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authorRuey-Cherng Yu <rcyu@FreeBSD.org>2017-10-26 15:25:09 +0000
committerRuey-Cherng Yu <rcyu@FreeBSD.org>2017-10-26 15:25:09 +0000
commit80948306cf74f600733b979f781692a035228572 (patch)
tree80dd5bfcfe460b83574fd2bac9b9675da5040307 /zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook
parentd412445c038500bd27cbd93499901282dc3f154b (diff)
downloaddoc-80948306cf74f600733b979f781692a035228572.tar.gz
doc-80948306cf74f600733b979f781692a035228572.zip
- Update po file with newest handbook document.
- Translated following chaptors or sectors: 28.7. Domain Name System (DNS) 28.8. Apache HTTP Server 28.9. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) 28.10. File and Print Services for Microsoft® Windows® Clients (Samba) 28.11. Clock Synchronization with NTP 29.1. Synopsis 29.2. Firewall Concepts Submitted by: cwlin@gmail.com Differential Revision: https://reviews.freebsd.org/D12756
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=51147
Diffstat (limited to 'zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook')
-rw-r--r--zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml2503
-rw-r--r--zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po25362
2 files changed, 13291 insertions, 14574 deletions
diff --git a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml
index 99017642e8..69ee9389f8 100644
--- a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml
+++ b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml
@@ -22,6 +22,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.acm SYSTEM "acm.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.adamw SYSTEM "adamw.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.adrian SYSTEM "adrian.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.adridg SYSTEM "adridg.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ae SYSTEM "ae.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ahze SYSTEM "ahze.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ak SYSTEM "ak.key">
@@ -72,6 +73,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.bf SYSTEM "bf.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.bhaga SYSTEM "bhaga.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.bhd SYSTEM "bhd.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.bhughes SYSTEM "bhughes.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.billf SYSTEM "billf.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.bjk SYSTEM "bjk.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.bk SYSTEM "bk.key">
@@ -101,6 +103,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ceri SYSTEM "ceri.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.cherry SYSTEM "cherry.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.chinsan SYSTEM "chinsan.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.chuck SYSTEM "chuck.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.cjc SYSTEM "cjc.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.cjh SYSTEM "cjh.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.clement SYSTEM "clement.key">
@@ -131,6 +134,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.db SYSTEM "db.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.dbaio SYSTEM "dbaio.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.dbn SYSTEM "dbn.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.dch SYSTEM "dch.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.dchagin SYSTEM "dchagin.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.dcs SYSTEM "dcs.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.dd SYSTEM "dd.key">
@@ -176,6 +180,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.fluffy SYSTEM "fluffy.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.flz SYSTEM "flz.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.foxfair SYSTEM "foxfair.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.fsu SYSTEM "fsu.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.gabor SYSTEM "gabor.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.gad SYSTEM "gad.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.gahr SYSTEM "gahr.key">
@@ -270,9 +275,11 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ken SYSTEM "ken.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.kensmith SYSTEM "kensmith.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.keramida SYSTEM "keramida.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.kevans SYSTEM "kevans.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.kevlo SYSTEM "kevlo.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.keymaster SYSTEM "keymaster.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.kib SYSTEM "kib.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.kibab SYSTEM "kibab.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.kmoore SYSTEM "kmoore.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.knu SYSTEM "knu.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.koitsu SYSTEM "koitsu.key">
@@ -288,6 +295,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.le SYSTEM "le.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.leeym SYSTEM "leeym.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ler SYSTEM "ler.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.leres SYSTEM "leres.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.lesi SYSTEM "lesi.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.lev SYSTEM "lev.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.lidl SYSTEM "lidl.key">
@@ -345,6 +353,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.miwi SYSTEM "miwi.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mizhka SYSTEM "mizhka.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mjg SYSTEM "mjg.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.mjoras SYSTEM "mjoras.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mlaier SYSTEM "mlaier.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mm SYSTEM "mm.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mmel SYSTEM "mmel.key">
@@ -357,6 +366,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.murray SYSTEM "murray.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mux SYSTEM "mux.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mva SYSTEM "mva.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.mw SYSTEM "mw.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mwlucas SYSTEM "mwlucas.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.naddy SYSTEM "naddy.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.nate SYSTEM "nate.key">
@@ -406,6 +416,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.pho SYSTEM "pho.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.pi SYSTEM "pi.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.pirzyk SYSTEM "pirzyk.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.pizzamig SYSTEM "pizzamig.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.pjd SYSTEM "pjd.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.pkelsey SYSTEM "pkelsey.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.plosher SYSTEM "plosher.key">
@@ -428,6 +439,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.riggs SYSTEM "riggs.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rik SYSTEM "rik.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rink SYSTEM "rink.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.rlibby SYSTEM "rlibby.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rm SYSTEM "rm.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rmacklem SYSTEM "rmacklem.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rmh SYSTEM "rmh.key">
@@ -515,6 +527,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.twinterg SYSTEM "twinterg.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.tz SYSTEM "tz.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ue SYSTEM "ue.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.ultima SYSTEM "ultima.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ume SYSTEM "ume.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ups SYSTEM "ups.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.uqs SYSTEM "uqs.key">
@@ -544,6 +557,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.wxs SYSTEM "wxs.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.xmj SYSTEM "xmj.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.xride SYSTEM "xride.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.ygy SYSTEM "ygy.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.yoichi SYSTEM "yoichi.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.yongari SYSTEM "yongari.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.yzlin SYSTEM "yzlin.key">
@@ -612,16 +626,25 @@
$FreeBSD$
-->]>
-<book xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0" xml:lang="zh_TW">
+<book xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="5.0" xml:lang="zh_TW">
<info>
+ <its:rules xmlns:db="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" version="1.0">
+
+ <its:translateRule translate="no" selector="//db:programlisting[@role='pgpfingerprint']"/>
+
+ <its:translateRule translate="no" selector="//db:programlisting[@role='pgpkey']"/>
+
+ <its:translateRule translate="no" selector="//db:sect2[starts-with(@xml:id,'pgpkey-')]"/>
+ </its:rules>
+
<title>FreeBSD 使用手冊</title>
<author><orgname>FreeBSD 文件計劃</orgname></author>
- <pubdate xml:lang="en">$FreeBSD$</pubdate>
+ <pubdate its:translate="no">$FreeBSD$</pubdate>
- <releaseinfo xml:lang="en">$FreeBSD$</releaseinfo>
+ <releaseinfo its:translate="no">$FreeBSD$</releaseinfo>
<copyright xml:lang="en">
<year>1995</year>
@@ -724,9 +747,9 @@
</legalnotice>
<abstract>
- <para>歡迎使用 FreeBSD! 本使用手冊涵蓋範圍包括了 <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.0-RELEASE</emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 10.3-RELEASE</emphasis> 以及 <emphasis>FreeBSD 9.3-RELEASE</emphasis> 的安裝與平日操作的說明。 這份使用手冊是很多人的集體創作,而且仍然『持續不斷』的進行中,因此部份章節可能尚未仍未完成,如果您有興趣協助本計畫的話,請寄電子郵件至 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD 文件專案郵遞論壇</link>。</para>
+ <para>歡迎使用 FreeBSD! 本使用手冊涵蓋範圍包括了 <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE</emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.0-RELEASE</emphasis> 與 <emphasis>FreeBSD 10.4-RELEASE</emphasis> 的安裝與平日操作的說明。 這份使用手冊是很多人的集體創作,而且仍然『持續不斷』的進行中,因此部份章節可能尚未仍未完成,如果您有興趣協助本計畫的話,請寄電子郵件至 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD 文件專案郵遞論壇</link>。</para>
- <para>在 <link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/">FreeBSD 網站</link> 可以找到本文件的最新版本,舊版文件可從 <uri xlink:href="http://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/">http://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/</uri> 取得。本文件也提供各種格式與不同壓縮方式的版本可自 <link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/">FreeBSD FTP 伺服器</link> 或是其中一個 <link linkend="mirrors-ftp">鏡像網站</link> 下載。 列印出來的實體書面資料可在 <link xlink:href="http://www.freebsdmall.com/">FreeBSD 商城</link> 購買。 此外,您可在 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/search/index.html">搜尋頁面</link> 中搜尋本文件或其他文件的資料。</para>
+ <para>在 <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/">FreeBSD 網站</link> 可以找到本文件的最新版本,舊版文件可從 <uri xlink:href="https://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/">https://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/</uri> 取得。本文件也提供各種格式與不同壓縮方式的版本可自 <link xlink:href="https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/">FreeBSD FTP 伺服器</link> 或是其中一個 <link linkend="mirrors-ftp">鏡像網站</link> 下載。 列印出來的實體書面資料可在 <link xlink:href="http://www.freebsdmall.com/">FreeBSD 商城</link> 購買。 此外,您可在 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/search/index.html">搜尋頁面</link> 中搜尋本文件或其他文件的資料。</para>
</abstract>
</info>
@@ -1346,7 +1369,7 @@
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>4.4BSD-Lite</primary></indexterm>
- <para>FreeBSD 是一個從 4.4BSD-Lite 衍生出而能在以 Intel (x86 與 <trademark class="registered">Itanium</trademark>), AMD64, Sun <trademark class="registered">UltraSPARC</trademark> 為基礎的電腦上執行的作業系統。同時,移植到其他平台的工作也在進行中。 對於本計劃歷史的介紹,請看 <link linkend="history">FreeBSD 歷史</link>, 對於 FreeBSD 的最新版本介紹,請看 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases">最新的發行版</link>。 若打算對於 FreeBSD 計劃有所貢獻的話 (程式碼、硬體、經費), 請看 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/articles/contributing/index.html">如何對 FreeBSD 貢獻</link>。</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 是一個從 4.4BSD-Lite 衍生出而能在以 Intel (x86 與 <trademark class="registered">Itanium</trademark>), AMD64, <trademark class="registered">ARM</trademark>, Sun <trademark class="registered">UltraSPARC</trademark> 為基礎的電腦上執行的作業系統。同時,移植到其他平台的工作也在進行中。 對於本計劃歷史的介紹,請看 <link linkend="history">FreeBSD 歷史</link>, 對於 FreeBSD 的最新版本介紹,請看 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases">最新的發行版</link>。 若打算對於 FreeBSD 計劃有所貢獻的話 (程式碼、硬體、經費), 請看 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/articles/contributing/index.html">如何對 FreeBSD 貢獻</link>。</para>
<sect2 xml:id="os-overview">
<title>FreeBSD 能做什麼?</title>
@@ -1623,13 +1646,9 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.sandvine.com/">Sandvine</link>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
+ <para><link xlink:href="http://www.sandvine.com/">Sandvine</link> <indexterm>
<primary>Sandvine</primary>
- </indexterm> - Sandvine uses FreeBSD as the basis of their
- high performance real-time network processing platforms
- that make up their intelligent network policy control
- products.</para>
+ </indexterm> - Sandvine 使用 FreeBSD 作為它的高性能即時網路處理平台的基礎來建立它們的智慧網路策略控制產品。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -1732,7 +1751,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.pcbsd.org/">TrueOS</link> <indexterm>
+ <para><link xlink:href="https://www.trueos.org">TrueOS</link> <indexterm>
<primary>TrueOS</primary>
</indexterm> - 訂製版本的 FreeBSD,裝備了給桌面使用者使用的圖型化工具來展示 FreeBSD 強大的功能給所有使用者,專門設計來緩解使用者在 Windows 與 OS X 間的過渡。</para>
</listitem>
@@ -2029,7 +2048,7 @@
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
- <para>此外,可在下列網址找到最新版 (也是更新最頻繁的版本):<uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/</uri>。</para>
+ <para>此外,可在下列網址找到最新版 (也是更新最頻繁的版本):<uri xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/">https://www.FreeBSD.org/</uri>。</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
</chapter>
@@ -2167,7 +2186,7 @@
<listitem>
<para>桌面電腦與筆記型電腦最常見的處理器類型,運用在近代的系統。<trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> 稱該類型為 <acronym>Intel64</acronym>,其他製造商則稱該類型為 <acronym>x86-64</acronym>。</para>
- <para>與 amd64 相容的處理器包含:<trademark>AMD Athlon</trademark>64, <trademark>AMD Opteron</trademark>, 多核心 <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Xeon</trademark> 以及 <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Core</trademark> 2 與之後的處理器。</para>
+ <para>與 amd64 相容的處理器範例包含:<trademark>AMD Athlon</trademark>64, <trademark>AMD Opteron</trademark>, 多核心 <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Xeon</trademark> 以及 <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Core</trademark> 2 與之後的處理器。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -2287,9 +2306,9 @@
<step>
<title>檢查 FreeBSD 勘誤表</title>
- <para>儘管 FreeBSD Project 努力確保每個 FreeBSD 發行版能夠儘可能地穩定,但錯誤偶爾還是會悄悄出現,並有極小的可能會發生影響安裝流程的錯誤,當這些問題被發現並修正後,會被紀錄在 FreeBSD 網站的 FreeBSD 勘誤表 (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/11.0R/errata.html">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/11.0R/errata.html</link>)。 安裝前先檢查勘誤表,以確保沒有會影響到安裝的問題。</para>
+ <para>儘管 FreeBSD 計劃努力確保每個 FreeBSD 發行版能夠儘可能地穩定,但錯誤偶爾還是會悄悄出現,並有極小的可能會發生影響安裝流程的錯誤,當這些問題被發現並修正後,會被紀錄在 FreeBSD 網站的 FreeBSD 勘誤表 (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/11.1R/errata.html">https://www.freebsd.org/releases/11.1R/errata.html</link>)。 安裝前先檢查勘誤表,以確保沒有會影響到安裝的問題。</para>
- <para>所有發行版的資訊和勘誤表可以在 FreeBSD 網站的發行資訊找到 (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>)。</para>
+ <para>所有發行版的資訊和勘誤表可以在 FreeBSD 網站的發行資訊找到 (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html">https://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>)。</para>
</step>
</procedure>
@@ -3696,7 +3715,7 @@ Starting sshd.</screen>
</indexterm>
<para>本節涵蓋基礎的安裝疑難排解,例如一些已有人回報的常見問題。</para>
- <para>查看該 FreeBSD 版本的 Hardware Notes (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>) 文件來確認是否支援該硬體。若確定有支援該硬體但仍然卡住或發生其他問題,請依照 <xref linkend="kernelconfig"/> 的指示編譯自訂核心來加入未在 <filename>GENERIC</filename> 核心的裝置。預設的核心會假設大部份的硬體裝置會使用原廠預設的 <acronym>IRQ</acronym>s, <acronym>I/O</acronym> 位址,及 <acronym>DMA</acronym> 通道,若硬體已經被重新設定過,自訂的核心設定檔可以告訴 FreeBSD 到那找到這些裝置。</para>
+ <para>查看該 FreeBSD 版本的 Hardware Notes (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html">https://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>) 文件來確認是否支援該硬體。若確定有支援該硬體但仍然卡住或發生其他問題,請依照 <xref linkend="kernelconfig"/> 的指示編譯自訂核心來加入未在 <filename>GENERIC</filename> 核心的裝置。預設的核心會假設大部份的硬體裝置會使用原廠預設的 <acronym>IRQ</acronym>s, <acronym>I/O</acronym> 位址,及 <acronym>DMA</acronym> 通道,若硬體已經被重新設定過,自訂的核心設定檔可以告訴 FreeBSD 到那找到這些裝置。</para>
<note>
<para>部份安裝問題可以透過更各種硬體元件的韌體來避免或緩解,特別是主機板。主機板的韌體通常稱為 <acronym>BIOS</acronym>,大部份主機板與電腦製造商會有網站可以取得升級程式與升級資訊。</para>
@@ -6102,7 +6121,7 @@ Swap: 2048M Total, 2048M Free
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>FreeBSD 網站有維護一份可搜尋的最新應用程式清單,在 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/ports/index.html">http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/</link>。 可以依應用程式名稱或軟體分類來搜尋 Port。</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 網站有維護一份可搜尋的最新應用程式清單,在 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/ports/index.html">https://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/</link>。 可以依應用程式名稱或軟體分類來搜尋 Port。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -6918,18 +6937,18 @@ ports-mgmt/pkg
<para>雖然可以同時使用自訂的檔案庫與官方檔案庫,但有時關閉官方檔案庫會有幫助。這可以透過建立一個設定檔覆蓋並關閉官方的設定檔來完成。建立 <filename>/usr/local/etc/pkg/repos/FreeBSD.conf</filename> 包含以下內容:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en">FreeBSD: {
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">FreeBSD: {
enabled: no
-}</screen>
+}</programlisting>
<para>通常最簡單要提供 poudriere 檔案庫給客戶端的方式是透過 HTTP。安裝一個網頁伺服器來提供套件目錄,通常會像:<filename>/usr/local/poudriere/data/packages/<replaceable>10amd64</replaceable></filename>,其中 <filename>10amd64</filename> 是編譯的名稱。</para>
<para>若要連往套件檔案庫的 URL 是:<literal>http://pkg.example.com/10amd64</literal>,則在 <filename>/usr/local/etc/pkg/repos/custom.conf</filename> 的檔案庫設定檔為:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en">custom: {
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">custom: {
url: "<replaceable>http://pkg.example.com/10amd64</replaceable>",
enabled: yes,
-}</screen>
+}</programlisting>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -7931,7 +7950,7 @@ DisplayManager.requestPort: 0</screen>
<title xml:lang="en">GNOME</title>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>GNOME</primary></indexterm>
- <para><application>GNOME</application> 是一個擁有友善使用者介面的的桌面環境,它包括用於啟動應用程式和顯示狀態的面板、一系列工具與應用程序及一套可讓應用程式更容易進行合作、相互一致的協定。更多有關 FreeBSD <application>GNOME</application> 的訊息可在 <link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/gnome">http://www.FreeBSD.org/gnome</link> 取得,該網站包含了有關在 FreeBSD 安裝、設定和管理 <application>GNOME</application> 的額外文件。</para>
+ <para><application>GNOME</application> 是一個擁有友善使用者介面的的桌面環境,它包括用於啟動應用程式和顯示狀態的面板、一系列工具與應用程序及一套可讓應用程式更容易進行合作、相互一致的協定。更多有關 FreeBSD <application>GNOME</application> 的訊息可在 <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/gnome">https://www.FreeBSD.org/gnome</link> 取得,該網站包含了有關在 FreeBSD 安裝、設定和管理 <application>GNOME</application> 的額外文件。</para>
<para>這套桌面環境可以從套件安裝:</para>
@@ -8471,7 +8490,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<secondary>web</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para>在 FreeBSD 中並未預先安裝好網頁瀏覽器。 但在 Port 套件集中的 <link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/www.html">www</link> 分類中有許多瀏覽器可以採 Binary 套件安裝或自 Port 套件集編譯的方式安裝。</para>
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 中並未預先安裝好網頁瀏覽器。 但在 Port 套件集中的 <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/www.html">www</link> 分類中有許多瀏覽器可以採 Binary 套件安裝或自 Port 套件集編譯的方式安裝。</para>
<para><application>KDE</application> 和 <application>GNOME</application> 桌面環境都有提供自有的 HTML 瀏覽器。請參考 <xref linkend="x11-wm"/> 來了解更多有關如何設定完整桌面環境的資訊。</para>
@@ -8560,7 +8579,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<para>編譯 Port 時使用預設設定選項。</para>
- <para>安裝完成時,啟動 <application>firefox</application>,在網址列輸入 <literal>about:plugins</literal> 並按 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 鍵。 會出現一個頁面列出已安裝的附加元件。 <application><trademark>Java</trademark></application> 附加元件應該會列在其中。</para>
+ <para>安裝完成後,啟動 <application>firefox</application>,在網址列輸入 <literal>about:plugins</literal> 並按 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 鍵,便會出現一個列出已安裝附加元件的頁面,清單中應該要有 <application><trademark>Java</trademark></application> 附加元件。</para>
<para>若瀏覽器無法找到附加元件,每位使用者則須執行以下指令並重新執行瀏覽器:</para>
@@ -8586,7 +8605,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
</step>
<step>
- <para>自 Port 安裝 <package role="port">www/linux-c6-flashplugin11</package> ,受到授權條款的限制,該套件無 Binary 版本。</para>
+ <para>自 Port 安裝 <package role="port">www/linux-flashplayer</package> ,受到授權條款的限制,該套件無 Binary 版本。</para>
</step>
<step>
@@ -8667,7 +8686,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install kwebkitpart</userinput></screen>
- <para>由 Port 套件集安裝:</para>
+ <para>從 Port 套件集安裝:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/kwebkitpart</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
@@ -8841,7 +8860,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/graphics/gimp</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
- <para> 在 Port 套件集的 graphics 分類 (<link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/graphics.html">freebsd.org/ports/graphics.html</link>) 下也包含了許多 <application>GIMP</application> 相關的附加元件,說明檔及使用手冊。</para>
+ <para>在 Port 套件集的 graphics 分類 (<link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/graphics.html">freebsd.org/ports/graphics.html</link>) 下也包含了許多 <application>GIMP</application> 相關的附加元件,說明檔及使用手冊。</para>
</sect2>
@@ -8907,7 +8926,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install libreoffice</userinput></screen>
- <para>Port 套件集的編輯器分類 (<link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/editors.html">freebsd.org/ports/editors.html</link>) 中含有數個 <application>LibreOffice</application> 的語系。安裝在地化套件時,請替換 <literal>libreoffice</literal> 為在地化套件的名稱。</para>
+ <para>Port 套件集的編輯器分類 (<link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/editors.html">freebsd.org/ports/editors.html</link>) 中含有數個 <application>LibreOffice</application> 的語系。安裝在地化套件時,請替換 <literal>libreoffice</literal> 為在地化套件的名稱。</para>
<para>套件安裝之後,輸入以下指令來執行 <application>LibreOffice</application>:</para>
@@ -8921,7 +8940,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
<note>
- <para>要編譯在地化版本,則需 <command>cd</command> 進入想要的語言 Port 目錄。支援的語言可在 Port 套件集的編輯器分類 (<link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/editors.html">freebsd.org/ports/editors.html</link>) 中找到。</para>
+ <para>要編譯在地化版本,則需 <command>cd</command> 進入想要的語言 Port 目錄。支援的語言可在 Port 套件集的編輯器分類 (<link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/editors.html">freebsd.org/ports/editors.html</link>) 中找到。</para>
</note>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -9307,7 +9326,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>PCI</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>sound cards</primary></indexterm>
- <para>開始設定之前,必須先知道你的音效卡型號、晶片為何。 FreeBSD 支援許多種音效卡,請檢查支援的音效硬體表 <link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/11.0R/hardware.html">Hardware Notes</link>,以確認你的音效卡是否支援以及如何在 FreeBSD 上驅動。</para>
+ <para>開始設定之前,必須先知道你的音效卡型號、晶片為何。 FreeBSD 支援許多種音效卡,請檢查支援的音效硬體表 <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/11.1R/hardware.html">Hardware Notes</link>,以確認你的音效卡是否支援以及如何在 FreeBSD 上驅動。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary>kernel</primary>
@@ -9673,7 +9692,7 @@ pcm7: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #3 Digital&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1
provides an alternative, command-line <acronym>MP3</acronym>
player. Once installed, specify the <acronym>MP3</acronym>
file to play on the command line. If the system has multiple
- audio devices, the sound device can also be specifed:</para>
+ audio devices, the sound device can also be specified:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mpg123 <replaceable>-a /dev/dsp1.0 Foobar-GreatestHits.mp3</replaceable></userinput>
High Performance MPEG 1.0/2.0/2.5 Audio Player for Layers 1, 2 and 3
@@ -10473,7 +10492,7 @@ bktr0: Pinnacle/Miro TV, Philips SECAM tuner.</programlisting>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install mythtv</userinput></screen>
- <para>或由 Port 套件集安裝:</para>
+ <para>或從 Port 套件集安裝:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/multimedia/mythtv</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install</userinput></screen>
@@ -10908,10 +10927,9 @@ ath0@pci0:3:0:0: class=0x020000 card=0x058a1014 chip=0x1014168c rev=0x01
<para>在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>man</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令加上 <option>-k</option> 旗標可提供有用的資訊,例如,這可列出有包含指定裝置品牌或名稱的手冊頁面清單:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>man -k <replaceable>Atheros</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">ath(4) - Atheros IEEE 802.11 wireless network driver
-ath_hal(4) - Atheros Hardware Access Layer (HAL)</programlisting>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>man -k <replaceable>Atheros</replaceable></userinput>
+ath(4) - Atheros IEEE 802.11 wireless network driver
+ath_hal(4) - Atheros Hardware Access Layer (HAL)</screen>
<para>準備好硬體清單之後,參考該清單來確認已安裝的硬體驅動程式在編輯自訂核心設定時沒有被移除。</para>
</sect1>
@@ -12951,9 +12969,7 @@ lp:
<para>在 FreeBSD 安裝基本的 <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> 程式庫和 Binary 最簡單的方式是安裝 <package>emulators/linux_base-c6</package> 套件或是 Port 。要安裝 Port:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>printf "compat.linux.osrelease=2.6.18\n" &gt;&gt; /etc/sysctl.conf</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl compat.linux.osrelease=2.6.18</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install emulators/linux_base-c6</userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install emulators/linux_base-c6</userinput></screen>
<para>要在開機時開啟 <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> 相容性,可以加入這行到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
@@ -12963,7 +12979,10 @@ lp:
<indexterm><primary>核心選項</primary> <secondary>COMPAT_LINUX</secondary></indexterm>
- <para>想要靜態連結 <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> Binary 相容性到自訂核心的使用者應加入 <literal>options COMPAT_LINUX</literal> 到自訂核心設定檔。 編譯並安裝新核心的方法,如 <xref linkend="kernelconfig"/> 所述。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Since the Linux binary compatibility layer has gained support
+ for running both 32- and 64-bit Linux binaries (on 64-bit x86 hosts),
+ it is no longer possible to link the emulation functionality statically
+ into a custom kernel.</para>
<sect2 xml:id="linuxemu-libs-manually">
<title>手動安裝其他程式庫</title>
@@ -14211,7 +14230,7 @@ run_rc_command "$1"</programlisting>
<programlisting xml:lang="en"># /etc/crontab - root's crontab for FreeBSD
#
-# $FreeBSD$
+# <phrase its:translate="no">$FreeBSD$</phrase>
# <co xml:id="co-comments"/>
SHELL=/bin/sh
PATH=/etc:/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin <co xml:id="co-env"/>
@@ -14809,7 +14828,7 @@ ifconfig_fxp0_alias7="inet 202.0.75.20 netmask 255.255.255.255"</programlisting>
<para>此設定檔中一行代表一個動作,每一行的格式皆為一個選擇器欄位 (Selector field) 接著一個動作欄位 (Action field)。選擇器欄位的格式為 <replaceable>facility.level</replaceable> 可以用來比對來自 <replaceable>facility</replaceable> 於層級 <replaceable>level</replaceable> 或更高層的日誌訊息,也可以在層級前加入選擇性的比對旗標來更確切的指定記錄的內容。同樣一個動作可以使用多個選擇器欄位並使用分號 (<literal>;</literal>) 來分隔。用 <literal>*</literal> 可以比對任何東西。動作欄位可用來指定傳送日誌訊息的目標,如一個檔案或遠端日誌主機。範例為以下為 FreeBSD 預設的 <filename>syslog.conf</filename>:</para>
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"># $FreeBSD$
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en"># <phrase its:translate="no">$FreeBSD$</phrase>
#
# Spaces ARE valid field separators in this file. However,
# other *nix-like systems still insist on using tabs as field
@@ -14889,7 +14908,7 @@ cron.* /var/log/cron
<para><application>newsyslog</application> 會讀取其設定檔 <filename>/etc/newsyslog.conf</filename> 來決定其要採取的動作,每個要由 <application>newsyslog</application> 所管理的日誌檔案會在此設定檔中設定一行,每一行要說明檔案的擁有者、權限、何時要翻轉該檔案、選用的日誌翻轉旗標,如:壓縮,以及日誌翻轉時要通知的程式。以下為 FreeBSD 的預設設定:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en"># configuration file for newsyslog
-# $FreeBSD$
+# <phrase its:translate="no">$FreeBSD$</phrase>
#
# Entries which do not specify the '/pid_file' field will cause the
# syslogd process to be signalled when that log file is rotated. This
@@ -15306,7 +15325,7 @@ nameserver 147.11.100.30</programlisting>
<para><filename>/etc/hosts</filename> 是簡單的文字資料庫,會與 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 及 <acronym>NIS</acronym> 一併使用來提供主機名稱與 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址的對應。可將透過 <acronym>LAN</acronym> 所連結的在地電腦項目加入到這個檔案做最簡單的命名,來替代設定一個 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 伺服器。除此之外 <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> 可以用來提供本地的網際網路名稱記錄,來減少常用名稱向外部 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器查詢的需求。</para>
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"># $FreeBSD$
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en"># <phrase its:translate="no">$FreeBSD$</phrase>
#
#
# Host Database
@@ -17505,7 +17524,7 @@ Enter new password:</screen>
<para><firstterm>rootkit</firstterm> 指的是嘗試未經授權取得系統 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 存取權的軟體。一旦安裝之後,這個惡意軟體將可以光明正大的開啟給另一個給攻擊者進入的大門。現實上,一但系統已被 rootkit 滲透且執行了搜索動作之後,該系統就應該從頭重新安裝,因為即使非常謹真的資安或系統工程式也可能會遺漏攻擊者留下的動西。</para>
- <para>rootkit 所做過的事可提供管理者一個非常有用的資訊:一但偵測到,便代表某處已經被滲透,但這類的應用程式躲藏的非常好,本節將會示範一個可以用來偵測 rootkit 的工具,<package>security/rkhunter</package>。</para>
+ <para>rootkit 對管理者而言唯一有幫助的是:一但偵測到,便代表某處已經被滲透,但這類型的應用程式躲藏的非常好,本節將會示範一個可以用來偵測 rootkit 的工具,<package>security/rkhunter</package>。</para>
<para>安裝此套件或 Port 之後,系統便可使用以下指令檢查。該指令提供許多資訊且會需要手動按下 <keycap>ENTER</keycap> 確認:</para>
@@ -18270,9 +18289,7 @@ kadmin&gt;<userinput> exit</userinput></screen>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">GSSAPIAuthentication yes</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">After making this change, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sshd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> must be restared
- for the new configuration to take effect:
- <command>service sshd restart</command>.</para>
+ <para>做完了這個變更之後,必須重新啟動 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sshd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來使新的設定值生效:<command>service sshd restart</command>。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
@@ -18941,9 +18958,7 @@ Connection closed by foreign host.</screen>
information on the <acronym>IPsec</acronym> subsystem in
FreeBSD.</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">To add <acronym>IPsec</acronym> support to the kernel, add
- the following options to the custom kernel configuration file
- and rebuild the kernel using the instructions in <xref linkend="kernelconfig"/>:</para>
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 11 與之後的版本預設會開啟 <acronym>IPsec</acronym> 功能,先前版本的 FreeBSD 可在自訂核心設定檔中加入以下選項然後依 <xref linkend="kernelconfig"/> 的指示來重新編譯核心:</para>
<indexterm><primary>核心選項</primary> <secondary>IPSEC</secondary></indexterm>
@@ -19072,10 +19087,10 @@ round-trip min/avg/max/stddev = 28.106/94.594/154.524/49.814 ms</programlisting>
network. The following commands will achieve this
goal:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>corp-net# route add <replaceable>10.0.0.0 10.0.0.5 255.255.255.0</replaceable></userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>corp-net# route add net <replaceable>10.0.0.0: gateway 10.0.0.5</replaceable></userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>priv-net# route add <replaceable>10.246.38.0 10.246.38.1 255.255.255.0</replaceable></userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>priv-net# route add host <replaceable>10.246.38.0: gateway 10.246.38.1</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en">corp-net<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>route add <replaceable>10.0.0.0 10.0.0.5 255.255.255.0</replaceable></userinput>
+corp-net<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>route add net <replaceable>10.0.0.0: gateway 10.0.0.5</replaceable></userinput>
+priv-net<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>route add <replaceable>10.246.38.0 10.246.38.1 255.255.255.0</replaceable></userinput>
+priv-net<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>route add host <replaceable>10.246.38.0: gateway 10.246.38.1</replaceable></userinput></screen>
<para xml:lang="en">At this point, internal machines should be reachable from
each gateway as well as from machines behind the gateways.
@@ -19386,8 +19401,8 @@ The key's randomart image is:
<para>要在 Shell 使用 <command>ssh-agent</command>,使用 Shell 做為參數來啟動 <command>ssh-agent</command>。執行 <command>ssh-add</command> 來加入識別碼,然後輸入私鑰的密碼。使用者將可使用 <command>ssh</command> 連線到任何有安裝對應公鑰的主機,例如:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> ssh-agent <replaceable>csh</replaceable>
-<prompt>%</prompt> ssh-add
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ssh-agent <replaceable>csh</replaceable></userinput>
+<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ssh-add</userinput>
Enter passphrase for key '/usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa': <co xml:id="co-ssh-agent-passphrase"/>
Identity added: /usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa (/usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa)
<prompt>%</prompt></screen>
@@ -19777,7 +19792,7 @@ drwxr-xr-x 2 robert robert 512 Nov 10 11:54 public_html</programlisting>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">Affected package: cups-base-1.1.22.0_1
Type of problem: cups-base -- HPGL buffer overflow vulnerability.
-Reference: &lt;http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/portaudit/40a3bca2-6809-11d9-a9e7-0001020eed82.html&gt;
+Reference: &lt;https://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/portaudit/40a3bca2-6809-11d9-a9e7-0001020eed82.html&gt;
1 problem(s) in your installed packages found.
@@ -19917,7 +19932,7 @@ b) Execute the following commands as root:
# patch &lt; /path/to/patch
Recompile the operating system using buildworld and installworld as
-described in &lt;URL:http://www.FreeBSD.org/handbook/makeworld.html&gt;.
+described in &lt;URL:https://www.FreeBSD.org/handbook/makeworld.html&gt;.
Restart the applicable daemons, or reboot the system.
@@ -26311,7 +26326,7 @@ scsibus1:
<para>在安全的地方保存這份列印結果與安裝媒體的複本,在緊急還原時可能會需要,接著開機進入安裝媒體並選擇 <literal>Live CD</literal> 以存取救援 Shell (Rescue shell),這個救援模式可以用來檢視目前系統的狀態,若有需要,可重新格式化磁碟然後自備份還原資料。</para>
<note>
- <para>FreeBSD/i386 10.3-RELEASE 的安裝媒體未含救援 Shell,針對該版本,可改自 <uri xlink:href="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/ISO-IMAGES/10.3/FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-i386-livefs.iso">ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/ISO-IMAGES/10.3/FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-i386-livefs.iso</uri> 下載 <acronym>CD</acronym> 映像檔並燒錄。</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD/i386 10.4-RELEASE 的安裝媒體未含救援 Shell,針對該版本,可改自 <uri xlink:href="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/ISO-IMAGES/10.4/FreeBSD-10.4-RELEASE-i386-livefs.iso">ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/ISO-IMAGES/10.4/FreeBSD-10.4-RELEASE-i386-livefs.iso</uri> 下載 Livefs <acronym>CD</acronym> 映像檔並燒錄。</para>
</note>
<para>然後,測試救援 Shell 下的備份。記錄下整個程序,將這份記錄隨媒體、列印結果、備份檔一併保存,這份記錄可以避免在緊張壓力下做緊急還原時因不慎造成備份的毀壞。</para>
@@ -26860,7 +26875,8 @@ Quotas for user test:
<acronym>UFS</acronym> file system, set the sector_size to
2048:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gbde init /dev/ad4s1c -i -L /etc/gbde/ad4s1c.lock</userinput># $FreeBSD$
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gbde init /dev/ad4s1c -i -L /etc/gbde/ad4s1c.lock</userinput>
+# <phrase its:translate="no">$FreeBSD$</phrase>
#
# Sector size is the smallest unit of data which can be read or written.
# Making it too small decreases performance and decreases available space.
@@ -27292,7 +27308,7 @@ geli_da2_flags="-k /root/<replaceable>da2.key</replaceable>"</programlisting>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
- <para xml:lang="en">This example configures an encryped swap partition using
+ <para xml:lang="en">This example configures an encrypted swap partition using
the Blowfish algorithm with a key length of 128 bits and a
sectorsize of 4 kilobytes:</para>
@@ -30500,7 +30516,7 @@ errors: No known data errors</screen>
<sect2 xml:id="zfs-zpool-import">
<title>匯入與匯出儲存池</title>
- <para>儲存池在移動到其他系統之前需要做匯出 (<emphasis>Export</emphasis>),會卸載所有的資料集,然後標記每個裝置為已匯出,為了避免被其他磁碟子系統存取,因此仍會鎖定這些裝置。這個動作讓儲存池可以在支援 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 的其他機器、其他作業系統做匯入 (<emphasis>Import</emphasis>),甚至是不同的硬體架構 (有一些注意事項,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>zpool</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>)。當資料集有被開啟的檔案,可使用 <command> zpool export -f</command> 來強制匯出儲存池,使用這個指令需要小心,資料集是被強制卸載的,因此有可能造成在該資料集開啟檔案的應用程式發生無法預期的結果。</para>
+ <para>儲存池在移動到其他系統之前需要做匯出 (<emphasis>Export</emphasis>),會卸載所有的資料集,然後標記每個裝置為已匯出,為了避免被其他磁碟子系統存取,因此仍會鎖定這些裝置。這個動作讓儲存池可以在支援 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 的其他機器、其他作業系統做匯入 (<emphasis>Import</emphasis>),甚至是不同的硬體架構 (有一些注意事項,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>zpool</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>)。當資料集有被開啟的檔案,可使用 <command>zpool export -f</command> 來強制匯出儲存池,使用這個指令需要小心,資料集是被強制卸載的,因此有可能造成在該資料集開啟檔案的應用程式發生無法預期的結果。</para>
<para>匯出未使用的儲存池:</para>
@@ -30888,6 +30904,37 @@ NAME PROPERTY VALUE SOURCE
tank custom:costcenter - -
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs get all <replaceable>tank</replaceable> | grep <replaceable>custom</replaceable>:<replaceable>costcenter</replaceable></userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt></screen>
+
+ <sect3 xml:id="zfs-zfs-set-share">
+ <title>取得與設定共享屬性</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Two commonly used and useful dataset properties are the
+ <acronym>NFS</acronym> and <acronym>SMB</acronym> share
+ options. Setting these define if and how
+ <acronym>ZFS</acronym> datasets may be shared on the network.
+ At present, only setting sharing via <acronym>NFS</acronym> is
+ supported on FreeBSD. To get the current status of
+ a share, enter:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs get sharenfs <replaceable>mypool/usr/home</replaceable></userinput>
+NAME PROPERTY VALUE SOURCE
+mypool/usr/home sharenfs on local
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs get sharesmb <replaceable>mypool/usr/home</replaceable></userinput>
+NAME PROPERTY VALUE SOURCE
+mypool/usr/home sharesmb off local</screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To enable sharing of a dataset, enter:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput> zfs set sharenfs=on <replaceable>mypool/usr/home</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">It is also possible to set additional options for sharing
+ datasets through <acronym>NFS</acronym>, such as
+ <option>-alldirs</option>, <option>-maproot</option> and
+ <option>-network</option>. To set additional options to a
+ dataset shared through NFS, enter:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput> zfs set sharenfs="-alldirs,-maproot=<replaceable>root</replaceable>,-network=<replaceable>192.168.1.0/24</replaceable>" <replaceable>mypool/usr/home</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ </sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="zfs-zfs-snapshot">
@@ -31036,17 +31083,16 @@ mypool/var/tmp 262K 93.2G 120K /var/tmp
mypool/var/tmp@my_recursive_snapshot 88K - 152K -
mypool/var/tmp@after_cp 53.5K - 118K -
mypool/var/tmp@diff_snapshot 0 - 120K -
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls /var/tmp</userinput>
-passwd passwd.copy
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>rm /var/tmp/passwd*</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls /var/tmp</userinput>
-vi.recover
-<prompt>%</prompt></screen>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls /var/tmp</userinput>
+passwd passwd.copy vi.recover
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>rm /var/tmp/passwd*</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls /var/tmp</userinput>
+vi.recover</screen>
<para>在此時,使用者發現到刪除了太多檔案並希望能夠還原。<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 提供了簡單的方可以取回檔案,便是使用還原 (Rollback),但這只在有定期對重要的資料使用快照時可用。要拿回檔案並從最後一次快照重新開始,可執行以下指令:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs rollback <replaceable>mypool/var/tmp@diff_snapshot</replaceable></userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls /var/tmp</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls /var/tmp</userinput>
passwd passwd.copy vi.recover</screen>
<para>還原操作會將資料集還原為最後一次快照的狀態。這也可以還原到更早之前,有其他在其之後建立的快照。要這麼做時,<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 會發出這個警告:</para>
@@ -31068,7 +31114,7 @@ mypool/var/tmp@diff_snapshot</screen>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs list -rt snapshot <replaceable>mypool/var/tmp</replaceable></userinput>
NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT
mypool/var/tmp@my_recursive_snapshot 8K - 152K -
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls /var/tmp</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls /var/tmp</userinput>
vi.recover</screen>
<para>可從 <command>zfs list -t snapshot</command> 的結果來確認 <command>zfs rollback -r</command> 會移除的快照。</para>
@@ -31082,16 +31128,16 @@ vi.recover</screen>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs get snapdir <replaceable>mypool/var/tmp</replaceable></userinput>
NAME PROPERTY VALUE SOURCE
mypool/var/tmp snapdir hidden default
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls -a /var/tmp</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls -a /var/tmp</userinput>
. .. passwd vi.recover
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs set snapdir=visible <replaceable>mypool/var/tmp</replaceable></userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls -a /var/tmp</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls -a /var/tmp</userinput>
. .. .zfs passwd vi.recover</screen>
<para>要還原個別檔案到先前的狀態非常簡單,只要從快照中複製檔案到父資料集。在 <filename>.zfs/snapshot</filename> 目錄結構下有一個與先前所做的快照名稱相同的目錄,可以很容易的找到。在下個範例中,我們會示範從隱藏的 <filename>.zfs</filename> 目錄還原一個檔案,透過從含有該檔案的最新版快照複製:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>rm /var/tmp/passwd</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls -a /var/tmp</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls -a /var/tmp</userinput>
. .. .zfs vi.recover
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls /var/tmp/.zfs/snapshot</userinput>
after_cp my_recursive_snapshot
@@ -31277,18 +31323,18 @@ mypool@replica2 0 - 55.0M -</screen>
<listitem>
<para>在傳送端系統上:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <command>zfs allow -u someuser send,snapshot <replaceable>mypool</replaceable></command></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs allow -u someuser send,snapshot <replaceable>mypool</replaceable></userinput></screen>
</listitem>
<listitem>
<para>要掛載儲存池,無權限的使用者必須擁有該目錄且必須允許一般的使用者掛載檔案系統。在接收端系統上:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> sysctl vfs.usermount=1
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl vfs.usermount=1</userinput>
vfs.usermount: 0 -&gt; 1
-<prompt>#</prompt> echo vfs.usermount=1 &gt;&gt; /etc/sysctl.conf
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc -f /etc/sysctl.conf vfs.usermount=1</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs create <replaceable>recvpool/backup</replaceable></userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs allow -u <replaceable>someuser</replaceable> create,mount,receive <replaceable>recvpool/backup</replaceable></userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> chown <replaceable>someuser</replaceable> <replaceable>/recvpool/backup</replaceable></screen>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chown <replaceable>someuser</replaceable> <replaceable>/recvpool/backup</replaceable></userinput></screen>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -31406,7 +31452,7 @@ mypool/compressed_dataset compressratio 1.11x -
mypool/compressed_dataset compression lz4 local
mypool/compressed_dataset logicalused 496G -</screen>
- <para>資料集目前使用了 449 GB 的空間 (在 used 屬性)。在尚未壓縮前,該資料集應該會使用 496 GB 的空間 (於 <literal>logicallyused</literal> 屬性),這個結果顯示目前的壓縮比為 1.11:1。</para>
+ <para>資料集目前使用了 449 GB 的空間 (在 used 屬性)。在尚未壓縮前,該資料集應該會使用 496 GB 的空間 (於 <literal>logicalused</literal> 屬性),這個結果顯示目前的壓縮比為 1.11:1。</para>
<para>壓縮功能在與使用者配額 (<link linkend="zfs-term-userquota">User Quota</link>) 一併使用時可能會產生無法預期的副作用。使用者配額會限制一個使用者在一個資料集上可以使用多少空間,但衡量的依據是以 <emphasis>壓縮後</emphasis> 所使用的空間,因此,若一個使用者有 10 GB 的配額,寫入了 10 GB 可壓縮的資料,使用者將還會有空間儲存額外的資料。若使用者在之後更新了一個檔案,例如一個資料庫,可能有更多或較少的可壓縮資料,那麼剩餘可用的空間量也會因此而改變,這可能會造成奇怪的現象便是,一個使用者雖然沒有增加實際的資料量 (於 <literal>logicalused</literal> 屬性),但因為更改影響了壓縮率,導致使用者達到配額的上限。</para>
@@ -31430,10 +31476,9 @@ pool 2.84G 2.19M 2.83G 0% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
<para><literal>DEDUP</literal> 欄位會顯示儲存池的實際去重複率,數值為 <literal>1.00x</literal> 代表資料尚未被去重複。在下一個例子會在前面所建立的去重複儲存池中複製三份 Port 樹到不同的目錄中。</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zpool list</userinput>
-for d in dir1 dir2 dir3; do
-for&gt; mkdir $d &amp;&amp; cp -R /usr/ports $d &amp;
-for&gt; done</screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>for d in dir1 dir2 dir3; do</userinput>
+&gt; <userinput>mkdir $d &amp;&amp; cp -R /usr/ports $d &amp;</userinput>
+&gt; <userinput>done</userinput></screen>
<para>已經偵測到重複的資料並做去重複:</para>
@@ -32277,7 +32322,7 @@ vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size="5M"</programlisting>
<para>XXXTR: Though! The disks chapter, covers a bit of this and
devfs under it's USB devices. It leaves a lot to be desired though,
see:
-http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/usb-disks.html
+https://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/usb-disks.html
It may be better to flesh out that section a bit more. Add the
word "camera" to it so that others can easily notice.</para>
</sect1>
@@ -32333,6 +32378,16 @@ http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/usb-disks.html
<contrib>bhyve section by </contrib>
</author>
</authorgroup>
+
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author xml:lang="en">
+ <personname>
+ <firstname>Benedict</firstname>
+ <surname>Reuschling</surname>
+ </personname>
+ <contrib>Xen section by </contrib>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
</info>
<sect1 xml:id="virtualization-synopsis">
@@ -32947,8 +33002,21 @@ perm vboxnetctl 0660</programlisting>
<sect2 xml:id="virtualization-virtualbox-usb-support">
<title><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark> USB 支援</title>
- <para><application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> 擴充包目前不支援 FreeBSD 主端系統,沒有這個擴充包,FreeBSD 主端系統無法傳遞 <acronym>USB</acronym> 埠給客端作業系統。</para>
- </sect2>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> can be configured
+ to pass <acronym>USB</acronym> devices through to the guest
+ operating system. The host controller of the OSE version is
+ limited to emulating <acronym>USB</acronym> 1.1 devices until
+ the extension pack supporting <acronym>USB</acronym> 2.0 and 3.0
+ devices becomes available on FreeBSD.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> to be
+ aware of <acronym>USB</acronym> devices attached to the
+ machine, the user needs to be a member of the <systemitem class="groupname">operator</systemitem> group.</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod operator -m <replaceable>yourusername</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>重新啟動登作階段與 <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> 來讓這些變更生效,且建立必要的 <acronym>USB</acronym> 的過濾器。</para>
+ </sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="virtualization-virtualbox-host-dvd-cd-access">
<title><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark> Host <acronym>DVD</acronym>/<acronym>CD</acronym> 存取</title>
@@ -33066,7 +33134,7 @@ FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-amd64-bootonly.iso 100% of 230 MB 570 kBps 06m17s</
machine, used to track the running machines. This example
starts the virtual machine in installation mode:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sh /usr/share/examples/bhyve/vmrun.sh -c <replaceable>4</replaceable> -m <replaceable>1024M</replaceable> -t <replaceable>tap0</replaceable> -d <replaceable>guest.img</replaceable> -i -I <replaceable>FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-amd64-bootonly.iso</replaceable> <replaceable>guestname</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sh /usr/share/examples/bhyve/vmrun.sh -c <replaceable>1</replaceable> -m <replaceable>1024M</replaceable> -t <replaceable>tap0</replaceable> -d <replaceable>guest.img</replaceable> -i -I <replaceable>FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-amd64-bootonly.iso</replaceable> <replaceable>guestname</replaceable></userinput></screen>
<para xml:lang="en">The virtual machine will boot and start the installer.
After installing a system in the virtual machine, when the
@@ -33320,7 +33388,7 @@ crw------- 1 root wheel 0x1a1 Mar 17 12:19 otherguest</screen>
<para xml:lang="en">A specified virtual machine can be destroyed using
<command>bhyvectl</command>:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> bhyvectl --destroy --vm=<replaceable>guestname</replaceable></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyvectl --destroy --vm=<replaceable>guestname</replaceable></userinput></screen>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="virtualization-bhyve-onboot">
@@ -33355,18 +33423,332 @@ ifconfig_bridge0="addm <replaceable>igb0</replaceable> addm <replaceable>tap0</r
</step>
</procedure>
</sect2>
-<!--
- Note: There is no working/end-user ready Xen support for FreeBSD as of 07-2010.
- Hide all information regarding Xen under FreeBSD.
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="virtualization-host-xen">
+ <title>以 FreeBSD 作為主端安裝 <trademark>Xen</trademark></title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en"><application>Xen</application> is a GPLv2-licensed <link xlink:href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypervisor#Classification">type
+ 1 hypervisor</link> for <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> and <trademark class="registered">ARM</trademark> architectures. FreeBSD
+ has included <trademark>i386</trademark> and <trademark class="registered">AMD</trademark> 64-Bit <link xlink:href="https://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki/DomU">DomU</link>
+ and <link xlink:href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amazon_Elastic_Compute_Cloud">Amazon
+ EC2</link> unprivileged domain (virtual machine) support since
+ FreeBSD 8.0 and includes Dom0 control domain (host) support in
+ FreeBSD 11.0. Support for para-virtualized (PV) domains has
+ been removed from FreeBSD 11 in favor of hardware virtualized
+ (HVM) domains, which provides better performance.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en"><trademark>Xen</trademark> is a bare-metal hypervisor, which means that it is the
+ first program loaded after the BIOS. A special privileged guest
+ called the Domain-0 (<literal>Dom0</literal> for short) is then
+ started. The Dom0 uses its special privileges to directly
+ access the underlying physical hardware, making it a
+ high-performance solution. It is able to access the disk
+ controllers and network adapters directly. The <trademark>Xen</trademark> management
+ tools to manage and control the <trademark>Xen</trademark> hypervisor are also used
+ by the Dom0 to create, list, and destroy VMs. Dom0 provides
+ virtual disks and networking for unprivileged domains, often
+ called <literal>DomU</literal>. <trademark>Xen</trademark> Dom0 can be compared to
+ the service console of other hypervisor solutions, while the
+ DomU is where individual guest VMs are run.</para>
+
+<!-- Hidden until the mode in which FreeBSD uses Xen is supported.
+ <para>Features of &xen; include GPU passthrough from the host
+ running the Dom0 into a DomU guest machine. This requires a
+ CPU, chipset, and BIOS with VT-D support and might require extra
+ patches or not work with all graphics cards. A list of adapters
+ can be found in the <link
+ xlink:href="https://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki/Xen_VGA_Passthrough_Tested_Adapters">Xen
+ Wiki</link>. Note that not all GPUs listed there are
+ supported on &os;. The &xen; hypervisor also supports PCI
+ passthrough to give a DomU guest full, direct access to a PCI
+ device like NIC, disk controller, or soundcard.</para>
+-->
+ <para xml:lang="en"><trademark>Xen</trademark> can migrate VMs between different <trademark>Xen</trademark> servers. When
+ the two xen hosts share the same underlying storage, the
+ migration can be done without having to shut the VM down first.
+ Instead, the migration is performed live while the DomU is
+ running and there is no need to restart it or plan a downtime.
+ This is useful in maintenance scenarios or upgrade windows to
+ ensure that the services provided by the DomU are still
+ provided. Many more features of <trademark>Xen</trademark> are listed on the <link xlink:href="https://wiki.xenproject.org/wiki/Category:Overview">Xen
+ Wiki Overview page</link>. Note that not all features are
+ supported on FreeBSD yet.</para>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="virtualization-host-xen-requirements">
+ <title xml:lang="en">Hardware Requirements for <trademark>Xen</trademark> Dom0</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To run the <trademark>Xen</trademark> hypervisor on a host, certain hardware
+ functionality is required. Hardware virtualized domains
+ require Extended Page Table (<link xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extended_Page_Table">EPT</link>)
+ and Input/Output Memory Management Unit (<link xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_IOMMU-supporting_hardware">IOMMU</link>)
+ support in the host processor.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="virtualization-host-xen-dom0-setup">
+ <title xml:lang="en"><trademark>Xen</trademark> Dom0 Control Domain Setup</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <package>emulators/xen</package> package works with
+ FreeBSD 11 amd64 binary snapshots and equivalent systems
+ built from source. This example assumes VNC output for
+ unprivileged domains which is accessed from a another system
+ using a tool such as <package>net/tightvnc</package>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Install <package>emulators/xen</package>:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install xen</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Configuration files must be edited to prepare the host
+ for the Dom0 integration. An entry to
+ <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename> disables the limit on
+ how many pages of memory are allowed to be wired. Otherwise,
+ DomU VMs with higher memory requirements will not run.</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc -f /etc/sysctl.conf vm.max_wired=-1</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Another memory-related setting involves changing
+ <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename>, setting the
+ <literal>memorylocked</literal> option to
+ <literal>unlimited</literal>. Otherwise, creating DomU
+ domains may fail with <errorname>Cannot allocate
+ memory</errorname> errors. After making the change to
+ <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename>, run
+ <command>cap_mkdb</command> to update the capability database.
+ See <xref linkend="security-resourcelimits"/> for
+ details.</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sed -i '' -e 's/memorylocked=64K/memorylocked=unlimited/' /etc/login.conf</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Add an entry for the <trademark>Xen</trademark> console to
+ <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>echo 'xc0 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm on secure' &gt;&gt; /etc/ttys</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Selecting a <trademark>Xen</trademark> kernel in
+ <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> activates the Dom0.
+ <trademark>Xen</trademark> also requires resources like CPU and memory from the
+ host machine for itself and other DomU domains. How much CPU
+ and memory depends on the individual requirements and hardware
+ capabilities. In this example, 8 GB of memory and 4
+ virtual CPUs are made available for the Dom0. The serial
+ console is also activated and logging options are
+ defined.</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc -f /boot/loader.conf hw.pci.mcfg=0</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc -f /boot/loader.conf xen_kernel="/boot/xen"</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc -f /boot/loader.conf xen_cmdline="dom0_mem=<replaceable>8192M</replaceable> dom0_max_vcpus=<replaceable>4</replaceable> dom0pvh=1 console=com1,vga com1=115200,8n1 guest_loglvl=all loglvl=all"</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Log files that <trademark>Xen</trademark> creates for the Dom0 and DomU VMs
+ are stored in <filename>/var/log/xen</filename>. This
+ directory does not exist by default and must be
+ created.</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mkdir -p /var/log/xen</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 644 /var/log/xen</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en"><trademark>Xen</trademark> provides a boot menu to activate and de-activate
+ the hypervisor on demand in
+ <filename>/boot/menu.rc.local</filename>:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>echo "try-include /boot/xen.4th" &gt;&gt; /boot/menu.rc.local</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Activate the xencommons service during system
+ startup:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc xencommons_enable=yes</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">These settings are enough to start a Dom0-enabled
+ system. However, it lacks network functionality for the
+ DomU machines. To fix that, define a bridged interface with
+ the main NIC of the system which the DomU VMs can use to
+ connect to the network. Replace
+ <replaceable>igb0</replaceable> with the host network
+ interface name.</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc autobridge_interfaces=bridge0</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc autobridge_bridge0=<replaceable>igb0</replaceable></userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc ifconfig_bridge0=SYNCDHCP</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Restart the host to load the <trademark>Xen</trademark> kernel and start the
+ Dom0.</para>
- <sect2 id="virtualization-other">
- <title>Other Virtualization Options</title>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>reboot</userinput></screen>
- <para>There is ongoing work in getting
- <application>&xen;</application>
- to work as a host environment on &os;.</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">After successfully booting the <trademark>Xen</trademark> kernel and logging
+ into the system again, the <trademark>Xen</trademark> management tool
+ <command>xl</command> is used to show information about the
+ domains.</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>xl list</userinput>
+Name ID Mem VCPUs State Time(s)
+Domain-0 0 8192 4 r----- 962.0</screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The output confirms that the Dom0 (called
+ <literal>Domain-0</literal>) has the ID <literal>0</literal>
+ and is running. It also has the memory and virtual CPUs
+ that were defined in <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>
+ earlier. More information can be found in the <link xlink:href="https://www.xenproject.org/help/documentation.html"><trademark>Xen</trademark>
+ Documentation</link>. DomU guest VMs can now be
+ created.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="virtualization-host-xen-domu-setup">
+ <title><trademark>Xen</trademark> DomU 客端 VM 設置</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Unprivileged domains consist of a configuration file and
+ virtual or physical hard disks. Virtual disk storage for
+ the DomU can be files created by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>truncate</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> or ZFS
+ volumes as described in <xref linkend="zfs-zfs-volume"/>.
