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authorRuey-Cherng Yu <rcyu@FreeBSD.org>2017-06-02 18:26:37 +0000
committerRuey-Cherng Yu <rcyu@FreeBSD.org>2017-06-02 18:26:37 +0000
commit92c9803a58a44191bff39322572bc960529b0c19 (patch)
tree94bb961ad301b9f26e881bde5b9d8d201ebf7d44 /zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook
parent952ff021bca34278ec9ef73da185d032039a6e78 (diff)
downloaddoc-92c9803a58a44191bff39322572bc960529b0c19.tar.gz
doc-92c9803a58a44191bff39322572bc960529b0c19.zip
- Update po file with newest handbook document.
- Translation of the following sections: 13.3. One-time Passwords 13.8. OpenSSH 13.14. Shared Administration with Sudo 21.5. FreeBSD as a Guest on VirtualBox™ 21.6. FreeBSD as a Host with VirtualBox 23.5. Updating FreeBSD from Source 23.6. Tracking for Multiple Machines Submitted by: cwlin@gmail.com Differential Revision: https://reviews.freebsd.org/D10888
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=50316
Diffstat (limited to 'zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook')
-rw-r--r--zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml2127
-rw-r--r--zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po25234
2 files changed, 13826 insertions, 13535 deletions
diff --git a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml
index aaf2acee55..99017642e8 100644
--- a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml
+++ b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml
@@ -129,6 +129,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.davide SYSTEM "davide.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.davidxu SYSTEM "davidxu.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.db SYSTEM "db.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.dbaio SYSTEM "dbaio.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.dbn SYSTEM "dbn.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.dchagin SYSTEM "dchagin.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.dcs SYSTEM "dcs.key">
@@ -141,6 +142,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.demon SYSTEM "demon.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.den SYSTEM "den.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.des SYSTEM "des.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.dexter SYSTEM "dexter.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.dfr SYSTEM "dfr.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.dhartmei SYSTEM "dhartmei.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.dhn SYSTEM "dhn.key">
@@ -164,6 +166,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.emax SYSTEM "emax.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.erj SYSTEM "erj.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.erwin SYSTEM "erwin.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.eugen SYSTEM "eugen.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.fabient SYSTEM "fabient.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.fanf SYSTEM "fanf.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.farrokhi SYSTEM "farrokhi.key">
@@ -250,6 +253,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.johans SYSTEM "johans.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jon SYSTEM "jon.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jonathan SYSTEM "jonathan.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.joneum SYSTEM "joneum.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.josef SYSTEM "josef.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jpaetzel SYSTEM "jpaetzel.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jrm SYSTEM "jrm.key">
@@ -412,6 +416,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rafan SYSTEM "rafan.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rakuco SYSTEM "rakuco.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ray SYSTEM "ray.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.rcyu SYSTEM "rcyu.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rdivacky SYSTEM "rdivacky.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rea SYSTEM "rea.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rees SYSTEM "rees.key">
@@ -535,6 +540,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.wollman SYSTEM "wollman.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.woodsb02 SYSTEM "woodsb02.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.wosch SYSTEM "wosch.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.wulf SYSTEM "wulf.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.wxs SYSTEM "wxs.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.xmj SYSTEM "xmj.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.xride SYSTEM "xride.key">
@@ -640,6 +646,7 @@
<year>2014</year>
<year>2015</year>
<year>2016</year>
+ <year>2017</year>
<holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>
</copyright>
@@ -1588,7 +1595,7 @@
