
- branch of the remote repository, it can take a while. Please
- be patient.</para>
+ <para>由於首次取出的動作必須下載遠端檔案庫中完整的分支,會需要花費一段時間,請耐心等候。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">After the initial checkout, the local working copy can be
- updated by running:</para>
+ <para>首次取出之後,往後要更新本地工作複本可以執行:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>svn update <replaceable>lwcdir</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">To update
- <filename>/usr/ports</filename> created in
- the example above, use:</para>
+ <para>要更新上述範例所建立的 <filename>/usr/ports</filename> 可執行:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>svn update /usr/ports</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The update is much quicker than a checkout, only
- transferring files that have changed.</para>
+ <para>因為只會傳輸有更新過的檔案,更新的動作會比取出還要快速。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">An alternate way of updating the local working copy after
- checkout is provided by the <filename>Makefile</filename> in
- the <filename>/usr/ports</filename>,
- <filename>/usr/src</filename>, and
- <filename>/usr/doc</filename> directories.
- Set <varname>SVN_UPDATE</varname> and use the
- <buildtarget xml:lang="en">update</buildtarget> target. For example, to
- update <filename>/usr/src</filename>:</para>
+ <para>另一種在取出之後更新本地工作複本的方式是透過 <filename>/usr/ports</filename>, <filename>/usr/src</filename> 以及 <filename>/usr/doc</filename> 目錄所提供的 <filename>Makefile</filename>。設定 <varname>SVN_UPDATE</varname> 並使用 <buildtarget>update</buildtarget> 目標。例如要更新 <filename>/usr/src</filename>:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make update SVN_UPDATE=yes</userinput></screen>
@@ -58542,30 +57339,17 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<secondary>Mirror Sites</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The FreeBSD <application>Subversion</application>
- repository is:</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD <application>Subversion</application> 的檔案庫為:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">svn.FreeBSD.org</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">This is
- a publicly accessible mirror network that uses GeoDNS to
- select an appropriate back end server. To view the FreeBSD
- <application>Subversion</application> repositories through a
- browser, use <link xlink:href="https://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/">https://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/</link>.</para>
+ <para>這是可公開存取的鏡像站,使用了 GeoDNS 會自動選擇適合的後端伺服器。若要由瀏覽器檢視 <application>Subversion</application> 檔案庫可以使用 <link xlink:href="https://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/">https://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/</link>。</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">The FreeBSD <application>Subversion</application> mirrors
- previously used self-signed SSL certificates documented in
- this chapter. As of July 14, 2015, all mirrors now use an
- official SSL certificate that will be recognized by
- <application>Subversion</application> if the <package role="port">security/ca_root_nss</package> port is
- installed. The legacy self-signed certificates and server
- names are still available but are deprecated and no longer
- supported.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD <application>Subversion</application> 鏡像站先前使用的自我簽署 SSL 憑証記錄於本章節中。自 2015 年 7 月開始,所有鏡像站開始使用官方的 SSL 憑証,若有安裝 <package role="port">security/ca_root_nss</package> Port 則 <application>Subversion</application> 便有辦法辨識。舊的自我簽署憑証與伺服器名稱仍可以使用,但已不建議使用且不再支援。</para>
</note>
- <para xml:lang="en">For those without the <package role="port">security/ca_root_nss</package> port
- installed, the SHA1 and SHA256 fingerprints are:</para>
+ <para>對於未安裝 <package role="port">security/ca_root_nss</package> Port 的系統,所需的 SHA1 與 SHA256 的指紋 (Fingerprint) 為:</para>
<informaltable>
<tgroup cols="2">
@@ -58573,8 +57357,8 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<colspec colwidth="1*"/>
<thead>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Hash</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Fingerprint</entry>
+ <entry>編碼 (Hash)</entry>
+ <entry>指紋 (Fingerprint)</entry>
</row>
</thead>
@@ -58592,19 +57376,11 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</tgroup>
</informaltable>
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>HTTPS</acronym> is the preferred protocol,
- providing protection against another computer pretending to be
- the FreeBSD mirror (commonly known as a <quote>man in the
- middle</quote> attack) or otherwise trying to send bad
- content to the end user.</para>
+ <para>建議使用 <acronym>HTTPS</acronym> 通訊協定,這可提供避免其他電腦假裝為 FreeBSD 鏡像站 (即為一般所知的 <quote>中間人攻擊 (Man in the middle)</quote> 攻擊) 與其他嘗試傳送惡意內容給終端使用者的保護。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">If <literal>https</literal> cannot be used due to firewall
- or other problems, <literal>svn</literal> is the next choice,
- with slightly faster transfers. When neither can be used, use
- <literal>http</literal>.</para>
+ <para>若因防火牆或其他問題無法使用 <literal>https</literal>,那麼下一個選擇為使用 <literal>svn</literal>,這個通訊協定會有較快的傳輸速度。當兩者皆無法使用時才使用 <literal>http</literal>。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">For those still using deprecated server names, the SHA1
- and SHA256 fingerprints will be one of:</para>
+ <para>對於那些仍使用已不建議使用伺服器名稱的電腦的 SHA1 及 SHA256 指紋可為下列其中之一:</para>
<informaltable>
<tgroup cols="2">
@@ -58612,145 +57388,122 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<colspec colwidth="1*"/>
<thead>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Hash</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Fingerprint</entry>
+ <entry>編碼 (Hash)</entry>
+ <entry>指紋 (Fingerprint)</entry>
</row>
</thead>
<tbody>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Legacy-SHA1</entry>
+ <entry>舊-SHA1</entry>
<entry xml:lang="en"><literal>1C:BD:85:95:11:9F:EB:75:A5:4B:C8:A3:FE:08:E4:02:73:06:1E:61</literal></entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Legacy-SHA1</entry>
+ <entry>舊-SHA1</entry>
<entry xml:lang="en"><literal>F6:44:AA:B9:03:89:0E:3E:8C:4D:4D:14:F0:27:E6:C7:C1:8B:17:C5</literal></entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Legacy-SHA256</entry>
+ <entry>舊-SHA256</entry>
<entry xml:lang="en"><literal>47:35:A9:09:A3:AB:FA:20:33:36:43:C5:1A:D6:E6:FB:EB:C0:C0:83:37:D4:46:9C:A0:AB:89:7F:C2:9C:4C:A3</literal></entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Legacy-SHA256</entry>
+ <entry>舊-SHA256</entry>
<entry xml:lang="en"><literal>48:3C:84:DB:7C:27:1B:FA:D5:0B:A0:D7:E0:4C:79:AA:A3:8E:A3:FA:84:E6:32:34:7D:EB:30:E6:11:01:CF:BE</literal></entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</informaltable>
- <para xml:lang="en">Seeing one of these legacy certificate
- fingerprints means it is likely that a deprecated
- server name is being used.</para>
+ <para>從這些舊的憑証指紋中找到對應已不建已使用伺服器名稱所使用的項目。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>取得更多資訊</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">For other information about using
- <application>Subversion</application>, please see the
- <quote>Subversion Book</quote>, titled
- <link xlink:href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/">Version
- Control with Subversion</link>, or the <link xlink:href="http://subversion.apache.org/docs/">Subversion
- Documentation</link>.</para>
+ <para>要取得其他有關使用 <application>Subversion</application> 的資訊請參考 <quote>Subversion Book</quote>,其書名為 <link xlink:href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/">Version Control with Subversion</link> 或是 <link xlink:href="http://subversion.apache.org/docs/">Subversion Documentation</link>。</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 xml:id="mirrors-rsync">
<title>使用 <application>rsync</application></title>
- <para xml:lang="en">These sites make FreeBSD available through the rsync
- protocol. The <application>rsync</application> utility works in
- much the same way as the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rcp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> command, but has more
- options and uses the rsync remote-update protocol which
- transfers only the differences between two sets of files, thus
- greatly speeding up the synchronization over the network. This
- is most useful for mirror sites of the FreeBSD
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server. The
- <application>rsync</application> suite is available for many
- operating systems, on FreeBSD, see the <package>net/rsync</package>
- port or use the package.</para>
+ <para>這些站台讓 FreeBSD 可透過 rsync 通訊協定取得。<application>rsync</application> 工具運作的方式類似 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rcp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令,但有更多的選項可用,且使用 rsync 遠端更新協定,該協定只會傳輸兩個檔案集之間的差異,所以能夠大大的加快在網路上同步的速度,這對大多數 FreeBSD <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的鏡像站非常有用。<application>rsync</application> 在許多作業系統上也可以使用,在 FreeBSD 上請參考 <package>net/rsync</package> Port 或使用套件。</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">Czech Republic</term>
+ <term>捷克 (Czech Republic)</term>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">rsync://ftp.cz.FreeBSD.org/</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Available collections:</para>
+ <para>可用的檔案集:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">ftp: A partial mirror of the FreeBSD
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
+ <para>ftp: FreeBSD <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的部份鏡像。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD: A full mirror of the FreeBSD
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD: FreeBSD <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的完整鏡像。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">Netherlands</term>
+ <term>荷蘭 (Netherlands)</term>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">rsync://ftp.nl.FreeBSD.org/</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Available collections:</para>
+ <para>可用的檔案集:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD: A full mirror of the FreeBSD
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD: FreeBSD <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的完整鏡像。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">Russia</term>
+ <term>俄羅斯 (Russia)</term>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">rsync://ftp.mtu.ru/</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Available collections:</para>
+ <para>可用的檔案集:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD: A full mirror of the FreeBSD
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD: FreeBSD <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的完整鏡像。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD-Archive: The mirror of FreeBSD Archive
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD-Archive: FreeBSD 封存 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的鏡像。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">Sweden</term>
+ <term>瑞典 (Sweden)</term>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">rsync://ftp4.se.freebsd.org/</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Available collections:</para>
+ <para>可用的檔案集:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD: A full mirror of the FreeBSD
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD: FreeBSD <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的完整鏡像。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">Taiwan</term>
+ <term>台灣 (Taiwan)</term>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">rsync://ftp.tw.FreeBSD.org/</para>
@@ -58759,62 +57512,57 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<para xml:lang="en">rsync://ftp6.tw.FreeBSD.org/</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Available collections:</para>
+ <para>可用的檔案集:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD: A full mirror of the FreeBSD
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD: FreeBSD <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的完整鏡像。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">United Kingdom</term>
+ <term>英國 (United Kingdom)</term>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">rsync://rsync.mirrorservice.org/</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Available collections:</para>
+ <para>可用的檔案集:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">ftp.freebsd.org: A full mirror of the FreeBSD
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
+ <para>ftp.freebsd.org: FreeBSD <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的完整鏡像。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">United States of America</term>
+ <term>美國 (USA)</term>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">rsync://ftp-master.FreeBSD.org/</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">This server may only be used by FreeBSD primary mirror
- sites.</para>
+ <para>此伺服器僅供 FreeBSD 主要鏡像站使用。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Available collections:</para>
+ <para>可用的檔案集:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD: The master archive of the FreeBSD
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD: FreeBSD <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的主要封存。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">acl: The FreeBSD master ACL list.</para>
+ <para>acl: FreeBSD 主要 ACL 清單。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
<para xml:lang="en">rsync://ftp13.FreeBSD.org/</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Available collections:</para>
+ <para>可用的檔案集:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD: A full mirror of the FreeBSD
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD: FreeBSD <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的完整鏡像。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</listitem>
@@ -61715,7 +60463,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<title>官方鏡像站</title>
-<para xml:lang="en"><link linkend="central-www">Central Servers</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-am-www">Armenia</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-au-www">Australia</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-at-www">Austria</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-cz-www">Czech Republic</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-dk-www">Denmark</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-fi-www">Finland</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-fr-www">France</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-de-www">Germany</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-hk-www">Hong Kong</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-ie-www">Ireland</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-jp-www">Japan</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-lv-www">Latvia</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-lt-www">Lithuania</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-nl-www">Netherlands</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-no-www">Norway</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-ru-www">Russia</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-si-www">Slovenia</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-za-www">South Africa</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-es-www">Spain</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-se-www">Sweden</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-ch-www">Switzerland</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-tw-www">Taiwan</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-uk-www">United Kingdom</link>, <link linkend="mirrors-us-www">USA</link>.</para>
+<para><link linkend="central-www">中央伺服器</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-am-www">亞美尼亞 (Armenia)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-au-www">澳洲 (Australia)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-at-www">奧地利 (Austria)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-cz-www">捷克 (Czech Republic)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-dk-www">丹麥 (Denmark)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-fi-www">芬蘭 (Finland)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-fr-www">法國 (France)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-de-www">德國 (Germany)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-hk-www">香港 (Hong Kong)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-ie-www">愛爾蘭 (Ireland)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-jp-www">日本 (Japan)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-lv-www">拉脫維亞 (Latvia)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-lt-www">立陶宛 (Lithuania)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-nl-www">荷蘭 (Netherlands)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-no-www">挪威 (Norway)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-ru-www">俄羅斯 (Russia)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-si-www">斯洛維尼亞 (Slovenia)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-za-www">南非 (South Africa)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-es-www">西班牙 (Spain)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-se-www">瑞典 (Sweden)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-ch-www">瑞士 (Switzerland)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-tw-www">台灣 (Taiwan)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-uk-www">英國 (United Kingdom)</link>、<link linkend="mirrors-us-www">美國 (USA)</link>。</para>
@@ -61726,7 +60474,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="central-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Central Servers</para>
+ <para>中央伺服器</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61737,7 +60485,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-am-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Armenia</para>
+ <para>亞美尼亞 (Armenia)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www1.am.FreeBSD.org/">http://www1.am.FreeBSD.org/</link> (IPv6)</para>
@@ -61746,7 +60494,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-au-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Australia</para>
+ <para>澳洲 (Australia)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61762,7 +60510,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-at-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Austria</para>
+ <para>奧地利 (Austria)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.at.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.at.FreeBSD.org/</link> (IPv6)</para>
@@ -61771,7 +60519,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-cz-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Czech Republic</para>
+ <para>捷克 (Czech Republic)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.cz.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.cz.FreeBSD.org/</link> (IPv6)</para>
@@ -61780,7 +60528,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-dk-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Denmark</para>
+ <para>丹麥 (Denmark)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.dk.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.dk.FreeBSD.org/</link> (IPv6)</para>
@@ -61789,7 +60537,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-fi-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Finland</para>
+ <para>芬蘭 (Finland)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61800,7 +60548,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-fr-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">France</para>
+ <para>法國 (France)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61811,7 +60559,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-de-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Germany</para>
+ <para>德國 (Germany)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61822,7 +60570,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-hk-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Hong Kong</para>
+ <para>香港 (Hong Kong)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61833,7 +60581,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-ie-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Ireland</para>
+ <para>愛爾蘭 (Ireland)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61844,7 +60592,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-jp-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Japan</para>
+ <para>日本 (Japan)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.jp.FreeBSD.org/www.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.jp.FreeBSD.org/www.FreeBSD.org/</link> (IPv6)</para>
@@ -61853,7 +60601,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-lv-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Latvia</para>
+ <para>拉脫維亞 (Latvia)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61864,7 +60612,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-lt-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Lithuania</para>
+ <para>立陶宛 (Lithuania)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61875,7 +60623,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-nl-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Netherlands</para>
+ <para>荷蘭 (Netherlands)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61886,7 +60634,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-no-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Norway</para>
+ <para>挪威 (Norway)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61897,7 +60645,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-ru-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Russia</para>
+ <para>俄羅斯 (Russia)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.ru.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.ru.FreeBSD.org/</link> (IPv6)</para>
@@ -61906,7 +60654,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-si-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Slovenia</para>
+ <para>斯洛維尼亞 (Slovenia)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61917,7 +60665,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-za-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">South Africa</para>
+ <para>南非 (South Africa)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61928,7 +60676,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-es-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Spain</para>
+ <para>西班牙 (Spain)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61944,7 +60692,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-se-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Sweden</para>
+ <para>瑞典 (Sweden)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61955,7 +60703,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-ch-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Switzerland</para>
+ <para>瑞士 (Switzerland)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.ch.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.ch.FreeBSD.org/</link> (IPv6)</para>
@@ -61967,7 +60715,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-tw-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">Taiwan</para>
+ <para>台灣 (Taiwan)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -61991,7 +60739,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-uk-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">United Kingdom</para>
+ <para>英國 (United Kingdom)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">
@@ -62007,7 +60755,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
<anchor xml:id="mirrors-us-www"/>
- <para xml:lang="en">USA</para>
+ <para>美國 (USA)</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www5.us.FreeBSD.org/">http://www5.us.FreeBSD.org/</link> (IPv6)</para>
diff --git a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po
index cfb8f38532..2ca7eea39c 100644
--- a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po
+++ b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po
@@ -2,15 +2,15 @@
msgid ""
msgstr ""
"Project-Id-Version: \n"
-"POT-Creation-Date: 2017-01-04 15:35+0800\n"
-"PO-Revision-Date: 2017-01-04 15:31+0800\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2017-02-23 16:27+0800\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: 2017-02-23 16:17+0800\n"
"Last-Translator: Chien Wei Lin <cwlin0416@gmail.com>\n"
"Language-Team: \n"
"Language: zh_TW\n"
"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
-"X-Generator: Poedit 1.8.10\n"
+"X-Generator: Poedit 1.8.12\n"
#. Put one translator per line, in the form NAME <EMAIL>, YEAR1, YEAR2
msgctxt "_"
@@ -18,25 +18,25 @@ msgid "translator-credits"
msgstr "Chien Wei Lin <cwlin0416@gmail.com>"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:607
+#: book.translate.xml:612
msgid "FreeBSD Handbook"
msgstr "FreeBSD 使用手冊"
#. (itstool) path: info/author
-#: book.translate.xml:609
+#: book.translate.xml:614
msgid "<orgname>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</orgname>"
msgstr "<orgname>FreeBSD 文件計劃</orgname>"
#. (itstool) path: info/pubdate
#. (itstool) path: info/releaseinfo
-#: book.translate.xml:613 book.translate.xml:615
+#: book.translate.xml:618 book.translate.xml:620
msgid ""
"$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/book.xml 49576 2016-10-25 "
"16:21:58Z gjb $"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: info/copyright
-#: book.translate.xml:617
+#: book.translate.xml:622
msgid ""
"<year>1995</year> <year>1996</year> <year>1997</year> <year>1998</year> "
"<year>1999</year> <year>2000</year> <year>2001</year> <year>2002</year> "
@@ -48,12 +48,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/title
-#: book.translate.xml:645
+#: book.translate.xml:650
msgid "Copyright"
msgstr "版權"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:647
+#: book.translate.xml:652
msgid ""
"Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, "
"HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are "
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:654
+#: book.translate.xml:659
msgid ""
"Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the above copyright "
"notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer as the first "
@@ -69,7 +69,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:660
+#: book.translate.xml:665
msgid ""
"Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs, converted to "
"PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce the above copyright "
@@ -78,7 +78,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:669
+#: book.translate.xml:674
msgid ""
"THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT \"AS IS"
"\" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE "
@@ -94,32 +94,32 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:686
+#: book.translate.xml:691
msgid "FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation."
msgstr "FreeBSD 是 FreeBSD 基金會的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:688
+#: book.translate.xml:693
msgid "3Com and HomeConnect are registered trademarks of 3Com Corporation."
msgstr "3Com 和 HomeConnect 是 3Com Corporation 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:690
+#: book.translate.xml:695
msgid "3ware is a registered trademark of 3ware Inc."
msgstr "3ware 是 3ware Inc 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:692
+#: book.translate.xml:697
msgid "ARM is a registered trademark of ARM Limited."
msgstr "ARM 是 ARM Limited. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:694
+#: book.translate.xml:699
msgid "Adaptec is a registered trademark of Adaptec, Inc."
msgstr "Adaptec 是 Adaptec, Inc. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:696
+#: book.translate.xml:701
msgid ""
"Adobe, Acrobat, Acrobat Reader, Flash and PostScript are either registered "
"trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States "
@@ -129,7 +129,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Incorporated 在美國和/或其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:700
+#: book.translate.xml:705
msgid ""
"Apple, AirPort, FireWire, iMac, iPhone, iPad, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, "
"Quicktime, and TrueType are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. "
@@ -139,12 +139,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Quicktime 以及 TrueType 是 Apple Inc. 在美國以及其他國家的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:705
+#: book.translate.xml:710
msgid "Android is a trademark of Google Inc."
msgstr "Android 是 Google Inc 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:707
+#: book.translate.xml:712
msgid ""
"Heidelberg, Helvetica, Palatino, and Times Roman are either registered "
"trademarks or trademarks of Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG in the U.S. and "
@@ -154,7 +154,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Druckmaschinen AG 在美國以及其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:711
+#: book.translate.xml:716
msgid ""
"IBM, AIX, OS/2, PowerPC, PS/2, S/390, and ThinkPad are trademarks of "
"International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other "
@@ -164,7 +164,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Machines Corporation 在美國和其他國家的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:715
+#: book.translate.xml:720
msgid ""
"IEEE, POSIX, and 802 are registered trademarks of Institute of Electrical "
"and Electronics Engineers, Inc. in the United States."
@@ -173,7 +173,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Inc. 在美國的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:718
+#: book.translate.xml:723
msgid ""
"Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, "
"and Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its "
@@ -183,7 +183,7 @@ msgstr ""
"及 Xeon 是 Intel Corporation 及其分支機構在美國和其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:722
+#: book.translate.xml:727
msgid ""
"Intuit and Quicken are registered trademarks and/or registered service marks "
"of Intuit Inc., or one of its subsidiaries, in the United States and other "
@@ -193,12 +193,12 @@ msgstr ""
"標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:725
+#: book.translate.xml:730
msgid "Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds."
msgstr "Linux 是 Linus Torvalds 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:727
+#: book.translate.xml:732
msgid ""
"LSI Logic, AcceleRAID, eXtremeRAID, MegaRAID and Mylex are trademarks or "
"registered trademarks of LSI Logic Corp."
@@ -207,7 +207,7 @@ msgstr ""
"商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:730
+#: book.translate.xml:735
msgid ""
"Microsoft, IntelliMouse, MS-DOS, Outlook, Windows, Windows Media and Windows "
"NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation "
@@ -217,7 +217,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Windows NT 是 Microsoft Corporation 在美國和/或其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:734
+#: book.translate.xml:739
msgid ""
"Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and The "
"Open Group are trademarks of The Open Group in the United States and other "
@@ -227,12 +227,12 @@ msgstr ""
"DialTone 和 The Open Group 是其商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:738
+#: book.translate.xml:743
msgid "Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation."
msgstr "Oracle 是 Oracle Corporation 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:740
+#: book.translate.xml:745
msgid ""
"RealNetworks, RealPlayer, and RealAudio are the registered trademarks of "
"RealNetworks, Inc."
@@ -240,14 +240,14 @@ msgstr ""
"RealNetworks, RealPlayer, 和 RealAudio 是 RealNetworks, Inc. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:743
+#: book.translate.xml:748
msgid ""
"Red Hat, RPM, are trademarks or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in "
"the United States and other countries."
msgstr "Red Hat, RPM, 是 Red Hat, Inc. 在美國和其他國家的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:746
+#: book.translate.xml:751
msgid ""
"Sun, Sun Microsystems, Java, Java Virtual Machine, JDK, JRE, JSP, JVM, "
"Netra, OpenJDK, Solaris, StarOffice, SunOS and VirtualBox are trademarks or "
@@ -259,37 +259,37 @@ msgstr ""
"Microsystems, Inc. 在美國和其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:751
+#: book.translate.xml:756
msgid "MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc."
msgstr "MATLAB 是 The MathWorks, Inc. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:753
+#: book.translate.xml:758
msgid "SpeedTouch is a trademark of Thomson."
msgstr "SpeedTouch 是 Thomson 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:755
+#: book.translate.xml:760
msgid "VMware is a trademark of VMware, Inc."
msgstr "VMware 是 VMware, Inc. 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:757
+#: book.translate.xml:762
msgid "Mathematica is a registered trademark of Wolfram Research, Inc."
msgstr "Mathematica 是 Wolfram Research, Inc 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:759
+#: book.translate.xml:764
msgid "XFree86 is a trademark of The XFree86 Project, Inc."
msgstr "XFree86 是 The XFree86 Project, Inc 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:761
+#: book.translate.xml:766
msgid "Ogg Vorbis and Xiph.Org are trademarks of Xiph.Org."
msgstr "Ogg Vorbis 以及 Xiph.Org 是 Xiph.Org 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:763
+#: book.translate.xml:768
msgid ""
"Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish "
"their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in "
@@ -302,7 +302,7 @@ msgstr ""
"quote> 或 <quote>®</quote> 符號來標示。"
#. (itstool) path: abstract/para
-#: book.translate.xml:772
+#: book.translate.xml:777
msgid ""
"Welcome to FreeBSD! This handbook covers the installation and day to day use "
"of <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.0-RELEASE</emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 10.3-"
@@ -320,7 +320,7 @@ msgstr ""
"mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc\">FreeBSD 文件專案郵遞論壇</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: abstract/para
-#: book.translate.xml:781
+#: book.translate.xml:786
msgid ""
"The latest version of this book is available from the <link xlink:href="
"\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/\">FreeBSD web site</link>. Previous versions can "
@@ -345,18 +345,18 @@ msgstr ""
"件的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/title
-#: book.translate.xml:802
+#: book.translate.xml:807
msgid "Preface"
msgstr "序"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-audience
-#: book.translate.xml:804
+#: book.translate.xml:809
msgid "Intended Audience"
msgstr "給讀者的話"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:807
+#: book.translate.xml:812
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD newcomer will find that the first section of this book guides "
"the user through the FreeBSD installation process and gently introduces the "
@@ -370,7 +370,7 @@ msgstr ""
"一些常用、共通的東西。而閱讀這部分並不難,只需要您有探索的精神和接受新概念。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:814
+#: book.translate.xml:819
msgid ""
"Once you have traveled this far, the second, far larger, section of the "
"Handbook is a comprehensive reference to all manner of topics of interest to "
@@ -383,7 +383,7 @@ msgstr ""
"不熟的話,可在閱讀前先預習一番。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:821
+#: book.translate.xml:826
msgid ""
"For a list of additional sources of information, please see <xref linkend="
"\"bibliography\"/>."
@@ -391,12 +391,12 @@ msgstr "延伸閱讀方面,可參閱 <xref linkend=\"bibliography\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes-from3
-#: book.translate.xml:824
+#: book.translate.xml:829
msgid "Changes from the Third Edition"
msgstr "自第三版後的主要修訂"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:827
+#: book.translate.xml:832
msgid ""
"The current online version of the Handbook represents the cumulative effort "
"of many hundreds of contributors over the past 10 years. The following are "
@@ -407,7 +407,7 @@ msgstr ""
"2014 年發佈的兩冊第三版後所做的主要修訂:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:834
+#: book.translate.xml:839
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"dtrace\"/> has been added with information about the "
"powerful DTrace performance analysis tool."
@@ -415,7 +415,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"dtrace\"/> 增加說明有關強大的 DTrace 效能分析工具的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:839
+#: book.translate.xml:844
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"filesystems\"/> has been added with information about non-"
"native file systems in FreeBSD, such as ZFS from <trademark>Sun</trademark>."
@@ -424,7 +424,7 @@ msgstr ""
"自 <trademark>Sun</trademark> 的 ZSF。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:845
+#: book.translate.xml:850
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"audit\"/> has been added to cover the new auditing "
"capabilities in FreeBSD and explain its use."
@@ -432,7 +432,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"audit\"/> 增加的內容涵蓋 FreeBSD 的新稽查功能及其使用說明。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:850
+#: book.translate.xml:855
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"virtualization\"/> has been added with information about "
"installing FreeBSD on virtualization software."
@@ -440,7 +440,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"virtualization\"/> 增加有關在虛擬化軟體安裝 FreeBSD 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:856
+#: book.translate.xml:861
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"bsdinstall\"/> has been added to cover installation of "
"FreeBSD using the new installation utility, <application>bsdinstall</"
@@ -451,12 +451,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes-from2
-#: book.translate.xml:862
+#: book.translate.xml:867
msgid "Changes from the Second Edition (2004)"
msgstr "自第二版後的主要修訂 (2004)"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:865
+#: book.translate.xml:870
msgid ""
"The third edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the "
"dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project. The printed edition "
@@ -467,7 +467,7 @@ msgstr ""
"文件內容成長到一定大小,印刷版需要分成兩冊發佈。新版的主要修訂部分如下:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:873
+#: book.translate.xml:878
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/> has been expanded with new information "
"about the ACPI power and resource management, the <command>cron</command> "
@@ -477,7 +477,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>cron</command> 以及其他更多的核心調校選項說明內容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:880
+#: book.translate.xml:885
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"security\"/> has been expanded with new information about "
"virtual private networks (VPNs), file system access control lists (ACLs), "
@@ -487,7 +487,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(ACL),以及安全報告。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:886
+#: book.translate.xml:891
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"mac\"/> is a new chapter with this edition. It explains what "
"MAC is and how this mechanism can be used to secure a FreeBSD system."
@@ -496,7 +496,7 @@ msgstr ""
"何運用它來使您的 FreeBSD 系統更安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:892
+#: book.translate.xml:897
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"disks\"/> has been expanded with new information about USB "
"storage devices, file system snapshots, file system quotas, file and network "
@@ -507,13 +507,13 @@ msgstr ""
"詳解。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:899
+#: book.translate.xml:904
msgid ""
"A troubleshooting section has been added to <xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/> 增加了疑難排解的章節。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:903
+#: book.translate.xml:908
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"mail\"/> has been expanded with new information about using "
"alternative transport agents, SMTP authentication, UUCP, "
@@ -525,7 +525,7 @@ msgstr ""
"application> 的運用以及其它進階主題。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:911
+#: book.translate.xml:916
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"network-servers\"/> is all new with this edition. This "
"chapter includes information about setting up the <application>Apache HTTP "
@@ -543,7 +543,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"advanced-networking\"/> 。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:921
+#: book.translate.xml:926
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/> has been expanded with new "
"information about using <trademark class=\"registered\">Bluetooth</"
@@ -555,14 +555,14 @@ msgstr ""
"式 (Asynchronous Transfer Mode, ATM) 網路的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:928
+#: book.translate.xml:933
msgid ""
"A glossary has been added to provide a central location for the definitions "
"of technical terms used throughout the book."
msgstr "增加詞彙表,用以說明全書中出現的術語。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:934
+#: book.translate.xml:939
msgid ""
"A number of aesthetic improvements have been made to the tables and figures "
"throughout the book."