+ In this example, a 20 GB volume is used. A VM is
+ created with the ZFS volume, a FreeBSD ISO image, 1 GB of
+ RAM and two virtual CPUs. The ISO installation file is
+ retrieved with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fetch</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and saved locally in a file
+ called <filename>freebsd.iso</filename>.</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>fetch <replaceable>ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/ISO-IMAGES/10.3/FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-amd64-bootonly.iso</replaceable> -o <replaceable>freebsd.iso</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">A ZFS volume of 20 GB called
+ <filename>xendisk0</filename> is created to serve as the disk
+ space for the VM.</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs create -V20G -o volmode=dev zroot/xendisk0</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The new DomU guest VM is defined in a file. Some specific
+ definitions like name, keymap, and VNC connection details are
+ also defined. The following <filename>freebsd.cfg</filename>
+ contains a minimum DomU configuration for this example:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cat freebsd.cfg</userinput>
+builder = "hvm" <co xml:id="co-xen-builder"/>
+name = "freebsd" <co xml:id="co-xen-name"/>
+memory = 1024 <co xml:id="co-xen-memory"/>
+vcpus = 2 <co xml:id="co-xen-vcpus"/>
+vif = [ 'mac=00:16:3E:74:34:32,bridge=bridge0' ] <co xml:id="co-xen-vif"/>
+disk = [
+'/dev/zvol/tank/xendisk0,raw,hda,rw', <co xml:id="co-xen-disk"/>
+'/root/freebsd.iso,raw,hdc:cdrom,r' <co xml:id="co-xen-cdrom"/>
+ ]
+vnc = 1 <co xml:id="co-xen-vnc"/>
+vnclisten = "0.0.0.0"
+serial = "pty"
+usbdevice = "tablet"</screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">These lines are explained in more detail:</para>
+
+ <calloutlist>
+ <callout arearefs="co-xen-builder">
+ <para xml:lang="en">This defines what kind of virtualization to use.
+ <literal>hvm</literal> refers to hardware-assisted
+ virtualization or hardware virtual machine. Guest
+ operating systems can run unmodified on CPUs with
+ virtualization extensions, providing nearly the same
+ performance as running on physical hardware.
+ <literal>generic</literal> is the default value and
+ creates a PV domain.</para>
+ </callout>
+
+ <callout arearefs="co-xen-name">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Name of this virtual machine to distinguish it from
+ others running on the same Dom0. Required.</para>
+ </callout>
+
+ <callout arearefs="co-xen-memory">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Quantity of RAM in megabytes to make available to the
+ VM. This amount is subtracted from the hypervisor's total
+ available memory, not the memory of the Dom0.</para>
+ </callout>
+
+ <callout arearefs="co-xen-vcpus">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Number of virtual CPUs available to the guest VM. For
+ best performance, do not create guests with more virtual
+ CPUs than the number of physical CPUs on the host.</para>
+ </callout>
+
+ <callout arearefs="co-xen-vif">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Virtual network adapter. This is the bridge connected
+ to the network interface of the host. The
+ <literal>mac</literal> parameter is the MAC address set on
+ the virtual network interface. This parameter is
+ optional, if no MAC is provided <trademark>Xen</trademark> will generate a
+ random one.</para>
+ </callout>
+
+ <callout arearefs="co-xen-disk">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Full path to the disk, file, or ZFS volume of the disk
+ storage for this VM. Options and multiple disk
+ definitions are separated by commas.</para>
+ </callout>
+
+ <callout arearefs="co-xen-cdrom">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Defines the Boot medium from which the initial
+ operating system is installed. In this example, it is the
+ ISO imaged downloaded earlier. Consult the <trademark>Xen</trademark>
+ documentation for other kinds of devices and options to
+ set.</para>
+ </callout>
+
+ <callout arearefs="co-xen-vnc">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Options controlling VNC connectivity to the serial
+ console of the DomU. In order, these are: active VNC
+ support, define IP address on which to listen, device node
+ for the serial console, and the input method for precise
+ positioning of the mouse and other input methods.
+ <literal>keymap</literal> defines which keymap to use, and
+ is <literal>english</literal> by default.</para>
+ </callout>
+ </calloutlist>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">After the file has been created with all the necessary
+ options, the DomU is created by passing it to <command>xl
+ create</command> as a parameter.</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>xl create freebsd.cfg</userinput></screen>
+
+ <note>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Each time the Dom0 is restarted, the configuration file
+ must be passed to <command>xl create</command> again to
+ re-create the DomU. By default, only the Dom0 is created
+ after a reboot, not the individual VMs. The VMs can
+ continue where they left off as they stored the operating
+ system on the virtual disk. The virtual machine
+ configuration can change over time (for example, when adding
+ more memory). The virtual machine configuration files must
+ be properly backed up and kept available to be able to
+ re-create the guest VM when needed.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The output of <command>xl list</command> confirms that the
+ DomU has been created.</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>xl list</userinput>
+Name ID Mem VCPUs State Time(s)
+Domain-0 0 8192 4 r----- 1653.4
+freebsd 1 1024 1 -b---- 663.9</screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To begin the installation of the base operating system,
+ start the VNC client, directing it to the main network address
+ of the host or to the IP address defined on the
+ <literal>vnclisten</literal> line of
+ <filename>freebsd.cfg</filename>. After the operating system
+ has been installed, shut down the DomU and disconnect the VNC
+ viewer. Edit <filename>freebsd.cfg</filename>, removing the
+ line with the <literal>cdrom</literal> definition or
+ commenting it out by inserting a <literal>#</literal>
+ character at the beginning of the line. To load this new
+ configuration, it is necessary to remove the old DomU with
+ <command>xl destroy</command>, passing either the name or the
+ id as the parameter. Afterwards, recreate it using the
+ modified <filename>freebsd.cfg</filename>.</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>xl destroy freebsd</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>xl create freebsd.cfg</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The machine can then be accessed again using the VNC
+ viewer. This time, it will boot from the virtual disk where
+ the operating system has been installed and can be used as a
+ virtual machine.</para>
</sect2>
--->
</sect1>
</chapter>
@@ -34338,9 +34720,9 @@ Option "XkbOptions" "grp:toggle"</programlisting>
<para>隨時套用安全性更新以及升級到新發佈的作業系統版本對管理一個持續運作的系統是非常重要的任務,FreeBSD 內含可以執行這兩項任務的工具程式,叫做 <command>freebsd-update</command>。</para>
- <para>這個工具程式支援使用 Binary 對 FreeBSD 做安全性與和錯誤更新,不需要手動編譯和安裝修補 (Patch) 或新核心。目前由安全性團隊提供支援的 Binary 更新可用於所有的架構和發行版。支援的發行版清單及各自的支援期限列於 <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/security/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/security/</uri>。</para>
+ <para>這個工具程式支援使用 Binary 對 FreeBSD 做安全性與和錯誤更新,不需要手動編譯和安裝修補 (Patch) 或新核心。目前由安全性團隊提供支援的 Binary 更新可用於所有的架構和發行版。支援的發行版清單及各自的支援期限列於 <uri xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/security/">https://www.FreeBSD.org/security/</uri>。</para>
- <para>這個工具程式也支援升級作業系統到次要的發佈版以及升級到另一個發佈版分支。在升級到新的發佈版本前,需先查看該版本的發佈公告,因為發行公告中包含了該發行版本的相關重要資訊。發行公告可自 <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/</uri> 取得。</para>
+ <para>這個工具程式也支援升級作業系統到次要的發佈版以及升級到另一個發佈版分支。在升級到新的發佈版本前,需先查看該版本的發佈公告,因為發行公告中包含了該發行版本的相關重要資訊。發行公告可自 <uri xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/">https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/</uri> 取得。</para>
<note>
<para>如果有使用 <command>crontab</command> 來執行 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>freebsd-update</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,則必須在升級作業系統前先關閉。</para>
@@ -34584,11 +34966,11 @@ before running "/usr/sbin/freebsd-update install"</screen>
<see>Updating and Upgrading</see>
</indexterm>
- <para>文件是 FreeBSD 作業系統不可或缺的一部份。在最新版本的 FreeBSD 文件可在 FreeBSD 網站 (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/">http://www.freebsd.org/doc/</link>) 取得的同時,也可很簡單的取得 FreeBSD 網站、使用手冊、<acronym>FAQ</acronym> 及文章的本地複本。</para>
+ <para>說明文件是 FreeBSD 作業系統不可或缺的一部份。最新版本的 FreeBSD 文件除了可在 FreeBSD 網站 (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/">https://www.freebsd.org/doc/</link>) 取得,也可很簡單的取得本地的 FreeBSD 網站、使用手冊、<acronym>FAQ</acronym> 及文章副本。</para>
<para>本節將說明如何使用原始碼與 FreeBSD Port 套件集來取得最新版本 FreeBSD 文件本地複本。</para>
- <para>要取得編輯與提出修正文件相關的資訊請參考 FreeBSD 文件計畫入門書 (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/fdp-primer">http://www.freebsd.org/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/fdp-primer/</link>)。</para>
+ <para>有關編輯與提出修正說明文件的資訊,請參考 FreeBSD 文件計畫入門書 (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/fdp-primer">https://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/fdp-primer/</link>)。</para>
<sect2 xml:id="updating-installed-documentation">
<title>自原始碼更新說明文件</title>
@@ -34726,7 +35108,7 @@ before running "/usr/sbin/freebsd-update install"</screen>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/misc/freebsd-doc-en</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
- <para>Port 提供設定選單來指定要編譯與安裝的格式,預設為分頁的 <acronym>HTML</acronym> (類似 <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org">http://www.FreeBSD.org</uri> 使用的格式) 以及 <acronym>PDF</acronym>。</para>
+ <para>Port 提供設定選單來指定要編譯與安裝的格式,預設會選擇分頁的 <acronym>HTML</acronym> (類似 <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org">http://www.FreeBSD.org</uri> 使用的格式) 以及 <acronym>PDF</acronym>。</para>
<para>此外,編譯文件 Port 時也可指定數個 <command>make</command> 選項,包括:</para>
@@ -34758,8 +35140,8 @@ before running "/usr/sbin/freebsd-update install"</screen>
<para>以下範例使用變數來安裝 <acronym>PDF</acronym> 的匈牙利語文件到特定目錄:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> cd /usr/ports/misc/freebsd-doc-hu
-<prompt>#</prompt> make -DWITH_PDF DOCBASE=share/doc/freebsd/hu install clean</screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/misc/freebsd-doc-hu</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make -DWITH_PDF DOCBASE=share/doc/freebsd/hu install clean</userinput></screen>
<para>文件套件或 Port 可以依 <xref linkend="ports"/> 的說明更新。例如以下指令會使用 <package>ports-mgmt/portmaster</package> 更新已安裝的匈牙利語文件:</para>
@@ -34835,8 +35217,8 @@ before running "/usr/sbin/freebsd-update install"</screen>
</sect2>
</sect1>
- <sect1 xml:id="updating-src">
- <title>從原始碼更新 FreeBSD</title>
+ <sect1 xml:id="makeworld">
+ <title xml:id="updating-src">從原始碼更新 FreeBSD</title>
<para>從編譯原始碼來更新 FreeBSD 比起用 Binary 更新有幾項優點,在編譯程式碼時可以自訂選項來充分運用特定硬體,部份基礎系統可以使用非預設的設定值編譯,或是在不需要或不想要的時候跳過編譯。使用編譯的程序來更新系統比起安裝 Binary 來更新會耗時許多,但能夠完整自訂一個量身定做版本的 FreeBSD。</para>
@@ -34866,7 +35248,7 @@ before running "/usr/sbin/freebsd-update install"</screen>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-review-updating">
- <para>從原始碼編譯之前與之後任何需要手動操作步驟會在 <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename> 中有說明。</para>
+ <para>檢查 <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename> 看是否有任後在原始碼編譯之前或之後需要手動操作的步驟。</para>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-cd">
@@ -34878,11 +35260,11 @@ before running "/usr/sbin/freebsd-update install"</screen>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-kernel">
- <para>編譯並安裝核心,此動作等同於同時做 <buildtarget>buildkernel</buildtarget> <buildtarget>installkernel</buildtarget>。</para>
+ <para>編譯並安裝核心,此動作等同於 <command>make buildkernel installkernel</command>。</para>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-reboot">
- <para xml:lang="en">Reboot the system to the new kernel.</para>
+ <para>重新啟動系統以使用新的核心。</para>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-cd2">
@@ -34947,11 +35329,11 @@ Working Copy Root Path: /usr/src
<tbody>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><literal><replaceable>X.Y</replaceable>-RELEASE</literal></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>base/releng/</literal><replaceable>X.Y</replaceable></entry>
+ <entry><literal>base/releng/</literal><replaceable>X.Y</replaceable></entry>
<entry>發佈版本加上關鍵的安全性與錯誤修正,較建議大多數使用者使用這個分支。</entry>
</row>
- <row>
+ <row xml:id="STABLE">
<entry xml:lang="en"><literal><replaceable>X.Y</replaceable>-STABLE</literal></entry>
<entry xml:lang="en"><literal>base/stable/</literal><replaceable>X</replaceable></entry>
<entry>
@@ -34975,11 +35357,7 @@ Working Copy Root Path: /usr/src
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>uname -r</userinput>
10.3-RELEASE</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Based on
- <xref linkend="updating-src-obtaining-src-repopath"/>, the
- source used to update <literal>10.3-RELEASE</literal> has
- a repository path of <literal>base/releng/10.3</literal>.
- That path is used when checking out the source:</para>
+ <para>根據 <xref linkend="updating-src-obtaining-src-repopath"/>,要更新 <literal>10.3-RELEASE</literal> 需使用的原始碼檔案庫路徑為 <literal>base/releng/10.3</literal>,在取出 (checkout) 原始碼時便要使用這個路徑:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mv /usr/src /usr/src.bak</userinput> <co xml:id="updating-src-obtaining-src-mv"/>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>svn checkout https://svn.freebsd.org/base/<replaceable>releng/10.3</replaceable> /usr/src</userinput> <co xml:id="updating-src-obtaining-src-checkout-cmd"/></screen>
@@ -34999,7 +35377,7 @@ Working Copy Root Path: /usr/src
<sect2 xml:id="updating-src-building">
<title>從原始碼編譯</title>
- <para xml:id="makeworld">編譯世界 (<emphasis>world</emphasis>) 即編譯整個作業系統除了核心 (Kernel),要先做這個動作以便提供最新的工具來編譯核心,接著便可編譯核心:</para>
+ <para>編譯世界 (<emphasis>world</emphasis>) 即編譯整個作業系統除了核心 (Kernel),要先做這個動作以便提供最新的工具來編譯核心,接著便可編譯核心:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make buildworld</userinput>
@@ -39639,7 +40017,7 @@ tun0: flags=8051&lt;UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term>網域名稱系統 (Domain Name System, <acronym>DNS</acronym>)</term>
+ <term>網域名稱系統 (<acronym>DNS</acronym>)</term>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">The Domain Name System (<acronym>DNS</acronym>) and
its daemon <command>named</command> play a large role in
@@ -39754,7 +40132,7 @@ FreeBSD.org mail is handled by 10 mx1.FreeBSD.org</screen>
addresses can be found in the FreeBSD sample configuration,
<filename>/etc/mail/access.sample</filename>:</para>
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"># $FreeBSD$
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en"># <phrase its:translate="no">$FreeBSD$</phrase>
#
# Mail relay access control list. Default is to reject mail unless the
# destination is local, or listed in /etc/mail/local-host-names
@@ -40089,7 +40467,7 @@ daily_submit_queuerun="NO"</programlisting>
<para xml:lang="en">The default <filename>/etc/mail/mailer.conf</filename>
looks like this:</para>
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"># $FreeBSD$
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en"># <phrase its:translate="no">$FreeBSD$</phrase>
#
# Execute the "real" sendmail program, named /usr/libexec/sendmail/sendmail
#
@@ -40127,10 +40505,10 @@ newaliases /usr/local/sbin/sendmail</programlisting>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">sendmail /usr/local/sbin/ssmtp
send-mail /usr/local/sbin/ssmtp
-mailq /usr/libexec/sendmail/sendmail
-newaliases /usr/libexec/sendmail/sendmail
-hoststat /usr/libexec/sendmail/sendmail
-purgestat /usr/libexec/sendmail/sendmail</programlisting>
+mailq /usr/local/sbin/ssmtp
+newaliases /usr/local/sbin/ssmtp
+hoststat /usr/bin/true
+purgestat /usr/bin/true</programlisting>
<para xml:lang="en">Once everything is configured, it is recommended to reboot
the system. Rebooting provides the opportunity to ensure that
@@ -43967,40 +44345,22 @@ dhcpd_ifaces="dc0"</programlisting>
</authorgroup>
</sect1info>
-->
- <title>網域名稱系統 (Domain Name System, <acronym>DNS</acronym>)</title>
+ <title>網域名稱系統 (<acronym>DNS</acronym>)</title>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>DNS</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">Domain Name System (<acronym>DNS</acronym>) is the protocol
- through which domain names are mapped to <acronym>IP</acronym>
- addresses, and vice versa. <acronym>DNS</acronym> is
- coordinated across the Internet through a somewhat complex
- system of authoritative root, Top Level Domain
- (<acronym>TLD</acronym>), and other smaller-scale name servers,
- which host and cache individual domain information. It is not
- necessary to run a name server to perform
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> lookups on a system.</para>
+ <para>網域名稱系統 (Domain Name System, <acronym>DNS</acronym>) 是一種協定用來轉換網域名稱為 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址,反之亦然。<acronym>DNS</acronym> 會協調網際網路上有權的根節點 (Authoritative root)、最上層網域 (Top Level Domain, <acronym>TLD</acronym>) 及其他小規模名稱伺服器來取得結果,而這些伺服器可管理與快取個自的網域資訊。要在系統上做 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 查詢並不需要架設一個名稱伺服器。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>BIND</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">In FreeBSD 10, the Berkeley Internet Name Domain
- (<acronym>BIND</acronym>) has been removed from the base system
- and replaced with Unbound. Unbound as configured in the FreeBSD
- Base is a local caching resolver. <acronym>BIND</acronym> is
- still available from The Ports Collection as <package role="port">dns/bind99</package> or <package role="port">dns/bind98</package>. In FreeBSD 9 and lower,
- <acronym>BIND</acronym> is included in FreeBSD Base. The FreeBSD
- version provides enhanced security features, a new file system
- layout, and automated <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> configuration.
- <acronym>BIND</acronym> is maintained by the <link xlink:href="https://www.isc.org/">Internet Systems
- Consortium</link>.</para>
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 10,已自基礎系統移除了 Berkeley Internet Name Domain (<acronym>BIND</acronym>),並替換為 Unbound。Unbound 被設置來做為 FreeBSD 的基礎中的本地快取解析程式。<acronym>BIND</acronym> 仍可以自 Port 套件集取得,名稱為 <package role="port">dns/bind99</package> 或 <package role="port">dns/bind98</package>。在 FreeBSD 9 與較先前的版本,FreeBSD 基礎系統中是內建 <acronym>BIND</acronym>,FreeBSD 的版本提供了增強的安全性功能、新檔案系統配置及自動化 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 設置,而 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 是由 <link xlink:href="https://www.isc.org/">Internet Systems Consortium</link> 所維護。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>resolver</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>reverse
<acronym>DNS</acronym></primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>root zone</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The following table describes some of the terms associated
- with <acronym>DNS</acronym>:</para>
+ <para>以下表格會說明一些與 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 有關的術語:</para>
<table frame="none" pgwide="1">
<title><acronym>DNS</acronym> 術語</title>
@@ -44018,48 +44378,39 @@ dhcpd_ifaces="dc0"</programlisting>
<tbody>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Forward <acronym>DNS</acronym></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Mapping of hostnames to <acronym>IP</acronym>
- addresses.</entry>
+ <entry>正向 <acronym>DNS</acronym> (Forward <acronym>DNS</acronym>)</entry>
+ <entry>將主機名稱對應 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址的動作。</entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Origin</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Refers to the domain covered in a particular zone
- file.</entry>
+ <entry>源頭 (Origin)</entry>
+ <entry>代表某個轄區檔案中所涵蓋的網域。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><application>named</application>, BIND</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Common names for the BIND name server package
- within FreeBSD.</entry>
+ <entry>在 FreeBSD 中對 BIND 名稱伺服器套件的通用稱呼。</entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Resolver</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">A system process through which a machine queries
- a name server for zone information.</entry>
+ <entry>解析器 (Resolver)</entry>
+ <entry>主機向名稱伺服器查詢轄區資訊的系統程序。</entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Reverse <acronym>DNS</acronym></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Mapping of <acronym>IP</acronym> addresses to
- hostnames.</entry>
+ <entry>反向 <acronym>DNS</acronym> (Reverse <acronym>DNS</acronym>)</entry>
+ <entry>將 <acronym>IP</acronym> 對應主機名稱的動作。</entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Root zone</entry>
+ <entry>根轄區 (Root zone)</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">The beginning of the Internet zone hierarchy. All
- zones fall under the root zone, similar to how all files
- in a file system fall under the root directory.</entry>
+ <entry>網際網路轄區階層的最開始,所有的轄區會在根轄區之下,類似在檔案系統中所有的檔案會在根目錄底下。</entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Zone</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">An individual domain, subdomain, or portion of the
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> administered by the same
- authority.</entry>
+ <entry>轄區 (Zone)</entry>
+ <entry>獨立的網域、子網域或或由相同授權 (Authority) 管理的部分 <acronym>DNS</acronym>。</entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
@@ -44070,144 +44421,88 @@ dhcpd_ifaces="dc0"</programlisting>
<secondary>examples</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">Examples of zones:</para>
+ <para>轄區範例:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><systemitem>.</systemitem> is how the root zone is
- usually referred to in documentation.</para>
+ <para><systemitem>.</systemitem> 是一般在文件中表達根轄區的方式。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><systemitem>org.</systemitem> is a Top Level Domain
- (<acronym>TLD</acronym>) under the root zone.</para>
+ <para><systemitem>org.</systemitem> 是一個在根轄區底下的最上層網域 (Top Level Domain , <acronym>TLD</acronym>)。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org.</systemitem> is a zone
- under the <systemitem>org.</systemitem>
- <acronym>TLD</acronym>.</para>
+ <para><systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org.</systemitem> 是一個在 <systemitem>org.</systemitem> <acronym>TLD</acronym> 底下的轄區。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><systemitem>1.168.192.in-addr.arpa</systemitem> is a
- zone referencing all <acronym>IP</acronym> addresses which
- fall under the <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.*</systemitem>
- <acronym>IP</acronym> address space.</para>
+ <para><systemitem>1.168.192.in-addr.arpa</systemitem> 是一個轄區用來代表所有在 <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.*</systemitem> <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址空間底下的 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
- <para xml:lang="en">As one can see, the more specific part of a hostname
- appears to its left. For example, <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org.</systemitem> is more
- specific than <systemitem>org.</systemitem>, as
- <systemitem>org.</systemitem> is more specific than the root
- zone. The layout of each part of a hostname is much like a file
- system: the <filename>/dev</filename> directory falls within the
- root, and so on.</para>
+ <para>如您所見,更詳細的主機名稱會加在左方,例如 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org.</systemitem> 比 <systemitem>org.</systemitem> 更具體,如同 <systemitem>org.</systemitem> 比根轄區更具體,主機名稱每一部份的架構很像檔案系統:<filename>/dev</filename> 目錄在根目錄底下,以此類推。</para>
<sect2>
- <title>要執行名稱伺服器的原因</title>
+ <title>要架設名稱伺服器的原因</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Name servers generally come in two forms: authoritative
- name servers, and caching (also known as resolving) name
- servers.</para>
+ <para>名稱伺服器通常有兩種形式:有權的 (Authoritative) 名稱伺服器與快取 (或稱解析) 名稱伺服器。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">An authoritative name server is needed when:</para>
+ <para>以下情況會需要一台有權的名稱伺服器:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">One wants to serve <acronym>DNS</acronym> information
- to the world, replying authoritatively to queries.</para>
+ <para>想要提供 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 資訊給全世界,做為官方回覆查詢。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">A domain, such as <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem>, is
- registered and <acronym>IP</acronym> addresses need to be
- assigned to hostnames under it.</para>
+ <para>已經註冊了一個網域,例如 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem>,且要將 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址分配到主機名稱下。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">An <acronym>IP</acronym> address block requires
- reverse <acronym>DNS</acronym> entries
- (<acronym>IP</acronym> to hostname).</para>
+ <para>一段 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址範圍需要反向 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 項目 (<acronym>IP</acronym> 轉主機名稱)。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">A backup or second name server, called a slave, will
- reply to queries.</para>
+ <para>要有一台備援或次要名稱伺服器用來回覆查詢。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
- <para xml:lang="en">A caching name server is needed when:</para>
+ <para>以下情況會需要一台快取名稱伺服器:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">A local <acronym>DNS</acronym> server may cache and
- respond more quickly than querying an outside name
- server.</para>
+ <para>比起查詢外部的名稱伺服器本地 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器可以快取並更快的回應。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
- <para xml:lang="en">When one queries for <systemitem class="fqdomainname">www.FreeBSD.org</systemitem>, the
- resolver usually queries the uplink <acronym>ISP</acronym>'s
- name server, and retrieves the reply. With a local, caching
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> server, the query only has to be made
- once to the outside world by the caching
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> server. Additional queries will not
- have to go outside the local network, since the information is
- cached locally.</para>
+ <para>當查詢 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">www.FreeBSD.org</systemitem> 時,解析程式通常會查詢上游 <acronym>ISP</acronym> 的名稱伺服器然後接收其回覆,使用本地、快取 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器,只需要由快取 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器對外部做一次查詢,其他的查詢則不需要再向區域網路之外查詢,因為這些資訊已經在本地被快取了。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title><acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器設定於 FreeBSD 10.0 及之後版本</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">In FreeBSD 10.0, <application>BIND</application> has been
- replaced with <application>Unbound</application>.
- <application>Unbound</application> is a validating caching
- resolver only. If an authoritative server is needed, many are
- available from the Ports Collection.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Unbound</application> is provided in the FreeBSD
- base system. By default, it will provide
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> resolution to the local machine only.
- While the base system package can be configured to provide
- resolution services beyond the local machine, it is
- recommended that such requirements be addressed by installing
- <application>Unbound</application> from the FreeBSD Ports
- Collection.</para>
+ <para>於 FreeBSD 10.0,<application>BIND</application> 已被替換為 <application>Unbound</application>,<application>Unbound</application> 只會驗證快取解析程式,若需要有權的 (Authoritative) 伺服器,有很多可在 Port 套件集找到。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">To enable <application>Unbound</application>, add the
- following to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para><application>Unbound</application> 由 FreeBSD 基礎系統提供,預設只會提供本機的 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 解析,雖然基礎系統的套件可被設定提供本機以外的解析服務,但要解決這樣的需求仍建議安裝 FreeBSD Port 套件集中的 <application>Unbound</application>。</para>
+
+ <para>要開啟 <application>Unbound</application> 可加入下行到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">local_unbound_enable="YES"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">Any existing nameservers in
- <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> will be configured as
- forwarders in the new <application>Unbound</application>
- configuration.</para>
+ <para>任何已存在於 <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> 中的名稱伺服器會在新的 <application>Unbound</application> 設定中被設為追隨者 (Forwarder)。</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">If any of the listed nameservers do not support
- <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>, local <acronym>DNS</acronym>
- resolution will fail. Be sure to test each nameserver and
- remove any that fail the test. The following command will
- show the trust tree or a failure for a nameserver running on
- <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.1</systemitem>:</para>
+ <para>若任一個列在清單中的名稱伺服器不支援 <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>,則本地的 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 解析便會失敗,請確認有測試每一台名稱伺服器並移除所有測試失敗的項目。以下指令會顯示出信認樹或在 <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.1</systemitem> 上執行失敗的名稱伺服器:</para>
</note>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>drill -S FreeBSD.org @<replaceable>192.168.1.1</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Once each nameserver is confirmed to support
- <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>, start
- <application>Unbound</application>:</para>
+ <para>確認完每一台名稱伺服器都支援 <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> 後啟動 <application>Unbound</application>:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service local_unbound onestart</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">This will take care of updating
- <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> so that queries for
- <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> secured domains will now work. For
- example, run the following to validate the FreeBSD.org
- <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> trust tree:</para>
+ <para>這將會更新 <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> 來讓查詢已用 <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> 確保安全的網域現在可以運作。</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>drill -S FreeBSD.org</userinput>
;; Number of trusted keys: 1
@@ -44233,8 +44528,7 @@ freebsd.org. (A)
<sect2>
<title>DNS 伺服器設定於 FreeBSD 9.<replaceable>X</replaceable></title>
- <para xml:lang="en">In FreeBSD, the BIND daemon is called
- <application>named</application>.</para>
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 中,會稱 BIND daemon 為 <application>named</application>。</para>
<informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
<tgroup cols="2">
@@ -44248,37 +44542,28 @@ freebsd.org. (A)
<tbody>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">The BIND daemon.</entry>
+ <entry>BIND daemon 本身。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><citerefentry><refentrytitle>rndc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Name server control utility.</entry>
+ <entry>名稱伺服器控制工具。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/namedb</filename></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Directory where BIND zone information
- resides.</entry>
+ <entry>儲存 BIND 轄區 (Zone) 資訊的目錄。</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/namedb/named.conf</filename></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Configuration file of the daemon.</entry>
+ <entry>Daemon 的設定檔。</entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</informaltable>
- <para xml:lang="en">Depending on how a given zone is configured on the server,
- the files related to that zone can be found in the
- <filename>master</filename>,
- <filename>slave</filename>, or
- <filename>dynamic</filename> subdirectories
- of the <filename>/etc/namedb</filename>
- directory. These files contain the <acronym>DNS</acronym>
- information that will be given out by the name server in
- response to queries.</para>
+ <para>依指定轄區在伺服器上設定的方式,與該轄區相關的檔案會存放在 <filename>/etc/namedb</filename> 目錄中的 <filename>master</filename>, <filename>slave</filename> 或 <filename>dynamic</filename> 子目錄,這些檔案中會含有 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 資訊,會在名稱伺服器回覆查詢時使用到。</para>
<sect3>
<title>啟動 BIND</title>
@@ -44288,32 +44573,17 @@ freebsd.org. (A)
<secondary>starting</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">Since BIND is installed by default, configuring it is
- relatively simple.</para>
+ <para>由於 BIND 預設已經安裝,要設定它相對簡單。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The default <application>named</application>
- configuration is that of a basic resolving name server,
- running in a <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> environment, and restricted to
- listening on the local IPv4 loopback address (127.0.0.1).
- To start the server one time with this configuration, use
- the following command:</para>
+ <para>預設的 <application>named</application> 設定成只做基本的名稱解析伺服器,運作於 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 環境中,並限制只傾聽本地 IPv4 loopback 位址 (127.0.0.1),若只要使用這個設定啟動伺服器一次可使用以下指令:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service named onestart</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">To ensure the <application>named</application> daemon is
- started at boot each time, put the following line into the
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para>要讓 <application>named</application> 在每次開機都會啟動,可加入下行到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">named_enable="YES"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">There are many configuration options for
- <filename>/etc/namedb/named.conf</filename> that are beyond
- the scope of this document. Other startup options for
- <application>named</application> on FreeBSD can be found in the
- <literal>named_<replaceable>*</replaceable></literal> flags
- in <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> and in
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The <xref linkend="configtuning-rcd"/>
- section is also a good read.</para>
+ <para>還有許多 <filename>/etc/namedb/named.conf</filename> 的設定選項以超出本文章的範圍,<application>named</application> 其他在 FreeBSD 上的啟動選項可在 <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> 與在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 中尋找 <literal>named_<replaceable>*</replaceable></literal> 項目,也建議閱讀 <xref linkend="configtuning-rcd"/> 一節。</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
@@ -44324,16 +44594,12 @@ freebsd.org. (A)
<secondary>configuration files</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">Configuration files for <application>named</application>
- currently reside in <filename>/etc/namedb</filename>
- directory and will need modification before use unless all
- that is needed is a simple resolver. This is where most of
- the configuration will be performed.</para>
+ <para><application>named</application> 的設定檔目前儲存在 <filename>/etc/namedb</filename> 目錄中且使用前必須先做修改,除非您只需要它做簡單的解析,這也是需要做最多設定的地方。</para>
<sect4>
<title xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/namedb/named.conf</filename></title>
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">// $FreeBSD$
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">// <phrase its:translate="no">$FreeBSD$</phrase>
//
// Refer to the named.conf(5) and named(8) man pages, and the documentation
// in /usr/share/doc/bind9 for more details.
@@ -44389,22 +44655,10 @@ options {
// named_auto_forward_only (the effect of which is described above).
// include "/etc/namedb/auto_forward.conf";</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">Just as the comment says, to benefit from an uplink's
- cache, <literal>forwarders</literal> can be enabled here.
- Under normal circumstances, a name server will recursively
- query the Internet looking at certain name servers until
- it finds the answer it is looking for. Having this
- enabled will have it query the uplink's name server (or
- name server provided) first, taking advantage of its
- cache. If the uplink name server in question is a heavily
- trafficked, fast name server, enabling this may be
- worthwhile.</para>
+ <para>如同註解所述,要利用上游的快取功能,可以在此啟動 <literal>forwarders</literal>,正常的情況下,名稱伺服器會在網際網路上做遞迴查詢來尋找特定名稱伺服器,直到找到要查詢的答案,開啟快取功能會讓名稱伺服器先查詢上游的名稱伺服器 (或自行設定的名稱伺服器) 來利用該伺服器的快取,若查詢的上游名稱伺服器是有規模營運且快速的名稱伺服器,則開啟此功能是相當值得的。</para>
<warning>
- <para xml:lang="en"><systemitem class="ipaddress">127.0.0.1</systemitem>
- will <emphasis>not</emphasis> work here. Change this
- <acronym>IP</acronym> address to a name server at the
- uplink.</para>
+ <para>在此處使用 <systemitem class="ipaddress">127.0.0.1</systemitem> 會<emphasis>沒有</emphasis>作用,請更改此 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址為上游的名稱伺服器。</para>
</warning>
<programlisting xml:lang="en"> /*
@@ -44646,53 +44900,36 @@ zone "1.168.192.in-addr.arpa" {
};
*/</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">In <filename>named.conf</filename>, these are examples
- of slave entries for a forward and reverse zone.</para>
+ <para>在 <filename>named.conf</filename> 中,這些為正向與反向轄區的備援 (Slave) 項目範例。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">For each new zone served, a new zone entry must be
- added to <filename>named.conf</filename>.</para>
+ <para>每一個要提供的新轄區 (Zone),都必須在 <filename>named.conf</filename> 加入新轄區的項目。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">For example, the simplest zone entry for
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem>
- can look like:</para>
+ <para>以最簡單的轄區項目 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem> 來舉例:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">zone "example.org" {
type master;
file "master/example.org";
};</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">The zone is a master, as indicated by the
- <option>type</option> statement, holding its zone
- information in
- <filename>/etc/namedb/master/example.org</filename>
- indicated by the <option>file</option> statement.</para>
+ <para>該轄區的角色為主要 (Master),使用 <option>type</option> 述敘句來指定,該轄區的資訊會儲存在 <filename>/etc/namedb/master/example.org</filename>,使用 <option>file</option> 述敘句來指定。</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">zone "example.org" {
type slave;
file "slave/example.org";
};</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">In the slave case, the zone information is transferred
- from the master name server for the particular zone, and
- saved in the file specified. If and when the master
- server dies or is unreachable, the slave name server will
- have the transferred zone information and will be able to
- serve it.</para>
+ <para>若為次要轄區,則會由主要名稱伺服器接收特定轄區的轄區資訊,並儲存到指定的檔案,若主要伺服器故障或無法連線,次要名稱伺服器會有先前接收過的轄區資訊可用來繼續提供服務。</para>
</sect4>
<sect4>
- <title xml:lang="en">Zone Files</title>
+ <title>轄區檔案</title>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary>BIND</primary>
<secondary>zone files</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">An example master zone file for
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem>
- (existing within
- <filename>/etc/namedb/master/example.org</filename>) is as
- follows:</para>
+ <para><systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem> 的主要轄區檔範例 (位於 <filename>/etc/namedb/master/example.org</filename>) 如下:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">$TTL 3600 ; 1 hour default TTL
example.org. IN SOA ns1.example.org. admin.example.org. (
@@ -44723,13 +44960,9 @@ mail IN A 192.168.1.5
; Aliases
www IN CNAME example.org.</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">Note that every hostname ending in a <quote>.</quote>
- is an exact hostname, whereas everything without a
- trailing <quote>.</quote> is relative to the origin. For
- example, <literal>ns1</literal> is translated into
- <literal>ns1.<replaceable>example.org.</replaceable></literal></para>
+ <para>注意,每個有以 <quote>.</quote> 號結尾的主機是完整的主機名稱,也就是說,若沒有以 <quote>.</quote> 結尾則是該源頭 (Origin) 的相對主機名稱。例如 <literal>ns1</literal> 會被轉換成 <literal>ns1.<replaceable>example.org.</replaceable></literal>。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The format of a zone file follows:</para>
+ <para>轄區檔案的格式如下:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">recordname IN recordtype value</programlisting>
@@ -44738,15 +44971,14 @@ www IN CNAME example.org.</programlisting>
<secondary>records</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The most commonly used <acronym>DNS</acronym>
- records:</para>
+ <para>最常用到的 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 記錄有:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term xml:lang="en">SOA</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">start of zone authority</para>
+ <para>開始轄區授權 (Authority)</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -44754,7 +44986,7 @@ www IN CNAME example.org.</programlisting>
<term xml:lang="en">NS</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">an authoritative name server</para>
+ <para>一台有權的名稱伺服器</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -44762,7 +44994,7 @@ www IN CNAME example.org.</programlisting>
<term xml:lang="en">A</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">a host address</para>
+ <para>主機位址</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -44770,7 +45002,7 @@ www IN CNAME example.org.</programlisting>
<term xml:lang="en">CNAME</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">the canonical name for an alias</para>
+ <para>別名的正規名稱 (Canonical name)</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -44778,7 +45010,7 @@ www IN CNAME example.org.</programlisting>
<term xml:lang="en">MX</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">mail exchanger</para>
+ <para>郵件交換器 (Mail exchanger)</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -44786,8 +45018,7 @@ www IN CNAME example.org.</programlisting>
<term xml:lang="en">PTR</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">a domain name pointer (used in reverse
- <acronym>DNS</acronym>)</para>
+ <para>網域名稱指標 (用在反向 <acronym>DNS</acronym>)</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
@@ -44804,8 +45035,7 @@ www IN CNAME example.org.</programlisting>
<term xml:lang="en"><systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org.</systemitem></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">the domain name, also the origin for this
- zone file.</para>
+ <para>網域名稱,也同樣是此轄區檔案的源頭 (Origin)。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -44813,8 +45043,7 @@ www IN CNAME example.org.</programlisting>
<term xml:lang="en"><systemitem class="fqdomainname">ns1.example.org.</systemitem></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">the primary/authoritative name server for this
- zone.</para>
+ <para>此轄區主要/有權的名稱伺服器。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -44822,10 +45051,7 @@ www IN CNAME example.org.</programlisting>
<term xml:lang="en"><literal>admin.example.org.</literal></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">the responsible person for this zone,
- email address with <quote>@</quote>
- replaced. (<email>admin@example.org</email> becomes
- <literal>admin.example.org</literal>)</para>
+ <para>此轄區的負責人,將 <quote>@</quote> 取代後的電子郵件位址。 (<email>admin@example.org</email> 會變成 <literal>admin.example.org</literal>)</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -44833,25 +45059,14 @@ www IN CNAME example.org.</programlisting>
<term xml:lang="en"><literal>2006051501</literal></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">the serial number of the file. This must be
- incremented each time the zone file is modified.
- Nowadays, many admins prefer a
- <literal>yyyymmddrr</literal> format for the serial
- number. <literal>2006051501</literal> would mean
- last modified 05/15/2006, the latter
- <literal>01</literal> being the first time the zone
- file has been modified this day. The serial number
- is important as it alerts slave name servers for a
- zone when it is updated.</para>
+ <para>該檔案的序號,每次修改轄區檔案之後應該增加此序號,目前許多管理者會偏好採用 <literal>yyyymmddrr</literal> 格式來編號,如 <literal>2006051501</literal> 代表最後一次修改於 2006 年 5 月 15 號,再後面的 <literal>01</literal> 代表這是在那一天做的第一次修改,序號的編號很重要,因為它會在更新轄區之後用來通知備援 (Slave) 的名稱伺服器。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
<programlisting xml:lang="en"> IN NS ns1.example.org.</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">This is an NS entry. Every name server that is going
- to reply authoritatively for the zone must have one of
- these entries.</para>
+ <para>這是一個 NS 項目,每個要有權力能做回覆的名稱伺服器必須具有至少設定一個項目。</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">localhost IN A 127.0.0.1
ns1 IN A 192.168.1.2
@@ -44859,27 +45074,15 @@ ns2 IN A 192.168.1.3
mx IN A 192.168.1.4
mail IN A 192.168.1.5</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">The A record indicates machine names. As seen above,
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">ns1.example.org</systemitem> would
- resolve to <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.2</systemitem>.</para>
+ <para>A 記錄代表主機名稱,以上述例子來說,<systemitem class="fqdomainname">ns1.example.org</systemitem> 會解析為 <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.2</systemitem>。</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en"> IN A 192.168.1.1</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">This line assigns <acronym>IP</acronym> address
- <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.1</systemitem> to
- the current origin, in this case <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem>.</para>
+ <para>這行會分配 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址 <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.1</systemitem> 給目前的源頭 (Origin),在這個例子為 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem>。</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">www IN CNAME @</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">The canonical name record is usually used for giving
- aliases to a machine. In the example,
- <systemitem>www</systemitem> is aliased to the
- <quote>master</quote> machine whose name happens to be the
- same as the domain name
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem>
- (<systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.1</systemitem>).
- CNAMEs can never be used together with another kind of
- record for the same hostname.</para>
+ <para>canonical name 記錄通常用來替主機設定別名,在這個例子中 <systemitem>www</systemitem> 是 <quote>master</quote> 主機的別名,其名稱會與網域名稱 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem> (<systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.1</systemitem>) 相同。CNAME 不能與其他類型的記錄同時用在一個主機上。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary>MX record</primary>
@@ -44887,22 +45090,11 @@ mail IN A 192.168.1.5</programlisting>
<programlisting xml:lang="en"> IN MX 10 mail.example.org.</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">The MX record indicates which mail servers are
- responsible for handling incoming mail for the zone.
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">mail.example.org</systemitem> is
- the hostname of a mail server, and 10 is the priority of
- that mail server.</para>
+ <para>MX 記錄用來指定該轄區要負責處理內寄郵件的郵件伺服器,<systemitem class="fqdomainname">mail.example.org</systemitem> 是郵件伺服器的主機名稱,而 10 是該郵件伺服器的優先順序。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">One can have several mail servers, with priorities of
- 10, 20 and so on. A mail server attempting to deliver to
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem>
- would first try the highest priority MX (the record with
- the lowest priority number), then the second highest, etc,
- until the mail can be properly delivered.</para>
+ <para>一個轄區可以有很多台郵件伺服器,每一台使用不同的優先順序 10, 20 以此類推,一台郵件伺服器嘗試要寄件給 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem> 會先嘗試優先順序最高的 MX (優先順序數字最低的記錄),然後第二高的,接著繼續,直到郵件被寄出。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">For in-addr.arpa zone files (reverse
- <acronym>DNS</acronym>), the same format is used, except
- with PTR entries instead of A or CNAME.</para>
+ <para>in-addr.arpa 轄區檔案 (反向 <acronym>DNS</acronym>) 也使用相同的格式,除了項目要改使用 PTR 而非 A 或 CNAME。</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">$TTL 3600
@@ -44922,13 +45114,9 @@ mail IN A 192.168.1.5</programlisting>
4 IN PTR mx.example.org.
5 IN PTR mail.example.org.</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">This file gives the proper <acronym>IP</acronym>
- address to hostname mappings for the above fictitious
- domain.</para>
+ <para>這個檔案會對上述虛擬網域給予 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位置到主機名稱的正確對應表。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">It is worth noting that all names on the right side
- of a PTR record need to be fully qualified (i.e., end in
- a <quote>.</quote>).</para>
+ <para>值得注意的是,所有在 PTR 記錄右邊的名字必須要是完整的 (即以 <quote>.</quote> 結尾)。</para>
</sect4>
</sect3>
@@ -44940,10 +45128,7 @@ mail IN A 192.168.1.5</programlisting>
<secondary>caching name server</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">A caching name server is a name server whose primary
- role is to resolve recursive queries. It simply asks
- queries of its own, and remembers the answers for later
- use.</para>
+ <para>快取名稱伺服器是一種主要用來解析遞迴查詢的名稱伺服器,它只會詢問自己的查詢並記住結果供以後使用。</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
@@ -44955,67 +45140,19 @@ mail IN A 192.168.1.5</programlisting>
extensions</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">Domain Name System Security Extensions, or <acronym role="Domain Name Security Extensions">DNSSEC</acronym>
- for short, is a suite of specifications to protect resolving
- name servers from forged <acronym>DNS</acronym> data, such
- as spoofed <acronym>DNS</acronym> records. By using digital
- signatures, a resolver can verify the integrity of the
- record. Note that <acronym role="Domain Name Security Extensions">DNSSEC</acronym> only provides integrity via
- digitally signing the Resource Records (<acronym role="Resource Record">RR</acronym>s). It provides
- neither confidentiality nor protection against false
- end-user assumptions. This means that it cannot protect
- against people going to
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.net</systemitem>
- instead of
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.com</systemitem>.
- The only thing <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> does is
- authenticate that the data has not been compromised in
- transit. The security of <acronym>DNS</acronym> is an
- important step in securing the Internet in general. For
- more in-depth details of how <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>
- works, the relevant <acronym>RFC</acronym>s are a good place
- to start. See the list in
- <xref linkend="dns-read"/>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The following sections will demonstrate how to enable
- <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> for an authoritative
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> server and a recursive (or caching)
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> server running
- <acronym>BIND</acronym> 9. While all versions of
- <acronym>BIND</acronym> 9 support <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>,
- it is necessary to have at least version 9.6.2 in order to
- be able to use the signed root zone when validating
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> queries. This is because earlier
- versions lack the required algorithms to enable validation
- using the root zone key. It is strongly recommended to use
- the latest version of <acronym>BIND</acronym> 9.7 or later
- to take advantage of automatic key updating for the root
- key, as well as other features to automatically keep zones
- signed and signatures up to date. Where configurations
- differ between 9.6.2 and 9.7 and later, differences will be
- pointed out.</para>
+ <para>網域名稱系統安全性擴充 (Domain Name System Security Extension),或簡稱 <acronym role="Domain Name Security Extensions">DNSSEC</acronym>,是一套規範,用來保護解析名稱伺服器收到偽造的 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 資料,如:假 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 記錄,利用數位簽章,解析器可以驗証記錄的正確性。注意,<acronym role="Domain Name Security Extensions">DNSSEC</acronym> 只提供透過數位簽署資源記錄 (Resource Records, <acronym role="Resource Record">RR</acronym>) 的方式來確認正確性,這代表它無法保護要前往 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.net</systemitem> 但卻跑去 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.com</systemitem> 的使用者,<acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> 所做的唯一一件事便是認証資料在傳輸時沒有被竄改。<acronym>DNS</acronym> 的安全性是保護網際網路重要的一步,要取得更進一步有關 <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> 如何運作的資訊可從相關的 <acronym>RFC</acronym> 文件開始,請參考 <xref linkend="dns-read"/> 清單。</para>
+
+ <para>接下來的章節會示範如何在一台運行 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 9 的有權的 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器與遞迴 (或快取) <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器開啟 <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>。雖然所有 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 9 的版本階支援 <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>,但要能夠在驗証 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 查詢時使用已簽署的根轄區必須使用版本 9.6.2 以上,這是因為較先前的版本缺少必要的演算法來開啟使用根轄區金鑰驗證的功能,強烈建議使用 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 9.7 的最新版本或之後的版本以支援根金鑰的自動自動金鑰更新以及自動確保轄區已簽署與更新簽名為最新版的功能,9.6.2 與 9.7 之後版本的設定會有一些差異,差異點會再特別說明。</para>
<sect4>
<title xml:lang="en">Recursive <acronym>DNS</acronym> Server
Configuration</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Enabling <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> validation of
- queries performed by a recursive <acronym>DNS</acronym>
- server requires a few changes to
- <filename>named.conf</filename>. Before making these
- changes the root zone key, or trust anchor, must be
- acquired. Currently the root zone key is not available in
- a file format <acronym>BIND</acronym> understands, so it
- has to be manually converted into the proper format. The
- key itself can be obtained by querying the root zone for
- it using <application>dig</application>. By
- running</para>
+ <para>需要對 <filename>named.conf</filename> 做一些修改才能開啟遞迴 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器執行查詢 <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> 的驗証,在做這更改前,必須先取得根轄區金鑰或信任的錨點 (Anchor),目前 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 可用的檔案格式不支援根轄區金鑰 (Root zone key),因此必須手動轉換為需要的格式,金鑰本身可使用 <application>dig</application> 查詢根轄區來取得,透過執行</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>dig +multi +noall +answer DNSKEY . &gt; root.dnskey</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">the key will end up in
- <filename>root.dnskey</filename>. The contents should
- look something like this:</para>
+ <para>金鑰會儲存到 <filename>root.dnskey</filename>,其內容應會如下:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">. 93910 IN DNSKEY 257 3 8 (
AwEAAagAIKlVZrpC6Ia7gEzahOR+9W29euxhJhVVLOyQ
@@ -45034,56 +45171,22 @@ mail IN A 192.168.1.5</programlisting>
EGJ/1h6dNaiXuRHwR+7oWh7DnzkIJChcTqlFrXDW3tjt
) ; key id = 34525</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">Do not be alarmed if the obtained keys differ from
- this example. They might have changed since these
- instructions were last updated. This output actually
- contains two keys. The first key in the listing, with the
- value 257 after the DNSKEY record type, is the one needed.
- This value indicates that this is a Secure Entry Point
- (<acronym role="Secure Entry Point">SEP</acronym>),
- commonly known as a Key Signing Key
- (<acronym role="Key Signing Key">KSK</acronym>). The
- second key, with value 256, is a subordinate key, commonly
- called a Zone Signing Key
- (<acronym role="Zone Signing Key">ZSK</acronym>). More on
- the different key types later in
- <xref linkend="dns-dnssec-auth"/>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Now the key must be verified and formatted so that
- <acronym>BIND</acronym> can use it. To verify the key,
- generate a <acronym role="Delegation Signer">DS</acronym>
- <acronym role="Resource Record">RR</acronym> set. Create
- a file containing these
- <acronym role="Resource Record">RR</acronym>s with</para>
+ <para>若取得的金鑰與此範例不同不要感到訝異,可能在最後一次更新這些操作指示之後有更改過,這個輸出結果實際上包含了兩組金鑰,在清單中的第一組金鑰,即在 DNSKEY 記錄類型之後有數值 257 的這組,是我們需要的,這個數值代表該金鑰是一個 Secure Entry Point (<acronym role="Secure Entry Point">SEP</acronym>)、俗稱 Key Signing Key (<acronym role="Key Signing Key">KSK</acronym>)。第二組金鑰,數值為 256,這是一個附屬金鑰,俗稱 Zone Signing Key (<acronym role="Zone Signing Key">ZSK</acronym>)。更多有關不同金鑰類型的資訊之後在 <xref linkend="dns-dnssec-auth"/> 會說明。</para>
+
+ <para>現在必須驗証這個金鑰並格式化才可供 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 使用。產生 <acronym role="Delegation Signer">DS</acronym> <acronym role="Resource Record">RR</acronym> 集來驗証這個金鑰,使用以下指令建立一個包含這些 <acronym role="Resource Record">RR</acronym> 的檔案</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>dnssec-dsfromkey -f root.dnskey . &gt; root.ds</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">These records use SHA-1 and SHA-256 respectively, and
- should look similar to the following example, where the
- longer is using SHA-256.</para>
+ <para>這些記錄分別使用 SHA-1 與 SHA-256,且如下範例所示,使用 SHA-256 的段落較長。</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">. IN DS 19036 8 1
B256BD09DC8DD59F0E0F0D8541B8328DD986DF6E
. IN DS 19036 8 2 49AAC11D7B6F6446702E54A1607371607A1A41855200FD2CE1CDDE32F24E8FB5</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">The SHA-256 <acronym>RR</acronym> can now be compared
- to the digest in <link xlink:href="https://data.iana.org/root-anchors/root-anchors.xml">https://data.iana.org/root-anchors/root-anchors.xml</link>.
- To be absolutely sure that the key has not been tampered
- with the data in the <acronym>XML</acronym> file should be
- verified using a proper <acronym>PGP</acronym> signature.</para>
+ <para>SHA-256 <acronym>RR</acronym> 現在可以與在 <link xlink:href="https://data.iana.org/root-anchors/root-anchors.xml">https://data.iana.org/root-anchors/root-anchors.xml</link> 中的 digest 比對。要完全確保該金鑰沒有被竄改,<acronym>XML</acronym> 檔案中的資料應使用正確的 <acronym>PGP</acronym> 簽名來驗證。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Next, the key must be formatted properly. This
- differs a little between <acronym>BIND</acronym> versions
- 9.6.2 and 9.7 and later. In version 9.7 support was added
- to automatically track changes to the key and update it as
- necessary. This is done using
- <literal>managed-keys</literal> as seen in the example
- below. When using the older version, the key is added
- using a <literal>trusted-keys</literal> statement and
- updates must be done manually. For
- <acronym>BIND</acronym> 9.6.2 the format should look
- like:</para>
+ <para>接著,金鑰必須正確的格式化,<acronym>BIND</acronym> 版本 9.6.2 與 9.7 及之後的版本有一些不同,在版本 9.7 開始支援自動追蹤對金鑰的變更並在需要的時候更新,這可使用 <literal>managed-keys</literal> 如下範例所示來達成。若使用較舊的版本,金鑰必須使用 <literal>trusted-keys</literal> 敘述加入且必須手動更新,供 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 9.6.2 的格式如下:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">trusted-keys {
"." 257 3 8
@@ -45096,7 +45199,7 @@ mail IN A 192.168.1.5</programlisting>
QxA+Uk1ihz0=";
};</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">For 9.7 the format will instead be:</para>
+ <para>供 9.7 的格式則為:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">managed-keys {
"." initial-key 257 3 8
@@ -45109,13 +45212,7 @@ mail IN A 192.168.1.5</programlisting>
QxA+Uk1ihz0=";
};</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">The root key can now be added to
- <filename>named.conf</filename> either directly or by
- including a file containing the key. After these steps,
- configure <acronym>BIND</acronym> to do
- <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> validation on queries by editing
- <filename>named.conf</filename> and adding the following
- to the <literal>options</literal> directive:</para>
+ <para>現在可以直接或透過引用包含金鑰的檔案將根金鑰 (Root key) 加入到 <filename>named.conf</filename>,完成這些步驟後,編輯 <filename>named.conf</filename> 來設定 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 執行 <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> 在查詢時驗證並加入以下項目到 <literal>options</literal> 指示項目中:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">dnssec-enable yes;
dnssec-validation yes;</programlisting>
@@ -45228,9 +45325,7 @@ $include Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key ; ZSK</programlisting>
located in <filename>example.com.db</filename> would look
similar to</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>dnssec-signzone -o
- example.com -k Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.KSK example.com.db
- Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key</userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>dnssec-signzone -o example.com -k Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.KSK example.com.db Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key</userinput></screen>
<para xml:lang="en">The key supplied to the <option>-k</option> argument
is the <acronym>KSK</acronym> and the other key file is
@@ -45442,17 +45537,9 @@ $include Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key ; ZSK</programlisting>
<secondary>setting up</secondary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>Apache</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The open source
- <application>Apache HTTP Server</application> is the most widely
- used web server. FreeBSD does not install this web server by
- default, but it can be installed from the
- <package>www/apache24</package> package or port.</para>
+ <para>開放源碼的 <application>Apache HTTP Server</application> 是目前最廣泛被使用的網頁伺服器,FreeBSD 預設並不會安裝這個網頁伺服器,但可從 <package>www/apache24</package> 套件或 Port 安裝。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">This section summarizes how to configure and start version
- 2.<replaceable>x</replaceable> of the <application>Apache HTTP
- Server</application> on FreeBSD. For more detailed information
- about <application>Apache</application> 2.X and its
- configuration directives, refer to <link xlink:href="http://httpd.apache.org/">httpd.apache.org</link>.</para>
+ <para>本節將會摘要如何設定並啟動在 FreeBSD 上 2.<replaceable>x</replaceable> 版的 <application>Apache HTTP Server</application>,要取得有關 <application>Apache</application> 更詳細的資訊及其設定項目請參考 <link xlink:href="http://httpd.apache.org/">httpd.apache.org</link>。</para>
<sect2>
<title>設定並啟動 Apache</title>
@@ -45460,25 +45547,14 @@ $include Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key ; ZSK</programlisting>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>Apache</primary>
<secondary>configuration file</secondary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">In FreeBSD, the main <application>Apache HTTP
- Server</application> configuration file is installed as
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/apache2<replaceable>x</replaceable>/httpd.conf</filename>,
- where <replaceable>x</replaceable> represents the version
- number. This <acronym>ASCII</acronym> text file begins
- comment lines with a <literal>#</literal>. The most
- frequently modified directives are:</para>
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 中,主 <application>Apache HTTP Server</application> 設定檔會安裝於 <filename>/usr/local/etc/apache2<replaceable>x</replaceable>/httpd.conf</filename>,其中 <replaceable>x</replaceable> 代表版號,這份 <acronym>ASCII</acronym> 文字檔中以 <literal>#</literal> 做為行首的是註解,而最常需修改的項目有:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term xml:lang="en"><literal>ServerRoot "/usr/local"</literal></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Specifies the default directory hierarchy for the
- <application>Apache</application> installation.