<listitem>
<para><link xlink:href="http://www.ixsystems.com/">iXsystems</link> <indexterm>
<primary>iXsystems</primary>
- </indexterm> - 統合存儲 (Unified Storage) 設備的 TrueNAS 產品線是以 FreeBSD 為基礎。除了該公司自己的商業產品外,iXsystems 也管理著 PC-BSD 和 FreeNAS 兩個開源計劃的開發。</para>
+ </indexterm> - 統合存儲 (Unified Storage) 設備的 TrueNAS 產品線是以 FreeBSD 為基礎。除了該公司自己的商業產品外,iXsystems 也管理著 TrueOS 和 FreeNAS 兩個開源計劃的開發。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -1616,9 +1623,13 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.sandvine.com/">Sandvine</link> <indexterm>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.sandvine.com/">Sandvine</link>
+ <indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary>Sandvine</primary>
- </indexterm> - Sandvine 使用 FreeBSD 作為它們的高性能即時網路處理平台,來建立它們的智慧網路策略控制產品。</para>
+ </indexterm> - Sandvine uses FreeBSD as the basis of their
+ high performance real-time network processing platforms
+ that make up their intelligent network policy control
+ products.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -1643,7 +1654,7 @@
<para><link xlink:href="https://www.stormshield.eu">Stormshield</link> <indexterm>
<primary>Stormshield</primary>
- </indexterm> - Stormshield 網路安全設備使用了硬體化版本的 FreeBSD 做為基礎,BSD 授權條款讓我們我們的智慧財產與系統可以整合,並同時回饋大量有趣的發展給社群。</para>
+ </indexterm> - Stormshield 網路安全設備使用了硬體化版本的 FreeBSD 做為基礎,BSD 授權條款讓他們可將其智慧財產與系統整合並同時回饋大量有趣的發展給社群。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -1721,8 +1732,8 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.pcbsd.org/">PC-BSD</link> <indexterm>
- <primary>PC-BSD</primary>
+ <para><link xlink:href="http://www.pcbsd.org/">TrueOS</link> <indexterm>
+ <primary>TrueOS</primary>
</indexterm> - 訂製版本的 FreeBSD,裝備了給桌面使用者使用的圖型化工具來展示 FreeBSD 強大的功能給所有使用者,專門設計來緩解使用者在 Windows 與 OS X 間的過渡。</para>
</listitem>
@@ -2100,7 +2111,7 @@
<para>一般來說,本章所寫的安裝說明是針對 <trademark>i386</trademark> 和 <acronym>AMD64</acronym> 架構。如果可以用於其他平台,將會列表說明。 安裝程式和本章所敘述的內容可能會有些微差異,所以請將本章視為通用的指引,而不是完全照著來做。</para>
<note>
- <para>喜歡用圖形化安裝程式安裝 FreeBSD 的使用者, 可能會對 <application>pc-sysinstall</application> 有興趣,這是 PC-BSD 計畫所使用的。 他可以用來安裝圖形化桌面 (PC-BSD) 或是指令列版本的 FreeBSD。 細節請參考 PC-BSD 使用者 Handbook (<link xlink:href="http://wiki.pcbsd.org/index.php/Colophon">http://wiki.pcbsd.org/index.php/Colophon</link>)。</para>
+ <para>喜歡用圖形化安裝程式安裝 FreeBSD 的使用者, 可能會對 <application>pc-sysinstall</application> 有興趣,這是 TrueOS 計畫所使用的。 他可以用來安裝圖形化桌面 (TrueOS) 或是指令列版本的 FreeBSD。 細節請參考 TrueOS 使用者 Handbook (<link xlink:href="https://www.trueos.org/handbook/trueos.html">https://www.trueos.org/handbook/trueos.html</link>)。</para>
</note>
<para>讀完這章,您將了解︰</para>
@@ -2356,7 +2367,7 @@
<step>
<title>取得 <application>Image Writer <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 版</application></title>
- <para><application>Image Writer <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 版</application> 是一個免費的應用程式,可以正確地將映像檔寫入隨身碟。 從 <uri xlink:href="https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/">https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/</uri> 下載,並解壓縮到一個資料夾。</para>
+ <para><application>Image Writer <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 版</application> 是一個免費的應用程式,可以正確地將映像檔寫入隨身碟。可從 <uri xlink:href="https://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/">https://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/</uri> 下載,並解壓縮到一個資料夾。</para>
</step>
<step>
@@ -2721,7 +2732,7 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID: 830b92d4.</screen>
<para>有時在 <filename>/var/tmp</filename> 會需要較多的空間,當新軟體安裝,套件工具會從套件中取出暫存的複本置於 <filename>/var/tmp</filename>。若在 <filename>/var/tmp</filename> 沒有足夠的空間,要安裝大型軟體套件,例如 <application>Firefox</application>, <application>Apache OpenOffice</application> 或 <application>LibreOffice</application> 會很困難。</para>
</note>
- <para><filename>/usr</filename> 分割區會保存許多支持系統運作的檔案,包含 FreeBSD Port 套件集以及系統原始碼。這個分割區建議至少要有 2 GB 的空間。</para>
+ <para><filename>/usr</filename> 分割區保存了許多支持系統運作的檔案,包含 FreeBSD Port 套件集以及系統原始碼,這個分割區建議至少要有 2 GB 的空間。</para>
<para>在規劃分割區大小時,請牢記空間需求,當因某個分割區空間不足時要改使用其他分割區時會很麻煩。</para>
@@ -2982,7 +2993,7 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID: 830b92d4.</screen>
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>選擇 <keycap>T</keycap> 來設定儲存池類型 (<literal>Pool Type</literal>) 以及要組成儲存池的磁碟。自動 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 安裝程式目前僅支援建立單一頂層 vdev,除了在串連 (Stripe) 模式。要建立更複雜的儲存池,需使用 <xref linkend="bsdinstall-part-shell"/> 的操作來建立儲存池。安裝程式支援建立各種儲存池類型,包含串連 Stripe (不建議,沒有備援功能)、鏡像 Mirror (效能較佳,但可用空間較少) 以及 RAID-Z 1, 2, 與 3 (分別有能力承受同時 1, 2 與 3 個磁碟的損壞)。在選擇儲存池類型時會有提示顯示在螢幕的下方,提示所需要的磁碟數以及在使用 RAID-Z 時,每個配置最佳的磁碟數。</para>
+ <para>選擇 <keycap>T</keycap> 來設定儲存池類型 (<literal>Pool Type</literal>) 以及要組成儲存池的磁碟。自動 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 安裝程式目前僅支援建立單一頂層 vdev,除了在串連 (Stripe) 模式。要建立更複雜的儲存池,需使用 <xref linkend="bsdinstall-part-shell"/> 的操作來建立儲存池。安裝程式支援建立各種儲存池類型,包含串連 Stripe (不建議,沒有備援功能)、鏡像 Mirror (效能較佳,但可用空間較少) 以及 RAID-Z 1, 2, 與 3 (分別有能力承受同時 1, 2 與 3 個磁碟的損壞)。在選擇儲存池類型時會在螢幕的下方提示所需的磁碟數量,以及在使用 RAID-Z 時,每種配置最佳的磁碟數。</para>
<figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_type">
<title><acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池類型</title>
@@ -6127,7 +6138,7 @@ subversion-static-<replaceable>1.8.8_2</replaceable>
subversion16-<replaceable>1.6.23_4</replaceable>
subversion17-<replaceable>1.7.16_2</replaceable></screen>
- <para>套件名稱包含版本編號,且若 Port 使用 Python 為基礎,也會包含用來編譯該套件的 Python 版本。有些 Port 會有多個版本可使用,如 <application>subversion</application> ,因編譯選項不同,有多個版本可用,這個例子中即指靜態連結版本的 <application>subversion</application>。在指定要安裝的套件時,最好使用 Port 來源來指定該應用程式,Port 來源是指應用程式在 Port 樹中的路徑。再輸入一次 <command>pkg search</command> 並加上 <option>-o</option> 來列出每個套件來源:</para>
+ <para>套件名稱包含版本編號,且若 Port 使用 Python 為基礎,也會包含用來編譯該套件的 Python 版本。有些 Port 會有多個版本可使用,如 <application>Subversion</application> ,因編譯選項不同,有多個版本可用,這個例子中即指靜態連結版本的 <application>Subversion</application>。在指定要安裝的套件時,最好使用 Port 來源來指定該應用程式,Port 來源是指應用程式在 Port 樹中的路徑。再輸入一次 <command>pkg search</command> 並加上 <option>-o</option> 來列出每個套件來源:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg search -o <replaceable>subversion</replaceable></userinput>
devel/git-subversion
@@ -6218,7 +6229,7 @@ Info: Lists information about open files (similar to fstat(1))</screen>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>/usr/sbin/pkg</userinput></screen>
- <para>您必須有網際網路連線供啟動程式使用。</para>
+ <para>您必須有可用的網際網路連線供啟動程式使用方可成功。</para>
<para>否則,要安裝 Port 套件,則須執行:</para>
@@ -6577,7 +6588,7 @@ Deinstalling ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1... done</screen>
<sect3>
<title>自訂 Port 安裝</title>
- <para>部份 Port 提供編譯選項,可用來開啟或關閉應用程式中的元件、安全選項、或其他允許自訂的項目。這類的應用程式例子包括 <package>www/firefox</package>, <package>security/gpgme</package> 以及 <package>mail/sylpheed-claws</package>。若 Port 相依的其他 Port 有可設定的選項時,預設的模式會提示使用者選擇選單中的選項,這可能會讓安裝的過程暫停讓使用者操作數次。要避免這個情況,可在 Port skeleton 中執行 <command>make config-recursive</command> 來一次設定所有選項。然後再執行 <command>make install [clean]</command> 編譯與安裝該 Port。</para>
+ <para>部份 Port 提供編譯選項,可用來開啟或關閉應用程式中的元件、安全選項、或其他允許自訂的項目。這類的應用程式例子包括 <package>www/firefox</package>, <package>security/gpgme</package> 以及 <package>mail/sylpheed-claws</package>。若 Port 相依的其他 Port 有可設定的選項時,預設的模式會提示使用者選擇選單中的選項,這可能會讓安裝的過程暫停讓使用者操作數次。要避免這個情況,可一次設定所有選項,只要在 Port skeleton 中執行 <command>make config-recursive</command>,然後再執行 <command>make install [clean]</command> 編譯與安裝該 Port。</para>
<tip>
<para>使用 <buildtarget>config-recursive</buildtarget> 時,會使用 <buildtarget>all-depends-list</buildtarget> Target 來收集所有要設定 Port 清單。建議執行 <command>make config-recursive</command> 直到所有相依的 Port 選項都已定義,直到 Port 的選項畫面不會再出現,來確定所有相依的選項都已經設定。</para>
@@ -7085,7 +7096,7 @@ ports-mgmt/pkg
<term>視窗管理程式 (Window Manager)</term>
<listitem>
- <para>X 並不規定螢幕上的視窗該長什麼樣、要如何移動滑鼠指標、 要用什麼鍵來在視窗切換、每個視窗的標題列長相,及是否該有關閉按鈕,等等。事實上,X 把這部分交給所謂的視窗管理程式來管理。可用的<link xlink:href="http://xwinman.org/">視窗管理程式有很多種</link>,每一種視窗管理程式都提供不同的使用介面風格:有些支援虛擬桌面,有些允許自訂組合鍵來管理桌面,有些有 <quote>開始</quote> 鈕,有些則是可更換佈景主題,可自行安裝新的佈景主題以更換外觀。 視窗管理程式可在 Port 套件集的 <filename>x11-wm</filename> 分類找到。</para>
+ <para>X 並不規定螢幕上的視窗該長什麼樣、要如何移動滑鼠指標、 要用什麼鍵來在視窗切換、每個視窗的標題列長相,及是否該有關閉按鈕,等等。事實上,X 把這部分交給所謂的視窗管理程式來管理。可用的<link xlink:href="http://www.xwinman.org/">視窗管理程式有很多種</link>,每一種視窗管理程式都提供不同的使用介面風格:有些支援虛擬桌面,有些允許自訂組合鍵來管理桌面,有些有 <quote>開始</quote> 鈕,有些則是可更換佈景主題,可自行安裝新的佈景主題以更換外觀。 視窗管理程式可在 Port 套件集的 <filename>x11-wm</filename> 分類找到。</para>
<para>每個視窗管理程式也各有其不同的設定機制,有些需要手動修改設定檔, 而有的則可透過圖型化工具來完成大部分的設定工作。</para>
</listitem>
@@ -7773,10 +7784,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<para>編輯 <filename>local.conf</filename> 完之後,請確認有使用 <literal>&lt;/fontconfig&gt;</literal> 標籤結尾,若沒有使用會讓所做的更改被忽略。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Users can add personalized settings by creating their own
- <filename>~/.config/fontconfig/fonts.conf</filename>. This
- file uses the same <acronym>XML</acronym> format described
- above.</para>
+ <para>使用者可透過建立自己的 <filename>~/.config/fontconfig/fonts.conf</filename> 來加入個人化的設定,此檔案使用與上述說明相同的 <acronym>XML</acronym> 格式。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>LCD screen</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>Fonts</primary>
@@ -8437,7 +8445,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<para>隨著 FreeBSD 優越的效能及穩定性越來越熱門,它同時適合作為每日使用的桌面系統。FreeBSD 套件或 Port 有超過 24,000 個可用的應用程式,可以簡單的建立一個自訂的桌面環境來執行各種不同的桌面應用程式。本章將示範如何安裝數個桌面應用程式,包含網頁瀏覽器、辦工軟體、文件閱覽程式以及財務軟體。</para>
<note>
- <para>比起重頭設定,更偏好安裝預先編譯好桌面環境的 FreeBSD 版本的使用者可參考 <link xlink:href="http://www.pcbsd.org/">pcbsd.org 網站</link></para>
+ <para>比起重頭設定與編譯,較偏好使用 FreeBSD 桌面環境已預先編譯好版本的使用者可參考 <link xlink:href="http://www.trueos.org/">trueos.org 網站</link>。</para>
</note>
<para>在閱讀這章之前,你必須了解如何:</para>
@@ -9219,7 +9227,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<sect1 xml:id="multimedia-synopsis">
<title>概述</title>