@@ -570,12 +570,12 @@ msgstr "重新美編書中所列的圖表。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes
-#: book.translate.xml:939
+#: book.translate.xml:944
msgid "Changes from the First Edition (2001)"
msgstr "自第一版後的主要修訂 (2001)"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:942
+#: book.translate.xml:947
msgid ""
"The second edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the "
"dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project. The following were "
@@ -585,17 +585,17 @@ msgstr ""
"變動如下︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:950
+#: book.translate.xml:955
msgid "A complete Index has been added."
msgstr "增加完整的目錄索引。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:954
+#: book.translate.xml:959
msgid "All ASCII figures have been replaced by graphical diagrams."
msgstr "所有的 ASCII 圖表均改成圖檔格式的圖表。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:959
+#: book.translate.xml:964
msgid ""
"A standard synopsis has been added to each chapter to give a quick summary "
"of what information the chapter contains, and what the reader is expected to "
@@ -603,7 +603,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr "每個章節均加入概述,以便快速的瀏覽該章節內容摘要、讀者所欲了解的部分。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:965
+#: book.translate.xml:970
msgid ""
"The content has been logically reorganized into three parts: <quote>Getting "
"Started</quote>, <quote>System Administration</quote>, and "
@@ -613,7 +613,7 @@ msgstr ""
"及 <quote>附錄</quote>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:972
+#: book.translate.xml:977
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"basics\"/> has been expanded to contain additional "
"information about processes, daemons, and signals."
@@ -621,14 +621,14 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"basics\"/> 新增了程序、Daemon 以及信號 (Signal) 的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:978
+#: book.translate.xml:983
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"ports\"/> has been expanded to contain additional "
"information about binary package management."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"ports\"/> 新增了介紹如何管理 Binary 套件的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:984
+#: book.translate.xml:989
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"x11\"/> has been completely rewritten with an emphasis on "
"using modern desktop technologies such as <application>KDE</application> and "
@@ -639,12 +639,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>GNOME</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:991
+#: book.translate.xml:996
msgid "<xref linkend=\"boot\"/> has been expanded."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"boot\"/> 更新相關內容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:995
+#: book.translate.xml:1000
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"disks\"/> has been written from what used to be two separate "
"chapters on <quote>Disks</quote> and <quote>Backups</quote>. We feel that "
@@ -656,7 +656,7 @@ msgstr ""
"體、軟體 RAID) 的段落也新增上去了。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1004
+#: book.translate.xml:1009
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"serialcomms\"/> has been completely reorganized and updated "
"for FreeBSD 4.X/5.X."
@@ -665,18 +665,18 @@ msgstr ""
"容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1009
+#: book.translate.xml:1014
msgid "<xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/> has been substantially updated."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/> 有相當程度的更新。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1014
+#: book.translate.xml:1019
msgid ""
"Many new sections have been added to <xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/> 加入許多新內容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1018
+#: book.translate.xml:1023
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"mail\"/> has been expanded to include more information about "
"configuring <application>sendmail</application>."
@@ -685,7 +685,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1024
+#: book.translate.xml:1029
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"linuxemu\"/> has been expanded to include information about "
"installing <application><trademark class=\"registered\">Oracle</trademark></"
@@ -698,28 +698,28 @@ msgstr ""
"trademark></application> 的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1031
+#: book.translate.xml:1036
msgid "The following new topics are covered in this second edition:"
msgstr "此外,第二版還新加章節,以介紹下列新主題:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1036
+#: book.translate.xml:1041
msgid "<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1040
+#: book.translate.xml:1045
msgid "<xref linkend=\"multimedia\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"multimedia\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-overview
-#: book.translate.xml:1046
+#: book.translate.xml:1051
msgid "Organization of This Book"
msgstr "本書架構"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1048
+#: book.translate.xml:1053
msgid ""
"This book is split into five logically distinct sections. The first section, "
"<emphasis>Getting Started</emphasis>, covers the installation and basic "
@@ -744,14 +744,14 @@ msgstr ""
"則包括網路和各式伺服器主題;而第五部分則為附錄包含各種有關 FreeBSD 的資源。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1073
+#: book.translate.xml:1078
msgid ""
"Introduces FreeBSD to a new user. It describes the history of the FreeBSD "
"Project, its goals and development model."
msgstr "向新手介紹 FreeBSD。該篇說明了 FreeBSD 計劃的歷史、目標和開發模式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1083
+#: book.translate.xml:1088
msgid ""
"Walks a user through the entire installation process of FreeBSD 9."
"<replaceable>x</replaceable> and later using <application>bsdinstall</"
@@ -761,7 +761,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>x</replaceable> 及之後版本的完整安裝流程。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1093
+#: book.translate.xml:1098
msgid ""
"Covers the basic commands and functionality of the FreeBSD operating system. "
"If you are familiar with <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> "
@@ -772,7 +772,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\">Linux</trademark> 或其他類 UNIX® 系統,您則可跳過此章。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1104
+#: book.translate.xml:1109
msgid ""
"Covers the installation of third-party software with both FreeBSD's "
"innovative <quote>Ports Collection</quote> and standard binary packages."
@@ -781,7 +781,7 @@ msgstr ""
"第三方軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1114
+#: book.translate.xml:1119
msgid ""
"Describes the X Window System in general and using X11 on FreeBSD in "
"particular. Also describes common desktop environments such as "
@@ -791,7 +791,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>KDE</application> 與 <application>GNOME</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1127
+#: book.translate.xml:1132
msgid ""
"Lists some common desktop applications, such as web browsers and "
"productivity suites, and describes how to install them on FreeBSD."
@@ -800,7 +800,7 @@ msgstr ""
"程式到 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1136
+#: book.translate.xml:1141
msgid ""
"Shows how to set up sound and video playback support for your system. Also "
"describes some sample audio and video applications."
@@ -809,14 +809,14 @@ msgstr ""
"用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1146
+#: book.translate.xml:1151
msgid ""
"Explains why you might need to configure a new kernel and provides detailed "
"instructions for configuring, building, and installing a custom kernel."
msgstr "說明為何需要設定新的核心並會提供設定、編譯與安裝的詳細操作說明。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1156
+#: book.translate.xml:1161
msgid ""
"Describes managing printers on FreeBSD, including information about banner "
"pages, printer accounting, and initial setup."
@@ -824,7 +824,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹如何在 FreeBSD 管理印表機,包含橫幅頁面、列印帳務以及初始設定等資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1166
+#: book.translate.xml:1171
msgid ""
"Describes the <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> "
"compatibility features of FreeBSD. Also provides detailed installation "
@@ -840,7 +840,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"registered\">Mathematica</trademark></application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1180
+#: book.translate.xml:1185
msgid ""
"Describes the parameters available for system administrators to tune a "
"FreeBSD system for optimum performance. Also describes the various "
@@ -850,14 +850,14 @@ msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 用到的各種設定檔以及到何處尋找這些設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1191
+#: book.translate.xml:1196
msgid ""
"Describes the FreeBSD boot process and explains how to control this process "
"with configuration options."
msgstr "介紹 FreeBSD 開機流程並說明如何使用設定選項控制開機流程。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1200
+#: book.translate.xml:1205
msgid ""
"Describes many different tools available to help keep your FreeBSD system "
"secure, including Kerberos, IPsec and OpenSSH."
@@ -866,7 +866,7 @@ msgstr ""
"OpenSSH。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1210
+#: book.translate.xml:1215
msgid ""
"Describes the jails framework, and the improvements of jails over the "
"traditional chroot support of FreeBSD."
@@ -874,7 +874,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹 Jail Framework,以及 Jail 改進那些 FreeBSD 傳統 chroot 不足的地方。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1219
+#: book.translate.xml:1224
msgid ""
"Explains what Mandatory Access Control (MAC) is and how this mechanism can "
"be used to secure a FreeBSD system."
@@ -883,7 +883,7 @@ msgstr ""
"保 FreeBSD 系統的安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1229
+#: book.translate.xml:1234
msgid ""
"Describes what FreeBSD Event Auditing is, how it can be installed, "
"configured, and how audit trails can be inspected or monitored."
@@ -891,7 +891,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹什麼事 FreeBSD 事件稽查,如何安裝與設定,以及如何檢查與監控稽查線索。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1239
+#: book.translate.xml:1244
msgid ""
"Describes how to manage storage media and filesystems with FreeBSD. This "
"includes physical disks, RAID arrays, optical and tape media, memory-backed "
@@ -901,7 +901,7 @@ msgstr ""
"與磁帶媒體、記憶體為基礎的磁碟以及網路檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1250
+#: book.translate.xml:1255
msgid ""
"Describes what the GEOM framework in FreeBSD is and how to configure various "
"supported RAID levels."
@@ -909,7 +909,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹在 FreeBSD 中的 GEOM Framework 是什麼,以及如何設定各種支援的 RAID 階層。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1259
+#: book.translate.xml:1264
msgid ""
"Examines support of non-native file systems in FreeBSD, like the Z File "
"System from <trademark>Sun</trademark>."
@@ -918,21 +918,21 @@ msgstr ""
"案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1268
+#: book.translate.xml:1273
msgid ""
"Describes what virtualization systems offer, and how they can be used with "
"FreeBSD."
msgstr "介紹虛擬化系統提供了那些功能,以及如何在 FreeBSD 上使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1277
+#: book.translate.xml:1282
msgid ""
"Describes how to use FreeBSD in languages other than English. Covers both "
"system and application level localization."
msgstr "介紹如何在 FreeBSD 使用非英文的語言,這涵蓋了系統及應用層的在地化。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1287
+#: book.translate.xml:1292
msgid ""
"Explains the differences between FreeBSD-STABLE, FreeBSD-CURRENT, and "
"FreeBSD releases. Describes which users would benefit from tracking a "
@@ -944,7 +944,7 @@ msgstr ""
"佈版本的方法。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1300
+#: book.translate.xml:1305
msgid ""
"Describes how to configure and use the DTrace tool from <trademark>Sun</"
"trademark> in FreeBSD. Dynamic tracing can help locate performance issues, "
@@ -954,19 +954,19 @@ msgstr ""
"追蹤可以透過執行真實時間系統分析來協助定位效能問題。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1313
+#: book.translate.xml:1318
msgid ""
"Explains how to connect terminals and modems to your FreeBSD system for both "
"dial in and dial out connections."
msgstr "介紹如何使用撥入及撥出連線到您的 FreeBSD 系統的終端機與數據機。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1323
+#: book.translate.xml:1328
msgid "Describes how to use PPP to connect to remote systems with FreeBSD."
msgstr "介紹如何在 FreeBSD 使用 PPP 來連線遠端的系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1332
+#: book.translate.xml:1337
msgid ""
"Explains the different components of an email server and dives into simple "
"configuration topics for the most popular mail server software: "
@@ -976,7 +976,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>sendmail</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1343
+#: book.translate.xml:1348
msgid ""
"Provides detailed instructions and example configuration files to set up "
"your FreeBSD machine as a network filesystem server, domain name server, "
@@ -986,7 +986,7 @@ msgstr ""
"網域名稱伺服器、網路資訊系統伺服器或時間同步伺服器。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1354
+#: book.translate.xml:1359
msgid ""
"Explains the philosophy behind software-based firewalls and provides "
"detailed information about the configuration of the different firewalls "
@@ -996,7 +996,7 @@ msgstr ""
"細資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1364
+#: book.translate.xml:1369
msgid ""
"Describes many networking topics, including sharing an Internet connection "
"with other computers on your LAN, advanced routing topics, wireless "
@@ -1008,7 +1008,7 @@ msgstr ""
"ATM、IPv6 以及更多相關主題。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1377
+#: book.translate.xml:1382
msgid ""
"Lists different sources for obtaining FreeBSD media on CDROM or DVD as well "
"as different sites on the Internet that allow you to download and install "
@@ -1018,7 +1018,7 @@ msgstr ""
"您可以下載並安裝 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1387
+#: book.translate.xml:1392
msgid ""
"This book touches on many different subjects that may leave you hungry for a "
"more detailed explanation. The bibliography lists many excellent books that "
@@ -1028,7 +1028,7 @@ msgstr ""
"多優秀書籍。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1398
+#: book.translate.xml:1403
msgid ""
"Describes the many forums available for FreeBSD users to post questions and "
"engage in technical conversations about FreeBSD."
@@ -1036,18 +1036,18 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹了可讓 FreeBSD 使用者提出問題以及參與有關 FreeBSD 技術會談的許多論壇。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1408
+#: book.translate.xml:1413
msgid "Lists the PGP fingerprints of several FreeBSD Developers."
msgstr "列出了數個 FreeBSD 開發人員的 PGP 指紋。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv
-#: book.translate.xml:1414
+#: book.translate.xml:1419
msgid "Conventions used in this book"
msgstr "本書的編排體裁"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1417
+#: book.translate.xml:1422
msgid ""
"To provide a consistent and easy to read text, several conventions are "
"followed throughout the book."
@@ -1055,17 +1055,17 @@ msgstr "為方便閱讀本書,以下是一些本書所遵循的編排體裁:
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-typographic
-#: book.translate.xml:1420
+#: book.translate.xml:1425
msgid "Typographic Conventions"
msgstr "文字編排體裁"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:1424
+#: book.translate.xml:1429
msgid "<emphasis>Italic</emphasis>"
msgstr "<emphasis>斜體字</emphasis>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1427
+#: book.translate.xml:1432
msgid ""
"An <emphasis>italic</emphasis> font is used for filenames, URLs, emphasized "
"text, and the first usage of technical terms."
@@ -1074,12 +1074,12 @@ msgstr ""
"次提及的技術詞彙。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:1434
+#: book.translate.xml:1439
msgid "<literal>Monospace</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>等寬字</literal>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1437
+#: book.translate.xml:1442
msgid ""
"A <literal>monospaced</literal> font is used for error messages, commands, "
"environment variables, names of ports, hostnames, user names, group names, "
@@ -1089,24 +1089,24 @@ msgstr ""
"稱、帳號、群組、裝置名稱、變數、程式碼等。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:1445
+#: book.translate.xml:1450
msgid "<application>Bold</application>"
msgstr "<application>粗體字</application>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1448
+#: book.translate.xml:1453
msgid ""
"A <keycap>bold</keycap> font is used for applications, commands, and keys."
msgstr "以<keycap>粗體字</keycap>表示:應用程式、指令、按鍵。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-commands
-#: book.translate.xml:1455
+#: book.translate.xml:1460
msgid "User Input"
msgstr "使用者輸入"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1458
+#: book.translate.xml:1463
msgid ""
"Keys are shown in <keycap>bold</keycap> to stand out from other text. Key "
"combinations that are meant to be typed simultaneously are shown with "
@@ -1116,14 +1116,14 @@ msgstr ""
"按下一些按鍵,我們以 `<literal>+</literal>' 來表示連接,像是:"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1463
+#: book.translate.xml:1468
msgid ""
"<keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>Alt</keycap> "
"<keycap>Del</keycap></keycombo>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1469
+#: book.translate.xml:1474
msgid ""
"Meaning the user should type the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>, <keycap>Alt</"
"keycap>, and <keycap>Del</keycap> keys at the same time."
@@ -1132,14 +1132,14 @@ msgstr ""
"keycap> 鍵。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1473
+#: book.translate.xml:1478
msgid ""
"Keys that are meant to be typed in sequence will be separated with commas, "
"for example:"
msgstr "若要逐一按鍵,那麼會以逗號 (,) 來表示,像是:"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1476
+#: book.translate.xml:1481
msgid ""
"<keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>X</keycap> </"
"keycombo>, <keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>S</"
@@ -1147,7 +1147,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1485
+#: book.translate.xml:1490
msgid ""
"Would mean that the user is expected to type the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> and "
"<keycap>X</keycap> keys simultaneously and then to type the <keycap>Ctrl</"
@@ -1158,12 +1158,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-examples
-#: book.translate.xml:1491
+#: book.translate.xml:1496
msgid "Examples"
msgstr "範例"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1493
+#: book.translate.xml:1498
msgid ""
"Examples starting with <filename>C:\\&gt;</filename> indicate a <trademark "
"class=\"registered\">MS-DOS</trademark> command. Unless otherwise noted, "
@@ -1178,13 +1178,13 @@ msgstr ""
"Prompt)</quote> 視窗內執行。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:1499
+#: book.translate.xml:1504
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>E:\\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>tools\\fdimage floppies\\kern.flp A:</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1501
+#: book.translate.xml:1506
msgid ""
"Examples starting with <prompt>#</prompt> indicate a command that must be "
"invoked as the superuser in FreeBSD. You can login as <systemitem class="
@@ -1198,13 +1198,13 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來取得超級使用者權限。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:1507
+#: book.translate.xml:1512
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dd if=kern.flp of=/dev/fd0</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1509
+#: book.translate.xml:1514
msgid ""
"Examples starting with <prompt>%</prompt> indicate a command that should be "
"invoked from a normal user account. Unless otherwise noted, C-shell syntax "
@@ -1215,19 +1215,19 @@ msgstr ""
"其他指令的意思。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:1514
+#: book.translate.xml:1519
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>top</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-acknowledgements
-#: book.translate.xml:1516
+#: book.translate.xml:1521
msgid "Acknowledgments"
msgstr "銘謝"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1518
+#: book.translate.xml:1523
msgid ""
"The book you are holding represents the efforts of many hundreds of people "
"around the world. Whether they sent in fixes for typos, or submitted "
@@ -1237,7 +1237,7 @@ msgstr ""
"糾正一些錯誤或提交完整的章節,所有的點滴貢獻都是非常寶貴有用的。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1523
+#: book.translate.xml:1528
msgid ""
"Several companies have supported the development of this document by paying "
"authors to work on it full-time, paying for publication, etc. In particular, "
@@ -1263,43 +1263,43 @@ msgstr ""
"手冊以使第三版印刷版本能夠出版的志工。"
#. (itstool) path: part/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1542
+#: book.translate.xml:1547
msgid "Getting Started"
msgstr "入門"
#. (itstool) path: partintro/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1545
+#: book.translate.xml:1550
msgid ""
"This part of the handbook is for users and administrators who are new to "
"FreeBSD. These chapters:"
msgstr "這部份是提供給初次使用 FreeBSD 的使用者和系統管理者。 這些章節包括:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1550
+#: book.translate.xml:1555
msgid "Introduce FreeBSD."
msgstr "介紹 FreeBSD 給您。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1554
+#: book.translate.xml:1559
msgid "Guide readers through the installation process."
msgstr "在安裝過程給您指引。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1558
+#: book.translate.xml:1563
msgid ""
"Teach <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> basics and "
"fundamentals."
msgstr "教您 <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> 的基礎及原理。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1562
+#: book.translate.xml:1567
msgid ""
"Show how to install the wealth of third party applications available for "
"FreeBSD."
msgstr "展示給您看如何安裝豐富的 FreeBSD 的應用軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1567
+#: book.translate.xml:1572
msgid ""
"Introduce X, the <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> windowing "
"system, and detail how to configure a desktop environment that makes users "
@@ -1309,7 +1309,7 @@ msgstr ""
"細的桌面環境設定,讓您更有生產力。"
#. (itstool) path: partintro/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1573
+#: book.translate.xml:1578
msgid ""
"The number of forward references in the text have been kept to a minimum so "
"that this section can be read from front to back with minimal page flipping."
@@ -1320,12 +1320,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: info/title
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1587 book.translate.xml:23709 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:1592 book.translate.xml:23826 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "Introduction"
msgstr "簡介"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:1590 book.translate.xml:2855
+#: book.translate.xml:1595 book.translate.xml:2860
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Jim</firstname> <surname>Mock</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Restructured, reorganized, and parts rewritten by </"
@@ -1333,21 +1333,21 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1602 book.translate.xml:2910 book.translate.xml:5522
-#: book.translate.xml:8911 book.translate.xml:10575 book.translate.xml:12744
-#: book.translate.xml:13866 book.translate.xml:15472 book.translate.xml:17955
-#: book.translate.xml:19223 book.translate.xml:22708 book.translate.xml:23621
-#: book.translate.xml:27720 book.translate.xml:29330 book.translate.xml:31098
-#: book.translate.xml:31832 book.translate.xml:35485 book.translate.xml:41417
-#: book.translate.xml:41624 book.translate.xml:42905 book.translate.xml:43945
-#: book.translate.xml:46094 book.translate.xml:46479 book.translate.xml:48682
-#: book.translate.xml:50350 book.translate.xml:52263 book.translate.xml:57992
-#: book.translate.xml:61679
+#: book.translate.xml:1607 book.translate.xml:2915 book.translate.xml:5527
+#: book.translate.xml:8916 book.translate.xml:10649 book.translate.xml:12839
+#: book.translate.xml:13968 book.translate.xml:15589 book.translate.xml:18072
+#: book.translate.xml:19340 book.translate.xml:22825 book.translate.xml:23738
+#: book.translate.xml:27837 book.translate.xml:29447 book.translate.xml:31215
+#: book.translate.xml:31949 book.translate.xml:35602 book.translate.xml:41534
+#: book.translate.xml:41741 book.translate.xml:43022 book.translate.xml:44062
+#: book.translate.xml:46211 book.translate.xml:46596 book.translate.xml:48799
+#: book.translate.xml:50467 book.translate.xml:52380 book.translate.xml:58109
+#: book.translate.xml:61796
msgid "Synopsis"
msgstr "概述"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1604
+#: book.translate.xml:1609
msgid ""
"Thank you for your interest in FreeBSD! The following chapter covers various "
"aspects of the FreeBSD Project, such as its history, goals, development "
@@ -1357,55 +1357,55 @@ msgstr ""
"史、目標、開發模式等等。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1608 book.translate.xml:2937 book.translate.xml:5529
-#: book.translate.xml:8923 book.translate.xml:10596 book.translate.xml:15485
-#: book.translate.xml:17981 book.translate.xml:19237 book.translate.xml:23634
-#: book.translate.xml:27792 book.translate.xml:29357 book.translate.xml:31122
-#: book.translate.xml:31840 book.translate.xml:35511 book.translate.xml:41449
-#: book.translate.xml:41632 book.translate.xml:43957 book.translate.xml:46132
-#: book.translate.xml:46490 book.translate.xml:48693 book.translate.xml:50361
-#: book.translate.xml:58047 book.translate.xml:61684
+#: book.translate.xml:1613 book.translate.xml:2942 book.translate.xml:5534
+#: book.translate.xml:8928 book.translate.xml:10670 book.translate.xml:15602
+#: book.translate.xml:18098 book.translate.xml:19354 book.translate.xml:23751
+#: book.translate.xml:27909 book.translate.xml:29474 book.translate.xml:31239
+#: book.translate.xml:31957 book.translate.xml:35628 book.translate.xml:41566
+#: book.translate.xml:41749 book.translate.xml:44074 book.translate.xml:46249
+#: book.translate.xml:46607 book.translate.xml:48810 book.translate.xml:50478
+#: book.translate.xml:58164 book.translate.xml:61801
msgid "After reading this chapter, you will know:"
msgstr "讀完這章,您將了解︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1612
+#: book.translate.xml:1617
msgid "How FreeBSD relates to other computer operating systems."
msgstr "FreeBSD 與其他作業系統之間的關係。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1617
+#: book.translate.xml:1622
msgid "The history of the FreeBSD Project."
msgstr "FreeBSD 計劃的歷史。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1621
+#: book.translate.xml:1626
msgid "The goals of the FreeBSD Project."
msgstr "FreeBSD 計劃的目標。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1625
+#: book.translate.xml:1630
msgid "The basics of the FreeBSD open-source development model."
msgstr "FreeBSD 開源開發模式的基礎概念。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1630
+#: book.translate.xml:1635
msgid "And of course: where the name <quote>FreeBSD</quote> comes from."
msgstr "當然囉,還有 <quote>FreeBSD</quote> 這名字的由來。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1637
+#: book.translate.xml:1642
msgid "Welcome to FreeBSD!"
msgstr "歡迎使用 FreeBSD!"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1639 book.translate.xml:1808
+#: book.translate.xml:1644 book.translate.xml:1813
msgid "<primary>4.4BSD-Lite</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1641
+#: book.translate.xml:1646
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is a 4.4BSD-Lite based operating system for Intel (x86 and "
"<trademark class=\"registered\">Itanium</trademark>), AMD64, Sun <trademark "
@@ -1428,22 +1428,22 @@ msgstr ""
"對 FreeBSD 貢獻</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1651
+#: book.translate.xml:1656
msgid "What Can FreeBSD Do?"
msgstr "FreeBSD 能做什麼?"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1653
+#: book.translate.xml:1658
msgid "FreeBSD has many noteworthy features. Some of these are:"
msgstr "FreeBSD 提供給你許多先進功能。這些功能包括:"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1659
+#: book.translate.xml:1664
msgid "<primary>preemptive multitasking</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>先佔式多工</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1658
+#: book.translate.xml:1663
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Preemptive multitasking</emphasis> <_:indexterm-1/> with dynamic "
"priority adjustment to ensure smooth and fair sharing of the computer "
@@ -1453,12 +1453,12 @@ msgstr ""
"即使在系統負擔很重的情況下,程式執行平順並且應用程式與使用者公平地共享資源。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1668
+#: book.translate.xml:1673
msgid "<primary>multi-user facilities</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>多人共用</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1668
+#: book.translate.xml:1673
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Multi-user facilities</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> which allow many "
"people to use a FreeBSD system simultaneously for a variety of things. This "
@@ -1473,12 +1473,12 @@ msgstr ""
"保護系統不致被過度使用。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1681
+#: book.translate.xml:1686
msgid "<primary>TCP/IP networking</primary>"
msgstr "TCP/IP 網路"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1680
+#: book.translate.xml:1685
msgid ""
"Strong <emphasis>TCP/IP networking</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> with support "
"for industry standards such as SCTP, DHCP, NFS, NIS, PPP, SLIP, IPsec, and "
@@ -1495,12 +1495,12 @@ msgstr ""
"供 WWW、FTP、路由及防火牆 (安全性) 等必備服務。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1694
+#: book.translate.xml:1699
msgid "<primary>memory protection</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>記憶體保護</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1694
+#: book.translate.xml:1699
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Memory protection</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> ensures that "
"applications (or users) cannot interfere with each other. One application "
@@ -1510,12 +1510,12 @@ msgstr ""
"程式有不正常的運作,都不會影響其他程式的執行。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1703 book.translate.xml:1946
+#: book.translate.xml:1708 book.translate.xml:1951
msgid "<primary>X Window System</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>X Window 系統</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1702
+#: book.translate.xml:1707
msgid ""
"The industry standard <emphasis>X Window System</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> "
"(X11R7) can provide a graphical user interface (GUI) on any machine and "
@@ -1527,32 +1527,32 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1712 book.translate.xml:17960
+#: book.translate.xml:1717 book.translate.xml:18077
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>Linux</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>Linux</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1716
+#: book.translate.xml:1721
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>SCO</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>SCO</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1720
+#: book.translate.xml:1725
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>SVR4</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>SVR4</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1724
+#: book.translate.xml:1729
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>BSD/OS</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>BSD/OS</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1728
+#: book.translate.xml:1733
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>NetBSD</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>NetBSD</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1711
+#: book.translate.xml:1716
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <_:indexterm-4/> <_:"
"indexterm-5/> <emphasis>Binary compatibility</emphasis> with many programs "
@@ -1563,7 +1563,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(如: Linux、SCO、SVR4、BSDI 和 NetBSD) 的可執行檔。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1738
+#: book.translate.xml:1743
msgid ""
"Thousands of <emphasis>ready-to-run</emphasis> applications are available "
"from the FreeBSD <emphasis>ports</emphasis> and <emphasis>packages</"
@@ -1574,7 +1574,7 @@ msgstr ""
"取得。 不再需要費心到網路上到處搜尋所需要的軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1746
+#: book.translate.xml:1751
msgid ""
"Thousands of additional and <emphasis>easy-to-port</emphasis> applications "
"are available on the Internet. FreeBSD is source code compatible with most "
@@ -1587,12 +1587,12 @@ msgstr ""
"行。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1755
+#: book.translate.xml:1760
msgid "<primary>virtual memory</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>虛擬記憶體</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1754
+#: book.translate.xml:1759
msgid ""
"Demand paged <emphasis>virtual memory</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> and "
"<quote>merged VM/buffer cache</quote> design efficiently satisfies "
@@ -1604,12 +1604,12 @@ msgstr ""
"維持與其他使用者的互動。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1764
+#: book.translate.xml:1769
msgid "<primary>Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>對稱多工處理 (SMP)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1764
+#: book.translate.xml:1769
msgid ""
"<emphasis>SMP</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> support for machines with multiple "
"CPUs."
@@ -1618,17 +1618,17 @@ msgstr ""
"多 CPU 的電腦系統。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1773
+#: book.translate.xml:1778
msgid "<primary>compilers</primary> <secondary>C</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>編譯器</primary> <secondary>C</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1777
+#: book.translate.xml:1782
msgid "<primary>compilers</primary> <secondary>C++</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>編譯器</primary> <secondary>C++</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1772
+#: book.translate.xml:1777
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> A full complement of <emphasis>C</"
"emphasis> and <emphasis>C++</emphasis> development tools. Many additional "
@@ -1640,12 +1640,12 @@ msgstr ""
"進階研發的程式語言也收集在 Port 和套件集。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1790
+#: book.translate.xml:1795
msgid "<primary>source code</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>原始碼</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1790
+#: book.translate.xml:1795
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Source code</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> for the entire system means "
"you have the greatest degree of control over your environment. Why be locked "
@@ -1657,22 +1657,22 @@ msgstr ""
"廠商擺佈呢?"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1799
+#: book.translate.xml:1804
msgid "Extensive <emphasis>online documentation</emphasis>."
msgstr "廣泛且豐富的 <emphasis>線上文件</emphasis>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1804
+#: book.translate.xml:1809
msgid "<emphasis>And many more!</emphasis>"
msgstr "<emphasis>當然囉,還不止如此!</emphasis>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1811
+#: book.translate.xml:1816
msgid "<primary>Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>電腦系統研究組 (CSRG)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1808
+#: book.translate.xml:1813
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is based on the 4.4BSD-Lite<_:indexterm-1/> release from Computer "
"Systems Research Group (CSRG)<_:indexterm-2/> at the University of "
@@ -1691,7 +1691,7 @@ msgstr ""
"時,FreeBSD 已經具備這樣的特質,並具有其他地方沒有的尖端功能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1822
+#: book.translate.xml:1827
msgid ""
"The applications to which FreeBSD can be put are truly limited only by your "
"own imagination. From software development to factory automation, inventory "
@@ -1711,7 +1711,7 @@ msgstr ""
"軟體,而且出現的數目是與日俱增。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1834
+#: book.translate.xml:1839
msgid ""
"Because the source code for FreeBSD itself is generally available, the "
"system can also be customized to an almost unheard of degree for special "
@@ -1724,7 +1724,7 @@ msgstr ""
"地被修改。 以下提供一些人們使用 FreeBSD 的例子:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1844
+#: book.translate.xml:1849
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Internet Services:</emphasis> The robust TCP/IP networking built "
"into FreeBSD makes it an ideal platform for a variety of Internet services "
@@ -1734,34 +1734,34 @@ msgstr ""
"務 (如下例) 的理想平台:"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1851
+#: book.translate.xml:1856
msgid "<primary>web servers</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>網頁伺服器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1851
+#: book.translate.xml:1856
msgid "World Wide Web servers<_:indexterm-1/> (standard or secure [SSL])"
msgstr "全球資訊網伺服器<_:indexterm-1/> (標準的或更安全的 [SSL])"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1858
+#: book.translate.xml:1863
msgid "IPv4 and IPv6 routing"
msgstr "IPv4 及 IPv6 路由"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: chapter/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1862 book.translate.xml:57983
+#: book.translate.xml:1867 book.translate.xml:58100
msgid "<primary>firewall</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>防火牆</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1865 book.translate.xml:61149
+#: book.translate.xml:1870 book.translate.xml:61266
msgid "<primary>NAT</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1862
+#: book.translate.xml:1867
msgid ""
"Firewalls<_:indexterm-1/> and NAT<_:indexterm-2/> (<quote>IP masquerading</"
"quote>) gateways"
@@ -1770,38 +1770,38 @@ msgstr ""
"閘。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1872
+#: book.translate.xml:1877
msgid "<primary>FTP servers</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>FTP 伺服器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1872
+#: book.translate.xml:1877
msgid "FTP servers<_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr "檔案傳輸協定伺服器<_:indexterm-1/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1879
+#: book.translate.xml:1884
msgid "<primary>electronic mail</primary> <see>email</see>"
msgstr "<primary>電子郵件</primary> <see>email</see>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1883 book.translate.xml:50352
+#: book.translate.xml:1888 book.translate.xml:50469
msgid "<primary>email</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1878
+#: book.translate.xml:1883
msgid "<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> Electronic Mail servers"
msgstr "<_:indexterm-1/><_:indexterm-2/> 電子郵件伺服器"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1890
+#: book.translate.xml:1895
msgid "And more..."
msgstr "還有更多..."