- Binaries are stored in the <filename>bin</filename> and
- <filename>sbin</filename> subdirectories of the server
- root and configuration files are stored in the <filename>etc/apache2<replaceable>x</replaceable></filename>
- subdirectory.</para>
+ <para>指定該 <application>Apache</application> 的預設安裝路徑,Binary 檔會儲存在伺服器根目錄 (Server root) 下的 <filename>bin</filename> 與 <filename>sbin</filename> 子目錄,而設定檔會儲存在 <filename>etc/apache2<replaceable>x</replaceable></filename> 子目錄。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -45486,9 +45562,7 @@ $include Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key ; ZSK</programlisting>
<term xml:lang="en"><literal>ServerAdmin you@example.com</literal></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Change this to the email address to receive problems
- with the server. This address also appears on some
- server-generated pages, such as error documents.</para>
+ <para>更改此項目為您要接收問題回報的電子郵件位址,這個位址也會顯示在一些伺服器產生的頁面上,如:錯誤頁面。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -45497,15 +45571,7 @@ $include Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key ; ZSK</programlisting>
www.example.com:80</literal></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Allows an administrator to set a hostname which is
- sent back to clients for the server. For example,
- <systemitem>www</systemitem> can be used instead of the
- actual hostname. If the system does not have a
- registered <acronym>DNS</acronym> name, enter its
- <acronym>IP</acronym> address instead. If the server
- will listen on an alternate report, change
- <literal>80</literal> to the alternate port
- number.</para>
+ <para>讓管理者可以設定伺服器要回傳給客戶端的主機名稱 (Hostname),例如,<systemitem>www</systemitem> 可以更改為實際的主機名稱,若系統並未有註冊的 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 名稱,則可改輸入其 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址,若伺服器需要傾聽其他埠號,可更改 <literal>80</literal> 為其他埠號。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -45514,89 +45580,45 @@ $include Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key ; ZSK</programlisting>
"/usr/local/www/apache2<replaceable>x</replaceable>/data"</literal></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The directory where documents will be served from.
- By default, all requests are taken from this directory,
- but symbolic links and aliases may be used to point to
- other locations.</para>
+ <para>提供文件的目錄,預設所有的請求均會到此目錄,但可以使用符號連結與別名來指向其他地方。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
- <para xml:lang="en">It is always a good idea to make a backup copy of the
- default <application>Apache</application> configuration file
- before making changes. When the configuration of
- <application>Apache</application> is complete, save the file
- and verify the configuration using
- <command>apachectl</command>. Running <command>apachectl
- configtest</command> should return <literal>Syntax
- OK</literal>.</para>
+ <para>在對 <application>Apache</application> 設定檔做變更之前,建議先做備份,在 <application>Apache</application> 設定完成之後,儲存讓檔案並使用 <command>apachectl</command> 檢驗設定,執行 <command>apachectl configtest</command> 的結果應回傳 <literal>Syntax OK</literal>。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>Apache</primary>
<secondary>starting or stopping</secondary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">To launch <application>Apache</application> at system
- startup, add the following line to
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para>要在系統啟動時執行 <application>Apache</application>,可加入下行到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">apache<replaceable>24</replaceable>_enable="YES"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">If <application>Apache</application> should be started
- with non-default options, the following line may be added to
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> to specify the needed
- flags:</para>
+ <para>若 <application>Apache</application> 要使用非預設的選項啟動,可加入下行到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 來指定所需的旗標參數:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">apache<replaceable>24</replaceable>_flags=""</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">If <application>apachectl</application> does not report
- configuration errors, start <command>httpd</command>
- now:</para>
+ <para>若 <application>apachectl</application> 未回報設定錯,則可啟動 <command>httpd</command>:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service apache<replaceable>24</replaceable> start</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <command>httpd</command> service can be tested by
- entering
- <literal>http://<replaceable>localhost</replaceable></literal>
- in a web browser, replacing
- <replaceable>localhost</replaceable> with the fully-qualified
- domain name of the machine running <command>httpd</command>.
- The default web page that is displayed is
- <filename>/usr/local/www/apache<replaceable>24</replaceable>/data/index.html</filename>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <application>Apache</application> configuration can be
- tested for errors after making subsequent configuration
- changes while <command>httpd</command> is running using the
- following command:</para>
+ <para><command>httpd</command> 服務可以透過在網頁瀏覽器中輸入 <literal>http://<replaceable>localhost</replaceable></literal> 來測試,將 <replaceable>localhost</replaceable> 更改為執行 <command>httpd</command> 那台主機的完整網域名稱 (Fully-qualified domain name)。預設會顯示的網頁為 <filename>/usr/local/www/apache<replaceable>24</replaceable>/data/index.html</filename>。</para>
+
+ <para>後續若有在 <command>httpd</command> 執行中時修改 <application>Apache</application> 設定檔可使用以下指令來測試是否有誤:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service apache<replaceable>24</replaceable> configtest</userinput></screen>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">It is important to note that
- <literal>configtest</literal> is not an <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> standard,
- and should not be expected to work for all startup
- scripts.</para>
+ <para>注意,<literal>configtest</literal> 並非採用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 標準,不應預期其可在所有的啟動 Script 中正常運作。</para>
</note>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>虛擬主機</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Virtual hosting allows multiple websites to run on one
- <application>Apache</application> server. The virtual hosts
- can be <firstterm>IP-based</firstterm> or
- <firstterm>name-based</firstterm>.
- <acronym>IP</acronym>-based virtual hosting uses a different
- <acronym>IP</acronym> address for each website. Name-based
- virtual hosting uses the clients HTTP/1.1 headers to figure
- out the hostname, which allows the websites to share the same
- <acronym>IP</acronym> address.</para>
+ <para>虛擬主機允許在一個 <application>Apache</application> 伺服器執行多個網站,虛擬主機可以是以 IP 為主 (<firstterm>IP-based</firstterm>) 或以名稱為主 (<firstterm>name-based</firstterm>)。以 <acronym>IP</acronym> 為主的虛擬主機中的每一個網站要使用不同的 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址。以名稱為主的虛擬主機會使用客戶端的 HTTP/1.1 標頭來判斷主機名稱,這可讓不同的網站共用相同的 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">To setup <application>Apache</application> to use
- name-based virtual hosting, add a
- <literal>VirtualHost</literal> block for each website. For
- example, for the webserver named <systemitem class="fqdomainname">www.domain.tld</systemitem> with a
- virtual domain of <systemitem class="fqdomainname">www.someotherdomain.tld</systemitem>,
- add the following entries to
- <filename>httpd.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para>要設定 <application>Apache</application> 使用以名稱為主的虛擬主機可在每一個網站加入 <literal>VirtualHost</literal> 區塊,例如,有一個名稱為 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">www.domain.tld</systemitem> 的主機擁有一個 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">www.someotherdomain.tld</systemitem> 的虛擬網域,可加入以下項目到 <filename>httpd.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;VirtualHost *&gt;
ServerName <replaceable>www.domain.tld</replaceable>
@@ -45608,14 +45630,9 @@ $include Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key ; ZSK</programlisting>
DocumentRoot <replaceable>/www/someotherdomain.tld</replaceable>
&lt;/VirtualHost&gt;</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">For each virtual host, replace the values for
- <literal>ServerName</literal> and
- <literal>DocumentRoot</literal> with the values to be
- used.</para>
+ <para>每一個虛擬主機均需更改其 <literal>ServerName</literal> 與 <literal>DocumentRoot</literal> 的值為實際要使用的值。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">For more information about setting up virtual hosts,
- consult the official <application>Apache</application>
- documentation at: <uri xlink:href="http://httpd.apache.org/docs/vhosts/">http://httpd.apache.org/docs/vhosts/</uri>.</para>
+ <para>更多有關設定虛擬主機的資訊,可參考 <application>Apache</application> 官方說明文件於:<uri xlink:href="http://httpd.apache.org/docs/vhosts/">http://httpd.apache.org/docs/vhosts/</uri>。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
@@ -45624,20 +45641,9 @@ $include Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key ; ZSK</programlisting>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>Apache</primary>
<secondary>modules</secondary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Apache</application> uses modules to augment
- the functionality provided by the basic server. Refer to <uri xlink:href="http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/">http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/</uri>
- for a complete listing of and the configuration details for
- the available modules.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In FreeBSD, some modules can be compiled with the
- <package>www/apache24</package> port. Type <command>make
- config</command> within
- <filename>/usr/ports/www/apache24</filename> to see which
- modules are available and which are enabled by default. If
- the module is not compiled with the port, the FreeBSD Ports
- Collection provides an easy way to install many modules. This
- section describes three of the most commonly used
- modules.</para>
+ <para><application>Apache</application> 使用模組 (Module) 來擴充伺服器所提供的功能。請參考 <uri xlink:href="http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/">http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/</uri> 來取得可用模組的完整清單與設定詳細資訊。</para>
+
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 中有些模組可以隨著 <package>www/apache24</package> Port 編譯,只要在 <filename>/usr/ports/www/apache24</filename> 輸入 <command>make config</command> 便可查看有那一些模組是預設開啟的,若模組未與 Port 一併編譯,FreeBSD Port 套件集也提供了一個簡單的方式可安裝各種模組,本節將介紹最常使用的三個模組。</para>
<sect3>
<title xml:lang="en"><filename>mod_ssl</filename></title>
@@ -45649,18 +45655,9 @@ $include Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key ; ZSK</programlisting>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>SSL</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>cryptography</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <filename>mod_ssl</filename> module uses the
- <application>OpenSSL</application> library to provide strong
- cryptography via the Secure Sockets Layer
- (<acronym>SSLv3</acronym>) and Transport Layer Security
- (<acronym>TLSv1</acronym>) protocols. This module provides
- everything necessary to request a signed certificate from a
- trusted certificate signing authority to run a secure web
- server on FreeBSD.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In FreeBSD, <filename>mod_ssl</filename> module is enabled
- by default in both the package and the port. The available
- configuration directives are explained at <uri xlink:href="http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_ssl.html">http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_ssl.html</uri>.</para>
+ <para><filename>mod_ssl</filename> 模組利用了 <application>OpenSSL</application> 透過 Secure Sockets Layer (<acronym>SSLv3</acronym>) 與 Transport Layer Security (<acronym>TLSv1</acronym>) 通訊協定來提供強大的加密,這個模組提供了向受信認的憑証簽署機構申請簽章憑証所需的任何東西,讓 FreeBSD 上能夠執行安全的網頁伺服器。</para>
+
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 中 <filename>mod_ssl</filename> 模組預設在套件與 Port 均是開啟的,可用的設定項目在 <uri xlink:href="http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_ssl.html">http://httpd.apache.org/docs/current/mod/mod_ssl.html</uri> 會說明。</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
@@ -45671,17 +45668,9 @@ $include Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key ; ZSK</programlisting>
<secondary>Perl</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The
- <filename>mod_perl</filename> module makes it possible to
- write <application>Apache</application> modules in
- <application>Perl</application>. In addition, the
- persistent interpreter embedded in the server avoids the
- overhead of starting an external interpreter and the penalty
- of <application>Perl</application> start-up time.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <filename>mod_perl</filename> can be installed using
- the <package>www/mod_perl2</package> package or port.
- Documentation for using this module can be found at <uri xlink:href="http://perl.apache.org/docs/2.0/index.html">http://perl.apache.org/docs/2.0/index.html</uri>.</para>
+ <para><filename>mod_perl</filename> 模組讓您可以使用 <application>Perl</application> 撰寫 <application>Apache</application> 模組,除此之外,嵌入到伺服器的直譯器可避免啟動外部直譯器的額外開銷與 <application>Perl</application> 耗費的啟動時間。</para>
+
+ <para><filename>mod_perl</filename> 可以使用 <package>www/mod_perl2</package> 套件或 Port 安裝,有關使用此模組的說明文件可在 <uri xlink:href="http://perl.apache.org/docs/2.0/index.html">http://perl.apache.org/docs/2.0/index.html</uri> 中找到。</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
@@ -45704,22 +45693,9 @@ $include Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key ; ZSK</programlisting>
<secondary>PHP</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en"><firstterm>PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor</firstterm>
- (<acronym>PHP</acronym>) is a general-purpose scripting
- language that is especially suited for web development.
- Capable of being embedded into <acronym>HTML</acronym>, its
- syntax draws upon <application>C</application>, <trademark>Java</trademark>, and
- <application>Perl</application> with the intention of
- allowing web developers to write dynamically generated
- webpages quickly.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To gain support for <acronym>PHP</acronym>5 for the
- <application>Apache</application> web server, install the
- <package>www/mod_php56</package> package or port. This will
- install and configure the modules required to support
- dynamic <acronym>PHP</acronym> applications. The
- installation will automatically add this line to
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/apache2<replaceable>4</replaceable>/httpd.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para><firstterm>PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor</firstterm> (<acronym>PHP</acronym>) 是一般用途的腳本 (Script) 語言,特別適用於網站開發,能夠嵌入在 <acronym>HTML</acronym> 當中,它的語法參考自 <application>C</application>, <trademark>Java</trademark> 及 <application>Perl</application>,目的在讓網頁開發人員能快速的寫出動態網頁。</para>
+
+ <para>要在 <application>Apache</application> 網頁伺服器上加入對 <acronym>PHP</acronym>5 的支援,可安裝 <package>www/mod_php56</package> 套件或 Port,這會安裝並設定支援動態 <acronym>PHP</acronym> 應用程式所需的模組。安裝過程會自動加入下行到 <filename>/usr/local/etc/apache2<replaceable>4</replaceable>/httpd.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">LoadModule php5_module libexec/apache24/libphp5.so</programlisting>
@@ -45736,27 +45712,15 @@ AddModule mod_php5.c
-->
- <para xml:lang="en">Then, perform a graceful restart to load the
- <acronym>PHP</acronym> module:</para>
+ <para>接著,執行 graceful 重新啟動來載入 <acronym>PHP</acronym> 模組:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>apachectl graceful</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>PHP</acronym> support provided by
- <package>www/mod_php56</package> is limited. Additional
- support can be installed using the
- <package>lang/php56-extensions</package> port which provides
- a menu driven interface to the available
- <acronym>PHP</acronym> extensions.</para>
+ <para>由 <package>www/mod_php56</package> 所提供的 <acronym>PHP</acronym> 支援是有限的,若需要額外的支援可以使用 <package>lang/php56-extensions</package> Port 來安裝,該 Port 提供了選單介面來選擇可用的 <acronym>PHP</acronym> 擴充套件。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Alternatively, individual extensions can be installed
- using the appropriate port. For instance, to add
- <acronym>PHP</acronym> support for the
- <application>MySQL</application> database server, install
- <package>databases/php56-mysql</package>.</para>
+ <para>或者,可以找到適當的 Port 來安裝各別的擴充套件,例如,要增加 <acronym>PHP</acronym> 對 <application>MySQL</application> 資料庫伺服器的支援可安裝 <package>databases/php56-mysql</package>。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">After installing an extension, the
- <application>Apache</application> server must be reloaded to
- pick up the new configuration changes:</para>
+ <para>在安裝完擴充套件之後,必須重新載入 <application>Apache</application> 伺服器來使用新的設定值:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>apachectl graceful</userinput></screen>
</sect3>
@@ -45770,11 +45734,7 @@ AddModule mod_php5.c
<secondary>dynamic</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">In addition to <application>mod_perl</application> and
- <application>mod_php</application>, other languages are
- available for creating dynamic web content. These include
- <application>Django</application> and
- <application>Ruby on Rails</application>.</para>
+ <para>除了 <application>mod_perl</application> 與 <application>mod_php</application> 外,也有其他語言可用來建立動態網頁內容,這包含了 <application>Django</application> 與 <application>Ruby on Rails</application>。</para>
<sect3>
<title xml:lang="en">Django</title>
@@ -45782,43 +45742,13 @@ AddModule mod_php5.c
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>Python</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>Django</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Django</application> is a BSD-licensed
- framework designed to allow developers to write high
- performance, elegant web applications quickly. It provides
- an object-relational mapper so that data types are developed
- as <application>Python</application> objects. A rich
- dynamic database-access <acronym>API</acronym> is provided
- for those objects without the developer ever having to write
- <acronym>SQL</acronym>. It also provides an extensible
- template system so that the logic of the application is
- separated from the <acronym>HTML</acronym>
- presentation.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Django depends on <filename>mod_python</filename>, and
- an <acronym>SQL</acronym> database engine. In FreeBSD, the
- <package>www/py-django</package> port automatically installs
- <filename>mod_python</filename> and supports the
- <application>PostgreSQL</application>,
- <application>MySQL</application>, or
- <application>SQLite</application> databases, with the
- default being <application>SQLite</application>. To change
- the database engine, type <command>make config</command>
- within <filename>/usr/ports/www/py-django</filename>, then
- install the port.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Once <application>Django</application> is installed, the
- application will need a project directory along with the
- <application>Apache</application> configuration in order to
- use the embedded <application>Python</application>
- interpreter. This interpreter is used to call the
- application for specific <acronym>URL</acronym>s on the
- site.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To configure <application>Apache</application> to pass
- requests for certain <acronym>URL</acronym>s to the web
- application, add the following to
- <filename>httpd.conf</filename>, specifying the full path to
- the project directory:</para>
+ <para><application>Django</application> 是以 BSD 授權的框架 (Framework),指在讓開發人員能快速的寫出高效、優雅的網頁應用程式。它提供了物件關聯對應器 (Object-relational mapper),所以各種資料型態可當做 <application>Python</application> 的物件來開發,且提供了豐富的動態資料庫存取 <acronym>API</acronym> 給這些物件,讓開發人員不再需要寫 <acronym>SQL</acronym>。它也同時提供了可擴充的樣板系統,來讓應用程式的邏輯與 <acronym>HTML</acronym> 呈現能夠被拆開。</para>
+
+ <para>Django 需要 <filename>mod_python</filename>,以及一個 <acronym>SQL</acronym> 資料庫引擎才能運作。在 FreeBSD 中的 <package>www/py-django</package> Port 會自動安裝 <filename>mod_python</filename> 以及對 <application>PostgreSQL</application>, <application>MySQL</application> 或 <application>SQLite</application> 資料庫的支援,預設為 <application>SQLite</application>,要更改資料庫引擎可在 <filename>/usr/ports/www/py-django</filename> 輸入 <command>make config</command> 然後再安裝該 Port。</para>
+
+ <para><application>Django</application> 安裝完成之後,應用程式會需要一個專案目錄並搭配 <application>Apache</application> 設定才能使用內嵌的 <application>Python</application> 直譯器,此直譯器會用來呼叫網站上指定 <acronym>URL</acronym> 的應用程式。</para>
+
+ <para>要設定 <application>Apache</application> 傳遞某個 <acronym>URL</acronym> 請求到網站應用程式,可加入下行到 <filename>httpd.conf</filename> 來指定專案目錄的完整路徑:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;Location "/"&gt;
SetHandler python-program
@@ -45829,9 +45759,7 @@ AddModule mod_php5.c
PythonDebug On
&lt;/Location&gt;</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">Refer to <uri xlink:href="https://docs.djangoproject.com">https://docs.djangoproject.com</uri>
- for more information on how to use
- <application>Django</application>.</para>
+ <para>請參考 <uri xlink:href="https://docs.djangoproject.com">https://docs.djangoproject.com</uri> 來取得如何使用 <application>Django</application> 的更多資訊。</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
@@ -45839,16 +45767,9 @@ AddModule mod_php5.c
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>Ruby on Rails</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Ruby on Rails</application> is another open
- source web framework that provides a full development stack.
- It is optimized to make web developers more productive and
- capable of writing powerful applications quickly. On FreeBSD,
- it can be installed using the
- <package>www/rubygem-rails</package> package or port.</para>
+ <para><application>Ruby on Rails</application> 是另外一套開放源碼的網站框架 (Framework),提供了完整的開發堆疊,這使得網頁開發人員可以更有生產力且能夠快速的寫出強大的應用程式,在 FreeBSD 它可以使用 <package>www/rubygem-rails</package> 套件或 Port 安裝。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Refer to <uri xlink:href="http://guides.rubyonrails.org">http://guides.rubyonrails.org</uri>
- for more information on how to use <application>Ruby on
- Rails</application>.</para>
+ <para>請參考 <uri xlink:href="http://guides.rubyonrails.org">http://guides.rubyonrails.org</uri> 來取得更多有關如何使用 <application>Ruby on Rails</application> 的資訊。</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -45870,77 +45791,35 @@ AddModule mod_php5.c
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary><acronym>FTP</acronym>
servers</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The File Transfer Protocol (<acronym>FTP</acronym>) provides
- users with a simple way to transfer files to and from an
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server. FreeBSD includes
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server software,
- <application>ftpd</application>, in the base system.</para>
+ <para>檔案傳輸協定 (File Transfer Protocol, <acronym>FTP</acronym>) 提供了使用一個簡單的方式能夠將檔案傳輸到與接收自 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器,FreeBSD 內建了 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器軟體 <application>ftpd</application> 在基礎系統 (Base system) 中。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD provides several configuration files for controlling
- access to the <acronym>FTP</acronym> server. This section
- summarizes these files. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ftpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more details
- about the built-in <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 提供了多個設定檔來控制對 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的存取,本節將摘要這些檔案的設定方式,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ftpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來取得更多有關內建 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的詳細資訊。</para>
<sect2>
<title>設定</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">The most important configuration step is deciding which
- accounts will be allowed access to the <acronym>FTP</acronym>
- server. A FreeBSD system has a number of system accounts which
- should not be allowed <acronym>FTP</acronym> access. The list
- of users disallowed any <acronym>FTP</acronym> access can be
- found in <filename>/etc/ftpusers</filename>. By default, it
- includes system accounts. Additional users that should not be
- allowed access to <acronym>FTP</acronym> can be added.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In some cases it may be desirable to restrict the access
- of some users without preventing them completely from using
- <acronym>FTP</acronym>. This can be accomplished be creating
- <filename>/etc/ftpchroot</filename> as described in
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ftpchroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. This file lists users and groups subject
- to <acronym>FTP</acronym> access restrictions.</para>
+ <para>最重要的一個設定步驟便是決定那些帳號能夠存取 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器,FreeBSD 系統有數個系統帳號,這些帳號不應該能夠擁有 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 存取權,不允許存取 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 的使用者清單可在 <filename>/etc/ftpusers</filename> 找到,預設該檔案內會有所有的系統帳號,其他不應允許存取 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 的使用者也可在此加入。</para>
+
+ <para>在某些情況可能會布望限制某些使用者的存取,而不是完全避免這些使用者使用 <acronym>FTP</acronym>,這可以透過建立 <filename>/etc/ftpchroot</filename> 來完成,詳如 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ftpchroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 所述,這個檔案會列出受到 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 存取限制的使用者與群組。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary><acronym>FTP</acronym></primary>
<secondary>anonymous</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">To enable anonymous <acronym>FTP</acronym> access to the
- server, create a user named <systemitem class="username">ftp</systemitem> on the FreeBSD system. Users
- will then be able to log on to the
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server with a username of
- <systemitem class="username">ftp</systemitem> or <systemitem class="username">anonymous</systemitem>. When prompted for
- the password, any input will be accepted, but by convention,
- an email address should be used as the password. The
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> server will call <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> when an
- anonymous user logs in, to restrict access to only the home
- directory of the <systemitem class="username">ftp</systemitem> user.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">There are two text files that can be created to specify
- welcome messages to be displayed to <acronym>FTP</acronym>
- clients. The contents of
- <filename>/etc/ftpwelcome</filename> will be displayed to
- users before they reach the login prompt. After a successful
- login, the contents of
- <filename>/etc/ftpmotd</filename> will be displayed. Note
- that the path to this file is relative to the login
- environment, so the contents of
- <filename>~ftp/etc/ftpmotd</filename> would be displayed for
- anonymous users.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Once the <acronym>FTP</acronym> server has been
- configured, set the appropriate variable in
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> to start the service during
- boot:</para>
+ <para>要在伺服器上開啟匿名 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 存取權,可在 FreeBSD 系統上建立一個名稱為 <systemitem class="username">ftp</systemitem> 使用者,使用者將能夠使用 <systemitem class="username">ftp</systemitem> 或 <systemitem class="username">anonymous</systemitem> 使用者名稱來登入 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器,當提示輸入密碼時,輸入任何值都會被接受,但是慣例上應使用電子郵件位址來當做密碼。當匿名使用者登入時 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器會呼叫 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來限制使用者只能存取 <systemitem class="username">ftp</systemitem> 使用者的家目錄。</para>
+
+ <para>要設定顯示給 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 客戶端的歡迎訊息有兩個文字檔可以建立,<filename>/etc/ftpwelcome</filename> 的內容會在收到登入提示前顯示給使用者看,登入成功能後,則會顯示 <filename>/etc/ftpmotd</filename> 的內容。注意,這個檔案的路徑是相對於登入環境的,所以 <filename>~ftp/etc/ftpmotd</filename> 的內容只會對匿名使用者顯示。</para>
+
+ <para>設定完 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器之後,在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 設定適當的變數來在開機時啟動該服務:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">ftpd_enable="YES"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">To start the service now:</para>
+ <para>要立即啟動服務可:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service ftpd start</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Test the connection to the <acronym>FTP</acronym> server
- by typing:</para>
+ <para>要測試到 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的連線可輸入:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ftp localhost</userinput></screen>
@@ -45948,13 +45827,7 @@ AddModule mod_php5.c
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>log files</primary>
<secondary><acronym>FTP</acronym></secondary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <application>ftpd</application> daemon uses
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syslog</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry> to log messages. By default, the system log
- daemon will write messages related to <acronym>FTP</acronym>
- in <filename>/var/log/xferlog</filename>. The location of
- the <acronym>FTP</acronym> log can be modified by changing the
- following line in
- <filename>/etc/syslog.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para><application>ftpd</application> daemon 會使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syslog</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來記錄訊息,預設,系統記錄 Daemon 會寫入有關 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 的訊息到 <filename>/var/log/xferlog</filename>,<acronym>FTP</acronym> 記錄的位置可以透過更改 <filename>/etc/syslog.conf</filename> 中下行來做修改:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">ftp.info /var/log/xferlog</programlisting>
@@ -45964,15 +45837,7 @@ AddModule mod_php5.c
</indexterm>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Be aware of the potential problems involved with running
- an anonymous <acronym>FTP</acronym> server. In particular,
- think twice about allowing anonymous users to upload files.
- It may turn out that the <acronym>FTP</acronym> site becomes
- a forum for the trade of unlicensed commercial software or
- worse. If anonymous <acronym>FTP</acronym> uploads are
- required, then verify the permissions so that these files
- cannot be read by other anonymous users until they have
- been reviewed by an administrator.</para>
+ <para>要注意啟動匿名 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器可能的潛藏問題,尤其是要讓匿名使用者上傳檔案時要再次確認,因為這可能讓該 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 站變成用來交換未授權商業軟體的交流平台或者更糟的狀況。若真的需要匿名 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 上傳,那麼請檢查權限設定,讓這些檔案在尚未被管理者審查前不能夠被其他匿名使用者讀取。</para>
</note>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -46002,46 +45867,18 @@ AddModule mod_php5.c
<secondary>Windows clients</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Samba</application> is a popular open source
- software package that provides file and print services using the
- <acronym>SMB/CIFS</acronym> protocol. This protocol is built
- into <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> systems. It can be added to
- non-<trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> systems by installing the
- <application>Samba</application> client libraries. The protocol
- allows clients to access shared data and printers. These shares
- can be mapped as a local disk drive and shared printers can be
- used as if they were local printers.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">On FreeBSD, the <application>Samba</application> client
- libraries can be installed using the
- <package>net/samba-smbclient</package> port or package. The
- client provides the ability for a FreeBSD system to access
- <acronym>SMB/CIFS</acronym> shares in a <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>
- network.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A FreeBSD system can also be configured to act as a
- <application>Samba</application> server by installing the
- <package>net/samba43</package> port or package. This allows the
- administrator to create <acronym>SMB</acronym>/<acronym>CIFS</acronym>
- shares on
- the FreeBSD system which can be accessed by clients running
- <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> or the <application>Samba</application>
- client libraries.</para>
+ <para><application>Samba</application> 是熱門的開放源碼軟體套件,使用 <acronym>SMB/CIFS</acronym> 通訊協定提供檔案與列印服務,此通訊協定內建於 <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 系統,在非 <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 的系統可透過安裝 <application>Samba</application> 客戶端程式庫來支援此協定。此通訊協定讓客戶端可以存取共享的資料與印表機,這些共享的資源可掛載到一個本機的磁碟機,而共享的印表機則可以當做本機的印表機使用。</para>
+
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 上,可以使用 <package>net/samba-smbclient</package> Port 或套件來安裝 <application>Samba</application> 客戶端程式庫,這個客戶端提供了讓 FreeBSD 系統能存取 <acronym>SMB/CIFS</acronym> 在 <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 網路中共享的資源。</para>
+
+ <para>FreeBSD 系統也可以透過安裝 <package>net/samba46</package> Port 或套件來設定成 <application>Samba</application> 伺服器,這讓管理者可以在 FreeBSD 系統上建立 <acronym>SMB</acronym>/<acronym>CIFS</acronym> 的共享資源,讓執行 <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 或 <application>Samba</application> 客戶端程式庫的客戶端能夠存取。</para>
<sect2>
<title>伺服器設定</title>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Samba</application> is configured in
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/smb4.conf</filename>. This file must
- be created before <application>Samba</application>
- can be used.</para>
+ <para><application>Samba</application> 的設定位於 <filename>/usr/local/etc/smb4.conf</filename>,必須先設定這個檔案才可使用 <application>Samba</application>。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">A simple <filename>smb4.conf</filename> to share
- directories and printers with <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> clients in a
- workgroup is shown here. For more complex setups
- involving LDAP or Active Directory, it is easier to use
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>samba-tool</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to create the initial
- <filename>smb4.conf</filename>.</para>
+ <para>要共享目錄與印表機給在工作群組中的 <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 客戶端的簡易 <filename>smb4.conf</filename> 範例如下。對於涉及 LDAP 或 Active Directory 的複雜安裝,可使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>samba-tool</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來建立初始的 <filename>smb4.conf</filename>。</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">[global]
workgroup = WORKGROUP
@@ -46066,15 +45903,14 @@ directory mask = 0755</programlisting>
<sect3>
<title>全域設定</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Settings that describe the network are added in
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/smb4.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para>在 <filename>/usr/local/etc/smb4.conf</filename> 中加入用來描述網路環境的設定有:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term xml:lang="en"><literal>workgroup</literal></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The name of the workgroup to be served.</para>
+ <para>要提供的工作群組名稱。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -46082,10 +45918,7 @@ directory mask = 0755</programlisting>
<term xml:lang="en"><literal>netbios name</literal></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The NetBIOS name by which a
- <application>Samba</application> server is known. By
- default, it is the same as the first component of the
- host's <acronym>DNS</acronym> name.</para>
+ <para><application>Samba</application> 伺服器已知的 NetBIOS 名稱,預設為主機的 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 名稱第一節。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -46093,10 +45926,7 @@ directory mask = 0755</programlisting>
<term xml:lang="en"><literal>server string</literal></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The string that will be displayed in the output of
- <command>net view</command> and some other
- networking tools that seek to display descriptive text
- about the server.</para>
+ <para>會顯示於 <command>net view</command> 輸出結果以及其他會尋找伺服器描述文字並顯示的網路工具的文字。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -46104,10 +45934,7 @@ directory mask = 0755</programlisting>
<term xml:lang="en"><literal>wins support</literal></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Whether <application>Samba</application> will
- act as a <acronym>WINS</acronym> server. Do not
- enable support for <acronym>WINS</acronym> on more than
- one server on the network.</para>
+ <para>不論 <application>Samba</application> 是否要作為 <acronym>WINS</acronym> 伺服器,請不要在網路上開啟超過一台伺服器的 <acronym>WINS</acronym> 功能。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
@@ -46116,30 +45943,16 @@ directory mask = 0755</programlisting>
<sect3>
<title>安全性設定</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">The most important settings in
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/smb4.conf</filename> are the
- security model and the backend password format. These
- directives control the options:</para>
+ <para>在 <filename>/usr/local/etc/smb4.conf</filename> 中最重要的設定便是安全性模式以及後端密碼格式,以下項目管控的選項有:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term xml:lang="en"><literal>security</literal></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The most common settings are
- <literal>security = share</literal> and
- <literal>security = user</literal>. If the clients
- use usernames that are the same as their usernames on
- the FreeBSD machine, user level security should be
- used. This is the default security policy and it
- requires clients to first log on before they can
- access shared resources.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In share level security, clients do not need to
- log onto the server with a valid username and password
- before attempting to connect to a shared resource.
- This was the default security model for older versions
- of <application>Samba</application>.</para>
+ <para>最常見的設定為 <literal>security = share</literal> 以及 <literal>security = user</literal>,若客戶端使用的使用者名稱與在 FreeBSD 主機上使用的使用者名稱相同,則應該使用使用者 (user) 層級的安全性,這是預設的安全性原則且它會要求客戶端在存取共享資源前先登入。</para>
+
+ <para>安全性為共享 (share) 層級時,客戶端存取共享資源不需要先使用有效的使用者名稱與密碼登入伺服器,在是在舊版 <application>Samba</application> 所採用的預設安全性模式。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -46151,16 +45964,7 @@ directory mask = 0755</programlisting>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>LDAP</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>SQL database</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Samba</application> has several
- different backend authentication models. Clients may
- be authenticated with LDAP, NIS+, an SQL database,
- or a modified password file. The recommended
- authentication method, <literal>tdbsam</literal>,
- is ideal for simple networks and is covered here.
- For larger or more complex networks,
- <literal>ldapsam</literal> is recommended.
- <literal>smbpasswd</literal>
- was the former default and is now obsolete.</para>
+ <para><application>Samba</application> 支援數種不同的後端認証模式,客戶端可以使用 LDAP, NIS+, SQL 資料庫或修改過的密碼檔來認証,建議的認証方式是 <literal>tdbsam</literal>,適用於簡易的網路環境且在此處說明,對於較大或更複雜的網路則較建議使用 <literal>ldapsam</literal>,而 <literal>smbpasswd</literal> 是舊版的預設值,現在已廢棄不使用。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
@@ -46170,58 +45974,40 @@ directory mask = 0755</programlisting>
<sect3>
<title><application>Samba</application> 使用者</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD user accounts must be mapped to the
- <literal>SambaSAMAccount</literal> database for
- <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> clients to access the share.
- Map existing FreeBSD user accounts using
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pdbedit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>:</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 使用者帳號必須對應 <literal>SambaSAMAccount</literal> 資料庫, 才能讓 <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 客戶端存取共享資源,要對應既有的 FreeBSD 使用者帳號可使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pdbedit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pdbedit -a <replaceable>username</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">This section has only mentioned the most commonly used
- settings. Refer to the <link xlink:href="http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/Samba-HOWTO-Collection/">Official
- Samba HOWTO</link> for additional information about the
- available configuration options.</para>
+ <para>本節只會提到一些最常用的設定,請參考 <link xlink:href="http://www.samba.org/samba/docs/man/Samba-HOWTO-Collection/">官方 Samba HOWTO</link> 來取得有關可用設定選項的額外資訊。</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>啟動 <application>Samba</application></title>
- <para xml:lang="en">To enable <application>Samba</application> at boot time,
- add the following line to
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para>要在開機時啟動 <application>Samba</application>,可加入下行到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">samba_enable="YES"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">To enable Samba4, use:</para>
+ <para>要啟動 Samba4 可使用:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">samba_server_enable="YES"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">To start <application>Samba</application> now:</para>
+ <para>要立即啟動 <application>Samba</application>:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service samba start</userinput>
Starting SAMBA: removing stale tdbs :
Starting nmbd.
Starting smbd.</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Samba</application> consists of three
- separate daemons. Both the <application>nmbd</application>
- and <application>smbd</application> daemons are started by
- <varname>samba_enable</varname>. If winbind name resolution
- is also required, set:</para>
+ <para><application>Samba</application> 由三個獨立的 Daemon 所組成,<application>nmbd</application> 與 <application>smbd</application> daemon 可透過 <varname>samba_enable</varname> 來啟動,若同時也需要 winbind 名稱解析服務則需額外設定:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">winbindd_enable="YES"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Samba</application> can be stopped at any
- time by typing:</para>
+ <para><application>Samba</application> 可以隨時停止,要停止可輸入:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service samba stop</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Samba</application> is a complex software
- suite with functionality that allows broad integration with
- <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> networks. For more information about
- functionality beyond the basic configuration described here,
- refer to <uri xlink:href="http://www.samba.org">http://www.samba.org</uri>.</para>
+ <para><application>Samba</application> 是一套擁有能整合 <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 網路功能的複雜軟體套件,除了在此處說明的基礎設定,要取得更多的功能資訊,請參考 <uri xlink:href="http://www.samba.org">http://www.samba.org</uri>。</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -46243,34 +46029,13 @@ Starting smbd.</screen>
<secondary>ntpd</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">Over time, a computer's clock is prone to drift. This is
- problematic as many network services require the computers on a
- network to share the same accurate time. Accurate time is also
- needed to ensure that file timestamps stay consistent. The
- Network Time Protocol (<acronym>NTP</acronym>) is one way to
- provide clock accuracy in a network.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD includes <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> which can be configured to query
- other <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers in order to synchronize the
- clock on that machine or to provide time services to other
- computers in the network. The servers which are queried can be
- local to the network or provided by an <acronym>ISP</acronym>.
- In addition, an <link xlink:href="http://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Servers/WebHome">online
- list of publicly accessible <acronym>NTP</acronym>
- servers</link> is available. When choosing a public
- <acronym>NTP</acronym> server, select one that is geographically
- close and review its usage policy.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Choosing several <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers is
- recommended in case one of the servers becomes unreachable or
- its clock proves unreliable. As <application>ntpd</application>
- receives responses, it favors reliable servers over the less
- reliable ones.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This section describes how to configure
- <application>ntpd</application> on FreeBSD. Further documentation
- can be found in <filename>/usr/share/doc/ntp/</filename> in HTML
- format.</para>
+ <para>隨著使用時間,電腦的時鐘會逐漸偏移,這對需要網路上電腦有相同準確度時間的許多網路服務來說是一個大問題。準確的時間同樣能確保檔案時間戳記的一致性。網路時間協定 (Network Time Protocol, <acronym>NTP</acronym>) 是一種在網路上可以確保時間準確的方式。</para>
+
+ <para>FreeBSD 內建 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 可以設定來查詢其他 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器來同步在該主機的時間或者提供時間服務給其他在網路上的電腦,查詢的伺服器可以為在網路上的本地主機或者由 <acronym>ISP</acronym> 提供。除此之外也有 <link xlink:href="http://support.ntp.org/bin/view/Servers/WebHome">開放存取的 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器線上清單</link>,當要使用開放的 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器,請選擇地理位置較近的並檢查該服務的使用方針。</para>
+
+ <para>建議選擇多個 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器,以避免萬一某一台伺服器無法連線,或者該伺服器的時間變的不可靠,當 <application>ntpd</application> 收到回應,會自動先選擇可靠的伺服器。</para>
+
+ <para>本節將會介紹如何設定 FreeBSD 上的 <application>ntpd</application>,更進一步的說明文件可於 <filename>/usr/share/doc/ntp/</filename> 找到 HTML 格式的版本。</para>
<sect2>
<title><acronym>NTP</acronym> 設定</title>
@@ -46279,19 +46044,9 @@ Starting smbd.</screen>
<secondary>ntp.conf</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">On FreeBSD, the built-in <application>ntpd</application> can
- be used to synchronize a system's clock. To enable
- <application>ntpd</application> at boot time, add
- <literal>ntpd_enable="YES"</literal> to
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>. Additional variables can
- be specified in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>. Refer to
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for
- details.</para>
+ <para>在 FreeBSD,內建的 <application>ntpd</application> 可用來同步系統的時間,要在開機時開啟 <application>ntpd</application>,可加入 <literal>ntpd_enable="YES"</literal> 到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>,也可在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 設定其他的變數,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 與 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來了解詳情。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">This application reads <filename>/etc/ntp.conf</filename>
- to determine which <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers to query.
- Here is a simple example of an
- <filename>/etc/ntp.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para>該應用程式會讀取 <filename>/etc/ntp.conf</filename> 來得知要查詢那一個 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器,這裡有一個簡單的 <filename>/etc/ntp.conf</filename> 範例:</para>
<example>
<title><filename>/etc/ntp.conf</filename> 範例</title>
@@ -46303,67 +46058,27 @@ server ntp2a.example.net
driftfile /var/db/ntp.drift</programlisting>
</example>
- <para xml:lang="en">The format of this file is described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntp.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
- The <literal>server</literal> option specifies which servers
- to query, with one server listed on each line. If a server
- entry includes <literal>prefer</literal>, that server is
- preferred over other servers. A response from a preferred
- server will be discarded if it differs significantly from
- other servers' responses; otherwise it will be used. The
- <literal>prefer</literal> argument should only be used for
- <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers that are known to be highly
- accurate, such as those with special time monitoring
- hardware.</para>
+ <para>這個檔案的格式在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntp.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 有說明,<literal>server</literal> 選項設定了要查詢那一些伺服器,每一行列一個伺服器。若伺服項目中含有 <literal>prefer</literal>,則會較偏好使用該伺服器。從偏好伺服器收到的回應若明顯與他伺服器的回應差異過大則會被放棄,否則都會以偏好的伺服器為主。<literal>prefer</literal> 參數只應用在已知高度準確的 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器上,例如那些有特別在監控時間的硬體。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <literal>driftfile</literal> entry specifies which
- file is used to store the system clock's frequency offset.
- <application>ntpd</application> uses this to automatically
- compensate for the clock's natural drift, allowing it to
- maintain a reasonably correct setting even if it is cut off
- from all external time sources for a period of time. This
- file also stores information about previous responses
- from <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers. Since this file contains
- internal information for <acronym>NTP</acronym>, it should not
- be modified.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">By default, an <acronym>NTP</acronym> server is accessible
- to any network host. The <literal>restrict</literal> option
- in <filename>/etc/ntp.conf</filename> can be used to control
- which systems can access the server. For example, to deny all
- machines from accessing the <acronym>NTP</acronym> server, add
- the following line to
- <filename>/etc/ntp.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para><literal>driftfile</literal> 項目用來指定要使用那一個檔案儲存系統時間的頻率偏移量,<application>ntpd</application> 會使用這個檔來自動補償時間的自然偏移,讓時間即始在切斷所有外部時間來源一段時間時仍能夠保持合理的設定值。這個檔案也會儲存有關前次由 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器收到的回應,由於這個檔案包含供 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 使用的內部資訊,所以不應手動修改。</para>
+
+ <para>預設,<acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器是開放給任何網路主機存取的,在 <filename>/etc/ntp.conf</filename> 中的 <literal>restrict</literal> 選項可以用來控制那些系統可以存取該伺服器。例如,要拒絕所有主機的存取,可加入下行到 <filename>/etc/ntp.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">restrict default ignore</programlisting>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">This will also prevent access from other
- <acronym>NTP</acronym> servers. If there is a need to
- synchronize with an external <acronym>NTP</acronym> server,
- allow only that specific server. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntp.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
- for more information.</para>
+ <para>這將會避免其他 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器的存取,若有需要與一個外部 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 伺服器同步,則可以只允許該伺服器。請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntp.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來取得更多資訊。</para>
</note>
- <para xml:lang="en">To allow machines within the network to synchronize their
- clocks with the server, but ensure they are not allowed to
- configure the server or be used as peers to synchronize
- against, instead use:</para>
+ <para>要允許在網路內的主機與伺服器同步時間,但要確保這些主機不允許設定伺服器或者被這些主機當作同輩的主機相互同步,可改使用:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">restrict 192.168.1.0 mask 255.255.255.0 nomodify notrap</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">where <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.0</systemitem> is the local
- network address and <systemitem class="netmask">255.255.255.0</systemitem> is the network's
- subnet mask.</para>
+ <para>其中 <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.0</systemitem> 是本地網路的位址,而 <systemitem class="netmask">255.255.255.0</systemitem> 是網路的子遮罩。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Multiple <literal>restrict</literal> entries are
- supported. For more details, refer to the <literal>Access
- Control Support</literal> subsection of
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntp.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para>也支援多個 <literal>restrict</literal> 項目,要取得詳細的資料,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntp.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 的 <literal>Access Control Support</literal> 子章節。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Once <literal>ntpd_enable="YES"</literal> has been added
- to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>,
- <application>ntpd</application> can be started now without
- rebooting the system by typing:</para>
+ <para><literal>ntpd_enable="YES"</literal> 加入到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 之後,<application>ntpd</application> 便可不需重新開機立即啟動,只要輸入:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service ntpd start</userinput></screen>
</sect2>
@@ -46371,14 +46086,7 @@ driftfile /var/db/ntp.drift</programlisting>
<sect2>
<title>在 <acronym>PPP</acronym> 連線使用 <acronym>NTP</acronym></title>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>ntpd</application> does not need a permanent
- connection to the Internet to function properly. However, if
- a <acronym>PPP</acronym> connection is configured to dial out
- on demand, <acronym>NTP</acronym> traffic should be prevented
- from triggering a dial out or keeping the connection alive.
- This can be configured with <literal>filter</literal>
- directives in <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>. For
- example:</para>
+ <para><application>ntpd</application> 並不需要永久的網際網路連線才能正常運作,若有一個 <acronym>PPP</acronym> 連線是設定成需要時撥號,那麼便需要避免 <acronym>NTP</acronym> 的流量觸發撥號或是保持連線不中斷,這可在 <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename> 使用 <literal>filter</literal> 項目設定,例如: </para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en"> set filter dial 0 deny udp src eq 123
# Prevent NTP traffic from initiating dial out
@@ -46389,15 +46097,10 @@ driftfile /var/db/ntp.drift</programlisting>
# Prevent outgoing NTP traffic from keeping the connection open
set filter alive 2 permit 0/0 0/0</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">For more details, refer to the
- <literal>PACKET FILTERING</literal> section in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and
- the examples in
- <filename>/usr/share/examples/ppp/</filename>.</para>
+ <para>要取得更詳細的資訊,請參考於 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 的 <literal>PACKET FILTERING</literal> 小節以及在 <filename>/usr/share/examples/ppp/</filename> 中的範例。</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Some Internet access providers block low-numbered ports,
- preventing NTP from functioning since replies never reach
- the machine.</para>
+ <para>部份網際網路存取提供商會封鎖較小編號的埠,這會讓 NTP 無法運作,因為回應永遠無到傳送到該主機。</para>
</note>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -46777,76 +46480,49 @@ iscsictl_flags="-Aa"</programlisting>
<sect1 xml:id="firewalls-intro">
<title>概述</title>
- <para>防火牆能夠過濾透過系統進出的流量,防火牆可使用一組或多組 <quote>規則 (Rules)</quote> 來檢查網路連線中進出的網路封包(Network packets),並且能允許或阻擋其通過。 而防火牆規則可以檢查封包中一個或數個特徵,例如通訊協定類型、來源或目的主機位址,以及來源及目地的連接埠 (Port)。</para>
+ <para>防火牆能夠過濾透過系統內送 (Incoming) 與外發 (Outgoing) 的流量,防火牆可使用一組或多組 <quote>規則 (Rules)</quote> 來檢查網路連線中進出的網路封包(Network packets),並且能允許或阻擋其通過。 而防火牆規則可以檢查封包中一個或數個特徵,例如通訊協定類型、來源或目的主機位址,以及來源及目地的連接埠 (Port)。</para>
<para>防火牆可以加強主機或網路的安全性,它可以用來完成下列事情:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Protect and insulate the applications, services, and
- machines of an internal network from unwanted traffic from
- the public Internet.</para>
+ <para>保護並隔離內部網路的應用程式、服務與主機,避免來自網際網路不必要的存取。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Limit or disable access from hosts of the internal
- network to services of the public Internet.</para>
+ <para>限制或者禁止內部網路的主機存取網際網路服務。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Support network address translation
- (<acronym>NAT</acronym>), which allows an internal network
- to use private <acronym>IP</acronym> addresses and share a
- single connection to the public Internet using either a
- single <acronym>IP</acronym> address or a shared pool of
- automatically assigned public addresses.</para>
+ <para>支援網路位址轉譯 (Network address translation, <acronym>NAT</acronym>),可允許內部網路使用私有 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址並共用一個連線使用一個 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址連到網際網路或者自動分配一個共用池當中的公開位址。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD has three firewalls built into the base system:
- <application>PF</application>, <application>IPFW</application>,
- and <application>IPFILTER</application>, also known as
- <application>IPF</application>. FreeBSD also provides two traffic
- shapers for controlling bandwidth usage: <citerefentry><refentrytitle>altq</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> and
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dummynet</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>. <application>ALTQ</application> has
- traditionally been closely tied with
- <application>PF</application> and
- <application>dummynet</application> with
- <application>IPFW</application>. Each firewall uses rules to
- control the access of packets to and from a FreeBSD system,
- although they go about it in different ways and each has a
- different rule syntax.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD provides multiple firewalls in order to meet the
- different requirements and preferences for a wide variety of
- users. Each user should evaluate which firewall best meets
- their needs.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 有三種內建於基礎系統的防火牆:<application>PF</application>, <application>IPFW</application> 與 <application>IPFILTER</application> 即 <application>IPF</application>。FreeBSD 也提供了兩種流量限制程式 (Traffic shaper) 來控制頻寬的用量:<citerefentry><refentrytitle>altq</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 與 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dummynet</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>,<application>ALTQ</application> 一般配合 <application>PF</application> 使用,而 <application>dummynet</application> 會配合 <application>IPFW</application>。每一種防火牆都會使用規則來管制來自與送往 FreeBSD 的封包,儘管它們用不同的方式運作且有不同的規則語法。</para>
+
+ <para>FreeBSD 提供多個防火牆是為了滿足不同的需求與各種使用者的偏好,每位使用者應評估那一種防火牆最能滿足其需求。</para>
<para>讀完這章,您將了解︰</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">How to define packet filtering rules.</para>
+ <para>如何定義封包過濾規則。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The differences between the firewalls built into
- FreeBSD.</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 內建防火牆之間的差異。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">How to use and configure the
- <application>PF</application> firewall.</para>
+ <para>如何使用與設定 <application>PF</application> 防火牆。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">How to use and configure the
- <application>IPFW</application> firewall.</para>
+ <para>如何使用與設定 <application>IPFW</application> 防火牆。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">How to use and configure the
- <application>IPFILTER</application> firewall.</para>
+ <para>如何使用與設定 <application>IPFILTER</application> 防火牆。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -46859,14 +46535,7 @@ iscsictl_flags="-Aa"</programlisting>
</itemizedlist>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Since all firewalls are based on inspecting the values of
- selected packet control fields, the creator of the firewall
- ruleset must have an understanding of how
- <acronym>TCP/IP</acronym> works, what the different values in
- the packet control fields are, and how these values are used
- in a normal session conversation. For a good introduction,
- refer to <link xlink:href="http://www.ipprimer.com/overview.cfm">Daryl's
- TCP/IP Primer</link>.</para>
+ <para>由於所有防火牆均是以監控所選封包的控制欄位值為基礎運作,所以防火牆規則集的建立者必須很明白 <acronym>TCP/IP</acronym> 是如何運作的,在封包的控制欄位中會有那些數值,這些數值會被如何用在一般的連線階段,要了解更多相關資訊,可參考 <link xlink:href="http://www.ipprimer.com/overview.cfm">Daryl's TCP/IP Primer</link>。</para>
</note>
</sect1>
@@ -46879,98 +46548,35 @@ iscsictl_flags="-Aa"</programlisting>
<secondary>rulesets</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">A ruleset contains a group of rules which pass or block
- packets based on the values contained in the packet. The
- bi-directional exchange of packets between hosts comprises a
- session conversation. The firewall ruleset processes both the
- packets arriving from the public Internet, as well as the
- packets produced by the system as a response to them. Each
- <acronym>TCP/IP</acronym> service is predefined by its protocol
- and listening port. Packets destined for a specific service
- originate from the source address using an unprivileged port and
- target the specific service port on the destination address.
- All the above parameters can be used as selection criteria to
- create rules which will pass or block services.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To lookup unknown port numbers, refer to
- <filename>/etc/services</filename>. Alternatively, visit <uri xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_TCP_and_UDP_port_numbers">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_TCP_and_UDP_port_numbers</uri>
- and do a port number lookup to find the purpose of a particular
- port number.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Check out this link for port numbers used by Trojans <uri xlink:href="http://www.sans.org/security-resources/idfaq/oddports.php">http://www.sans.org/security-resources/idfaq/oddports.php</uri>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">FTP has two modes: active mode and passive mode. The
- difference is in how the data channel is acquired. Passive
- mode is more secure as the data channel is acquired by the
- ordinal ftp session requester. For a good explanation of FTP
- and the different modes, see <uri xlink:href="http://www.slacksite.com/other/ftp.html">http://www.slacksite.com/other/ftp.html</uri>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A firewall ruleset can be either
- <quote>exclusive</quote> or <quote>inclusive</quote>. An
- exclusive firewall allows all traffic through except for the
- traffic matching the ruleset. An inclusive firewall does the
- reverse as it only allows traffic matching the rules through and
- blocks everything else.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">An inclusive firewall offers better control of the outgoing
- traffic, making it a better choice for systems that offer
- services to the public Internet. It also controls the type of
- traffic originating from the public Internet that can gain
- access to a private network. All traffic that does not match
- the rules is blocked and logged. Inclusive firewalls are
- generally safer than exclusive firewalls because they
- significantly reduce the risk of allowing unwanted
- traffic.</para>
+ <para>一個規則集 (Ruleset) 中會有一群根據封包內的資料來判斷通過或封鎖的規則,主機間雙向的封包交換構成一個連線階段的對話,防火牆規則集會同時處理接收自網際網路的封包以及由系統所產生的回應封包,每一個 <acronym>TCP/IP</acronym> 服務都會預先定義其通訊協定以及要傾聽的埠,要送往指定服務的封包會誕生在來源位址,使用一個不需特殊權限的埠並傳送給目標位址上特定服務的埠,所有上述過程中的參數均可用來當做建立規則的篩選條件,來允許或封鎖服務。</para>
+
+ <para>要查詢一個不清楚的埠號,可參考 <filename>/etc/services</filename>,或者至 <uri xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_TCP_and_UDP_port_numbers">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_TCP_and_UDP_port_numbers</uri> 查詢埠號來找出特定埠號的用途。</para>
+
+ <para>查看這個連結來了解有那些埠號會被木馬程式使用 <uri xlink:href="http://www.sans.org/security-resources/idfaq/oddports.php">http://www.sans.org/security-resources/idfaq/oddports.php</uri>。</para>
+
+ <para>FTP 有兩個模式:主動 (Active) 模式與被動 (Passive) 模式,兩者的差異在於取得資料通道的方式,被動模式會較安全,由於資料通道會取自 FTP 連線請求者。想要取得 FTP 與兩種模式更進一步的說明,詳見 <uri xlink:href="http://www.slacksite.com/other/ftp.html">http://www.slacksite.com/other/ftp.html</uri>。</para>
+
+ <para>防火牆規則集可以為排除式 (<quote>exclusive</quote>) 或者內含式 (<quote>inclusive</quote>),一個排除式的防火牆會允許所有的連線通過除了符合規則集的連線,內含式的防火牆則會反過來只允許符合規則集的連線並封鎖其他任何的連線。</para>
+
+ <para>內含式的防火牆對於外發的流量有較好的控制,使其成為提供網際網路服務的系統的最佳選擇,它同時可以控制可存取私有網路的網際網路連線,所有不符合該規則的連線會被封鎖並記錄。一般來說,內含式的防火牆會比排除式的防火牆安全,因為內含式的防火牆可以明顯的減少不必要連線所造成風險。</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Unless noted otherwise, all configuration and example
- rulesets in this chapter create inclusive firewall
- rulesets.</para>
+ <para>除非另有說明,否則所有在此章節的範例規則集均為內含式防火牆規則集。</para>
</note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Security can be tightened further using a <quote>stateful
- firewall</quote>. This type of firewall keeps track of open
- connections and only allows traffic which either matches an
- existing connection or opens a new, allowed connection.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Stateful filtering treats traffic as a bi-directional
- exchange of packets comprising a session. When state is
- specified on a matching rule the firewall dynamically generates
- internal rules for each anticipated packet being exchanged
- during the session. It has sufficient matching capabilities to
- determine if a packet is valid for a session. Any packets that
- do not properly fit the session template are automatically
- rejected.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When the session completes, it is removed from the dynamic
- state table.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Stateful filtering allows one to focus on blocking/passing
- new sessions. If the new session is passed, all its subsequent
- packets are allowed automatically and any impostor packets are
- automatically rejected. If a new session is blocked, none of
- its subsequent packets are allowed. Stateful filtering provides
- advanced matching abilities capable of defending against the
- flood of different attack methods employed by attackers.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>NAT</acronym> stands for <emphasis>Network
- Address Translation</emphasis>. <acronym>NAT</acronym>
- function enables the private LAN behind the firewall to share a
- single ISP-assigned IP address, even if that address is
- dynamically assigned. NAT allows each computer in the LAN to
- have Internet access, without having to pay the ISP for multiple
- Internet accounts or IP addresses.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>NAT</acronym> will automatically translate the
- private LAN IP address for each system on the LAN to the
- single public IP address as packets exit the firewall bound for
- the public Internet. It also performs the reverse translation
- for returning packets.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">According to RFC 1918, the following IP address ranges are
- reserved for private networks which will never be routed
- directly to the public Internet, and therefore are available
- for use with NAT:</para>
+ <para>使用具狀態防火牆 (<quote>Stateful firewall</quote>) 可以更進一步加強安全性,這種類型的防火牆可持續追蹤連線,只允許與現有連線相符的封包或符合允許條件的新連線通過。</para>
+
+ <para>狀態過濾技術 (Stateful filtering) 將所有的流量當做是一個由雙向封包交換所組成的連線階段,當在符合的規則上指定狀態 (State) 時,防火牆會自動產生內部規則來處理該連線階段中每個預期會通過的封包,這種防火牆有足夠的比對能力可以辨別是否為同一個連線階段的封包,任何不符合連線階段樣板的封包都會被自動拒絕。</para>
+
+ <para>當連線階段結束時,該規則將會動態狀態表 (Dynamic state table) 中移除。</para>
+
+ <para>Stateful filtering 讓管理者可以專注於封鎖/傳遞新的連線階段,若新的連線階段通過,那麼該連線階段後續的封包將會自動允許通過,且任何假冒的封包會自動被拒絕。若新的連線階最被封鎖,將不允許其任何後續的封包。Stateful filtering 提供了進階的比對能力,能夠抵禦不同種類由攻擊者發動的 flood 攻擊。</para>
+
+ <para><acronym>NAT</acronym> 代表 <emphasis>Network Address Translation</emphasis> 即網路位址轉譯,<acronym>NAT</acronym> 功能讓在防火牆之後的私有 LAN 可以共用一個 ISP 分配的 IP 位址 (甚至是動態分配的),NAT 每一台在該 LAN 中的電腦均可連線網際網路,而不需要支付 ISP 多個網路帳號或 IP 位址的額外費用。</para>
+
+ <para><acronym>NAT</acronym> 在當封包要外送到防火牆之外的網際網路時,會自動轉譯每一台電腦在私有 LAN 的 IP 位址成為一個公有 IP 位址,它也同樣會對回傳的封包做反向轉譯。</para>
+
+ <para>根據 RFC1918,會保留以下範圍的 IP 位址做為私有網路使用,永遠不會被傳送到網際網路,因此可供 NAT 使用:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
@@ -46987,12 +46593,7 @@ iscsictl_flags="-Aa"</programlisting>
</itemizedlist>
<warning>
- <para xml:lang="en">When working with the firewall rules, be <emphasis>very
- careful</emphasis>. Some configurations <emphasis>can
- lock the administrator out</emphasis> of the server. To be
- on the safe side, consider performing the initial firewall
- configuration from the local console rather than doing it
- remotely over <application>ssh</application>.</para>
+ <para>在使用防火牆規則時要<emphasis>非常小心</emphasis>,有一些設定<emphasis>會將管理者鎖在伺服器之外</emphasis>,保險起見的方式是在本機的 Console 做初次的防火牆設定,不要直接由遠端透過 <application>ssh</application> 來設定防火牆。</para>
</warning>
</sect1>
@@ -47017,38 +46618,19 @@ iscsictl_flags="-Aa"</programlisting>
<secondary>PF</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">Since FreeBSD 5.3, a ported version of OpenBSD's
- <application>PF</application> firewall has been included as an
- integrated part of the base system.