- <para>FreeBSD 廣泛地支援各種音效卡, 讓您可以享受來自電腦上的高傳真音質(Hi-Fi), 此外還包括了錄製和播放 MPEG Audio Layer 3 (<acronym>MP3</acronym>)、 Waveform Audio File (<acronym>WAV</acronym>)、Ogg Vorbis 以及其他許多種格式聲音的能力。同時 FreeBSD Port 套件集也包含了許多可讓您可以錄音、編修音效以及控制 MIDI 配備的應用程式。</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 廣泛地支援各種音效卡, 讓使用者可以享受來自電腦上的高傳真音質(Hi-Fi), 此外還包括了錄製和播放 MPEG Audio Layer 3 (<acronym>MP3</acronym>)、 Waveform Audio File (<acronym>WAV</acronym>)、Ogg Vorbis 以及其他許多種格式聲音的能力。同時 FreeBSD Port 套件集也包含了許多可讓您可以錄音、編修音效以及控制 MIDI 配備的應用程式。</para>
<para> FreeBSD 也能播放一般的視訊檔和 <acronym>DVD</acronym>。 FreeBSD Port 套件集中含有可編碼、轉換以及播放格種影像媒體的應用程式。</para>
@@ -12930,7 +12938,7 @@ lp:
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload linux</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">For 64-bit compatibility:</para>
+ <para>對 64-位元的相容性:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload linux64</userinput></screen>
@@ -12951,8 +12959,7 @@ lp:
<programlisting xml:lang="en">linux_enable="YES"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">On 64-bit machines, <filename>/etc/rc.d/abi</filename> will
- automatically load the module for 64-bit emulation.</para>
+ <para>在 64-位元的機器上,<filename>/etc/rc.d/abi</filename> 會自動載入用來做 64-位元模擬的模組。</para>
<indexterm><primary>核心選項</primary> <secondary>COMPAT_LINUX</secondary></indexterm>
@@ -16924,7 +16931,7 @@ boot:</screen>
<entry xml:lang="en">boot
<optional><replaceable>-options</replaceable></optional>
<optional><replaceable>kernelname</replaceable></optional></entry>
- <entry>使用指定的選項或核心名稱立即啟動核心。由指令列指定核心名稱前必須先執行 <command>unload</command>,否則會使用先前載入過的核心。若 <emphasis>kernelname</emphasis> 不是完整的路徑則會搜尋 <emphasis>/boot/kernel</emphasis> 及 <emphasis>/boot/modules</emphasis> 底下。</entry>
+ <entry>使用任何指定的選項或核心名稱立即啟動核心,要由指令列指定核心名稱必須先執行 <command>unload</command>,否則會使用先前載入過的核心。若 <emphasis>kernelname</emphasis> 不是完整的路徑則會搜尋 <emphasis>/boot/kernel</emphasis> 及 <emphasis>/boot/modules</emphasis> 底下。</entry>
</row>
<row>
@@ -17602,67 +17609,20 @@ cat changed
<secondary>one-time passwords</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">By default, FreeBSD includes support for One-time Passwords In
- Everything (<acronym>OPIE</acronym>). <acronym>OPIE</acronym>
- is designed to prevent replay attacks, in which an attacker
- discovers a user's password and uses it to access a system.
- Since a password is only used once in <acronym>OPIE</acronym>, a
- discovered password is of little use to an attacker.
- <acronym>OPIE</acronym> uses a secure hash and a
- challenge/response system to manage passwords. The FreeBSD
- implementation uses the <acronym>MD5</acronym> hash by
- default.</para>
+ <para>預設 FreeBSD 已內建一次性密碼 (One-time Passwords In Everything, <acronym>OPIE</acronym>)。<acronym>OPIE</acronym> 設計用來避免重送攻擊 (Replay attack),重送攻擊指的是攻擊者發現了某位使用者的密碼,然後使用該密碼來存取系統。由於在 <acronym>OPIE</acronym> 的環境下,一組密碼只能被使用一次,被發現的密碼對攻擊者而言便沒有什麼作用。<acronym>OPIE</acronym> 使用了安全的加密方式與詰問/回應系統 (Challenge/response system) 來管理密碼。FreeBSD 在實作上預設採用 <acronym>MD5</acronym> 加密。</para>
+
+ <para><acronym>OPIE</acronym> 使用了三種不同類型的密碼,第一種是一般的 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 或 Kerberos 密碼,第二種是由 <command>opiekey</command> 所產生的一次性密碼,第三種是用來生一次性密碼的 <quote>秘密密碼 (Secret password)</quote>,秘密密碼與 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 密碼無關且不應相同。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>OPIE</acronym> uses three different types of
- passwords. The first is the usual <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> or Kerberos password.
- The second is the one-time password which is generated by
- <command>opiekey</command>. The third type of password is the
- <quote>secret password</quote> which is used to generate
- one-time passwords. The secret password has nothing to do with,
- and should be different from, the <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> password.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">There are two other pieces of data that are important to
- <acronym>OPIE</acronym>. One is the <quote>seed</quote> or
- <quote>key</quote>, consisting of two letters and five digits.
- The other is the <quote>iteration count</quote>, a number
- between 1 and 100. <acronym>OPIE</acronym> creates the one-time
- password by concatenating the seed and the secret password,
- applying the <acronym>MD5</acronym> hash as many times as
- specified by the iteration count, and turning the result into
- six short English words which represent the one-time password.
- The authentication system keeps track of the last one-time
- password used, and the user is authenticated if the hash of the
- user-provided password is equal to the previous password.
- Because a one-way hash is used, it is impossible to generate
- future one-time passwords if a successfully used password is
- captured. The iteration count is decremented after each
- successful login to keep the user and the login program in sync.