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1896
+#: book.translate.xml:1901
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Education:</emphasis> Are you a student of computer science or a "
"related engineering field? There is no better way of learning about "
@@ -1817,7 +1817,7 @@ msgstr ""
"等可以免費地取得使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1908
+#: book.translate.xml:1913
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Research:</emphasis> With source code for the entire system "
"available, FreeBSD is an excellent platform for research in operating "
@@ -1832,17 +1832,17 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1920 book.translate.xml:62032
+#: book.translate.xml:1925 book.translate.xml:62149
msgid "<primary>router</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>路由器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1922
+#: book.translate.xml:1927
msgid "<primary>DNS Server</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>DNS 伺服器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1919
+#: book.translate.xml:1924
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Networking:</emphasis> Need a new router?<_:indexterm-1/> A name "
"server (DNS)?<_:indexterm-2/> A firewall to keep people out of your internal "
@@ -1854,12 +1854,12 @@ msgstr ""
"或 486 PC 變身成為絕佳的伺服器,甚至具有過濾封包的功能。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1933
+#: book.translate.xml:1938
msgid "<primary>embedded</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>嵌入式</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1931
+#: book.translate.xml:1936
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Embedded:</emphasis> FreeBSD makes an excellent platform to build "
"embedded systems upon. <_:indexterm-1/> With support for the <trademark "
@@ -1881,18 +1881,18 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1949 book.translate.xml:11944
+#: book.translate.xml:1954 book.translate.xml:12039
msgid "<primary>GNOME</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1952 book.translate.xml:12031
+#: book.translate.xml:1957 book.translate.xml:12126
msgid "<primary>KDE</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1945
+#: book.translate.xml:1950
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <emphasis>Desktop:</"
"emphasis> FreeBSD makes a fine choice for an inexpensive desktop solution "
@@ -1910,12 +1910,12 @@ msgstr ""
"於管理。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1971
+#: book.translate.xml:1976
msgid "<primary>Compiler</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>編譯器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1968
+#: book.translate.xml:1973
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Software Development:</emphasis> The basic FreeBSD system comes "
"with a full complement of development tools including a full C/C++<_:"
@@ -1927,7 +1927,7 @@ msgstr ""
"援需多其他語言。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1980
+#: book.translate.xml:1985
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is available to download free of charge, or can be obtained on "
"either CD-ROM or DVD. Please see <xref linkend=\"mirrors\"/> for more "
@@ -1937,19 +1937,19 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"mirrors\"/> 取得 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1987
+#: book.translate.xml:1992
msgid "Who Uses FreeBSD?"
msgstr "誰在用 FreeBSD?"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1989
+#: book.translate.xml:1994
msgid ""
"<primary>users</primary> <secondary>large sites running FreeBSD</secondary>"
msgstr ""
"<primary>使用者</primary> <secondary>執行 FreeBSD 的大型站台</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1994
+#: book.translate.xml:1999
msgid ""
"FreeBSD's advanced features, proven security, predictable release cycle, and "
"permissive license have led to its use as a platform for building many "
@@ -1962,12 +1962,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2004 book.translate.xml:56653
+#: book.translate.xml:2009 book.translate.xml:56770
msgid "<primary>Apache</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2003
+#: book.translate.xml:2008
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.apache.org/\">Apache</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The Apache Software Foundation runs most of its public facing "
@@ -1979,12 +1979,12 @@ msgstr ""
"庫 (擁有超過 140 萬次提交) 都是在 FreeBSD 上運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2014
+#: book.translate.xml:2019
msgid "<primary>Apple</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2013
+#: book.translate.xml:2018
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.apple.com/\">Apple</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"OS X borrows heavily from FreeBSD for the network stack, virtual file "
@@ -1996,12 +1996,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Apple iOS 中含有從 FreeBSD 借鑒來的元素。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2024
+#: book.translate.xml:2029
msgid "<primary>Cisco</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2023
+#: book.translate.xml:2028
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.cisco.com/\">Cisco</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"IronPort network security and anti-spam appliances run a modified FreeBSD "
@@ -2011,12 +2011,12 @@ msgstr ""
"IronPort 網路安全及反垃圾郵件設備是採用改良後 FreeBSD 核心來運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2032
+#: book.translate.xml:2037
msgid "<primary>Citrix</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2031
+#: book.translate.xml:2036
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.citrix.com/\">Citrix</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The NetScaler line of security appliances provide layer 4-7 load balancing, "
@@ -2028,12 +2028,12 @@ msgstr ""
"牆、安全的 VPN 以及行動雲端網路存取,皆運用了 FreeBSD Shell 強大的功能。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2043
+#: book.translate.xml:2048
msgid "<primary>Dell KACE</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2041
+#: book.translate.xml:2046
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.dell.com/KACE\">Dell KACE</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The KACE system management appliances run FreeBSD because of "
@@ -2045,12 +2045,12 @@ msgstr ""
"擴展性以及支持其持續發展的社群。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2053
+#: book.translate.xml:2058
msgid "<primary>Experts Exchange</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2051
+#: book.translate.xml:2056
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.experts-exchange.com/\">Experts Exchange</"
"link> <_:indexterm-1/> - All public facing web servers are powered by "
@@ -2062,12 +2062,12 @@ msgstr ""
"量使用 Jail 來隔離開發與測試環境,減少了虛擬化的額外開銷。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2063
+#: book.translate.xml:2068
msgid "<primary>Isilon</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2062
+#: book.translate.xml:2067
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.isilon.com/\">Isilon</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"Isilon's enterprise storage appliances are based on FreeBSD. The extremely "
@@ -2080,12 +2080,12 @@ msgstr ""
"整合了它們的智慧財產到整個核心,並專注打造自己的產品,而不是一個作業系統。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2075
+#: book.translate.xml:2080
msgid "<primary>iXsystems</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2074
+#: book.translate.xml:2079
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.ixsystems.com/\">iXsystems</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The TrueNAS line of unified storage appliances is based on "
@@ -2098,12 +2098,12 @@ msgstr ""
"開源計劃的開發。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2085
+#: book.translate.xml:2090
msgid "<primary>Juniper</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2084
+#: book.translate.xml:2089
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.juniper.net/\">Juniper</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- The JunOS operating system that powers all Juniper networking gear "
@@ -2121,12 +2121,12 @@ msgstr ""
"功能從 FreeBSD 整合回 JunOS 的複雜性。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2100
+#: book.translate.xml:2105
msgid "<primary>McAfee</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2099
+#: book.translate.xml:2104
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.mcafee.com/\">McAfee</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"SecurOS, the basis of McAfee enterprise firewall products including "
@@ -2137,12 +2137,12 @@ msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 為基礎。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2109
+#: book.translate.xml:2114
msgid "<primary>NetApp</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2108
+#: book.translate.xml:2113
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netapp.com/\">NetApp</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The Data ONTAP GX line of storage appliances are based on FreeBSD. In "
@@ -2154,12 +2154,12 @@ msgstr ""
"了回 FreeBSD 許多功能,包括新 BSD 條款授權的 hypervisor, bhyve。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2119 book.translate.xml:2393
+#: book.translate.xml:2124 book.translate.xml:2398
msgid "<primary>Netflix</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2118
+#: book.translate.xml:2123
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netflix.com/\">Netflix</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- The OpenConnect appliance that Netflix uses to stream movies to its "
@@ -2174,12 +2174,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Netflix 的 OpenConnect 設備負責了北美所有的網路流量 32% 以上。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2132
+#: book.translate.xml:2137
msgid "<primary>Sandvine</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2131
+#: book.translate.xml:2136
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sandvine.com/\">Sandvine</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - Sandvine uses FreeBSD as the basis of their high performance realtime "
@@ -2191,12 +2191,12 @@ msgstr ""
"網路策略控制產品。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2142
+#: book.translate.xml:2147
msgid "<primary>Sony</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2141
+#: book.translate.xml:2146
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sony.com/\">Sony</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The "
"PlayStation 4 gaming console runs a modified version of FreeBSD."
@@ -2205,12 +2205,12 @@ msgstr ""
"PlayStation 4 遊戲主機使用了修改過的 FreeBSD 版本來運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2150
+#: book.translate.xml:2155
msgid "<primary>Sophos</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2149
+#: book.translate.xml:2154
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sophos.com/\">Sophos</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The Sophos Email Appliance product is based on a hardened FreeBSD and scans "
@@ -2222,12 +2222,12 @@ msgstr ""
"郵件中的垃圾郵件和病毒,同時也可監控出站郵件中的惡意軟體及敏感資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2162
+#: book.translate.xml:2167
msgid "<primary>Spectra Logic</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2160
+#: book.translate.xml:2165
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.spectralogic.com/\">Spectra Logic</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The nTier line of archive grade storage appliances run "
@@ -2237,12 +2237,12 @@ msgstr ""
"indexterm-1/> - 儲藏級儲存設備的 nTier 產品線以 FreeBSD 和 OpenZFS 來運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2170
+#: book.translate.xml:2175
msgid "<primary>Stormshield</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>Stormshield</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2169
+#: book.translate.xml:2174
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"https://www.stormshield.eu\">Stormshield</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - Stormshield Network Security appliances are based on a "
@@ -2256,12 +2256,12 @@ msgstr ""
"群。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2183
+#: book.translate.xml:2188
msgid "<primary>The Weather Channel</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2181
+#: book.translate.xml:2186
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.weather.com/\">The Weather Channel</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The IntelliStar appliance that is installed at each local "
@@ -2273,12 +2273,12 @@ msgstr ""
"視網路節目的 IntelliStar 設備便是使用 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2194
+#: book.translate.xml:2199
msgid "<primary>Verisign</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2193
+#: book.translate.xml:2198
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.verisign.com/\">Verisign</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - Verisign is responsible for operating the .com and .net root domain "
@@ -2292,12 +2292,12 @@ msgstr ""
"點故障的問題。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2207
+#: book.translate.xml:2212
msgid "<primary>Voxer</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2206
+#: book.translate.xml:2211
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.voxer.com/\">Voxer</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"Voxer powers their mobile voice messaging platform with ZFS on FreeBSD. "
@@ -2313,12 +2313,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 也支援了 TRIM。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2221
+#: book.translate.xml:2226
msgid "<primary>WhatsApp</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2220
+#: book.translate.xml:2225
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.whatsapp.com/\">WhatsApp</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - When WhatsApp needed a platform that would be able to handle more than 1 "
@@ -2330,12 +2330,12 @@ msgstr ""
"台時,它們選擇了 FreeBSD。它們接著擴大規模到每台伺服器處理超過 250 萬的連線。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2233
+#: book.translate.xml:2238
msgid "<primary>Wheel Systems</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2231
+#: book.translate.xml:2236
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://wheelsystems.com/\">Wheel Systems</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The FUDO security appliance allows enterprises to monitor, "
@@ -2349,17 +2349,17 @@ msgstr ""
"GELI, Capsicum, HAST 及 auditdistd。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2245
+#: book.translate.xml:2250
msgid "FreeBSD has also spawned a number of related open source projects:"
msgstr "FreeBSD 也催生了數個相關的開源計劃:"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2252
+#: book.translate.xml:2257
msgid "<primary>BSD Router</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2250
+#: book.translate.xml:2255
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://bsdrp.net/\">BSD Router</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"A FreeBSD based replacement for large enterprise routers designed to run on "
@@ -2369,12 +2369,12 @@ msgstr ""
"以 FreeBSD 為基礎的大型企業路由器替代方案,專門設計為可在標準 PC 硬體上運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2261
+#: book.translate.xml:2266
msgid "<primary>FreeNAS</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2260
+#: book.translate.xml:2265
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.freenas.org/\">FreeNAS</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- A customized FreeBSD designed to be used as a network file server "
@@ -2389,12 +2389,12 @@ msgstr ""
"iSCSI,還有以 FreeBSD Jail 為基礎的套件系統。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2273
+#: book.translate.xml:2278
msgid "<primary>GhostBSD</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2272
+#: book.translate.xml:2277
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.ghostbsd.org/\">GhostBSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - A desktop oriented distribution of FreeBSD bundled with the Gnome "
@@ -2404,12 +2404,12 @@ msgstr ""
"> - 採用 Gnome 桌面環境的 FreeBSD 發行版。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2281
+#: book.translate.xml:2286
msgid "<primary>mfsBSD</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2280
+#: book.translate.xml:2285
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://mfsbsd.vx.sk/\">mfsBSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - A "
"toolkit for building a FreeBSD system image that runs entirely from memory."
@@ -2418,12 +2418,12 @@ msgstr ""
"來建置可完全從記憶體執行 FreeBSD 系統映像檔工具。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2289
+#: book.translate.xml:2294
msgid "<primary>NAS4Free</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2288
+#: book.translate.xml:2293
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.nas4free.org/\">NAS4Free</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - A file server distribution based on FreeBSD with a PHP powered web "
@@ -2433,12 +2433,12 @@ msgstr ""
"> - 以 FreeBSD 及 PHP 驅動網頁介面為基礎的檔案伺服器。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2297
+#: book.translate.xml:2302
msgid "<primary>OPNsense</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2296
+#: book.translate.xml:2301
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.opnsense.org/\">OPNSense</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - OPNsense is an open source, easy-to-use and easy-to-build FreeBSD based "
@@ -2453,12 +2453,12 @@ msgstr ""
"功能集,同時擁有開放和安全的來源。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2309
+#: book.translate.xml:2314
msgid "<primary>PC-BSD</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2308
+#: book.translate.xml:2313
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pcbsd.org/\">PC-BSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"A customized version of FreeBSD geared towards desktop users with graphical "
@@ -2470,12 +2470,12 @@ msgstr ""
"能給所有使用者,專門設計來緩解使用者在 Windows 與 OS X 間的過渡。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2319
+#: book.translate.xml:2324
msgid "<primary>pfSense</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2318
+#: book.translate.xml:2323
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pfsense.org/\">pfSense</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- A firewall distribution based on FreeBSD with a huge array of features and "
@@ -2485,12 +2485,12 @@ msgstr ""
"- 以 FreeBSD 為基礎的防火牆發行版,支援巨型陣列及大規模 IPv6。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2328
+#: book.translate.xml:2333
msgid "<primary>ZRouter</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2327
+#: book.translate.xml:2332
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://zrouter.org/\">ZRouter</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"An open source alternative firmware for embedded devices based on FreeBSD. "
@@ -2501,135 +2501,135 @@ msgstr ""
"用韌體。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2336
+#: book.translate.xml:2341
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is also used to power some of the biggest sites on the Internet, "
"including:"
msgstr "FreeBSD 也同時被用來驅動一些網際網路上的大型網站,包括:"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2342
+#: book.translate.xml:2347
msgid "<primary>Yahoo!</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2341
+#: book.translate.xml:2346
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.yahoo.com/\">Yahoo!</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2349
+#: book.translate.xml:2354
msgid "<primary>Yandex</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2348
+#: book.translate.xml:2353
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.yandex.ru/\">Yandex</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2356
+#: book.translate.xml:2361
msgid "<primary>Rambler</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2355
+#: book.translate.xml:2360
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.rambler.ru/\">Rambler</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2363
+#: book.translate.xml:2368
msgid "<primary>Sina</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2362
+#: book.translate.xml:2367
msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sina.com/\">Sina</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2371
+#: book.translate.xml:2376
msgid "<primary>Pair Networks</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2369
+#: book.translate.xml:2374
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pair.com/\">Pair Networks</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2379
+#: book.translate.xml:2384
msgid "<primary>Sony Japan</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2377
+#: book.translate.xml:2382
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sony.co.jp/\">Sony Japan</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
">"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2386
+#: book.translate.xml:2391
msgid "<primary>Netcraft</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2385
+#: book.translate.xml:2390
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netcraft.com/\">Netcraft</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
">"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2392
+#: book.translate.xml:2397
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"https://signup.netflix.com/openconnect\">Netflix</link> "
"<_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2400
+#: book.translate.xml:2405
msgid "<primary>NetEase</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2399
+#: book.translate.xml:2404
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.163.com/\">NetEase</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2407
+#: book.translate.xml:2412
msgid "<primary>Weathernews</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2406
+#: book.translate.xml:2411
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.weathernews.com/\">Weathernews</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2415
+#: book.translate.xml:2420
msgid "<primary>TELEHOUSE America</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2413
+#: book.translate.xml:2418
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.telehouse.com/\">TELEHOUSE America</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2422
+#: book.translate.xml:2427
msgid ""
"and many more. Wikipedia also maintains a <link xlink:href=\"http://en."
"wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_products_based_on_FreeBSD\">list of products "
@@ -2639,12 +2639,12 @@ msgstr ""
"org/wiki/List_of_products_based_on_FreeBSD\">以 FreeBSD 為基礎的產品</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2428
+#: book.translate.xml:2433
msgid "About the FreeBSD Project"
msgstr "關於 FreeBSD 計劃"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2430
+#: book.translate.xml:2435
msgid ""
"The following section provides some background information on the project, "
"including a brief history, project goals, and the development model of the "
@@ -2652,37 +2652,37 @@ msgid ""
msgstr "接下來講的是 FreeBSD 計劃的背景,包含歷史、計劃目標以及開發模式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2435
+#: book.translate.xml:2440
msgid "A Brief History of FreeBSD"
msgstr "FreeBSD 歷史簡介"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2437
+#: book.translate.xml:2442
msgid "<primary>386BSD Patchkit</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2438
+#: book.translate.xml:2443
msgid "<primary>Hubbard, Jordan</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2439
+#: book.translate.xml:2444
msgid "<primary>Williams, Nate</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2440
+#: book.translate.xml:2445
msgid "<primary>Grimes, Rod</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2441
+#: book.translate.xml:2446
msgid "<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>history</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2446
+#: book.translate.xml:2451
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD Project had its genesis in the early part of 1993, partially as "
"an outgrowth of the Unofficial 386BSDPatchkit by the patchkit's last 3 "
@@ -2692,12 +2692,12 @@ msgstr ""
"劃的最後三個協調人 Nate Williams,Rod Grimes 和 Jordan Hubbard。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2451 book.translate.xml:2491
+#: book.translate.xml:2456 book.translate.xml:2496
msgid "<primary>386BSD</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2452
+#: book.translate.xml:2457
msgid ""
"The original goal was to produce an intermediate snapshot of 386BSD in order "
"to fix a number of problems with it that the patchkit mechanism just was not "
@@ -2709,12 +2709,12 @@ msgstr ""
"386BSD Interim 便是這個原因。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2458
+#: book.translate.xml:2463
msgid "<primary>Jolitz, Bill</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2459
+#: book.translate.xml:2464
msgid ""
"386BSD was Bill Jolitz's operating system, which had been up to that point "
"suffering rather severely from almost a year's worth of neglect. As the "
@@ -2730,17 +2730,17 @@ msgstr ""
"出未來的打算,所以該計劃便突然面臨中止。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2469
+#: book.translate.xml:2474
msgid "<primary>Greenman, David</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2470
+#: book.translate.xml:2475
msgid "<primary>Walnut Creek CDROM</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2472
+#: book.translate.xml:2477
msgid ""
"The trio thought that the goal remained worthwhile, even without Bill's "
"support, and so they adopted the name \"FreeBSD\" coined by David Greenman. "
@@ -2765,27 +2765,27 @@ msgstr ""
"模。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2488
+#: book.translate.xml:2493
msgid "<primary>4.3BSD-Lite</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2489 book.translate.xml:2504
+#: book.translate.xml:2494 book.translate.xml:2509
msgid "<primary>Net/2</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2490 book.translate.xml:2503
+#: book.translate.xml:2495 book.translate.xml:2508
msgid "<primary>U.C. Berkeley</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2492 book.translate.xml:8878
+#: book.translate.xml:2497 book.translate.xml:8883
msgid "<primary>Free Software Foundation</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2494
+#: book.translate.xml:2499
msgid ""
"The first CD-ROM (and general net-wide) distribution was FreeBSD 1.0, "
"released in December of 1993. This was based on the 4.3BSD-Lite "
@@ -2800,17 +2800,17 @@ msgstr ""
"還算成功,我們又接著於 1994 年 5 月發行了相當成功的 FreeBSD 1.1。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2502
+#: book.translate.xml:2507
msgid "<primary>Novell</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2505
+#: book.translate.xml:2510
msgid "<primary>AT&amp;T</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2506
+#: book.translate.xml:2511
msgid ""
"Around this time, some rather unexpected storm clouds formed on the horizon "
"as Novell and U.C. Berkeley settled their long-running lawsuit over the "
@@ -2835,7 +2835,7 @@ msgstr ""
"最後一次發行,也就是 FreeBSD 1.1.5.1。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2523
+#: book.translate.xml:2528
msgid ""
"FreeBSD then set about the arduous task of literally re-inventing itself "
"from a completely new and rather incomplete set of 4.4BSD-Lite bits. The "
@@ -2857,7 +2857,7 @@ msgstr ""
"之於 1995 年 6 月又發行了更容易安裝,更好的 FreeBSD 2.0.5。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2537
+#: book.translate.xml:2542
msgid ""
"Since that time, FreeBSD has made a series of releases each time improving "
"the stability, speed, and feature set of the previous version."
@@ -2866,7 +2866,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的發佈版本。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2541
+#: book.translate.xml:2546
msgid ""
"For now, long-term development projects continue to take place in the 10.X-"
"CURRENT (trunk) branch, and snapshot releases of 10.X are continually made "
@@ -2878,24 +2878,24 @@ msgstr ""
"snapshots/\">快照伺服器</link> 取得。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2549
+#: book.translate.xml:2554
msgid "FreeBSD Project Goals"
msgstr "FreeBSD 計劃目標"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2552
+#: book.translate.xml:2557
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Jordan</firstname> <surname>Hubbard</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2562
+#: book.translate.xml:2567
msgid "<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>goals</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>FreeBSD 計劃</primary> <secondary>目標</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2566
+#: book.translate.xml:2571
msgid ""
"The goals of the FreeBSD Project are to provide software that may be used "
"for any purpose and without strings attached. Many of us have a significant "
@@ -2915,22 +2915,22 @@ msgstr ""
"是我們所倡導的一個目標。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2578
+#: book.translate.xml:2583
msgid "<primary>GNU General Public License (GPL)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>GNU 通用公共授權條款 (GPL)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2581
+#: book.translate.xml:2586
msgid "<primary>GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>GNU 較寬鬆通用公共授權條款 (LGPL)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2584
+#: book.translate.xml:2589
msgid "<primary>BSD Copyright</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>BSD 版權</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2585
+#: book.translate.xml:2590
msgid ""
"That code in our source tree which falls under the GNU General Public "
"License (GPL) or Library General Public License (LGPL) comes with slightly "
@@ -2946,25 +2946,25 @@ msgstr ""
"果可以選擇的話, 我們會比較喜歡使用限制相對更寬鬆的 BSD 版權來發佈軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2597
+#: book.translate.xml:2602
msgid "The FreeBSD Development Model"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開發模式"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2600
+#: book.translate.xml:2605
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Satoshi</firstname> <surname>Asami</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2610
+#: book.translate.xml:2615
msgid ""
"<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>development model</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>FreeBSD 專案</primary> <secondary>開發模式</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2615
+#: book.translate.xml:2620
msgid ""
"The development of FreeBSD is a very open and flexible process, being "
"literally built from the contributions of thousands of people around the "
@@ -2991,7 +2991,7 @@ msgstr ""
"link> 對那些希望了解我們進度的人也是相當有用的。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2628
+#: book.translate.xml:2633
msgid ""
"Useful things to know about the FreeBSD Project and its development process, "
"whether working independently or in close cooperation:"
@@ -3000,44 +3000,44 @@ msgstr ""
"錯的︰"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2634
+#: book.translate.xml:2639
msgid "The SVN repositories<anchor xml:id=\"development-cvs-repository\"/>"
msgstr "SVN 檔案庫<anchor xml:id=\"development-cvs-repository\"/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2638
+#: book.translate.xml:2643
msgid "<primary>CVS</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2642
+#: book.translate.xml:2647
msgid "<primary>CVS Repository</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>CVS 檔案庫</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2646
+#: book.translate.xml:2651
msgid "<primary>Concurrent Versions System</primary> <see>CVS</see>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2651 book.translate.xml:45013 book.translate.xml:45053
+#: book.translate.xml:2656 book.translate.xml:45130 book.translate.xml:45170
#: book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "<primary>Subversion</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2655
+#: book.translate.xml:2660
msgid "<primary>Subversion Repository</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2659
+#: book.translate.xml:2664
msgid "<primary>SVN</primary> <see>Subversion</see>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2637
+#: book.translate.xml:2642
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <_:indexterm-4/> <_:"
"indexterm-5/> <_:indexterm-6/> For several years, the central source tree "
@@ -3070,17 +3070,17 @@ msgstr ""
"\"ports-using\">使用 Port 套件集</link> 了解如何取得 FreeBSD Port 套件集。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2686
+#: book.translate.xml:2691
msgid "The committers list<anchor xml:id=\"development-committers\"/>"
msgstr "提交者名單<anchor xml:id=\"development-committers\"/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2690
+#: book.translate.xml:2695
msgid "<primary>committers</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>提交者</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2689
+#: book.translate.xml:2694
msgid ""
"The <firstterm>committers</firstterm> <_:indexterm-1/> are the people who "
"have <emphasis>write</emphasis> access to the Subversion tree, and are "
@@ -3101,17 +3101,17 @@ msgstr ""
"誤 (Bug)。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2706
+#: book.translate.xml:2711
msgid "The FreeBSD core team<anchor xml:id=\"development-core\"/>"
msgstr "FreeBSD 核心團隊<anchor xml:id=\"development-core\"/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2710
+#: book.translate.xml:2715
msgid "<primary>core team</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>核心團隊</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2709
+#: book.translate.xml:2714
msgid ""
"The <firstterm>FreeBSD core team</firstterm> <_:indexterm-1/> would be "
"equivalent to the board of directors if the FreeBSD Project were a company. "
@@ -3129,7 +3129,7 @@ msgstr ""
"2014 年 7 月從提交者候選人之中選出來的,這個選舉每兩年會舉辦一次。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2725
+#: book.translate.xml:2730
msgid ""
"Like most developers, most members of the core team are also volunteers when "
"it comes to FreeBSD development and do not benefit from the project "
@@ -3146,12 +3146,12 @@ msgstr ""
"而選擇投入 FreeBSD 開發的熱血有為者才對!"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2740
+#: book.translate.xml:2745
msgid "Outside contributors"
msgstr "非官方貢獻者"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2743
+#: book.translate.xml:2748
msgid ""
"Last, but definitely not least, the largest group of developers are the "
"users themselves who provide feedback and bug fixes to us on an almost "
@@ -3169,12 +3169,12 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"eresources\"/> 以瞭解各式不同的 FreeBSD 郵遞論壇。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2754
+#: book.translate.xml:2759
msgid "<primary>contributors</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>貢獻者</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2752
+#: book.translate.xml:2757
msgid ""
"<citetitle><link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/"
"contributors/article.html\">The FreeBSD Contributors List</link></citetitle> "
@@ -3187,7 +3187,7 @@ msgstr ""
"貢獻 FreeBSD 一些回饋呢?"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2759
+#: book.translate.xml:2764
msgid ""
"Providing code is not the only way of contributing to the project; for a "
"more complete list of things that need doing, please refer to the <link "
@@ -3197,7 +3197,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html\">FreeBSD 計畫網站</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2767
+#: book.translate.xml:2772
msgid ""
"In summary, our development model is organized as a loose set of concentric "
"circles. The centralized model is designed for the convenience of the "
@@ -3214,7 +3214,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用 — 而這個開發模式對我們要完成這個目標來說運作的非常好。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2777
+#: book.translate.xml:2782
msgid ""
"All we ask of those who would join us as FreeBSD developers is some of the "
"same dedication its current people have to its continued success!"
@@ -3223,12 +3223,12 @@ msgstr ""
"保繼續成功!"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2783
+#: book.translate.xml:2788
msgid "Third Party Programs"
msgstr "第三方程式"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2785
+#: book.translate.xml:2790
msgid ""
"In addition to the base distributions, FreeBSD offers a ported software "
"collection with thousands of commonly sought-after programs. At the time of "
@@ -3256,12 +3256,12 @@ msgstr ""
"更多有關套件與 Port 的資訊可於 <xref linkend=\"ports\"/> 取得。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2806
+#: book.translate.xml:2811
msgid "Additional Documentation"
msgstr "其他文件"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2808
+#: book.translate.xml:2813
msgid ""
"All recent FreeBSD versions provide an option in the installer (either "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
@@ -3283,12 +3283,12 @@ msgstr ""
"已安裝在本機的操作手冊:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2820
+#: book.translate.xml:2825
msgid "The FreeBSD Handbook"
msgstr "FreeBSD 使用手冊"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2823
+#: book.translate.xml:2828
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"file://localhost/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/handbook/"
"index.html\"><filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/handbook/index.html</"
@@ -3296,12 +3296,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2828
+#: book.translate.xml:2833
msgid "The FreeBSD FAQ"
msgstr "FreeBSD 常見問答集"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2831
+#: book.translate.xml:2836
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"file://localhost/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/faq/index."
"html\"><filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/faq/index.html</filename></"
@@ -3309,7 +3309,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2836
+#: book.translate.xml:2841
msgid ""
"You can also view the master (and most frequently updated) copies at <uri "
"xlink:href=\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/\">http://www.FreeBSD.org/</uri>."