- <application>PF</application> is a complete, full-featured
- firewall that has optional support for
- <application>ALTQ</application> (Alternate Queuing), which
- provides Quality of Service (<acronym>QoS</acronym>).</para>
+ <para>自 FreeBSD 5.3 開始,基礎系統便有內建 OpenBSD's <application>PF</application> 防火牆的移植版本,<application>PF</application> 是一套完整、多功能的防火牆,並可選擇開啟 <application>ALTQ</application> (Alternate Queuing) 的支援來提供 Quality of Service (<acronym>QoS</acronym>) 機制。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The OpenBSD Project maintains the definitive reference for
- <application>PF</application> in the <link xlink:href="http://www.openbsd.org/faq/pf/">PF FAQ</link>.
- Peter Hansteen maintains a thorough
- <application>PF</application> tutorial at <link xlink:href="http://home.nuug.no/~peter/pf/">http://home.nuug.no/~peter/pf/</link>.</para>
+ <para>OpenBSD 計劃有維護一份官方參考文件於 <link xlink:href="http://www.openbsd.org/faq/pf/">PF FAQ</link> ,Peter Hansteen 有維一份詳盡的 <application>PF</application> 教學於 <link xlink:href="http://home.nuug.no/~peter/pf/">http://home.nuug.no/~peter/pf/</link>。</para>
<warning>
- <para xml:lang="en">When reading the <link xlink:href="http://www.openbsd.org/faq/pf/">PF FAQ</link>,
- keep in mind that FreeBSD uses the same version of
- <application>PF</application> as OpenBSD 4.5.</para>
+ <para>在閱讀 <link xlink:href="http://www.openbsd.org/faq/pf/">PF FAQ</link> 時,要注意 FreeBSD 採用與 OpenBSD 4.5 相同版本的 <application>PF</application>。</para>
</warning>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-pf">FreeBSD packet filter mailing list</link> is a good place to ask questions about
- configuring and running the <application>PF</application>
- firewall. Check the mailing list archives before asking a
- question as it may have already been answered.</para>
+ <para>要詢問有關設定與執行 <application>PF</application> 防火牆的問題可至 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-pf">FreeBSD packet filter 郵遞論壇</link>,在詢問問題之前請先查看該郵遞論壇的封存資料,因您的問題可能已有解答。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">More information about porting <application>PF</application>
- to FreeBSD can be found at <uri xlink:href="http://pf4freebsd.love2party.net/">http://pf4freebsd.love2party.net/</uri>.</para>
+ <para>更多有關移植 <application>PF</application> 到 FreeBSD 的資訊可至 <uri xlink:href="http://pf4freebsd.love2party.net/">http://pf4freebsd.love2party.net/</uri> 取得。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">This section of the Handbook focuses on
- <application>PF</application> as it pertains to FreeBSD. It
- demonstrates how to enable <application>PF</application> and
- <application>ALTQ</application>. It then provides several
- examples for creating rulesets on a FreeBSD system.</para>
+ <para>由於 FreeBSD 也支援 <application>PF</application> 因此操作手冊特別在此章節對此介紹,本節會示範如何開啟 <application>PF</application> 與 <application>ALTQ</application>,然後提供幾個在 FreeBSD 系統上建立規則集的例子。</para>
<sect2>
<title>開啟 <application>PF</application></title>
@@ -48297,27 +47879,11 @@ block drop out quick on $ext_if from any to $martians</programlisting>
<secondary>IPFW</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>IPFW</application> is a stateful firewall
- written for FreeBSD which supports both <acronym>IPv4</acronym> and
- <acronym>IPv6</acronym>. It is comprised of several components:
- the kernel firewall filter rule processor and its integrated
- packet accounting facility, the logging facility,
- <acronym>NAT</acronym>, the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dummynet</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> traffic shaper, a
- forward facility, a bridge facility, and an ipstealth
- facility.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD provides a sample ruleset in
- <filename>/etc/rc.firewall</filename> which defines several
- firewall types for common scenarios to assist novice users in
- generating an appropriate ruleset.
- <application>IPFW</application> provides a powerful syntax which
- advanced users can use to craft customized rulesets that meet
- the security requirements of a given environment.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This section describes how to enable
- <application>IPFW</application>, provides an overview of its
- rule syntax, and demonstrates several rulesets for common
- configuration scenarios.</para>
+ <para><application>IPFW</application> 是一套專為 FreeBSD 所寫的具狀態防火牆 (Stateful firewall),它同時支援 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> 與 <acronym>IPv6</acronym>,它由數個元件組成:核心防火牆過濾規則處理器與其整合的封包計帳設施、記錄設施、<acronym>NAT</acronym>、<citerefentry><refentrytitle>dummynet</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 流量限制程式、轉送設施、橋接設施以及 ipstealth 設施。</para>
+
+ <para>FreeBSD 提供一個範本規則集於 <filename>/etc/rc.firewall</filename>,其定義了幾個常見情境會使用的防火牆類型來協助初學的使用者撰寫合適的規則集。<application>IPFW</application> 提供了強大的語法讓進階的使用者可以用來自訂符合環境安全性要求的規則集。</para>
+
+ <para>本節將介紹如何開啟 <application>IPFW</application>、規則語法的概要以及示範幾種常見情境所使用的規則集:</para>
<sect2 xml:id="firewalls-ipfw-enable">
<title>開啟 <application>IPFW</application></title>
@@ -49312,39 +48878,15 @@ $cmd 00611 allow udp from any to $odns 53 out via $oif $ks
<secondary><application>IPFILTER</application></secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>IPFILTER</application>, also known as
- <application>IPF</application>, is a cross-platform, open source
- firewall which has been ported to several operating systems,
- including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and <trademark>Solaris</trademark>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>IPFILTER</application> is a kernel-side
- firewall and <acronym>NAT</acronym> mechanism that can be
- controlled and monitored by userland programs. Firewall rules
- can be set or deleted using <application>ipf</application>,
- <acronym>NAT</acronym> rules can be set or deleted using
- <application>ipnat</application>, run-time statistics for the
- kernel parts of <application>IPFILTER</application> can be
- printed using <application>ipfstat</application>, and
- <application>ipmon</application> can be used to log
- <application>IPFILTER</application> actions to the system log
- files.</para>
+ <para><application>IPFILTER</application> 即為 <application>IPF</application>,是一套跨平台、開放源碼的防火牆,已被移植到各種作業系統,包含 FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD 與 <trademark>Solaris</trademark>。</para>
+
+ <para><application>IPFILTER</application> 是核心端 (Kernel-side) 的防火牆且 <acronym>NAT</acronym> 機制可由 Userland 的程式控制與監控,防火牆規則可以使用 <application>ipf</application> 設定或刪除,<acronym>NAT</acronym> 規則可以使用 <application>ipnat</application> 設定或刪除,可使用 <application>ipfstat</application> 來列出 <application>IPFILTER</application> 在核心部份的執行期統計資訊,可使用 <application>ipmon</application> 來記錄 <application>IPFILTER</application> 動作到系統記錄檔。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>IPF</application> was originally written using
- a rule processing logic of <quote>the last matching rule
- wins</quote> and only used stateless rules. Since then,
- <application>IPF</application> has been enhanced to include the
- <literal>quick</literal> and <literal>keep state</literal>
- options.</para>
+ <para><application>IPF</application> 原來是以 <quote>最後一個符合的條件優先</quote> 的規則處理邏輯所撰寫並只能使用無狀態 (Stateless) 的規則,之後 <application>IPF</application> 才被加強支援快速 (<literal>quick</literal>) 與保留狀態 (<literal>keep state</literal>) 的選項。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <application>IPF</application> FAQ is at <uri xlink:href="http://www.phildev.net/ipf/index.html">http://www.phildev.net/ipf/index.html</uri>.
- A searchable archive of the IPFilter mailing list is available
- at <uri xlink:href="http://marc.info/?l=ipfilter">http://marc.info/?l=ipfilter</uri>.</para>
+ <para><application>IPF</application> FAQ 位於 <uri xlink:href="http://www.phildev.net/ipf/index.html">http://www.phildev.net/ipf/index.html</uri>,可搜尋的 IPFilter 郵遞論壇封存資料可至 <uri xlink:href="http://marc.info/?l=ipfilter">http://marc.info/?l=ipfilter</uri> 取得。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">This section of the Handbook focuses on
- <application>IPF</application> as it pertains to FreeBSD. It
- provides examples of rules that contain the
- <literal>quick</literal> and <literal>keep state</literal>
- options.</para>
+ <para>由於 FreeBSD 也支援 <application>IPF</application> 因此操作手冊特別在此章節對此介紹,本節提供幾個有使用快速 (<literal>quick</literal>) 與保留狀態 (<literal>keep state</literal>) 選項的規則範例。</para>
<sect2>
<title>開啟 <application>IPF</application></title>
@@ -49677,7 +49219,7 @@ ipnat_rules="/etc/ipnat.rules" # rules definition file for ipnat</programlist
<varlistentry>
<term xml:lang="en">TCP_FLAG|ICMP_TYPE</term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">If <literal>tcp</literal> is specifed as the
+ <para xml:lang="en">If <literal>tcp</literal> is specified as the
PROTO_TYPE, flags can be specified as letters, where
each letter represents one of the possible
<acronym>TCP</acronym> flags used to determine the state
@@ -49691,7 +49233,7 @@ ipnat_rules="/etc/ipnat.rules" # rules definition file for ipnat</programlist
<literal>C</literal> (CWN), and
<literal>E</literal> (ECN).</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">If <literal>icmp</literal> is specifed as the
+ <para xml:lang="en">If <literal>icmp</literal> is specified as the
PROTO_TYPE, the <acronym>ICMP</acronym> type to match
can be specified. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ipf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for the
allowable types.</para>
@@ -51227,7 +50769,7 @@ ifconfig_wlan0="WPA SYNCDHCP"</programlisting>
changed according to the configuration. A list of
available wireless drivers and supported adapters can be
found in the FreeBSD Hardware Notes, available on
- the <link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/index.html">Release
+ the <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/index.html">Release
Information</link> page of the FreeBSD website. If a
native FreeBSD driver for the wireless device does not
exist, it may be possible to use the <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> driver
@@ -54111,11 +53653,11 @@ lagg0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; metric 0 mtu 150
<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">ifconfig_bge0="up"
-ifconfig_<replaceable>iwn0</replaceable>="<replaceable>ether 00:21:70:da:ae:37</replaceable>"
wlans_<replaceable>iwn0</replaceable>="wlan0"
ifconfig_wlan0="WPA"
+create_args_wlan0="<replaceable>wlanaddr 00:21:70:da:ae:37</replaceable>"
cloned_interfaces="<literal>lagg<replaceable>0</replaceable></literal>"
-ifconfig_<literal>lagg<replaceable>0</replaceable></literal>="laggproto failover laggport bge0 laggport wlan0 DHCP"</programlisting>
+ifconfig_<literal>lagg<replaceable>0</replaceable></literal>="up laggproto failover laggport bge0 laggport wlan0 DHCP"</programlisting>
</example>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -54401,7 +53943,7 @@ Received 264951 bytes in 0.1 seconds</screen>
<para xml:lang="en"><acronym>DHCP</acronym> is not part of the FreeBSD base
system but can be installed using the
- <package>net/isc-dhcp42-server</package> port or
+ <package>net/isc-dhcp43-server</package> port or
package.</para>
<para xml:lang="en">Once installed, edit the configuration file,
@@ -56454,79 +55996,10 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<para>這是可公開存取的鏡像站,使用了 GeoDNS 會自動選擇適合的後端伺服器。若要由瀏覽器檢視 <application>Subversion</application> 檔案庫可以使用 <link xlink:href="https://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/">https://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/</link>。</para>
- <note>
- <para>FreeBSD <application>Subversion</application> 鏡像站先前使用的自我簽署 SSL 憑証記錄於本章節中。自 2015 年 7 月開始,所有鏡像站開始使用官方的 SSL 憑証,若有安裝 <package role="port">security/ca_root_nss</package> Port 則 <application>Subversion</application> 便有辦法辨識。舊的自我簽署憑証與伺服器名稱仍可以使用,但已不建議使用且不再支援。</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>對於未安裝 <package role="port">security/ca_root_nss</package> Port 的系統,所需的 SHA1 與 SHA256 的指紋 (Fingerprint) 為:</para>
-
- <informaltable>
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
- <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>編碼 (Hash)</entry>
- <entry>指紋 (Fingerprint)</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">SHA1</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>E9:37:73:80:B5:32:1B:93:92:94:98:17:59:F0:FA:A2:5F:1E:DE:B9</literal></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en">SHA256</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>D5:27:1C:B6:55:E6:A8:7D:48:D5:0C:F0:DA:9D:51:60:D7:42:6A:F2:05:F1:8A:47:BE:78:A1:3A:72:06:92:60</literal></entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
-
- <para>建議使用 <acronym>HTTPS</acronym> 通訊協定,這可提供避免其他電腦假裝為 FreeBSD 鏡像站 (即為一般所知的 <quote>中間人攻擊 (Man in the middle)</quote> 攻擊) 與其他嘗試傳送惡意內容給終端使用者的保護。</para>
-
- <para>若因防火牆或其他問題無法使用 <literal>https</literal>,那麼下一個選擇為使用 <literal>svn</literal>,這個通訊協定會有較快的傳輸速度。當兩者皆無法使用時才使用 <literal>http</literal>。</para>
-
- <para>對於那些仍使用已不建議使用伺服器名稱的電腦的 SHA1 及 SHA256 指紋可為下列其中之一:</para>
-
- <informaltable>
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
- <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>編碼 (Hash)</entry>
- <entry>指紋 (Fingerprint)</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry>舊-SHA1</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>1C:BD:85:95:11:9F:EB:75:A5:4B:C8:A3:FE:08:E4:02:73:06:1E:61</literal></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>舊-SHA1</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>F6:44:AA:B9:03:89:0E:3E:8C:4D:4D:14:F0:27:E6:C7:C1:8B:17:C5</literal></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>舊-SHA256</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>47:35:A9:09:A3:AB:FA:20:33:36:43:C5:1A:D6:E6:FB:EB:C0:C0:83:37:D4:46:9C:A0:AB:89:7F:C2:9C:4C:A3</literal></entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>舊-SHA256</entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>48:3C:84:DB:7C:27:1B:FA:D5:0B:A0:D7:E0:4C:79:AA:A3:8E:A3:FA:84:E6:32:34:7D:EB:30:E6:11:01:CF:BE</literal></entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
-
- <para>從這些舊的憑証指紋中找到對應已不建已使用伺服器名稱所使用的項目。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">HTTPS is the preferred protocol, but the
+ <filename role="package">security/ca_root_nss</filename>
+ package will need to be installed in order to automatically
+ validate certificates.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
@@ -56838,8 +56311,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.ed.ac.uk/">Edinburgh
- University</link> has written an
- <link xlink:href="http://unixhelp.ed.ac.uk/">Online
+ University</link> has written an <link xlink:href="http://www.ed.ac.uk/information-services/help-consultancy/is-skills/catalogue/program-op-sys-catalogue/unix1">Online
Guide</link> for newcomers to the UNIX environment.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -57424,12 +56896,6 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</row>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/aic7xxx">freebsd-aic7xxx</link></entry>
- <entry xml:lang="en">Developing drivers for the <trademark class="registered">Adaptec</trademark>
- AIC 7xxx</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-amd64">freebsd-amd64</link></entry>
<entry xml:lang="en">Porting FreeBSD to AMD64 systems (moderated)</entry>
</row>
@@ -58088,6 +57554,13 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</row>
<row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/svn-src-stable-11">svn-src-stable-11</link></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/usr/src</filename></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">All changes to the <filename>stable/11</filename>
+ branch of the src Subversion repository</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/svn-src-stable-other">svn-src-stable-other</link></entry>
<entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/usr/src</filename></entry>
<entry xml:lang="en">All changes to the
@@ -59190,6 +58663,17 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
+ <term xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-teaching">freebsd-teaching</link></term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Teaching with FreeBSD</emphasis></para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Non technical mailing list discussing teaching
+ with FreeBSD.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
<term xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-testing">freebsd-testing</link></term>
<listitem>
@@ -59329,7 +58813,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<para xml:lang="en">An editorial digest of the messages to this list
might be posted to the FreeBSD website every few months as
part of the Status Reports
- <footnote><para xml:lang="en"><uri xlink:href="http://www.freebsd.org/news/status/">http://www.freebsd.org/news/status/</uri></para></footnote>.
+ <footnote><para xml:lang="en"><uri xlink:href="https://www.freebsd.org/news/status/">https://www.freebsd.org/news/status/</uri></para></footnote>.
Past reports are archived.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -59586,9 +59070,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<para>中央伺服器</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">
- <link xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/</link>
- </para>
+ <para><link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/">https://www.FreeBSD.org/</link></para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</listitem>
@@ -59950,19 +59432,19 @@ Comment out for now as only one address
-->
<sect2 xml:id="pgpkey-security-officer">
- <title xml:lang="en">Security Officer Team <email>security-officer@FreeBSD.org</email></title>
+ <title>Security Officer Team <email>security-officer@FreeBSD.org</email></title>
<!-- $FreeBSD$ -->
<!--
sh addkey.sh security-officer ED67ECD65DCF6AE7 ;
-->
-<programlisting role="pgpfingerprint" xml:lang="en"><![CDATA[
+<programlisting role="pgpfingerprint"><![CDATA[
pub rsa4096/ED67ECD65DCF6AE7 2013-09-24 [expires: 2018-01-01]
Key fingerprint = 1CF7 FF6F ADF5 CA9F BE1B 8CB2 ED67 ECD6 5DCF 6AE7
uid FreeBSD Security Officer <security-officer@FreeBSD.org>
sub rsa4096/B64357A343D9CBAE 2013-09-24 [expires: 2018-01-01]
]]></programlisting>
-<programlisting role="pgpkey" xml:lang="en"><![CDATA[
+<programlisting role="pgpkey"><![CDATA[
-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
mQINBFJBjOYBEADuKnefrbTVFTZf9mITVx1lFAqwDHPRHZeWBr2Vq1B/Y1eKKsen
@@ -60200,18 +59682,18 @@ w0qvg9kVt63A7Etyr7xj/IPpEGURDfD/EhXXn0offWL8+BKcLYp1Tbp9gJe3Ab/F
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="pgpkey-secteam-secretary">
- <title xml:lang="en">Security Team Secretary <email>secteam-secretary@FreeBSD.org</email></title>
+ <title>Security Team Secretary <email>secteam-secretary@FreeBSD.org</email></title>
<!-- $FreeBSD$ -->
<!--
sh addkey.sh secteam-secretary 3CB2EAFCC3D6C666;
-->
-<programlisting role="pgpfingerprint" xml:lang="en"><![CDATA[
+<programlisting role="pgpfingerprint"><![CDATA[
pub 4096R/3CB2EAFCC3D6C666 2013-09-24 [expires: 2018-01-01]
Key fingerprint = FA97 AA04 4DF9 0969 D5EF 4ADA 3CB2 EAFC C3D6 C666
uid FreeBSD Security Team Secretary <secteam-secretary@FreeBSD.org>
sub 4096R/509B26612335EB65 2013-09-24 [expires: 2018-01-01]
]]></programlisting>
-<programlisting role="pgpkey" xml:lang="en"><![CDATA[
+<programlisting role="pgpkey"><![CDATA[
-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
mQINBFJBjIIBEADadvvpXSkdnBOGV2xcsFwBBcSwAdryWuLk6v2VxjwsPcY6Lwqz
@@ -60292,20 +59774,20 @@ lIjBtlclVhaUrE2uLx/yTz2Apbm+GAmD8M0dQ7IYsOFlZNBW9zjgLLCtWDW+p1A=
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="pgpkey-core-secretary">
- <title xml:lang="en">Core Team Secretary <email>core-secretary@FreeBSD.org</email></title>
+ <title>Core Team Secretary <email>core-secretary@FreeBSD.org</email></title>
<!-- $FreeBSD$ -->
<!--
sh addkey.sh core-secretary 36A7C05FE1ECF9BB ;
-->
-<programlisting role="pgpfingerprint" xml:lang="en"><![CDATA[
-pub rsa4096/36A7C05FE1ECF9BB 2014-07-09 [SC] [expires: 2017-07-08]
+<programlisting role="pgpfingerprint"><![CDATA[
+pub rsa4096/36A7C05FE1ECF9BB 2014-07-09 [SC] [expires: 2018-07-08]
Key fingerprint = C07B F5E3 10AE 64BF 6120 B0F6 36A7 C05F E1EC F9BB
uid FreeBSD Core Team Secretary <core-secretary@freebsd.org>
uid Core Secretary <core-secretary@freebsd.org>
-sub rsa4096/7B5150C8D7CE5D02 2014-07-09 [E] [expires: 2017-07-08]
+sub rsa4096/7B5150C8D7CE5D02 2014-07-09 [E] [expires: 2018-07-08]
]]></programlisting>
-<programlisting role="pgpkey" xml:lang="en"><![CDATA[
+<programlisting role="pgpkey"><![CDATA[
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+=+zKf
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
]]></programlisting>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="pgpkey-portmgr-secretary">
- <title xml:lang="en">Ports Management Team Secretary <email>portmgr-secretary@FreeBSD.org</email></title>
+ <title>Ports Management Team Secretary <email>portmgr-secretary@FreeBSD.org</email></title>
<!-- $FreeBSD$ -->
<!--
sh addkey.sh portmgr-secretary D8294EC3BBC4D7D5 ;
-->
-<programlisting role="pgpfingerprint" xml:lang="en"><![CDATA[
+<programlisting role="pgpfingerprint"><![CDATA[
pub rsa2048/D8294EC3BBC4D7D5 2012-07-24 [SC]
Key fingerprint = FB37 45C8 6F15 E8ED AC81 32FC D829 4EC3 BBC4 D7D5
uid FreeBSD Ports Management Team Secretary <portmgr-secretary@FreeBSD.org>
sub rsa2048/5CC117965F65CFE7 2012-07-24 [E]
]]></programlisting>
-<programlisting role="pgpkey" xml:lang="en"><![CDATA[
+<programlisting role="pgpkey"><![CDATA[
-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
mQENBFAOzqYBCACYd+KGv0/DduIRpSEKWZG2yfDILStzWfdaQMD+8zdWihB0x7dd
diff --git a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po
index 63f013879c..1debc02a62 100644
--- a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po
+++ b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po
@@ -2,15 +2,15 @@
msgid ""
msgstr ""
"Project-Id-Version: \n"
-"POT-Creation-Date: 2017-05-24 18:05+0800\n"
-"PO-Revision-Date: 2017-05-24 00:49+0800\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2017-10-22 10:34+0800\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: 2017-10-22 11:43+0800\n"
"Last-Translator: Chien Wei Lin <cwlin0416@gmail.com>\n"
"Language-Team: \n"
"Language: zh_TW\n"
"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
-"X-Generator: Poedit 2.0.2\n"
+"X-Generator: Poedit 2.0.4\n"
#. Put one translator per line, in the form NAME <EMAIL>, YEAR1, YEAR2
msgctxt "_"
@@ -18,25 +18,17 @@ msgid "translator-credits"
msgstr "Chien Wei Lin <cwlin0416@gmail.com>"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:618
+#: book.translate.xml:641
msgid "FreeBSD Handbook"
msgstr "FreeBSD 使用手冊"
#. (itstool) path: info/author
-#: book.translate.xml:620
+#: book.translate.xml:643
msgid "<orgname>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</orgname>"
msgstr "<orgname>FreeBSD 文件計劃</orgname>"
-#. (itstool) path: info/pubdate
-#. (itstool) path: info/releaseinfo
-#: book.translate.xml:624 book.translate.xml:626
-msgid ""
-"$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/book.xml 50274 2017-05-23 "
-"18:00:40Z gjb $"
-msgstr ""
-
#. (itstool) path: info/copyright
-#: book.translate.xml:628
+#: book.translate.xml:651
msgid ""
"<year>1995</year> <year>1996</year> <year>1997</year> <year>1998</year> "
"<year>1999</year> <year>2000</year> <year>2001</year> <year>2002</year> "
@@ -48,12 +40,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/title
-#: book.translate.xml:657
+#: book.translate.xml:680
msgid "Copyright"
msgstr "版權"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:659
+#: book.translate.xml:682
msgid ""
"Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, "
"HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are "
@@ -61,7 +53,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:666
+#: book.translate.xml:689
msgid ""
"Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the above copyright "
"notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer as the first "
@@ -69,7 +61,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:672
+#: book.translate.xml:695
msgid ""
"Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs, converted to "
"PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce the above copyright "
@@ -78,7 +70,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:681
+#: book.translate.xml:704
msgid ""
"THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT \"AS IS"
"\" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE "
@@ -94,32 +86,32 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:698
+#: book.translate.xml:721
msgid "FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation."
msgstr "FreeBSD 是 FreeBSD 基金會的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:700
+#: book.translate.xml:723
msgid "3Com and HomeConnect are registered trademarks of 3Com Corporation."
msgstr "3Com 和 HomeConnect 是 3Com Corporation 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:702
+#: book.translate.xml:725
msgid "3ware is a registered trademark of 3ware Inc."
msgstr "3ware 是 3ware Inc 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:704
+#: book.translate.xml:727
msgid "ARM is a registered trademark of ARM Limited."
msgstr "ARM 是 ARM Limited. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:706
+#: book.translate.xml:729
msgid "Adaptec is a registered trademark of Adaptec, Inc."
msgstr "Adaptec 是 Adaptec, Inc. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:708
+#: book.translate.xml:731
msgid ""
"Adobe, Acrobat, Acrobat Reader, Flash and PostScript are either registered "
"trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States "
@@ -129,7 +121,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Incorporated 在美國和/或其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:712
+#: book.translate.xml:735
msgid ""
"Apple, AirPort, FireWire, iMac, iPhone, iPad, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, "
"Quicktime, and TrueType are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. "
@@ -139,12 +131,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Quicktime 以及 TrueType 是 Apple Inc. 在美國以及其他國家的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:717
+#: book.translate.xml:740
msgid "Android is a trademark of Google Inc."
msgstr "Android 是 Google Inc 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:719
+#: book.translate.xml:742
msgid ""
"Heidelberg, Helvetica, Palatino, and Times Roman are either registered "
"trademarks or trademarks of Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG in the U.S. and "
@@ -154,7 +146,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Druckmaschinen AG 在美國以及其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:723
+#: book.translate.xml:746
msgid ""
"IBM, AIX, OS/2, PowerPC, PS/2, S/390, and ThinkPad are trademarks of "
"International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other "
@@ -164,7 +156,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Machines Corporation 在美國和其他國家的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:727
+#: book.translate.xml:750
msgid ""
"IEEE, POSIX, and 802 are registered trademarks of Institute of Electrical "
"and Electronics Engineers, Inc. in the United States."
@@ -173,7 +165,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Inc. 在美國的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:730
+#: book.translate.xml:753
msgid ""
"Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, "
"and Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its "
@@ -183,7 +175,7 @@ msgstr ""
"及 Xeon 是 Intel Corporation 及其分支機構在美國和其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:734
+#: book.translate.xml:757
msgid ""
"Intuit and Quicken are registered trademarks and/or registered service marks "
"of Intuit Inc., or one of its subsidiaries, in the United States and other "
@@ -193,12 +185,12 @@ msgstr ""
"標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:737
+#: book.translate.xml:760
msgid "Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds."
msgstr "Linux 是 Linus Torvalds 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:739
+#: book.translate.xml:762
msgid ""
"LSI Logic, AcceleRAID, eXtremeRAID, MegaRAID and Mylex are trademarks or "
"registered trademarks of LSI Logic Corp."
@@ -207,7 +199,7 @@ msgstr ""
"商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:742
+#: book.translate.xml:765
msgid ""
"Microsoft, IntelliMouse, MS-DOS, Outlook, Windows, Windows Media and Windows "
"NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation "
@@ -217,7 +209,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Windows NT 是 Microsoft Corporation 在美國和/或其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:746
+#: book.translate.xml:769
msgid ""
"Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and The "
"Open Group are trademarks of The Open Group in the United States and other "
@@ -227,12 +219,12 @@ msgstr ""
"DialTone 和 The Open Group 是其商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:750
+#: book.translate.xml:773
msgid "Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation."
msgstr "Oracle 是 Oracle Corporation 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:752
+#: book.translate.xml:775
msgid ""
"RealNetworks, RealPlayer, and RealAudio are the registered trademarks of "
"RealNetworks, Inc."
@@ -240,14 +232,14 @@ msgstr ""
"RealNetworks, RealPlayer, 和 RealAudio 是 RealNetworks, Inc. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:755
+#: book.translate.xml:778
msgid ""
"Red Hat, RPM, are trademarks or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in "
"the United States and other countries."
msgstr "Red Hat, RPM, 是 Red Hat, Inc. 在美國和其他國家的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:758
+#: book.translate.xml:781
msgid ""
"Sun, Sun Microsystems, Java, Java Virtual Machine, JDK, JRE, JSP, JVM, "
"Netra, OpenJDK, Solaris, StarOffice, SunOS and VirtualBox are trademarks or "
@@ -259,37 +251,37 @@ msgstr ""
"Microsystems, Inc. 在美國和其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:763
+#: book.translate.xml:786
msgid "MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc."
msgstr "MATLAB 是 The MathWorks, Inc. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:765
+#: book.translate.xml:788
msgid "SpeedTouch is a trademark of Thomson."
msgstr "SpeedTouch 是 Thomson 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:767
+#: book.translate.xml:790
msgid "VMware is a trademark of VMware, Inc."
msgstr "VMware 是 VMware, Inc. 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:769
+#: book.translate.xml:792
msgid "Mathematica is a registered trademark of Wolfram Research, Inc."
msgstr "Mathematica 是 Wolfram Research, Inc 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:771
+#: book.translate.xml:794
msgid "XFree86 is a trademark of The XFree86 Project, Inc."
msgstr "XFree86 是 The XFree86 Project, Inc 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:773
+#: book.translate.xml:796
msgid "Ogg Vorbis and Xiph.Org are trademarks of Xiph.Org."
msgstr "Ogg Vorbis 以及 Xiph.Org 是 Xiph.Org 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:775
+#: book.translate.xml:798
msgid ""
"Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish "
"their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in "
@@ -302,42 +294,42 @@ msgstr ""
"quote> 或 <quote>®</quote> 符號來標示。"
#. (itstool) path: abstract/para
-#: book.translate.xml:784
+#: book.translate.xml:807
msgid ""
"Welcome to FreeBSD! This handbook covers the installation and day to day use "
-"of <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.0-RELEASE</emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 10.3-"
-"RELEASE</emphasis>, and <emphasis>FreeBSD 9.3-RELEASE</emphasis>. This book "
+"of <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE</emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.0-"
+"RELEASE</emphasis>, and <emphasis>FreeBSD 10.4-RELEASE</emphasis>. This book "
"is the result of ongoing work by many individuals. Some sections might be "
"outdated. Those interested in helping to update and expand this document "
"should send email to the <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/"
"listinfo/freebsd-doc\">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link>."
msgstr ""
-"歡迎使用 FreeBSD! 本使用手冊涵蓋範圍包括了 <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.0-RELEASE</"
-"emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 10.3-RELEASE</emphasis> 以及 <emphasis>FreeBSD "
-"9.3-RELEASE</emphasis> 的安裝與平日操作的說明。 這份使用手冊是很多人的集體創"
+"歡迎使用 FreeBSD! 本使用手冊涵蓋範圍包括了 <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE</"
+"emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.0-RELEASE</emphasis> 與 <emphasis>FreeBSD "
+"10.4-RELEASE</emphasis> 的安裝與平日操作的說明。 這份使用手冊是很多人的集體創"
"作,而且仍然『持續不斷』的進行中,因此部份章節可能尚未仍未完成,如果您有興趣"
"協助本計畫的話,請寄電子郵件至 <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/"
"mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc\">FreeBSD 文件專案郵遞論壇</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: abstract/para
-#: book.translate.xml:793
+#: book.translate.xml:816
msgid ""
"The latest version of this book is available from the <link xlink:href="
"\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/\">FreeBSD web site</link>. Previous versions can "
"be obtained from <uri xlink:href=\"https://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/\">https://"
"docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/</uri>. The book can be downloaded in a variety of "
-"formats and compression options from the <link xlink:href=\"ftp://ftp."
-"FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/\">FreeBSD FTP server</link> or one of the "
-"numerous <link linkend=\"mirrors-ftp\">mirror sites</link>. Printed copies "
-"can be purchased at the <link xlink:href=\"http://www.freebsdmall.com/"
-"\">FreeBSD Mall</link>. Searches can be performed on the handbook and other "
-"documents on the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/search/index.html"
-"\">search page</link>."
-msgstr ""
-"在 <link xlink:href=\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/\">FreeBSD 網站</link> 可以找到"
-"本文件的最新版本,舊版文件可從 <uri xlink:href=\"http://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/"
-"\">http://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/</uri> 取得。本文件也提供各種格式與不同壓縮方"
-"式的版本可自 <link xlink:href=\"ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/"
+"formats and compression options from the <link xlink:href=\"https://download."
+"freebsd.org/ftp/doc/\">FreeBSD FTP server</link> or one of the numerous "
+"<link linkend=\"mirrors-ftp\">mirror sites</link>. Printed copies can be "
+"purchased at the <link xlink:href=\"http://www.freebsdmall.com/\">FreeBSD "
+"Mall</link>. Searches can be performed on the handbook and other documents "
+"on the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/search/index.html\">search page</"
+"link>."
+msgstr ""
+"在 <link xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/\">FreeBSD 網站</link> 可以找到"
+"本文件的最新版本,舊版文件可從 <uri xlink:href=\"https://docs.FreeBSD.org/"
+"doc/\">https://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/</uri> 取得。本文件也提供各種格式與不同壓"
+"縮方式的版本可自 <link xlink:href=\"https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/"
"\">FreeBSD FTP 伺服器</link> 或是其中一個 <link linkend=\"mirrors-ftp\">鏡像"
"網站</link> 下載。 列印出來的實體書面資料可在 <link xlink:href=\"http://www."
"freebsdmall.com/\">FreeBSD 商城</link> 購買。 此外,您可在 <link xlink:href="
@@ -345,18 +337,18 @@ msgstr ""
"件的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/title
-#: book.translate.xml:814
+#: book.translate.xml:837
msgid "Preface"
msgstr "序"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-audience
-#: book.translate.xml:816
+#: book.translate.xml:839
msgid "Intended Audience"
msgstr "給讀者的話"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:819
+#: book.translate.xml:842
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD newcomer will find that the first section of this book guides "
"the user through the FreeBSD installation process and gently introduces the "
@@ -370,7 +362,7 @@ msgstr ""
"一些常用、共通的東西。而閱讀這部分並不難,只需要您有探索的精神和接受新概念。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:826
+#: book.translate.xml:849
msgid ""
"Once you have traveled this far, the second, far larger, section of the "
"Handbook is a comprehensive reference to all manner of topics of interest to "
@@ -383,7 +375,7 @@ msgstr ""
"不熟的話,可在閱讀前先預習一番。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:833
+#: book.translate.xml:856
msgid ""
"For a list of additional sources of information, please see <xref linkend="
"\"bibliography\"/>."
@@ -391,12 +383,12 @@ msgstr "延伸閱讀方面,可參閱 <xref linkend=\"bibliography\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes-from3
-#: book.translate.xml:836
+#: book.translate.xml:859
msgid "Changes from the Third Edition"
msgstr "自第三版後的主要修訂"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:839
+#: book.translate.xml:862
msgid ""
"The current online version of the Handbook represents the cumulative effort "
"of many hundreds of contributors over the past 10 years. The following are "
@@ -407,7 +399,7 @@ msgstr ""
"2014 年發佈的兩冊第三版後所做的主要修訂:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:846
+#: book.translate.xml:869
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"dtrace\"/> has been added with information about the "
"powerful DTrace performance analysis tool."
@@ -415,7 +407,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"dtrace\"/> 增加說明有關強大的 DTrace 效能分析工具的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:851
+#: book.translate.xml:874
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"filesystems\"/> has been added with information about non-"
"native file systems in FreeBSD, such as ZFS from <trademark>Sun</trademark>."
@@ -424,7 +416,7 @@ msgstr ""
"自 <trademark>Sun</trademark> 的 ZSF。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:857
+#: book.translate.xml:880
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"audit\"/> has been added to cover the new auditing "
"capabilities in FreeBSD and explain its use."
@@ -432,7 +424,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"audit\"/> 增加的內容涵蓋 FreeBSD 的新稽查功能及其使用說明。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:862
+#: book.translate.xml:885
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"virtualization\"/> has been added with information about "
"installing FreeBSD on virtualization software."
@@ -440,7 +432,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"virtualization\"/> 增加有關在虛擬化軟體安裝 FreeBSD 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:868
+#: book.translate.xml:891
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"bsdinstall\"/> has been added to cover installation of "
"FreeBSD using the new installation utility, <application>bsdinstall</"
@@ -451,12 +443,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes-from2
-#: book.translate.xml:874
+#: book.translate.xml:897
msgid "Changes from the Second Edition (2004)"
msgstr "自第二版後的主要修訂 (2004)"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:877
+#: book.translate.xml:900
msgid ""
"The third edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the "
"dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project. The printed edition "
@@ -467,7 +459,7 @@ msgstr ""
"文件內容成長到一定大小,印刷版需要分成兩冊發佈。新版的主要修訂部分如下:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:885
+#: book.translate.xml:908
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/> has been expanded with new information "
"about the ACPI power and resource management, the <command>cron</command> "
@@ -477,7 +469,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>cron</command> 以及其他更多的核心調校選項說明內容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:892
+#: book.translate.xml:915
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"security\"/> has been expanded with new information about "
"virtual private networks (VPNs), file system access control lists (ACLs), "
@@ -487,7 +479,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(ACL),以及安全報告。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:898
+#: book.translate.xml:921
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"mac\"/> is a new chapter with this edition. It explains what "
"MAC is and how this mechanism can be used to secure a FreeBSD system."
@@ -496,7 +488,7 @@ msgstr ""
"何運用它來使您的 FreeBSD 系統更安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:904
+#: book.translate.xml:927
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"disks\"/> has been expanded with new information about USB "
"storage devices, file system snapshots, file system quotas, file and network "
@@ -507,13 +499,13 @@ msgstr ""
"詳解。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:911
+#: book.translate.xml:934
msgid ""
"A troubleshooting section has been added to <xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/> 增加了疑難排解的章節。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:915
+#: book.translate.xml:938
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"mail\"/> has been expanded with new information about using "
"alternative transport agents, SMTP authentication, UUCP, "
@@ -525,7 +517,7 @@ msgstr ""
"application> 的運用以及其它進階主題。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:923
+#: book.translate.xml:946
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"network-servers\"/> is all new with this edition. This "
"chapter includes information about setting up the <application>Apache HTTP "
@@ -543,7 +535,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"advanced-networking\"/> 。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:933
+#: book.translate.xml:956
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/> has been expanded with new "
"information about using <trademark class=\"registered\">Bluetooth</"
@@ -555,14 +547,14 @@ msgstr ""
"式 (Asynchronous Transfer Mode, ATM) 網路的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:940
+#: book.translate.xml:963
msgid ""
"A glossary has been added to provide a central location for the definitions "
"of technical terms used throughout the book."
msgstr "增加詞彙表,用以說明全書中出現的術語。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:946
+#: book.translate.xml:969
msgid ""
"A number of aesthetic improvements have been made to the tables and figures "
"throughout the book."
@@ -570,12 +562,12 @@ msgstr "重新美編書中所列的圖表。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes
-#: book.translate.xml:951
+#: book.translate.xml:974
msgid "Changes from the First Edition (2001)"
msgstr "自第一版後的主要修訂 (2001)"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:954
+#: book.translate.xml:977
msgid ""
"The second edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the "
"dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project. The following were "
@@ -585,17 +577,17 @@ msgstr ""
"變動如下︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:962
+#: book.translate.xml:985
msgid "A complete Index has been added."
msgstr "增加完整的目錄索引。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:966
+#: book.translate.xml:989
msgid "All ASCII figures have been replaced by graphical diagrams."
msgstr "所有的 ASCII 圖表均改成圖檔格式的圖表。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:971
+#: book.translate.xml:994
msgid ""
"A standard synopsis has been added to each chapter to give a quick summary "
"of what information the chapter contains, and what the reader is expected to "
@@ -603,7 +595,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr "每個章節均加入概述,以便快速的瀏覽該章節內容摘要、讀者所欲了解的部分。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:977
+#: book.translate.xml:1000
msgid ""
"The content has been logically reorganized into three parts: <quote>Getting "
"Started</quote>, <quote>System Administration</quote>, and "
@@ -613,7 +605,7 @@ msgstr ""
"及 <quote>附錄</quote>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:984
+#: book.translate.xml:1007
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"basics\"/> has been expanded to contain additional "
"information about processes, daemons, and signals."
@@ -621,14 +613,14 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"basics\"/> 新增了程序、Daemon 以及信號 (Signal) 的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:990
+#: book.translate.xml:1013
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"ports\"/> has been expanded to contain additional "
"information about binary package management."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"ports\"/> 新增了介紹如何管理 Binary 套件的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:996
+#: book.translate.xml:1019
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"x11\"/> has been completely rewritten with an emphasis on "
"using modern desktop technologies such as <application>KDE</application> and "
@@ -639,12 +631,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>GNOME</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1003
+#: book.translate.xml:1026
msgid "<xref linkend=\"boot\"/> has been expanded."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"boot\"/> 更新相關內容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1007
+#: book.translate.xml:1030
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"disks\"/> has been written from what used to be two separate "
"chapters on <quote>Disks</quote> and <quote>Backups</quote>. We feel that "
@@ -656,7 +648,7 @@ msgstr ""
"體、軟體 RAID) 的段落也新增上去了。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1016
+#: book.translate.xml:1039
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"serialcomms\"/> has been completely reorganized and updated "
"for FreeBSD 4.X/5.X."
@@ -665,18 +657,18 @@ msgstr ""
"容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1021
+#: book.translate.xml:1044
msgid "<xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/> has been substantially updated."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/> 有相當程度的更新。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1026
+#: book.translate.xml:1049
msgid ""
"Many new sections have been added to <xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/> 加入許多新內容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1030
+#: book.translate.xml:1053
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"mail\"/> has been expanded to include more information about "
"configuring <application>sendmail</application>."
@@ -685,7 +677,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1036
+#: book.translate.xml:1059
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"linuxemu\"/> has been expanded to include information about "
"installing <application><trademark class=\"registered\">Oracle</trademark></"
@@ -698,28 +690,28 @@ msgstr ""
"trademark></application> 的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1043
+#: book.translate.xml:1066
msgid "The following new topics are covered in this second edition:"
msgstr "此外,第二版還新加章節,以介紹下列新主題:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1048
+#: book.translate.xml:1071
msgid "<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1052
+#: book.translate.xml:1075
msgid "<xref linkend=\"multimedia\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"multimedia\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-overview
-#: book.translate.xml:1058
+#: book.translate.xml:1081
msgid "Organization of This Book"
msgstr "本書架構"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1060
+#: book.translate.xml:1083
msgid ""
"This book is split into five logically distinct sections. The first section, "
"<emphasis>Getting Started</emphasis>, covers the installation and basic "
@@ -744,14 +736,14 @@ msgstr ""
"則包括網路和各式伺服器主題;而第五部分則為附錄包含各種有關 FreeBSD 的資源。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1085
+#: book.translate.xml:1108
msgid ""
"Introduces FreeBSD to a new user. It describes the history of the FreeBSD "
"Project, its goals and development model."
msgstr "向新手介紹 FreeBSD。該篇說明了 FreeBSD 計劃的歷史、目標和開發模式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1095
+#: book.translate.xml:1118
msgid ""
"Walks a user through the entire installation process of FreeBSD 9."
"<replaceable>x</replaceable> and later using <application>bsdinstall</"
@@ -761,7 +753,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>x</replaceable> 及之後版本的完整安裝流程。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1105
+#: book.translate.xml:1128
msgid ""
"Covers the basic commands and functionality of the FreeBSD operating system. "
"If you are familiar with <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> "
@@ -772,7 +764,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\">Linux</trademark> 或其他類 UNIX® 系統,您則可跳過此章。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1116
+#: book.translate.xml:1139
msgid ""
"Covers the installation of third-party software with both FreeBSD's "
"innovative <quote>Ports Collection</quote> and standard binary packages."
@@ -781,7 +773,7 @@ msgstr ""
"第三方軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1126
+#: book.translate.xml:1149
msgid ""
"Describes the X Window System in general and using X11 on FreeBSD in "
"particular. Also describes common desktop environments such as "
@@ -791,7 +783,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>KDE</application> 與 <application>GNOME</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1139
+#: book.translate.xml:1162
msgid ""
"Lists some common desktop applications, such as web browsers and "
"productivity suites, and describes how to install them on FreeBSD."
@@ -800,7 +792,7 @@ msgstr ""
"程式到 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1148
+#: book.translate.xml:1171
msgid ""
"Shows how to set up sound and video playback support for your system. Also "
"describes some sample audio and video applications."
@@ -809,14 +801,14 @@ msgstr ""
"用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1158
+#: book.translate.xml:1181
msgid ""
"Explains why you might need to configure a new kernel and provides detailed "
"instructions for configuring, building, and installing a custom kernel."
msgstr "說明為何需要設定新的核心並會提供設定、編譯與安裝的詳細操作說明。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1168
+#: book.translate.xml:1191
msgid ""
"Describes managing printers on FreeBSD, including information about banner "
"pages, printer accounting, and initial setup."
@@ -824,7 +816,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹如何在 FreeBSD 管理印表機,包含橫幅頁面、列印帳務以及初始設定等資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1178
+#: book.translate.xml:1201
msgid ""
"Describes the <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> "
"compatibility features of FreeBSD. Also provides detailed installation "
@@ -840,7 +832,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"registered\">Mathematica</trademark></application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1192
+#: book.translate.xml:1215
msgid ""
"Describes the parameters available for system administrators to tune a "
"FreeBSD system for optimum performance. Also describes the various "
@@ -850,14 +842,14 @@ msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 用到的各種設定檔以及到何處尋找這些設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1203
+#: book.translate.xml:1226
msgid ""
"Describes the FreeBSD boot process and explains how to control this process "
"with configuration options."
msgstr "介紹 FreeBSD 開機流程並說明如何使用設定選項控制開機流程。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1212
+#: book.translate.xml:1235
msgid ""
"Describes many different tools available to help keep your FreeBSD system "
"secure, including Kerberos, IPsec and OpenSSH."
@@ -866,7 +858,7 @@ msgstr ""
"OpenSSH。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1222
+#: book.translate.xml:1245
msgid ""
"Describes the jails framework, and the improvements of jails over the "
"traditional chroot support of FreeBSD."
@@ -874,7 +866,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹 Jail Framework,以及 Jail 改進那些 FreeBSD 傳統 chroot 不足的地方。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1231
+#: book.translate.xml:1254
msgid ""
"Explains what Mandatory Access Control (MAC) is and how this mechanism can "
"be used to secure a FreeBSD system."
@@ -883,7 +875,7 @@ msgstr ""
"保 FreeBSD 系統的安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1241
+#: book.translate.xml:1264
msgid ""
"Describes what FreeBSD Event Auditing is, how it can be installed, "
"configured, and how audit trails can be inspected or monitored."
@@ -891,7 +883,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹什麼事 FreeBSD 事件稽查,如何安裝與設定,以及如何檢查與監控稽查線索。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1251
+#: book.translate.xml:1274
msgid ""
"Describes how to manage storage media and filesystems with FreeBSD. This "
"includes physical disks, RAID arrays, optical and tape media, memory-backed "
@@ -901,7 +893,7 @@ msgstr ""
"與磁帶媒體、記憶體為基礎的磁碟以及網路檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1262
+#: book.translate.xml:1285
msgid ""
"Describes what the GEOM framework in FreeBSD is and how to configure various "
"supported RAID levels."
@@ -909,7 +901,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹在 FreeBSD 中的 GEOM Framework 是什麼,以及如何設定各種支援的 RAID 階層。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1271
+#: book.translate.xml:1294
msgid ""
"Examines support of non-native file systems in FreeBSD, like the Z File "
"System from <trademark>Sun</trademark>."
@@ -918,21 +910,21 @@ msgstr ""
"案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1280
+#: book.translate.xml:1303
msgid ""
"Describes what virtualization systems offer, and how they can be used with "
"FreeBSD."
msgstr "介紹虛擬化系統提供了那些功能,以及如何在 FreeBSD 上使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1289
+#: book.translate.xml:1312
msgid ""
"Describes how to use FreeBSD in languages other than English. Covers both "
"system and application level localization."
msgstr "介紹如何在 FreeBSD 使用非英文的語言,這涵蓋了系統及應用層的在地化。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1299
+#: book.translate.xml:1322
msgid ""
"Explains the differences between FreeBSD-STABLE, FreeBSD-CURRENT, and "
"FreeBSD releases. Describes which users would benefit from tracking a "
@@ -944,7 +936,7 @@ msgstr ""
"佈版本的方法。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1312
+#: book.translate.xml:1335
msgid ""
"Describes how to configure and use the DTrace tool from <trademark>Sun</"
"trademark> in FreeBSD. Dynamic tracing can help locate performance issues, "
@@ -954,19 +946,19 @@ msgstr ""
"追蹤可以透過執行真實時間系統分析來協助定位效能問題。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1325
+#: book.translate.xml:1348
msgid ""
"Explains how to connect terminals and modems to your FreeBSD system for both "
"dial in and dial out connections."
msgstr "介紹如何使用撥入及撥出連線到您的 FreeBSD 系統的終端機與數據機。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1335
+#: book.translate.xml:1358
msgid "Describes how to use PPP to connect to remote systems with FreeBSD."
msgstr "介紹如何在 FreeBSD 使用 PPP 來連線遠端的系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1344
+#: book.translate.xml:1367
msgid ""
"Explains the different components of an email server and dives into simple "
"configuration topics for the most popular mail server software: "
@@ -976,7 +968,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>sendmail</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1355
+#: book.translate.xml:1378
msgid ""
"Provides detailed instructions and example configuration files to set up "
"your FreeBSD machine as a network filesystem server, domain name server, "
@@ -986,7 +978,7 @@ msgstr ""
"網域名稱伺服器、網路資訊系統伺服器或時間同步伺服器。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1366
+#: book.translate.xml:1389
msgid ""
"Explains the philosophy behind software-based firewalls and provides "
"detailed information about the configuration of the different firewalls "
@@ -996,7 +988,7 @@ msgstr ""
"細資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1376
+#: book.translate.xml:1399
msgid ""
"Describes many networking topics, including sharing an Internet connection "
"with other computers on your LAN, advanced routing topics, wireless "
@@ -1008,7 +1000,7 @@ msgstr ""
"ATM、IPv6 以及更多相關主題。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1389
+#: book.translate.xml:1412
msgid ""
"Lists different sources for obtaining FreeBSD media on CDROM or DVD as well "
"as different sites on the Internet that allow you to download and install "
@@ -1018,7 +1010,7 @@ msgstr ""
"您可以下載並安裝 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1399
+#: book.translate.xml:1422
msgid ""
"This book touches on many different subjects that may leave you hungry for a "
"more detailed explanation. The bibliography lists many excellent books that "
@@ -1028,7 +1020,7 @@ msgstr ""
"多優秀書籍。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1410
+#: book.translate.xml:1433
msgid ""
"Describes the many forums available for FreeBSD users to post questions and "
"engage in technical conversations about FreeBSD."
@@ -1036,18 +1028,18 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹了可讓 FreeBSD 使用者提出問題以及參與有關 FreeBSD 技術會談的許多論壇。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1420
+#: book.translate.xml:1443
msgid "Lists the PGP fingerprints of several FreeBSD Developers."
msgstr "列出了數個 FreeBSD 開發人員的 PGP 指紋。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv
-#: book.translate.xml:1426
+#: book.translate.xml:1449
msgid "Conventions used in this book"
msgstr "本書的編排體裁"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1429
+#: book.translate.xml:1452
msgid ""
"To provide a consistent and easy to read text, several conventions are "
"followed throughout the book."
@@ -1055,17 +1047,17 @@ msgstr "為方便閱讀本書,以下是一些本書所遵循的編排體裁:
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-typographic
-#: book.translate.xml:1432
+#: book.translate.xml:1455
msgid "Typographic Conventions"
msgstr "文字編排體裁"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:1436
+#: book.translate.xml:1459
msgid "<emphasis>Italic</emphasis>"
msgstr "<emphasis>斜體字</emphasis>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1439
+#: book.translate.xml:1462
msgid ""
"An <emphasis>italic</emphasis> font is used for filenames, URLs, emphasized "
"text, and the first usage of technical terms."
@@ -1074,12 +1066,12 @@ msgstr ""
"次提及的技術詞彙。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:1446
+#: book.translate.xml:1469
msgid "<literal>Monospace</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>等寬字</literal>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1449
+#: book.translate.xml:1472
msgid ""
"A <literal>monospaced</literal> font is used for error messages, commands, "
"environment variables, names of ports, hostnames, user names, group names, "
@@ -1089,24 +1081,24 @@ msgstr ""
"稱、帳號、群組、裝置名稱、變數、程式碼等。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:1457
+#: book.translate.xml:1480
msgid "<application>Bold</application>"
msgstr "<application>粗體字</application>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1460
+#: book.translate.xml:1483
msgid ""
"A <keycap>bold</keycap> font is used for applications, commands, and keys."
msgstr "以<keycap>粗體字</keycap>表示:應用程式、指令、按鍵。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-commands
-#: book.translate.xml:1467
+#: book.translate.xml:1490
msgid "User Input"
msgstr "使用者輸入"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1470
+#: book.translate.xml:1493
msgid ""
"Keys are shown in <keycap>bold</keycap> to stand out from other text. Key "
"combinations that are meant to be typed simultaneously are shown with "
@@ -1116,14 +1108,14 @@ msgstr ""
"按下一些按鍵,我們以 `<literal>+</literal>' 來表示連接,像是:"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1475
+#: book.translate.xml:1498
msgid ""
"<keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>Alt</keycap> "
"<keycap>Del</keycap></keycombo>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1481
+#: book.translate.xml:1504
msgid ""
"Meaning the user should type the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>, <keycap>Alt</"
"keycap>, and <keycap>Del</keycap> keys at the same time."