- When the iteration count gets down to <literal>1</literal>,
- <acronym>OPIE</acronym> must be reinitialized.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">There are a few programs involved in this process. A
- one-time password, or a consecutive list of one-time passwords,
- is generated by passing an iteration count, a seed, and a secret
- password to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opiekey</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. In addition to initializing
- <acronym>OPIE</acronym>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opiepasswd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is used to change
- passwords, iteration counts, or seeds. The relevant credential
- files in <filename>/etc/opiekeys</filename> are examined by
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opieinfo</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> which prints out the invoking user's current
- iteration count and seed.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This section describes four different sorts of operations.
- The first is how to set up one-time-passwords for the first time
- over a secure connection. The second is how to use
- <command>opiepasswd</command> over an insecure connection. The
- third is how to log in over an insecure connection. The fourth
- is how to generate a number of keys which can be written down or
- printed out to use at insecure locations.</para>
+ <para>對 <acronym>OPIE</acronym> 來說還有另外兩個部份的資料很重要。其中一個是<quote>種子碼 (Seed)</quote> 或稱<quote>金鑰 (Key)</quote>,由兩個字母與五個數字組成。另一個則是<quote>疊代次數 (Iteration count)</quote>,是一個介於 1 到 100 間的數字。<acronym>OPIE</acronym> 會將種子碼與秘密密碼串連後,套用 <acronym>MD5</acronym> 加密數次後 (根據疊代次數),再將結果轉換成六個簡短的英文單字來產生一次性密碼。認証系統會持續追蹤最後使用的一次性密碼,若使用者提供的密碼加密後與前一次的密碼相同則可通過認証。由於採用了單向的加密方式,若使用過的密碼被成功擷取也無法拿來產生之後的一次性密碼。疊代次數會在每一次登入成功之後減少,來保持使用者與登入程式間的同步。當疊代次數減少至 <literal>1</literal> 時,<acronym>OPIE</acronym> 便要重新初始化。</para>
+
+ <para>這個整個程序會牽涉到幾個程式。傳送疊代次數、種子碼與秘密密碼來產生一組一次性密碼或數個一次性密碼的 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opiekey</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>。除了初始化 <acronym>OPIE</acronym> 之外,用來更改密碼、疊代次數或種子碼的 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opiepasswd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>。會讀取放在 <filename>/etc/opiekeys</filename> 的相關憑証檔來列出使用者目前的疊代次數與種子碼的 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opieinfo</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
+
+ <para>本章節將介紹四種不同的操作,第一是如何在安全連線下做第一次的一次性密碼設定,第二是如何使用在不安全的連線下使用 <command>opiepasswd</command>,第三是如何在不安全的連線下登入系統,第四是如何產生數個可以被記錄或列印下來在不安全的場所使的金鑰。</para>
<sect2>
<title>初始化 <acronym>OPIE</acronym></title>
- <para xml:lang="en">To initialize <acronym>OPIE</acronym> for the first time,
- run this command from a secure location:</para>
+ <para>第一次要初始化 <acronym>OPIE</acronym>,要在安全的場所執行以下指令:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>opiepasswd -c</userinput>
Adding unfurl:
@@ -17676,41 +17636,17 @@ Again new secret pass phrase:
ID unfurl OTP key is 499 to4268
MOS MALL GOAT ARM AVID COED</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <option>-c</option> sets console mode which assumes
- that the command is being run from a secure location, such as
- a computer under the user's control or a
- <acronym>SSH</acronym> session to a computer under the user's
- control.</para>
+ <para><option>-c</option> 會設定採用假設指令在安全場所執行的 Console 模式,如在使用者掌控之中的電腦或者透過 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 連線到一台在使用者掌控之中的電腦。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">When prompted, enter the secret password which will be
- used to generate the one-time login keys. This password
- should be difficult to guess and should be different than the
- password which is associated with the user's login account.
- It must be between 10 and 127 characters long. Remember this
- password.</para>
+ <para>提示出現後,輸入用來產生一次性登入金鑰的秘密密碼,應使用一個不容易被猜出來的密碼,且應與使用者登入帳號所使用的密碼不同,密碼必須介於 10 到 127 個字元長度之間,然後請記住這個密碼。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <literal>ID</literal> line lists the login name
- (<literal>unfurl</literal>), default iteration count
- (<literal>499</literal>), and default seed
- (<literal>to4268</literal>). When logging in, the system will
- remember these parameters and display them, meaning that they
- do not have to be memorized. The last line lists the
- generated one-time password which corresponds to those
- parameters and the secret password. At the next login, use
- this one-time password.</para>
+ <para><literal>ID</literal> 行會列出登入名稱 (<literal>unfurl</literal>)、預設的疊代次數 (<literal>499</literal>) 以及預設的種子碼 (<literal>to4268</literal>)。在進行登入時,系統會記住這些參數並且顯示出來,這也代表不需要另外記錄這些資訊。最後一行會列出根據這些參數與秘密密碼所產生出來的一次性密碼,在下一次登入時便要使用這個一次性密碼。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title>不安全連線初始化</title>
+ <title>在不安全連線下做初始化</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">To initialize or change the secret password on an
- insecure system, a secure connection is needed to some place
- where <command>opiekey</command> can be run. This might be a
- shell prompt on a trusted machine. An iteration count is
- needed, where 100 is probably a good value, and the seed can
- either be specified or the randomly-generated one used. On
- the insecure connection, the machine being initialized, use
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opiepasswd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:</para>
+ <para>要在不安全的系統上初始化或更改秘密密碼會需要某個可使用安全的連線的地方執行 <command>opiekey</command>,這可能是在某一台信任的主機上的 Shell。初始化需要設定疊代次數,100 可能是不錯的數字,種子碼可以自行指定或隨機產生,在不安全連線下要被初始化主機須使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opiepasswd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>opiepasswd</userinput>
@@ -17726,9 +17662,7 @@ New secret pass phrase:
ID mark OTP key is 499 gr4269
LINE PAP MILK NELL BUOY TROY</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">To accept the default seed, press <keycap>Return</keycap>.