@@ -3318,38 +3318,38 @@ msgstr ""
"\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/\">http://www.FreeBSD.org/</uri>。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2852
+#: book.translate.xml:2857
msgid "Installing FreeBSD"
msgstr "安裝 FreeBSD"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2880
+#: book.translate.xml:2885
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Gavin</firstname> <surname>Atkinson</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Updated for bsdinstall by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2889
+#: book.translate.xml:2894
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Warren</firstname> <surname>Block</surname> </"
"personname>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2898
+#: book.translate.xml:2903
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Allan</firstname> <surname>Jude</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Updated for root-on-ZFS by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2912
+#: book.translate.xml:2917
msgid "<primary>installation</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>安裝</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2914
+#: book.translate.xml:2919
msgid ""
"Beginning with FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE, FreeBSD provides an easy to use, text-"
"based installation program named <application>bsdinstall</application>. This "
@@ -3361,7 +3361,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>bsdinstall</application> 來安裝 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2920
+#: book.translate.xml:2925
msgid ""
"In general, the installation instructions in this chapter are written for "
"the <trademark>i386</trademark> and <acronym>AMD64</acronym> architectures. "
@@ -3376,7 +3376,7 @@ msgstr ""
"著來做。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2929
+#: book.translate.xml:2934
msgid ""
"Users who prefer to install FreeBSD using a graphical installer may be "
"interested in <application>pc-sysinstall</application>, the installer used "
@@ -3392,22 +3392,22 @@ msgstr ""
"\">http://wiki.pcbsd.org/index.php/Colophon</link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2941
+#: book.translate.xml:2946
msgid "The minimum hardware requirements and FreeBSD supported architectures."
msgstr "最低的硬體需求和 FreeBSD 支援的架構。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2946
+#: book.translate.xml:2951
msgid "How to create the FreeBSD installation media."
msgstr "如何建立 FreeBSD 的安裝媒體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2950
+#: book.translate.xml:2955
msgid "How to start <application>bsdinstall</application>."
msgstr "如何開始執行 <application>bsdinstall</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2955
+#: book.translate.xml:2960
msgid ""
"The questions <application>bsdinstall</application> will ask, what they "
"mean, and how to answer them."
@@ -3416,29 +3416,29 @@ msgstr ""
"回答。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2960
+#: book.translate.xml:2965
msgid "How to troubleshoot a failed installation."
msgstr "安裝失敗時如何做故障排除。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2964
+#: book.translate.xml:2969
msgid ""
"How to access a live version of FreeBSD before committing to an installation."
msgstr "如何在正式安裝前使用 live 版本的 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2969 book.translate.xml:10625 book.translate.xml:13929
-#: book.translate.xml:18005 book.translate.xml:19270 book.translate.xml:23694
-#: book.translate.xml:29393 book.translate.xml:31140 book.translate.xml:31892
-#: book.translate.xml:35536 book.translate.xml:41467 book.translate.xml:41662
-#: book.translate.xml:42965 book.translate.xml:43988 book.translate.xml:46149
-#: book.translate.xml:46508 book.translate.xml:48719 book.translate.xml:50425
-#: book.translate.xml:58075 book.translate.xml:61726
+#: book.translate.xml:2974 book.translate.xml:10699 book.translate.xml:14031
+#: book.translate.xml:18122 book.translate.xml:19387 book.translate.xml:23811
+#: book.translate.xml:29510 book.translate.xml:31257 book.translate.xml:32009
+#: book.translate.xml:35653 book.translate.xml:41584 book.translate.xml:41779
+#: book.translate.xml:43082 book.translate.xml:44105 book.translate.xml:46266
+#: book.translate.xml:46625 book.translate.xml:48836 book.translate.xml:50542
+#: book.translate.xml:58192 book.translate.xml:61843
msgid "Before reading this chapter, you should:"
msgstr "在開始閱讀這章之前,您需要︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2973
+#: book.translate.xml:2978
msgid ""
"Read the supported hardware list that shipped with the version of FreeBSD to "
"be installed and verify that the system's hardware is supported."
@@ -3446,12 +3446,12 @@ msgstr ""
"閱讀即將安裝的 FreeBSD 版本所附帶的硬體支援清單,並核對系統的硬體是否有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2981
+#: book.translate.xml:2986
msgid "Minimum Hardware Requirements"
msgstr "最低硬體需求"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2983
+#: book.translate.xml:2988
msgid ""
"The hardware requirements to install FreeBSD vary by architecture. Hardware "
"architectures and devices supported by a FreeBSD release are listed on the "
@@ -3467,7 +3467,7 @@ msgstr ""
"也有建議如何正確的選擇在不同架構使用的映像檔。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2990
+#: book.translate.xml:2995
msgid ""
"A FreeBSD installation requires a minimum of 96 MB of <acronym>RAM</acronym> "
"and 1.5 GB of free hard drive space. However, such small amounts of memory "
@@ -3480,17 +3480,17 @@ msgstr ""
"途的桌面系統會需要更多的資源,2-4 GB RAM 與至少 8 GB 的硬碟空間是不錯的起點。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2998
+#: book.translate.xml:3003
msgid "These are the processor requirements for each architecture:"
msgstr "每一種架構的處理器需求概述如下:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3003
+#: book.translate.xml:3008
msgid "amd64"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3005
+#: book.translate.xml:3010
msgid ""
"This is the most common desktop and laptop processor type, used in most "
"modern systems. <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> calls it "
@@ -3502,7 +3502,7 @@ msgstr ""
"製造商則稱該類型為 <acronym>x86-64</acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3010
+#: book.translate.xml:3015
msgid ""
"Examples of amd64 compatible processsors include: <trademark>AMD Athlon</"
"trademark>64, <trademark>AMD Opteron</trademark>, multi-core <trademark "
@@ -3517,17 +3517,17 @@ msgstr ""
"器。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3018
+#: book.translate.xml:3023
msgid "i386"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3020
+#: book.translate.xml:3025
msgid "Older desktops and laptops often use this 32-bit, x86 architecture."
msgstr "舊型的桌面電腦與筆記型電腦常使用此 32-bit, x86 架構。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3023
+#: book.translate.xml:3028
msgid ""
"Almost all i386-compatible processors with a floating point unit are "
"supported. All <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> processors "
@@ -3537,7 +3537,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"registered\">Intel</trademark> 486 或是更高階的處理器也有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3027
+#: book.translate.xml:3032
msgid ""
"FreeBSD will take advantage of Physical Address Extensions (<acronym>PAE</"
"acronym>) support on <acronym>CPU</acronym>s with this feature. A kernel "
@@ -3555,12 +3555,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3039
+#: book.translate.xml:3044
msgid "ia64"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3041
+#: book.translate.xml:3046
msgid ""
"Currently supported processors are the <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Itanium</trademark> and the <trademark class=\"registered\">Itanium</"
@@ -3578,12 +3578,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>SMP</acronym>) 的設定都有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3051
+#: book.translate.xml:3056
msgid "pc98"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3053
+#: book.translate.xml:3058
msgid ""
"NEC PC-9801/9821 series with almost all i386-compatible processors, "
"including 80486, <trademark class=\"registered\">Pentium</trademark>, "
@@ -3601,7 +3601,7 @@ msgstr ""
"FC-9801/9821 及 NEC SV-98 系列也有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3062
+#: book.translate.xml:3067
msgid ""
"High-resolution mode is not supported. NEC PC-98XA/XL/RL/XL^2, and NEC PC-"
"H98 series are supported in normal (PC-9801 compatible) mode only. The "
@@ -3615,12 +3615,12 @@ msgstr ""
"流排不支援。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3073
+#: book.translate.xml:3078
msgid "powerpc"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3075
+#: book.translate.xml:3080
msgid ""
"All New World <acronym>ROM</acronym> <trademark class=\"registered\">Apple</"
"trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">Mac</trademark> systems with "
@@ -3633,17 +3633,17 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>CPU</acronym> 的機器都有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3080
+#: book.translate.xml:3085
msgid "A 32-bit kernel can only use the first 2 GB of <acronym>RAM</acronym>."
msgstr "32 位元的核心只能使用前 2 GB 的 <acronym>RAM</acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3086
+#: book.translate.xml:3091
msgid "sparc64"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3088
+#: book.translate.xml:3093
msgid ""
"Systems supported by FreeBSD/sparc64 are listed at the <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/platforms/sparc.html\">FreeBSD/sparc64 Project</link>."
@@ -3652,7 +3652,7 @@ msgstr ""
"platforms/sparc.html\">FreeBSD/sparc64 計劃</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3092
+#: book.translate.xml:3097
msgid ""
"<acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on all systems with more than 1 "
"processor. A dedicated disk is required as it is not possible to share a "
@@ -3662,12 +3662,12 @@ msgstr ""
"因為此時無法和其他作業系統共用磁碟。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3102
+#: book.translate.xml:3107
msgid "Pre-Installation Tasks"
msgstr "安裝前準備工作"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3104
+#: book.translate.xml:3109
msgid ""
"Once it has been determined that the system meets the minimum hardware "
"requirements for installing FreeBSD, the installation file should be "
@@ -3679,12 +3679,12 @@ msgstr ""
"體。 做這些之前,先檢查以下核對清單的項目是否準備好了:"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3113
+#: book.translate.xml:3118
msgid "Back Up Important Data"
msgstr "備份重要資料"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3115
+#: book.translate.xml:3120
msgid ""
"Before installing any operating system, <emphasis>always</emphasis> backup "
"all important data first. Do not store the backup on the system being "
@@ -3701,12 +3701,12 @@ msgstr ""
"面的資料都會遺失。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3127
+#: book.translate.xml:3132
msgid "Decide Where to Install FreeBSD"
msgstr "決定 FreeBSD 安裝在哪裡"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3129
+#: book.translate.xml:3134
msgid ""
"If FreeBSD will be the only operating system installed, this step can be "
"skipped. But if FreeBSD will share the disk with another operating system, "
@@ -3717,7 +3717,7 @@ msgstr ""
"是哪個分割區 (Partition)。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3134
+#: book.translate.xml:3139
msgid ""
"In the i386 and amd64 architectures, disks can be divided into multiple "
"partitions using one of two partitioning schemes. A traditional "
@@ -3743,7 +3743,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個分割區,不再需要使用邏輯分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3152
+#: book.translate.xml:3157
msgid ""
"Some older operating systems, like <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</"
"trademark> XP, are not compatible with the <acronym>GPT</acronym> partition "
@@ -3755,7 +3755,7 @@ msgstr ""
"這類作業系統共用一個磁碟,則需要用 <acronym>MBR</acronym> 分割表格式。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3159
+#: book.translate.xml:3164
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD boot loader requires either a primary or <acronym>GPT</acronym> "
"partition. If all of the primary or <acronym>GPT</acronym> partitions are "
@@ -3769,7 +3769,7 @@ msgstr ""
"工具來縮小現有的分割區,並使用釋放出來的空間建立新分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3167
+#: book.translate.xml:3172
msgid ""
"A variety of free and commercial partition resizing tools are listed at "
"<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
@@ -3790,7 +3790,7 @@ msgstr ""
"GParted 同時也被許多 Linux Live <acronym>CD</acronym> 發行版所收錄。"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3177
+#: book.translate.xml:3182
msgid ""
"When used properly, disk shrinking utilities can safely create space for "
"creating a new partition. Since the possibility of selecting the wrong "
@@ -3802,7 +3802,7 @@ msgstr ""
"料,並確認備份的完整性。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3184
+#: book.translate.xml:3189
msgid ""
"Disk partitions containing different operating systems make it possible to "
"install multiple operating systems on one computer. An alternative is to use "
@@ -3815,12 +3815,12 @@ msgstr ""
"執行而不需要改變任何磁碟分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3193
+#: book.translate.xml:3198
msgid "Collect Network Information"
msgstr "收集網路資訊"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3195
+#: book.translate.xml:3200
msgid ""
"Some FreeBSD installation methods require a network connection in order to "
"download the installation files. After any installation, the installer will "
@@ -3830,7 +3830,7 @@ msgstr ""
"入設定系統網路的介面。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3200
+#: book.translate.xml:3205
msgid ""
"If the network has a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server, it can be used to "
"provide automatic network configuration. If <acronym>DHCP</acronym> is not "
@@ -3842,45 +3842,45 @@ msgstr ""
"商 (Internet Service Provider, ISP) 取得以的網路資訊供系統使用:"
#. (itstool) path: orderedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3208
+#: book.translate.xml:3213
msgid "Required Network Information"
msgstr "需要的網路資訊"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:3211 book.translate.xml:53479
+#: book.translate.xml:3216 book.translate.xml:53596
msgid "<acronym>IP</acronym> address"
msgstr "<acronym>IP</acronym> 位址"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3215
+#: book.translate.xml:3220
msgid "Subnet mask"
msgstr "子網路遮罩"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3219
+#: book.translate.xml:3224
msgid "<acronym>IP</acronym> address of default gateway"
-msgstr "預設閘道器 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址"
+msgstr "預設通訊閘 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3224
+#: book.translate.xml:3229
msgid "Domain name of the network"
msgstr "網路的網域名稱"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3228
+#: book.translate.xml:3233
msgid ""
"<acronym>IP</acronym> addresses of the network's <acronym>DNS</acronym> "
"servers"
msgstr "網路 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3235
+#: book.translate.xml:3240
msgid "Check for FreeBSD Errata"
msgstr "檢查 FreeBSD 勘誤表"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3237
+#: book.translate.xml:3242
msgid ""
"Although the FreeBSD Project strives to ensure that each release of FreeBSD "
"is as stable as possible, bugs occasionally creep into the process. On very "
@@ -3899,7 +3899,7 @@ msgstr ""
"裝的問題。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3247
+#: book.translate.xml:3252
msgid ""
"Information and errata for all the releases can be found on the release "
"information section of the FreeBSD web site (<link xlink:href="
@@ -3911,12 +3911,12 @@ msgstr ""
"index.html</link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3254
+#: book.translate.xml:3259
msgid "Prepare the Installation Media"
msgstr "準備安裝的媒體"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3256
+#: book.translate.xml:3261
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD installer is not an application that can be run from within "
"another operating system. Instead, download a FreeBSD installation file, "
@@ -3930,7 +3930,7 @@ msgstr ""
"媒體來安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3263
+#: book.translate.xml:3268
msgid ""
"FreeBSD installation files are available at <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/where.html#download\">www.freebsd.org/where."
@@ -3949,7 +3949,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>DVD</acronym> 來開機。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3272
+#: book.translate.xml:3277
msgid ""
"Installation files are available in several formats. The formats vary "
"depending on computer architecture and media type."
@@ -3957,7 +3957,7 @@ msgstr "安裝檔有許多種可用的格式,格式會依據電腦架構及媒
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#bsdinstall-installation-media-uefi
-#: book.translate.xml:3276
+#: book.translate.xml:3281
msgid ""
"Additional installation files are included for computers that boot with "
"<acronym>UEFI</acronym> (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface). The names "
@@ -3968,12 +3968,12 @@ msgstr ""
"filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3282
+#: book.translate.xml:3287
msgid "File types:"
msgstr "檔案類型:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3286
+#: book.translate.xml:3291
msgid ""
"<literal>-bootonly.iso</literal>: This is the smallest installation file as "
"it only contains the installer. A working Internet connection is required "
@@ -3986,7 +3986,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>CD</acronym> 燒錄應用程式燒錄到 <acronym>CD</acronym> 使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3296
+#: book.translate.xml:3301
msgid ""
"<literal>-disc1.iso</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed to "
"install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It should be burned "
@@ -3997,7 +3997,7 @@ msgstr ""
"到 <acronym>CD</acronym> 使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3304
+#: book.translate.xml:3309
msgid ""
"<literal>-dvd1.iso</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed to "
"install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It also contains a "
@@ -4012,7 +4012,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>DVD</acronym> 燒錄應用程式燒錄到 <acronym>DVD</acronym> 使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3315
+#: book.translate.xml:3320
msgid ""
"<literal>-memstick.img</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed "
"to install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It should be "
@@ -4023,7 +4023,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 隨身碟使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3323
+#: book.translate.xml:3328
msgid ""
"<literal>-mini-memstick.img</literal>: Like <literal>-bootonly.iso</"
"literal>, does not include installation files, but downloads them as needed. "
@@ -4037,7 +4037,7 @@ msgstr ""
"碟。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3332
+#: book.translate.xml:3337
msgid ""
"After downloading the image file, download <filename>CHECKSUM.SHA256</"
"filename> from the same directory. Calculate a <firstterm>checksum</"
@@ -4054,7 +4054,7 @@ msgstr ""
"程式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3340
+#: book.translate.xml:3345
msgid ""
"Compare the calculated checksum with the one shown in <filename>CHECKSUM."
"SHA256</filename>. The checksums must match exactly. If the checksums do not "
@@ -4064,12 +4064,12 @@ msgstr ""
"應該要完全相符,若校驗碼不相符,則代表該映像檔是損壞的,必須再下載一次。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3346
+#: book.translate.xml:3351
msgid "Writing an Image File to <acronym>USB</acronym>"
msgstr "寫入映象檔到 <acronym>USB</acronym>"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3348
+#: book.translate.xml:3353
msgid ""
"The <filename>*.img</filename> file is an <emphasis>image</emphasis> of the "
"complete contents of a memory stick. It <emphasis>cannot</emphasis> be "
@@ -4083,7 +4083,7 @@ msgstr ""
"隨身碟,本節會介紹其中兩種。"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3357
+#: book.translate.xml:3362
msgid ""
"Before proceeding, back up any important data on the <acronym>USB</acronym> "
"stick. This procedure will erase the existing data on the stick."
@@ -4092,12 +4092,12 @@ msgstr ""
"身碟上既有的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3363
+#: book.translate.xml:3368
msgid "Using <command>dd</command> to Write the Image"
msgstr "使用 <command>dd</command> 來寫入映像檔"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3367
+#: book.translate.xml:3372
msgid ""
"This example uses <filename>/dev/da0</filename> as the target device where "
"the image will be written. Be <emphasis>very careful</emphasis> that the "
@@ -4109,7 +4109,7 @@ msgstr ""
"毀所有在指定目標裝置上已存在的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3375
+#: book.translate.xml:3380
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> command-line utility is available on BSD, <trademark class="
@@ -4130,13 +4130,13 @@ msgstr ""
"到第一個 <acronym>USB</acronym> 裝置。"
#. (itstool) path: step/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:3386
+#: book.translate.xml:3391
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dd if=<replaceable>FreeBSD-10.2-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img</replaceable> of=/dev/<replaceable>da0</replaceable> bs=1M conv=sync</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3388
+#: book.translate.xml:3393
msgid ""
"If this command fails, verify that the <acronym>USB</acronym> stick is not "
"mounted and that the device name is for the disk, not a partition. Some "
@@ -4156,13 +4156,13 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3399
+#: book.translate.xml:3404
msgid ""
"Using <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> to Write the Image"
msgstr "使用 <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> 來寫入映象檔"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3402
+#: book.translate.xml:3407
msgid ""
"Be sure to give the correct drive letter as the existing data on the "
"specified drive will be overwritten and destroyed."
@@ -4170,7 +4170,7 @@ msgstr ""
"務必確認指定的磁碟機代號正確,因在指定磁碟機上的既有資料將會被覆蓋與摧毀。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3408
+#: book.translate.xml:3413
msgid ""
"Obtaining <application>Image Writer for <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Windows</trademark></application>"
@@ -4179,7 +4179,7 @@ msgstr ""
"trademark> 版</application>"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3411
+#: book.translate.xml:3416
msgid ""
"<application>Image Writer for <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</"
"trademark></application> is a free application that can correctly write an "
@@ -4194,12 +4194,12 @@ msgstr ""
"夾。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3419
+#: book.translate.xml:3424
msgid "Writing the Image with Image Writer"
msgstr "用 Image Writer 寫入映象檔"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3421
+#: book.translate.xml:3426
msgid ""
"Double-click the <application>Win32DiskImager</application> icon to start "
"the program. Verify that the drive letter shown under "
@@ -4218,24 +4218,24 @@ msgstr ""
"入隨身碟。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3436
+#: book.translate.xml:3441
msgid "You are now ready to start installing FreeBSD."
msgstr "您現在可以開始安裝 FreeBSD 。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3442
+#: book.translate.xml:3447
msgid "Starting the Installation"
msgstr "開始安裝"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3445
+#: book.translate.xml:3450
msgid ""
"By default, the installation will not make any changes to the disk(s) before "
"the following message:"
msgstr "預設安裝程序在下列訊息顯示之前不會對磁碟做任何更動:"
#. (itstool) path: important/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:3448
+#: book.translate.xml:3453
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Your changes will now be written to disk. If you\n"
@@ -4245,7 +4245,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3453
+#: book.translate.xml:3458
msgid ""
"The install can be exited at any time prior to this warning. If there is a "
"concern that something is incorrectly configured, just turn the computer off "
@@ -4255,7 +4255,7 @@ msgstr ""
"腦,將不會對系統磁碟做任何更改。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3460
+#: book.translate.xml:3465
msgid ""
"This section describes how to boot the system from the installation media "
"which was prepared using the instructions in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
@@ -4272,12 +4272,12 @@ msgstr ""
"會有所不同。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3471
+#: book.translate.xml:3476
msgid "Booting on <trademark>i386</trademark> and amd64"
msgstr "在 <trademark>i386</trademark> 及 amd64 開機"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3473
+#: book.translate.xml:3478
msgid ""
"These architectures provide a <acronym>BIOS</acronym> menu for selecting the "
"boot device. Depending upon the installation media being used, select the "
@@ -4295,14 +4295,14 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>Escape</keycap> 其中之一。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3484
+#: book.translate.xml:3489
msgid ""
"If the computer loads the existing operating system instead of the FreeBSD "
"installer, then either:"
msgstr "若電腦仍載入了現有的作業系統,而不是 FreeBSD 安裝程式,原因可能為:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3489
+#: book.translate.xml:3494
msgid ""
"The installation media was not inserted early enough in the boot process. "
"Leave the media inserted and try restarting the computer."
@@ -4311,7 +4311,7 @@ msgstr ""
"電腦。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3495
+#: book.translate.xml:3500
msgid ""
"The <acronym>BIOS</acronym> changes were incorrect or not saved. Double-"
"check that the right boot device is selected as the first boot device."
@@ -4320,7 +4320,7 @@ msgstr ""
"確的裝置。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3501
+#: book.translate.xml:3506
msgid ""
"This system is too old to support booting from the chosen media. In this "
"case, the <application>Plop Boot Manager</application> (<link xlink:href="
@@ -4332,12 +4332,12 @@ msgstr ""
"plop.at/en/bootmanagers.html\"/>) 來從選擇的開機媒體開機。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3511
+#: book.translate.xml:3516
msgid "Booting on <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</trademark>"
msgstr "在 <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</trademark> 開機"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3513
+#: book.translate.xml:3518
msgid ""
"On most machines, holding <keycap>C</keycap> on the keyboard during boot "
"will boot from the <acronym>CD</acronym>. Otherwise, hold <keycombo action="
@@ -4356,18 +4356,18 @@ msgstr ""
"prompt> 提示時,輸入"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:3529
+#: book.translate.xml:3534
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput>boot cd:,\\ppc\\loader cd:0</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3533
+#: book.translate.xml:3538
msgid "Booting on <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark>"
msgstr "在 <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark> 開機"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3535
+#: book.translate.xml:3540
msgid ""
"Most <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark> systems are set up "
"to boot automatically from disk. To install FreeBSD from a <acronym>CD</"
@@ -4378,7 +4378,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3539
+#: book.translate.xml:3544
msgid ""
"To do this, reboot the system and wait until the boot message appears. The "
"message depends on the model, but should look something like this:"
@@ -4387,7 +4387,7 @@ msgstr ""
"機型而有所不同,但大致結果會如:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:3543
+#: book.translate.xml:3548
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Sun Blade 100 (UltraSPARC-IIe), Keyboard Present\n"
@@ -4397,7 +4397,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3548
+#: book.translate.xml:3553
msgid ""
"If the system proceeds to boot from disk at this point, press <keycombo "
"action=\"simul\"><keycap>L1</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo> or "
@@ -4420,7 +4420,7 @@ msgstr ""
"prompt>,其中的數字代表啟動的 <acronym>CPU</acronym> 數。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3560
+#: book.translate.xml:3565
msgid ""
"At this point, place the <acronym>CD</acronym> into the drive and type "
"<command>boot cdrom</command> from the <acronym>PROM</acronym> prompt."
@@ -4429,19 +4429,19 @@ msgstr ""
"畫面輸入 <command>boot cdrom</command>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3566
+#: book.translate.xml:3571
msgid "FreeBSD Boot Menu"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開機選單"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3568
+#: book.translate.xml:3573
msgid ""
"Once the system boots from the installation media, a menu similar to the "
"following will be displayed:"
msgstr "從安裝媒體開機之後,會顯示如下的選單:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3572
+#: book.translate.xml:3577
msgid "FreeBSD Boot Loader Menu"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開機載入程式選單"
@@ -4450,14 +4450,14 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 開機載入程式選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3576
+#: book.translate.xml:3581
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3581
+#: book.translate.xml:3586
msgid ""
"By default, the menu will wait ten seconds for user input before booting "
"into the FreeBSD installer or, if FreeBSD is already installed, before "
@@ -4471,7 +4471,7 @@ msgstr ""
"以下選項可選。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3591
+#: book.translate.xml:3596
msgid ""
"<literal>Boot Multi User</literal>: This will continue the FreeBSD boot "
"process. If the boot timer has been paused, press <keycap>1</keycap>, upper- "
@@ -4482,7 +4482,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>B</keycap> 或 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 鍵。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3599
+#: book.translate.xml:3604
msgid ""
"<literal>Boot Single User</literal>: This mode can be used to fix an "
"existing FreeBSD installation as described in <xref linkend=\"boot-singleuser"
@@ -4494,7 +4494,7 @@ msgstr ""
"keycap>、大寫或小寫 <keycap>S</keycap> 進入這個模式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3607
+#: book.translate.xml:3612
msgid ""
"<literal>Escape to loader prompt</literal>: This will boot the system into a "
"repair prompt that contains a limited number of low-level commands. This "
@@ -4507,12 +4507,12 @@ msgstr ""
"入這個提示。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3616
+#: book.translate.xml:3621
msgid "<literal>Reboot</literal>: Reboots the system."
msgstr "重新開機 (<literal>Reboot</literal>):重新開啟系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3620
+#: book.translate.xml:3625
msgid ""
"<literal>Configure Boot Options</literal>: Opens the menu shown in, and "
"described under, <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-boot-options-menu\"/>."
@@ -4521,7 +4521,7 @@ msgstr ""
"說明於 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-boot-options-menu\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3626
+#: book.translate.xml:3631
msgid "FreeBSD Boot Options Menu"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開機選項選單"
@@ -4530,13 +4530,13 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 開機選項選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3630
+#: book.translate.xml:3635
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-boot-options-menu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3635
+#: book.translate.xml:3640
msgid ""
"The boot options menu is divided into two sections. The first section can be "
"used to either return to the main boot menu or to reset any toggled options "
@@ -4546,7 +4546,7 @@ msgstr ""
"回預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3640
+#: book.translate.xml:3645
msgid ""
"The next section is used to toggle the available options to <literal>On</"
"literal> or <literal>Off</literal> by pressing the option's highlighted "
@@ -4559,7 +4559,7 @@ msgstr ""
"到選項被修改。有數個選項可以在這個選單做切換:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3649
+#: book.translate.xml:3654
msgid ""
"<literal>ACPI Support</literal>: If the system hangs during boot, try "
"toggling this option to <literal>Off</literal>."
@@ -4568,7 +4568,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個選項為關 (<literal>Off</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3655
+#: book.translate.xml:3660
msgid ""
"<literal>Safe Mode</literal>: If the system still hangs during boot even "
"with <literal>ACPI Support</literal> set to <literal>Off</literal>, try "
@@ -4579,7 +4579,7 @@ msgstr ""
"將此選項設為開 (<literal>On</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3662
+#: book.translate.xml:3667
msgid ""
"<literal>Single User</literal>: Toggle this option to <literal>On</literal> "
"to fix an existing FreeBSD installation as described in <xref linkend=\"boot-"
@@ -4591,7 +4591,7 @@ msgstr ""
"述,問題修正後,將其設回關 (<literal>Off</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3670
+#: book.translate.xml:3675
msgid ""
"<literal>Verbose</literal>: Toggle this option to <literal>On</literal> to "
"see more detailed messages during the boot process. This can be useful when "
@@ -4601,7 +4601,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 來查看開機程序中更詳細的訊息,這在診斷硬體問題時非常有用。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3677
+#: book.translate.xml:3682
msgid ""
"After making the needed selections, press <keycap>1</keycap> or "
"<keycap>Backspace</keycap> to return to the main boot menu, then press "
@@ -4616,7 +4616,7 @@ msgstr ""
"選單如 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-choose-mode\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3686
+#: book.translate.xml:3691
msgid "Welcome Menu"
msgstr "歡迎選單"
@@ -4625,13 +4625,13 @@ msgstr "歡迎選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3690
+#: book.translate.xml:3695
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-choose-mode' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3695
+#: book.translate.xml:3700
msgid ""
"Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to select the default of "
"<guibutton>[ Install ]</guibutton> to enter the installer. The rest of this "
@@ -4651,7 +4651,7 @@ msgstr ""
"本的詳細說明於 <xref linkend=\"using-live-cd\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3708
+#: book.translate.xml:3713
msgid ""
"To review the boot messages, including the hardware device probe, press the "
"upper- or lower-case <keycap>S</keycap> and then <keycap>Enter</keycap> to "
@@ -4665,12 +4665,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>exit</command> 返回歡迎選單。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3721
+#: book.translate.xml:3726
msgid "Using <application>bsdinstall</application>"
msgstr "使用 <application>bsdinstall</application>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3723
+#: book.translate.xml:3728
msgid ""
"This section shows the order of the <application>bsdinstall</application> "
"menus and the type of information that will be asked before the system is "
@@ -4685,12 +4685,12 @@ msgstr ""
"選項然後進入下一個畫面。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3732
+#: book.translate.xml:3737
msgid "Selecting the Keymap Menu"
msgstr "選擇鍵盤對應表選單"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3734
+#: book.translate.xml:3739
msgid ""
"Depending on the system console being used, <application>bsdinstall</"
"application> may initially display the menu shown in <xref linkend="
@@ -4700,7 +4700,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的選單會如 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-keymap-select-default\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3739
+#: book.translate.xml:3744
msgid "Keymap Selection"
msgstr "鍵盤對應表選擇"
@@ -4709,14 +4709,14 @@ msgstr "鍵盤對應表選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3743
+#: book.translate.xml:3748
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-select-default' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3748
+#: book.translate.xml:3753
msgid ""
"To configure the keyboard layout, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> with "
"<guibutton>[ YES ]</guibutton> selected, which will display the menu shown "
@@ -4730,7 +4730,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>Enter</keycap> 跳過這個選單畫面。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3757
+#: book.translate.xml:3762
msgid "Selecting Keyboard Menu"
msgstr "選擇鍵盤選單"
@@ -4739,13 +4739,13 @@ msgstr "選擇鍵盤選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3761
+#: book.translate.xml:3766
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-keymap' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3766
+#: book.translate.xml:3771
msgid ""
"When configuring the keyboard layout, use the up and down arrows to select "
"the keymap that most closely represents the mapping of the keyboard attached "
@@ -4755,7 +4755,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Keymap),然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 儲存選項。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3772
+#: book.translate.xml:3777
msgid ""
"Pressing <keycap>Esc</keycap> will exit this menu and use the default "
"keymap. If the choice of keymap is not clear, <guimenuitem>United States of "
@@ -4766,7 +4766,7 @@ msgstr ""
"guimenuitem> 是也是保險的選項。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3778
+#: book.translate.xml:3783
msgid ""
"In FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE and later, this menu has been enhanced. The full "
"selection of keymaps is shown, with the default preselected. In addition, "
@@ -4778,7 +4778,7 @@ msgstr ""
"對話框讓使用者測試鍵盤對應表來確認。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3785
+#: book.translate.xml:3790
msgid "Enhanced Keymap Menu"
msgstr "改進後的鍵盤對應表選單"
@@ -4787,19 +4787,19 @@ msgstr "改進後的鍵盤對應表選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3789
+#: book.translate.xml:3794
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-10' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3797 book.translate.xml:3804
+#: book.translate.xml:3802 book.translate.xml:3809
msgid "Setting the Hostname"
msgstr "設定主機名稱"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3799
+#: book.translate.xml:3804
msgid ""
"The next <application>bsdinstall</application> menu is used to set the "
"hostname for the newly installed system."