@@ -1132,14 +1124,14 @@ msgstr ""
"keycap> 鍵。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1485
+#: book.translate.xml:1508
msgid ""
"Keys that are meant to be typed in sequence will be separated with commas, "
"for example:"
msgstr "若要逐一按鍵,那麼會以逗號 (,) 來表示,像是:"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1488
+#: book.translate.xml:1511
msgid ""
"<keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>X</keycap> </"
"keycombo>, <keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>S</"
@@ -1147,7 +1139,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1497
+#: book.translate.xml:1520
msgid ""
"Would mean that the user is expected to type the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> and "
"<keycap>X</keycap> keys simultaneously and then to type the <keycap>Ctrl</"
@@ -1158,12 +1150,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-examples
-#: book.translate.xml:1503
+#: book.translate.xml:1526
msgid "Examples"
msgstr "範例"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1505
+#: book.translate.xml:1528
msgid ""
"Examples starting with <filename>C:\\&gt;</filename> indicate a <trademark "
"class=\"registered\">MS-DOS</trademark> command. Unless otherwise noted, "
@@ -1178,13 +1170,13 @@ msgstr ""
"Prompt)</quote> 視窗內執行。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:1511
+#: book.translate.xml:1534
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>E:\\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>tools\\fdimage floppies\\kern.flp A:</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1513
+#: book.translate.xml:1536
msgid ""
"Examples starting with <prompt>#</prompt> indicate a command that must be "
"invoked as the superuser in FreeBSD. You can login as <systemitem class="
@@ -1198,13 +1190,13 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來取得超級使用者權限。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:1519
+#: book.translate.xml:1542
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dd if=kern.flp of=/dev/fd0</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1521
+#: book.translate.xml:1544
msgid ""
"Examples starting with <prompt>%</prompt> indicate a command that should be "
"invoked from a normal user account. Unless otherwise noted, C-shell syntax "
@@ -1215,19 +1207,19 @@ msgstr ""
"其他指令的意思。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:1526
+#: book.translate.xml:1549
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>top</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-acknowledgements
-#: book.translate.xml:1528
+#: book.translate.xml:1551
msgid "Acknowledgments"
msgstr "銘謝"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1530
+#: book.translate.xml:1553
msgid ""
"The book you are holding represents the efforts of many hundreds of people "
"around the world. Whether they sent in fixes for typos, or submitted "
@@ -1237,7 +1229,7 @@ msgstr ""
"糾正一些錯誤或提交完整的章節,所有的點滴貢獻都是非常寶貴有用的。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1535
+#: book.translate.xml:1558
msgid ""
"Several companies have supported the development of this document by paying "
"authors to work on it full-time, paying for publication, etc. In particular, "
@@ -1263,43 +1255,43 @@ msgstr ""
"手冊以使第三版印刷版本能夠出版的志工。"
#. (itstool) path: part/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1554
+#: book.translate.xml:1577
msgid "Getting Started"
msgstr "入門"
#. (itstool) path: partintro/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1557
+#: book.translate.xml:1580
msgid ""
"This part of the handbook is for users and administrators who are new to "
"FreeBSD. These chapters:"
msgstr "這部份是提供給初次使用 FreeBSD 的使用者和系統管理者。 這些章節包括:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1562
+#: book.translate.xml:1585
msgid "Introduce FreeBSD."
msgstr "介紹 FreeBSD 給您。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1566
+#: book.translate.xml:1589
msgid "Guide readers through the installation process."
msgstr "在安裝過程給您指引。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1570
+#: book.translate.xml:1593
msgid ""
"Teach <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> basics and "
"fundamentals."
msgstr "教您 <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> 的基礎及原理。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1574
+#: book.translate.xml:1597
msgid ""
"Show how to install the wealth of third party applications available for "
"FreeBSD."
msgstr "展示給您看如何安裝豐富的 FreeBSD 的應用軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1579
+#: book.translate.xml:1602
msgid ""
"Introduce X, the <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> windowing "
"system, and detail how to configure a desktop environment that makes users "
@@ -1309,7 +1301,7 @@ msgstr ""
"細的桌面環境設定,讓您更有生產力。"
#. (itstool) path: partintro/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1585
+#: book.translate.xml:1608
msgid ""
"The number of forward references in the text have been kept to a minimum so "
"that this section can be read from front to back with minimal page flipping."
@@ -1320,12 +1312,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: info/title
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1599 book.translate.xml:23833 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:1622 book.translate.xml:23852 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "Introduction"
msgstr "簡介"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:1602 book.translate.xml:2867
+#: book.translate.xml:1625 book.translate.xml:2890
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Jim</firstname> <surname>Mock</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Restructured, reorganized, and parts rewritten by </"
@@ -1333,21 +1325,21 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1614 book.translate.xml:2922 book.translate.xml:5534
-#: book.translate.xml:8923 book.translate.xml:10656 book.translate.xml:12846
-#: book.translate.xml:13975 book.translate.xml:15596 book.translate.xml:18079
-#: book.translate.xml:19347 book.translate.xml:22832 book.translate.xml:23745
-#: book.translate.xml:27844 book.translate.xml:29454 book.translate.xml:31222
-#: book.translate.xml:31956 book.translate.xml:35736 book.translate.xml:41668
-#: book.translate.xml:41875 book.translate.xml:43231 book.translate.xml:44271
-#: book.translate.xml:45832 book.translate.xml:46217 book.translate.xml:48420
-#: book.translate.xml:50088 book.translate.xml:52001 book.translate.xml:57731
-#: book.translate.xml:61418
+#: book.translate.xml:1637 book.translate.xml:2945 book.translate.xml:5557
+#: book.translate.xml:8946 book.translate.xml:10679 book.translate.xml:12869
+#: book.translate.xml:13998 book.translate.xml:15619 book.translate.xml:18101
+#: book.translate.xml:19366 book.translate.xml:22851 book.translate.xml:23764
+#: book.translate.xml:27863 book.translate.xml:29473 book.translate.xml:31241
+#: book.translate.xml:31975 book.translate.xml:35756 book.translate.xml:41717
+#: book.translate.xml:41934 book.translate.xml:43617 book.translate.xml:44657
+#: book.translate.xml:46217 book.translate.xml:46602 book.translate.xml:48805
+#: book.translate.xml:50473 book.translate.xml:52386 book.translate.xml:58114
+#: book.translate.xml:61801
msgid "Synopsis"
msgstr "概述"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1616
+#: book.translate.xml:1639
msgid ""
"Thank you for your interest in FreeBSD! The following chapter covers various "
"aspects of the FreeBSD Project, such as its history, goals, development "
@@ -1357,93 +1349,95 @@ msgstr ""
"史、目標、開發模式等等。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1620 book.translate.xml:2949 book.translate.xml:5541
-#: book.translate.xml:8935 book.translate.xml:10677 book.translate.xml:15609
-#: book.translate.xml:18105 book.translate.xml:19361 book.translate.xml:23758
-#: book.translate.xml:27916 book.translate.xml:29481 book.translate.xml:31246
-#: book.translate.xml:31964 book.translate.xml:35762 book.translate.xml:41700
-#: book.translate.xml:41883 book.translate.xml:44283 book.translate.xml:45870
-#: book.translate.xml:46228 book.translate.xml:48431 book.translate.xml:50099
-#: book.translate.xml:57786 book.translate.xml:61423
+#: book.translate.xml:1643 book.translate.xml:2972 book.translate.xml:5564
+#: book.translate.xml:8958 book.translate.xml:10700 book.translate.xml:15632
+#: book.translate.xml:18127 book.translate.xml:19380 book.translate.xml:23777
+#: book.translate.xml:27935 book.translate.xml:29500 book.translate.xml:31265
+#: book.translate.xml:31983 book.translate.xml:35782 book.translate.xml:41749
+#: book.translate.xml:41942 book.translate.xml:44669 book.translate.xml:46255
+#: book.translate.xml:46613 book.translate.xml:48816 book.translate.xml:50484
+#: book.translate.xml:58169 book.translate.xml:61806
msgid "After reading this chapter, you will know:"
msgstr "讀完這章,您將了解︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1624
+#: book.translate.xml:1647
msgid "How FreeBSD relates to other computer operating systems."
msgstr "FreeBSD 與其他作業系統之間的關係。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1629
+#: book.translate.xml:1652
msgid "The history of the FreeBSD Project."
msgstr "FreeBSD 計劃的歷史。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1633
+#: book.translate.xml:1656
msgid "The goals of the FreeBSD Project."
msgstr "FreeBSD 計劃的目標。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1637
+#: book.translate.xml:1660
msgid "The basics of the FreeBSD open-source development model."
msgstr "FreeBSD 開源開發模式的基礎概念。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1642
+#: book.translate.xml:1665
msgid "And of course: where the name <quote>FreeBSD</quote> comes from."
msgstr "當然囉,還有 <quote>FreeBSD</quote> 這名字的由來。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1649
+#: book.translate.xml:1672
msgid "Welcome to FreeBSD!"
msgstr "歡迎使用 FreeBSD!"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1651 book.translate.xml:1820
+#: book.translate.xml:1674 book.translate.xml:1843
msgid "<primary>4.4BSD-Lite</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1653
+#: book.translate.xml:1676
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is a 4.4BSD-Lite based operating system for Intel (x86 and "
-"<trademark class=\"registered\">Itanium</trademark>), AMD64, Sun <trademark "
-"class=\"registered\">UltraSPARC</trademark> computers. Ports to other "
-"architectures are also under way. You can also read about <link linkend="
-"\"history\">the history of FreeBSD</link>, or the <link xlink:href="
-"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases\">current release</link>. If you are interested "
-"in contributing something to the Project (code, hardware, funding), see the "
-"<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/"
-"contributing/index.html\">Contributing to FreeBSD</link> article."
+"<trademark class=\"registered\">Itanium</trademark>), AMD64, <trademark "
+"class=\"registered\">ARM</trademark>, and Sun <trademark class=\"registered"
+"\">UltraSPARC</trademark> computers. Ports to other architectures are also "
+"under way. You can also read about <link linkend=\"history\">the history of "
+"FreeBSD</link>, or the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases"
+"\">current release</link>. If you are interested in contributing something "
+"to the Project (code, hardware, funding), see the <link xlink:href="
+"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/index.html"
+"\">Contributing to FreeBSD</link> article."
msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 是一個從 4.4BSD-Lite 衍生出而能在以 Intel (x86 與 <trademark class="
-"\"registered\">Itanium</trademark>), AMD64, Sun <trademark class=\"registered"
-"\">UltraSPARC</trademark> 為基礎的電腦上執行的作業系統。同時,移植到其他平台"
-"的工作也在進行中。 對於本計劃歷史的介紹,請看 <link linkend=\"history"
-"\">FreeBSD 歷史</link>, 對於 FreeBSD 的最新版本介紹,請看 <link xlink:href="
+"\"registered\">Itanium</trademark>), AMD64, <trademark class=\"registered"
+"\">ARM</trademark>, Sun <trademark class=\"registered\">UltraSPARC</"
+"trademark> 為基礎的電腦上執行的作業系統。同時,移植到其他平台的工作也在進行"
+"中。 對於本計劃歷史的介紹,請看 <link linkend=\"history\">FreeBSD 歷史</"
+"link>, 對於 FreeBSD 的最新版本介紹,請看 <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases\">最新的發行版</link>。 若打算對於 FreeBSD 計劃"
"有所貢獻的話 (程式碼、硬體、經費), 請看 <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/articles/contributing/index.html\">如何"
"對 FreeBSD 貢獻</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1663
+#: book.translate.xml:1686
msgid "What Can FreeBSD Do?"
msgstr "FreeBSD 能做什麼?"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1665
+#: book.translate.xml:1688
msgid "FreeBSD has many noteworthy features. Some of these are:"
msgstr "FreeBSD 提供給你許多先進功能。這些功能包括:"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1671
+#: book.translate.xml:1694
msgid "<primary>preemptive multitasking</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>先佔式多工</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1670
+#: book.translate.xml:1693
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Preemptive multitasking</emphasis> <_:indexterm-1/> with dynamic "
"priority adjustment to ensure smooth and fair sharing of the computer "
@@ -1453,12 +1447,12 @@ msgstr ""
"即使在系統負擔很重的情況下,程式執行平順並且應用程式與使用者公平地共享資源。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1680
+#: book.translate.xml:1703
msgid "<primary>multi-user facilities</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>多人共用</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1680
+#: book.translate.xml:1703
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Multi-user facilities</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> which allow many "
"people to use a FreeBSD system simultaneously for a variety of things. This "
@@ -1473,12 +1467,12 @@ msgstr ""
"保護系統不致被過度使用。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1693
+#: book.translate.xml:1716
msgid "<primary>TCP/IP networking</primary>"
msgstr "TCP/IP 網路"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1692
+#: book.translate.xml:1715
msgid ""
"Strong <emphasis>TCP/IP networking</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> with support "
"for industry standards such as SCTP, DHCP, NFS, NIS, PPP, SLIP, IPsec, and "
@@ -1495,12 +1489,12 @@ msgstr ""
"供 WWW、FTP、路由及防火牆 (安全性) 等必備服務。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1706
+#: book.translate.xml:1729
msgid "<primary>memory protection</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>記憶體保護</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1706
+#: book.translate.xml:1729
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Memory protection</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> ensures that "
"applications (or users) cannot interfere with each other. One application "
@@ -1510,12 +1504,12 @@ msgstr ""
"程式有不正常的運作,都不會影響其他程式的執行。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1715 book.translate.xml:1958
+#: book.translate.xml:1738 book.translate.xml:1981
msgid "<primary>X Window System</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>X Window 系統</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1714
+#: book.translate.xml:1737
msgid ""
"The industry standard <emphasis>X Window System</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> "
"(X11R7) can provide a graphical user interface (GUI) on any machine and "
@@ -1527,32 +1521,32 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1724 book.translate.xml:18084
+#: book.translate.xml:1747 book.translate.xml:18106
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>Linux</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>Linux</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1728
+#: book.translate.xml:1751
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>SCO</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>SCO</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1732
+#: book.translate.xml:1755
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>SVR4</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>SVR4</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1736
+#: book.translate.xml:1759
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>BSD/OS</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>BSD/OS</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1740
+#: book.translate.xml:1763
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>NetBSD</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>NetBSD</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1723
+#: book.translate.xml:1746
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <_:indexterm-4/> <_:"
"indexterm-5/> <emphasis>Binary compatibility</emphasis> with many programs "
@@ -1563,7 +1557,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(如: Linux、SCO、SVR4、BSDI 和 NetBSD) 的可執行檔。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1750
+#: book.translate.xml:1773
msgid ""
"Thousands of <emphasis>ready-to-run</emphasis> applications are available "
"from the FreeBSD <emphasis>ports</emphasis> and <emphasis>packages</"
@@ -1574,7 +1568,7 @@ msgstr ""
"取得。 不再需要費心到網路上到處搜尋所需要的軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1758
+#: book.translate.xml:1781
msgid ""
"Thousands of additional and <emphasis>easy-to-port</emphasis> applications "
"are available on the Internet. FreeBSD is source code compatible with most "
@@ -1587,12 +1581,12 @@ msgstr ""
"行。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1767
+#: book.translate.xml:1790
msgid "<primary>virtual memory</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>虛擬記憶體</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1766
+#: book.translate.xml:1789
msgid ""
"Demand paged <emphasis>virtual memory</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> and "
"<quote>merged VM/buffer cache</quote> design efficiently satisfies "
@@ -1604,12 +1598,12 @@ msgstr ""
"維持與其他使用者的互動。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1776
+#: book.translate.xml:1799
msgid "<primary>Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>對稱多工處理 (SMP)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1776
+#: book.translate.xml:1799
msgid ""
"<emphasis>SMP</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> support for machines with multiple "
"CPUs."
@@ -1618,17 +1612,17 @@ msgstr ""
"多 CPU 的電腦系統。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1785
+#: book.translate.xml:1808
msgid "<primary>compilers</primary> <secondary>C</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>編譯器</primary> <secondary>C</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1789
+#: book.translate.xml:1812
msgid "<primary>compilers</primary> <secondary>C++</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>編譯器</primary> <secondary>C++</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1784
+#: book.translate.xml:1807
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> A full complement of <emphasis>C</"
"emphasis> and <emphasis>C++</emphasis> development tools. Many additional "
@@ -1640,12 +1634,12 @@ msgstr ""
"進階研發的程式語言也收集在 Port 和套件集。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1802
+#: book.translate.xml:1825
msgid "<primary>source code</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>原始碼</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1802
+#: book.translate.xml:1825
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Source code</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> for the entire system means "
"you have the greatest degree of control over your environment. Why be locked "
@@ -1657,22 +1651,22 @@ msgstr ""
"廠商擺佈呢?"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1811
+#: book.translate.xml:1834
msgid "Extensive <emphasis>online documentation</emphasis>."
msgstr "廣泛且豐富的 <emphasis>線上文件</emphasis>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1816
+#: book.translate.xml:1839
msgid "<emphasis>And many more!</emphasis>"
msgstr "<emphasis>當然囉,還不止如此!</emphasis>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1823
+#: book.translate.xml:1846
msgid "<primary>Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>電腦系統研究組 (CSRG)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1820
+#: book.translate.xml:1843
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is based on the 4.4BSD-Lite<_:indexterm-1/> release from Computer "
"Systems Research Group (CSRG)<_:indexterm-2/> at the University of "
@@ -1691,7 +1685,7 @@ msgstr ""
"時,FreeBSD 已經具備這樣的特質,並具有其他地方沒有的尖端功能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1834
+#: book.translate.xml:1857
msgid ""
"The applications to which FreeBSD can be put are truly limited only by your "
"own imagination. From software development to factory automation, inventory "
@@ -1711,7 +1705,7 @@ msgstr ""
"軟體,而且出現的數目是與日俱增。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1846
+#: book.translate.xml:1869
msgid ""
"Because the source code for FreeBSD itself is generally available, the "
"system can also be customized to an almost unheard of degree for special "
@@ -1724,7 +1718,7 @@ msgstr ""
"地被修改。 以下提供一些人們使用 FreeBSD 的例子:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1856
+#: book.translate.xml:1879
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Internet Services:</emphasis> The robust TCP/IP networking built "
"into FreeBSD makes it an ideal platform for a variety of Internet services "
@@ -1734,34 +1728,34 @@ msgstr ""
"務 (如下例) 的理想平台:"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1863
+#: book.translate.xml:1886
msgid "<primary>web servers</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>網頁伺服器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1863
+#: book.translate.xml:1886
msgid "World Wide Web servers<_:indexterm-1/> (standard or secure [SSL])"
msgstr "全球資訊網伺服器<_:indexterm-1/> (標準的或更安全的 [SSL])"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1870
+#: book.translate.xml:1893
msgid "IPv4 and IPv6 routing"
msgstr "IPv4 及 IPv6 路由"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: chapter/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1874 book.translate.xml:57722
+#: book.translate.xml:1897 book.translate.xml:58105
msgid "<primary>firewall</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>防火牆</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1877 book.translate.xml:60888
+#: book.translate.xml:1900 book.translate.xml:61271
msgid "<primary>NAT</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1874
+#: book.translate.xml:1897
msgid ""
"Firewalls<_:indexterm-1/> and NAT<_:indexterm-2/> (<quote>IP masquerading</"
"quote>) gateways"
@@ -1770,38 +1764,38 @@ msgstr ""
"閘。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1884
+#: book.translate.xml:1907
msgid "<primary>FTP servers</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>FTP 伺服器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1884
+#: book.translate.xml:1907
msgid "FTP servers<_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr "檔案傳輸協定伺服器<_:indexterm-1/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1891
+#: book.translate.xml:1914
msgid "<primary>electronic mail</primary> <see>email</see>"
msgstr "<primary>電子郵件</primary> <see>email</see>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1895 book.translate.xml:50090
+#: book.translate.xml:1918 book.translate.xml:50475
msgid "<primary>email</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1890
+#: book.translate.xml:1913
msgid "<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> Electronic Mail servers"
msgstr "<_:indexterm-1/><_:indexterm-2/> 電子郵件伺服器"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1902
+#: book.translate.xml:1925
msgid "And more..."
msgstr "還有更多..."
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1908
+#: book.translate.xml:1931
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Education:</emphasis> Are you a student of computer science or a "
"related engineering field? There is no better way of learning about "
@@ -1817,7 +1811,7 @@ msgstr ""
"等可以免費地取得使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1920
+#: book.translate.xml:1943
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Research:</emphasis> With source code for the entire system "
"available, FreeBSD is an excellent platform for research in operating "
@@ -1832,17 +1826,17 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1932 book.translate.xml:61771
+#: book.translate.xml:1955 book.translate.xml:62154
msgid "<primary>router</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>路由器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1934
+#: book.translate.xml:1957
msgid "<primary>DNS Server</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>DNS 伺服器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1931
+#: book.translate.xml:1954
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Networking:</emphasis> Need a new router?<_:indexterm-1/> A name "
"server (DNS)?<_:indexterm-2/> A firewall to keep people out of your internal "
@@ -1854,12 +1848,12 @@ msgstr ""
"或 486 PC 變身成為絕佳的伺服器,甚至具有過濾封包的功能。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1945
+#: book.translate.xml:1968
msgid "<primary>embedded</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>嵌入式</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1943
+#: book.translate.xml:1966
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Embedded:</emphasis> FreeBSD makes an excellent platform to build "
"embedded systems upon. <_:indexterm-1/> With support for the <trademark "
@@ -1881,18 +1875,18 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1961 book.translate.xml:12046
+#: book.translate.xml:1984 book.translate.xml:12069
msgid "<primary>GNOME</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1964 book.translate.xml:12133
+#: book.translate.xml:1987 book.translate.xml:12156
msgid "<primary>KDE</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1957
+#: book.translate.xml:1980
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <emphasis>Desktop:</"
"emphasis> FreeBSD makes a fine choice for an inexpensive desktop solution "
@@ -1910,12 +1904,12 @@ msgstr ""
"於管理。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1983
+#: book.translate.xml:2006
msgid "<primary>Compiler</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>編譯器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1980
+#: book.translate.xml:2003
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Software Development:</emphasis> The basic FreeBSD system comes "
"with a full complement of development tools including a full C/C++<_:"
@@ -1927,7 +1921,7 @@ msgstr ""
"援需多其他語言。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1992
+#: book.translate.xml:2015
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is available to download free of charge, or can be obtained on "
"either CD-ROM or DVD. Please see <xref linkend=\"mirrors\"/> for more "
@@ -1937,19 +1931,19 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"mirrors\"/> 取得 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1999
+#: book.translate.xml:2022
msgid "Who Uses FreeBSD?"
msgstr "誰在用 FreeBSD?"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2001
+#: book.translate.xml:2024
msgid ""
"<primary>users</primary> <secondary>large sites running FreeBSD</secondary>"
msgstr ""
"<primary>使用者</primary> <secondary>執行 FreeBSD 的大型站台</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2006
+#: book.translate.xml:2029
msgid ""
"FreeBSD's advanced features, proven security, predictable release cycle, and "
"permissive license have led to its use as a platform for building many "
@@ -1962,12 +1956,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2016 book.translate.xml:56391
+#: book.translate.xml:2039 book.translate.xml:56774
msgid "<primary>Apache</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2015
+#: book.translate.xml:2038
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.apache.org/\">Apache</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The Apache Software Foundation runs most of its public facing "
@@ -1979,12 +1973,12 @@ msgstr ""
"庫 (擁有超過 140 萬次提交) 都是在 FreeBSD 上運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2026
+#: book.translate.xml:2049
msgid "<primary>Apple</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2025
+#: book.translate.xml:2048
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.apple.com/\">Apple</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"OS X borrows heavily from FreeBSD for the network stack, virtual file "
@@ -1996,12 +1990,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Apple iOS 中含有從 FreeBSD 借鑒來的元素。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2036
+#: book.translate.xml:2059
msgid "<primary>Cisco</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2035
+#: book.translate.xml:2058
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.cisco.com/\">Cisco</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"IronPort network security and anti-spam appliances run a modified FreeBSD "
@@ -2011,12 +2005,12 @@ msgstr ""
"IronPort 網路安全及反垃圾郵件設備是採用改良後 FreeBSD 核心來運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2044
+#: book.translate.xml:2067
msgid "<primary>Citrix</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2043
+#: book.translate.xml:2066
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.citrix.com/\">Citrix</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The NetScaler line of security appliances provide layer 4-7 load balancing, "
@@ -2028,12 +2022,12 @@ msgstr ""
"牆、安全的 VPN 以及行動雲端網路存取,皆運用了 FreeBSD Shell 強大的功能。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2055
+#: book.translate.xml:2078
msgid "<primary>Dell KACE</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2053
+#: book.translate.xml:2076
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.dell.com/KACE\">Dell KACE</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The KACE system management appliances run FreeBSD because of "
@@ -2045,12 +2039,12 @@ msgstr ""
"擴展性以及支持其持續發展的社群。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2065
+#: book.translate.xml:2088
msgid "<primary>Experts Exchange</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2063
+#: book.translate.xml:2086
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.experts-exchange.com/\">Experts Exchange</"
"link> <_:indexterm-1/> - All public facing web servers are powered by "
@@ -2062,12 +2056,12 @@ msgstr ""
"量使用 Jail 來隔離開發與測試環境,減少了虛擬化的額外開銷。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2075
+#: book.translate.xml:2098
msgid "<primary>Isilon</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2074
+#: book.translate.xml:2097
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.isilon.com/\">Isilon</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"Isilon's enterprise storage appliances are based on FreeBSD. The extremely "
@@ -2080,12 +2074,12 @@ msgstr ""
"整合了它們的智慧財產到整個核心,並專注打造自己的產品,而不是一個作業系統。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2087
+#: book.translate.xml:2110
msgid "<primary>iXsystems</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2086
+#: book.translate.xml:2109
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.ixsystems.com/\">iXsystems</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The TrueNAS line of unified storage appliances is based on "
@@ -2098,12 +2092,12 @@ msgstr ""
"開源計劃的開發。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2097
+#: book.translate.xml:2120
msgid "<primary>Juniper</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2096
+#: book.translate.xml:2119
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.juniper.net/\">Juniper</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- The JunOS operating system that powers all Juniper networking gear "
@@ -2121,12 +2115,12 @@ msgstr ""
"功能從 FreeBSD 整合回 JunOS 的複雜性。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2112
+#: book.translate.xml:2135
msgid "<primary>McAfee</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2111
+#: book.translate.xml:2134
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.mcafee.com/\">McAfee</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"SecurOS, the basis of McAfee enterprise firewall products including "
@@ -2137,12 +2131,12 @@ msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 為基礎。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2121
+#: book.translate.xml:2144
msgid "<primary>NetApp</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2120
+#: book.translate.xml:2143
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netapp.com/\">NetApp</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The Data ONTAP GX line of storage appliances are based on FreeBSD. In "
@@ -2154,12 +2148,12 @@ msgstr ""
"了回 FreeBSD 許多功能,包括新 BSD 條款授權的 hypervisor, bhyve。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2131 book.translate.xml:2405
+#: book.translate.xml:2154 book.translate.xml:2428
msgid "<primary>Netflix</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2130
+#: book.translate.xml:2153
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netflix.com/\">Netflix</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- The OpenConnect appliance that Netflix uses to stream movies to its "
@@ -2174,13 +2168,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Netflix 的 OpenConnect 設備負責了北美所有的網路流量 32% 以上。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2144
+#: book.translate.xml:2167
msgid "<primary>Sandvine</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2143
-#, fuzzy
+#: book.translate.xml:2166
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sandvine.com/\">Sandvine</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - Sandvine uses FreeBSD as the basis of their high performance real-time "
@@ -2188,16 +2181,16 @@ msgid ""
"control products."
msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sandvine.com/\">Sandvine</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
-"> - Sandvine 使用 FreeBSD 作為它們的高性能即時網路處理平台,來建立它們的智慧"
-"網路策略控制產品。"
+"> - Sandvine 使用 FreeBSD 作為它的高性能即時網路處理平台的基礎來建立它們的智"
+"慧網路策略控制產品。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2154
+#: book.translate.xml:2177
msgid "<primary>Sony</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2153
+#: book.translate.xml:2176
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sony.com/\">Sony</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The "
"PlayStation 4 gaming console runs a modified version of FreeBSD."
@@ -2206,12 +2199,12 @@ msgstr ""
"PlayStation 4 遊戲主機使用了修改過的 FreeBSD 版本來運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2162
+#: book.translate.xml:2185
msgid "<primary>Sophos</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2161
+#: book.translate.xml:2184
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sophos.com/\">Sophos</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The Sophos Email Appliance product is based on a hardened FreeBSD and scans "
@@ -2223,12 +2216,12 @@ msgstr ""
"郵件中的垃圾郵件和病毒,同時也可監控出站郵件中的惡意軟體及敏感資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2174
+#: book.translate.xml:2197
msgid "<primary>Spectra Logic</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2172
+#: book.translate.xml:2195
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.spectralogic.com/\">Spectra Logic</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The nTier line of archive grade storage appliances run "
@@ -2238,12 +2231,12 @@ msgstr ""
"indexterm-1/> - 儲藏級儲存設備的 nTier 產品線以 FreeBSD 和 OpenZFS 來運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2182
+#: book.translate.xml:2205
msgid "<primary>Stormshield</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>Stormshield</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2181
+#: book.translate.xml:2204
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"https://www.stormshield.eu\">Stormshield</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - Stormshield Network Security appliances are based on a "
@@ -2256,12 +2249,12 @@ msgstr ""
"BSD 授權條款讓他們可將其智慧財產與系統整合並同時回饋大量有趣的發展給社群。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2195
+#: book.translate.xml:2218
msgid "<primary>The Weather Channel</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2193
+#: book.translate.xml:2216
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.weather.com/\">The Weather Channel</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The IntelliStar appliance that is installed at each local "
@@ -2273,12 +2266,12 @@ msgstr ""
"視網路節目的 IntelliStar 設備便是使用 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2206
+#: book.translate.xml:2229
msgid "<primary>Verisign</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2205
+#: book.translate.xml:2228
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.verisign.com/\">Verisign</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - Verisign is responsible for operating the .com and .net root domain "
@@ -2292,12 +2285,12 @@ msgstr ""
"點故障的問題。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2219
+#: book.translate.xml:2242
msgid "<primary>Voxer</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2218
+#: book.translate.xml:2241
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.voxer.com/\">Voxer</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"Voxer powers their mobile voice messaging platform with ZFS on FreeBSD. "
@@ -2313,12 +2306,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 也支援了 TRIM。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2233
+#: book.translate.xml:2256
msgid "<primary>WhatsApp</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2232
+#: book.translate.xml:2255
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.whatsapp.com/\">WhatsApp</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - When WhatsApp needed a platform that would be able to handle more than 1 "
@@ -2330,12 +2323,12 @@ msgstr ""
"台時,它們選擇了 FreeBSD。它們接著擴大規模到每台伺服器處理超過 250 萬的連線。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2245
+#: book.translate.xml:2268
msgid "<primary>Wheel Systems</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2243
+#: book.translate.xml:2266
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://wheelsystems.com/\">Wheel Systems</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The FUDO security appliance allows enterprises to monitor, "
@@ -2349,17 +2342,17 @@ msgstr ""
"GELI, Capsicum, HAST 及 auditdistd。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2257
+#: book.translate.xml:2280
msgid "FreeBSD has also spawned a number of related open source projects:"
msgstr "FreeBSD 也催生了數個相關的開源計劃:"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2264
+#: book.translate.xml:2287
msgid "<primary>BSD Router</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2262
+#: book.translate.xml:2285
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://bsdrp.net/\">BSD Router</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"A FreeBSD based replacement for large enterprise routers designed to run on "
@@ -2369,12 +2362,12 @@ msgstr ""
"以 FreeBSD 為基礎的大型企業路由器替代方案,專門設計為可在標準 PC 硬體上運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2273
+#: book.translate.xml:2296
msgid "<primary>FreeNAS</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2272
+#: book.translate.xml:2295
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.freenas.org/\">FreeNAS</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- A customized FreeBSD designed to be used as a network file server "
@@ -2389,12 +2382,12 @@ msgstr ""
"iSCSI,還有以 FreeBSD Jail 為基礎的套件系統。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2285
+#: book.translate.xml:2308
msgid "<primary>GhostBSD</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2284
+#: book.translate.xml:2307
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.ghostbsd.org/\">GhostBSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - A desktop oriented distribution of FreeBSD bundled with the Gnome "
@@ -2404,12 +2397,12 @@ msgstr ""
"> - 採用 Gnome 桌面環境的 FreeBSD 發行版。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2293
+#: book.translate.xml:2316
msgid "<primary>mfsBSD</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2292
+#: book.translate.xml:2315
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://mfsbsd.vx.sk/\">mfsBSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - A "
"toolkit for building a FreeBSD system image that runs entirely from memory."
@@ -2418,12 +2411,12 @@ msgstr ""
"來建置可完全從記憶體執行 FreeBSD 系統映像檔工具。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2301
+#: book.translate.xml:2324
msgid "<primary>NAS4Free</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2300
+#: book.translate.xml:2323
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.nas4free.org/\">NAS4Free</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - A file server distribution based on FreeBSD with a PHP powered web "
@@ -2433,12 +2426,12 @@ msgstr ""
"> - 以 FreeBSD 及 PHP 驅動網頁介面為基礎的檔案伺服器。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2309
+#: book.translate.xml:2332
msgid "<primary>OPNsense</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2308
+#: book.translate.xml:2331
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.opnsense.org/\">OPNSense</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - OPNsense is an open source, easy-to-use and easy-to-build FreeBSD based "
@@ -2453,29 +2446,29 @@ msgstr ""
"功能集,同時擁有開放和安全的來源。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2321
+#: book.translate.xml:2344
msgid "<primary>TrueOS</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>TrueOS</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2320
+#: book.translate.xml:2343
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"https://www.trueos.org\">TrueOS</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"A customized version of FreeBSD geared towards desktop users with graphical "
"utilities to exposing the power of FreeBSD to all users. Designed to ease "
"the transition of Windows and OS X users."
msgstr ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pcbsd.org/\">TrueOS</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
+"<link xlink:href=\"https://www.trueos.org\">TrueOS</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"訂製版本的 FreeBSD,裝備了給桌面使用者使用的圖型化工具來展示 FreeBSD 強大的功"
"能給所有使用者,專門設計來緩解使用者在 Windows 與 OS X 間的過渡。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2331
+#: book.translate.xml:2354
msgid "<primary>pfSense</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2330
+#: book.translate.xml:2353
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pfsense.org/\">pfSense</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- A firewall distribution based on FreeBSD with a huge array of features and "
@@ -2485,12 +2478,12 @@ msgstr ""
"- 以 FreeBSD 為基礎的防火牆發行版,支援巨型陣列及大規模 IPv6。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2340
+#: book.translate.xml:2363
msgid "<primary>ZRouter</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2339
+#: book.translate.xml:2362
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://zrouter.org/\">ZRouter</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"An open source alternative firmware for embedded devices based on FreeBSD. "
@@ -2501,135 +2494,135 @@ msgstr ""
"用韌體。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2348
+#: book.translate.xml:2371
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is also used to power some of the biggest sites on the Internet, "
"including:"
msgstr "FreeBSD 也同時被用來驅動一些網際網路上的大型網站,包括:"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2354
+#: book.translate.xml:2377
msgid "<primary>Yahoo!</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2353
+#: book.translate.xml:2376
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.yahoo.com/\">Yahoo!</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2361
+#: book.translate.xml:2384
msgid "<primary>Yandex</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2360
+#: book.translate.xml:2383
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.yandex.ru/\">Yandex</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2368
+#: book.translate.xml:2391
msgid "<primary>Rambler</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2367
+#: book.translate.xml:2390
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.rambler.ru/\">Rambler</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2375
+#: book.translate.xml:2398
msgid "<primary>Sina</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2374
+#: book.translate.xml:2397
msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sina.com/\">Sina</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2383
+#: book.translate.xml:2406
msgid "<primary>Pair Networks</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2381
+#: book.translate.xml:2404
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pair.com/\">Pair Networks</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2391
+#: book.translate.xml:2414
msgid "<primary>Sony Japan</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2389
+#: book.translate.xml:2412
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sony.co.jp/\">Sony Japan</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
">"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2398
+#: book.translate.xml:2421
msgid "<primary>Netcraft</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2397
+#: book.translate.xml:2420
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netcraft.com/\">Netcraft</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
">"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2404
+#: book.translate.xml:2427
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"https://signup.netflix.com/openconnect\">Netflix</link> "
"<_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2412
+#: book.translate.xml:2435
msgid "<primary>NetEase</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2411
+#: book.translate.xml:2434
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.163.com/\">NetEase</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2419
+#: book.translate.xml:2442
msgid "<primary>Weathernews</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2418
+#: book.translate.xml:2441
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.weathernews.com/\">Weathernews</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2427
+#: book.translate.xml:2450
msgid "<primary>TELEHOUSE America</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2425
+#: book.translate.xml:2448
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.telehouse.com/\">TELEHOUSE America</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2434
+#: book.translate.xml:2457
msgid ""
"and many more. Wikipedia also maintains a <link xlink:href=\"http://en."
"wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_products_based_on_FreeBSD\">list of products "
@@ -2639,12 +2632,12 @@ msgstr ""
"org/wiki/List_of_products_based_on_FreeBSD\">以 FreeBSD 為基礎的產品</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2440
+#: book.translate.xml:2463
msgid "About the FreeBSD Project"
msgstr "關於 FreeBSD 計劃"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2442
+#: book.translate.xml:2465
msgid ""
"The following section provides some background information on the project, "
"including a brief history, project goals, and the development model of the "
@@ -2652,37 +2645,37 @@ msgid ""
msgstr "接下來講的是 FreeBSD 計劃的背景,包含歷史、計劃目標以及開發模式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2447
+#: book.translate.xml:2470
msgid "A Brief History of FreeBSD"
msgstr "FreeBSD 歷史簡介"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2449
+#: book.translate.xml:2472
msgid "<primary>386BSD Patchkit</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2450
+#: book.translate.xml:2473
msgid "<primary>Hubbard, Jordan</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2451
+#: book.translate.xml:2474
msgid "<primary>Williams, Nate</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2452
+#: book.translate.xml:2475
msgid "<primary>Grimes, Rod</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2453
+#: book.translate.xml:2476
msgid "<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>history</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2458
+#: book.translate.xml:2481
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD Project had its genesis in the early part of 1993, partially as "
"an outgrowth of the Unofficial 386BSDPatchkit by the patchkit's last 3 "
@@ -2692,12 +2685,12 @@ msgstr ""
"劃的最後三個協調人 Nate Williams,Rod Grimes 和 Jordan Hubbard。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2463 book.translate.xml:2503
+#: book.translate.xml:2486 book.translate.xml:2526
msgid "<primary>386BSD</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2464
+#: book.translate.xml:2487
msgid ""
"The original goal was to produce an intermediate snapshot of 386BSD in order "
"to fix a number of problems with it that the patchkit mechanism just was not "
@@ -2709,12 +2702,12 @@ msgstr ""
"386BSD Interim 便是這個原因。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2470
+#: book.translate.xml:2493
msgid "<primary>Jolitz, Bill</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2471
+#: book.translate.xml:2494
msgid ""
"386BSD was Bill Jolitz's operating system, which had been up to that point "
"suffering rather severely from almost a year's worth of neglect. As the "
@@ -2730,17 +2723,17 @@ msgstr ""
"出未來的打算,所以該計劃便突然面臨中止。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2481
+#: book.translate.xml:2504
msgid "<primary>Greenman, David</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2482
+#: book.translate.xml:2505
msgid "<primary>Walnut Creek CDROM</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2484
+#: book.translate.xml:2507
msgid ""
"The trio thought that the goal remained worthwhile, even without Bill's "
"support, and so they adopted the name \"FreeBSD\" coined by David Greenman. "
@@ -2765,27 +2758,27 @@ msgstr ""
"模。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2500
+#: book.translate.xml:2523
msgid "<primary>4.3BSD-Lite</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2501 book.translate.xml:2516
+#: book.translate.xml:2524 book.translate.xml:2539
msgid "<primary>Net/2</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2502 book.translate.xml:2515
+#: book.translate.xml:2525 book.translate.xml:2538
msgid "<primary>U.C. Berkeley</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2504 book.translate.xml:8890
+#: book.translate.xml:2527 book.translate.xml:8913
msgid "<primary>Free Software Foundation</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2506
+#: book.translate.xml:2529
msgid ""
"The first CD-ROM (and general net-wide) distribution was FreeBSD 1.0, "
"released in December of 1993. This was based on the 4.3BSD-Lite "
@@ -2800,17 +2793,17 @@ msgstr ""
"還算成功,我們又接著於 1994 年 5 月發行了相當成功的 FreeBSD 1.1。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2514
+#: book.translate.xml:2537
msgid "<primary>Novell</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2517
+#: book.translate.xml:2540
msgid "<primary>AT&amp;T</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2518
+#: book.translate.xml:2541
msgid ""
"Around this time, some rather unexpected storm clouds formed on the horizon "
"as Novell and U.C. Berkeley settled their long-running lawsuit over the "
@@ -2835,7 +2828,7 @@ msgstr ""
"最後一次發行,也就是 FreeBSD 1.1.5.1。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2535
+#: book.translate.xml:2558
msgid ""
"FreeBSD then set about the arduous task of literally re-inventing itself "
"from a completely new and rather incomplete set of 4.4BSD-Lite bits. The "
@@ -2857,7 +2850,7 @@ msgstr ""
"之於 1995 年 6 月又發行了更容易安裝,更好的 FreeBSD 2.0.5。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2549
+#: book.translate.xml:2572
msgid ""
"Since that time, FreeBSD has made a series of releases each time improving "
"the stability, speed, and feature set of the previous version."
@@ -2866,7 +2859,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的發佈版本。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2553
+#: book.translate.xml:2576
msgid ""
"For now, long-term development projects continue to take place in the 10.X-"
"CURRENT (trunk) branch, and snapshot releases of 10.X are continually made "
@@ -2878,24 +2871,24 @@ msgstr ""
"snapshots/\">快照伺服器</link> 取得。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2561
+#: book.translate.xml:2584
msgid "FreeBSD Project Goals"
msgstr "FreeBSD 計劃目標"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2564
+#: book.translate.xml:2587
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Jordan</firstname> <surname>Hubbard</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2574
+#: book.translate.xml:2597
msgid "<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>goals</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>FreeBSD 計劃</primary> <secondary>目標</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2578
+#: book.translate.xml:2601
msgid ""
"The goals of the FreeBSD Project are to provide software that may be used "
"for any purpose and without strings attached. Many of us have a significant "
@@ -2915,22 +2908,22 @@ msgstr ""
"是我們所倡導的一個目標。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2590
+#: book.translate.xml:2613
msgid "<primary>GNU General Public License (GPL)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>GNU 通用公共授權條款 (GPL)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2593
+#: book.translate.xml:2616
msgid "<primary>GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>GNU 較寬鬆通用公共授權條款 (LGPL)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2596
+#: book.translate.xml:2619
msgid "<primary>BSD Copyright</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>BSD 版權</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2597
+#: book.translate.xml:2620
msgid ""
"That code in our source tree which falls under the GNU General Public "
"License (GPL) or Library General Public License (LGPL) comes with slightly "
@@ -2946,25 +2939,25 @@ msgstr ""
"果可以選擇的話, 我們會比較喜歡使用限制相對更寬鬆的 BSD 版權來發佈軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2609
+#: book.translate.xml:2632
msgid "The FreeBSD Development Model"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開發模式"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2612
+#: book.translate.xml:2635
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Satoshi</firstname> <surname>Asami</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2622
+#: book.translate.xml:2645
msgid ""
"<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>development model</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>FreeBSD 專案</primary> <secondary>開發模式</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2627
+#: book.translate.xml:2650
msgid ""
"The development of FreeBSD is a very open and flexible process, being "
"literally built from the contributions of thousands of people around the "
@@ -2991,7 +2984,7 @@ msgstr ""
"link> 對那些希望了解我們進度的人也是相當有用的。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2640
+#: book.translate.xml:2663
msgid ""
"Useful things to know about the FreeBSD Project and its development process, "
"whether working independently or in close cooperation:"
@@ -3000,43 +2993,43 @@ msgstr ""
"錯的︰"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2646
+#: book.translate.xml:2669
msgid "The SVN repositories<anchor xml:id=\"development-cvs-repository\"/>"
msgstr "SVN 檔案庫<anchor xml:id=\"development-cvs-repository\"/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2650
+#: book.translate.xml:2673
msgid "<primary>CVS</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2654
+#: book.translate.xml:2677
msgid "<primary>CVS Repository</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>CVS 檔案庫</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2658
+#: book.translate.xml:2681
msgid "<primary>Concurrent Versions System</primary> <see>CVS</see>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2663 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:2686 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "<primary>Subversion</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2667
+#: book.translate.xml:2690
msgid "<primary>Subversion Repository</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2671
+#: book.translate.xml:2694
msgid "<primary>SVN</primary> <see>Subversion</see>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2649
+#: book.translate.xml:2672
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <_:indexterm-4/> <_:"
"indexterm-5/> <_:indexterm-6/> For several years, the central source tree "
@@ -3069,17 +3062,17 @@ msgstr ""
"\"ports-using\">使用 Port 套件集</link> 了解如何取得 FreeBSD Port 套件集。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2698
+#: book.translate.xml:2721
msgid "The committers list<anchor xml:id=\"development-committers\"/>"
msgstr "提交者名單<anchor xml:id=\"development-committers\"/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2702
+#: book.translate.xml:2725
msgid "<primary>committers</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>提交者</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2701
+#: book.translate.xml:2724
msgid ""
"The <firstterm>committers</firstterm> <_:indexterm-1/> are the people who "
"have <emphasis>write</emphasis> access to the Subversion tree, and are "
@@ -3100,17 +3093,17 @@ msgstr ""
"誤 (Bug)。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2718
+#: book.translate.xml:2741
msgid "The FreeBSD core team<anchor xml:id=\"development-core\"/>"
msgstr "FreeBSD 核心團隊<anchor xml:id=\"development-core\"/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2722
+#: book.translate.xml:2745
msgid "<primary>core team</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>核心團隊</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2721
+#: book.translate.xml:2744
msgid ""
"The <firstterm>FreeBSD core team</firstterm> <_:indexterm-1/> would be "
"equivalent to the board of directors if the FreeBSD Project were a company. "
@@ -3128,7 +3121,7 @@ msgstr ""
"2014 年 7 月從提交者候選人之中選出來的,這個選舉每兩年會舉辦一次。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2737
+#: book.translate.xml:2760
msgid ""
"Like most developers, most members of the core team are also volunteers when "
"it comes to FreeBSD development and do not benefit from the project "
@@ -3145,12 +3138,12 @@ msgstr ""
"而選擇投入 FreeBSD 開發的熱血有為者才對!"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2752
+#: book.translate.xml:2775
msgid "Outside contributors"
msgstr "非官方貢獻者"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2755
+#: book.translate.xml:2778
msgid ""
"Last, but definitely not least, the largest group of developers are the "
"users themselves who provide feedback and bug fixes to us on an almost "
@@ -3168,12 +3161,12 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"eresources\"/> 以瞭解各式不同的 FreeBSD 郵遞論壇。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2766
+#: book.translate.xml:2789
msgid "<primary>contributors</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>貢獻者</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2764
+#: book.translate.xml:2787
msgid ""
"<citetitle><link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/"
"contributors/article.html\">The FreeBSD Contributors List</link></citetitle> "
@@ -3186,7 +3179,7 @@ msgstr ""
"貢獻 FreeBSD 一些回饋呢?"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2771
+#: book.translate.xml:2794
msgid ""
"Providing code is not the only way of contributing to the project; for a "
"more complete list of things that need doing, please refer to the <link "
@@ -3196,7 +3189,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html\">FreeBSD 計畫網站</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2779
+#: book.translate.xml:2802
msgid ""
"In summary, our development model is organized as a loose set of concentric "
"circles. The centralized model is designed for the convenience of the "
@@ -3213,7 +3206,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用 — 而這個開發模式對我們要完成這個目標來說運作的非常好。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2789
+#: book.translate.xml:2812
msgid ""
"All we ask of those who would join us as FreeBSD developers is some of the "
"same dedication its current people have to its continued success!"
@@ -3222,12 +3215,12 @@ msgstr ""
"保繼續成功!"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2795
+#: book.translate.xml:2818
msgid "Third Party Programs"
msgstr "第三方程式"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2797
+#: book.translate.xml:2820
msgid ""
"In addition to the base distributions, FreeBSD offers a ported software "
"collection with thousands of commonly sought-after programs. At the time of "
@@ -3255,12 +3248,12 @@ msgstr ""
"更多有關套件與 Port 的資訊可於 <xref linkend=\"ports\"/> 取得。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2818
+#: book.translate.xml:2841
msgid "Additional Documentation"
msgstr "其他文件"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2820
+#: book.translate.xml:2843
msgid ""
"All recent FreeBSD versions provide an option in the installer (either "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
@@ -3282,12 +3275,12 @@ msgstr ""
"已安裝在本機的操作手冊:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2832
+#: book.translate.xml:2855
msgid "The FreeBSD Handbook"
msgstr "FreeBSD 使用手冊"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2835
+#: book.translate.xml:2858
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"file://localhost/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/handbook/"
"index.html\"><filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/handbook/index.html</"
@@ -3295,12 +3288,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2840
+#: book.translate.xml:2863
msgid "The FreeBSD FAQ"
msgstr "FreeBSD 常見問答集"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2843
+#: book.translate.xml:2866
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"file://localhost/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/faq/index."
"html\"><filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/faq/index.html</filename></"
@@ -3308,47 +3301,47 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2848
+#: book.translate.xml:2871
msgid ""
"You can also view the master (and most frequently updated) copies at <uri "
-"xlink:href=\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/\">http://www.FreeBSD.org/</uri>."
+"xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/\">https://www.FreeBSD.org/</uri>."
msgstr ""
"此外,可在下列網址找到最新版 (也是更新最頻繁的版本):<uri xlink:href="
-"\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/\">http://www.FreeBSD.org/</uri>。"
+"\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/\">https://www.FreeBSD.org/</uri>。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2864
+#: book.translate.xml:2887
msgid "Installing FreeBSD"
msgstr "安裝 FreeBSD"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2892
+#: book.translate.xml:2915
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Gavin</firstname> <surname>Atkinson</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Updated for bsdinstall by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2901
+#: book.translate.xml:2924
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Warren</firstname> <surname>Block</surname> </"
"personname>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2910
+#: book.translate.xml:2933
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Allan</firstname> <surname>Jude</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Updated for root-on-ZFS by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2924
+#: book.translate.xml:2947
msgid "<primary>installation</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>安裝</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2926
+#: book.translate.xml:2949
msgid ""
"Beginning with FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE, FreeBSD provides an easy to use, text-"
"based installation program named <application>bsdinstall</application>. This "
@@ -3360,7 +3353,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>bsdinstall</application> 來安裝 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2932
+#: book.translate.xml:2955
msgid ""
"In general, the installation instructions in this chapter are written for "
"the <trademark>i386</trademark> and <acronym>AMD64</acronym> architectures. "
@@ -3375,7 +3368,7 @@ msgstr ""
"著來做。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2941
+#: book.translate.xml:2964
msgid ""
"Users who prefer to install FreeBSD using a graphical installer may be "
"interested in <application>pc-sysinstall</application>, the installer used "
@@ -3391,22 +3384,22 @@ msgstr ""
"\">https://www.trueos.org/handbook/trueos.html</link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2953
+#: book.translate.xml:2976
msgid "The minimum hardware requirements and FreeBSD supported architectures."
msgstr "最低的硬體需求和 FreeBSD 支援的架構。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2958
+#: book.translate.xml:2981
msgid "How to create the FreeBSD installation media."
msgstr "如何建立 FreeBSD 的安裝媒體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2962
+#: book.translate.xml:2985
msgid "How to start <application>bsdinstall</application>."
msgstr "如何開始執行 <application>bsdinstall</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2967
+#: book.translate.xml:2990
msgid ""
"The questions <application>bsdinstall</application> will ask, what they "
"mean, and how to answer them."
@@ -3415,29 +3408,29 @@ msgstr ""
"回答。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2972
+#: book.translate.xml:2995
msgid "How to troubleshoot a failed installation."
msgstr "安裝失敗時如何做故障排除。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2976
+#: book.translate.xml:2999
msgid ""
"How to access a live version of FreeBSD before committing to an installation."
msgstr "如何在正式安裝前使用 live 版本的 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2981 book.translate.xml:10706 book.translate.xml:14038
-#: book.translate.xml:18129 book.translate.xml:19394 book.translate.xml:23818
-#: book.translate.xml:29517 book.translate.xml:31264 book.translate.xml:32016
-#: book.translate.xml:35787 book.translate.xml:41718 book.translate.xml:41913
-#: book.translate.xml:43291 book.translate.xml:44314 book.translate.xml:45887
-#: book.translate.xml:46246 book.translate.xml:48457 book.translate.xml:50163
-#: book.translate.xml:57814 book.translate.xml:61465
+#: book.translate.xml:3004 book.translate.xml:10729 book.translate.xml:14061
+#: book.translate.xml:18151 book.translate.xml:19413 book.translate.xml:23837
+#: book.translate.xml:29536 book.translate.xml:31283 book.translate.xml:32035
+#: book.translate.xml:35807 book.translate.xml:41767 book.translate.xml:41972
+#: book.translate.xml:43677 book.translate.xml:44700 book.translate.xml:46272
+#: book.translate.xml:46631 book.translate.xml:48842 book.translate.xml:50548
+#: book.translate.xml:58197 book.translate.xml:61848
msgid "Before reading this chapter, you should:"
msgstr "在開始閱讀這章之前,您需要︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2985
+#: book.translate.xml:3008
msgid ""
"Read the supported hardware list that shipped with the version of FreeBSD to "
"be installed and verify that the system's hardware is supported."
@@ -3445,12 +3438,12 @@ msgstr ""
"閱讀即將安裝的 FreeBSD 版本所附帶的硬體支援清單,並核對系統的硬體是否有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2993
+#: book.translate.xml:3016
msgid "Minimum Hardware Requirements"
msgstr "最低硬體需求"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2995
+#: book.translate.xml:3018
msgid ""
"The hardware requirements to install FreeBSD vary by architecture. Hardware "
"architectures and devices supported by a FreeBSD release are listed on the "
@@ -3466,7 +3459,7 @@ msgstr ""
"也有建議如何正確的選擇在不同架構使用的映像檔。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3002
+#: book.translate.xml:3025
msgid ""
"A FreeBSD installation requires a minimum of 96 MB of <acronym>RAM</acronym> "
"and 1.5 GB of free hard drive space. However, such small amounts of memory "
@@ -3479,17 +3472,17 @@ msgstr ""
"途的桌面系統會需要更多的資源,2-4 GB RAM 與至少 8 GB 的硬碟空間是不錯的起點。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3010
+#: book.translate.xml:3033
msgid "These are the processor requirements for each architecture:"
msgstr "每一種架構的處理器需求概述如下:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3015
+#: book.translate.xml:3038
msgid "amd64"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3017
+#: book.translate.xml:3040
msgid ""
"This is the most common desktop and laptop processor type, used in most "
"modern systems. <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> calls it "
@@ -3501,32 +3494,32 @@ msgstr ""
"製造商則稱該類型為 <acronym>x86-64</acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3022
+#: book.translate.xml:3045
msgid ""
-"Examples of amd64 compatible processsors include: <trademark>AMD Athlon</"
+"Examples of amd64 compatible processors include: <trademark>AMD Athlon</"
"trademark>64, <trademark>AMD Opteron</trademark>, multi-core <trademark "
"class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Xeon</trademark>, and "
"<trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Core</"
"trademark> 2 and later processors."
msgstr ""
-"與 amd64 相容的處理器包含:<trademark>AMD Athlon</trademark>64, "
+"與 amd64 相容的處理器範例包含:<trademark>AMD Athlon</trademark>64, "
"<trademark>AMD Opteron</trademark>, 多核心 <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Xeon</trademark> 以及 <trademark class="
"\"registered\">Intel</trademark> <trademark>Core</trademark> 2 與之後的處理"
"器。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3030
+#: book.translate.xml:3053
msgid "i386"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3032
+#: book.translate.xml:3055
msgid "Older desktops and laptops often use this 32-bit, x86 architecture."
msgstr "舊型的桌面電腦與筆記型電腦常使用此 32-bit, x86 架構。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3035
+#: book.translate.xml:3058
msgid ""
"Almost all i386-compatible processors with a floating point unit are "
"supported. All <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> processors "
@@ -3536,7 +3529,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"registered\">Intel</trademark> 486 或是更高階的處理器也有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3039
+#: book.translate.xml:3062
msgid ""
"FreeBSD will take advantage of Physical Address Extensions (<acronym>PAE</"
"acronym>) support on <acronym>CPU</acronym>s with this feature. A kernel "
@@ -3554,12 +3547,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3051
+#: book.translate.xml:3074
msgid "ia64"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3053
+#: book.translate.xml:3076
msgid ""
"Currently supported processors are the <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Itanium</trademark> and the <trademark class=\"registered\">Itanium</"
@@ -3577,12 +3570,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>SMP</acronym>) 的設定都有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3063
+#: book.translate.xml:3086
msgid "pc98"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3065
+#: book.translate.xml:3088
msgid ""
"NEC PC-9801/9821 series with almost all i386-compatible processors, "
"including 80486, <trademark class=\"registered\">Pentium</trademark>, "
@@ -3600,7 +3593,7 @@ msgstr ""
"FC-9801/9821 及 NEC SV-98 系列也有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3074
+#: book.translate.xml:3097
msgid ""
"High-resolution mode is not supported. NEC PC-98XA/XL/RL/XL^2, and NEC PC-"
"H98 series are supported in normal (PC-9801 compatible) mode only. The "
@@ -3614,12 +3607,12 @@ msgstr ""
"流排不支援。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3085
+#: book.translate.xml:3108
msgid "powerpc"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3087
+#: book.translate.xml:3110
msgid ""
"All New World <acronym>ROM</acronym> <trademark class=\"registered\">Apple</"
"trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">Mac</trademark> systems with "
@@ -3632,17 +3625,17 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>CPU</acronym> 的機器都有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3092
+#: book.translate.xml:3115
msgid "A 32-bit kernel can only use the first 2 GB of <acronym>RAM</acronym>."
msgstr "32 位元的核心只能使用前 2 GB 的 <acronym>RAM</acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3098
+#: book.translate.xml:3121
msgid "sparc64"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3100
+#: book.translate.xml:3123
msgid ""
"Systems supported by FreeBSD/sparc64 are listed at the <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/platforms/sparc.html\">FreeBSD/sparc64 Project</link>."