- Before entering an access password, move over to the secure
- connection and give it the same parameters:</para>
+ <para>要採用預設的種子碼,可直接按下 <keycap>Return</keycap> 做初始化。接著在輸入回應之前移到安全的連線然後給予相同的加密參數產生密碼:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>opiekey 498 to4268</userinput>
Using the MD5 algorithm to compute response.
@@ -17736,16 +17670,13 @@ Reminder: Do not use opiekey from telnet or dial-in sessions.
Enter secret pass phrase:
GAME GAG WELT OUT DOWN CHAT</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Switch back over to the insecure connection, and copy the
- generated one-time password over to the relevant
- program.</para>
+ <para>切換回不安全的連線,然後複製產生的一次性密碼貼上。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>產生單組一次性密碼</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">After initializing <acronym>OPIE</acronym> and logging in,
- a prompt like this will be displayed:</para>
+ <para>在初始化 <acronym>OPIE</acronym> 之後進行登入會顯示如下的提示訊息:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>telnet example.com</userinput>
Trying 10.0.0.1...
@@ -17758,25 +17689,15 @@ login: <userinput>&lt;username&gt;</userinput>
otp-md5 498 gr4269 ext
Password: </screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>OPIE</acronym> prompts provides a useful
- feature. If <keycap>Return</keycap> is pressed at the
- password prompt, the prompt will turn echo on and display
- what is typed. This can be useful when attempting to type in
- a password by hand from a printout.</para>
+ <para><acronym>OPIE</acronym> 的提示提供了一個很有用的功能,若在密碼提示時按下 <keycap>Return</keycap>,便會開啟回應功能並顯示輸入的內容,這個功能在嘗試手工輸入列印出來的密碼時很有用。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>MS-DOS</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>Windows</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>MacOS</primary></indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">At this point, generate the one-time password to answer
- this login prompt. This must be done on a trusted system
- where it is safe to run <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opiekey</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. There are versions
- of this command for <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Mac OS</trademark> and FreeBSD. This command
- needs the iteration count and the seed as command line
- options. Use cut-and-paste from the login prompt on the
- machine being logged in to.</para>
+ <para>此時,要產生一次性密碼來回應登入時的提示,這必須在受信任且可安全執行 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opiekey</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 的系統上完成。這個指令有提供 <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Mac OS</trademark> 與 FreeBSD 版本,使用時需要疊代次數與種子碼做為在指令列的參數,剪下在要登入主機在登入時所提示的訊息。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">On the trusted system:</para>
+ <para>在信任的系統上執行:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>opiekey 498 to4268</userinput>
Using the MD5 algorithm to compute response.
@@ -17784,17 +17705,13 @@ Reminder: Do not use opiekey from telnet or dial-in sessions.
Enter secret pass phrase:
GAME GAG WELT OUT DOWN CHAT</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Once the one-time password is generated, continue to log
- in.</para>
+ <para>在產生一次性密碼後,回到登入畫面繼續登入。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>產生多組一次性密碼</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Sometimes there is no access to a trusted machine or
- secure connection. In this case, it is possible to use
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opiekey</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to generate a number of one-time passwords
- beforehand. For example:</para>
+ <para>有時會無法存取信任的主機或沒有安全的連線,在這種情況下,可以使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opiekey</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來預先產生多個一次性密碼,例如:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>opiekey -n 5 30 zz99999</userinput>
Using the MD5 algorithm to compute response.
@@ -17806,37 +17723,21 @@ Enter secret pass phrase: <userinput>&lt;secret password&gt;</userinput>
29: RIO ODIN GO BYE FURY TIC
30: GREW JIVE SAN GIRD BOIL PHI</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <option>-n 5</option> requests five keys in sequence,
- and <option>30</option> specifies what the last iteration
- number should be. Note that these are printed out in
- <emphasis>reverse</emphasis> order of use. The really
- paranoid might want to write the results down by hand;
- otherwise, print the list. Each line shows both the iteration
- count and the one-time password. Scratch off the passwords as
- they are used.</para>
+ <para><option>-n 5</option> 會請求產生連續五個金鑰,而 <option>30</option> 則是指定最後一個疊代的編號。注意這些列印出的結果的順序與使用的順序<emphasis>相反</emphasis>。十足的偏執狂可能會想要用手寫下結果,否則就列印出清單。每一行會同時顯示疊代次數及一次性密碼,在密碼使用過後便可劃掉。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>限制使用 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 密碼</title>
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>OPIE</acronym> can restrict the use of <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>
- passwords based on the IP address of a login session. The
- relevant file is <filename>/etc/opieaccess</filename>, which
- is present by default. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opieaccess</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more
- information on this file and which security considerations to
- be aware of when using it.</para>
+ <para><acronym>OPIE</acronym> 可以根據登入階段的 IP 位置限制使用 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 密碼,相關的檔案為 <filename>/etc/opieaccess</filename>,這個檔案預設便存在。請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>opieaccess</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來取得更多有關此檔案的資訊以及當使用時要考量的安全性問題。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Here is a sample <filename>opieaccess</filename>:</para>
+ <para>這裡有一個範本 <filename>opieaccess</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">permit 192.168.0.0 255.255.0.0</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">This line allows users whose IP source address (which is
- vulnerable to spoofing) matches the specified value and mask,
- to use <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> passwords at any time.</para>
+ <para>這一行允許來源 IP 位址 (容易受到詐騙的位址) 符合指定值與遮罩的使用者在任何時間可使用 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 密碼登入。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">If no rules in <filename>opieaccess</filename> are
- matched, the default is to deny non-<acronym>OPIE</acronym>
- logins.</para>
+ <para>若在 <filename>opieaccess</filename> 中沒有符合的規則,預設會拒絕非 <acronym>OPIE</acronym> 的登入。</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -19382,34 +19283,13 @@ racoon_enable="yes"</programlisting>
<secondary>OpenSSH</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>OpenSSH</application> is a set of network
- connectivity tools used to provide secure access to remote
- machines. Additionally, <acronym>TCP/IP</acronym> connections
- can be tunneled or forwarded securely through
- <acronym>SSH</acronym> connections.