@@ -4812,13 +4812,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3808
+#: book.translate.xml:3813
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-hostname' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3813
+#: book.translate.xml:3818
msgid ""
"Type in a hostname that is unique for the network. It should be a fully-"
"qualified hostname, such as <systemitem class=\"fqdomainname\">machine3."
@@ -4829,12 +4829,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3818 book.translate.xml:3824
+#: book.translate.xml:3823 book.translate.xml:3829
msgid "Selecting Components to Install"
msgstr "選擇要安裝的元件"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3820
+#: book.translate.xml:3825
msgid ""
"Next, <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt to select optional "
"components to install."
@@ -4846,13 +4846,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3828
+#: book.translate.xml:3833
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-components' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3833
+#: book.translate.xml:3838
msgid ""
"Deciding which components to install will depend largely on the intended use "
"of the system and the amount of disk space available. The FreeBSD kernel and "
@@ -4865,7 +4865,7 @@ msgstr ""
"必須安裝的部份。依據系統的架構,部份元件可能不會顯示:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3842
+#: book.translate.xml:3847
msgid ""
"<literal>doc</literal> - Additional documentation, mostly of historical "
"interest, to install into <filename>/usr/share/doc</filename>. The "
@@ -4879,7 +4879,7 @@ msgstr ""
"操作。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3850
+#: book.translate.xml:3855
msgid ""
"<literal>games</literal> - Several traditional <acronym>BSD</acronym> games, "
"including <application>fortune</application>, <application>rot13</"
@@ -4890,7 +4890,7 @@ msgstr ""
"他。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3857
+#: book.translate.xml:3862
msgid ""
"<literal>lib32</literal> - Compatibility libraries for running 32-bit "
"applications on a 64-bit version of FreeBSD."
@@ -4899,7 +4899,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用的相容性程式庫。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3863
+#: book.translate.xml:3868
msgid ""
"<literal>ports</literal> - The FreeBSD Ports Collection is a collection of "
"files which automates the downloading, compiling and installation of third-"
@@ -4910,7 +4910,7 @@ msgstr ""
"方軟體套件的集合,<xref linkend=\"ports\"/> 中會討論到如何使用 Port 套件集。"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3870
+#: book.translate.xml:3875
msgid ""
"The installation program does not check for adequate disk space. Select this "
"option only if sufficient hard disk space is available. The FreeBSD Ports "
@@ -4920,7 +4920,7 @@ msgstr ""
"磁碟空間,只有在有足夠的磁碟空間時才選擇這個選項。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3879
+#: book.translate.xml:3884
msgid ""
"<literal>src</literal> - The complete FreeBSD source code for both the "
"kernel and the userland. Although not required for the majority of "
@@ -4937,12 +4937,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3892 book.translate.xml:3903
+#: book.translate.xml:3897 book.translate.xml:3908
msgid "Installing from the Network"
msgstr "從網路安裝"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3894
+#: book.translate.xml:3899
msgid ""
"The menu shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-netinstall-notify\"/> only "
"appears when installing from a <filename>-bootonly.iso</filename> "
@@ -4961,13 +4961,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3907
+#: book.translate.xml:3912
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-files' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3912
+#: book.translate.xml:3917
msgid ""
"To configure the network connection, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> and follow "
"the instructions in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-config-network-dev\"/>. Once "
@@ -4982,7 +4982,7 @@ msgstr ""
"載的速度會比較快,這會減少安裝的時間。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3921
+#: book.translate.xml:3926
msgid "Choosing a Mirror"
msgstr "選擇鏡像站"
@@ -4991,26 +4991,26 @@ msgstr "選擇鏡像站"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3925
+#: book.translate.xml:3930
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-mirrorselect' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3930
+#: book.translate.xml:3935
msgid ""
"Installation will then continue as if the installation files were located on "
"the local installation media."
msgstr "若在本機的安裝媒體中找到安裝檔案,安裝程序便會繼續。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3936
+#: book.translate.xml:3941
msgid "Allocating Disk Space"
msgstr "配置磁碟空間"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3938
+#: book.translate.xml:3943
msgid ""
"The next menu is used to determine the method for allocating disk space. The "
"options available in the menu depend upon the version of FreeBSD being "
@@ -5020,7 +5020,7 @@ msgstr ""
"本而有所不同。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3943
+#: book.translate.xml:3948
msgid "Partitioning Choices on FreeBSD 9.x"
msgstr "FreeBSD 9.x 的磁碟分割選項"
@@ -5029,14 +5029,14 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 9.x 的磁碟分割選項"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3947
+#: book.translate.xml:3952
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-manual' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3953
+#: book.translate.xml:3958
msgid "Partitioning Choices on FreeBSD 10.x and Higher"
msgstr "FreeBSD 10.x 或更新版本的磁碟分割選項"
@@ -5045,13 +5045,13 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 10.x 或更新版本的磁碟分割選項"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3957
+#: book.translate.xml:3962
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3962
+#: book.translate.xml:3967
msgid ""
"<literal>Guided</literal> partitioning automatically sets up the disk "
"partitions, <literal>Manual</literal> partitioning allows advanced users to "
@@ -5079,7 +5079,7 @@ msgstr ""
"firstterm>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3973
+#: book.translate.xml:3978
msgid ""
"This section describes what to consider when laying out the disk partitions. "
"It then demonstrates how to use the different partitioning methods."
@@ -5087,32 +5087,32 @@ msgstr ""
"本節會介紹在配置磁碟分割時需要考量那些事情,並且會示範各種磁碟分割的方式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3978
+#: book.translate.xml:3983
msgid "Designing the Partition Layout"
msgstr "規劃分割區配置"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:3980
+#: book.translate.xml:3985
msgid "<primary>partition layout</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>分割區配置</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:3981
+#: book.translate.xml:3986
msgid "<primary><filename>/etc</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:3984
+#: book.translate.xml:3989
msgid "<primary><filename>/var</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:3987
+#: book.translate.xml:3992
msgid "<primary><filename>/usr</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3991
+#: book.translate.xml:3996
msgid ""
"When laying out file systems, remember that hard drives transfer data faster "
"from the outer tracks to the inner. Thus, smaller and heavier-accessed file "
@@ -5128,7 +5128,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>/var</filename> 然後 <filename>/usr</filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4001
+#: book.translate.xml:4006
msgid ""
"The size of the <filename>/var</filename> partition reflects the intended "
"machine's usage. This partition is used to hold mailboxes, log files, and "
@@ -5143,7 +5143,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>/var</filename> 需要超過 1 GB 的可用磁碟空間。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4011
+#: book.translate.xml:4016
msgid ""
"Sometimes, a lot of disk space is required in <filename>/var/tmp</filename>. "
"When new software is installed, the packaging tools extract a temporary copy "
@@ -5160,7 +5160,7 @@ msgstr ""
"application> 或 <application>LibreOffice</application> 會很困難。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4022
+#: book.translate.xml:4027
msgid ""
"The <filename>/usr</filename> partition holds many of the files which "
"support the system, including the FreeBSD Ports Collection and system source "
@@ -5170,7 +5170,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Port 套件集以及系統原始碼。這個分割區建議至少要有 2 GB 的空間。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4027
+#: book.translate.xml:4032
msgid ""
"When selecting partition sizes, keep the space requirements in mind. Running "
"out of space in one partition while barely using another can be a hassle."
@@ -5179,17 +5179,17 @@ msgstr ""
"區時會很麻煩。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:4031
+#: book.translate.xml:4036
msgid "<primary>swap sizing</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:4034
+#: book.translate.xml:4039
msgid "<primary>swap partition</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4038
+#: book.translate.xml:4043
msgid ""
"As a rule of thumb, the swap partition should be about double the size of "
"physical memory (<acronym>RAM</acronym>). Systems with minimal <acronym>RAM</"
@@ -5203,7 +5203,7 @@ msgstr ""
"往後增加更多記憶體時可能會產生問題。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4046
+#: book.translate.xml:4051
msgid ""
"On larger systems with multiple <acronym>SCSI</acronym> disks or multiple "
"<acronym>IDE</acronym> disks operating on different controllers, it is "
@@ -5223,7 +5223,7 @@ msgstr ""
"換空間,這也會讓要從失控的程式恢復運作更容易,而不需強制重新啟動系統。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4059
+#: book.translate.xml:4064
msgid ""
"By properly partitioning a system, fragmentation introduced in the smaller "
"write heavy partitions will not bleed over into the mostly read partitions. "
@@ -5241,12 +5241,12 @@ msgstr ""
"顯著。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4072
+#: book.translate.xml:4077
msgid "Guided Partitioning"
msgstr "引導式磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4074
+#: book.translate.xml:4079
msgid ""
"When this method is selected, a menu will display the available disk(s). If "
"multiple disks are connected, choose the one where FreeBSD is to be "
@@ -5256,7 +5256,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個來安裝 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4079
+#: book.translate.xml:4084
msgid "Selecting from Multiple Disks"
msgstr "自多個磁碟選擇"
@@ -5265,13 +5265,13 @@ msgstr "自多個磁碟選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4083
+#: book.translate.xml:4088
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-disk' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4088
+#: book.translate.xml:4093
msgid ""
"Once the disk is selected, the next menu prompts to install to either the "
"entire disk or to create a partition using free space. If "
@@ -5286,7 +5286,7 @@ msgstr ""
"未使用的空間來建立分割區配置。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4098
+#: book.translate.xml:4103
msgid "Selecting Entire Disk or Partition"
msgstr "選擇完整磁碟或分割區"
@@ -5295,13 +5295,13 @@ msgstr "選擇完整磁碟或分割區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4102
+#: book.translate.xml:4107
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-entire-part' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4107
+#: book.translate.xml:4112
msgid ""
"After the partition layout has been created, review it to ensure it meets "
"the needs of the installation. Selecting <guibutton>[ Revert ]</guibutton> "
@@ -5318,7 +5318,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<guibutton>[ Finish ]</guibutton> 繼續安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4118
+#: book.translate.xml:4123
msgid "Review Created Partitions"
msgstr "確認已建立的分割區"
@@ -5327,23 +5327,23 @@ msgstr "確認已建立的分割區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4122
+#: book.translate.xml:4127
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-review' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4129
+#: book.translate.xml:4134
msgid "Manual Partitioning"
msgstr "手動磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4131
+#: book.translate.xml:4136
msgid "Selecting this method opens the partition editor:"
msgstr "選擇這個方法會開啟分割區編輯程式:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4134 book.translate.xml:4149 book.translate.xml:4220
+#: book.translate.xml:4139 book.translate.xml:4154 book.translate.xml:4225
msgid "Manually Create Partitions"
msgstr "手動建立分割區"
@@ -5352,14 +5352,14 @@ msgstr "手動建立分割區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4138
+#: book.translate.xml:4143
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-create' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4143
+#: book.translate.xml:4148
msgid ""
"Highlight the installation drive (<filename>ada0</filename> in this example) "
"and select <guibutton>[ Create ]</guibutton> to display a menu of available "
@@ -5374,14 +5374,14 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4153
+#: book.translate.xml:4158
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4158
+#: book.translate.xml:4163
msgid ""
"<acronym>GPT</acronym> is usually the most appropriate choice for amd64 "
"computers. Older computers that are not compatible with <acronym>GPT</"
@@ -5393,33 +5393,33 @@ msgstr ""
"那些較罕見或較舊的電腦上。"
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4165
+#: book.translate.xml:4170
msgid "Partitioning Schemes"
msgstr "磁碟分割表格式"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4170
+#: book.translate.xml:4175
msgid "Abbreviation"
msgstr "縮寫"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4171 book.translate.xml:7129 book.translate.xml:8472
-#: book.translate.xml:11810 book.translate.xml:23017 book.translate.xml:23196
-#: book.translate.xml:27306 book.translate.xml:31294 book.translate.xml:43000
-#: book.translate.xml:52821 book.translate.xml:53328 book.translate.xml:54087
-#: book.translate.xml:54128 book.translate.xml:55454 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:4176 book.translate.xml:7134 book.translate.xml:8477
+#: book.translate.xml:11905 book.translate.xml:23134 book.translate.xml:23313
+#: book.translate.xml:27423 book.translate.xml:31411 book.translate.xml:43117
+#: book.translate.xml:52938 book.translate.xml:53445 book.translate.xml:54204
+#: book.translate.xml:54245 book.translate.xml:55571 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "Description"
msgstr "說明"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/glossterm
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/acronym
-#: book.translate.xml:4177 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:4182 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "APM"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4178
+#: book.translate.xml:4183
msgid ""
"Apple Partition Map, used by <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</"
"trademark>."
@@ -5430,12 +5430,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/glossterm
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/acronym
-#: book.translate.xml:4182 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:4187 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "BSD"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4183
+#: book.translate.xml:4188
msgid ""
"<acronym>BSD</acronym> label without an <acronym>MBR</acronym>, sometimes "
"called <firstterm>dangerously dedicated mode</firstterm> as non-"
@@ -5446,12 +5446,12 @@ msgstr ""
"(Dangerously dedicated mode)</firstterm>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4191
+#: book.translate.xml:4196
msgid "GPT"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4192
+#: book.translate.xml:4197
msgid ""
"GUID Partition Table (<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
"GUID_Partition_Table\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table</"
@@ -5462,12 +5462,12 @@ msgstr ""
"link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4196
+#: book.translate.xml:4201
msgid "MBR"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4197
+#: book.translate.xml:4202
msgid ""
"Master Boot Record (<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
"Master_boot_record\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record</link>)."
@@ -5477,12 +5477,12 @@ msgstr ""
"link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4201
+#: book.translate.xml:4206
msgid "PC98"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4202
+#: book.translate.xml:4207
msgid ""
"<acronym>MBR</acronym> variant used by NEC PC-98 computers (<link xlink:href="
"\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801</"
@@ -5493,17 +5493,17 @@ msgstr ""
"link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4207
+#: book.translate.xml:4212
msgid "VTOC8"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4208
+#: book.translate.xml:4213
msgid "Volume Table Of Contents used by Sun SPARC64 and UltraSPARC computers."
msgstr "Volume Table Of Contents,用於 Sun SPARC64 及 UltraSPARC 電腦。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4215
+#: book.translate.xml:4220
msgid ""
"After the partitioning scheme has been selected and created, select "
"<guibutton>[ Create ]</guibutton> again to create the partitions."
@@ -5516,26 +5516,26 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4224
+#: book.translate.xml:4229
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-addpart' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4229
+#: book.translate.xml:4234
msgid ""
"A standard FreeBSD <acronym>GPT</acronym> installation uses at least three "
"partitions:"
msgstr "標準的 FreeBSD <acronym>GPT</acronym> 安裝會使用至少三種分割區:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4234
+#: book.translate.xml:4239
msgid "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal> - Holds the FreeBSD boot code."
msgstr "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal> - 儲存 FreeBSD 開機程式 (Boot code)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4239
+#: book.translate.xml:4244
msgid ""
"<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal> - A FreeBSD <acronym>UFS</acronym> file "
"system."
@@ -5543,12 +5543,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal> - FreeBSD 的 <acronym>UFS</acronym> 檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4244
+#: book.translate.xml:4249
msgid "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal> - FreeBSD swap space."
msgstr "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal> - FreeBSD 交換空間。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4249
+#: book.translate.xml:4254
msgid ""
"Another partition type worth noting is <literal>freebsd-zfs</literal>, used "
"for partitions that will contain a FreeBSD <acronym>ZFS</acronym> file "
@@ -5563,7 +5563,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 取得可用的 <acronym>GPT</acronym> 分割區類型說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4255
+#: book.translate.xml:4260
msgid ""
"Multiple file system partitions can be created and some people prefer a "
"traditional layout with separate partitions for <filename>/</filename>, "
@@ -5577,7 +5577,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"bsdinstall-part-manual-splitfs\"/> 的範例。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4262
+#: book.translate.xml:4267
msgid ""
"The <literal>Size</literal> may be entered with common abbreviations: "
"<emphasis>K</emphasis> for kilobytes, <emphasis>M</emphasis> for megabytes, "
@@ -5588,7 +5588,7 @@ msgstr ""
"表 GB。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4268
+#: book.translate.xml:4273
msgid ""
"Proper sector alignment provides the best performance, and making partition "
"sizes even multiples of 4K bytes helps to ensure alignment on drives with "
@@ -5605,7 +5605,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Boot code) 的限制,不可大於 512K。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4279
+#: book.translate.xml:4284
msgid ""
"A <literal>Mountpoint</literal> is needed if the partition will contain a "
"file system. If only a single <acronym>UFS</acronym> partition will be "
@@ -5616,7 +5616,7 @@ msgstr ""
"filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4284
+#: book.translate.xml:4289
msgid ""
"The <literal>Label</literal> is a name by which the partition will be known. "
"Drive names or numbers can change if the drive is connected to a different "
@@ -5636,7 +5636,7 @@ msgstr ""
"且標籤會在 <filename>/dev/</filename> 中有各自的目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4297
+#: book.translate.xml:4302
msgid ""
"Use a unique label on every partition to avoid conflicts from identical "
"labels. A few letters from the computer's name, use, or location can be "
@@ -5650,12 +5650,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>UFS</acronym> 根目錄分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4307
+#: book.translate.xml:4312
msgid "Creating Traditional Split File System Partitions"
msgstr "建立傳統分割的檔案系統分割區"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4310
+#: book.translate.xml:4315
msgid ""
"For a traditional partition layout where the <filename>/</filename>, "
"<filename>/var</filename>, <filename>/tmp</filename>, and <filename>/usr</"
@@ -5676,7 +5676,7 @@ msgstr ""
"說明使用其他獨一無二的標籤。"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4323
+#: book.translate.xml:4328
msgid ""
"By default, FreeBSD's <filename>gptboot</filename> expects the first "
"<acronym>UFS</acronym> partition to be the <filename>/</filename> partition."
@@ -5685,113 +5685,113 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 分割區為 <filename>/</filename> 分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4331
+#: book.translate.xml:4336
msgid "Partition Type"
msgstr "分割區類型"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4332
+#: book.translate.xml:4337
msgid "Size"
msgstr "大小"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4333
+#: book.translate.xml:4338
msgid "Mountpoint"
msgstr "掛載點"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4334
+#: book.translate.xml:4339
msgid "Label"
msgstr "標籤"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4340
+#: book.translate.xml:4345
msgid "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4341
+#: book.translate.xml:4346
msgid "<literal>512K</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4345 book.translate.xml:4359 book.translate.xml:4366
-#: book.translate.xml:4373
+#: book.translate.xml:4350 book.translate.xml:4364 book.translate.xml:4371
+#: book.translate.xml:4378
msgid "<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4346 book.translate.xml:4360
+#: book.translate.xml:4351 book.translate.xml:4365
msgid "<literal>2G</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4347 book.translate.xml:7134
+#: book.translate.xml:4352 book.translate.xml:7139
msgid "<filename>/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4348
+#: book.translate.xml:4353
msgid "<literal>exrootfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4352
+#: book.translate.xml:4357
msgid "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4353
+#: book.translate.xml:4358
msgid "<literal>4G</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4355
+#: book.translate.xml:4360
msgid "<literal>exswap</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4361
+#: book.translate.xml:4366
msgid "<filename>/var</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4362
+#: book.translate.xml:4367
msgid "<literal>exvarfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4367
+#: book.translate.xml:4372
msgid "<literal>1G</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4368
+#: book.translate.xml:4373
msgid "<filename>/tmp</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4369
+#: book.translate.xml:4374
msgid "<literal>extmpfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4374
+#: book.translate.xml:4379
msgid "accept the default (remainder of the disk)"
msgstr "接受預設值 (依磁碟提示)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4376
+#: book.translate.xml:4381
msgid "<filename>/usr</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4377
+#: book.translate.xml:4382
msgid "<literal>exusrfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4384
+#: book.translate.xml:4389
msgid ""
"After the custom partitions have been created, select <guibutton>[ Finish ]</"
"guibutton> to continue with the installation."
@@ -5799,12 +5799,12 @@ msgstr ""
"自訂的分割區建立完後,選擇 <guibutton>[ Finish ]</guibutton> 繼續安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4390
+#: book.translate.xml:4395
msgid "Root-on-ZFS Automatic Partitioning"
msgstr "Root-on-ZFS 自動磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4392
+#: book.translate.xml:4397
msgid ""
"Support for automatic creation of root-on-ZFS installations was added in "
"FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE. This partitioning mode only works with whole disks and "
@@ -5833,7 +5833,7 @@ msgstr ""
"存池使用。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4411
+#: book.translate.xml:4416
msgid ""
"The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu offers a number of "
"options to control the creation of the pool."
@@ -5841,7 +5841,7 @@ msgstr ""
"主要 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 設定選單提供了數個設定選項來控制儲存池的建立。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4416
+#: book.translate.xml:4421
msgid "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> Partitioning Menu"
msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 磁碟分割選單"
@@ -5850,13 +5850,13 @@ msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 磁碟分割選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4420
+#: book.translate.xml:4425
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-menu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4425
+#: book.translate.xml:4430
msgid ""
"Select <keycap>T</keycap> to configure the <literal>Pool Type</literal> and "
"the disk(s) that will constitute the pool. The automatic <acronym>ZFS</"
@@ -5881,7 +5881,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用 RAID-Z 時,每個配置最佳的磁碟數。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4442
+#: book.translate.xml:4447
msgid "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> Pool Type"
msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池類型"
@@ -5890,13 +5890,13 @@ msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池類型"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4446
+#: book.translate.xml:4451
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_type' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4451
+#: book.translate.xml:4456
msgid ""
"Once a <literal>Pool Type</literal> has been selected, a list of available "
"disks is displayed, and the user is prompted to select one or more disks to "
@@ -5911,7 +5911,7 @@ msgstr ""
"返回磁碟清單或取消 (<guibutton>&lt;Cancel&gt;</guibutton>) 來更改儲存池類型。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4461
+#: book.translate.xml:4466
msgid "Disk Selection"
msgstr "磁碟選擇"
@@ -5920,13 +5920,13 @@ msgstr "磁碟選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4465
+#: book.translate.xml:4470
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_select' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4471
+#: book.translate.xml:4476
msgid "Invalid Selection"
msgstr "無效的選擇"
@@ -5935,13 +5935,13 @@ msgstr "無效的選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4475
+#: book.translate.xml:4480
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_invalid' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4480
+#: book.translate.xml:4485
msgid ""
"If one or more disks are missing from the list, or if disks were attached "
"after the installer was started, select <guibutton>- Rescan Devices</"
@@ -5956,7 +5956,7 @@ msgstr ""
"磁碟,包含磁碟中的分割表以及各種其他資訊如裝置型號與序號 (若有的話)。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4491
+#: book.translate.xml:4496
msgid "Analyzing a Disk"
msgstr "分析磁碟"
@@ -5965,13 +5965,13 @@ msgstr "分析磁碟"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4495
+#: book.translate.xml:4500
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_info' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4500
+#: book.translate.xml:4505
msgid ""
"The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu also allows the user to "
"enter a pool name, disable forcing 4k sectors, enable or disable encryption, "
@@ -5986,7 +5986,7 @@ msgstr ""
"單上方的安裝 (<guibutton>&gt;&gt;&gt; Install</guibutton>) 選項。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4510
+#: book.translate.xml:4515
msgid ""
"If <acronym>GELI</acronym> disk encryption was enabled, the installer will "
"prompt twice for the passphrase to be used to encrypt the disks."
@@ -5995,7 +5995,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4515
+#: book.translate.xml:4520
msgid "Disk Encryption Password"
msgstr "磁碟加密密碼"
@@ -6004,13 +6004,13 @@ msgstr "磁碟加密密碼"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4519
+#: book.translate.xml:4524
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-geli_password' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4524
+#: book.translate.xml:4529
msgid ""
"The installer then offers a last chance to cancel before the contents of the "
"selected drives are destroyed to create the <acronym>ZFS</acronym> pool."
@@ -6019,7 +6019,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池的磁碟機。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4529
+#: book.translate.xml:4534
msgid "Last Chance"
msgstr "最後修改"
@@ -6028,23 +6028,23 @@ msgstr "最後修改"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4533
+#: book.translate.xml:4538
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-warning' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4538
+#: book.translate.xml:4543
msgid "The installation then proceeds normally."
msgstr "然後安裝程序會正常繼續。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4543
+#: book.translate.xml:4548
msgid "Shell Mode Partitioning"
msgstr "Shell 模式磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4545
+#: book.translate.xml:4550
msgid ""
"When creating advanced installations, the <application>bsdinstall</"
"application> partitioning menus may not provide the level of flexibility "
@@ -6063,12 +6063,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>bsdinstall</application> 繼續安裝程序。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4560
+#: book.translate.xml:4565
msgid "Committing to the Installation"
msgstr "確認安裝"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4562
+#: book.translate.xml:4567
msgid ""
"Once the disks are configured, the next menu provides the last chance to "
"make changes before the selected hard drive(s) are formatted. If changes "
@@ -6082,7 +6082,7 @@ msgstr ""
"何變更。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4572
+#: book.translate.xml:4577
msgid "Final Confirmation"
msgstr "最後確認"
@@ -6091,14 +6091,14 @@ msgstr "最後確認"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4576
+#: book.translate.xml:4581
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-confirmation' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4581
+#: book.translate.xml:4586
msgid ""
"To instead start the actual installation, select <guibutton>[ Commit ]</"
"guibutton> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>."
@@ -6107,7 +6107,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4585
+#: book.translate.xml:4590
msgid ""
"Installation time will vary depending on the distributions chosen, "
"installation media, and speed of the computer. A series of messages will "
@@ -6117,7 +6117,7 @@ msgstr ""
"訊息會告知目前的進度。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4589
+#: book.translate.xml:4594
msgid ""
"First, the installer formats the selected disk(s) and initializes the "
"partitions. Next, in the case of a bootonly media, it downloads the selected "
@@ -6127,7 +6127,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Boot only) 的媒體則會開始下載選擇的元件:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4594
+#: book.translate.xml:4599
msgid "Fetching Distribution Files"
msgstr "取得發行版檔案"
@@ -6136,13 +6136,13 @@ msgstr "取得發行版檔案"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4598
+#: book.translate.xml:4603
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-fetching' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4603
+#: book.translate.xml:4608
msgid ""
"Next, the integrity of the distribution files is verified to ensure they "
"have not been corrupted during download or misread from the installation "
@@ -6152,7 +6152,7 @@ msgstr ""
"取錯誤造成的損壞:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4608
+#: book.translate.xml:4613
msgid "Verifying Distribution Files"
msgstr "檢驗發行版檔案"
@@ -6161,19 +6161,19 @@ msgstr "檢驗發行版檔案"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4612
+#: book.translate.xml:4617
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-verifying' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4617
+#: book.translate.xml:4622
msgid "Finally, the verified distribution files are extracted to the disk:"
msgstr "最後,檢驗過的發行版檔案會被取出儲存至磁碟:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4621
+#: book.translate.xml:4626
msgid "Extracting Distribution Files"
msgstr "解開發行版檔案"
@@ -6182,14 +6182,14 @@ msgstr "解開發行版檔案"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4625
+#: book.translate.xml:4630
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-extracting' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4630
+#: book.translate.xml:4635
msgid ""
"Once all requested distribution files have been extracted, "
"<application>bsdinstall</application> displays the first post-installation "
@@ -6200,12 +6200,12 @@ msgstr ""
"次安裝後設定畫面,可用的安裝後設定選項會在下一節說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4638
+#: book.translate.xml:4643
msgid "Post-Installation"
msgstr "安裝後注意事項"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4640
+#: book.translate.xml:4645
msgid ""
"Once FreeBSD is installed, <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt "
"to configure several options before booting into the newly installed system. "
@@ -6215,7 +6215,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的系統之前提示設定數個選項,本節將介紹這些設定選項。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4646
+#: book.translate.xml:4651
msgid ""
"Once the system has booted, <command>bsdconfig</command> provides a menu-"
"driven method for configuring the system using these and additional options."