@@ -3651,7 +3644,7 @@ msgstr ""
"platforms/sparc.html\">FreeBSD/sparc64 計劃</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3104
+#: book.translate.xml:3127
msgid ""
"<acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on all systems with more than 1 "
"processor. A dedicated disk is required as it is not possible to share a "
@@ -3661,12 +3654,12 @@ msgstr ""
"因為此時無法和其他作業系統共用磁碟。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3114
+#: book.translate.xml:3137
msgid "Pre-Installation Tasks"
msgstr "安裝前準備工作"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3116
+#: book.translate.xml:3139
msgid ""
"Once it has been determined that the system meets the minimum hardware "
"requirements for installing FreeBSD, the installation file should be "
@@ -3678,12 +3671,12 @@ msgstr ""
"體。 做這些之前,先檢查以下核對清單的項目是否準備好了:"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3125
+#: book.translate.xml:3148
msgid "Back Up Important Data"
msgstr "備份重要資料"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3127
+#: book.translate.xml:3150
msgid ""
"Before installing any operating system, <emphasis>always</emphasis> backup "
"all important data first. Do not store the backup on the system being "
@@ -3700,12 +3693,12 @@ msgstr ""
"面的資料都會遺失。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3139
+#: book.translate.xml:3162
msgid "Decide Where to Install FreeBSD"
msgstr "決定 FreeBSD 安裝在哪裡"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3141
+#: book.translate.xml:3164
msgid ""
"If FreeBSD will be the only operating system installed, this step can be "
"skipped. But if FreeBSD will share the disk with another operating system, "
@@ -3716,7 +3709,7 @@ msgstr ""
"是哪個分割區 (Partition)。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3146
+#: book.translate.xml:3169
msgid ""
"In the i386 and amd64 architectures, disks can be divided into multiple "
"partitions using one of two partitioning schemes. A traditional "
@@ -3742,7 +3735,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個分割區,不再需要使用邏輯分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3164
+#: book.translate.xml:3187
msgid ""
"Some older operating systems, like <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</"
"trademark> XP, are not compatible with the <acronym>GPT</acronym> partition "
@@ -3754,7 +3747,7 @@ msgstr ""
"這類作業系統共用一個磁碟,則需要用 <acronym>MBR</acronym> 分割表格式。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3171
+#: book.translate.xml:3194
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD boot loader requires either a primary or <acronym>GPT</acronym> "
"partition. If all of the primary or <acronym>GPT</acronym> partitions are "
@@ -3768,7 +3761,7 @@ msgstr ""
"工具來縮小現有的分割區,並使用釋放出來的空間建立新分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3179
+#: book.translate.xml:3202
msgid ""
"A variety of free and commercial partition resizing tools are listed at "
"<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
@@ -3789,7 +3782,7 @@ msgstr ""
"GParted 同時也被許多 Linux Live <acronym>CD</acronym> 發行版所收錄。"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3189
+#: book.translate.xml:3212
msgid ""
"When used properly, disk shrinking utilities can safely create space for "
"creating a new partition. Since the possibility of selecting the wrong "
@@ -3801,7 +3794,7 @@ msgstr ""
"料,並確認備份的完整性。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3196
+#: book.translate.xml:3219
msgid ""
"Disk partitions containing different operating systems make it possible to "
"install multiple operating systems on one computer. An alternative is to use "
@@ -3814,12 +3807,12 @@ msgstr ""
"執行而不需要改變任何磁碟分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3205
+#: book.translate.xml:3228
msgid "Collect Network Information"
msgstr "收集網路資訊"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3207
+#: book.translate.xml:3230
msgid ""
"Some FreeBSD installation methods require a network connection in order to "
"download the installation files. After any installation, the installer will "
@@ -3829,7 +3822,7 @@ msgstr ""
"入設定系統網路的介面。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3212
+#: book.translate.xml:3235
msgid ""
"If the network has a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server, it can be used to "
"provide automatic network configuration. If <acronym>DHCP</acronym> is not "
@@ -3841,81 +3834,81 @@ msgstr ""
"商 (Internet Service Provider, ISP) 取得以的網路資訊供系統使用:"
#. (itstool) path: orderedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3220
+#: book.translate.xml:3243
msgid "Required Network Information"
msgstr "需要的網路資訊"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:3223 book.translate.xml:53217
+#: book.translate.xml:3246 book.translate.xml:53602
msgid "<acronym>IP</acronym> address"
msgstr "<acronym>IP</acronym> 位址"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3227
+#: book.translate.xml:3250
msgid "Subnet mask"
msgstr "子網路遮罩"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3231
+#: book.translate.xml:3254
msgid "<acronym>IP</acronym> address of default gateway"
msgstr "預設通訊閘 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3236
+#: book.translate.xml:3259
msgid "Domain name of the network"
msgstr "網路的網域名稱"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3240
+#: book.translate.xml:3263
msgid ""
"<acronym>IP</acronym> addresses of the network's <acronym>DNS</acronym> "
"servers"
msgstr "網路 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3247
+#: book.translate.xml:3270
msgid "Check for FreeBSD Errata"
msgstr "檢查 FreeBSD 勘誤表"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3249
+#: book.translate.xml:3272
msgid ""
"Although the FreeBSD Project strives to ensure that each release of FreeBSD "
"is as stable as possible, bugs occasionally creep into the process. On very "
"rare occasions those bugs affect the installation process. As these problems "
"are discovered and fixed, they are noted in the FreeBSD Errata (<link xlink:"
-"href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/11.0R/errata.html\">http://www.freebsd.org/"
-"releases/11.0R/errata.html</link>) on the FreeBSD web site. Check the errata "
-"before installing to make sure that there are no problems that might affect "
-"the installation."
-msgstr ""
-"儘管 FreeBSD Project 努力確保每個 FreeBSD 發行版能夠儘可能地穩定,但錯誤偶爾"
-"還是會悄悄出現,並有極小的可能會發生影響安裝流程的錯誤,當這些問題被發現並修"
-"正後,會被紀錄在 FreeBSD 網站的 FreeBSD 勘誤表 (<link xlink:href="
-"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/11.0R/errata.html\">http://www.freebsd.org/"
-"releases/11.0R/errata.html</link>)。 安裝前先檢查勘誤表,以確保沒有會影響到安"
+"href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/11.1R/errata.html\">https://www.freebsd."
+"org/releases/11.1R/errata.html</link>) on the FreeBSD web site. Check the "
+"errata before installing to make sure that there are no problems that might "
+"affect the installation."
+msgstr ""
+"儘管 FreeBSD 計劃努力確保每個 FreeBSD 發行版能夠儘可能地穩定,但錯誤偶爾還是"
+"會悄悄出現,並有極小的可能會發生影響安裝流程的錯誤,當這些問題被發現並修正"
+"後,會被紀錄在 FreeBSD 網站的 FreeBSD 勘誤表 (<link xlink:href="
+"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/11.1R/errata.html\">https://www.freebsd.org/"
+"releases/11.1R/errata.html</link>)。 安裝前先檢查勘誤表,以確保沒有會影響到安"
"裝的問題。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3259
+#: book.translate.xml:3282
msgid ""
"Information and errata for all the releases can be found on the release "
"information section of the FreeBSD web site (<link xlink:href="
-"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html\">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/"
+"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html\">https://www.freebsd.org/releases/"
"index.html</link>)."
msgstr ""
"所有發行版的資訊和勘誤表可以在 FreeBSD 網站的發行資訊找到 (<link xlink:href="
-"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html\">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/"
+"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html\">https://www.freebsd.org/releases/"
"index.html</link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3266
+#: book.translate.xml:3289
msgid "Prepare the Installation Media"
msgstr "準備安裝的媒體"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3268
+#: book.translate.xml:3291
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD installer is not an application that can be run from within "
"another operating system. Instead, download a FreeBSD installation file, "
@@ -3929,7 +3922,7 @@ msgstr ""
"媒體來安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3275
+#: book.translate.xml:3298
msgid ""
"FreeBSD installation files are available at <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/where.html#download\">www.freebsd.org/where."
@@ -3948,7 +3941,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>DVD</acronym> 來開機。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3284
+#: book.translate.xml:3307
msgid ""
"Installation files are available in several formats. The formats vary "
"depending on computer architecture and media type."
@@ -3956,7 +3949,7 @@ msgstr "安裝檔有許多種可用的格式,格式會依據電腦架構及媒
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#bsdinstall-installation-media-uefi
-#: book.translate.xml:3288
+#: book.translate.xml:3311
msgid ""
"Additional installation files are included for computers that boot with "
"<acronym>UEFI</acronym> (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface). The names "
@@ -3967,12 +3960,12 @@ msgstr ""
"filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3294
+#: book.translate.xml:3317
msgid "File types:"
msgstr "檔案類型:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3298
+#: book.translate.xml:3321
msgid ""
"<literal>-bootonly.iso</literal>: This is the smallest installation file as "
"it only contains the installer. A working Internet connection is required "
@@ -3985,7 +3978,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>CD</acronym> 燒錄應用程式燒錄到 <acronym>CD</acronym> 使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3308
+#: book.translate.xml:3331
msgid ""
"<literal>-disc1.iso</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed to "
"install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It should be burned "
@@ -3996,7 +3989,7 @@ msgstr ""
"到 <acronym>CD</acronym> 使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3316
+#: book.translate.xml:3339
msgid ""
"<literal>-dvd1.iso</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed to "
"install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It also contains a "
@@ -4011,7 +4004,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>DVD</acronym> 燒錄應用程式燒錄到 <acronym>DVD</acronym> 使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3327
+#: book.translate.xml:3350
msgid ""
"<literal>-memstick.img</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed "
"to install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It should be "
@@ -4022,7 +4015,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 隨身碟使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3335
+#: book.translate.xml:3358
msgid ""
"<literal>-mini-memstick.img</literal>: Like <literal>-bootonly.iso</"
"literal>, does not include installation files, but downloads them as needed. "
@@ -4036,7 +4029,7 @@ msgstr ""
"碟。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3344
+#: book.translate.xml:3367
msgid ""
"After downloading the image file, download <filename>CHECKSUM.SHA256</"
"filename> from the same directory. Calculate a <firstterm>checksum</"
@@ -4053,7 +4046,7 @@ msgstr ""
"程式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3352
+#: book.translate.xml:3375
msgid ""
"Compare the calculated checksum with the one shown in <filename>CHECKSUM."
"SHA256</filename>. The checksums must match exactly. If the checksums do not "
@@ -4063,12 +4056,12 @@ msgstr ""
"應該要完全相符,若校驗碼不相符,則代表該映像檔是損壞的,必須再下載一次。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3358
+#: book.translate.xml:3381
msgid "Writing an Image File to <acronym>USB</acronym>"
msgstr "寫入映象檔到 <acronym>USB</acronym>"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3360
+#: book.translate.xml:3383
msgid ""
"The <filename>*.img</filename> file is an <emphasis>image</emphasis> of the "
"complete contents of a memory stick. It <emphasis>cannot</emphasis> be "
@@ -4082,7 +4075,7 @@ msgstr ""
"隨身碟,本節會介紹其中兩種。"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3369
+#: book.translate.xml:3392
msgid ""
"Before proceeding, back up any important data on the <acronym>USB</acronym> "
"stick. This procedure will erase the existing data on the stick."
@@ -4091,12 +4084,12 @@ msgstr ""
"身碟上既有的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3375
+#: book.translate.xml:3398
msgid "Using <command>dd</command> to Write the Image"
msgstr "使用 <command>dd</command> 來寫入映像檔"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3379
+#: book.translate.xml:3402
msgid ""
"This example uses <filename>/dev/da0</filename> as the target device where "
"the image will be written. Be <emphasis>very careful</emphasis> that the "
@@ -4108,7 +4101,7 @@ msgstr ""
"毀所有在指定目標裝置上已存在的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3387
+#: book.translate.xml:3410
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> command-line utility is available on BSD, <trademark class="
@@ -4129,13 +4122,13 @@ msgstr ""
"到第一個 <acronym>USB</acronym> 裝置。"
#. (itstool) path: step/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:3398
+#: book.translate.xml:3421
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dd if=<replaceable>FreeBSD-10.2-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img</replaceable> of=/dev/<replaceable>da0</replaceable> bs=1M conv=sync</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3400
+#: book.translate.xml:3423
msgid ""
"If this command fails, verify that the <acronym>USB</acronym> stick is not "
"mounted and that the device name is for the disk, not a partition. Some "
@@ -4155,13 +4148,13 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3411
+#: book.translate.xml:3434
msgid ""
"Using <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> to Write the Image"
msgstr "使用 <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> 來寫入映象檔"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3414
+#: book.translate.xml:3437
msgid ""
"Be sure to give the correct drive letter as the existing data on the "
"specified drive will be overwritten and destroyed."
@@ -4169,7 +4162,7 @@ msgstr ""
"務必確認指定的磁碟機代號正確,因在指定磁碟機上的既有資料將會被覆蓋與摧毀。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3420
+#: book.translate.xml:3443
msgid ""
"Obtaining <application>Image Writer for <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Windows</trademark></application>"
@@ -4178,7 +4171,7 @@ msgstr ""
"trademark> 版</application>"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3423
+#: book.translate.xml:3446
msgid ""
"<application>Image Writer for <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</"
"trademark></application> is a free application that can correctly write an "
@@ -4193,12 +4186,12 @@ msgstr ""
"個資料夾。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3431
+#: book.translate.xml:3454
msgid "Writing the Image with Image Writer"
msgstr "用 Image Writer 寫入映象檔"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3433
+#: book.translate.xml:3456
msgid ""
"Double-click the <application>Win32DiskImager</application> icon to start "
"the program. Verify that the drive letter shown under "
@@ -4217,24 +4210,24 @@ msgstr ""
"入隨身碟。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3448
+#: book.translate.xml:3471
msgid "You are now ready to start installing FreeBSD."
msgstr "您現在可以開始安裝 FreeBSD 。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3454
+#: book.translate.xml:3477
msgid "Starting the Installation"
msgstr "開始安裝"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3457
+#: book.translate.xml:3480
msgid ""
"By default, the installation will not make any changes to the disk(s) before "
"the following message:"
msgstr "預設安裝程序在下列訊息顯示之前不會對磁碟做任何更動:"
#. (itstool) path: important/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:3460
+#: book.translate.xml:3483
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Your changes will now be written to disk. If you\n"
@@ -4244,7 +4237,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3465
+#: book.translate.xml:3488
msgid ""
"The install can be exited at any time prior to this warning. If there is a "
"concern that something is incorrectly configured, just turn the computer off "
@@ -4254,7 +4247,7 @@ msgstr ""
"腦,將不會對系統磁碟做任何更改。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3472
+#: book.translate.xml:3495
msgid ""
"This section describes how to boot the system from the installation media "
"which was prepared using the instructions in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
@@ -4271,12 +4264,12 @@ msgstr ""
"會有所不同。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3483
+#: book.translate.xml:3506
msgid "Booting on <trademark>i386</trademark> and amd64"
msgstr "在 <trademark>i386</trademark> 及 amd64 開機"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3485
+#: book.translate.xml:3508
msgid ""
"These architectures provide a <acronym>BIOS</acronym> menu for selecting the "
"boot device. Depending upon the installation media being used, select the "
@@ -4294,14 +4287,14 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>Escape</keycap> 其中之一。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3496
+#: book.translate.xml:3519
msgid ""
"If the computer loads the existing operating system instead of the FreeBSD "
"installer, then either:"
msgstr "若電腦仍載入了現有的作業系統,而不是 FreeBSD 安裝程式,原因可能為:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3501
+#: book.translate.xml:3524
msgid ""
"The installation media was not inserted early enough in the boot process. "
"Leave the media inserted and try restarting the computer."
@@ -4310,7 +4303,7 @@ msgstr ""
"電腦。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3507
+#: book.translate.xml:3530
msgid ""
"The <acronym>BIOS</acronym> changes were incorrect or not saved. Double-"
"check that the right boot device is selected as the first boot device."
@@ -4319,7 +4312,7 @@ msgstr ""
"確的裝置。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3513
+#: book.translate.xml:3536
msgid ""
"This system is too old to support booting from the chosen media. In this "
"case, the <application>Plop Boot Manager</application> (<link xlink:href="
@@ -4331,12 +4324,12 @@ msgstr ""
"plop.at/en/bootmanagers.html\"/>) 來從選擇的開機媒體開機。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3523
+#: book.translate.xml:3546
msgid "Booting on <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</trademark>"
msgstr "在 <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</trademark> 開機"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3525
+#: book.translate.xml:3548
msgid ""
"On most machines, holding <keycap>C</keycap> on the keyboard during boot "
"will boot from the <acronym>CD</acronym>. Otherwise, hold <keycombo action="
@@ -4355,18 +4348,18 @@ msgstr ""
"prompt> 提示時,輸入"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:3541
+#: book.translate.xml:3564
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput>boot cd:,\\ppc\\loader cd:0</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3545
+#: book.translate.xml:3568
msgid "Booting on <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark>"
msgstr "在 <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark> 開機"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3547
+#: book.translate.xml:3570
msgid ""
"Most <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark> systems are set up "
"to boot automatically from disk. To install FreeBSD from a <acronym>CD</"
@@ -4377,7 +4370,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3551
+#: book.translate.xml:3574
msgid ""
"To do this, reboot the system and wait until the boot message appears. The "
"message depends on the model, but should look something like this:"
@@ -4386,7 +4379,7 @@ msgstr ""
"機型而有所不同,但大致結果會如:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:3555
+#: book.translate.xml:3578
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Sun Blade 100 (UltraSPARC-IIe), Keyboard Present\n"
@@ -4396,7 +4389,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3560
+#: book.translate.xml:3583
msgid ""
"If the system proceeds to boot from disk at this point, press <keycombo "
"action=\"simul\"><keycap>L1</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo> or "
@@ -4419,7 +4412,7 @@ msgstr ""
"prompt>,其中的數字代表啟動的 <acronym>CPU</acronym> 數。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3572
+#: book.translate.xml:3595
msgid ""
"At this point, place the <acronym>CD</acronym> into the drive and type "
"<command>boot cdrom</command> from the <acronym>PROM</acronym> prompt."
@@ -4428,19 +4421,19 @@ msgstr ""
"畫面輸入 <command>boot cdrom</command>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3578
+#: book.translate.xml:3601
msgid "FreeBSD Boot Menu"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開機選單"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3580
+#: book.translate.xml:3603
msgid ""
"Once the system boots from the installation media, a menu similar to the "
"following will be displayed:"
msgstr "從安裝媒體開機之後,會顯示如下的選單:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3584
+#: book.translate.xml:3607
msgid "FreeBSD Boot Loader Menu"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開機載入程式選單"
@@ -4449,14 +4442,14 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 開機載入程式選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3588
+#: book.translate.xml:3611
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3593
+#: book.translate.xml:3616
msgid ""
"By default, the menu will wait ten seconds for user input before booting "
"into the FreeBSD installer or, if FreeBSD is already installed, before "
@@ -4470,7 +4463,7 @@ msgstr ""
"以下選項可選。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3603
+#: book.translate.xml:3626
msgid ""
"<literal>Boot Multi User</literal>: This will continue the FreeBSD boot "
"process. If the boot timer has been paused, press <keycap>1</keycap>, upper- "
@@ -4481,7 +4474,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>B</keycap> 或 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 鍵。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3611
+#: book.translate.xml:3634
msgid ""
"<literal>Boot Single User</literal>: This mode can be used to fix an "
"existing FreeBSD installation as described in <xref linkend=\"boot-singleuser"
@@ -4493,7 +4486,7 @@ msgstr ""
"keycap>、大寫或小寫 <keycap>S</keycap> 進入這個模式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3619
+#: book.translate.xml:3642
msgid ""
"<literal>Escape to loader prompt</literal>: This will boot the system into a "
"repair prompt that contains a limited number of low-level commands. This "
@@ -4506,12 +4499,12 @@ msgstr ""
"入這個提示。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3628
+#: book.translate.xml:3651
msgid "<literal>Reboot</literal>: Reboots the system."
msgstr "重新開機 (<literal>Reboot</literal>):重新開啟系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3632
+#: book.translate.xml:3655
msgid ""
"<literal>Configure Boot Options</literal>: Opens the menu shown in, and "
"described under, <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-boot-options-menu\"/>."
@@ -4520,7 +4513,7 @@ msgstr ""
"說明於 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-boot-options-menu\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3638
+#: book.translate.xml:3661
msgid "FreeBSD Boot Options Menu"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開機選項選單"
@@ -4529,13 +4522,13 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 開機選項選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3642
+#: book.translate.xml:3665
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-boot-options-menu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3647
+#: book.translate.xml:3670
msgid ""
"The boot options menu is divided into two sections. The first section can be "
"used to either return to the main boot menu or to reset any toggled options "
@@ -4545,7 +4538,7 @@ msgstr ""
"回預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3652
+#: book.translate.xml:3675
msgid ""
"The next section is used to toggle the available options to <literal>On</"
"literal> or <literal>Off</literal> by pressing the option's highlighted "
@@ -4558,7 +4551,7 @@ msgstr ""
"到選項被修改。有數個選項可以在這個選單做切換:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3661
+#: book.translate.xml:3684
msgid ""
"<literal>ACPI Support</literal>: If the system hangs during boot, try "
"toggling this option to <literal>Off</literal>."
@@ -4567,7 +4560,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個選項為關 (<literal>Off</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3667
+#: book.translate.xml:3690
msgid ""
"<literal>Safe Mode</literal>: If the system still hangs during boot even "
"with <literal>ACPI Support</literal> set to <literal>Off</literal>, try "
@@ -4578,7 +4571,7 @@ msgstr ""
"將此選項設為開 (<literal>On</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3674
+#: book.translate.xml:3697
msgid ""
"<literal>Single User</literal>: Toggle this option to <literal>On</literal> "
"to fix an existing FreeBSD installation as described in <xref linkend=\"boot-"
@@ -4590,7 +4583,7 @@ msgstr ""
"述,問題修正後,將其設回關 (<literal>Off</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3682
+#: book.translate.xml:3705
msgid ""
"<literal>Verbose</literal>: Toggle this option to <literal>On</literal> to "
"see more detailed messages during the boot process. This can be useful when "
@@ -4600,7 +4593,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 來查看開機程序中更詳細的訊息,這在診斷硬體問題時非常有用。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3689
+#: book.translate.xml:3712
msgid ""
"After making the needed selections, press <keycap>1</keycap> or "
"<keycap>Backspace</keycap> to return to the main boot menu, then press "
@@ -4615,7 +4608,7 @@ msgstr ""
"選單如 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-choose-mode\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3698
+#: book.translate.xml:3721
msgid "Welcome Menu"
msgstr "歡迎選單"
@@ -4624,13 +4617,13 @@ msgstr "歡迎選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3702
+#: book.translate.xml:3725
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-choose-mode' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3707
+#: book.translate.xml:3730
msgid ""
"Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to select the default of "
"<guibutton>[ Install ]</guibutton> to enter the installer. The rest of this "
@@ -4650,7 +4643,7 @@ msgstr ""
"本的詳細說明於 <xref linkend=\"using-live-cd\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3720
+#: book.translate.xml:3743
msgid ""
"To review the boot messages, including the hardware device probe, press the "
"upper- or lower-case <keycap>S</keycap> and then <keycap>Enter</keycap> to "
@@ -4664,12 +4657,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>exit</command> 返回歡迎選單。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3733
+#: book.translate.xml:3756
msgid "Using <application>bsdinstall</application>"
msgstr "使用 <application>bsdinstall</application>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3735
+#: book.translate.xml:3758
msgid ""
"This section shows the order of the <application>bsdinstall</application> "
"menus and the type of information that will be asked before the system is "
@@ -4684,12 +4677,12 @@ msgstr ""
"選項然後進入下一個畫面。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3744
+#: book.translate.xml:3767
msgid "Selecting the Keymap Menu"
msgstr "選擇鍵盤對應表選單"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3746
+#: book.translate.xml:3769
msgid ""
"Depending on the system console being used, <application>bsdinstall</"
"application> may initially display the menu shown in <xref linkend="
@@ -4699,7 +4692,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的選單會如 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-keymap-select-default\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3751
+#: book.translate.xml:3774
msgid "Keymap Selection"
msgstr "鍵盤對應表選擇"
@@ -4708,14 +4701,14 @@ msgstr "鍵盤對應表選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3755
+#: book.translate.xml:3778
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-select-default' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3760
+#: book.translate.xml:3783
msgid ""
"To configure the keyboard layout, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> with "
"<guibutton>[ YES ]</guibutton> selected, which will display the menu shown "
@@ -4729,7 +4722,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>Enter</keycap> 跳過這個選單畫面。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3769
+#: book.translate.xml:3792
msgid "Selecting Keyboard Menu"
msgstr "選擇鍵盤選單"
@@ -4738,13 +4731,13 @@ msgstr "選擇鍵盤選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3773
+#: book.translate.xml:3796
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-keymap' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3778
+#: book.translate.xml:3801
msgid ""
"When configuring the keyboard layout, use the up and down arrows to select "
"the keymap that most closely represents the mapping of the keyboard attached "
@@ -4754,7 +4747,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Keymap),然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 儲存選項。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3784
+#: book.translate.xml:3807
msgid ""
"Pressing <keycap>Esc</keycap> will exit this menu and use the default "
"keymap. If the choice of keymap is not clear, <guimenuitem>United States of "
@@ -4765,7 +4758,7 @@ msgstr ""
"guimenuitem> 是也是保險的選項。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3790
+#: book.translate.xml:3813
msgid ""
"In FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE and later, this menu has been enhanced. The full "
"selection of keymaps is shown, with the default preselected. In addition, "
@@ -4777,7 +4770,7 @@ msgstr ""
"對話框讓使用者測試鍵盤對應表來確認。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3797
+#: book.translate.xml:3820
msgid "Enhanced Keymap Menu"
msgstr "改進後的鍵盤對應表選單"
@@ -4786,19 +4779,19 @@ msgstr "改進後的鍵盤對應表選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3801
+#: book.translate.xml:3824
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-10' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3809 book.translate.xml:3816
+#: book.translate.xml:3832 book.translate.xml:3839
msgid "Setting the Hostname"
msgstr "設定主機名稱"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3811
+#: book.translate.xml:3834
msgid ""
"The next <application>bsdinstall</application> menu is used to set the "
"hostname for the newly installed system."
@@ -4811,13 +4804,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3820
+#: book.translate.xml:3843
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-hostname' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3825
+#: book.translate.xml:3848
msgid ""
"Type in a hostname that is unique for the network. It should be a fully-"
"qualified hostname, such as <systemitem class=\"fqdomainname\">machine3."
@@ -4828,12 +4821,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3830 book.translate.xml:3836
+#: book.translate.xml:3853 book.translate.xml:3859
msgid "Selecting Components to Install"
msgstr "選擇要安裝的元件"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3832
+#: book.translate.xml:3855
msgid ""
"Next, <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt to select optional "
"components to install."
@@ -4845,13 +4838,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3840
+#: book.translate.xml:3863
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-components' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3845
+#: book.translate.xml:3868
msgid ""
"Deciding which components to install will depend largely on the intended use "
"of the system and the amount of disk space available. The FreeBSD kernel and "
@@ -4864,7 +4857,7 @@ msgstr ""
"必須安裝的部份。依據系統的架構,部份元件可能不會顯示:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3854
+#: book.translate.xml:3877
msgid ""
"<literal>doc</literal> - Additional documentation, mostly of historical "
"interest, to install into <filename>/usr/share/doc</filename>. The "
@@ -4878,7 +4871,7 @@ msgstr ""
"操作。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3862
+#: book.translate.xml:3885
msgid ""
"<literal>games</literal> - Several traditional <acronym>BSD</acronym> games, "
"including <application>fortune</application>, <application>rot13</"
@@ -4889,7 +4882,7 @@ msgstr ""
"他。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3869
+#: book.translate.xml:3892
msgid ""
"<literal>lib32</literal> - Compatibility libraries for running 32-bit "
"applications on a 64-bit version of FreeBSD."
@@ -4898,7 +4891,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用的相容性程式庫。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3875
+#: book.translate.xml:3898
msgid ""
"<literal>ports</literal> - The FreeBSD Ports Collection is a collection of "
"files which automates the downloading, compiling and installation of third-"
@@ -4909,7 +4902,7 @@ msgstr ""
"方軟體套件的集合,<xref linkend=\"ports\"/> 中會討論到如何使用 Port 套件集。"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3882
+#: book.translate.xml:3905
msgid ""
"The installation program does not check for adequate disk space. Select this "
"option only if sufficient hard disk space is available. The FreeBSD Ports "
@@ -4919,7 +4912,7 @@ msgstr ""
"磁碟空間,只有在有足夠的磁碟空間時才選擇這個選項。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3891
+#: book.translate.xml:3914
msgid ""
"<literal>src</literal> - The complete FreeBSD source code for both the "
"kernel and the userland. Although not required for the majority of "
@@ -4936,12 +4929,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3904 book.translate.xml:3915
+#: book.translate.xml:3927 book.translate.xml:3938
msgid "Installing from the Network"
msgstr "從網路安裝"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3906
+#: book.translate.xml:3929
msgid ""
"The menu shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-netinstall-notify\"/> only "
"appears when installing from a <filename>-bootonly.iso</filename> "
@@ -4960,13 +4953,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3919
+#: book.translate.xml:3942
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-files' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3924
+#: book.translate.xml:3947
msgid ""
"To configure the network connection, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> and follow "
"the instructions in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-config-network-dev\"/>. Once "
@@ -4981,7 +4974,7 @@ msgstr ""
"載的速度會比較快,這會減少安裝的時間。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3933
+#: book.translate.xml:3956
msgid "Choosing a Mirror"
msgstr "選擇鏡像站"
@@ -4990,26 +4983,26 @@ msgstr "選擇鏡像站"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3937
+#: book.translate.xml:3960
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-mirrorselect' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3942
+#: book.translate.xml:3965
msgid ""
"Installation will then continue as if the installation files were located on "
"the local installation media."
msgstr "若在本機的安裝媒體中找到安裝檔案,安裝程序便會繼續。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3948
+#: book.translate.xml:3971
msgid "Allocating Disk Space"
msgstr "配置磁碟空間"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3950
+#: book.translate.xml:3973
msgid ""
"The next menu is used to determine the method for allocating disk space. The "
"options available in the menu depend upon the version of FreeBSD being "
@@ -5019,7 +5012,7 @@ msgstr ""
"本而有所不同。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3955
+#: book.translate.xml:3978
msgid "Partitioning Choices on FreeBSD 9.x"
msgstr "FreeBSD 9.x 的磁碟分割選項"
@@ -5028,14 +5021,14 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 9.x 的磁碟分割選項"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3959
+#: book.translate.xml:3982
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-manual' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3965
+#: book.translate.xml:3988
msgid "Partitioning Choices on FreeBSD 10.x and Higher"
msgstr "FreeBSD 10.x 或更新版本的磁碟分割選項"
@@ -5044,13 +5037,13 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 10.x 或更新版本的磁碟分割選項"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3969
+#: book.translate.xml:3992
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3974
+#: book.translate.xml:3997
msgid ""
"<literal>Guided</literal> partitioning automatically sets up the disk "
"partitions, <literal>Manual</literal> partitioning allows advanced users to "
@@ -5078,7 +5071,7 @@ msgstr ""
"firstterm>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3985
+#: book.translate.xml:4008
msgid ""
"This section describes what to consider when laying out the disk partitions. "
"It then demonstrates how to use the different partitioning methods."
@@ -5086,32 +5079,32 @@ msgstr ""
"本節會介紹在配置磁碟分割時需要考量那些事情,並且會示範各種磁碟分割的方式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3990
+#: book.translate.xml:4013
msgid "Designing the Partition Layout"
msgstr "規劃分割區配置"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:3992
+#: book.translate.xml:4015
msgid "<primary>partition layout</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>分割區配置</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:3993
+#: book.translate.xml:4016
msgid "<primary><filename>/etc</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:3996
+#: book.translate.xml:4019
msgid "<primary><filename>/var</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:3999
+#: book.translate.xml:4022
msgid "<primary><filename>/usr</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4003
+#: book.translate.xml:4026
msgid ""
"When laying out file systems, remember that hard drives transfer data faster "
"from the outer tracks to the inner. Thus, smaller and heavier-accessed file "
@@ -5127,7 +5120,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>/var</filename> 然後 <filename>/usr</filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4013
+#: book.translate.xml:4036
msgid ""
"The size of the <filename>/var</filename> partition reflects the intended "
"machine's usage. This partition is used to hold mailboxes, log files, and "
@@ -5142,7 +5135,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>/var</filename> 需要超過 1 GB 的可用磁碟空間。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4023
+#: book.translate.xml:4046
msgid ""
"Sometimes, a lot of disk space is required in <filename>/var/tmp</filename>. "
"When new software is installed, the packaging tools extract a temporary copy "
@@ -5159,7 +5152,7 @@ msgstr ""
"application> 或 <application>LibreOffice</application> 會很困難。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4034
+#: book.translate.xml:4057
msgid ""
"The <filename>/usr</filename> partition holds many of the files which "
"support the system, including the FreeBSD Ports Collection and system source "
@@ -5169,7 +5162,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Port 套件集以及系統原始碼,這個分割區建議至少要有 2 GB 的空間。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4039
+#: book.translate.xml:4062
msgid ""
"When selecting partition sizes, keep the space requirements in mind. Running "
"out of space in one partition while barely using another can be a hassle."
@@ -5178,17 +5171,17 @@ msgstr ""
"區時會很麻煩。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:4043
+#: book.translate.xml:4066
msgid "<primary>swap sizing</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:4046
+#: book.translate.xml:4069
msgid "<primary>swap partition</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4050
+#: book.translate.xml:4073
msgid ""
"As a rule of thumb, the swap partition should be about double the size of "
"physical memory (<acronym>RAM</acronym>). Systems with minimal <acronym>RAM</"
@@ -5202,7 +5195,7 @@ msgstr ""
"往後增加更多記憶體時可能會產生問題。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4058
+#: book.translate.xml:4081
msgid ""
"On larger systems with multiple <acronym>SCSI</acronym> disks or multiple "
"<acronym>IDE</acronym> disks operating on different controllers, it is "
@@ -5222,7 +5215,7 @@ msgstr ""
"換空間,這也會讓要從失控的程式恢復運作更容易,而不需強制重新啟動系統。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4071
+#: book.translate.xml:4094
msgid ""
"By properly partitioning a system, fragmentation introduced in the smaller "
"write heavy partitions will not bleed over into the mostly read partitions. "
@@ -5240,12 +5233,12 @@ msgstr ""
"顯著。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4084
+#: book.translate.xml:4107
msgid "Guided Partitioning"
msgstr "引導式磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4086
+#: book.translate.xml:4109
msgid ""
"When this method is selected, a menu will display the available disk(s). If "
"multiple disks are connected, choose the one where FreeBSD is to be "
@@ -5255,7 +5248,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個來安裝 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4091
+#: book.translate.xml:4114
msgid "Selecting from Multiple Disks"
msgstr "自多個磁碟選擇"
@@ -5264,13 +5257,13 @@ msgstr "自多個磁碟選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4095
+#: book.translate.xml:4118
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-disk' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4100
+#: book.translate.xml:4123
msgid ""
"Once the disk is selected, the next menu prompts to install to either the "
"entire disk or to create a partition using free space. If "
@@ -5285,7 +5278,7 @@ msgstr ""
"未使用的空間來建立分割區配置。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4110
+#: book.translate.xml:4133
msgid "Selecting Entire Disk or Partition"
msgstr "選擇完整磁碟或分割區"
@@ -5294,13 +5287,13 @@ msgstr "選擇完整磁碟或分割區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4114
+#: book.translate.xml:4137
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-entire-part' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4119
+#: book.translate.xml:4142
msgid ""
"After the partition layout has been created, review it to ensure it meets "
"the needs of the installation. Selecting <guibutton>[ Revert ]</guibutton> "
@@ -5317,7 +5310,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<guibutton>[ Finish ]</guibutton> 繼續安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4130
+#: book.translate.xml:4153
msgid "Review Created Partitions"
msgstr "確認已建立的分割區"
@@ -5326,23 +5319,23 @@ msgstr "確認已建立的分割區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4134
+#: book.translate.xml:4157
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-review' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4141
+#: book.translate.xml:4164
msgid "Manual Partitioning"
msgstr "手動磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4143
+#: book.translate.xml:4166
msgid "Selecting this method opens the partition editor:"
msgstr "選擇這個方法會開啟分割區編輯程式:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4146 book.translate.xml:4161 book.translate.xml:4232
+#: book.translate.xml:4169 book.translate.xml:4184 book.translate.xml:4255
msgid "Manually Create Partitions"
msgstr "手動建立分割區"
@@ -5351,14 +5344,14 @@ msgstr "手動建立分割區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4150
+#: book.translate.xml:4173
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-create' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4155
+#: book.translate.xml:4178
msgid ""
"Highlight the installation drive (<filename>ada0</filename> in this example) "
"and select <guibutton>[ Create ]</guibutton> to display a menu of available "
@@ -5373,14 +5366,14 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4165
+#: book.translate.xml:4188
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4170
+#: book.translate.xml:4193
msgid ""
"<acronym>GPT</acronym> is usually the most appropriate choice for amd64 "
"computers. Older computers that are not compatible with <acronym>GPT</"
@@ -5392,21 +5385,21 @@ msgstr ""
"那些較罕見或較舊的電腦上。"
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4177
+#: book.translate.xml:4200
msgid "Partitioning Schemes"
msgstr "磁碟分割表格式"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4182
+#: book.translate.xml:4205
msgid "Abbreviation"
msgstr "縮寫"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4183 book.translate.xml:7141 book.translate.xml:8484
-#: book.translate.xml:11912 book.translate.xml:23141 book.translate.xml:23320
-#: book.translate.xml:27430 book.translate.xml:31418 book.translate.xml:43326
-#: book.translate.xml:45412 book.translate.xml:52559 book.translate.xml:53066
-#: book.translate.xml:53825 book.translate.xml:53866 book.translate.xml:55192
+#: book.translate.xml:4206 book.translate.xml:7164 book.translate.xml:8507
+#: book.translate.xml:11935 book.translate.xml:23160 book.translate.xml:23339
+#: book.translate.xml:27449 book.translate.xml:31437 book.translate.xml:43712
+#: book.translate.xml:45797 book.translate.xml:52944 book.translate.xml:53451
+#: book.translate.xml:54210 book.translate.xml:54251 book.translate.xml:55577
#: book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "Description"
msgstr "說明"
@@ -5414,12 +5407,12 @@ msgstr "說明"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/glossterm
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/acronym
-#: book.translate.xml:4189 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:4212 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "APM"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4190
+#: book.translate.xml:4213
msgid ""
"Apple Partition Map, used by <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</"
"trademark>."
@@ -5430,12 +5423,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/glossterm
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/acronym
-#: book.translate.xml:4194 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:4217 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "BSD"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4195
+#: book.translate.xml:4218
msgid ""
"<acronym>BSD</acronym> label without an <acronym>MBR</acronym>, sometimes "
"called <firstterm>dangerously dedicated mode</firstterm> as non-"
@@ -5446,12 +5439,12 @@ msgstr ""
"(Dangerously dedicated mode)</firstterm>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4203
+#: book.translate.xml:4226
msgid "GPT"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4204
+#: book.translate.xml:4227
msgid ""
"GUID Partition Table (<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
"GUID_Partition_Table\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table</"
@@ -5462,12 +5455,12 @@ msgstr ""
"link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4208
+#: book.translate.xml:4231
msgid "MBR"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4209
+#: book.translate.xml:4232
msgid ""
"Master Boot Record (<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
"Master_boot_record\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record</link>)."
@@ -5477,12 +5470,12 @@ msgstr ""
"link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4213
+#: book.translate.xml:4236
msgid "PC98"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4214
+#: book.translate.xml:4237
msgid ""
"<acronym>MBR</acronym> variant used by NEC PC-98 computers (<link xlink:href="
"\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801</"
@@ -5493,17 +5486,17 @@ msgstr ""
"link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4219
+#: book.translate.xml:4242
msgid "VTOC8"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4220
+#: book.translate.xml:4243
msgid "Volume Table Of Contents used by Sun SPARC64 and UltraSPARC computers."
msgstr "Volume Table Of Contents,用於 Sun SPARC64 及 UltraSPARC 電腦。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4227
+#: book.translate.xml:4250
msgid ""
"After the partitioning scheme has been selected and created, select "
"<guibutton>[ Create ]</guibutton> again to create the partitions."
@@ -5516,26 +5509,26 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4236
+#: book.translate.xml:4259
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-addpart' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4241
+#: book.translate.xml:4264
msgid ""
"A standard FreeBSD <acronym>GPT</acronym> installation uses at least three "
"partitions:"
msgstr "標準的 FreeBSD <acronym>GPT</acronym> 安裝會使用至少三種分割區:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4246
+#: book.translate.xml:4269
msgid "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal> - Holds the FreeBSD boot code."
msgstr "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal> - 儲存 FreeBSD 開機程式 (Boot code)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4251
+#: book.translate.xml:4274
msgid ""
"<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal> - A FreeBSD <acronym>UFS</acronym> file "
"system."
@@ -5543,12 +5536,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal> - FreeBSD 的 <acronym>UFS</acronym> 檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4256
+#: book.translate.xml:4279
msgid "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal> - FreeBSD swap space."
msgstr "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal> - FreeBSD 交換空間。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4261
+#: book.translate.xml:4284
msgid ""
"Another partition type worth noting is <literal>freebsd-zfs</literal>, used "
"for partitions that will contain a FreeBSD <acronym>ZFS</acronym> file "
@@ -5563,7 +5556,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 取得可用的 <acronym>GPT</acronym> 分割區類型說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4267
+#: book.translate.xml:4290
msgid ""
"Multiple file system partitions can be created and some people prefer a "
"traditional layout with separate partitions for <filename>/</filename>, "
@@ -5577,7 +5570,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"bsdinstall-part-manual-splitfs\"/> 的範例。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4274
+#: book.translate.xml:4297
msgid ""
"The <literal>Size</literal> may be entered with common abbreviations: "
"<emphasis>K</emphasis> for kilobytes, <emphasis>M</emphasis> for megabytes, "
@@ -5588,7 +5581,7 @@ msgstr ""
"表 GB。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4280
+#: book.translate.xml:4303
msgid ""
"Proper sector alignment provides the best performance, and making partition "
"sizes even multiples of 4K bytes helps to ensure alignment on drives with "
@@ -5605,7 +5598,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Boot code) 的限制,不可大於 512K。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4291
+#: book.translate.xml:4314
msgid ""
"A <literal>Mountpoint</literal> is needed if the partition will contain a "
"file system. If only a single <acronym>UFS</acronym> partition will be "
@@ -5616,7 +5609,7 @@ msgstr ""
"filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4296
+#: book.translate.xml:4319
msgid ""
"The <literal>Label</literal> is a name by which the partition will be known. "
"Drive names or numbers can change if the drive is connected to a different "
@@ -5636,7 +5629,7 @@ msgstr ""
"且標籤會在 <filename>/dev/</filename> 中有各自的目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4309
+#: book.translate.xml:4332
msgid ""
"Use a unique label on every partition to avoid conflicts from identical "
"labels. A few letters from the computer's name, use, or location can be "
@@ -5650,12 +5643,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>UFS</acronym> 根目錄分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4319
+#: book.translate.xml:4342
msgid "Creating Traditional Split File System Partitions"
msgstr "建立傳統分割的檔案系統分割區"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4322
+#: book.translate.xml:4345
msgid ""
"For a traditional partition layout where the <filename>/</filename>, "
"<filename>/var</filename>, <filename>/tmp</filename>, and <filename>/usr</"
@@ -5676,7 +5669,7 @@ msgstr ""
"說明使用其他獨一無二的標籤。"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4335
+#: book.translate.xml:4358
msgid ""
"By default, FreeBSD's <filename>gptboot</filename> expects the first "
"<acronym>UFS</acronym> partition to be the <filename>/</filename> partition."
@@ -5685,113 +5678,113 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 分割區為 <filename>/</filename> 分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4343
+#: book.translate.xml:4366
msgid "Partition Type"
msgstr "分割區類型"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4344
+#: book.translate.xml:4367
msgid "Size"
msgstr "大小"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4345
+#: book.translate.xml:4368
msgid "Mountpoint"
msgstr "掛載點"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4346
+#: book.translate.xml:4369
msgid "Label"
msgstr "標籤"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4352
+#: book.translate.xml:4375
msgid "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4353
+#: book.translate.xml:4376
msgid "<literal>512K</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4357 book.translate.xml:4371 book.translate.xml:4378
-#: book.translate.xml:4385
+#: book.translate.xml:4380 book.translate.xml:4394 book.translate.xml:4401
+#: book.translate.xml:4408
msgid "<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4358 book.translate.xml:4372
+#: book.translate.xml:4381 book.translate.xml:4395
msgid "<literal>2G</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4359 book.translate.xml:7146
+#: book.translate.xml:4382 book.translate.xml:7169
msgid "<filename>/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4360
+#: book.translate.xml:4383
msgid "<literal>exrootfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4364
+#: book.translate.xml:4387
msgid "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4365
+#: book.translate.xml:4388
msgid "<literal>4G</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4367
+#: book.translate.xml:4390
msgid "<literal>exswap</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4373
+#: book.translate.xml:4396
msgid "<filename>/var</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4374
+#: book.translate.xml:4397
msgid "<literal>exvarfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4379
+#: book.translate.xml:4402
msgid "<literal>1G</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4380
+#: book.translate.xml:4403
msgid "<filename>/tmp</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4381
+#: book.translate.xml:4404
msgid "<literal>extmpfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4386
+#: book.translate.xml:4409
msgid "accept the default (remainder of the disk)"
msgstr "接受預設值 (依磁碟提示)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4388
+#: book.translate.xml:4411
msgid "<filename>/usr</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4389
+#: book.translate.xml:4412
msgid "<literal>exusrfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4396
+#: book.translate.xml:4419
msgid ""
"After the custom partitions have been created, select <guibutton>[ Finish ]</"
"guibutton> to continue with the installation."
@@ -5799,12 +5792,12 @@ msgstr ""
"自訂的分割區建立完後,選擇 <guibutton>[ Finish ]</guibutton> 繼續安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4402
+#: book.translate.xml:4425
msgid "Root-on-ZFS Automatic Partitioning"
msgstr "Root-on-ZFS 自動磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4404
+#: book.translate.xml:4427
msgid ""
"Support for automatic creation of root-on-ZFS installations was added in "
"FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE. This partitioning mode only works with whole disks and "
@@ -5833,7 +5826,7 @@ msgstr ""
"存池使用。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4423
+#: book.translate.xml:4446
msgid ""
"The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu offers a number of "
"options to control the creation of the pool."
@@ -5841,7 +5834,7 @@ msgstr ""
"主要 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 設定選單提供了數個設定選項來控制儲存池的建立。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4428
+#: book.translate.xml:4451
msgid "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> Partitioning Menu"
msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 磁碟分割選單"
@@ -5850,13 +5843,13 @@ msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 磁碟分割選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4432
+#: book.translate.xml:4455
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-menu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4437
+#: book.translate.xml:4460
msgid ""
"Select <keycap>T</keycap> to configure the <literal>Pool Type</literal> and "
"the disk(s) that will constitute the pool. The automatic <acronym>ZFS</"
@@ -5881,7 +5874,7 @@ msgstr ""
"時,每種配置最佳的磁碟數。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4454
+#: book.translate.xml:4477
msgid "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> Pool Type"
msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池類型"
@@ -5890,13 +5883,13 @@ msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池類型"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4458
+#: book.translate.xml:4481
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_type' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4463
+#: book.translate.xml:4486
msgid ""
"Once a <literal>Pool Type</literal> has been selected, a list of available "
"disks is displayed, and the user is prompted to select one or more disks to "
@@ -5911,7 +5904,7 @@ msgstr ""
"返回磁碟清單或取消 (<guibutton>&lt;Cancel&gt;</guibutton>) 來更改儲存池類型。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4473
+#: book.translate.xml:4496
msgid "Disk Selection"
msgstr "磁碟選擇"
@@ -5920,13 +5913,13 @@ msgstr "磁碟選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4477
+#: book.translate.xml:4500
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_select' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4483
+#: book.translate.xml:4506
msgid "Invalid Selection"
msgstr "無效的選擇"
@@ -5935,13 +5928,13 @@ msgstr "無效的選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4487
+#: book.translate.xml:4510
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_invalid' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4492
+#: book.translate.xml:4515
msgid ""
"If one or more disks are missing from the list, or if disks were attached "
"after the installer was started, select <guibutton>- Rescan Devices</"
@@ -5956,7 +5949,7 @@ msgstr ""
"磁碟,包含磁碟中的分割表以及各種其他資訊如裝置型號與序號 (若有的話)。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4503
+#: book.translate.xml:4526
msgid "Analyzing a Disk"
msgstr "分析磁碟"
@@ -5965,13 +5958,13 @@ msgstr "分析磁碟"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4507
+#: book.translate.xml:4530
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_info' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4512
+#: book.translate.xml:4535
msgid ""
"The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu also allows the user to "
"enter a pool name, disable forcing 4k sectors, enable or disable encryption, "
@@ -5986,7 +5979,7 @@ msgstr ""
"單上方的安裝 (<guibutton>&gt;&gt;&gt; Install</guibutton>) 選項。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4522
+#: book.translate.xml:4545
msgid ""
"If <acronym>GELI</acronym> disk encryption was enabled, the installer will "
"prompt twice for the passphrase to be used to encrypt the disks."
@@ -5995,7 +5988,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4527
+#: book.translate.xml:4550
msgid "Disk Encryption Password"
msgstr "磁碟加密密碼"
@@ -6004,13 +5997,13 @@ msgstr "磁碟加密密碼"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4531
+#: book.translate.xml:4554
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-geli_password' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4536
+#: book.translate.xml:4559
msgid ""
"The installer then offers a last chance to cancel before the contents of the "
"selected drives are destroyed to create the <acronym>ZFS</acronym> pool."
@@ -6019,7 +6012,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池的磁碟機。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4541
+#: book.translate.xml:4564
msgid "Last Chance"
msgstr "最後修改"
@@ -6028,23 +6021,23 @@ msgstr "最後修改"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4545
+#: book.translate.xml:4568
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-warning' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4550
+#: book.translate.xml:4573
msgid "The installation then proceeds normally."
msgstr "然後安裝程序會正常繼續。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4555
+#: book.translate.xml:4578
msgid "Shell Mode Partitioning"
msgstr "Shell 模式磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4557
+#: book.translate.xml:4580
msgid ""
"When creating advanced installations, the <application>bsdinstall</"
"application> partitioning menus may not provide the level of flexibility "
@@ -6063,12 +6056,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>bsdinstall</application> 繼續安裝程序。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4572
+#: book.translate.xml:4595
msgid "Committing to the Installation"
msgstr "確認安裝"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4574
+#: book.translate.xml:4597
msgid ""
"Once the disks are configured, the next menu provides the last chance to "
"make changes before the selected hard drive(s) are formatted. If changes "
@@ -6082,7 +6075,7 @@ msgstr ""
"何變更。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4584
+#: book.translate.xml:4607
msgid "Final Confirmation"
msgstr "最後確認"
@@ -6091,14 +6084,14 @@ msgstr "最後確認"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4588
+#: book.translate.xml:4611
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-confirmation' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4593
+#: book.translate.xml:4616
msgid ""
"To instead start the actual installation, select <guibutton>[ Commit ]</"
"guibutton> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>."
@@ -6107,7 +6100,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4597
+#: book.translate.xml:4620
msgid ""
"Installation time will vary depending on the distributions chosen, "
"installation media, and speed of the computer. A series of messages will "
@@ -6117,7 +6110,7 @@ msgstr ""
"訊息會告知目前的進度。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4601
+#: book.translate.xml:4624
msgid ""
"First, the installer formats the selected disk(s) and initializes the "
"partitions. Next, in the case of a bootonly media, it downloads the selected "
@@ -6127,7 +6120,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Boot only) 的媒體則會開始下載選擇的元件:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4606
+#: book.translate.xml:4629
msgid "Fetching Distribution Files"
msgstr "取得發行版檔案"
@@ -6136,13 +6129,13 @@ msgstr "取得發行版檔案"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4610
+#: book.translate.xml:4633
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-fetching' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4615
+#: book.translate.xml:4638
msgid ""
"Next, the integrity of the distribution files is verified to ensure they "
"have not been corrupted during download or misread from the installation "
@@ -6152,7 +6145,7 @@ msgstr ""
"取錯誤造成的損壞:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4620
+#: book.translate.xml:4643
msgid "Verifying Distribution Files"
msgstr "檢驗發行版檔案"
@@ -6161,19 +6154,19 @@ msgstr "檢驗發行版檔案"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4624
+#: book.translate.xml:4647
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-verifying' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4629
+#: book.translate.xml:4652
msgid "Finally, the verified distribution files are extracted to the disk:"
msgstr "最後,檢驗過的發行版檔案會被取出儲存至磁碟:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4633
+#: book.translate.xml:4656
msgid "Extracting Distribution Files"
msgstr "解開發行版檔案"
@@ -6182,14 +6175,14 @@ msgstr "解開發行版檔案"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4637
+#: book.translate.xml:4660
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-extracting' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4642
+#: book.translate.xml:4665
msgid ""
"Once all requested distribution files have been extracted, "
"<application>bsdinstall</application> displays the first post-installation "
@@ -6200,12 +6193,12 @@ msgstr ""
"次安裝後設定畫面,可用的安裝後設定選項會在下一節說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4650
+#: book.translate.xml:4673
msgid "Post-Installation"
msgstr "安裝後注意事項"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4652
+#: book.translate.xml:4675
msgid ""
"Once FreeBSD is installed, <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt "
"to configure several options before booting into the newly installed system. "
@@ -6215,7 +6208,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的系統之前提示設定數個選項,本節將介紹這些設定選項。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4658
+#: book.translate.xml:4681
msgid ""
"Once the system has booted, <command>bsdconfig</command> provides a menu-"
"driven method for configuring the system using these and additional options."
@@ -6225,12 +6218,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4665 book.translate.xml:4676
+#: book.translate.xml:4688 book.translate.xml:4699
msgid "Setting the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> Password"
msgstr "設定 <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> 密碼"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4669
+#: book.translate.xml:4692
msgid ""
"First, the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> password must be "
"set. While entering the password, the characters being typed are not "
@@ -6246,25 +6239,25 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4680
+#: book.translate.xml:4703
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-post-root-passwd' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4687
+#: book.translate.xml:4710
msgid "Configuring Network Interfaces"
msgstr "設定網路介面卡"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4689
+#: book.translate.xml:4712
msgid ""
"Next, a list of the network interfaces found on the computer is shown. "
"Select the interface to configure."
msgstr "接著,會顯示在電腦上找到的網路介面卡清單。請選擇要設定的介面卡。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4693
+#: book.translate.xml:4716
msgid ""
"The network configuration menus will be skipped if the network was "
"previously configured as part of a <emphasis>bootonly</emphasis> "
@@ -6274,7 +6267,7 @@ msgstr ""
"網路設定選單。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4699
+#: book.translate.xml:4722
msgid "Choose a Network Interface"
msgstr "選擇網路介面卡"
@@ -6283,7 +6276,7 @@ msgstr "選擇網路介面卡"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4703
+#: book.translate.xml:4726
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface' "
@@ -6291,7 +6284,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4708
+#: book.translate.xml:4731
msgid ""
"If an Ethernet interface is selected, the installer will skip ahead to the "
"menu shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-configure-net-ipv4\"/>. If a "
@@ -6303,7 +6296,7 @@ msgstr ""
"描無線存取點 (Wireless Access Point):"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4714
+#: book.translate.xml:4737
msgid "Scanning for Wireless Access Points"
msgstr "掃描無線網路存取點"
@@ -6312,14 +6305,14 @@ msgstr "掃描無線網路存取點"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4718
+#: book.translate.xml:4741
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-scan' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4723
+#: book.translate.xml:4746
msgid ""
"Wireless networks are identified by a Service Set Identifier (<acronym>SSID</"
"acronym>), a short, unique name given to each network. <acronym>SSIDs</"
@@ -6338,7 +6331,7 @@ msgstr ""
"題,或者嘗試將電腦移至更靠近存取點的位置,然後再掃描一次。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4735
+#: book.translate.xml:4758
msgid "Choosing a Wireless Network"
msgstr "選擇無線網路"
@@ -6347,7 +6340,7 @@ msgstr "選擇無線網路"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4739
+#: book.translate.xml:4762
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-accesspoints' "
@@ -6355,7 +6348,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4744
+#: book.translate.xml:4767
msgid ""
"Next, enter the encryption information for connecting to the selected "
"wireless network. <acronym>WPA2</acronym> encryption is strongly recommended "
@@ -6370,7 +6363,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<acronym>PSK</acronym>)。考量安全性,輸入到輸入框的字元會以星號顯示。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4754
+#: book.translate.xml:4777
msgid "WPA2 Setup"
msgstr "WPA2 設定"
@@ -6379,7 +6372,7 @@ msgstr "WPA2 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4758
+#: book.translate.xml:4781
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-wpa2setup' "
@@ -6387,7 +6380,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4763
+#: book.translate.xml:4786
msgid ""
"Next, choose whether or not an <acronym>IPv4</acronym> address should be "
"configured on the Ethernet or wireless interface:"
@@ -6396,7 +6389,7 @@ msgstr ""
"址:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4768
+#: book.translate.xml:4791
msgid "Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> Networking"
msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> 網路"
@@ -6405,7 +6398,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> 網路"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4772
+#: book.translate.xml:4795
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4' "
@@ -6413,7 +6406,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4777
+#: book.translate.xml:4800
msgid ""
"There are two methods of <acronym>IPv4</acronym> configuration. "
"<acronym>DHCP</acronym> will automatically configure the network interface "
@@ -6426,7 +6419,7 @@ msgstr ""
"手動輸入位址的資訊來做靜態設定。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4785
+#: book.translate.xml:4808
msgid ""
"Do not enter random network information as it will not work. If a "
"<acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available, obtain the information "
@@ -6438,7 +6431,7 @@ msgstr ""
"列於 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-collect-network-information\"/> 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4792
+#: book.translate.xml:4815
msgid ""
"If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is available, select <guibutton>[ Yes ]</"
"guibutton> in the next menu to automatically configure the network "
@@ -6451,7 +6444,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 伺服器並且取得系統的位址資訊時,安裝程式會出現一分鐘左右的停頓。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4800
+#: book.translate.xml:4823
msgid "Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym> Configuration"
msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 設定"
@@ -6460,7 +6453,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4805
+#: book.translate.xml:4828
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-dhcp' "
@@ -6468,7 +6461,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4810
+#: book.translate.xml:4833
msgid ""
"If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available, select "
"<guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> and input the following addressing information "
@@ -6478,7 +6471,7 @@ msgstr ""
"guibutton> 然後在這個選單中輸入以下位址資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4815
+#: book.translate.xml:4838
msgid "<acronym>IPv4</acronym> Static Configuration"
msgstr "<acronym>IPv4</acronym> 靜態位置設定"
@@ -6487,7 +6480,7 @@ msgstr "<acronym>IPv4</acronym> 靜態位置設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4819
+#: book.translate.xml:4842
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-static' "
@@ -6495,7 +6488,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4826
+#: book.translate.xml:4849
msgid ""
"<literal>IP Address</literal> - The <acronym>IPv4</acronym> address assigned "
"to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use by "
@@ -6505,12 +6498,12 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 位址。位址必須獨一無二且不可已被其他在區域網路上的設備使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4833
+#: book.translate.xml:4856
msgid "<literal>Subnet Mask</literal> - The subnet mask for the network."
msgstr "子網路遮罩 (<literal>Subnet Mask</literal>) - 網路的子網路遮罩。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4838
+#: book.translate.xml:4861
msgid ""
"<literal>Default Router</literal> - The <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the "
"network's default gateway."