- <application>OpenSSH</application> encrypts all traffic to
- effectively eliminate eavesdropping, connection hijacking, and
- other network-level attacks.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>OpenSSH</application> is maintained by the
- OpenBSD project and is installed by default in FreeBSD. It is
- compatible with both <acronym>SSH</acronym> version 1 and 2
- protocols.</para>
+ <para><application>OpenSSH</application> 是一套網路連線工具,可安全的存取遠端的主機,此外,透過 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 連線可以建立 <acronym>TCP/IP</acronym> 連線通道或安全的轉送 <acronym>TCP/IP</acronym> 的封包。<application>OpenSSH</application> 會對所有傳輸的資料做加密,可有效的避免竊聽 (Eavesdropping)、或連線劫持 (Connection hijacking) 與其他網路層的攻擊。</para>
+
+ <para><application>OpenSSH</application> 由 OpenBSD 專案所維護且在 FreeBSD 預設會安裝,它可同時相容 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 版本 1 與 2 通訊協定。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">When data is sent over the network in an unencrypted form,
- network sniffers anywhere in between the client and server can
- steal user/password information or data transferred during the
- session. <application>OpenSSH</application> offers a variety of
- authentication and encryption methods to prevent this from
- happening. More information about
- <application>OpenSSH</application> is available from <link xlink:href="http://www.openssh.com/">http://www.openssh.com/</link>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This section provides an overview of the built-in client
- utilities to securely access other systems and securely transfer
- files from a FreeBSD system. It then describes how to configure a
- <acronym>SSH</acronym> server on a FreeBSD system. More
- information is available in the man pages mentioned in this
- chapter.</para>
+ <para>當以未加密的方式在網路上傳送資料時,任何在客戶端與伺服器之間的網路竊聽程式 (Network sniffer) 皆可竊取使用者/密碼資訊或者在連線階段傳送的資料,<application>OpenSSH</application> 提供了數種認証與加密方式來避免這種事情發生。更多有關 <application>OpenSSH</application> 的資訊可於 <link xlink:href="http://www.openssh.com/">http://www.openssh.com/</link> 取得。</para>
+
+ <para>本節會簡單介紹如何使用內建的客戶端工具安全的存取其他系統及安全的傳輸檔案到 FreeBSD 系統,然後會說明如何設定在 FreeBSD 系統上的 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 伺服器。更多的資訊可於本章節所提及的操作手冊 (Man page) 取得。</para>
<sect2>
<title>使用 SSH 客戶端工具</title>
@@ -19419,12 +19299,7 @@ racoon_enable="yes"</programlisting>
<secondary>client</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">To log into a <acronym>SSH</acronym> server, use
- <command>ssh</command> and specify a username that exists on
- that server and the <acronym>IP</acronym> address or hostname
- of the server. If this is the first time a connection has
- been made to the specified server, the user will be prompted
- to first verify the server's fingerprint:</para>
+ <para>要登入一台 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 伺服器,可使用 <command>ssh</command> 然後指定在伺服器上存在的使用者名稱與 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址或伺服器的主機名稱。若這是第一次連線到指定的伺服器,會提示該使用者伺服器的指紋做第一次檢驗:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ssh <replaceable>user@example.com</replaceable></userinput>
The authenticity of host 'example.com (10.0.0.1)' can't be established.
@@ -19433,26 +19308,9 @@ Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <userinput>yes</userinput
Permanently added 'example.com' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
Password for user@example.com: <userinput><replaceable>user_password</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>SSH</acronym> utilizes a key fingerprint system
- to verify the authenticity of the server when the client
- connects. When the user accepts the key's fingerprint by
- typing <literal>yes</literal> when connecting for the first
- time, a copy of the key is saved to
- <filename>.ssh/known_hosts</filename> in the user's home
- directory. Future attempts to login are verified against the
- saved key and <command>ssh</command> will display an alert if
- the server's key does not match the saved key. If this
- occurs, the user should first verify why the key has changed
- before continuing with the connection.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">By default, recent versions of
- <application>OpenSSH</application> only accept
- <acronym>SSH</acronym>v2 connections. By default, the client
- will use version 2 if possible and will fall back to version 1
- if the server does not support version 2. To force
- <command>ssh</command> to only use the specified protocol,
- include <option>-1</option> or <option>-2</option>.
- Additional options are described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ <para><acronym>SSH</acronym> 會在客戶端連線時利用金鑰指紋 (Key fingerprint) 系統來驗證伺服器的真偽,當使用者在第一次連線時輸入 <literal>yes</literal> 接受了這個金鑰指紋,便會將該金鑰的複本儲存到使用者家目錄的 <filename>.ssh/known_hosts</filename>,未來嘗試登入時便會以這個存好的金鑰來驗證,若伺服器的金鑰與儲存的金鑰不同將會顯示警告訊息。若出現這個警告時,使用者應在繼續連線之前檢查金鑰變動的原因。</para>
+
+ <para>最近版本的 <application>OpenSSH</application> 預設只會接受 <acronym>SSH</acronym>v2 的連線。客戶端預設會盡可能使用版本 2 的通訊協定,若伺服器不支援版本 2 的通訊協定便會向下相容版本 1 的協定。要強制 <command>ssh</command> 只能使用指定的通訊協定,可使用 <option>-1</option> 或 <option>-2</option>,其他的選項在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 中有說明。</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary>OpenSSH</primary>
@@ -19462,11 +19320,7 @@ Password for user@example.com: <userinput><replaceable>user_password</replaceabl
<primary><citerefentry><refentrytitle>scp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry></primary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">Use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>scp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to securely copy a file to or from a
- remote machine. This example copies
- <filename>COPYRIGHT</filename> on the remote system to a file
- of the same name in the current directory of the local
- system:</para>
+ <para>使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>scp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 可從遠端主機安全的複製一個檔案,以下範例會複製在遠端主機的 <filename>COPYRIGHT</filename> 到本地主機的目前目錄:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>scp <replaceable>user@example.com:/COPYRIGHT COPYRIGHT</replaceable></userinput>
Password for user@example.com: <userinput><replaceable>*******</replaceable></userinput>
@@ -19474,36 +19328,16 @@ COPYRIGHT 100% |*****************************| 4735
00:00
<prompt>#</prompt></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Since the fingerprint was already verified for this host,
- the server's key is automatically checked before prompting for
- the user's password.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The arguments passed to <command>scp</command> are similar
- to <command>cp</command>. The file or files to copy is the
- first argument and the destination to copy to is the second.