@@ -6225,12 +6225,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4653 book.translate.xml:4664
+#: book.translate.xml:4658 book.translate.xml:4669
msgid "Setting the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> Password"
msgstr "設定 <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> 密碼"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4657
+#: book.translate.xml:4662
msgid ""
"First, the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> password must be "
"set. While entering the password, the characters being typed are not "
@@ -6246,25 +6246,25 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4668
+#: book.translate.xml:4673
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-post-root-passwd' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4675
+#: book.translate.xml:4680
msgid "Configuring Network Interfaces"
msgstr "設定網路介面卡"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4677
+#: book.translate.xml:4682
msgid ""
"Next, a list of the network interfaces found on the computer is shown. "
"Select the interface to configure."
msgstr "接著,會顯示在電腦上找到的網路介面卡清單。請選擇要設定的介面卡。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4681
+#: book.translate.xml:4686
msgid ""
"The network configuration menus will be skipped if the network was "
"previously configured as part of a <emphasis>bootonly</emphasis> "
@@ -6274,7 +6274,7 @@ msgstr ""
"網路設定選單。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4687
+#: book.translate.xml:4692
msgid "Choose a Network Interface"
msgstr "選擇網路介面卡"
@@ -6283,7 +6283,7 @@ msgstr "選擇網路介面卡"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4691
+#: book.translate.xml:4696
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface' "
@@ -6291,7 +6291,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4696
+#: book.translate.xml:4701
msgid ""
"If an Ethernet interface is selected, the installer will skip ahead to the "
"menu shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-configure-net-ipv4\"/>. If a "
@@ -6303,7 +6303,7 @@ msgstr ""
"描無線存取點 (Wireless Access Point):"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4702
+#: book.translate.xml:4707
msgid "Scanning for Wireless Access Points"
msgstr "掃描無線網路存取點"
@@ -6312,14 +6312,14 @@ msgstr "掃描無線網路存取點"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4706
+#: book.translate.xml:4711
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-scan' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4711
+#: book.translate.xml:4716
msgid ""
"Wireless networks are identified by a Service Set Identifier (<acronym>SSID</"
"acronym>), a short, unique name given to each network. <acronym>SSIDs</"
@@ -6338,7 +6338,7 @@ msgstr ""
"題,或者嘗試將電腦移至更靠近存取點的位置,然後再掃描一次。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4723
+#: book.translate.xml:4728
msgid "Choosing a Wireless Network"
msgstr "選擇無線網路"
@@ -6347,7 +6347,7 @@ msgstr "選擇無線網路"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4727
+#: book.translate.xml:4732
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-accesspoints' "
@@ -6355,7 +6355,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4732
+#: book.translate.xml:4737
msgid ""
"Next, enter the encryption information for connecting to the selected "
"wireless network. <acronym>WPA2</acronym> encryption is strongly recommended "
@@ -6370,7 +6370,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<acronym>PSK</acronym>)。考量安全性,輸入到輸入框的字元會以星號顯示。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4742
+#: book.translate.xml:4747
msgid "WPA2 Setup"
msgstr "WPA2 設定"
@@ -6379,7 +6379,7 @@ msgstr "WPA2 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4746
+#: book.translate.xml:4751
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-wpa2setup' "
@@ -6387,7 +6387,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4751
+#: book.translate.xml:4756
msgid ""
"Next, choose whether or not an <acronym>IPv4</acronym> address should be "
"configured on the Ethernet or wireless interface:"
@@ -6396,7 +6396,7 @@ msgstr ""
"址:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4756
+#: book.translate.xml:4761
msgid "Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> Networking"
msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> 網路"
@@ -6405,7 +6405,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> 網路"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4760
+#: book.translate.xml:4765
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4' "
@@ -6413,7 +6413,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4765
+#: book.translate.xml:4770
msgid ""
"There are two methods of <acronym>IPv4</acronym> configuration. "
"<acronym>DHCP</acronym> will automatically configure the network interface "
@@ -6426,7 +6426,7 @@ msgstr ""
"手動輸入位址的資訊來做靜態設定。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4773
+#: book.translate.xml:4778
msgid ""
"Do not enter random network information as it will not work. If a "
"<acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available, obtain the information "
@@ -6438,7 +6438,7 @@ msgstr ""
"列於 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-collect-network-information\"/> 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4780
+#: book.translate.xml:4785
msgid ""
"If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is available, select <guibutton>[ Yes ]</"
"guibutton> in the next menu to automatically configure the network "
@@ -6451,7 +6451,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 伺服器並且取得系統的位址資訊時,安裝程式會出現一分鐘左右的停頓。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4788
+#: book.translate.xml:4793
msgid "Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym> Configuration"
msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 設定"
@@ -6460,7 +6460,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4793
+#: book.translate.xml:4798
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-dhcp' "
@@ -6468,7 +6468,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4798
+#: book.translate.xml:4803
msgid ""
"If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available, select "
"<guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> and input the following addressing information "
@@ -6478,7 +6478,7 @@ msgstr ""
"guibutton> 然後在這個選單中輸入以下位址資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4803
+#: book.translate.xml:4808
msgid "<acronym>IPv4</acronym> Static Configuration"
msgstr "<acronym>IPv4</acronym> 靜態位置設定"
@@ -6487,7 +6487,7 @@ msgstr "<acronym>IPv4</acronym> 靜態位置設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4807
+#: book.translate.xml:4812
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-static' "
@@ -6495,7 +6495,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4814
+#: book.translate.xml:4819
msgid ""
"<literal>IP Address</literal> - The <acronym>IPv4</acronym> address assigned "
"to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use by "
@@ -6505,21 +6505,21 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 位址。位址必須獨一無二且不可已被其他在區域網路上的設備使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4821
+#: book.translate.xml:4826
msgid "<literal>Subnet Mask</literal> - The subnet mask for the network."
msgstr "子網路遮罩 (<literal>Subnet Mask</literal>) - 網路的子網路遮罩。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4826
+#: book.translate.xml:4831
msgid ""
"<literal>Default Router</literal> - The <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the "
"network's default gateway."
msgstr ""
"預設路由器 (<literal>Default Router</literal>) - <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址所"
-"在網段的預設閘道器。"
+"在網段的預設通訊閘。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4832
+#: book.translate.xml:4837
msgid ""
"The next screen will ask if the interface should be configured for "
"<acronym>IPv6</acronym>. If <acronym>IPv6</acronym> is available and "
@@ -6529,7 +6529,7 @@ msgstr ""
"要使用 <acronym>IPv6</acronym>,請選擇 <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4838
+#: book.translate.xml:4843
msgid "Choose IPv6 Networking"
msgstr "選擇 IPv6 網路"
@@ -6538,7 +6538,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 IPv6 網路"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4842
+#: book.translate.xml:4847
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6' "
@@ -6546,7 +6546,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4847
+#: book.translate.xml:4852
msgid ""
"<acronym>IPv6</acronym> also has two methods of configuration. StateLess "
"Address AutoConfiguration (<acronym>SLAAC</acronym>) will automatically "
@@ -6562,7 +6562,7 @@ msgstr ""
"則需要手動輸入網路資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4855
+#: book.translate.xml:4860
msgid ""
"If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is available, select "
"<guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> in the next menu to automatically configure "
@@ -6574,7 +6574,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的位址資訊時,安裝程式會出現一分鐘左右的停頓。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4862
+#: book.translate.xml:4867
msgid "Choose IPv6 SLAAC Configuration"
msgstr "選擇 IPv6 SLAAC 設定"
@@ -6583,7 +6583,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 IPv6 SLAAC 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4866
+#: book.translate.xml:4871
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-slaac' "
@@ -6591,7 +6591,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4871
+#: book.translate.xml:4876
msgid ""
"If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is not available, select "
"<guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> and input the following addressing information "
@@ -6601,7 +6601,7 @@ msgstr ""
"guibutton> 然後在這個選單中輸入以下位址資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4876
+#: book.translate.xml:4881
msgid "IPv6 Static Configuration"
msgstr "IPv6 靜態位置設定"
@@ -6610,7 +6610,7 @@ msgstr "IPv6 靜態位置設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4880
+#: book.translate.xml:4885
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6-static' "
@@ -6618,7 +6618,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4887
+#: book.translate.xml:4892
msgid ""
"<literal>IPv6 Address</literal> - The <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address "
"assigned to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use "
@@ -6629,16 +6629,16 @@ msgstr ""
"備使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4894
+#: book.translate.xml:4899
msgid ""
"<literal>Default Router</literal> - The <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address of "
"the network's default gateway."
msgstr ""
"預設路由器 (<literal>Default Router</literal>) - <acronym>IPv6</acronym> 位址"
-"所在網段的預設閘道器。"
+"所在網段的預設通訊閘。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4900
+#: book.translate.xml:4905
msgid ""
"The last network configuration menu is used to configure the Domain Name "
"System (<acronym>DNS</acronym>) resolver, which converts hostnames to and "
@@ -6661,7 +6661,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4914
+#: book.translate.xml:4919
msgid "DNS Configuration"
msgstr "DNS 設定"
@@ -6670,7 +6670,7 @@ msgstr "DNS 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4918
+#: book.translate.xml:4923
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-ipv4-dns' "
@@ -6678,12 +6678,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4925
+#: book.translate.xml:4930
msgid "Setting the Time Zone"
msgstr "設定時區"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4927
+#: book.translate.xml:4932
msgid ""
"The next menu asks if the system clock uses <acronym>UTC</acronym> or local "
"time. When in doubt, select <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> to choose the more "
@@ -6693,7 +6693,7 @@ msgstr ""
"問時可選擇 <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton>使用更常用的當地時間。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4933
+#: book.translate.xml:4938
msgid "Select Local or UTC Clock"
msgstr "選擇本地或 UTC 時鐘"
@@ -6702,14 +6702,14 @@ msgstr "選擇本地或 UTC 時鐘"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4937
+#: book.translate.xml:4942
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-set-clock-local-utc' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4942
+#: book.translate.xml:4947
msgid ""
"The next series of menus are used to determine the correct local time by "
"selecting the geographic region, country, and time zone. Setting the time "
@@ -6722,7 +6722,7 @@ msgstr ""
"能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4949
+#: book.translate.xml:4954
msgid ""
"The example shown here is for a machine located in the Eastern time zone of "
"the United States. The selections will vary according to the geographical "
@@ -6730,7 +6730,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr "此處以位於美國東部時區的機器為例,選擇會依據地理位置不同改變。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4954
+#: book.translate.xml:4959
msgid "Select a Region"
msgstr "選擇區域"
@@ -6739,20 +6739,20 @@ msgstr "選擇區域"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4958
+#: book.translate.xml:4963
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-region' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4963
+#: book.translate.xml:4968
msgid ""
"The appropriate region is selected using the arrow keys and then pressing "
"<keycap>Enter</keycap>."
msgstr "使用方向鍵選擇適當的區域然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4967
+#: book.translate.xml:4972
msgid "Select a Country"
msgstr "選擇城市"
@@ -6761,20 +6761,20 @@ msgstr "選擇城市"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4971
+#: book.translate.xml:4976
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-country' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4976
+#: book.translate.xml:4981
msgid ""
"Select the appropriate country using the arrow keys and press <keycap>Enter</"
"keycap>."
msgstr "使用方向鍵選擇適當的城市然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4980
+#: book.translate.xml:4985
msgid "Select a Time Zone"
msgstr "選擇時區"
@@ -6783,20 +6783,20 @@ msgstr "選擇時區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4984
+#: book.translate.xml:4989
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-zone' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4989
+#: book.translate.xml:4994
msgid ""
"The appropriate time zone is selected using the arrow keys and pressing "
"<keycap>Enter</keycap>."
msgstr "使用方向鍵選擇適當的時區然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4993
+#: book.translate.xml:4998
msgid "Confirm Time Zone"
msgstr "確認時區"
@@ -6805,13 +6805,13 @@ msgstr "確認時區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4997
+#: book.translate.xml:5002
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-confirm' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5002
+#: book.translate.xml:5007
msgid ""
"Confirm the abbreviation for the time zone is correct. If it is, press "
"<keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue with the post-installation configuration."
@@ -6819,12 +6819,12 @@ msgstr ""
"確認時區的縮寫是否正確,若正確,按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 繼續安裝後設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5008
+#: book.translate.xml:5013
msgid "Enabling Services"
msgstr "開啟服務"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5010
+#: book.translate.xml:5015
msgid ""
"The next menu is used to configure which system services will be started "
"whenever the system boots. All of these services are optional. Only start "
@@ -6834,7 +6834,7 @@ msgstr ""
"開啟系統運作真正需要的服務。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5016
+#: book.translate.xml:5021
msgid "Selecting Additional Services to Enable"
msgstr "選擇要開啟的其他服務"
@@ -6843,18 +6843,18 @@ msgstr "選擇要開啟的其他服務"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5020
+#: book.translate.xml:5025
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-services' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5025
+#: book.translate.xml:5030
msgid "Here is a summary of the services which can be enabled in this menu:"
msgstr "這是可以在這個選單開啟的服務摘要:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5030
+#: book.translate.xml:5035
msgid ""
"<literal>sshd</literal> - The Secure Shell (<acronym>SSH</acronym>) daemon "
"is used to remotely access a system over an encrypted connection. Only "
@@ -6864,7 +6864,7 @@ msgstr ""
"端透過加密的連線存取系統,只有在系統允許遠端登入時開啟這個服務。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5038
+#: book.translate.xml:5043
msgid ""
"<literal>moused</literal> - Enable this service if the mouse will be used "
"from the command-line system console."
@@ -6873,7 +6873,7 @@ msgstr ""
"務。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5044
+#: book.translate.xml:5049
msgid ""
"<literal>ntpd</literal> - The Network Time Protocol (<acronym>NTP</acronym>) "
"daemon for automatic clock synchronization. Enable this service if there is "
@@ -6886,7 +6886,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 伺服器時,可開啟此服務。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5052
+#: book.translate.xml:5057
msgid ""
"<literal>powerd</literal> - System power control utility for power control "
"and energy saving."
@@ -6894,12 +6894,12 @@ msgstr "<literal>powerd</literal> - 系統電源控制工具用來做電源控
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5059 book.translate.xml:5067
+#: book.translate.xml:5064 book.translate.xml:5072
msgid "Enabling Crash Dumps"
msgstr "開啟當機資訊 (Crash Dump)"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5061
+#: book.translate.xml:5066
msgid ""
"The next menu is used to configure whether or not crash dumps should be "
"enabled. Enabling crash dumps can be useful in debugging issues with the "
@@ -6913,18 +6913,18 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5071
+#: book.translate.xml:5076
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-crashdump' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5078
+#: book.translate.xml:5083
msgid "Add Users"
msgstr "新增使用者"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5080
+#: book.translate.xml:5085
msgid ""
"The next menu prompts to create at least one user account. It is recommended "
"to login to the system using a user account rather than as <systemitem class="
@@ -6939,12 +6939,12 @@ msgstr ""
"使用一般使用者登入較保險且安全。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5087
+#: book.translate.xml:5092
msgid "Select <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> to add new users."
msgstr "選擇 <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> 來新增新使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5091
+#: book.translate.xml:5096
msgid "Add User Accounts"
msgstr "新增使用者帳號"
@@ -6953,13 +6953,13 @@ msgstr "新增使用者帳號"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5095
+#: book.translate.xml:5100
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser1' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5100
+#: book.translate.xml:5105
msgid ""
"Follow the prompts and input the requested information for the user account. "
"The example shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-add-user2\"/> creates the "
@@ -6970,7 +6970,7 @@ msgstr ""
"號。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5104
+#: book.translate.xml:5109
msgid "Enter User Information"
msgstr "輸入使用者資訊"
@@ -6979,18 +6979,18 @@ msgstr "輸入使用者資訊"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5108
+#: book.translate.xml:5113
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser2' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5113
+#: book.translate.xml:5118
msgid "Here is a summary of the information to input:"
msgstr "這裡是要輸入的資訊摘要:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5117
+#: book.translate.xml:5122
msgid ""
"<literal>Username</literal> - The name the user will enter to log in. A "
"common convention is to use the first letter of the first name combined with "
@@ -7002,7 +7002,7 @@ msgstr ""
"區分大小寫且不應含有任何空白字元。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5126
+#: book.translate.xml:5131
msgid ""
"<literal>Full name</literal> - The user's full name. This can contain spaces "
"and is used as a description for the user account."
@@ -7011,7 +7011,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用來描述該使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5132
+#: book.translate.xml:5137
msgid ""
"<literal>Uid</literal> - User <acronym>ID</acronym>. Typically, this is left "
"blank so the system will assign a value."
@@ -7020,7 +7020,7 @@ msgstr ""
"統會自動分配一個值。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5138
+#: book.translate.xml:5143
msgid ""
"<literal>Login group</literal> - The user's group. Typically this is left "
"blank to accept the default."
@@ -7029,7 +7029,7 @@ msgstr ""
"來使用預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5143
+#: book.translate.xml:5148
msgid ""
"<literal>Invite <replaceable>user</replaceable> into other groups?</literal> "
"- Additional groups to which the user will be added as a member. If the user "
@@ -7040,12 +7040,12 @@ msgstr ""
"需要管理權限,則在此輸入 <literal>wheel</literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5151
+#: book.translate.xml:5156
msgid "<literal>Login class</literal> - Typically left blank for the default."
msgstr "登入類別 (<literal>Login class</literal>) - 通常會留空來使用預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5156
+#: book.translate.xml:5161
msgid ""
"<literal>Shell</literal> - Type in one of the listed values to set the "
"interactive shell for the user. Refer to <xref linkend=\"shells\"/> for more "
@@ -7055,7 +7055,7 @@ msgstr ""
"參考 <xref linkend=\"shells\"/> 取得更多有關 Shell 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5163
+#: book.translate.xml:5168
msgid ""
"<literal>Home directory</literal> - The user's home directory. The default "
"is usually correct."
@@ -7064,7 +7064,7 @@ msgstr ""
"問題的。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5168
+#: book.translate.xml:5173
msgid ""
"<literal>Home directory permissions</literal> - Permissions on the user's "
"home directory. The default is usually correct."
@@ -7073,7 +7073,7 @@ msgstr ""
"限,預設值通常是沒有問題的。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5174
+#: book.translate.xml:5179
msgid ""
"<literal>Use password-based authentication?</literal> - Typically "
"<literal>yes</literal> so that the user is prompted to input their password "
@@ -7083,7 +7083,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) - 通常為是 (<literal>yes</literal>),使用者才可於登入時輸入密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5180
+#: book.translate.xml:5185
msgid ""
"<literal>Use an empty password?</literal> - Typically <literal>no</literal> "
"as it is insecure to have a blank password."
@@ -7092,7 +7092,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<literal>no</literal>),因為使用空白密碼並不安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5186
+#: book.translate.xml:5191
msgid ""
"<literal>Use a random password?</literal> - Typically <literal>no</literal> "
"so that the user can set their own password in the next prompt."
@@ -7101,7 +7101,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<literal>no</literal>),這樣使用者接下來才可設定自己的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5192
+#: book.translate.xml:5197
msgid ""
"<literal>Enter password</literal> - The password for this user. Characters "
"typed will not show on the screen."
@@ -7110,7 +7110,7 @@ msgstr ""
"會顯示在畫面上。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5198
+#: book.translate.xml:5203
msgid ""
"<literal>Enter password again</literal> - The password must be typed again "
"for verification."
@@ -7119,7 +7119,7 @@ msgstr ""
"認無誤。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5203
+#: book.translate.xml:5208
msgid ""
"<literal>Lock out the account after creation?</literal> - Typically "
"<literal>no</literal> so that the user can login."
@@ -7128,7 +7128,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) - 通常為否 (<literal>no</literal>),這樣使用者才可以登入。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5209
+#: book.translate.xml:5214
msgid ""
"After entering everything, a summary is shown for review. If a mistake was "
"made, enter <literal>no</literal> and try again. If everything is correct, "
@@ -7139,7 +7139,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 以後便會建立新使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5215
+#: book.translate.xml:5220
msgid "Exit User and Group Management"
msgstr "離開使用者與群組管理"
@@ -7148,13 +7148,13 @@ msgstr "離開使用者與群組管理"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5219
+#: book.translate.xml:5224
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser3' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5224
+#: book.translate.xml:5229
msgid ""
"If there are more users to add, answer the <literal>Add another user?</"
"literal> question with <literal>yes</literal>. Enter <literal>no</literal> "
@@ -7165,7 +7165,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 來完成加入使用者然後繼續安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5229
+#: book.translate.xml:5234
msgid ""
"For more information on adding users and user management, see <xref linkend="
"\"users-synopsis\"/>."
@@ -7175,12 +7175,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5234 book.translate.xml:5240
+#: book.translate.xml:5239 book.translate.xml:5245
msgid "Final Configuration"
msgstr "最後設定"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5236
+#: book.translate.xml:5241
msgid ""
"After everything has been installed and configured, a final chance is "
"provided to modify settings."
@@ -7191,21 +7191,21 @@ msgstr "在所有東西安裝並設定完之後,會提供最後一次修改設
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5244
+#: book.translate.xml:5249
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-finalconfiguration' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5249
+#: book.translate.xml:5254
msgid ""
"Use this menu to make any changes or do any additional configuration before "
"completing the installation."
msgstr "使用這個選單在完成安裝前做任何更改或做任何額外的設定。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5254
+#: book.translate.xml:5259
msgid ""
"<literal>Add User</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"addusers\"/>."
@@ -7214,7 +7214,7 @@ msgstr ""
"addusers\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5258
+#: book.translate.xml:5263
msgid ""
"<literal>Root Password</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"post-root\"/>."
@@ -7223,7 +7223,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"bsdinstall-post-root\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5262
+#: book.translate.xml:5267
msgid ""
"<literal>Hostname</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"hostname\"/>."
@@ -7232,7 +7232,7 @@ msgstr ""
"hostname\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5266
+#: book.translate.xml:5271
msgid ""
"<literal>Network</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-config-"
"network-dev\"/>."
@@ -7241,7 +7241,7 @@ msgstr ""
"network-dev\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5270
+#: book.translate.xml:5275
msgid ""
"<literal>Services</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-sysconf"
"\"/>."
@@ -7250,7 +7250,7 @@ msgstr ""
"sysconf\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5274
+#: book.translate.xml:5279
msgid ""
"<literal>Time Zone</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"timezone\"/>."
@@ -7259,13 +7259,13 @@ msgstr ""
"timezone\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5278
+#: book.translate.xml:5283
msgid ""
"<literal>Handbook</literal> - Download and install the FreeBSD Handbook."
msgstr "使用手冊 (<literal>Handbook</literal>) - 下載並安裝 FreeBSD 使用手冊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5283
+#: book.translate.xml:5288
msgid ""
"After any final configuration is complete, select <guibutton>Exit</"
"guibutton>."
@@ -7273,7 +7273,7 @@ msgstr "完成最後的設定之後,選擇 <guibutton>Exit</guibutton>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5287 book.translate.xml:11407
+#: book.translate.xml:5292 book.translate.xml:11491
msgid "Manual Configuration"
msgstr "手動設定"
@@ -7282,7 +7282,7 @@ msgstr "手動設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5291
+#: book.translate.xml:5296
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-modification-shell' "
@@ -7290,7 +7290,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5296
+#: book.translate.xml:5301
msgid ""
"<application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt if there are any "
"additional configuration that needs to be done before rebooting into the new "
@@ -7303,7 +7303,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的 Shell 或 <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> 繼續最後的安裝步驟。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5305
+#: book.translate.xml:5310
msgid "Complete the Installation"
msgstr "完成安裝"
@@ -7312,13 +7312,13 @@ msgstr "完成安裝"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5309
+#: book.translate.xml:5314
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-mainexit' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5314
+#: book.translate.xml:5319
msgid ""
"If further configuration or special setup is needed, select "
"<guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton> to boot the install media into Live "
@@ -7328,7 +7328,7 @@ msgstr ""
"進入安裝媒體的 Live <acronym>CD</acronym> 模式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5319
+#: book.translate.xml:5324
msgid ""
"If the installation is complete, select <guibutton>[ Reboot ]</guibutton> to "
"reboot the computer and start the new FreeBSD system. Do not forget to "
@@ -7339,7 +7339,7 @@ msgstr ""
"式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5325
+#: book.translate.xml:5330
msgid ""
"As FreeBSD boots, informational messages are displayed. After the system "
"finishes booting, a login prompt is displayed. At the <prompt>login:</"
@@ -7354,7 +7354,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"users-superuser\"/> 來取得當需要管理權限時如何成為超級使用者的說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5334
+#: book.translate.xml:5339
msgid ""
"The messages that appeared during boot can be reviewed by pressing "
"<keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> to turn on the scroll-back buffer. The "
@@ -7373,7 +7373,7 @@ msgstr ""
"列。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5346
+#: book.translate.xml:5351
msgid ""
"If <application>sshd</application> was enabled in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"config-serv\"/>, the first boot may be a bit slower as the system will "
@@ -7387,7 +7387,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Fingerprint),如這個範例:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5352
+#: book.translate.xml:5357
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.\n"
@@ -7428,7 +7428,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5388
+#: book.translate.xml:5393
msgid ""
"Refer to <xref linkend=\"openssh\"/> for more information about fingerprints "
"and <acronym>SSH</acronym>."
@@ -7437,7 +7437,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5391
+#: book.translate.xml:5396
msgid ""
"FreeBSD does not install a graphical environment by default. Refer to <xref "
"linkend=\"x11\"/> for more information about installing and configuring a "
@@ -7447,7 +7447,7 @@ msgstr ""
"與設定圖型化視窗管理程式的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5395
+#: book.translate.xml:5400
msgid ""
"Proper shutdown of a FreeBSD computer helps protect data and hardware from "
"damage. <emphasis>Do not turn off the power before the system has been "
@@ -7468,27 +7468,27 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5408 book.translate.xml:12348 book.translate.xml:15104
-#: book.translate.xml:20264 book.translate.xml:35420 book.translate.xml:36190
-#: book.translate.xml:47830 book.translate.xml:51076 book.translate.xml:62172
-#: book.translate.xml:63827 book.translate.xml:64550
+#: book.translate.xml:5413 book.translate.xml:12443 book.translate.xml:15206
+#: book.translate.xml:20381 book.translate.xml:35537 book.translate.xml:36307
+#: book.translate.xml:47947 book.translate.xml:51193 book.translate.xml:62289
+#: book.translate.xml:63944 book.translate.xml:64667
msgid "Troubleshooting"
msgstr "疑難排解"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5410
+#: book.translate.xml:5415
msgid "<primary>installation</primary> <secondary>troubleshooting</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5414
+#: book.translate.xml:5419
msgid ""
"This section covers basic installation troubleshooting, such as common "
"problems people have reported."
msgstr "本節涵蓋基礎的安裝疑難排解,例如一些已有人回報的常見問題。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5418
+#: book.translate.xml:5423
msgid ""
"Check the Hardware Notes (<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/"
"index.html\">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>) document for "
@@ -7512,7 +7512,7 @@ msgstr ""
"訴 FreeBSD 到那找到這些裝置。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5432
+#: book.translate.xml:5437
msgid ""
"Some installation problems can be avoided or alleviated by updating the "
"firmware on various hardware components, most notably the motherboard. "
@@ -7525,7 +7525,7 @@ msgstr ""
"得升級程式與升級資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5439
+#: book.translate.xml:5444
msgid ""
"Manufacturers generally advise against upgrading the motherboard "
"<acronym>BIOS</acronym> unless there is a good reason for doing so, like a "
@@ -7535,7 +7535,7 @@ msgstr ""
"製造商通常會建議若沒有特殊原因盡量避免升級主機板 <acronym>BIOS</acronym>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5447
+#: book.translate.xml:5452
msgid ""
"If the system hangs while probing hardware during boot, or it behaves "
"strangely during install, <acronym>ACPI</acronym> may be the culprit. "
@@ -7555,13 +7555,13 @@ msgstr ""
"disabled</literal> Hint 來關閉 <acronym>ACPI</acronym>:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5459
+#: book.translate.xml:5464
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput>set hint.acpi.0.disabled=\"1\"</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5461
+#: book.translate.xml:5466
msgid ""
"This is reset each time the system is booted, so it is necessary to add "
"<literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled=\"1\"</literal> to the file <filename>/boot/"
@@ -7573,12 +7573,12 @@ msgstr ""
"機載入程式的資訊可於 <xref linkend=\"boot-synopsis\"/> 取得。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5468
+#: book.translate.xml:5473
msgid "Using the Live <acronym>CD</acronym>"
msgstr "使用 Live <acronym>CD</acronym>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5470
+#: book.translate.xml:5475
msgid ""
"The welcome menu of <application>bsdinstall</application>, shown in <xref "
"linkend=\"bsdinstall-choose-mode\"/>, provides a <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</"
@@ -7592,14 +7592,14 @@ msgstr ""
"測試一部份功能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5477
+#: book.translate.xml:5482
msgid ""
"The following points should be noted before using the "
"<guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton>:"
msgstr "在使用 <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton> 之前必須注意以下幾點事項:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5482
+#: book.translate.xml:5487
msgid ""
"To gain access to the system, authentication is required. The username is "
"<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> and the password is blank."
@@ -7608,25 +7608,25 @@ msgstr ""
"\">root</systemitem> 而密碼則是空白。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5488
+#: book.translate.xml:5493
msgid ""
"As the system runs directly from the installation media, performance will be "
"significantly slower than that of a system installed on a hard disk."
msgstr "系統是直接從安裝媒體上執行,比起安裝到硬碟的系統,效能可能較差。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5494
+#: book.translate.xml:5499
msgid ""
"This option only provides a command prompt and not a graphical interface."
msgstr "這個選項只提供指令提示,不會有圖型化介面。"
#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5519
+#: book.translate.xml:5524
msgid "FreeBSD Basics"
msgstr "FreeBSD 基礎"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5524
+#: book.translate.xml:5529
msgid ""
"This chapter covers the basic commands and functionality of the FreeBSD "
"operating system. Much of this material is relevant for any <trademark class="
@@ -7639,17 +7639,17 @@ msgstr ""
"細的讀完這章。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5533
+#: book.translate.xml:5538
msgid "How to use and configure virtual consoles."
msgstr "如何使用 FreeBSD 的虛擬 Console。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5537
+#: book.translate.xml:5542
msgid "How to create and manage users and groups on FreeBSD."
msgstr "如何在 FreeBSD 建立與管理使用者與群組。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5542
+#: book.translate.xml:5547
msgid ""
"How <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> file permissions and "
"FreeBSD file flags work."