@@ -6519,7 +6512,7 @@ msgstr ""
"在網段的預設通訊閘。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4844
+#: book.translate.xml:4867
msgid ""
"The next screen will ask if the interface should be configured for "
"<acronym>IPv6</acronym>. If <acronym>IPv6</acronym> is available and "
@@ -6529,7 +6522,7 @@ msgstr ""
"要使用 <acronym>IPv6</acronym>,請選擇 <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4850
+#: book.translate.xml:4873
msgid "Choose IPv6 Networking"
msgstr "選擇 IPv6 網路"
@@ -6538,7 +6531,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 IPv6 網路"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4854
+#: book.translate.xml:4877
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6' "
@@ -6546,7 +6539,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4859
+#: book.translate.xml:4882
msgid ""
"<acronym>IPv6</acronym> also has two methods of configuration. StateLess "
"Address AutoConfiguration (<acronym>SLAAC</acronym>) will automatically "
@@ -6562,7 +6555,7 @@ msgstr ""
"則需要手動輸入網路資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4867
+#: book.translate.xml:4890
msgid ""
"If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is available, select "
"<guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> in the next menu to automatically configure "
@@ -6574,7 +6567,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的位址資訊時,安裝程式會出現一分鐘左右的停頓。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4874
+#: book.translate.xml:4897
msgid "Choose IPv6 SLAAC Configuration"
msgstr "選擇 IPv6 SLAAC 設定"
@@ -6583,7 +6576,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 IPv6 SLAAC 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4878
+#: book.translate.xml:4901
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-slaac' "
@@ -6591,7 +6584,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4883
+#: book.translate.xml:4906
msgid ""
"If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is not available, select "
"<guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> and input the following addressing information "
@@ -6601,7 +6594,7 @@ msgstr ""
"guibutton> 然後在這個選單中輸入以下位址資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4888
+#: book.translate.xml:4911
msgid "IPv6 Static Configuration"
msgstr "IPv6 靜態位置設定"
@@ -6610,7 +6603,7 @@ msgstr "IPv6 靜態位置設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4892
+#: book.translate.xml:4915
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6-static' "
@@ -6618,7 +6611,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4899
+#: book.translate.xml:4922
msgid ""
"<literal>IPv6 Address</literal> - The <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address "
"assigned to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use "
@@ -6629,7 +6622,7 @@ msgstr ""
"備使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4906
+#: book.translate.xml:4929
msgid ""
"<literal>Default Router</literal> - The <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address of "
"the network's default gateway."
@@ -6638,7 +6631,7 @@ msgstr ""
"所在網段的預設通訊閘。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4912
+#: book.translate.xml:4935
msgid ""
"The last network configuration menu is used to configure the Domain Name "
"System (<acronym>DNS</acronym>) resolver, which converts hostnames to and "
@@ -6661,7 +6654,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4926
+#: book.translate.xml:4949
msgid "DNS Configuration"
msgstr "DNS 設定"
@@ -6670,7 +6663,7 @@ msgstr "DNS 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4930
+#: book.translate.xml:4953
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-ipv4-dns' "
@@ -6678,12 +6671,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4937
+#: book.translate.xml:4960
msgid "Setting the Time Zone"
msgstr "設定時區"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4939
+#: book.translate.xml:4962
msgid ""
"The next menu asks if the system clock uses <acronym>UTC</acronym> or local "
"time. When in doubt, select <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> to choose the more "
@@ -6693,7 +6686,7 @@ msgstr ""
"問時可選擇 <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton>使用更常用的當地時間。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4945
+#: book.translate.xml:4968
msgid "Select Local or UTC Clock"
msgstr "選擇本地或 UTC 時鐘"
@@ -6702,14 +6695,14 @@ msgstr "選擇本地或 UTC 時鐘"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4949
+#: book.translate.xml:4972
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-set-clock-local-utc' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4954
+#: book.translate.xml:4977
msgid ""
"The next series of menus are used to determine the correct local time by "
"selecting the geographic region, country, and time zone. Setting the time "
@@ -6722,7 +6715,7 @@ msgstr ""
"能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4961
+#: book.translate.xml:4984
msgid ""
"The example shown here is for a machine located in the Eastern time zone of "
"the United States. The selections will vary according to the geographical "
@@ -6730,7 +6723,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr "此處以位於美國東部時區的機器為例,選擇會依據地理位置不同改變。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4966
+#: book.translate.xml:4989
msgid "Select a Region"
msgstr "選擇區域"
@@ -6739,20 +6732,20 @@ msgstr "選擇區域"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4970
+#: book.translate.xml:4993
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-region' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4975
+#: book.translate.xml:4998
msgid ""
"The appropriate region is selected using the arrow keys and then pressing "
"<keycap>Enter</keycap>."
msgstr "使用方向鍵選擇適當的區域然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4979
+#: book.translate.xml:5002
msgid "Select a Country"
msgstr "選擇城市"
@@ -6761,20 +6754,20 @@ msgstr "選擇城市"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4983
+#: book.translate.xml:5006
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-country' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4988
+#: book.translate.xml:5011
msgid ""
"Select the appropriate country using the arrow keys and press <keycap>Enter</"
"keycap>."
msgstr "使用方向鍵選擇適當的城市然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4992
+#: book.translate.xml:5015
msgid "Select a Time Zone"
msgstr "選擇時區"
@@ -6783,20 +6776,20 @@ msgstr "選擇時區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4996
+#: book.translate.xml:5019
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-zone' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5001
+#: book.translate.xml:5024
msgid ""
"The appropriate time zone is selected using the arrow keys and pressing "
"<keycap>Enter</keycap>."
msgstr "使用方向鍵選擇適當的時區然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5005
+#: book.translate.xml:5028
msgid "Confirm Time Zone"
msgstr "確認時區"
@@ -6805,13 +6798,13 @@ msgstr "確認時區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5009
+#: book.translate.xml:5032
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-confirm' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5014
+#: book.translate.xml:5037
msgid ""
"Confirm the abbreviation for the time zone is correct. If it is, press "
"<keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue with the post-installation configuration."
@@ -6819,12 +6812,12 @@ msgstr ""
"確認時區的縮寫是否正確,若正確,按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 繼續安裝後設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5020
+#: book.translate.xml:5043
msgid "Enabling Services"
msgstr "開啟服務"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5022
+#: book.translate.xml:5045
msgid ""
"The next menu is used to configure which system services will be started "
"whenever the system boots. All of these services are optional. Only start "
@@ -6834,7 +6827,7 @@ msgstr ""
"開啟系統運作真正需要的服務。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5028
+#: book.translate.xml:5051
msgid "Selecting Additional Services to Enable"
msgstr "選擇要開啟的其他服務"
@@ -6843,18 +6836,18 @@ msgstr "選擇要開啟的其他服務"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5032
+#: book.translate.xml:5055
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-services' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5037
+#: book.translate.xml:5060
msgid "Here is a summary of the services which can be enabled in this menu:"
msgstr "這是可以在這個選單開啟的服務摘要:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5042
+#: book.translate.xml:5065
msgid ""
"<literal>sshd</literal> - The Secure Shell (<acronym>SSH</acronym>) daemon "
"is used to remotely access a system over an encrypted connection. Only "
@@ -6864,7 +6857,7 @@ msgstr ""
"端透過加密的連線存取系統,只有在系統允許遠端登入時開啟這個服務。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5050
+#: book.translate.xml:5073
msgid ""
"<literal>moused</literal> - Enable this service if the mouse will be used "
"from the command-line system console."
@@ -6873,7 +6866,7 @@ msgstr ""
"務。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5056
+#: book.translate.xml:5079
msgid ""
"<literal>ntpd</literal> - The Network Time Protocol (<acronym>NTP</acronym>) "
"daemon for automatic clock synchronization. Enable this service if there is "
@@ -6886,7 +6879,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 伺服器時,可開啟此服務。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5064
+#: book.translate.xml:5087
msgid ""
"<literal>powerd</literal> - System power control utility for power control "
"and energy saving."
@@ -6894,12 +6887,12 @@ msgstr "<literal>powerd</literal> - 系統電源控制工具用來做電源控
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5071 book.translate.xml:5079
+#: book.translate.xml:5094 book.translate.xml:5102
msgid "Enabling Crash Dumps"
msgstr "開啟當機資訊 (Crash Dump)"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5073
+#: book.translate.xml:5096
msgid ""
"The next menu is used to configure whether or not crash dumps should be "
"enabled. Enabling crash dumps can be useful in debugging issues with the "
@@ -6913,18 +6906,18 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5083
+#: book.translate.xml:5106
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-crashdump' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5090
+#: book.translate.xml:5113
msgid "Add Users"
msgstr "新增使用者"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5092
+#: book.translate.xml:5115
msgid ""
"The next menu prompts to create at least one user account. It is recommended "
"to login to the system using a user account rather than as <systemitem class="
@@ -6939,12 +6932,12 @@ msgstr ""
"使用一般使用者登入較保險且安全。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5099
+#: book.translate.xml:5122
msgid "Select <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> to add new users."
msgstr "選擇 <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> 來新增新使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5103
+#: book.translate.xml:5126
msgid "Add User Accounts"
msgstr "新增使用者帳號"
@@ -6953,13 +6946,13 @@ msgstr "新增使用者帳號"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5107
+#: book.translate.xml:5130
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser1' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5112
+#: book.translate.xml:5135
msgid ""
"Follow the prompts and input the requested information for the user account. "
"The example shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-add-user2\"/> creates the "
@@ -6970,7 +6963,7 @@ msgstr ""
"號。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5116
+#: book.translate.xml:5139
msgid "Enter User Information"
msgstr "輸入使用者資訊"
@@ -6979,18 +6972,18 @@ msgstr "輸入使用者資訊"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5120
+#: book.translate.xml:5143
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser2' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5125
+#: book.translate.xml:5148
msgid "Here is a summary of the information to input:"
msgstr "這裡是要輸入的資訊摘要:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5129
+#: book.translate.xml:5152
msgid ""
"<literal>Username</literal> - The name the user will enter to log in. A "
"common convention is to use the first letter of the first name combined with "
@@ -7002,7 +6995,7 @@ msgstr ""
"區分大小寫且不應含有任何空白字元。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5138
+#: book.translate.xml:5161
msgid ""
"<literal>Full name</literal> - The user's full name. This can contain spaces "
"and is used as a description for the user account."
@@ -7011,7 +7004,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用來描述該使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5144
+#: book.translate.xml:5167
msgid ""
"<literal>Uid</literal> - User <acronym>ID</acronym>. Typically, this is left "
"blank so the system will assign a value."
@@ -7020,7 +7013,7 @@ msgstr ""
"統會自動分配一個值。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5150
+#: book.translate.xml:5173
msgid ""
"<literal>Login group</literal> - The user's group. Typically this is left "
"blank to accept the default."
@@ -7029,7 +7022,7 @@ msgstr ""
"來使用預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5155
+#: book.translate.xml:5178
msgid ""
"<literal>Invite <replaceable>user</replaceable> into other groups?</literal> "
"- Additional groups to which the user will be added as a member. If the user "
@@ -7040,12 +7033,12 @@ msgstr ""
"需要管理權限,則在此輸入 <literal>wheel</literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5163
+#: book.translate.xml:5186
msgid "<literal>Login class</literal> - Typically left blank for the default."
msgstr "登入類別 (<literal>Login class</literal>) - 通常會留空來使用預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5168
+#: book.translate.xml:5191
msgid ""
"<literal>Shell</literal> - Type in one of the listed values to set the "
"interactive shell for the user. Refer to <xref linkend=\"shells\"/> for more "
@@ -7055,7 +7048,7 @@ msgstr ""
"參考 <xref linkend=\"shells\"/> 取得更多有關 Shell 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5175
+#: book.translate.xml:5198
msgid ""
"<literal>Home directory</literal> - The user's home directory. The default "
"is usually correct."
@@ -7064,7 +7057,7 @@ msgstr ""
"問題的。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5180
+#: book.translate.xml:5203
msgid ""
"<literal>Home directory permissions</literal> - Permissions on the user's "
"home directory. The default is usually correct."
@@ -7073,7 +7066,7 @@ msgstr ""
"限,預設值通常是沒有問題的。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5186
+#: book.translate.xml:5209
msgid ""
"<literal>Use password-based authentication?</literal> - Typically "
"<literal>yes</literal> so that the user is prompted to input their password "
@@ -7083,7 +7076,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) - 通常為是 (<literal>yes</literal>),使用者才可於登入時輸入密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5192
+#: book.translate.xml:5215
msgid ""
"<literal>Use an empty password?</literal> - Typically <literal>no</literal> "
"as it is insecure to have a blank password."
@@ -7092,7 +7085,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<literal>no</literal>),因為使用空白密碼並不安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5198
+#: book.translate.xml:5221
msgid ""
"<literal>Use a random password?</literal> - Typically <literal>no</literal> "
"so that the user can set their own password in the next prompt."
@@ -7101,7 +7094,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<literal>no</literal>),這樣使用者接下來才可設定自己的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5204
+#: book.translate.xml:5227
msgid ""
"<literal>Enter password</literal> - The password for this user. Characters "
"typed will not show on the screen."
@@ -7110,7 +7103,7 @@ msgstr ""
"會顯示在畫面上。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5210
+#: book.translate.xml:5233
msgid ""
"<literal>Enter password again</literal> - The password must be typed again "
"for verification."
@@ -7119,7 +7112,7 @@ msgstr ""
"認無誤。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5215
+#: book.translate.xml:5238
msgid ""
"<literal>Lock out the account after creation?</literal> - Typically "
"<literal>no</literal> so that the user can login."
@@ -7128,7 +7121,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) - 通常為否 (<literal>no</literal>),這樣使用者才可以登入。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5221
+#: book.translate.xml:5244
msgid ""
"After entering everything, a summary is shown for review. If a mistake was "
"made, enter <literal>no</literal> and try again. If everything is correct, "
@@ -7139,7 +7132,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 以後便會建立新使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5227
+#: book.translate.xml:5250
msgid "Exit User and Group Management"
msgstr "離開使用者與群組管理"
@@ -7148,13 +7141,13 @@ msgstr "離開使用者與群組管理"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5231
+#: book.translate.xml:5254
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser3' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5236
+#: book.translate.xml:5259
msgid ""
"If there are more users to add, answer the <literal>Add another user?</"
"literal> question with <literal>yes</literal>. Enter <literal>no</literal> "
@@ -7165,7 +7158,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 來完成加入使用者然後繼續安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5241
+#: book.translate.xml:5264
msgid ""
"For more information on adding users and user management, see <xref linkend="
"\"users-synopsis\"/>."
@@ -7175,12 +7168,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5246 book.translate.xml:5252
+#: book.translate.xml:5269 book.translate.xml:5275
msgid "Final Configuration"
msgstr "最後設定"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5248
+#: book.translate.xml:5271
msgid ""
"After everything has been installed and configured, a final chance is "
"provided to modify settings."
@@ -7191,21 +7184,21 @@ msgstr "在所有東西安裝並設定完之後,會提供最後一次修改設
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5256
+#: book.translate.xml:5279
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-finalconfiguration' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5261
+#: book.translate.xml:5284
msgid ""
"Use this menu to make any changes or do any additional configuration before "
"completing the installation."
msgstr "使用這個選單在完成安裝前做任何更改或做任何額外的設定。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5266
+#: book.translate.xml:5289
msgid ""
"<literal>Add User</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"addusers\"/>."
@@ -7214,7 +7207,7 @@ msgstr ""
"addusers\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5270
+#: book.translate.xml:5293
msgid ""
"<literal>Root Password</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"post-root\"/>."
@@ -7223,7 +7216,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"bsdinstall-post-root\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5274
+#: book.translate.xml:5297
msgid ""
"<literal>Hostname</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"hostname\"/>."
@@ -7232,7 +7225,7 @@ msgstr ""
"hostname\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5278
+#: book.translate.xml:5301
msgid ""
"<literal>Network</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-config-"
"network-dev\"/>."
@@ -7241,7 +7234,7 @@ msgstr ""
"network-dev\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5282
+#: book.translate.xml:5305
msgid ""
"<literal>Services</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-sysconf"
"\"/>."
@@ -7250,7 +7243,7 @@ msgstr ""
"sysconf\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5286
+#: book.translate.xml:5309
msgid ""
"<literal>Time Zone</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"timezone\"/>."
@@ -7259,13 +7252,13 @@ msgstr ""
"timezone\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5290
+#: book.translate.xml:5313
msgid ""
"<literal>Handbook</literal> - Download and install the FreeBSD Handbook."
msgstr "使用手冊 (<literal>Handbook</literal>) - 下載並安裝 FreeBSD 使用手冊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5295
+#: book.translate.xml:5318
msgid ""
"After any final configuration is complete, select <guibutton>Exit</"
"guibutton>."
@@ -7273,7 +7266,7 @@ msgstr "完成最後的設定之後,選擇 <guibutton>Exit</guibutton>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5299 book.translate.xml:11498
+#: book.translate.xml:5322 book.translate.xml:11521
msgid "Manual Configuration"
msgstr "手動設定"
@@ -7282,7 +7275,7 @@ msgstr "手動設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5303
+#: book.translate.xml:5326
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-modification-shell' "
@@ -7290,7 +7283,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5308
+#: book.translate.xml:5331
msgid ""
"<application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt if there are any "
"additional configuration that needs to be done before rebooting into the new "
@@ -7303,7 +7296,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的 Shell 或 <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> 繼續最後的安裝步驟。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5317
+#: book.translate.xml:5340
msgid "Complete the Installation"
msgstr "完成安裝"
@@ -7312,13 +7305,13 @@ msgstr "完成安裝"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5321
+#: book.translate.xml:5344
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-mainexit' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5326
+#: book.translate.xml:5349
msgid ""
"If further configuration or special setup is needed, select "
"<guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton> to boot the install media into Live "
@@ -7328,7 +7321,7 @@ msgstr ""
"進入安裝媒體的 Live <acronym>CD</acronym> 模式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5331
+#: book.translate.xml:5354
msgid ""
"If the installation is complete, select <guibutton>[ Reboot ]</guibutton> to "
"reboot the computer and start the new FreeBSD system. Do not forget to "
@@ -7339,7 +7332,7 @@ msgstr ""
"式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5337
+#: book.translate.xml:5360
msgid ""
"As FreeBSD boots, informational messages are displayed. After the system "
"finishes booting, a login prompt is displayed. At the <prompt>login:</"
@@ -7354,7 +7347,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"users-superuser\"/> 來取得當需要管理權限時如何成為超級使用者的說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5346
+#: book.translate.xml:5369
msgid ""
"The messages that appeared during boot can be reviewed by pressing "
"<keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> to turn on the scroll-back buffer. The "
@@ -7373,7 +7366,7 @@ msgstr ""
"列。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5358
+#: book.translate.xml:5381
msgid ""
"If <application>sshd</application> was enabled in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"config-serv\"/>, the first boot may be a bit slower as the system will "
@@ -7387,7 +7380,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Fingerprint),如這個範例:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5364
+#: book.translate.xml:5387
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.\n"
@@ -7428,7 +7421,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5400
+#: book.translate.xml:5423
msgid ""
"Refer to <xref linkend=\"openssh\"/> for more information about fingerprints "
"and <acronym>SSH</acronym>."
@@ -7437,7 +7430,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5403
+#: book.translate.xml:5426
msgid ""
"FreeBSD does not install a graphical environment by default. Refer to <xref "
"linkend=\"x11\"/> for more information about installing and configuring a "
@@ -7447,7 +7440,7 @@ msgstr ""
"與設定圖型化視窗管理程式的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5407
+#: book.translate.xml:5430
msgid ""
"Proper shutdown of a FreeBSD computer helps protect data and hardware from "
"damage. <emphasis>Do not turn off the power before the system has been "
@@ -7468,31 +7461,31 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5420 book.translate.xml:12450 book.translate.xml:15213
-#: book.translate.xml:20388 book.translate.xml:35671 book.translate.xml:36441
-#: book.translate.xml:47568 book.translate.xml:50814 book.translate.xml:61911
-#: book.translate.xml:63571 book.translate.xml:64294
+#: book.translate.xml:5443 book.translate.xml:12473 book.translate.xml:15236
+#: book.translate.xml:20407 book.translate.xml:35691 book.translate.xml:36461
+#: book.translate.xml:47953 book.translate.xml:51199 book.translate.xml:62294
+#: book.translate.xml:63954 book.translate.xml:64677
msgid "Troubleshooting"
msgstr "疑難排解"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5422
+#: book.translate.xml:5445
msgid "<primary>installation</primary> <secondary>troubleshooting</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5426
+#: book.translate.xml:5449
msgid ""
"This section covers basic installation troubleshooting, such as common "
"problems people have reported."
msgstr "本節涵蓋基礎的安裝疑難排解,例如一些已有人回報的常見問題。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5430
+#: book.translate.xml:5453
msgid ""
"Check the Hardware Notes (<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/"
-"index.html\">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>) document for "
-"the version of FreeBSD to make sure the hardware is supported. If the "
+"index.html\">https://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>) document "
+"for the version of FreeBSD to make sure the hardware is supported. If the "
"hardware is supported and lock-ups or other problems occur, build a custom "
"kernel using the instructions in <xref linkend=\"kernelconfig\"/> to add "
"support for devices which are not present in the <filename>GENERIC</"
@@ -7503,8 +7496,8 @@ msgid ""
"tell FreeBSD where to find things."
msgstr ""
"查看該 FreeBSD 版本的 Hardware Notes (<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/"
-"releases/index.html\">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>) 文件"
-"來確認是否支援該硬體。若確定有支援該硬體但仍然卡住或發生其他問題,請依照 "
+"releases/index.html\">https://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>) 文"
+"件來確認是否支援該硬體。若確定有支援該硬體但仍然卡住或發生其他問題,請依照 "
"<xref linkend=\"kernelconfig\"/> 的指示編譯自訂核心來加入未在 "
"<filename>GENERIC</filename> 核心的裝置。預設的核心會假設大部份的硬體裝置會使"
"用原廠預設的 <acronym>IRQ</acronym>s, <acronym>I/O</acronym> 位址,及 "
@@ -7512,7 +7505,7 @@ msgstr ""
"訴 FreeBSD 到那找到這些裝置。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5444
+#: book.translate.xml:5467
msgid ""
"Some installation problems can be avoided or alleviated by updating the "
"firmware on various hardware components, most notably the motherboard. "
@@ -7525,7 +7518,7 @@ msgstr ""
"得升級程式與升級資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5451
+#: book.translate.xml:5474
msgid ""
"Manufacturers generally advise against upgrading the motherboard "
"<acronym>BIOS</acronym> unless there is a good reason for doing so, like a "
@@ -7535,7 +7528,7 @@ msgstr ""
"製造商通常會建議若沒有特殊原因盡量避免升級主機板 <acronym>BIOS</acronym>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5459
+#: book.translate.xml:5482
msgid ""
"If the system hangs while probing hardware during boot, or it behaves "
"strangely during install, <acronym>ACPI</acronym> may be the culprit. "
@@ -7555,13 +7548,13 @@ msgstr ""
"disabled</literal> Hint 來關閉 <acronym>ACPI</acronym>:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5471
+#: book.translate.xml:5494
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput>set hint.acpi.0.disabled=\"1\"</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5473
+#: book.translate.xml:5496
msgid ""
"This is reset each time the system is booted, so it is necessary to add "
"<literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled=\"1\"</literal> to the file <filename>/boot/"
@@ -7573,12 +7566,12 @@ msgstr ""
"機載入程式的資訊可於 <xref linkend=\"boot-synopsis\"/> 取得。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5480
+#: book.translate.xml:5503
msgid "Using the Live <acronym>CD</acronym>"
msgstr "使用 Live <acronym>CD</acronym>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5482
+#: book.translate.xml:5505
msgid ""
"The welcome menu of <application>bsdinstall</application>, shown in <xref "
"linkend=\"bsdinstall-choose-mode\"/>, provides a <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</"
@@ -7592,14 +7585,14 @@ msgstr ""
"測試一部份功能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5489
+#: book.translate.xml:5512
msgid ""
"The following points should be noted before using the "
"<guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton>:"
msgstr "在使用 <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton> 之前必須注意以下幾點事項:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5494
+#: book.translate.xml:5517
msgid ""
"To gain access to the system, authentication is required. The username is "
"<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> and the password is blank."
@@ -7608,25 +7601,25 @@ msgstr ""
"\">root</systemitem> 而密碼則是空白。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5500
+#: book.translate.xml:5523
msgid ""
"As the system runs directly from the installation media, performance will be "
"significantly slower than that of a system installed on a hard disk."
msgstr "系統是直接從安裝媒體上執行,比起安裝到硬碟的系統,效能可能較差。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5506
+#: book.translate.xml:5529
msgid ""
"This option only provides a command prompt and not a graphical interface."
msgstr "這個選項只提供指令提示,不會有圖型化介面。"
#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5531
+#: book.translate.xml:5554
msgid "FreeBSD Basics"
msgstr "FreeBSD 基礎"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5536
+#: book.translate.xml:5559
msgid ""
"This chapter covers the basic commands and functionality of the FreeBSD "
"operating system. Much of this material is relevant for any <trademark class="
@@ -7639,17 +7632,17 @@ msgstr ""
"細的讀完這章。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5545
+#: book.translate.xml:5568
msgid "How to use and configure virtual consoles."
msgstr "如何使用 FreeBSD 的虛擬 Console。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5549
+#: book.translate.xml:5572
msgid "How to create and manage users and groups on FreeBSD."
msgstr "如何在 FreeBSD 建立與管理使用者與群組。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5554
+#: book.translate.xml:5577
msgid ""
"How <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> file permissions and "
"FreeBSD file flags work."
@@ -7658,68 +7651,68 @@ msgstr ""
"記的運作方式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5559
+#: book.translate.xml:5582
msgid "The default FreeBSD file system layout."
msgstr "預設的 FreeBSD 檔案系統配置。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5563
+#: book.translate.xml:5586
msgid "The FreeBSD disk organization."
msgstr "FreeBSD 的磁碟組織。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5567
+#: book.translate.xml:5590
msgid "How to mount and unmount file systems."
msgstr "如何掛載 (Mount)、卸載 (Umount) 檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5571
+#: book.translate.xml:5594
msgid "What processes, daemons, and signals are."
msgstr "什麼是程序、Daemon 以及信號 (Signal)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5575
+#: book.translate.xml:5598
msgid "What a shell is, and how to change the default login environment."
msgstr "什麼是 Shell,以及如何變更您預設的登入環境。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5580
+#: book.translate.xml:5603
msgid "How to use basic text editors."
msgstr "如何使用基本的文字編輯器。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5584
+#: book.translate.xml:5607
msgid "What devices and device nodes are."
msgstr "什麼是裝置 (Device) 和裝置節點 (Device node)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5588
+#: book.translate.xml:5611
msgid "How to read manual pages for more information."
msgstr "如何閱讀操作手冊以獲得更多的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5594
+#: book.translate.xml:5617
msgid "Virtual Consoles and Terminals"
msgstr "虛擬 Console 與終端機"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5596
+#: book.translate.xml:5619
msgid "<primary>virtual consoles</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5599 book.translate.xml:46850
+#: book.translate.xml:5622 book.translate.xml:47235
msgid "<primary>terminals</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5602 book.translate.xml:23370
+#: book.translate.xml:5625 book.translate.xml:23389
msgid "<primary>console</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5606
+#: book.translate.xml:5629
msgid ""
"Unless FreeBSD has been configured to automatically start a graphical "
"environment during startup, the system will boot into a command line login "
@@ -7729,7 +7722,7 @@ msgstr ""
"是這樣的東西:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5611
+#: book.translate.xml:5634
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"FreeBSD/amd64 (pc3.example.org) (ttyv0)\n"
@@ -7738,7 +7731,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5615
+#: book.translate.xml:5638
msgid ""
"The first line contains some information about the system. The "
"<literal>amd64</literal> indicates that the system in this example is "
@@ -7752,7 +7745,7 @@ msgstr ""
"quote>。第二行則是登人的提示訊息。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5623
+#: book.translate.xml:5646
msgid ""
"Since FreeBSD is a multiuser system, it needs some way to distinguish "
"between different users. This is accomplished by requiring every user to log "
@@ -7766,7 +7759,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<quote>password</quote>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5630
+#: book.translate.xml:5653
msgid ""
"To log into the system console, type the username that was configured during "
"system installation, as described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-addusers\"/"
@@ -7780,7 +7773,7 @@ msgstr ""
"示</emphasis>在畫面上。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5638
+#: book.translate.xml:5661
msgid ""
"Once the correct password is input, the message of the day (<acronym>MOTD</"
"acronym>) will be displayed followed by a command prompt. Depending upon the "
@@ -7796,12 +7789,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Console 且已經準備好可以下指令。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5648
+#: book.translate.xml:5671
msgid "Virtual Consoles"
msgstr "虛擬 Console"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5650
+#: book.translate.xml:5673
msgid ""
"While the system console can be used to interact with the system, a user "
"working from the command line at the keyboard of a FreeBSD system will "
@@ -7815,7 +7808,7 @@ msgstr ""
"這些訊些會在使用者作業的過程中不斷出現,讓使用者難以專心作業。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5659
+#: book.translate.xml:5682
msgid ""
"By default, FreeBSD is configured to provide several virtual consoles for "
"inputting commands. Each virtual console has its own login prompt and shell "
@@ -7828,7 +7821,7 @@ msgstr ""
"於圖型化環境中可以同時開啟多個視窗的功能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5666
+#: book.translate.xml:5689
msgid ""
"The key combinations <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></"
"keycombo> through <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F8</keycap></"
@@ -7850,7 +7843,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<filename>ttyv2</filename>),以此類推。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5682
+#: book.translate.xml:5705
msgid ""
"When switching from one console to the next, FreeBSD manages the screen "
"output. The result is an illusion of having multiple virtual screens and "
@@ -7863,7 +7856,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Console 上執行的程式並不會因為使用者切到別的 Console 而停止執行。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5689
+#: book.translate.xml:5712
msgid ""
"Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kbdcontrol</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, "
@@ -7885,7 +7878,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 來取得更多有關 FreeBSD Console 及鍵盤驅動程式的技術說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5694
+#: book.translate.xml:5717
msgid ""
"In FreeBSD, the number of available virtual consoles is configured in this "
"section of <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:"
@@ -7894,7 +7887,7 @@ msgstr ""
"列章節:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:5698
+#: book.translate.xml:5721
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"# name getty type status comments\n"
@@ -7912,7 +7905,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5712
+#: book.translate.xml:5735
msgid ""
"To disable a virtual console, put a comment symbol (<literal>#</literal>) at "
"the beginning of the line representing that virtual console. For example, to "
@@ -7934,7 +7927,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個虛擬 Console (<filename>ttyv8</filename>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5726
+#: book.translate.xml:5749
msgid ""
"For a detailed description of every column in this file and the available "
"options for the virtual consoles, refer to "
@@ -7945,12 +7938,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5732
+#: book.translate.xml:5755
msgid "Single User Mode"
msgstr "單使用者模式"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5734
+#: book.translate.xml:5757
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD boot menu provides an option labelled as <quote>Boot Single "
"User</quote>. If this option is selected, the system will boot into a "
@@ -7975,7 +7968,7 @@ msgstr ""
"鍵盤的人員。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5750
+#: book.translate.xml:5773
msgid ""
"The settings which control single user mode are found in this section of "
"<filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:"
@@ -7984,7 +7977,7 @@ msgstr ""
"到:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:5753
+#: book.translate.xml:5776
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"# name getty type status comments\n"
@@ -7995,7 +7988,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5759
+#: book.translate.xml:5782
msgid ""
"By default, the status is set to <literal>secure</literal>. This assumes "
"that who has physical access to the keyboard is either not important or it "
@@ -8014,7 +8007,7 @@ msgstr ""
"碼。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5771
+#: book.translate.xml:5794
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Be careful when changing this setting to <literal>insecure</"
"literal></emphasis>! If the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> "
@@ -8027,12 +8020,12 @@ msgstr ""
"有其他辦法可以登入單使用者模式,只是對不熟 FreeBSD 開機程序的人可就麻煩了。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5781
+#: book.translate.xml:5804
msgid "Changing Console Video Modes"
msgstr "更改 Console 影像模式"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5783
+#: book.translate.xml:5806
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD console default video mode may be adjusted to 1024x768, "
"1280x1024, or any other size supported by the graphics chip and monitor. To "
@@ -8043,13 +8036,13 @@ msgstr ""
"組:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5788
+#: book.translate.xml:5811
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload vesa</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5790
+#: book.translate.xml:5813
msgid ""
"To determine which video modes are supported by the hardware, use "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
@@ -8061,13 +8054,13 @@ msgstr ""
"清單可輸入以下指令:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5794
+#: book.translate.xml:5817
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>vidcontrol -i mode</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5796
+#: book.translate.xml:5819
msgid ""
"The output of this command lists the video modes that are supported by the "
"hardware. To select a new video mode, specify the mode using "
@@ -8081,13 +8074,13 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5801
+#: book.translate.xml:5824
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>vidcontrol MODE_279</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5803
+#: book.translate.xml:5826
msgid ""
"If the new video mode is acceptable, it can be permanently set on boot by "
"adding it to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:"
@@ -8096,18 +8089,18 @@ msgstr ""
"次重開機後會自動生效:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:5807
+#: book.translate.xml:5830
#, no-wrap
msgid "allscreens_flags=\"MODE_279\""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5824
+#: book.translate.xml:5847
msgid "Users and Basic Account Management"
msgstr "使用者與基礎帳號管理"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5826
+#: book.translate.xml:5849
msgid ""
"FreeBSD allows multiple users to use the computer at the same time. While "
"only one user can sit in front of the screen and use the keyboard at any one "
@@ -8119,39 +8112,39 @@ msgstr ""
"用者應有自己的帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5832
+#: book.translate.xml:5855
msgid "This chapter describes:"
msgstr "本章介紹︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5836
+#: book.translate.xml:5859
msgid "The different types of user accounts on a FreeBSD system."
msgstr "FreeBSD 系統中各種類型的使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5841
+#: book.translate.xml:5864
msgid "How to add, remove, and modify user accounts."
msgstr "如何加入、移除與修改使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5845
+#: book.translate.xml:5868
msgid ""
"How to set limits to control the resources that users and groups are allowed "
"to access."
msgstr "如何設定用來控制使用者與群組允許存取的資源的限制。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5851
+#: book.translate.xml:5874
msgid "How to create groups and add users as members of a group."
msgstr "如何建立群組與加入使用者作為群組成員。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5857
+#: book.translate.xml:5880
msgid "Account Types"
msgstr "帳號類型"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5859
+#: book.translate.xml:5882
msgid ""
"Since all access to the FreeBSD system is achieved using accounts and all "
"processes are run by users, user and account management is important."
@@ -8160,24 +8153,24 @@ msgstr ""
"者來執行,因此使用者帳號管理非常重要。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5863
+#: book.translate.xml:5886
msgid ""
"There are three main types of accounts: system accounts, user accounts, and "
"the superuser account."
msgstr "有三種主要類型的帳號:系統帳號、使用者帳號以及超級使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5867
+#: book.translate.xml:5890
msgid "System Accounts"
msgstr "系統帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5869
+#: book.translate.xml:5892
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>system</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5874
+#: book.translate.xml:5897
msgid ""
"System accounts are used to run services such as DNS, mail, and web servers. "
"The reason for this is security; if all services ran as the superuser, they "
@@ -8187,21 +8180,21 @@ msgstr ""
"若所有的服務均以超級使用者來執行,那麼這些服務的運作將不會受到限制。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5879
+#: book.translate.xml:5902
msgid ""
"<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username"
"\">daemon</systemitem></secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5883
+#: book.translate.xml:5906
msgid ""
"<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username"
"\">operator</systemitem></secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5888
+#: book.translate.xml:5911
msgid ""
"Examples of system accounts are <systemitem class=\"username\">daemon</"
"systemitem>, <systemitem class=\"username\">operator</systemitem>, "
@@ -8215,14 +8208,14 @@ msgstr ""
"systemitem>, and <systemitem class=\"username\">www</systemitem>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5895
+#: book.translate.xml:5918
msgid ""
"<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username"
"\">nobody</systemitem></secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5900
+#: book.translate.xml:5923
msgid ""
"<systemitem class=\"username\">nobody</systemitem> is the generic "
"unprivileged system account. However, the more services that use <systemitem "
@@ -8236,17 +8229,17 @@ msgstr ""
"限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5909
+#: book.translate.xml:5932
msgid "User Accounts"
msgstr "使用者帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5911
+#: book.translate.xml:5934
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>user</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5916
+#: book.translate.xml:5939
msgid ""
"User accounts are assigned to real people and are used to log in and use the "
"system. Every person accessing the system should have a unique user account. "
@@ -8258,7 +8251,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5922
+#: book.translate.xml:5945
msgid ""
"Each user can set up their own environment to accommodate their use of the "
"system, by configuring their default shell, editor, key bindings, and "
@@ -8268,19 +8261,19 @@ msgstr ""
"編輯器、組合鍵 (Key Binding) 及語言設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5927
+#: book.translate.xml:5950
msgid ""
"Every user account on a FreeBSD system has certain information associated "
"with it:"
msgstr "每個在 FreeBSD 系統的使用者帳號都會有一些相關的資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5932
+#: book.translate.xml:5955
msgid "User name"
msgstr "使用者名稱 (User name)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5935
+#: book.translate.xml:5958
msgid ""
"The user name is typed at the <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt. Each user must "
"have a unique user name. There are a number of rules for creating valid user "
@@ -8296,22 +8289,22 @@ msgstr ""
"元以向下相容應用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5947
+#: book.translate.xml:5970
msgid "Password"
msgstr "密碼 (Password)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5950
+#: book.translate.xml:5973
msgid "Each account has an associated password."
msgstr "每個帳號都會有密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5955
+#: book.translate.xml:5978
msgid "User ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>)"
msgstr "使用者 ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5958
+#: book.translate.xml:5981
msgid ""
"The User ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>) is a number used to uniquely identify "
"the user to the FreeBSD system. Commands that allow a user name to be "
@@ -8325,12 +8318,12 @@ msgstr ""
"體的相容性問題。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5969
+#: book.translate.xml:5992
msgid "Group ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>)"
msgstr "群組 ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5972
+#: book.translate.xml:5995
msgid ""
"The Group ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>) is a number used to uniquely identify "
"the primary group that the user belongs to. Groups are a mechanism for "
@@ -8347,12 +8340,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的 GID 可能會讓部份軟體無法運作。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5986
+#: book.translate.xml:6009
msgid "Login class"
msgstr "登入類別 (Login class)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5989
+#: book.translate.xml:6012
msgid ""
"Login classes are an extension to the group mechanism that provide "
"additional flexibility when tailoring the system to different users. Login "
@@ -8362,12 +8355,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的彈性。在 <xref linkend=\"users-limiting\"/> 有對登入類別更進一步的討論。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5998
+#: book.translate.xml:6021
msgid "Password change time"
msgstr "密碼更改時間 (Password change time)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6001
+#: book.translate.xml:6024
msgid ""
"By default, passwords do not expire. However, password expiration can be "
"enabled on a per-user basis, forcing some or all users to change their "
@@ -8377,12 +8370,12 @@ msgstr ""
"或所有使用者在某段期間過後更改他們的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6010
+#: book.translate.xml:6033
msgid "Account expiration time"
msgstr "帳號到期時間 (Account expiration time)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6013
+#: book.translate.xml:6036
msgid ""
"By default, FreeBSD does not expire accounts. When creating accounts that "
"need a limited lifespan, such as student accounts in a school, specify the "
@@ -8397,12 +8390,12 @@ msgstr ""
"期日期過後,便無法使用該帳號登入到系統,儘管該帳號的目錄及檔案仍存在。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6024
+#: book.translate.xml:6047
msgid "User's full name"
msgstr "使用者的全名 (User's full name)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6027
+#: book.translate.xml:6050
msgid ""
"The user name uniquely identifies the account to FreeBSD, but does not "
"necessarily reflect the user's real name. Similar to a comment, this "
@@ -8413,12 +8406,12 @@ msgstr ""
"名。類似註解,這個資訊可以含有空白、大寫字元並可超過 8 個字母的長度。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6036
+#: book.translate.xml:6059
msgid "Home directory"
msgstr "家目錄 (Home directory)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6039
+#: book.translate.xml:6062
msgid ""
"The home directory is the full path to a directory on the system. This is "
"the user's starting directory when the user logs in. A common convention is "
@@ -8433,12 +8426,12 @@ msgstr ""
"filename>。每位使用者可以儲存他們的個人檔案及子目錄於他們自己的家目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6050
+#: book.translate.xml:6073
msgid "User shell"
msgstr "使用者 Shell (User shell)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6053
+#: book.translate.xml:6076
msgid ""
"The shell provides the user's default environment for interacting with the "
"system. There are many different kinds of shells and experienced users will "
@@ -8448,17 +8441,17 @@ msgstr ""
"用者會有自己偏好的選擇,可儲存在自己的帳號設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6064
+#: book.translate.xml:6087
msgid "The Superuser Account"
msgstr "超級使用者帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6066
+#: book.translate.xml:6089
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>superuser (root)</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6071
+#: book.translate.xml:6094
msgid ""
"The superuser account, usually called <systemitem class=\"username\">root</"
"systemitem>, is used to manage the system with no limitations on privileges. "
@@ -8470,7 +8463,7 @@ msgstr ""
"如:寄信與收信、系統的一般探索或程式設計。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6078
+#: book.translate.xml:6101
msgid ""
"The superuser, unlike other user accounts, can operate without limits, and "
"misuse of the superuser account may result in spectacular disasters. User "
@@ -8483,7 +8476,7 @@ msgstr ""
"登入一般使用者帳號,只有在指令需要額外權限時切換為超級使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6086
+#: book.translate.xml:6109
msgid ""
"Always double and triple-check any commands issued as the superuser, since "
"an extra space or missing character can mean irreparable data loss."
@@ -8492,7 +8485,7 @@ msgstr ""
"著無法挽回的資料遺失。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6090
+#: book.translate.xml:6113
msgid ""
"There are several ways to gain superuser privilege. While one can log in as "
"<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>, this is highly discouraged."
@@ -8501,7 +8494,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"username\">root</systemitem>,但強烈不建議這樣做。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6095
+#: book.translate.xml:6118
msgid ""
"Instead, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> to become the superuser. If <literal>-</literal> "
@@ -8519,7 +8512,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6105
+#: book.translate.xml:6128
msgid ""
"In this example, the user only becomes superuser in order to run "
"<command>make install</command> as this step requires superuser privilege. "
@@ -8531,12 +8524,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>exit</command> 離開超級使用者帳號並返回他的使用者帳號權限。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6113
+#: book.translate.xml:6136
msgid "Install a Program As the Superuser"
msgstr "以超級使用者的身份安裝程式"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6115
+#: book.translate.xml:6138
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>configure</userinput>\n"
@@ -8549,7 +8542,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6124
+#: book.translate.xml:6147
msgid ""
"The built-in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> framework works well for single systems or small "
@@ -8564,17 +8557,17 @@ msgstr ""
"體提供了活動記錄且允許管理者設定那個使用者可以用超級使用者執行那個指令。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6135
+#: book.translate.xml:6158
msgid "Managing Accounts"
msgstr "管理帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6137
+#: book.translate.xml:6160
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>modifying</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6142
+#: book.translate.xml:6165
msgid ""
"FreeBSD provides a variety of different commands to manage user accounts. "
"The most common commands are summarized in <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-"
@@ -8586,110 +8579,110 @@ msgstr ""
"的操作手冊來取得更多詳細的資訊與用法範例。"
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6149
+#: book.translate.xml:6172
msgid "Utilities for Managing User Accounts"
msgstr "管理使用者帳號的工具"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6157 book.translate.xml:58145 book.translate.xml:61677
+#: book.translate.xml:6180 book.translate.xml:58528 book.translate.xml:62060
msgid "Command"
msgstr "指令"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6158 book.translate.xml:17130 book.translate.xml:17284
+#: book.translate.xml:6181 book.translate.xml:17152 book.translate.xml:17306
msgid "Summary"
msgstr "摘要"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6163
+#: book.translate.xml:6186
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6164
+#: book.translate.xml:6187
msgid "The recommended command-line application for adding new users."
msgstr "建議用來新增新使用者的指令列應用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6169
+#: book.translate.xml:6192
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6170
+#: book.translate.xml:6193
msgid "The recommended command-line application for removing users."
msgstr "建議用來移除使用者的指令列應用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6175
+#: book.translate.xml:6198
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6176
+#: book.translate.xml:6199
msgid "A flexible tool for changing user database information."
msgstr "用來更改使用者資料庫資訊的工具。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6181
+#: book.translate.xml:6204
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6182
+#: book.translate.xml:6205
msgid "The command-line tool to change user passwords."
msgstr "用來更改使用者密碼的指令列工具。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6187
+#: book.translate.xml:6210
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6188
+#: book.translate.xml:6211
msgid ""
"A powerful and flexible tool for modifying all aspects of user accounts."
msgstr "用來修改使用者帳號各方面資訊強大且靈活的工具。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6196
+#: book.translate.xml:6219
msgid "<command>adduser</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6198
+#: book.translate.xml:6221
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>adding</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect4/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6202 book.translate.xml:43511
+#: book.translate.xml:6225 book.translate.xml:43897
msgid "<primary><command>adduser</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6205
+#: book.translate.xml:6228
msgid "<primary><filename>/usr/share/skel</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6208
+#: book.translate.xml:6231
msgid "<primary>skeleton directory</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6212
+#: book.translate.xml:6235
msgid ""
"The recommended program for adding new users is "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
@@ -8708,7 +8701,7 @@ msgstr ""
"具必須使用超級使用者執行。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6222
+#: book.translate.xml:6245
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> utility is interactive and walks through the steps "
@@ -8731,12 +8724,12 @@ msgstr ""
"離開。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6234
+#: book.translate.xml:6257
msgid "Adding a User on FreeBSD"
msgstr "在 FreeBSD 新增使用者"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6236
+#: book.translate.xml:6259
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>adduser</userinput>\n"
@@ -8772,29 +8765,29 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6269
+#: book.translate.xml:6292
msgid ""
"Since the password is not echoed when typed, be careful to not mistype the "
"password when creating the user account."
msgstr "由於密碼在輸入時並不會顯示,在建立使用者帳號時要小心密碼不要輸入錯誤。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6276
+#: book.translate.xml:6299
msgid "<command>rmuser</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6278
+#: book.translate.xml:6301
msgid "<primary><command>rmuser</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6281
+#: book.translate.xml:6304
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>removing</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6286
+#: book.translate.xml:6309
msgid ""
"To completely remove a user from the system, run "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -8805,7 +8798,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。這個指令會執行以下步驟:"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6292
+#: book.translate.xml:6315
msgid ""
"Removes the user's <citerefentry><refentrytitle>crontab</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> entry, if one exists."
@@ -8814,7 +8807,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 項目,若項目存在。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6297
+#: book.translate.xml:6320
msgid ""
"Removes any <citerefentry><refentrytitle>at</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> jobs belonging to the user."
@@ -8823,30 +8816,30 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 工作。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6302
+#: book.translate.xml:6325
msgid "Kills all processes owned by the user."
msgstr "中止所有該使用者擁有的程序。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6306
+#: book.translate.xml:6329
msgid "Removes the user from the system's local password file."
msgstr "自系統本地密碼檔移除該使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6311
+#: book.translate.xml:6334
msgid ""
"Optionally removes the user's home directory, if it is owned by the user."
msgstr "選擇性移除該使用者的家目錄,若使用者擁有該目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6316
+#: book.translate.xml:6339
msgid ""
"Removes the incoming mail files belonging to the user from <filename>/var/"
"mail</filename>."
msgstr "自 <filename>/var/mail</filename> 移除屬於該使用者的收件郵件檔。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6321
+#: book.translate.xml:6344
msgid ""
"Removes all files owned by the user from temporary file storage areas such "
"as <filename>/tmp</filename>."
@@ -8854,7 +8847,7 @@ msgstr ""
"自暫存檔儲存區域 (如 <filename>/tmp</filename>) 移除所有使用者擁有的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6327
+#: book.translate.xml:6350
msgid ""
"Finally, removes the username from all groups to which it belongs in "
"<filename>/etc/group</filename>. If a group becomes empty and the group name "
@@ -8868,7 +8861,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 替每位使用者建立獨一無二的群組。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6336
+#: book.translate.xml:6359
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> cannot be used to remove superuser accounts since that is "
@@ -8878,18 +8871,18 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 無法用來移除超級使用者帳號,因為這幾乎代表著大規模破壞。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6340
+#: book.translate.xml:6363
msgid ""
"By default, an interactive mode is used, as shown in the following example."
msgstr "預設會使用互動式模式,如下範例所示。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6344
+#: book.translate.xml:6367
msgid "<command>rmuser</command> Interactive Account Removal"
msgstr "<command>rmuser</command> 互動式帳號移除"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6347
+#: book.translate.xml:6370
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>rmuser jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -8902,17 +8895,17 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6358
+#: book.translate.xml:6381
msgid "<command>chpass</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6360
+#: book.translate.xml:6383
msgid "<primary><command>chpass</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6364
+#: book.translate.xml:6387
msgid ""
"Any user can use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to change their "
@@ -8926,7 +8919,7 @@ msgstr ""
"者的其他帳號資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6369
+#: book.translate.xml:6392
msgid ""
"When passed no options, aside from an optional username, "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -8939,7 +8932,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的資訊到使用者資料庫。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6375
+#: book.translate.xml:6398
msgid ""
"This utility will prompt for the user's password when exiting the editor, "
"unless the utility is run as the superuser."