@@ -7658,68 +7658,68 @@ msgstr ""
"記的運作方式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5547
+#: book.translate.xml:5552
msgid "The default FreeBSD file system layout."
msgstr "預設的 FreeBSD 檔案系統配置。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5551
+#: book.translate.xml:5556
msgid "The FreeBSD disk organization."
msgstr "FreeBSD 的磁碟組織。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5555
+#: book.translate.xml:5560
msgid "How to mount and unmount file systems."
msgstr "如何掛載 (Mount)、卸載 (Umount) 檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5559
+#: book.translate.xml:5564
msgid "What processes, daemons, and signals are."
msgstr "什麼是程序、Daemon 以及信號 (Signal)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5563
+#: book.translate.xml:5568
msgid "What a shell is, and how to change the default login environment."
msgstr "什麼是 Shell,以及如何變更您預設的登入環境。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5568
+#: book.translate.xml:5573
msgid "How to use basic text editors."
msgstr "如何使用基本的文字編輯器。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5572
+#: book.translate.xml:5577
msgid "What devices and device nodes are."
msgstr "什麼是裝置 (Device) 和裝置節點 (Device node)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5576
+#: book.translate.xml:5581
msgid "How to read manual pages for more information."
msgstr "如何閱讀操作手冊以獲得更多的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5582
+#: book.translate.xml:5587
msgid "Virtual Consoles and Terminals"
msgstr "虛擬 Console 與終端機"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5584
+#: book.translate.xml:5589
msgid "<primary>virtual consoles</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5587 book.translate.xml:47112
+#: book.translate.xml:5592 book.translate.xml:47229
msgid "<primary>terminals</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5590 book.translate.xml:23246
+#: book.translate.xml:5595 book.translate.xml:23363
msgid "<primary>console</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5594
+#: book.translate.xml:5599
msgid ""
"Unless FreeBSD has been configured to automatically start a graphical "
"environment during startup, the system will boot into a command line login "
@@ -7729,7 +7729,7 @@ msgstr ""
"是這樣的東西:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5599
+#: book.translate.xml:5604
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"FreeBSD/amd64 (pc3.example.org) (ttyv0)\n"
@@ -7738,7 +7738,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5603
+#: book.translate.xml:5608
msgid ""
"The first line contains some information about the system. The "
"<literal>amd64</literal> indicates that the system in this example is "
@@ -7752,7 +7752,7 @@ msgstr ""
"quote>。第二行則是登人的提示訊息。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5611
+#: book.translate.xml:5616
msgid ""
"Since FreeBSD is a multiuser system, it needs some way to distinguish "
"between different users. This is accomplished by requiring every user to log "
@@ -7766,7 +7766,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<quote>password</quote>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5618
+#: book.translate.xml:5623
msgid ""
"To log into the system console, type the username that was configured during "
"system installation, as described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-addusers\"/"
@@ -7780,7 +7780,7 @@ msgstr ""
"示</emphasis>在畫面上。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5626
+#: book.translate.xml:5631
msgid ""
"Once the correct password is input, the message of the day (<acronym>MOTD</"
"acronym>) will be displayed followed by a command prompt. Depending upon the "
@@ -7796,12 +7796,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Console 且已經準備好可以下指令。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5636
+#: book.translate.xml:5641
msgid "Virtual Consoles"
msgstr "虛擬 Console"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5638
+#: book.translate.xml:5643
msgid ""
"While the system console can be used to interact with the system, a user "
"working from the command line at the keyboard of a FreeBSD system will "
@@ -7815,7 +7815,7 @@ msgstr ""
"這些訊些會在使用者作業的過程中不斷出現,讓使用者難以專心作業。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5647
+#: book.translate.xml:5652
msgid ""
"By default, FreeBSD is configured to provide several virtual consoles for "
"inputting commands. Each virtual console has its own login prompt and shell "
@@ -7828,7 +7828,7 @@ msgstr ""
"於圖型化環境中可以同時開啟多個視窗的功能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5654
+#: book.translate.xml:5659
msgid ""
"The key combinations <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></"
"keycombo> through <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F8</keycap></"
@@ -7850,7 +7850,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<filename>ttyv2</filename>),以此類推。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5670
+#: book.translate.xml:5675
msgid ""
"When switching from one console to the next, FreeBSD manages the screen "
"output. The result is an illusion of having multiple virtual screens and "
@@ -7863,7 +7863,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Console 上執行的程式並不會因為使用者切到別的 Console 而停止執行。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5677
+#: book.translate.xml:5682
msgid ""
"Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kbdcontrol</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, "
@@ -7885,7 +7885,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 來取得更多有關 FreeBSD Console 及鍵盤驅動程式的技術說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5682
+#: book.translate.xml:5687
msgid ""
"In FreeBSD, the number of available virtual consoles is configured in this "
"section of <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:"
@@ -7894,7 +7894,7 @@ msgstr ""
"列章節:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:5686
+#: book.translate.xml:5691
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"# name getty type status comments\n"
@@ -7912,7 +7912,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5700
+#: book.translate.xml:5705
msgid ""
"To disable a virtual console, put a comment symbol (<literal>#</literal>) at "
"the beginning of the line representing that virtual console. For example, to "
@@ -7934,7 +7934,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個虛擬 Console (<filename>ttyv8</filename>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5714
+#: book.translate.xml:5719
msgid ""
"For a detailed description of every column in this file and the available "
"options for the virtual consoles, refer to "
@@ -7945,12 +7945,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5720
+#: book.translate.xml:5725
msgid "Single User Mode"
msgstr "單使用者模式"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5722
+#: book.translate.xml:5727
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD boot menu provides an option labelled as <quote>Boot Single "
"User</quote>. If this option is selected, the system will boot into a "
@@ -7975,7 +7975,7 @@ msgstr ""
"鍵盤的人員。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5738
+#: book.translate.xml:5743
msgid ""
"The settings which control single user mode are found in this section of "
"<filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:"
@@ -7984,7 +7984,7 @@ msgstr ""
"到:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:5741
+#: book.translate.xml:5746
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"# name getty type status comments\n"
@@ -7995,7 +7995,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5747
+#: book.translate.xml:5752
msgid ""
"By default, the status is set to <literal>secure</literal>. This assumes "
"that who has physical access to the keyboard is either not important or it "
@@ -8014,7 +8014,7 @@ msgstr ""
"碼。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5759
+#: book.translate.xml:5764
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Be careful when changing this setting to <literal>insecure</"
"literal></emphasis>! If the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> "
@@ -8027,12 +8027,12 @@ msgstr ""
"有其他辦法可以登入單使用者模式,只是對不熟 FreeBSD 開機程序的人可就麻煩了。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5769
+#: book.translate.xml:5774
msgid "Changing Console Video Modes"
msgstr "更改 Console 影像模式"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5771
+#: book.translate.xml:5776
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD console default video mode may be adjusted to 1024x768, "
"1280x1024, or any other size supported by the graphics chip and monitor. To "
@@ -8043,13 +8043,13 @@ msgstr ""
"組:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5776
+#: book.translate.xml:5781
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload vesa</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5778
+#: book.translate.xml:5783
msgid ""
"To determine which video modes are supported by the hardware, use "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
@@ -8061,13 +8061,13 @@ msgstr ""
"清單可輸入以下指令:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5782
+#: book.translate.xml:5787
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>vidcontrol -i mode</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5784
+#: book.translate.xml:5789
msgid ""
"The output of this command lists the video modes that are supported by the "
"hardware. To select a new video mode, specify the mode using "
@@ -8081,13 +8081,13 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5789
+#: book.translate.xml:5794
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>vidcontrol MODE_279</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5791
+#: book.translate.xml:5796
msgid ""
"If the new video mode is acceptable, it can be permanently set on boot by "
"adding it to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:"
@@ -8096,18 +8096,18 @@ msgstr ""
"次重開機後會自動生效:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:5795
+#: book.translate.xml:5800
#, no-wrap
msgid "allscreens_flags=\"MODE_279\""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5812
+#: book.translate.xml:5817
msgid "Users and Basic Account Management"
msgstr "使用者與基礎帳號管理"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5814
+#: book.translate.xml:5819
msgid ""
"FreeBSD allows multiple users to use the computer at the same time. While "
"only one user can sit in front of the screen and use the keyboard at any one "
@@ -8119,39 +8119,39 @@ msgstr ""
"用者應有自己的帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5820
+#: book.translate.xml:5825
msgid "This chapter describes:"
msgstr "本章介紹︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5824
+#: book.translate.xml:5829
msgid "The different types of user accounts on a FreeBSD system."
msgstr "FreeBSD 系統中各種類型的使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5829
+#: book.translate.xml:5834
msgid "How to add, remove, and modify user accounts."
msgstr "如何加入、移除與修改使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5833
+#: book.translate.xml:5838
msgid ""
"How to set limits to control the resources that users and groups are allowed "
"to access."
msgstr "如何設定用來控制使用者與群組允許存取的資源的限制。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5839
+#: book.translate.xml:5844
msgid "How to create groups and add users as members of a group."
msgstr "如何建立群組與加入使用者作為群組成員。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5845
+#: book.translate.xml:5850
msgid "Account Types"
msgstr "帳號類型"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5847
+#: book.translate.xml:5852
msgid ""
"Since all access to the FreeBSD system is achieved using accounts and all "
"processes are run by users, user and account management is important."
@@ -8160,24 +8160,24 @@ msgstr ""
"者來執行,因此使用者帳號管理非常重要。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5851
+#: book.translate.xml:5856
msgid ""
"There are three main types of accounts: system accounts, user accounts, and "
"the superuser account."
msgstr "有三種主要類型的帳號:系統帳號、使用者帳號以及超級使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5855
+#: book.translate.xml:5860
msgid "System Accounts"
msgstr "系統帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5857
+#: book.translate.xml:5862
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>system</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5862
+#: book.translate.xml:5867
msgid ""
"System accounts are used to run services such as DNS, mail, and web servers. "
"The reason for this is security; if all services ran as the superuser, they "
@@ -8187,21 +8187,21 @@ msgstr ""
"若所有的服務均以超級使用者來執行,那麼這些服務的運作將不會受到限制。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5867
+#: book.translate.xml:5872
msgid ""
"<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username"
"\">daemon</systemitem></secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5871
+#: book.translate.xml:5876
msgid ""
"<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username"
"\">operator</systemitem></secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5876
+#: book.translate.xml:5881
msgid ""
"Examples of system accounts are <systemitem class=\"username\">daemon</"
"systemitem>, <systemitem class=\"username\">operator</systemitem>, "
@@ -8215,14 +8215,14 @@ msgstr ""
"systemitem>, and <systemitem class=\"username\">www</systemitem>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5883
+#: book.translate.xml:5888
msgid ""
"<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username"
"\">nobody</systemitem></secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5888
+#: book.translate.xml:5893
msgid ""
"<systemitem class=\"username\">nobody</systemitem> is the generic "
"unprivileged system account. However, the more services that use <systemitem "
@@ -8236,17 +8236,17 @@ msgstr ""
"限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5897
+#: book.translate.xml:5902
msgid "User Accounts"
msgstr "使用者帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5899
+#: book.translate.xml:5904
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>user</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5904
+#: book.translate.xml:5909
msgid ""
"User accounts are assigned to real people and are used to log in and use the "
"system. Every person accessing the system should have a unique user account. "
@@ -8258,7 +8258,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5910
+#: book.translate.xml:5915
msgid ""
"Each user can set up their own environment to accommodate their use of the "
"system, by configuring their default shell, editor, key bindings, and "
@@ -8268,19 +8268,19 @@ msgstr ""
"編輯器、組合鍵 (Key Binding) 及語言設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5915
+#: book.translate.xml:5920
msgid ""
"Every user account on a FreeBSD system has certain information associated "
"with it:"
msgstr "每個在 FreeBSD 系統的使用者帳號都會有一些相關的資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5920
+#: book.translate.xml:5925
msgid "User name"
msgstr "使用者名稱 (User name)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5923
+#: book.translate.xml:5928
msgid ""
"The user name is typed at the <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt. Each user must "
"have a unique user name. There are a number of rules for creating valid user "
@@ -8296,22 +8296,22 @@ msgstr ""
"元以向下相容應用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5935
+#: book.translate.xml:5940
msgid "Password"
msgstr "密碼 (Password)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5938
+#: book.translate.xml:5943
msgid "Each account has an associated password."
msgstr "每個帳號都會有密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5943
+#: book.translate.xml:5948
msgid "User ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>)"
msgstr "使用者 ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5946
+#: book.translate.xml:5951
msgid ""
"The User ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>) is a number used to uniquely identify "
"the user to the FreeBSD system. Commands that allow a user name to be "
@@ -8325,12 +8325,12 @@ msgstr ""
"體的相容性問題。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5957
+#: book.translate.xml:5962
msgid "Group ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>)"
msgstr "群組 ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5960
+#: book.translate.xml:5965
msgid ""
"The Group ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>) is a number used to uniquely identify "
"the primary group that the user belongs to. Groups are a mechanism for "
@@ -8347,12 +8347,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的 GID 可能會讓部份軟體無法運作。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5974
+#: book.translate.xml:5979
msgid "Login class"
msgstr "登入類別 (Login class)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5977
+#: book.translate.xml:5982
msgid ""
"Login classes are an extension to the group mechanism that provide "
"additional flexibility when tailoring the system to different users. Login "
@@ -8362,12 +8362,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的彈性。在 <xref linkend=\"users-limiting\"/> 有對登入類別更進一步的討論。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5986
+#: book.translate.xml:5991
msgid "Password change time"
msgstr "密碼更改時間 (Password change time)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5989
+#: book.translate.xml:5994
msgid ""
"By default, passwords do not expire. However, password expiration can be "
"enabled on a per-user basis, forcing some or all users to change their "
@@ -8377,12 +8377,12 @@ msgstr ""
"或所有使用者在某段期間過後更改他們的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5998
+#: book.translate.xml:6003
msgid "Account expiration time"
msgstr "帳號到期時間 (Account expiration time)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6001
+#: book.translate.xml:6006
msgid ""
"By default, FreeBSD does not expire accounts. When creating accounts that "
"need a limited lifespan, such as student accounts in a school, specify the "
@@ -8397,12 +8397,12 @@ msgstr ""
"期日期過後,便無法使用該帳號登入到系統,儘管該帳號的目錄及檔案仍存在。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6012
+#: book.translate.xml:6017
msgid "User's full name"
msgstr "使用者的全名 (User's full name)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6015
+#: book.translate.xml:6020
msgid ""
"The user name uniquely identifies the account to FreeBSD, but does not "
"necessarily reflect the user's real name. Similar to a comment, this "
@@ -8413,12 +8413,12 @@ msgstr ""
"名。類似註解,這個資訊可以含有空白、大寫字元並可超過 8 個字母的長度。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6024
+#: book.translate.xml:6029
msgid "Home directory"
msgstr "家目錄 (Home directory)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6027
+#: book.translate.xml:6032
msgid ""
"The home directory is the full path to a directory on the system. This is "
"the user's starting directory when the user logs in. A common convention is "
@@ -8433,12 +8433,12 @@ msgstr ""
"filename>。每位使用者可以儲存他們的個人檔案及子目錄於他們自己的家目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6038
+#: book.translate.xml:6043
msgid "User shell"
msgstr "使用者 Shell (User shell)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6041
+#: book.translate.xml:6046
msgid ""
"The shell provides the user's default environment for interacting with the "
"system. There are many different kinds of shells and experienced users will "
@@ -8448,17 +8448,17 @@ msgstr ""
"用者會有自己偏好的選擇,可儲存在自己的帳號設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6052
+#: book.translate.xml:6057
msgid "The Superuser Account"
msgstr "超級使用者帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6054
+#: book.translate.xml:6059
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>superuser (root)</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6059
+#: book.translate.xml:6064
msgid ""
"The superuser account, usually called <systemitem class=\"username\">root</"
"systemitem>, is used to manage the system with no limitations on privileges. "
@@ -8470,7 +8470,7 @@ msgstr ""
"如:寄信與收信、系統的一般探索或程式設計。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6066
+#: book.translate.xml:6071
msgid ""
"The superuser, unlike other user accounts, can operate without limits, and "
"misuse of the superuser account may result in spectacular disasters. User "
@@ -8483,7 +8483,7 @@ msgstr ""
"登入一般使用者帳號,只有在指令需要額外權限時切換為超級使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6074
+#: book.translate.xml:6079
msgid ""
"Always double and triple-check any commands issued as the superuser, since "
"an extra space or missing character can mean irreparable data loss."
@@ -8492,7 +8492,7 @@ msgstr ""
"著無法挽回的資料遺失。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6078
+#: book.translate.xml:6083
msgid ""
"There are several ways to gain superuser privilege. While one can log in as "
"<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>, this is highly discouraged."
@@ -8501,7 +8501,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"username\">root</systemitem>,但強烈不建議這樣做。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6083
+#: book.translate.xml:6088
msgid ""
"Instead, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> to become the superuser. If <literal>-</literal> "
@@ -8519,7 +8519,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6093
+#: book.translate.xml:6098
msgid ""
"In this example, the user only becomes superuser in order to run "
"<command>make install</command> as this step requires superuser privilege. "
@@ -8531,12 +8531,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>exit</command> 離開超級使用者帳號並返回他的使用者帳號權限。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6101
+#: book.translate.xml:6106
msgid "Install a Program As the Superuser"
msgstr "以超級使用者的身份安裝程式"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6103
+#: book.translate.xml:6108
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>configure</userinput>\n"
@@ -8549,7 +8549,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6112
+#: book.translate.xml:6117
msgid ""
"The built-in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> framework works well for single systems or small "
@@ -8564,17 +8564,17 @@ msgstr ""
"體提供了活動記錄且允許管理者設定那個使用者可以用超級使用者執行那個指令。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6123
+#: book.translate.xml:6128
msgid "Managing Accounts"
msgstr "管理帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6125
+#: book.translate.xml:6130
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>modifying</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6130
+#: book.translate.xml:6135
msgid ""
"FreeBSD provides a variety of different commands to manage user accounts. "
"The most common commands are summarized in <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-"
@@ -8586,110 +8586,110 @@ msgstr ""
"的操作手冊來取得更多詳細的資訊與用法範例。"
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6137
+#: book.translate.xml:6142
msgid "Utilities for Managing User Accounts"
msgstr "管理使用者帳號的工具"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6145 book.translate.xml:58406 book.translate.xml:61938
+#: book.translate.xml:6150 book.translate.xml:58523 book.translate.xml:62055
msgid "Command"
msgstr "指令"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6146 book.translate.xml:17006 book.translate.xml:17160
+#: book.translate.xml:6151 book.translate.xml:17123 book.translate.xml:17277
msgid "Summary"
msgstr "摘要"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6151
+#: book.translate.xml:6156
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6152
+#: book.translate.xml:6157
msgid "The recommended command-line application for adding new users."
msgstr "建議用來新增新使用者的指令列應用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6157
+#: book.translate.xml:6162
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6158
+#: book.translate.xml:6163
msgid "The recommended command-line application for removing users."
msgstr "建議用來移除使用者的指令列應用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6163
+#: book.translate.xml:6168
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6164
+#: book.translate.xml:6169
msgid "A flexible tool for changing user database information."
msgstr "用來更改使用者資料庫資訊的工具。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6169
+#: book.translate.xml:6174
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6170
+#: book.translate.xml:6175
msgid "The command-line tool to change user passwords."
msgstr "用來更改使用者密碼的指令列工具。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6175
+#: book.translate.xml:6180
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6176
+#: book.translate.xml:6181
msgid ""
"A powerful and flexible tool for modifying all aspects of user accounts."
msgstr "用來修改使用者帳號各方面資訊強大且靈活的工具。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6184
+#: book.translate.xml:6189
msgid "<command>adduser</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6186
+#: book.translate.xml:6191
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>adding</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect4/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6190 book.translate.xml:43185
+#: book.translate.xml:6195 book.translate.xml:43302
msgid "<primary><command>adduser</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6193
+#: book.translate.xml:6198
msgid "<primary><filename>/usr/share/skel</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6196
+#: book.translate.xml:6201
msgid "<primary>skeleton directory</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6200
+#: book.translate.xml:6205
msgid ""
"The recommended program for adding new users is "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
@@ -8708,7 +8708,7 @@ msgstr ""
"具必須使用超級使用者執行。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6210
+#: book.translate.xml:6215
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> utility is interactive and walks through the steps "
@@ -8731,12 +8731,12 @@ msgstr ""
"離開。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6222
+#: book.translate.xml:6227
msgid "Adding a User on FreeBSD"
msgstr "在 FreeBSD 新增使用者"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6224
+#: book.translate.xml:6229
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>adduser</userinput>\n"
@@ -8772,29 +8772,29 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6257
+#: book.translate.xml:6262
msgid ""
"Since the password is not echoed when typed, be careful to not mistype the "
"password when creating the user account."
msgstr "由於密碼在輸入時並不會顯示,在建立使用者帳號時要小心密碼不要輸入錯誤。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6264
+#: book.translate.xml:6269
msgid "<command>rmuser</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6266
+#: book.translate.xml:6271
msgid "<primary><command>rmuser</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6269
+#: book.translate.xml:6274
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>removing</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6274
+#: book.translate.xml:6279
msgid ""
"To completely remove a user from the system, run "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -8805,7 +8805,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。這個指令會執行以下步驟:"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6280
+#: book.translate.xml:6285
msgid ""
"Removes the user's <citerefentry><refentrytitle>crontab</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> entry, if one exists."
@@ -8814,7 +8814,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 項目,若項目存在。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6285
+#: book.translate.xml:6290
msgid ""
"Removes any <citerefentry><refentrytitle>at</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> jobs belonging to the user."
@@ -8823,30 +8823,30 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 工作。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6290
+#: book.translate.xml:6295
msgid "Kills all processes owned by the user."
msgstr "中止所有該使用者擁有的程序。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6294
+#: book.translate.xml:6299
msgid "Removes the user from the system's local password file."
msgstr "自系統本地密碼檔移除該使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6299
+#: book.translate.xml:6304
msgid ""
"Optionally removes the user's home directory, if it is owned by the user."
msgstr "選擇性移除該使用者的家目錄,若使用者擁有該目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6304
+#: book.translate.xml:6309
msgid ""
"Removes the incoming mail files belonging to the user from <filename>/var/"
"mail</filename>."
msgstr "自 <filename>/var/mail</filename> 移除屬於該使用者的收件郵件檔。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6309
+#: book.translate.xml:6314
msgid ""
"Removes all files owned by the user from temporary file storage areas such "
"as <filename>/tmp</filename>."
@@ -8854,7 +8854,7 @@ msgstr ""
"自暫存檔儲存區域 (如 <filename>/tmp</filename>) 移除所有使用者擁有的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6315
+#: book.translate.xml:6320
msgid ""
"Finally, removes the username from all groups to which it belongs in "
"<filename>/etc/group</filename>. If a group becomes empty and the group name "
@@ -8868,7 +8868,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 替每位使用者建立獨一無二的群組。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6324
+#: book.translate.xml:6329
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> cannot be used to remove superuser accounts since that is "
@@ -8878,18 +8878,18 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 無法用來移除超級使用者帳號,因為這幾乎代表著大規模破壞。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6328
+#: book.translate.xml:6333
msgid ""
"By default, an interactive mode is used, as shown in the following example."
msgstr "預設會使用互動式模式,如下範例所示。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6332
+#: book.translate.xml:6337
msgid "<command>rmuser</command> Interactive Account Removal"
msgstr "<command>rmuser</command> 互動式帳號移除"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6335
+#: book.translate.xml:6340
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>rmuser jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -8902,17 +8902,17 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6346
+#: book.translate.xml:6351
msgid "<command>chpass</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6348
+#: book.translate.xml:6353
msgid "<primary><command>chpass</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6352
+#: book.translate.xml:6357
msgid ""
"Any user can use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to change their "
@@ -8926,7 +8926,7 @@ msgstr ""
"者的其他帳號資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6357
+#: book.translate.xml:6362
msgid ""
"When passed no options, aside from an optional username, "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -8939,7 +8939,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的資訊到使用者資料庫。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6363
+#: book.translate.xml:6368
msgid ""
"This utility will prompt for the user's password when exiting the editor, "
"unless the utility is run as the superuser."
@@ -8947,7 +8947,7 @@ msgstr ""
"離開編輯器時,此工具會提示使用者輸入密碼,除非使用超級使用者執行此工具。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6368
+#: book.translate.xml:6373
msgid ""
"In <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-chpass-su\"/>, the superuser has typed "
"<command>chpass jru</command> and is now viewing the fields that can be "
@@ -8962,12 +8962,12 @@ msgstr ""
"個欄位供編輯,如 <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-chpass-ru\"/> 所示。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6377
+#: book.translate.xml:6382
msgid "Using <command>chpass</command> as Superuser"
msgstr "以超級使用者的身份使用 <command>chpass</command>"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6380
+#: book.translate.xml:6385
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"#Changing user database information for jru.\n"
@@ -8988,12 +8988,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6398
+#: book.translate.xml:6403
msgid "Using <command>chpass</command> as Regular User"
msgstr "以一般使用者的身份使用 <command>chpass</command>"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6401
+#: book.translate.xml:6406
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"#Changing user database information for jru.\n"
@@ -9006,7 +9006,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6411
+#: book.translate.xml:6416
msgid ""
"The commands <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chfn</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chsh</"
@@ -9034,22 +9034,22 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"network-servers\"/> 中有說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6421
+#: book.translate.xml:6426
msgid "<command>passwd</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6423
+#: book.translate.xml:6428
msgid "<primary><command>passwd</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6426
+#: book.translate.xml:6431
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>changing password</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6431
+#: book.translate.xml:6436
msgid ""
"Any user can easily change their password using "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -9062,12 +9062,12 @@ msgstr ""
"意外或未授權的變更,這個指令在設定新密碼之前會提示使用者輸入原來的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6437
+#: book.translate.xml:6442
msgid "Changing Your Password"
msgstr "更改您的密碼"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6439
+#: book.translate.xml:6444
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>passwd</userinput>\n"
@@ -9080,7 +9080,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6448
+#: book.translate.xml:6453
msgid ""
"The superuser can change any user's password by specifying the username when "
"running <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
@@ -9094,12 +9094,12 @@ msgstr ""
"用者目前的密碼,這可在使用者忘記原來的密碼時更改密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6456
+#: book.translate.xml:6461
msgid "Changing Another User's Password as the Superuser"
msgstr "以超級使用者的身份更改其他使用者的密碼"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6459
+#: book.translate.xml:6464
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>passwd jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -9111,7 +9111,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6468
+#: book.translate.xml:6473
msgid ""
"As with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>yppasswd</"
@@ -9126,18 +9126,18 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>,因此 <acronym>NIS</acronym> 在兩個指令上皆可運作。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6475
+#: book.translate.xml:6480
msgid "<command>pw</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect4/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6477 book.translate.xml:43208
+#: book.translate.xml:6482 book.translate.xml:43325
msgid "<primary><command>pw</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6481
+#: book.translate.xml:6486
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> utility can create, remove, modify, and display users and "
@@ -9155,27 +9155,27 @@ msgstr ""
"本節的指令要複雜許多。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6492
+#: book.translate.xml:6497
msgid "Managing Groups"
msgstr "管理群組"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6494
+#: book.translate.xml:6499
msgid "<primary>groups</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6497
+#: book.translate.xml:6502
msgid "<primary><filename>/etc/groups</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6500
+#: book.translate.xml:6505
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>groups</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6505
+#: book.translate.xml:6510
msgid ""
"A group is a list of users. A group is identified by its group name and "
"<acronym>GID</acronym>. In FreeBSD, the kernel uses the <acronym>UID</"
@@ -9189,7 +9189,7 @@ msgstr ""
"單中的第一個群組。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6512
+#: book.translate.xml:6517
msgid ""
"The group name to <acronym>GID</acronym> mapping is listed in <filename>/etc/"
"group</filename>. This is a plain text file with four colon-delimited "
@@ -9207,7 +9207,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6520
+#: book.translate.xml:6525
msgid ""
"The superuser can modify <filename>/etc/group</filename> using a text "
"editor. Alternatively, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
@@ -9221,7 +9221,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"groupname\">teamtwo</systemitem> 的群組然後確認該群組已新增:"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6527
+#: book.translate.xml:6532
msgid ""
"Adding a Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -9230,7 +9230,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 新增群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6529
+#: book.translate.xml:6534
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupadd teamtwo</userinput>\n"
@@ -9239,7 +9239,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6534
+#: book.translate.xml:6539
msgid ""
"In this example, <literal>1100</literal> is the <acronym>GID</acronym> of "
"<systemitem class=\"groupname\">teamtwo</systemitem>. Right now, <systemitem "
@@ -9254,7 +9254,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\">teamtwo</systemitem> 的成員。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6543
+#: book.translate.xml:6548
msgid ""
"Adding User Accounts to a New Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -9263,7 +9263,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 加入使用者帳號到新的群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6546
+#: book.translate.xml:6551
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod teamtwo -M jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -9272,7 +9272,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6551
+#: book.translate.xml:6556
msgid ""
"The argument to <option>-M</option> is a comma-delimited list of users to be "
"added to a new (empty) group or to replace the members of an existing group. "
@@ -9299,7 +9299,7 @@ msgstr ""
"filename> 且不會嘗試自 <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> 讀取其他的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6565
+#: book.translate.xml:6570
msgid ""
"Adding a New Member to a Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -9308,7 +9308,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 加入新成員到群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6567
+#: book.translate.xml:6572
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod teamtwo -m db</userinput>\n"
@@ -9317,7 +9317,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6572
+#: book.translate.xml:6577
msgid ""
"In this example, the argument to <option>-m</option> is a comma-delimited "
"list of users who are to be added to the group. Unlike the previous example, "
@@ -9329,7 +9329,7 @@ msgstr ""
"者。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6579
+#: book.translate.xml:6584
msgid ""
"Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>id</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> to Determine Group Membership"
@@ -9338,7 +9338,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 來查看所屬群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6581
+#: book.translate.xml:6586
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>id jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -9346,7 +9346,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6585
+#: book.translate.xml:6590
msgid ""
"In this example, <systemitem class=\"username\">jru</systemitem> is a member "
"of the groups <systemitem class=\"groupname\">jru</systemitem> and "
@@ -9357,7 +9357,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\">teamtwo</systemitem> 的成員。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6590
+#: book.translate.xml:6595
msgid ""
"For more information about this command and the format of <filename>/etc/"
"group</filename>, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
@@ -9371,17 +9371,17 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6597
+#: book.translate.xml:6602
msgid "Permissions"
msgstr "權限"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6599
+#: book.translate.xml:6604
msgid "<primary>UNIX</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6603
+#: book.translate.xml:6608
msgid ""
"In FreeBSD, every file and directory has an associated set of permissions "
"and several utilities are available for viewing and modifying these "
@@ -9395,7 +9395,7 @@ msgstr ""
"無法不正確的存取供作業系統或其他使用者擁有的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6611
+#: book.translate.xml:6616
msgid ""
"This section discusses the traditional <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</"
"trademark> permissions used in FreeBSD. For finer grained file system access "
@@ -9406,7 +9406,7 @@ msgstr ""
">。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6615
+#: book.translate.xml:6620
msgid ""
"In <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark>, basic permissions are "
"assigned using three types of access: read, write, and execute. These access "
@@ -9430,7 +9430,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 以及 <literal>x</literal> 開啟的值為 <literal>1</literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6630
+#: book.translate.xml:6635
msgid ""
"Table 4.1 summarizes the possible numeric and alphabetic possibilities. When "
"reading the <quote>Directory Listing</quote> column, a <literal>-</literal> "
@@ -9440,183 +9440,183 @@ msgstr ""
"位時,<literal>-</literal> 用來代表該權限設為關閉。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6635
+#: book.translate.xml:6640
msgid "<primary>permissions</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6638
+#: book.translate.xml:6643
msgid "<primary>file permissions</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6643
+#: book.translate.xml:6648
msgid "<trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> Permissions"
msgstr "<trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> 權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6648
+#: book.translate.xml:6653
msgid "Value"
msgstr "數值"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6649
+#: book.translate.xml:6654
msgid "Permission"
msgstr "權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6650
+#: book.translate.xml:6655
msgid "Directory Listing"
msgstr "目錄清單標示"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6656
+#: book.translate.xml:6661
msgid "0"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6657
+#: book.translate.xml:6662
msgid "No read, no write, no execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 不可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6658
+#: book.translate.xml:6663
msgid "<literal>---</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6662 book.translate.xml:46810 book.translate.xml:46832
-#: book.translate.xml:46922
+#: book.translate.xml:6667 book.translate.xml:46927 book.translate.xml:46949
+#: book.translate.xml:47039
msgid "1"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6663
+#: book.translate.xml:6668
msgid "No read, no write, execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 不可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6664
+#: book.translate.xml:6669
msgid "<literal>--x</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6668 book.translate.xml:46702 book.translate.xml:46712
-#: book.translate.xml:46784 book.translate.xml:46794 book.translate.xml:46874
-#: book.translate.xml:46876
+#: book.translate.xml:6673 book.translate.xml:46819 book.translate.xml:46829
+#: book.translate.xml:46901 book.translate.xml:46911 book.translate.xml:46991
+#: book.translate.xml:46993
msgid "2"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6669
+#: book.translate.xml:6674
msgid "No read, write, no execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6670
+#: book.translate.xml:6675
msgid "<literal>-w-</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6674 book.translate.xml:46704 book.translate.xml:46710
-#: book.translate.xml:46786 book.translate.xml:46792 book.translate.xml:46882
-#: book.translate.xml:46884
+#: book.translate.xml:6679 book.translate.xml:46821 book.translate.xml:46827
+#: book.translate.xml:46903 book.translate.xml:46909 book.translate.xml:46999
+#: book.translate.xml:47001
msgid "3"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6675
+#: book.translate.xml:6680
msgid "No read, write, execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6676
+#: book.translate.xml:6681
msgid "<literal>-wx</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6680 book.translate.xml:46718 book.translate.xml:46728
-#: book.translate.xml:46800 book.translate.xml:46808 book.translate.xml:46826
-#: book.translate.xml:46834 book.translate.xml:46890 book.translate.xml:46898
-#: book.translate.xml:46940
+#: book.translate.xml:6685 book.translate.xml:46835 book.translate.xml:46845
+#: book.translate.xml:46917 book.translate.xml:46925 book.translate.xml:46943
+#: book.translate.xml:46951 book.translate.xml:47007 book.translate.xml:47015
+#: book.translate.xml:47057
msgid "4"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6681
+#: book.translate.xml:6686
msgid "Read, no write, no execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 不可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6682
+#: book.translate.xml:6687
msgid "<literal>r--</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6686 book.translate.xml:46720 book.translate.xml:46726
-#: book.translate.xml:46816 book.translate.xml:46818 book.translate.xml:46906
-#: book.translate.xml:46932
+#: book.translate.xml:6691 book.translate.xml:46837 book.translate.xml:46843
+#: book.translate.xml:46933 book.translate.xml:46935 book.translate.xml:47023
+#: book.translate.xml:47049
msgid "5"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6687
+#: book.translate.xml:6692
msgid "Read, no write, execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 不可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6688
+#: book.translate.xml:6693
msgid "<literal>r-x</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6692 book.translate.xml:46736 book.translate.xml:46750
-#: book.translate.xml:46802 book.translate.xml:46824 book.translate.xml:46892
-#: book.translate.xml:46914
+#: book.translate.xml:6697 book.translate.xml:46853 book.translate.xml:46867
+#: book.translate.xml:46919 book.translate.xml:46941 book.translate.xml:47009
+#: book.translate.xml:47031
msgid "6"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6693
+#: book.translate.xml:6698
msgid "Read, write, no execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6694
+#: book.translate.xml:6699
msgid "<literal>rw-</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6698 book.translate.xml:46694 book.translate.xml:46696
-#: book.translate.xml:46840 book.translate.xml:46850 book.translate.xml:46908
-#: book.translate.xml:46930
+#: book.translate.xml:6703 book.translate.xml:46811 book.translate.xml:46813
+#: book.translate.xml:46957 book.translate.xml:46967 book.translate.xml:47025
+#: book.translate.xml:47047
msgid "7"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6699
+#: book.translate.xml:6704
msgid "Read, write, execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6700
+#: book.translate.xml:6705
msgid "<literal>rwx</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6706
+#: book.translate.xml:6711
msgid ""
"<primary><citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6709
+#: book.translate.xml:6714
msgid "<primary>directories</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6713
+#: book.translate.xml:6718
msgid ""
"Use the <option>-l</option> argument to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to view a long "
@@ -9630,7 +9630,7 @@ msgstr ""
"一個目錄底下執行 <command>ls -l</command>,會顯示如下的結果:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6719
+#: book.translate.xml:6724
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls -l</userinput>\n"
@@ -9641,7 +9641,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6725
+#: book.translate.xml:6730
msgid ""
"The first (leftmost) character in the first column indicates whether this "
"file is a regular file, a directory, a special character device, a socket, "
@@ -9668,7 +9668,7 @@ msgstr ""
"案的三種權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6742
+#: book.translate.xml:6747
msgid ""
"How does the system control permissions on devices? FreeBSD treats most "
"hardware devices as a file that programs can open, read, and write data to. "
@@ -9679,7 +9679,7 @@ msgstr ""
"</filename> 目錄中。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6747
+#: book.translate.xml:6752
msgid ""
"Directories are also treated as files. They have read, write, and execute "
"permissions. The executable bit for a directory has a slightly different "
@@ -9695,7 +9695,7 @@ msgstr ""
"代表能夠存取在此目錄之中的已知檔名的檔案,但仍會受限於檔案本身所設定的權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6756
+#: book.translate.xml:6761
msgid ""
"In order to perform a directory listing, the read permission must be set on "
"the directory. In order to delete a file that one knows the name of, it is "
@@ -9706,7 +9706,7 @@ msgstr ""
"案所在目錄的寫入 <emphasis>以及</emphasis> 執行的權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6762
+#: book.translate.xml:6767
msgid ""
"There are more permission bits, but they are primarily used in special "
"circumstances such as setuid binaries and sticky directories. For more "
@@ -9720,27 +9720,27 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6769
+#: book.translate.xml:6774
msgid "Symbolic Permissions"
msgstr "權限符號"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:6772 book.translate.xml:6907 book.translate.xml:6958
-#: book.translate.xml:19290 book.translate.xml:19397 book.translate.xml:19575
-#: book.translate.xml:20694 book.translate.xml:21220 book.translate.xml:23469
-#: book.translate.xml:33904 book.translate.xml:45511 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:6777 book.translate.xml:6912 book.translate.xml:6963
+#: book.translate.xml:19407 book.translate.xml:19514 book.translate.xml:19692
+#: book.translate.xml:20811 book.translate.xml:21337 book.translate.xml:23586
+#: book.translate.xml:34021 book.translate.xml:45628 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Tom</firstname> <surname>Rhodes</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6782
+#: book.translate.xml:6787
msgid "<primary>permissions</primary> <secondary>symbolic</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6787
+#: book.translate.xml:6792
msgid ""
"Symbolic permissions use characters instead of octal values to assign "
"permissions to files or directories. Symbolic permissions use the syntax of "
@@ -9750,159 +9750,159 @@ msgstr ""
"符號表示的格式依序為 (某人)(動作)(權限),可使用的符號如下:"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6797 book.translate.xml:23195
+#: book.translate.xml:6802 book.translate.xml:23312
msgid "Option"
msgstr "項目"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6798
+#: book.translate.xml:6803
msgid "Letter"
msgstr "字母"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6799
+#: book.translate.xml:6804
msgid "Represents"
msgstr "代表意義"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6805 book.translate.xml:6811 book.translate.xml:6817
-#: book.translate.xml:6823
+#: book.translate.xml:6810 book.translate.xml:6816 book.translate.xml:6822
+#: book.translate.xml:6828
msgid "(who)"
msgstr "(某人)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6806
+#: book.translate.xml:6811
msgid "u"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6807
+#: book.translate.xml:6812
msgid "User"
msgstr "使用者"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6812
+#: book.translate.xml:6817
msgid "g"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6813
+#: book.translate.xml:6818
msgid "Group owner"
msgstr "群組所有者"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6818
+#: book.translate.xml:6823
msgid "o"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6819
+#: book.translate.xml:6824
msgid "Other"
msgstr "其他"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6824
+#: book.translate.xml:6829
msgid "a"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6825
+#: book.translate.xml:6830
msgid "All (<quote>world</quote>)"
msgstr "全部 (<quote>world</quote>)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6829 book.translate.xml:6835 book.translate.xml:6841
+#: book.translate.xml:6834 book.translate.xml:6840 book.translate.xml:6846
msgid "(action)"
msgstr "(動作)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6830 book.translate.xml:31465 book.translate.xml:39197
+#: book.translate.xml:6835 book.translate.xml:31582 book.translate.xml:39314
msgid "+"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6831
+#: book.translate.xml:6836
msgid "Adding permissions"
msgstr "\t增加權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6836 book.translate.xml:31470 book.translate.xml:39202
+#: book.translate.xml:6841 book.translate.xml:31587 book.translate.xml:39319
msgid "-"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6837
+#: book.translate.xml:6842
msgid "Removing permissions"
msgstr "移除權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6842
+#: book.translate.xml:6847
msgid "="
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6843
+#: book.translate.xml:6848
msgid "Explicitly set permissions"
msgstr "指定權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6847 book.translate.xml:6853 book.translate.xml:6859
-#: book.translate.xml:6865 book.translate.xml:6871
+#: book.translate.xml:6852 book.translate.xml:6858 book.translate.xml:6864
+#: book.translate.xml:6870 book.translate.xml:6876
msgid "(permissions)"
msgstr "(權限)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6848
+#: book.translate.xml:6853
msgid "r"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6849
+#: book.translate.xml:6854
msgid "Read"
msgstr "讀取"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6854
+#: book.translate.xml:6859
msgid "w"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6855
+#: book.translate.xml:6860
msgid "Write"
msgstr "寫入"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6860
+#: book.translate.xml:6865
msgid "x"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6861
+#: book.translate.xml:6866
msgid "Execute"
msgstr "執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6866
+#: book.translate.xml:6871
msgid "t"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6867
+#: book.translate.xml:6872
msgid "Sticky bit"
msgstr "Sticky 位元"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6872
+#: book.translate.xml:6877
msgid "s"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6873
+#: book.translate.xml:6878
msgid "Set UID or GID"
msgstr "設定 UID 或 GID"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6879
+#: book.translate.xml:6884
msgid ""
"These values are used with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, but with letters "
@@ -9915,13 +9915,13 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>FILE</replaceable>:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6884
+#: book.translate.xml:6889
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod go= FILE</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6886
+#: book.translate.xml:6891
msgid ""
"A comma separated list can be provided when more than one set of changes to "
"a file must be made. For example, the following command removes the group "
@@ -9933,18 +9933,18 @@ msgstr ""
"(<quote>world</quote>) 對該檔有執行權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6893
+#: book.translate.xml:6898
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod go-w,a+x <replaceable>FILE</replaceable></userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6904
+#: book.translate.xml:6909
msgid "FreeBSD File Flags"
msgstr "FreeBSD 檔案旗標"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6917
+#: book.translate.xml:6922
msgid ""
"In addition to file permissions, FreeBSD supports the use of <quote>file "
"flags</quote>. These flags add an additional level of security and control "
@@ -9957,7 +9957,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> 不會意外將檔案修改或移除。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6924
+#: book.translate.xml:6929
msgid ""
"File flags are modified using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chflags</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For example, to "
@@ -9970,13 +9970,13 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>file1</filename>,使用下列指令:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6929
+#: book.translate.xml:6934
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chflags sunlink file1</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6931
+#: book.translate.xml:6936
msgid ""
"To disable the system undeletable flag, put a <quote>no</quote> in front of "
"the <option>sunlink</option>:"
@@ -9985,13 +9985,13 @@ msgstr ""
"<quote>no</quote>,例如:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6935
+#: book.translate.xml:6940
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chflags nosunlink file1</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6937
+#: book.translate.xml:6942
msgid ""
"To view the flags of a file, use <option>-lo</option> with "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -10001,19 +10001,19 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 及參數 <option>-lo</option> 可檢視檔案目前的旗標:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6940
+#: book.translate.xml:6945
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls -lo file1</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:6942
+#: book.translate.xml:6947
#, no-wrap
msgid "-rw-r--r-- 1 trhodes trhodes sunlnk 0 Mar 1 05:54 file1"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6944
+#: book.translate.xml:6949
msgid ""
"Several file flags may only be added or removed by the <systemitem class="
"\"username\">root</systemitem> user. In other cases, the file owner may set "
@@ -10029,7 +10029,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> 說明以瞭解相關細節。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6953
+#: book.translate.xml:6958
msgid ""
"The <literal>setuid</literal>, <literal>setgid</literal>, and "
"<literal>sticky</literal> Permissions"
@@ -10038,7 +10038,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 權限"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6968
+#: book.translate.xml:6973
msgid ""
"Other than the permissions already discussed, there are three other specific "
"settings that all administrators should know about. They are the "
@@ -10050,7 +10050,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>sticky</literal> 權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6974
+#: book.translate.xml:6979
msgid ""
"These settings are important for some <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</"
"trademark> operations as they provide functionality not normally granted to "
@@ -10062,7 +10062,7 @@ msgstr ""
"說明真實使用者 ID (Real user ID) 與有效使用者 ID (Effective user ID) 的差異。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6979
+#: book.translate.xml:6984
msgid ""
"The real user ID is the <acronym>UID</acronym> who owns or starts the "
"process. The effective <acronym>UID</acronym> is the user ID the process "
@@ -10082,20 +10082,20 @@ msgstr ""
"(<errorname>Permission Denied</errorname>) 的錯誤。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6989
+#: book.translate.xml:6994
msgid ""
"The setuid permission may be set by prefixing a permission set with the "
"number four (4) as shown in the following example:"
msgstr "setuid 權限可以透過在權限集前加上數字 (4) 來設定,如下範例所示:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6993
+#: book.translate.xml:6998
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 4755 suidexample.sh</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6995
+#: book.translate.xml:7000
msgid ""
"The permissions on <filename><replaceable>suidexample.sh</replaceable></"
"filename> now look like the following:"
@@ -10104,13 +10104,13 @@ msgstr ""
"如下所示:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:6999
+#: book.translate.xml:7004
#, no-wrap
msgid "-rwsr-xr-x 1 trhodes trhodes 63 Aug 29 06:36 suidexample.sh"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7001
+#: book.translate.xml:7006
msgid ""
"Note that a <literal>s</literal> is now part of the permission set "
"designated for the file owner, replacing the executable bit. This allows "
@@ -10123,7 +10123,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 可正常使用。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7007
+#: book.translate.xml:7012
msgid ""
"The <literal>nosuid</literal> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> option will cause such "
@@ -10137,7 +10137,7 @@ msgstr ""
"該選項並非完全可靠。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7014
+#: book.translate.xml:7019
msgid ""
"To view this in real time, open two terminals. On one, type <command>passwd</"
"command> as a normal user. While it waits for a new password, check the "
@@ -10151,12 +10151,12 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 程序的使用者資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7020
+#: book.translate.xml:7025
msgid "In terminal A:"
msgstr "於終端機 A:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7022
+#: book.translate.xml:7027
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Changing local password for trhodes\n"
@@ -10164,18 +10164,18 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7025
+#: book.translate.xml:7030
msgid "In terminal B:"
msgstr "於終端機 B:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7027
+#: book.translate.xml:7032
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ps aux | grep passwd</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7029
+#: book.translate.xml:7034
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"trhodes 5232 0.0 0.2 3420 1608 0 R+ 2:10AM 0:00.00 grep passwd\n"
@@ -10183,7 +10183,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7032
+#: book.translate.xml:7037
msgid ""
"Although <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> is run as a normal user, it is using the effective "
@@ -10195,7 +10195,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7036
+#: book.translate.xml:7041
msgid ""
"The <literal>setgid</literal> permission performs the same function as the "
"<literal>setuid</literal> permission; except that it alters the group "
@@ -10208,7 +10208,7 @@ msgstr ""
"使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7043
+#: book.translate.xml:7048
msgid ""
"To set the <literal>setgid</literal> permission on a file, provide "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -10219,26 +10219,26 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 的參數前加上 (2):"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7046
+#: book.translate.xml:7051
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 2755 sgidexample.sh</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7048
+#: book.translate.xml:7053
msgid ""
"In the following listing, notice that the <literal>s</literal> is now in the "
"field designated for the group permission settings:"
msgstr "注意以下清單中,<literal>s</literal> 現在位於指定群組權限設定的欄位:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7052
+#: book.translate.xml:7057
#, no-wrap
msgid "-rwxr-sr-x 1 trhodes trhodes 44 Aug 31 01:49 sgidexample.sh"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7055
+#: book.translate.xml:7060
msgid ""
"In these examples, even though the shell script in question is an executable "
"file, it will not run with a different <acronym>EUID</acronym> or effective "
@@ -10252,7 +10252,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 系統呼叫 (System call)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7062
+#: book.translate.xml:7067
msgid ""
"The <literal>setuid</literal> and <literal>setgid</literal> permission bits "
"may lower system security, by allowing for elevated permissions. The third "
@@ -10264,7 +10264,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>,可以加強系統的安全性。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7068
+#: book.translate.xml:7073
msgid ""
"When the <literal>sticky bit</literal> is set on a directory, it allows file "
"deletion only by the file owner. This is useful to prevent file deletion in "
@@ -10277,13 +10277,13 @@ msgstr ""
"非常有用。要使用這個權限,可在權限集前加上 (1):"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7075
+#: book.translate.xml:7080
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 1777 /tmp</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7077
+#: book.translate.xml:7082
msgid ""
"The <literal>sticky bit</literal> permission will display as a <literal>t</"
"literal> at the very end of the permission set:"
@@ -10292,29 +10292,29 @@ msgstr ""
"後:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7081
+#: book.translate.xml:7086
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls -al / | grep tmp</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7083
+#: book.translate.xml:7088
#, no-wrap
msgid "drwxrwxrwt 10 root wheel 512 Aug 31 01:49 tmp"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7089
+#: book.translate.xml:7094
msgid "Directory Structure"
msgstr "目錄結構"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7091
+#: book.translate.xml:7096
msgid "<primary>directory hierarchy</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7095
+#: book.translate.xml:7100
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD directory hierarchy is fundamental to obtaining an overall "
"understanding of the system. The most important directory is root or, "
@@ -10329,7 +10329,7 @@ msgstr ""
"會有開機所會用到必備檔案。 此外,根目錄還有紀錄其他檔案系統的掛載點相關設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7104
+#: book.translate.xml:7109
msgid ""
"A mount point is a directory where additional file systems can be grafted "
"onto a parent file system (usually the root file system). This is further "
@@ -10356,7 +10356,7 @@ msgstr ""
"option> 選項。 其中細節說明可參閱 <xref linkend=\"disks-fstab\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7119
+#: book.translate.xml:7124
msgid ""
"A complete description of the file system hierarchy is available in "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>hier</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></"
@@ -10369,45 +10369,45 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7128 book.translate.xml:10911
+#: book.translate.xml:7133 book.translate.xml:10995
msgid "Directory"
msgstr "目錄"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7135
+#: book.translate.xml:7140
msgid "Root directory of the file system."
msgstr "檔案系統的根目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7139
+#: book.translate.xml:7144
msgid "<filename>/bin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7140
+#: book.translate.xml:7145
msgid ""
"User utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments."
msgstr ""
"單使用者 (Single-user)、多使用者 (Multi-user) 兩種模式皆可使用的基本工具 。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7145
+#: book.translate.xml:7150
msgid "<filename>/boot/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7146
+#: book.translate.xml:7151
msgid ""
"Programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap."
msgstr "作業系統開機過程會用到的程式、設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7151
+#: book.translate.xml:7156
msgid "<filename>/boot/defaults/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7152
+#: book.translate.xml:7157
msgid ""
"Default boot configuration files. Refer to "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</"
@@ -10417,12 +10417,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7157
+#: book.translate.xml:7162
msgid "<filename>/dev/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7158
+#: book.translate.xml:7163
msgid ""
"Device nodes. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>intro</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details."
@@ -10431,22 +10431,22 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7163
+#: book.translate.xml:7168
msgid "<filename>/etc/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7164
+#: book.translate.xml:7169
msgid "System configuration files and scripts."
msgstr "系統設定檔及一些 Script 檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7168
+#: book.translate.xml:7173
msgid "<filename>/etc/defaults/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7169
+#: book.translate.xml:7174
msgid ""
"Default system configuration files. Refer to "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -10456,28 +10456,27 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7174
+#: book.translate.xml:7179
msgid "<filename>/etc/mail/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7175
+#: book.translate.xml:7180
msgid ""
"Configuration files for mail transport agents such as "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sendmail</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>."
msgstr ""
-"MTA (Mail Transport Agent) 的相關設定檔,像是 "
-"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sendmail</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
-"manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
+"郵件傳輸代理程式,像是 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sendmail</"
+"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 的相關設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7180
+#: book.translate.xml:7185
msgid "<filename>/etc/namedb/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7181
+#: book.translate.xml:7186
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> configuration files."
@@ -10486,12 +10485,12 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7185
+#: book.translate.xml:7190
msgid "<filename>/etc/periodic/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7186
+#: book.translate.xml:7191
msgid ""
"Scripts that run daily, weekly, and monthly, via "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>cron</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -10504,12 +10503,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7192
+#: book.translate.xml:7197
msgid "<filename>/etc/ppp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7193
+#: book.translate.xml:7198
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> configuration files."
@@ -10518,24 +10517,24 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7197
+#: book.translate.xml:7202
msgid "<filename>/mnt/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7198
+#: book.translate.xml:7203
msgid ""
"Empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount "
"point."
msgstr "系統管理者慣用充當臨時掛載點的空目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7203
+#: book.translate.xml:7208
msgid "<filename>/proc/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7204
+#: book.translate.xml:7209
msgid ""
"Process file system. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>procfs</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>, "
@@ -10548,12 +10547,12 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7209
+#: book.translate.xml:7214
msgid "<filename>/rescue/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7210
+#: book.translate.xml:7215
msgid ""
"Statically linked programs for emergency recovery as described in "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rescue</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -10564,24 +10563,24 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7215
+#: book.translate.xml:7220
msgid "<filename>/root/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7216
+#: book.translate.xml:7221
msgid ""
"Home directory for the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> "
"account."
msgstr "<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> 帳號的家目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7222
+#: book.translate.xml:7227
msgid "<filename>/sbin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7223
+#: book.translate.xml:7228
msgid ""
"System programs and administration utilities fundamental to both single-user "
"and multi-user environments."
@@ -10590,12 +10589,12 @@ msgstr ""
"具 。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7229
+#: book.translate.xml:7234
msgid "<filename>/tmp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7230
+#: book.translate.xml:7235
msgid ""
"Temporary files which are usually <emphasis>not</emphasis> preserved across "
"a system reboot. A memory-based file system is often mounted at <filename>/"
@@ -10614,72 +10613,72 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7240
+#: book.translate.xml:7245
msgid "<filename>/usr/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7241
+#: book.translate.xml:7246
msgid "The majority of user utilities and applications."
msgstr "主要是使用者所安裝的工具程式、應用程式存放處。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7246
+#: book.translate.xml:7251
msgid "<filename>/usr/bin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7247
+#: book.translate.xml:7252
msgid "Common utilities, programming tools, and applications."
msgstr "常用工具、開發工具、應用軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7252
+#: book.translate.xml:7257
msgid "<filename>/usr/include/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7253
+#: book.translate.xml:7258
msgid "Standard C include files."
msgstr "標準 C include 檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7257
+#: book.translate.xml:7262
msgid "<filename>/usr/lib/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7258
+#: book.translate.xml:7263
msgid "Archive libraries."
msgstr "程式庫存放處。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7263
+#: book.translate.xml:7268
msgid "<filename>/usr/libdata/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7264
+#: book.translate.xml:7269
msgid "Miscellaneous utility data files."
msgstr "其他各式工具的資料檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7268
+#: book.translate.xml:7273
msgid "<filename>/usr/libexec/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7269
+#: book.translate.xml:7274
msgid "System daemons and system utilities executed by other programs."
msgstr "系統 Daemon 及系統工具程式 (透過其他程式來執行)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7274
+#: book.translate.xml:7279
msgid "<filename>/usr/local/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7275
+#: book.translate.xml:7280
msgid ""
"Local executables and libraries. Also used as the default destination for "
"the FreeBSD ports framework. Within <filename>/usr/local</filename>, the "
@@ -10699,64 +10698,64 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>port</replaceable></filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7288
+#: book.translate.xml:7293
msgid "<filename>/usr/obj/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7289
+#: book.translate.xml:7294
msgid ""
"Architecture-specific target tree produced by building the <filename>/usr/"
"src</filename> tree."
msgstr "在編譯 <filename>/usr/src</filename> 目錄時所產生的相關架構目地檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7295
+#: book.translate.xml:7300
msgid "<filename>/usr/ports/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7296
+#: book.translate.xml:7301
msgid "The FreeBSD Ports Collection (optional)."
msgstr "FreeBSD Port 套件集 (選用)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7300
+#: book.translate.xml:7305
msgid "<filename>/usr/sbin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7301
+#: book.translate.xml:7306
msgid "System daemons and system utilities executed by users."
msgstr "由使用者執行的系統 Daemon 及系統工具。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7306
+#: book.translate.xml:7311
msgid "<filename>/usr/share/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7307
+#: book.translate.xml:7312
msgid "Architecture-independent files."
msgstr "各架構皆共通的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7311
+#: book.translate.xml:7316
msgid "<filename>/usr/src/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7312
+#: book.translate.xml:7317
msgid "BSD and/or local source files."
msgstr "BSD 原始碼 (或自行新增的)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7316
+#: book.translate.xml:7321
msgid "<filename>/var/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7317
+#: book.translate.xml:7322
msgid ""
"Multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files. A memory-based "
"file system is sometimes mounted at <filename>/var</filename>. This can be "
@@ -10775,42 +10774,42 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7328
+#: book.translate.xml:7333
msgid "<filename>/var/log/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7329
+#: book.translate.xml:7334
msgid "Miscellaneous system log files."
msgstr "各項系統記錄的日誌 (Log) 檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7333
+#: book.translate.xml:7338
msgid "<filename>/var/mail/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7334
+#: book.translate.xml:7339
msgid "User mailbox files."
msgstr "各使用者的郵件 (Mailbox) 檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7338
+#: book.translate.xml:7343
msgid "<filename>/var/spool/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7339
+#: book.translate.xml:7344
msgid "Miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling directories."
msgstr "各種印表機、郵件系統的緩衝 (Spool) 目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7344
+#: book.translate.xml:7349
msgid "<filename>/var/tmp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7345
+#: book.translate.xml:7350
msgid ""
"Temporary files which are usually preserved across a system reboot, unless "
"<filename>/var</filename> is a memory-based file system."
@@ -10819,22 +10818,22 @@ msgstr ""
"屬於以記憶體為基礎 (Memory-based) 的檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7352
+#: book.translate.xml:7357
msgid "<filename>/var/yp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7353
+#: book.translate.xml:7358
msgid "NIS maps."
msgstr "NIS 對應表。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7361
+#: book.translate.xml:7366
msgid "Disk Organization"
msgstr "磁碟組織"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7363
+#: book.translate.xml:7368
msgid ""
"The smallest unit of organization that FreeBSD uses to find files is the "
"filename. Filenames are case-sensitive, which means that <filename>readme."
@@ -10848,7 +10847,7 @@ msgstr ""
"他類型的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7370
+#: book.translate.xml:7375
msgid ""
"Files are stored in directories. A directory may contain no files, or it may "
"contain many hundreds of files. A directory can also contain other "
@@ -10859,7 +10858,7 @@ msgstr ""
"中也可以包含其他的目錄; 您可以建立階層式的目錄以便資料的管理。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7376
+#: book.translate.xml:7381
msgid ""
"Files and directories are referenced by giving the file or directory name, "
"followed by a forward slash, <literal>/</literal>, followed by any other "
@@ -10884,7 +10883,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>c:\\foo\\bar\\readme.txt</filename> 這種路徑。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7391
+#: book.translate.xml:7396
msgid ""
"Directories and files are stored in a file system. Each file system contains "
"exactly one directory at the very top level, called the <firstterm>root "
@@ -10903,7 +10902,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個磁碟,所有目錄都會成為該磁碟的一部份。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7402
+#: book.translate.xml:7407
msgid ""
"Consider three file systems, called <literal>A</literal>, <literal>B</"
"literal>, and <literal>C</literal>. Each file system has one root directory, "
@@ -10917,7 +10916,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>B2</literal> 及 <literal>C1</literal>, <literal>C2</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7409
+#: book.translate.xml:7414
msgid ""
"Call <literal>A</literal> the root file system. If "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -10935,13 +10934,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7417
+#: book.translate.xml:7422
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir1' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7421
+#: book.translate.xml:7426
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -10952,7 +10951,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7429
+#: book.translate.xml:7434
msgid ""
"A file system must be mounted on to a directory in another file system. When "
"mounting file system <literal>B</literal> on to the directory <literal>A1</"
@@ -10969,13 +10968,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7438
+#: book.translate.xml:7443
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir2' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7442
+#: book.translate.xml:7447
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -10990,7 +10989,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7454
+#: book.translate.xml:7459
msgid ""
"Any files that are in the <literal>B1</literal> or <literal>B2</literal> "
"directories can be reached with the path <filename>/A1/B1</filename> or "
@@ -11005,7 +11004,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 被<firstterm>卸載 (Unmount)</firstterm> 後才會再顯現出來。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7463
+#: book.translate.xml:7468
msgid ""
"If <literal>B</literal> had been mounted on <literal>A2</literal> then the "
"diagram would look like this:"
@@ -11017,13 +11016,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7469
+#: book.translate.xml:7474
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir3' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7473
+#: book.translate.xml:7478
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -11038,7 +11037,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7485
+#: book.translate.xml:7490
msgid ""
"and the paths would be <filename>/A2/B1</filename> and <filename>/A2/B2</"
"filename> respectively."
@@ -11046,7 +11045,7 @@ msgstr ""
"上面的路徑分別為 <filename>/A2/B1</filename> 及 <filename>/A2/B2</filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7490
+#: book.translate.xml:7495
msgid ""
"File systems can be mounted on top of one another. Continuing the last "
"example, the <literal>C</literal> file system could be mounted on top of the "
@@ -11062,13 +11061,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7498
+#: book.translate.xml:7503
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir4' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7502
+#: book.translate.xml:7507
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -11087,7 +11086,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7518
+#: book.translate.xml:7523
msgid ""
"Or <literal>C</literal> could be mounted directly on to the <literal>A</"
"literal> file system, under the <literal>A1</literal> directory:"
@@ -11100,13 +11099,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7524
+#: book.translate.xml:7529
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir5' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7528
+#: book.translate.xml:7533
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -11125,7 +11124,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7544
+#: book.translate.xml:7549
msgid ""
"It is entirely possible to have one large root file system, and not need to "
"create any others. There are some drawbacks to this approach, and one "
@@ -11135,12 +11134,12 @@ msgstr ""
"處。"
#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7549
+#: book.translate.xml:7554
msgid "Benefits of Multiple File Systems"
msgstr "使用多個檔案系統的好處"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7552
+#: book.translate.xml:7557
msgid ""
"Different file systems can have different <firstterm>mount options</"
"firstterm>. For example, the root file system can be mounted read-only, "
@@ -11159,7 +11158,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<firstterm>guid</firstterm> 位元失效,可讓系統更安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7566
+#: book.translate.xml:7571
msgid ""
"FreeBSD automatically optimizes the layout of files on a file system, "
"depending on how the file system is being used. So a file system that "
@@ -11172,7 +11171,7 @@ msgstr ""
"如果您只有單一個大的檔案系統,這部分就沒用了。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7575
+#: book.translate.xml:7580
msgid ""
"FreeBSD's file systems are robust if power is lost. However, a power loss at "
"a critical point could still damage the structure of the file system. By "
@@ -11184,12 +11183,12 @@ msgstr ""
"以便您在需要的時候將備份資料回存回來。"
#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7585
+#: book.translate.xml:7590
msgid "Benefit of a Single File System"
msgstr "使用單一檔案系統的好處"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7588
+#: book.translate.xml:7593
msgid ""
"File systems are a fixed size. If you create a file system when you install "
"FreeBSD and give it a specific size, you may later discover that you need to "
@@ -11202,7 +11201,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的大小,然後將備份回存回來。"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7596
+#: book.translate.xml:7601
msgid ""
"FreeBSD features the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>growfs</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command, which makes "
@@ -11213,7 +11212,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令可以突破此限制直接變更檔案系統的大小。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7603
+#: book.translate.xml:7608
msgid ""
"File systems are contained in partitions. This does not have the same "
"meaning as the common usage of the term partition (for example, <trademark "
@@ -11232,7 +11231,7 @@ msgstr ""
"點表示外,也可以使用該