@@ -8947,7 +8940,7 @@ msgstr ""
"離開編輯器時,此工具會提示使用者輸入密碼,除非使用超級使用者執行此工具。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6380
+#: book.translate.xml:6403
msgid ""
"In <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-chpass-su\"/>, the superuser has typed "
"<command>chpass jru</command> and is now viewing the fields that can be "
@@ -8962,12 +8955,12 @@ msgstr ""
"個欄位供編輯,如 <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-chpass-ru\"/> 所示。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6389
+#: book.translate.xml:6412
msgid "Using <command>chpass</command> as Superuser"
msgstr "以超級使用者的身份使用 <command>chpass</command>"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6392
+#: book.translate.xml:6415
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"#Changing user database information for jru.\n"
@@ -8988,12 +8981,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6410
+#: book.translate.xml:6433
msgid "Using <command>chpass</command> as Regular User"
msgstr "以一般使用者的身份使用 <command>chpass</command>"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6413
+#: book.translate.xml:6436
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"#Changing user database information for jru.\n"
@@ -9006,7 +8999,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6423
+#: book.translate.xml:6446
msgid ""
"The commands <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chfn</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chsh</"
@@ -9034,22 +9027,22 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"network-servers\"/> 中有說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6433
+#: book.translate.xml:6456
msgid "<command>passwd</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6435
+#: book.translate.xml:6458
msgid "<primary><command>passwd</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6438
+#: book.translate.xml:6461
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>changing password</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6443
+#: book.translate.xml:6466
msgid ""
"Any user can easily change their password using "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -9062,12 +9055,12 @@ msgstr ""
"意外或未授權的變更,這個指令在設定新密碼之前會提示使用者輸入原來的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6449
+#: book.translate.xml:6472
msgid "Changing Your Password"
msgstr "更改您的密碼"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6451
+#: book.translate.xml:6474
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>passwd</userinput>\n"
@@ -9080,7 +9073,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6460
+#: book.translate.xml:6483
msgid ""
"The superuser can change any user's password by specifying the username when "
"running <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
@@ -9094,12 +9087,12 @@ msgstr ""
"用者目前的密碼,這可在使用者忘記原來的密碼時更改密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6468
+#: book.translate.xml:6491
msgid "Changing Another User's Password as the Superuser"
msgstr "以超級使用者的身份更改其他使用者的密碼"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6471
+#: book.translate.xml:6494
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>passwd jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -9111,7 +9104,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6480
+#: book.translate.xml:6503
msgid ""
"As with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>yppasswd</"
@@ -9126,18 +9119,18 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>,因此 <acronym>NIS</acronym> 在兩個指令上皆可運作。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6487
+#: book.translate.xml:6510
msgid "<command>pw</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect4/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6489 book.translate.xml:43534
+#: book.translate.xml:6512 book.translate.xml:43920
msgid "<primary><command>pw</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6493
+#: book.translate.xml:6516
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> utility can create, remove, modify, and display users and "
@@ -9155,27 +9148,27 @@ msgstr ""
"本節的指令要複雜許多。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6504
+#: book.translate.xml:6527
msgid "Managing Groups"
msgstr "管理群組"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6506
+#: book.translate.xml:6529
msgid "<primary>groups</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6509
+#: book.translate.xml:6532
msgid "<primary><filename>/etc/groups</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6512
+#: book.translate.xml:6535
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>groups</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6517
+#: book.translate.xml:6540
msgid ""
"A group is a list of users. A group is identified by its group name and "
"<acronym>GID</acronym>. In FreeBSD, the kernel uses the <acronym>UID</"
@@ -9189,7 +9182,7 @@ msgstr ""
"單中的第一個群組。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6524
+#: book.translate.xml:6547
msgid ""
"The group name to <acronym>GID</acronym> mapping is listed in <filename>/etc/"
"group</filename>. This is a plain text file with four colon-delimited "
@@ -9207,7 +9200,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6532
+#: book.translate.xml:6555
msgid ""
"The superuser can modify <filename>/etc/group</filename> using a text "
"editor. Alternatively, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
@@ -9221,7 +9214,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"groupname\">teamtwo</systemitem> 的群組然後確認該群組已新增:"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6539
+#: book.translate.xml:6562
msgid ""
"Adding a Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -9230,7 +9223,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 新增群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6541
+#: book.translate.xml:6564
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupadd teamtwo</userinput>\n"
@@ -9239,7 +9232,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6546
+#: book.translate.xml:6569
msgid ""
"In this example, <literal>1100</literal> is the <acronym>GID</acronym> of "
"<systemitem class=\"groupname\">teamtwo</systemitem>. Right now, <systemitem "
@@ -9254,7 +9247,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\">teamtwo</systemitem> 的成員。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6555
+#: book.translate.xml:6578
msgid ""
"Adding User Accounts to a New Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -9263,7 +9256,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 加入使用者帳號到新的群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6558
+#: book.translate.xml:6581
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod teamtwo -M jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -9272,7 +9265,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6563
+#: book.translate.xml:6586
msgid ""
"The argument to <option>-M</option> is a comma-delimited list of users to be "
"added to a new (empty) group or to replace the members of an existing group. "
@@ -9299,7 +9292,7 @@ msgstr ""
"filename> 且不會嘗試自 <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> 讀取其他的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6577
+#: book.translate.xml:6600
msgid ""
"Adding a New Member to a Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -9308,7 +9301,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 加入新成員到群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6579
+#: book.translate.xml:6602
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod teamtwo -m db</userinput>\n"
@@ -9317,7 +9310,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6584
+#: book.translate.xml:6607
msgid ""
"In this example, the argument to <option>-m</option> is a comma-delimited "
"list of users who are to be added to the group. Unlike the previous example, "
@@ -9329,7 +9322,7 @@ msgstr ""
"者。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6591
+#: book.translate.xml:6614
msgid ""
"Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>id</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> to Determine Group Membership"
@@ -9338,7 +9331,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 來查看所屬群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6593
+#: book.translate.xml:6616
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>id jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -9346,7 +9339,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6597
+#: book.translate.xml:6620
msgid ""
"In this example, <systemitem class=\"username\">jru</systemitem> is a member "
"of the groups <systemitem class=\"groupname\">jru</systemitem> and "
@@ -9357,7 +9350,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\">teamtwo</systemitem> 的成員。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6602
+#: book.translate.xml:6625
msgid ""
"For more information about this command and the format of <filename>/etc/"
"group</filename>, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
@@ -9371,17 +9364,17 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6609
+#: book.translate.xml:6632
msgid "Permissions"
msgstr "權限"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6611
+#: book.translate.xml:6634
msgid "<primary>UNIX</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6615
+#: book.translate.xml:6638
msgid ""
"In FreeBSD, every file and directory has an associated set of permissions "
"and several utilities are available for viewing and modifying these "
@@ -9395,7 +9388,7 @@ msgstr ""
"無法不正確的存取供作業系統或其他使用者擁有的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6623
+#: book.translate.xml:6646
msgid ""
"This section discusses the traditional <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</"
"trademark> permissions used in FreeBSD. For finer grained file system access "
@@ -9406,7 +9399,7 @@ msgstr ""
">。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6627
+#: book.translate.xml:6650
msgid ""
"In <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark>, basic permissions are "
"assigned using three types of access: read, write, and execute. These access "
@@ -9430,7 +9423,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 以及 <literal>x</literal> 開啟的值為 <literal>1</literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6642
+#: book.translate.xml:6665
msgid ""
"Table 4.1 summarizes the possible numeric and alphabetic possibilities. When "
"reading the <quote>Directory Listing</quote> column, a <literal>-</literal> "
@@ -9440,183 +9433,183 @@ msgstr ""
"位時,<literal>-</literal> 用來代表該權限設為關閉。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6647
+#: book.translate.xml:6670
msgid "<primary>permissions</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6650
+#: book.translate.xml:6673
msgid "<primary>file permissions</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6655
+#: book.translate.xml:6678
msgid "<trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> Permissions"
msgstr "<trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> 權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6660
+#: book.translate.xml:6683
msgid "Value"
msgstr "數值"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6661
+#: book.translate.xml:6684
msgid "Permission"
msgstr "權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6662
+#: book.translate.xml:6685
msgid "Directory Listing"
msgstr "目錄清單標示"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6668
+#: book.translate.xml:6691
msgid "0"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6669
+#: book.translate.xml:6692
msgid "No read, no write, no execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 不可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6670
+#: book.translate.xml:6693
msgid "<literal>---</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6674 book.translate.xml:46548 book.translate.xml:46570
-#: book.translate.xml:46660
+#: book.translate.xml:6697 book.translate.xml:46933 book.translate.xml:46955
+#: book.translate.xml:47045
msgid "1"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6675
+#: book.translate.xml:6698
msgid "No read, no write, execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 不可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6676
+#: book.translate.xml:6699
msgid "<literal>--x</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6680 book.translate.xml:46440 book.translate.xml:46450
-#: book.translate.xml:46522 book.translate.xml:46532 book.translate.xml:46612
-#: book.translate.xml:46614
+#: book.translate.xml:6703 book.translate.xml:46825 book.translate.xml:46835
+#: book.translate.xml:46907 book.translate.xml:46917 book.translate.xml:46997
+#: book.translate.xml:46999
msgid "2"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6681
+#: book.translate.xml:6704
msgid "No read, write, no execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6682
+#: book.translate.xml:6705
msgid "<literal>-w-</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6686 book.translate.xml:46442 book.translate.xml:46448
-#: book.translate.xml:46524 book.translate.xml:46530 book.translate.xml:46620
-#: book.translate.xml:46622
+#: book.translate.xml:6709 book.translate.xml:46827 book.translate.xml:46833
+#: book.translate.xml:46909 book.translate.xml:46915 book.translate.xml:47005
+#: book.translate.xml:47007
msgid "3"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6687
+#: book.translate.xml:6710
msgid "No read, write, execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6688
+#: book.translate.xml:6711
msgid "<literal>-wx</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6692 book.translate.xml:46456 book.translate.xml:46466
-#: book.translate.xml:46538 book.translate.xml:46546 book.translate.xml:46564
-#: book.translate.xml:46572 book.translate.xml:46628 book.translate.xml:46636
-#: book.translate.xml:46678
+#: book.translate.xml:6715 book.translate.xml:46841 book.translate.xml:46851
+#: book.translate.xml:46923 book.translate.xml:46931 book.translate.xml:46949
+#: book.translate.xml:46957 book.translate.xml:47013 book.translate.xml:47021
+#: book.translate.xml:47063
msgid "4"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6693
+#: book.translate.xml:6716
msgid "Read, no write, no execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 不可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6694
+#: book.translate.xml:6717
msgid "<literal>r--</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6698 book.translate.xml:46458 book.translate.xml:46464
-#: book.translate.xml:46554 book.translate.xml:46556 book.translate.xml:46644
-#: book.translate.xml:46670
+#: book.translate.xml:6721 book.translate.xml:46843 book.translate.xml:46849
+#: book.translate.xml:46939 book.translate.xml:46941 book.translate.xml:47029
+#: book.translate.xml:47055
msgid "5"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6699
+#: book.translate.xml:6722
msgid "Read, no write, execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 不可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6700
+#: book.translate.xml:6723
msgid "<literal>r-x</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6704 book.translate.xml:46474 book.translate.xml:46488
-#: book.translate.xml:46540 book.translate.xml:46562 book.translate.xml:46630
-#: book.translate.xml:46652
+#: book.translate.xml:6727 book.translate.xml:46859 book.translate.xml:46873
+#: book.translate.xml:46925 book.translate.xml:46947 book.translate.xml:47015
+#: book.translate.xml:47037
msgid "6"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6705
+#: book.translate.xml:6728
msgid "Read, write, no execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6706
+#: book.translate.xml:6729
msgid "<literal>rw-</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6710 book.translate.xml:46432 book.translate.xml:46434
-#: book.translate.xml:46578 book.translate.xml:46588 book.translate.xml:46646
-#: book.translate.xml:46668
+#: book.translate.xml:6733 book.translate.xml:46817 book.translate.xml:46819
+#: book.translate.xml:46963 book.translate.xml:46973 book.translate.xml:47031
+#: book.translate.xml:47053
msgid "7"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6711
+#: book.translate.xml:6734
msgid "Read, write, execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6712
+#: book.translate.xml:6735
msgid "<literal>rwx</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6718
+#: book.translate.xml:6741
msgid ""
"<primary><citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6721
+#: book.translate.xml:6744
msgid "<primary>directories</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6725
+#: book.translate.xml:6748
msgid ""
"Use the <option>-l</option> argument to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to view a long "
@@ -9630,7 +9623,7 @@ msgstr ""
"一個目錄底下執行 <command>ls -l</command>,會顯示如下的結果:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6731
+#: book.translate.xml:6754
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls -l</userinput>\n"
@@ -9641,7 +9634,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6737
+#: book.translate.xml:6760
msgid ""
"The first (leftmost) character in the first column indicates whether this "
"file is a regular file, a directory, a special character device, a socket, "
@@ -9668,7 +9661,7 @@ msgstr ""
"案的三種權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6754
+#: book.translate.xml:6777
msgid ""
"How does the system control permissions on devices? FreeBSD treats most "
"hardware devices as a file that programs can open, read, and write data to. "
@@ -9679,7 +9672,7 @@ msgstr ""
"</filename> 目錄中。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6759
+#: book.translate.xml:6782
msgid ""
"Directories are also treated as files. They have read, write, and execute "
"permissions. The executable bit for a directory has a slightly different "
@@ -9695,7 +9688,7 @@ msgstr ""
"代表能夠存取在此目錄之中的已知檔名的檔案,但仍會受限於檔案本身所設定的權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6768
+#: book.translate.xml:6791
msgid ""
"In order to perform a directory listing, the read permission must be set on "
"the directory. In order to delete a file that one knows the name of, it is "
@@ -9706,7 +9699,7 @@ msgstr ""
"案所在目錄的寫入 <emphasis>以及</emphasis> 執行的權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6774
+#: book.translate.xml:6797
msgid ""
"There are more permission bits, but they are primarily used in special "
"circumstances such as setuid binaries and sticky directories. For more "
@@ -9720,27 +9713,27 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6781
+#: book.translate.xml:6804
msgid "Symbolic Permissions"
msgstr "權限符號"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:6784 book.translate.xml:6919 book.translate.xml:6970
-#: book.translate.xml:19414 book.translate.xml:19521 book.translate.xml:19699
-#: book.translate.xml:20818 book.translate.xml:21344 book.translate.xml:23593
-#: book.translate.xml:34155 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:6807 book.translate.xml:6942 book.translate.xml:6993
+#: book.translate.xml:19433 book.translate.xml:19540 book.translate.xml:19718
+#: book.translate.xml:20837 book.translate.xml:21363 book.translate.xml:23612
+#: book.translate.xml:34174 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Tom</firstname> <surname>Rhodes</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6794
+#: book.translate.xml:6817
msgid "<primary>permissions</primary> <secondary>symbolic</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6799
+#: book.translate.xml:6822
msgid ""
"Symbolic permissions use characters instead of octal values to assign "
"permissions to files or directories. Symbolic permissions use the syntax of "
@@ -9750,159 +9743,159 @@ msgstr ""
"符號表示的格式依序為 (某人)(動作)(權限),可使用的符號如下:"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6809 book.translate.xml:23319
+#: book.translate.xml:6832 book.translate.xml:23338
msgid "Option"
msgstr "項目"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6810
+#: book.translate.xml:6833
msgid "Letter"
msgstr "字母"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6811
+#: book.translate.xml:6834
msgid "Represents"
msgstr "代表意義"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6817 book.translate.xml:6823 book.translate.xml:6829
-#: book.translate.xml:6835
+#: book.translate.xml:6840 book.translate.xml:6846 book.translate.xml:6852
+#: book.translate.xml:6858
msgid "(who)"
msgstr "(某人)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6818
+#: book.translate.xml:6841
msgid "u"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6819
+#: book.translate.xml:6842
msgid "User"
msgstr "使用者"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6824
+#: book.translate.xml:6847
msgid "g"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6825
+#: book.translate.xml:6848
msgid "Group owner"
msgstr "群組所有者"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6830
+#: book.translate.xml:6853
msgid "o"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6831
+#: book.translate.xml:6854
msgid "Other"
msgstr "其他"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6836
+#: book.translate.xml:6859
msgid "a"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6837
+#: book.translate.xml:6860
msgid "All (<quote>world</quote>)"
msgstr "全部 (<quote>world</quote>)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6841 book.translate.xml:6847 book.translate.xml:6853
+#: book.translate.xml:6864 book.translate.xml:6870 book.translate.xml:6876
msgid "(action)"
msgstr "(動作)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6842 book.translate.xml:31589 book.translate.xml:39448
+#: book.translate.xml:6865 book.translate.xml:31608 book.translate.xml:39499
msgid "+"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6843
+#: book.translate.xml:6866
msgid "Adding permissions"
msgstr "\t增加權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6848 book.translate.xml:31594 book.translate.xml:39453
+#: book.translate.xml:6871 book.translate.xml:31613 book.translate.xml:39504
msgid "-"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6849
+#: book.translate.xml:6872
msgid "Removing permissions"
msgstr "移除權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6854
+#: book.translate.xml:6877
msgid "="
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6855
+#: book.translate.xml:6878
msgid "Explicitly set permissions"
msgstr "指定權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6859 book.translate.xml:6865 book.translate.xml:6871
-#: book.translate.xml:6877 book.translate.xml:6883
+#: book.translate.xml:6882 book.translate.xml:6888 book.translate.xml:6894
+#: book.translate.xml:6900 book.translate.xml:6906
msgid "(permissions)"
msgstr "(權限)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6860
+#: book.translate.xml:6883
msgid "r"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6861
+#: book.translate.xml:6884
msgid "Read"
msgstr "讀取"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6866
+#: book.translate.xml:6889
msgid "w"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6867
+#: book.translate.xml:6890
msgid "Write"
msgstr "寫入"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6872
+#: book.translate.xml:6895
msgid "x"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6873
+#: book.translate.xml:6896
msgid "Execute"
msgstr "執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6878
+#: book.translate.xml:6901
msgid "t"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6879
+#: book.translate.xml:6902
msgid "Sticky bit"
msgstr "Sticky 位元"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6884
+#: book.translate.xml:6907
msgid "s"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6885
+#: book.translate.xml:6908
msgid "Set UID or GID"
msgstr "設定 UID 或 GID"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6891
+#: book.translate.xml:6914
msgid ""
"These values are used with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, but with letters "
@@ -9915,13 +9908,13 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>FILE</replaceable>:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6896
+#: book.translate.xml:6919
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod go= FILE</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6898
+#: book.translate.xml:6921
msgid ""
"A comma separated list can be provided when more than one set of changes to "
"a file must be made. For example, the following command removes the group "
@@ -9933,18 +9926,18 @@ msgstr ""
"(<quote>world</quote>) 對該檔有執行權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6905
+#: book.translate.xml:6928
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod go-w,a+x <replaceable>FILE</replaceable></userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6916
+#: book.translate.xml:6939
msgid "FreeBSD File Flags"
msgstr "FreeBSD 檔案旗標"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6929
+#: book.translate.xml:6952
msgid ""
"In addition to file permissions, FreeBSD supports the use of <quote>file "
"flags</quote>. These flags add an additional level of security and control "
@@ -9957,7 +9950,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> 不會意外將檔案修改或移除。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6936
+#: book.translate.xml:6959
msgid ""
"File flags are modified using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chflags</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For example, to "
@@ -9970,13 +9963,13 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>file1</filename>,使用下列指令:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6941
+#: book.translate.xml:6964
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chflags sunlink file1</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6943
+#: book.translate.xml:6966
msgid ""
"To disable the system undeletable flag, put a <quote>no</quote> in front of "
"the <option>sunlink</option>:"
@@ -9985,13 +9978,13 @@ msgstr ""
"<quote>no</quote>,例如:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6947
+#: book.translate.xml:6970
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chflags nosunlink file1</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6949
+#: book.translate.xml:6972
msgid ""
"To view the flags of a file, use <option>-lo</option> with "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -10001,19 +9994,19 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 及參數 <option>-lo</option> 可檢視檔案目前的旗標:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6952
+#: book.translate.xml:6975
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls -lo file1</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:6954
+#: book.translate.xml:6977
#, no-wrap
msgid "-rw-r--r-- 1 trhodes trhodes sunlnk 0 Mar 1 05:54 file1"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6956
+#: book.translate.xml:6979
msgid ""
"Several file flags may only be added or removed by the <systemitem class="
"\"username\">root</systemitem> user. In other cases, the file owner may set "
@@ -10029,7 +10022,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> 說明以瞭解相關細節。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6965
+#: book.translate.xml:6988
msgid ""
"The <literal>setuid</literal>, <literal>setgid</literal>, and "
"<literal>sticky</literal> Permissions"
@@ -10038,7 +10031,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 權限"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6980
+#: book.translate.xml:7003
msgid ""
"Other than the permissions already discussed, there are three other specific "
"settings that all administrators should know about. They are the "
@@ -10050,7 +10043,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>sticky</literal> 權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6986
+#: book.translate.xml:7009
msgid ""
"These settings are important for some <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</"
"trademark> operations as they provide functionality not normally granted to "
@@ -10062,7 +10055,7 @@ msgstr ""
"說明真實使用者 ID (Real user ID) 與有效使用者 ID (Effective user ID) 的差異。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6991
+#: book.translate.xml:7014
msgid ""
"The real user ID is the <acronym>UID</acronym> who owns or starts the "
"process. The effective <acronym>UID</acronym> is the user ID the process "
@@ -10082,20 +10075,20 @@ msgstr ""
"(<errorname>Permission Denied</errorname>) 的錯誤。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7001
+#: book.translate.xml:7024
msgid ""
"The setuid permission may be set by prefixing a permission set with the "
"number four (4) as shown in the following example:"
msgstr "setuid 權限可以透過在權限集前加上數字 (4) 來設定,如下範例所示:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7005
+#: book.translate.xml:7028
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 4755 suidexample.sh</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7007
+#: book.translate.xml:7030
msgid ""
"The permissions on <filename><replaceable>suidexample.sh</replaceable></"
"filename> now look like the following:"
@@ -10104,13 +10097,13 @@ msgstr ""
"如下所示:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:7011
+#: book.translate.xml:7034
#, no-wrap
msgid "-rwsr-xr-x 1 trhodes trhodes 63 Aug 29 06:36 suidexample.sh"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7013
+#: book.translate.xml:7036
msgid ""
"Note that a <literal>s</literal> is now part of the permission set "
"designated for the file owner, replacing the executable bit. This allows "
@@ -10123,7 +10116,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 可正常使用。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7019
+#: book.translate.xml:7042
msgid ""
"The <literal>nosuid</literal> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> option will cause such "
@@ -10137,7 +10130,7 @@ msgstr ""
"該選項並非完全可靠。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7026
+#: book.translate.xml:7049
msgid ""
"To view this in real time, open two terminals. On one, type <command>passwd</"
"command> as a normal user. While it waits for a new password, check the "
@@ -10151,12 +10144,12 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 程序的使用者資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7032
+#: book.translate.xml:7055
msgid "In terminal A:"
msgstr "於終端機 A:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7034
+#: book.translate.xml:7057
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Changing local password for trhodes\n"
@@ -10164,18 +10157,18 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7037
+#: book.translate.xml:7060
msgid "In terminal B:"
msgstr "於終端機 B:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7039
+#: book.translate.xml:7062
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ps aux | grep passwd</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7041
+#: book.translate.xml:7064
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"trhodes 5232 0.0 0.2 3420 1608 0 R+ 2:10AM 0:00.00 grep passwd\n"
@@ -10183,7 +10176,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7044
+#: book.translate.xml:7067
msgid ""
"Although <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> is run as a normal user, it is using the effective "
@@ -10195,7 +10188,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7048
+#: book.translate.xml:7071
msgid ""
"The <literal>setgid</literal> permission performs the same function as the "
"<literal>setuid</literal> permission; except that it alters the group "
@@ -10208,7 +10201,7 @@ msgstr ""
"使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7055
+#: book.translate.xml:7078
msgid ""
"To set the <literal>setgid</literal> permission on a file, provide "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -10219,26 +10212,26 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 的參數前加上 (2):"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7058
+#: book.translate.xml:7081
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 2755 sgidexample.sh</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7060
+#: book.translate.xml:7083
msgid ""
"In the following listing, notice that the <literal>s</literal> is now in the "
"field designated for the group permission settings:"
msgstr "注意以下清單中,<literal>s</literal> 現在位於指定群組權限設定的欄位:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7064
+#: book.translate.xml:7087
#, no-wrap
msgid "-rwxr-sr-x 1 trhodes trhodes 44 Aug 31 01:49 sgidexample.sh"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7067
+#: book.translate.xml:7090
msgid ""
"In these examples, even though the shell script in question is an executable "
"file, it will not run with a different <acronym>EUID</acronym> or effective "
@@ -10252,7 +10245,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 系統呼叫 (System call)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7074
+#: book.translate.xml:7097
msgid ""
"The <literal>setuid</literal> and <literal>setgid</literal> permission bits "
"may lower system security, by allowing for elevated permissions. The third "
@@ -10264,7 +10257,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>,可以加強系統的安全性。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7080
+#: book.translate.xml:7103
msgid ""
"When the <literal>sticky bit</literal> is set on a directory, it allows file "
"deletion only by the file owner. This is useful to prevent file deletion in "
@@ -10277,13 +10270,13 @@ msgstr ""
"非常有用。要使用這個權限,可在權限集前加上 (1):"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7087
+#: book.translate.xml:7110
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 1777 /tmp</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7089
+#: book.translate.xml:7112
msgid ""
"The <literal>sticky bit</literal> permission will display as a <literal>t</"
"literal> at the very end of the permission set:"
@@ -10292,29 +10285,29 @@ msgstr ""
"後:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7093
+#: book.translate.xml:7116
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls -al / | grep tmp</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7095
+#: book.translate.xml:7118
#, no-wrap
msgid "drwxrwxrwt 10 root wheel 512 Aug 31 01:49 tmp"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7101
+#: book.translate.xml:7124
msgid "Directory Structure"
msgstr "目錄結構"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7103
+#: book.translate.xml:7126
msgid "<primary>directory hierarchy</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7107
+#: book.translate.xml:7130
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD directory hierarchy is fundamental to obtaining an overall "
"understanding of the system. The most important directory is root or, "
@@ -10329,7 +10322,7 @@ msgstr ""
"會有開機所會用到必備檔案。 此外,根目錄還有紀錄其他檔案系統的掛載點相關設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7116
+#: book.translate.xml:7139
msgid ""
"A mount point is a directory where additional file systems can be grafted "
"onto a parent file system (usually the root file system). This is further "
@@ -10356,7 +10349,7 @@ msgstr ""
"option> 選項。 其中細節說明可參閱 <xref linkend=\"disks-fstab\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7131
+#: book.translate.xml:7154
msgid ""
"A complete description of the file system hierarchy is available in "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>hier</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></"
@@ -10369,45 +10362,45 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7140 book.translate.xml:11002
+#: book.translate.xml:7163 book.translate.xml:11025
msgid "Directory"
msgstr "目錄"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7147
+#: book.translate.xml:7170
msgid "Root directory of the file system."
msgstr "檔案系統的根目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7151
+#: book.translate.xml:7174
msgid "<filename>/bin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7152
+#: book.translate.xml:7175
msgid ""
"User utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments."
msgstr ""
"單使用者 (Single-user)、多使用者 (Multi-user) 兩種模式皆可使用的基本工具 。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7157
+#: book.translate.xml:7180
msgid "<filename>/boot/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7158
+#: book.translate.xml:7181
msgid ""
"Programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap."
msgstr "作業系統開機過程會用到的程式、設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7163
+#: book.translate.xml:7186
msgid "<filename>/boot/defaults/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7164
+#: book.translate.xml:7187
msgid ""
"Default boot configuration files. Refer to "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</"
@@ -10417,12 +10410,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7169
+#: book.translate.xml:7192
msgid "<filename>/dev/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7170
+#: book.translate.xml:7193
msgid ""
"Device nodes. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>intro</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details."
@@ -10431,22 +10424,22 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7175
+#: book.translate.xml:7198
msgid "<filename>/etc/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7176
+#: book.translate.xml:7199
msgid "System configuration files and scripts."
msgstr "系統設定檔及一些 Script 檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7180
+#: book.translate.xml:7203
msgid "<filename>/etc/defaults/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7181
+#: book.translate.xml:7204
msgid ""
"Default system configuration files. Refer to "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -10456,12 +10449,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7186
+#: book.translate.xml:7209
msgid "<filename>/etc/mail/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7187
+#: book.translate.xml:7210
msgid ""
"Configuration files for mail transport agents such as "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sendmail</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
@@ -10471,12 +10464,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 的相關設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7192
+#: book.translate.xml:7215
msgid "<filename>/etc/namedb/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7193
+#: book.translate.xml:7216
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> configuration files."
@@ -10485,12 +10478,12 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7197
+#: book.translate.xml:7220
msgid "<filename>/etc/periodic/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7198
+#: book.translate.xml:7221
msgid ""
"Scripts that run daily, weekly, and monthly, via "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>cron</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -10503,12 +10496,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7204
+#: book.translate.xml:7227
msgid "<filename>/etc/ppp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7205
+#: book.translate.xml:7228
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> configuration files."
@@ -10517,24 +10510,24 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7209
+#: book.translate.xml:7232
msgid "<filename>/mnt/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7210
+#: book.translate.xml:7233
msgid ""
"Empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount "
"point."
msgstr "系統管理者慣用充當臨時掛載點的空目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7215
+#: book.translate.xml:7238
msgid "<filename>/proc/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7216
+#: book.translate.xml:7239
msgid ""
"Process file system. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>procfs</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>, "
@@ -10547,12 +10540,12 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7221
+#: book.translate.xml:7244
msgid "<filename>/rescue/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7222
+#: book.translate.xml:7245
msgid ""
"Statically linked programs for emergency recovery as described in "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rescue</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -10563,24 +10556,24 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7227
+#: book.translate.xml:7250
msgid "<filename>/root/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7228
+#: book.translate.xml:7251
msgid ""
"Home directory for the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> "
"account."
msgstr "<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> 帳號的家目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7234
+#: book.translate.xml:7257
msgid "<filename>/sbin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7235
+#: book.translate.xml:7258
msgid ""
"System programs and administration utilities fundamental to both single-user "
"and multi-user environments."
@@ -10589,12 +10582,12 @@ msgstr ""
"具 。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7241
+#: book.translate.xml:7264
msgid "<filename>/tmp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7242
+#: book.translate.xml:7265
msgid ""
"Temporary files which are usually <emphasis>not</emphasis> preserved across "
"a system reboot. A memory-based file system is often mounted at <filename>/"
@@ -10613,72 +10606,72 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7252
+#: book.translate.xml:7275
msgid "<filename>/usr/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7253
+#: book.translate.xml:7276
msgid "The majority of user utilities and applications."
msgstr "主要是使用者所安裝的工具程式、應用程式存放處。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7258
+#: book.translate.xml:7281
msgid "<filename>/usr/bin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7259
+#: book.translate.xml:7282
msgid "Common utilities, programming tools, and applications."
msgstr "常用工具、開發工具、應用軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7264
+#: book.translate.xml:7287
msgid "<filename>/usr/include/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7265
+#: book.translate.xml:7288
msgid "Standard C include files."
msgstr "標準 C include 檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7269
+#: book.translate.xml:7292
msgid "<filename>/usr/lib/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7270
+#: book.translate.xml:7293
msgid "Archive libraries."
msgstr "程式庫存放處。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7275
+#: book.translate.xml:7298
msgid "<filename>/usr/libdata/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7276
+#: book.translate.xml:7299
msgid "Miscellaneous utility data files."
msgstr "其他各式工具的資料檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7280
+#: book.translate.xml:7303
msgid "<filename>/usr/libexec/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7281
+#: book.translate.xml:7304
msgid "System daemons and system utilities executed by other programs."
msgstr "系統 Daemon 及系統工具程式 (透過其他程式來執行)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7286
+#: book.translate.xml:7309
msgid "<filename>/usr/local/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7287
+#: book.translate.xml:7310
msgid ""
"Local executables and libraries. Also used as the default destination for "
"the FreeBSD ports framework. Within <filename>/usr/local</filename>, the "
@@ -10698,64 +10691,64 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>port</replaceable></filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7300
+#: book.translate.xml:7323
msgid "<filename>/usr/obj/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7301
+#: book.translate.xml:7324
msgid ""
"Architecture-specific target tree produced by building the <filename>/usr/"
"src</filename> tree."
msgstr "在編譯 <filename>/usr/src</filename> 目錄時所產生的相關架構目地檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7307
+#: book.translate.xml:7330
msgid "<filename>/usr/ports/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7308
+#: book.translate.xml:7331
msgid "The FreeBSD Ports Collection (optional)."
msgstr "FreeBSD Port 套件集 (選用)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7312
+#: book.translate.xml:7335
msgid "<filename>/usr/sbin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7313
+#: book.translate.xml:7336
msgid "System daemons and system utilities executed by users."
msgstr "由使用者執行的系統 Daemon 及系統工具。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7318
+#: book.translate.xml:7341
msgid "<filename>/usr/share/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7319
+#: book.translate.xml:7342
msgid "Architecture-independent files."
msgstr "各架構皆共通的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7323
+#: book.translate.xml:7346
msgid "<filename>/usr/src/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7324
+#: book.translate.xml:7347
msgid "BSD and/or local source files."
msgstr "BSD 原始碼 (或自行新增的)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7328
+#: book.translate.xml:7351
msgid "<filename>/var/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7329
+#: book.translate.xml:7352
msgid ""
"Multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files. A memory-based "
"file system is sometimes mounted at <filename>/var</filename>. This can be "
@@ -10774,42 +10767,42 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7340
+#: book.translate.xml:7363
msgid "<filename>/var/log/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7341
+#: book.translate.xml:7364
msgid "Miscellaneous system log files."
msgstr "各項系統記錄的日誌 (Log) 檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7345
+#: book.translate.xml:7368
msgid "<filename>/var/mail/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7346
+#: book.translate.xml:7369
msgid "User mailbox files."
msgstr "各使用者的郵件 (Mailbox) 檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7350
+#: book.translate.xml:7373
msgid "<filename>/var/spool/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7351
+#: book.translate.xml:7374
msgid "Miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling directories."
msgstr "各種印表機、郵件系統的緩衝 (Spool) 目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7356
+#: book.translate.xml:7379
msgid "<filename>/var/tmp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7357
+#: book.translate.xml:7380
msgid ""
"Temporary files which are usually preserved across a system reboot, unless "
"<filename>/var</filename> is a memory-based file system."
@@ -10818,22 +10811,22 @@ msgstr ""
"屬於以記憶體為基礎 (Memory-based) 的檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7364
+#: book.translate.xml:7387
msgid "<filename>/var/yp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7365
+#: book.translate.xml:7388
msgid "NIS maps."
msgstr "NIS 對應表。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7373
+#: book.translate.xml:7396
msgid "Disk Organization"
msgstr "磁碟組織"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7375
+#: book.translate.xml:7398
msgid ""
"The smallest unit of organization that FreeBSD uses to find files is the "
"filename. Filenames are case-sensitive, which means that <filename>readme."
@@ -10847,7 +10840,7 @@ msgstr ""
"他類型的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7382
+#: book.translate.xml:7405
msgid ""
"Files are stored in directories. A directory may contain no files, or it may "
"contain many hundreds of files. A directory can also contain other "
@@ -10858,7 +10851,7 @@ msgstr ""
"中也可以包含其他的目錄; 您可以建立階層式的目錄以便資料的管理。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7388
+#: book.translate.xml:7411
msgid ""
"Files and directories are referenced by giving the file or directory name, "
"followed by a forward slash, <literal>/</literal>, followed by any other "
@@ -10883,7 +10876,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>c:\\foo\\bar\\readme.txt</filename> 這種路徑。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7403
+#: book.translate.xml:7426
msgid ""
"Directories and files are stored in a file system. Each file system contains "
"exactly one directory at the very top level, called the <firstterm>root "
@@ -10902,7 +10895,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個磁碟,所有目錄都會成為該磁碟的一部份。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7414
+#: book.translate.xml:7437
msgid ""
"Consider three file systems, called <literal>A</literal>, <literal>B</"
"literal>, and <literal>C</literal>. Each file system has one root directory, "
@@ -10916,7 +10909,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>B2</literal> 及 <literal>C1</literal>, <literal>C2</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7421
+#: book.translate.xml:7444
msgid ""
"Call <literal>A</literal> the root file system. If "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -10934,13 +10927,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7429
+#: book.translate.xml:7452
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir1' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7433
+#: book.translate.xml:7456
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -10951,7 +10944,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7441
+#: book.translate.xml:7464
msgid ""
"A file system must be mounted on to a directory in another file system. When "
"mounting file system <literal>B</literal> on to the directory <literal>A1</"
@@ -10968,13 +10961,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7450
+#: book.translate.xml:7473
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir2' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7454
+#: book.translate.xml:7477
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -10989,7 +10982,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7466
+#: book.translate.xml:7489
msgid ""
"Any files that are in the <literal>B1</literal> or <literal>B2</literal> "
"directories can be reached with the path <filename>/A1/B1</filename> or "
@@ -11004,7 +10997,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 被<firstterm>卸載 (Unmount)</firstterm> 後才會再顯現出來。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7475
+#: book.translate.xml:7498
msgid ""
"If <literal>B</literal> had been mounted on <literal>A2</literal> then the "
"diagram would look like this:"
@@ -11016,13 +11009,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7481
+#: book.translate.xml:7504
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir3' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7485
+#: book.translate.xml:7508
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -11037,7 +11030,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7497
+#: book.translate.xml:7520
msgid ""
"and the paths would be <filename>/A2/B1</filename> and <filename>/A2/B2</"
"filename> respectively."
@@ -11045,7 +11038,7 @@ msgstr ""
"上面的路徑分別為 <filename>/A2/B1</filename> 及 <filename>/A2/B2</filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7502
+#: book.translate.xml:7525
msgid ""
"File systems can be mounted on top of one another. Continuing the last "
"example, the <literal>C</literal> file system could be mounted on top of the "
@@ -11061,13 +11054,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7510
+#: book.translate.xml:7533
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir4' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7514
+#: book.translate.xml:7537
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -11086,7 +11079,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7530
+#: book.translate.xml:7553
msgid ""
"Or <literal>C</literal> could be mounted directly on to the <literal>A</"
"literal> file system, under the <literal>A1</literal> directory:"
@@ -11099,13 +11092,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7536
+#: book.translate.xml:7559
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir5' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7540
+#: book.translate.xml:7563
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -11124,7 +11117,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7556
+#: book.translate.xml:7579
msgid ""
"It is entirely possible to have one large root file system, and not need to "
"create any others. There are some drawbacks to this approach, and one "
@@ -11134,12 +11127,12 @@ msgstr ""
"處。"
#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7561
+#: book.translate.xml:7584
msgid "Benefits of Multiple File Systems"
msgstr "使用多個檔案系統的好處"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7564
+#: book.translate.xml:7587
msgid ""
"Different file systems can have different <firstterm>mount options</"
"firstterm>. For example, the root file system can be mounted read-only, "
@@ -11158,7 +11151,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<firstterm>guid</firstterm> 位元失效,可讓系統更安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7578
+#: book.translate.xml:7601
msgid ""
"FreeBSD automatically optimizes the layout of files on a file system, "
"depending on how the file system is being used. So a file system that "
@@ -11171,7 +11164,7 @@ msgstr ""
"如果您只有單一個大的檔案系統,這部分就沒用了。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7587
+#: book.translate.xml:7610
msgid ""
"FreeBSD's file systems are robust if power is lost. However, a power loss at "
"a critical point could still damage the structure of the file system. By "
@@ -11183,12 +11176,12 @@ msgstr ""
"以便您在需要的時候將備份資料回存回來。"
#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7597
+#: book.translate.xml:7620
msgid "Benefit of a Single File System"
msgstr "使用單一檔案系統的好處"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7600
+#: book.translate.xml:7623
msgid ""
"File systems are a fixed size. If you create a file system when you install "
"FreeBSD and give it a specific size, you may later discover that you need to "
@@ -11201,7 +11194,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的大小,然後將備份回存回來。"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7608
+#: book.translate.xml:7631
msgid ""
"FreeBSD features the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>growfs</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command, which makes "
@@ -11212,7 +11205,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令可以突破此限制直接變更檔案系統的大小。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7615
+#: book.translate.xml:7638
msgid ""
"File systems are contained in partitions. This does not have the same "
"meaning as the common usage of the term partition (for example, <trademark "
@@ -11231,7 +11224,7 @@ msgstr ""
"點表示外,也可以使用該檔案系統所在的分區來表示。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7625
+#: book.translate.xml:7648
msgid ""
"FreeBSD also uses disk space for <firstterm>swap space</firstterm> to "
"provide <firstterm>virtual memory</firstterm>. This allows your computer to "
@@ -11246,47 +11239,47 @@ msgstr ""
"移到交換空間,然後在用到的時候移回去 (同時移出部份沒用到的)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7634
+#: book.translate.xml:7657
msgid "Some partitions have certain conventions associated with them."
msgstr "部份分區有使用的慣例如下:"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7644
+#: book.translate.xml:7667
msgid "Partition"
msgstr "分區"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7645
+#: book.translate.xml:7668
msgid "Convention"
msgstr "慣例"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7651
+#: book.translate.xml:7674
msgid "<literal>a</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7652
+#: book.translate.xml:7675
msgid "Normally contains the root file system."
msgstr "通常內含根檔案系統"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7656
+#: book.translate.xml:7679
msgid "<literal>b</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7657
+#: book.translate.xml:7680
msgid "Normally contains swap space."
msgstr "通常內含交換空間"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7661
+#: book.translate.xml:7684
msgid "<literal>c</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7662
+#: book.translate.xml:7685
msgid ""
"Normally the same size as the enclosing slice. This allows utilities that "
"need to work on the entire slice, such as a bad block scanner, to work on "
@@ -11298,12 +11291,12 @@ msgstr ""
"執行。一般來說不會把檔案系統建立在這個分區。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7670
+#: book.translate.xml:7693
msgid "<literal>d</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7671
+#: book.translate.xml:7694
msgid ""
"Partition <literal>d</literal> used to have a special meaning associated "
"with it, although that is now gone and <literal>d</literal> may work as any "
@@ -11313,7 +11306,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>d</literal> 和一般的分區相同。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7680
+#: book.translate.xml:7703
msgid ""
"Disks in FreeBSD are divided into slices, referred to in <trademark class="
"\"registered\">Windows</trademark> as partitions, which are numbered from 1 "
@@ -11325,22 +11318,22 @@ msgstr ""
"再分成數個分區,每個分區內含檔案系統,且會使用字母來標示。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7685
+#: book.translate.xml:7708
msgid "<primary>slices</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7688 book.translate.xml:32059 book.translate.xml:32155
+#: book.translate.xml:7711 book.translate.xml:32078 book.translate.xml:32174
msgid "<primary>partitions</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7691
+#: book.translate.xml:7714
msgid "<primary>dangerously dedicated</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7695
+#: book.translate.xml:7718
msgid ""
"Slice numbers follow the device name, prefixed with an <literal>s</literal>, "
"starting at 1. So <quote>da0<emphasis>s1</emphasis></quote> is the first "
@@ -11359,7 +11352,7 @@ msgstr ""
"檔案系統使用的裝置 (Device) 上均會各別佔據一個切割區。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7705
+#: book.translate.xml:7728
msgid ""
"Slices, <quote>dangerously dedicated</quote> physical drives, and other "
"drives contain <firstterm>partitions</firstterm>, which are represented as "
@@ -11379,7 +11372,7 @@ msgstr ""
"三個切割區的第五個分區。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7718
+#: book.translate.xml:7741
msgid ""
"Finally, each disk on the system is identified. A disk name starts with a "
"code that indicates the type of disk, and then a number, indicating which "
@@ -11391,7 +11384,7 @@ msgstr ""
"始。常見的代碼可以參考 <xref linkend=\"disks-naming\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7724
+#: book.translate.xml:7747
msgid ""
"When referring to a partition, include the disk name, <literal>s</literal>, "
"the slice number, and then the partition letter. Examples are shown in <xref "
@@ -11401,7 +11394,7 @@ msgstr ""
"及分區字母。範例可以參考 <xref linkend=\"basics-disk-slice-part\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7729
+#: book.translate.xml:7752
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"basics-concept-disk-model\"/> shows a conceptual model of a "
"disk layout."
@@ -11410,7 +11403,7 @@ msgstr ""
"對您有些幫助。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7732
+#: book.translate.xml:7755
msgid ""
"When installing FreeBSD, configure the disk slices, create partitions within "
"the slice to be used for FreeBSD, create a file system or swap space in each "
@@ -11421,44 +11414,44 @@ msgstr ""
"哪裡。"
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7738
+#: book.translate.xml:7761
msgid "Disk Device Names"
msgstr "磁碟裝置名稱"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7746
+#: book.translate.xml:7769
msgid "Drive Type"
msgstr "磁碟機類型"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7747
+#: book.translate.xml:7770
msgid "Drive Device Name"
msgstr "磁碟機裝置稱"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7753
+#: book.translate.xml:7776
msgid "<acronym>SATA</acronym> and <acronym>IDE</acronym> hard drives"
msgstr "<acronym>SATA</acronym> 及 <acronym>IDE</acronym> 硬碟"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7755
+#: book.translate.xml:7778
msgid "<literal>ada</literal> or <literal>ad</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>ada</literal> 或 <literal>ad</literal>"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7760
+#: book.translate.xml:7783
msgid ""
"<acronym>SCSI</acronym> hard drives and <acronym>USB</acronym> storage "
"devices"
msgstr "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> 硬碟與 <acronym>USB</acronym> 儲存裝置"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7762
+#: book.translate.xml:7785
msgid "<literal>da</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7766
+#: book.translate.xml:7789
msgid ""
"<acronym>SATA</acronym> and <acronym>IDE</acronym> <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> "
"drives"
@@ -11467,37 +11460,37 @@ msgstr ""
"光碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7768
+#: book.translate.xml:7791
msgid "<literal>cd</literal> or <literal>acd</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>cd</literal> 或 <literal>acd</literal>"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7773
+#: book.translate.xml:7796
msgid "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> drives"
msgstr "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> 光碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7775
+#: book.translate.xml:7798
msgid "<literal>cd</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7779
+#: book.translate.xml:7802
msgid "Floppy drives"
msgstr "軟碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7780
+#: book.translate.xml:7803
msgid "<literal>fd</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7784
+#: book.translate.xml:7807
msgid "Assorted non-standard <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> drives"
msgstr "各種非標準 <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> 光碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7786
+#: book.translate.xml:7809
msgid ""
"<literal>mcd</literal> for Mitsumi <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> and "
"<literal>scd</literal> for Sony <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> devices"
@@ -11506,32 +11499,32 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>scd</literal> 代表 Sony <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> 光碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7792
+#: book.translate.xml:7815
msgid "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> tape drives"
msgstr "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> 磁帶機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7793
+#: book.translate.xml:7816
msgid "<literal>sa</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7797
+#: book.translate.xml:7820
msgid "<acronym>IDE</acronym> tape drives"
msgstr "<acronym>IDE</acronym> 磁帶機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7798
+#: book.translate.xml:7821
msgid "<literal>ast</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7802
+#: book.translate.xml:7825
msgid "RAID drives"
msgstr "RAID 磁碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7803
+#: book.translate.xml:7826
msgid ""
"Examples include <literal>aacd</literal> for <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Adaptec</trademark> AdvancedRAID, <literal>mlxd</literal> and "
@@ -11550,27 +11543,27 @@ msgstr ""
"trademark> RAID."
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7815
+#: book.translate.xml:7838
msgid "Sample Disk, Slice, and Partition Names"
msgstr "磁碟、切割區及分區命名範例"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7824
+#: book.translate.xml:7847
msgid "Name"
msgstr "名稱"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7825 book.translate.xml:62339
+#: book.translate.xml:7848 book.translate.xml:62722
msgid "Meaning"
msgstr "意義"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7831
+#: book.translate.xml:7854
msgid "<literal>ada0s1a</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7832
+#: book.translate.xml:7855
msgid ""
"The first partition (<literal>a</literal>) on the first slice (<literal>s1</"
"literal>) on the first <acronym>SATA</acronym> disk (<literal>ada0</"
@@ -11580,12 +11573,12 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>)的第一個分區(<literal>a</literal>) 。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7839
+#: book.translate.xml:7862
msgid "<literal>da1s2e</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7840
+#: book.translate.xml:7863
msgid ""
"The fifth partition (<literal>e</literal>) on the second slice (<literal>s2</"
"literal>) on the second SCSI disk (<literal>da1</literal>)."
@@ -11594,12 +11587,12 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 的第五個分區 (<literal>e</literal>) 。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7850
+#: book.translate.xml:7873
msgid "Conceptual Model of a Disk"
msgstr "磁碟的概念模型"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7852
+#: book.translate.xml:7875
msgid ""
"This diagram shows FreeBSD's view of the first <acronym>SATA</acronym> disk "
"attached to the system. Assume that the disk is 250 GB in size, and contains "
@@ -11618,7 +11611,7 @@ msgstr ""
"裝了 FreeBSD。 本範例中安裝的 FreeBSD 有四個資料分區及一個交換分區。"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7862
+#: book.translate.xml:7885
msgid ""
"The four partitions each hold a file system. Partition <literal>a</literal> "
"is used for the root file system, <literal>d</literal> for <filename>/var/</"
@@ -11638,18 +11631,18 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7872
+#: book.translate.xml:7895
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/disk-layout' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7879
+#: book.translate.xml:7902
msgid "Mounting and Unmounting File Systems"
msgstr "掛載與卸載檔案系統"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7881
+#: book.translate.xml:7904
msgid ""
"The file system is best visualized as a tree, rooted, as it were, at "
"<filename>/</filename>. <filename>/dev</filename>, <filename>/usr</"
@@ -11662,12 +11655,12 @@ msgstr ""
"些樹枝上面又還有分支,像是 <filename>/usr/local</filename> 等。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7890
+#: book.translate.xml:7913
msgid "<primary>root file system</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7894
+#: book.translate.xml:7917
msgid ""
"There are various reasons to house some of these directories on separate "
"file systems. <filename>/var</filename> contains the directories "
@@ -11683,7 +11676,7 @@ msgstr ""
"filename> 中拉出來。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7905
+#: book.translate.xml:7928
msgid ""
"Another common reason to contain certain directory trees on other file "
"systems is if they are to be housed on separate physical disks, or are "
@@ -11695,18 +11688,18 @@ msgstr ""
"\"network-nfs\"/> 或是光碟機。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7912
+#: book.translate.xml:7935
msgid "The <filename>fstab</filename> File"
msgstr "<filename>fstab</filename> 檔"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7914
+#: book.translate.xml:7937
msgid ""
"<primary>file systems</primary> <secondary>mounted with fstab</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7919
+#: book.translate.xml:7942
msgid ""
"During the boot process (<xref linkend=\"boot\"/>), file systems listed in "
"<filename>/etc/fstab</filename> are automatically mounted except for the "
@@ -11718,39 +11711,39 @@ msgstr ""
"<option>noauto</option> 參數)。檔案內容的格式如下:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:7925
+#: book.translate.xml:7948
#, no-wrap
msgid "<replaceable>device</replaceable> <replaceable>/mount-point</replaceable> <replaceable>fstype</replaceable> <replaceable>options</replaceable> <replaceable>dumpfreq</replaceable> <replaceable>passno</replaceable>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7929
+#: book.translate.xml:7952
msgid "<literal>device</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7931
+#: book.translate.xml:7954
msgid ""
"An existing device name as explained in <xref linkend=\"disks-naming\"/>."
msgstr "已存在的裝置名稱,詳情請參閱 <xref linkend=\"disks-naming\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7937
+#: book.translate.xml:7960
msgid "<literal>mount-point</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7940
+#: book.translate.xml:7963
msgid "An existing directory on which to mount the file system."
msgstr "檔案系統要掛載到的目錄 (該目錄必須存在)。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7946
+#: book.translate.xml:7969
msgid "<literal>fstype</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7949
+#: book.translate.xml:7972
msgid ""
"The file system type to pass to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The default FreeBSD "
@@ -11761,12 +11754,12 @@ msgstr ""
"檔案系統是 <literal>ufs</literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7956
+#: book.translate.xml:7979
msgid "<literal>options</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7959
+#: book.translate.xml:7982
msgid ""
"Either <option>rw</option> for read-write file systems, or <option>ro</"
"option> for read-only file systems, followed by any other options that may "
@@ -11782,12 +11775,12 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 說明。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7970
+#: book.translate.xml:7993
msgid "<literal>dumpfreq</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7973
+#: book.translate.xml:7996
msgid ""
"Used by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> to determine which file systems require dumping. "
@@ -11797,12 +11790,12 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 由此項目決定那些檔案系統需要傾印。 如果這格空白則以零為預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7980
+#: book.translate.xml:8003
msgid "<literal>passno</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7983
+#: book.translate.xml:8006
msgid ""
"Determines the order in which file systems should be checked. File systems "
"that should be skipped should have their <literal>passno</literal> set to "
@@ -11822,7 +11815,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的話) 檢查這些檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7997
+#: book.translate.xml:8020
msgid ""
"Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fstab</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information on the format of <filename>/"
@@ -11833,7 +11826,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 說明文件。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8002
+#: book.translate.xml:8025
msgid ""
"Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -11842,12 +11835,12 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8004
+#: book.translate.xml:8027
msgid "<primary>file systems</primary> <secondary>mounting</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8009
+#: book.translate.xml:8032
msgid ""
"File systems are mounted using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The most basic syntax "
@@ -11857,13 +11850,13 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 指令是拿來掛載檔案系統用的。基本的操作指令格式如下:"
#. (itstool) path: informalexample/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8013
+#: book.translate.xml:8036
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount <replaceable>device</replaceable> <replaceable>mountpoint</replaceable></userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8016
+#: book.translate.xml:8039
msgid ""
"This command provides many options which are described in "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -11873,18 +11866,18 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 裡面有提到一大堆的選項,不過最常用的就是這些:"
#. (itstool) path: variablelist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8020
+#: book.translate.xml:8043
msgid "Mount Options"
msgstr "掛載選項"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8023 book.translate.xml:23326
+#: book.translate.xml:8046 book.translate.xml:23345
msgid "<option>-a</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8026
+#: book.translate.xml:8049
msgid ""
"Mount all the file systems listed in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>, except "
"those marked as <quote>noauto</quote>, excluded by the <option>-t</option> "
@@ -11894,12 +11887,12 @@ msgstr ""
"filename> 而且沒有用 <option>-t</option> 排除的檔案系統掛載起來。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8035
+#: book.translate.xml:8058
msgid "<option>-d</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8039
+#: book.translate.xml:8062
msgid ""
"Do everything except for the actual mount system call. This option is useful "
"in conjunction with the <option>-v</option> flag to determine what "
@@ -11912,12 +11905,12 @@ msgstr ""
"用。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8047 book.translate.xml:26447
+#: book.translate.xml:8070 book.translate.xml:26466
msgid "<option>-f</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8050
+#: book.translate.xml:8073
msgid ""
"Force the mount of an unclean file system (dangerous), or the revocation of "
"write access when downgrading a file system's mount status from read-write "
@@ -11927,12 +11920,12 @@ msgstr ""
"態從可存取變成唯讀)。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8058
+#: book.translate.xml:8081
msgid "<option>-r</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8061
+#: book.translate.xml:8084
msgid ""
"Mount the file system read-only. This is identical to using <option>-o ro</"
"option>."
@@ -11940,12 +11933,12 @@ msgstr ""
"用唯讀的方式掛載檔案系統。 這個選項和在 -o 選項中指定 ro 參數是一樣的。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8067
+#: book.translate.xml:8090
msgid "<option>-t</option> <replaceable>fstype</replaceable>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8071
+#: book.translate.xml:8094
msgid ""
"Mount the specified file system type or mount only file systems of the given "
"type, if <option>-a</option> is included. <quote>ufs</quote> is the default "
@@ -11955,50 +11948,50 @@ msgstr ""
"只掛載指定型態的檔案系統。預設的檔案系統類型為 <quote>ufs</quote>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8079
+#: book.translate.xml:8102
msgid "<option>-u</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8082
+#: book.translate.xml:8105
msgid "Update mount options on the file system."
msgstr "更新檔案系統的掛載選項。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8087 book.translate.xml:23343
+#: book.translate.xml:8110 book.translate.xml:23362
msgid "<option>-v</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8090
+#: book.translate.xml:8113
msgid "Be verbose."
msgstr "顯示詳細資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8095
+#: book.translate.xml:8118
msgid "<option>-w</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8098
+#: book.translate.xml:8121
msgid "Mount the file system read-write."
msgstr "以可讀寫的模式掛載檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8103
+#: book.translate.xml:8126
msgid ""
"The following options can be passed to <option>-o</option> as a comma-"
"separated list:"
msgstr "<option>-o</option> 選項後面會接著以逗號分隔的參數:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8108
+#: book.translate.xml:8131
msgid "nosuid"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8111
+#: book.translate.xml:8134
msgid ""
"Do not interpret setuid or setgid flags on the file system. This is also a "
"useful security option."
@@ -12006,7 +11999,7 @@ msgstr ""
"不解析檔案系統上的 setuid 或 setgid 旗標, 這也是一個蠻有用的安全選項。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8120
+#: book.translate.xml:8143
msgid ""
"Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>umount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -12015,12 +12008,12 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8122
+#: book.translate.xml:8145
msgid "<primary>file systems</primary> <secondary>unmounting</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8127
+#: book.translate.xml:8150
msgid ""
"To unmount a file system use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>umount</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. This command takes "
@@ -12031,7 +12024,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(mountpoint),裝置名稱,以及 -a 或是 -A 等選項。 "
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8131
+#: book.translate.xml:8154
msgid ""
"All forms take <option>-f</option> to force unmounting, and <option>-v</"
"option> for verbosity. Be warned that <option>-f</option> is not generally a "
@@ -12042,7 +12035,7 @@ msgstr ""
"案系統有可能會造成電腦當機, 或者損壞檔案系統內的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8136
+#: book.translate.xml:8159
msgid ""
"To unmount all mounted file systems, or just the file system types listed "
"after <option>-t</option>, use <option>-a</option> or <option>-A</option>. "
@@ -12054,12 +12047,12 @@ msgstr ""
"是 <option>-A</option> 並不會試圖卸載根檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8145
+#: book.translate.xml:8168
msgid "Processes and Daemons"
msgstr "程序與 Daemon"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8147
+#: book.translate.xml:8170
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is a multi-tasking operating system. Each program running at any one "
"time is called a <firstterm>process</firstterm>. Every running command "
@@ -12071,7 +12064,7 @@ msgstr ""
"令都至少會開啟一個新的程序, 而有些系統程序是一直在跑以維持系統正常運作的。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8153
+#: book.translate.xml:8176
msgid ""
"Each process is uniquely identified by a number called a <firstterm>process "
"ID</firstterm> (<acronym>PID</acronym>). Similar to files, each process has "
@@ -12096,7 +12089,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8165
+#: book.translate.xml:8188
msgid ""
"Some programs are not designed to be run with continuous user input and "
"disconnect from the terminal at the first opportunity. For example, a web "
@@ -12115,7 +12108,7 @@ msgstr ""
"情。這也就是為何 BSD 的吉祥物,是一隻穿著帆布鞋拿著三叉耙的快樂小惡魔的原因。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8176
+#: book.translate.xml:8199
msgid ""
"There is a convention to name programs that normally run as daemons with a "
"trailing <quote>d</quote>. For example, <application>BIND</application> is "
@@ -12136,12 +12129,12 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8190
+#: book.translate.xml:8213
msgid "Viewing Processes"
msgstr "檢視程序"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8192
+#: book.translate.xml:8215
msgid ""
"To see the processes running on the system, use "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -12167,7 +12160,7 @@ msgstr ""
"互動式的觀看您的電腦正在做什麼。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8200
+#: book.translate.xml:8223
msgid ""
"By default, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> only shows the commands that are running and owned "
@@ -12177,7 +12170,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令只會顯示使用者所擁有的的程序。 例如:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8203
+#: book.translate.xml:8226
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ps</userinput>\n"
@@ -12187,7 +12180,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8208
+#: book.translate.xml:8231
msgid ""
"The output from <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> is organized into a number of columns. The "
@@ -12214,7 +12207,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>COMMAND</literal> 是執行這個程式的指令。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8223
+#: book.translate.xml:8246
msgid ""
"A number of different options are available to change the information that "
"is displayed. One of the most useful sets is <literal>auxww</literal>, where "
@@ -12235,7 +12228,7 @@ msgstr ""
"了。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8234
+#: book.translate.xml:8257
msgid ""
"The output from <citerefentry><refentrytitle>top</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is similar:"
@@ -12244,7 +12237,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 也有類似的輸出。 一般的情況看像是這樣:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8236
+#: book.translate.xml:8259
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>top</userinput>\n"
@@ -12270,7 +12263,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8257
+#: book.translate.xml:8280
msgid ""
"The output is split into two sections. The header (the first five or six "
"lines) shows the <acronym>PID</acronym> of the last process to run, the "
@@ -12290,7 +12283,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>ARC</literal> 標示有多少資料從磁碟改由記憶體快取中取得。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8269
+#: book.translate.xml:8292
msgid ""
"Below the header is a series of columns containing similar information to "
"the output from <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
@@ -12312,7 +12305,7 @@ msgstr ""
"式的記憶體使用量。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8279
+#: book.translate.xml:8302
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>top</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> automatically updates the display every two seconds. A "
@@ -12322,12 +12315,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的時間。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8285
+#: book.translate.xml:8308
msgid "Killing Processes"
msgstr "終止程序"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8287
+#: book.translate.xml:8310
msgid ""
"One way to communicate with any running process or daemon is to send a "
"<firstterm>signal</firstterm> using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kill</"
@@ -12348,7 +12341,7 @@ msgstr ""
"systemitem>使用者,他可以送信號給任何人的程序。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8297
+#: book.translate.xml:8320
msgid ""
"The operating system can also send a signal to a process. If an application "
"is badly written and tries to access memory that it is not supposed to, "
@@ -12368,7 +12361,7 @@ msgstr ""
"該程式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8307
+#: book.translate.xml:8330
msgid ""
"Two signals can be used to stop a process: <literal>SIGTERM</literal> and "
"<literal>SIGKILL</literal>. <literal>SIGTERM</literal> is the polite way to "
@@ -12384,7 +12377,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>,如它正在做一些不能中斷的工作的話。"
#. (itstool) path: footnote/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8319
+#: book.translate.xml:8342
msgid ""
"There are a few tasks that cannot be interrupted. For example, if the "
"process is trying to read from a file that is on another computer on the "
@@ -12399,7 +12392,7 @@ msgstr ""
"結束掉了。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8316
+#: book.translate.xml:8339
msgid ""
"<literal>SIGKILL</literal> cannot be ignored by a process. Sending a "
"<literal>SIGKILL</literal> to a process will usually stop that process there "
@@ -12409,7 +12402,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 信號給程序通常會將程序直接中止<_:footnote-1/>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8328
+#: book.translate.xml:8351
msgid ""
"Other commonly used signals are <literal>SIGHUP</literal>, <literal>SIGUSR1</"
"literal>, and <literal>SIGUSR2</literal>. Since these are general purpose "
@@ -12420,7 +12413,7 @@ msgstr ""
"應。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8333
+#: book.translate.xml:8356
msgid ""
"For example, after changing a web server's configuration file, the web "
"server needs to be told to re-read its configuration. Restarting "
@@ -12436,12 +12429,12 @@ msgstr ""
"為,所以使用前請先參考 Deamon 的說明文件查看是否可以達到想要的結果。"
#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8344
+#: book.translate.xml:8367
msgid "Sending a Signal to a Process"
msgstr "送信號給程序"
#. (itstool) path: procedure/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8346
+#: book.translate.xml:8369
msgid ""
"This example shows how to send a signal to "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>inetd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -12460,7 +12453,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 會在收到 <literal>SIGHUP</literal> 的時候重新讀取這個設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8353
+#: book.translate.xml:8376
msgid ""
"Find the <acronym>PID</acronym> of the process to send the signal to using "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pgrep</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -12474,7 +12467,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 的 <acronym>PID</acronym> 為 198:"
#. (itstool) path: step/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8357
+#: book.translate.xml:8380
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>pgrep -l inetd</userinput>\n"
@@ -12482,7 +12475,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8363
+#: book.translate.xml:8386
msgid ""
"Use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> to send the signal. Because "
@@ -12501,7 +12494,7 @@ msgstr ""
"systemitem> 先。"
#. (itstool) path: step/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8370
+#: book.translate.xml:8393
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>su</userinput>\n"
@@ -12510,7 +12503,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8374
+#: book.translate.xml:8397
msgid ""
"Like most <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> commands, "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -12533,12 +12526,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>PID</replaceable>: No such process</errorname>。"
#. (itstool) path: note/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8387
+#: book.translate.xml:8410
msgid "Why Use <command>/bin/kill</command>?"
msgstr "為何要使用 <comman