- Since the file is fetched over the network, one or more of the
- file arguments takes the form
- <option>user@host:&lt;path_to_remote_file&gt;</option>. Be
- aware when copying directories recursively that
- <command>scp</command> uses <option>-r</option>, whereas
- <command>cp</command> uses <option>-R</option>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To open an interactive session for copying files, use
- <command>sftp</command>. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sftp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> for a list of
- available commands while in an <command>sftp</command>
- session.</para>
+ <para>由於這個主機的指紋已驗證過,在提示用者輸入密碼之前伺服器的金鑰已自動檢查。</para>
+
+ <para>傳給 <command>scp</command> 的參數與傳給 <command>cp</command> 的參數相似。第一個參數是要複製的檔案,第二個參數是目地,由於檔案是透過網路取得,檔案參數需要使用 <option>user@host:&lt;path_to_remote_file&gt;</option> 格式。注意,在 <command>scp</command> 要遞迴複製目錄是使用 <option>-r</option>,如同 <command>cp</command> 使用 <option>-R</option>。</para>
+
+ <para>要開啟可互動的連線來複製檔案可使用 <command>sftp</command>,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sftp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來取得在 <command>sftp</command> 連線時可用的指令清單。</para>
<sect3 xml:id="security-ssh-keygen">
<title>以金鑰為基礎的認證</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Instead of using passwords, a client can be configured
- to connect to the remote machine using keys. To generate
- <acronym>RSA</acronym>
- authentication keys, use <command>ssh-keygen</command>. To
- generate a public and private key pair, specify the type of
- key and follow the prompts. It is recommended to protect
- the keys with a memorable, but hard to guess
- passphrase.</para>
+ <para>除了使用密碼之外,客戶端可以設定成使用金鑰來連線到遠端的主機。要產生 <acronym>RSA</acronym> 認証金鑰可使用 <command>ssh-keygen</command>。要產生成對的公鑰與私鑰,可指定金鑰的類型並依提示操作。建議使用容易記住但較難猜出的密碼來保護這個金鑰。</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ssh-keygen -t rsa</userinput>
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
@@ -19529,66 +19363,28 @@ The key's randomart image is:
<calloutlist>
<callout arearefs="co-ssh-keygen-passphrase1">
- <para xml:lang="en">Type a passphrase here. It can contain spaces and
- symbols.</para>
+ <para>在此輸入密碼,密碼不可含有空白或符號。</para>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="co-ssh-keygen-passphrase2">
- <para xml:lang="en">Retype the passphrase to verify it.</para>
+ <para>再輸入一次密碼驗證。</para>
</callout>
</calloutlist>
- <para xml:lang="en">The private key
- is stored in <filename>~/.ssh/id_rsa</filename>
- and the public key
- is stored in <filename>~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub</filename>.
- The
- <emphasis>public</emphasis> key must be copied to
- <filename>~/.ssh/authorized_keys</filename> on the remote
- machine for key-based authentication to
- work.</para>
+ <para>私鑰會儲存於 <filename>~/.ssh/id_rsa</filename> 而公鑰會儲存於 <filename>~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub</filename>。<emphasis>公鑰</emphasis>必須複製到遠端主機的<filename>~/.ssh/authorized_keys</filename> 來讓以金鑰為基礎的認証可以運作。</para>
<warning>
- <para xml:lang="en">Many users believe that keys are secure by design and
- will use a key without a passphrase. This is
- <emphasis>dangerous</emphasis> behavior. An
- administrator can verify that a key pair is protected by a
- passphrase by viewing the private key manually. If the
- private key file contains the word
- <literal>ENCRYPTED</literal>, the key owner is using a
- passphrase. In addition, to better secure end users,
- <literal>from</literal> may be placed in the public key
- file. For example, adding
- <literal>from="192.168.10.5"</literal> in front of the
- <literal>ssh-rsa</literal>
- prefix will only allow that specific user to log in from
- that <acronym>IP</acronym> address.</para>
+ <para>許多使用者認為金鑰的設計是安全的並在產生金鑰時未使用密碼,這樣的行為其實很<emphasis>危險</emphasis>。管理者可以手動查看私鑰來檢查金鑰對是否受密碼保護,如果私鑰檔案中包含 <literal>ENCRYPTED</literal> 字詞,則代表金鑰的擁有者有使用密碼。此外,要更進一步保護最終使用者的安全,可在公鑰檔案中放入 <literal>from</literal>,例如,在 <literal>ssh-rsa</literal> 前加上 <literal>from="192.168.10.5"</literal> 將只允許指定的使用者由該 IP 位址登入。</para>
</warning>
- <para xml:lang="en">The options and files vary with different versions of
- <application>OpenSSH</application>.
- To avoid problems, consult <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh-keygen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">If a passphrase is used, the user is prompted for
- the passphrase each time a connection is made to the server.
- To load <acronym>SSH</acronym> keys into memory and remove
- the need to type the passphrase each time, use
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh-agent</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh-add</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Authentication is handled by
- <command>ssh-agent</command>, using the private keys that
- are loaded into it. <command>ssh-agent</command>
- can be used to launch another application like a
- shell or a window manager.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To use <command>ssh-agent</command> in a shell, start it
- with a shell as an argument. Add the identity by
- running <command>ssh-add</command> and entering the
- passphrase for the private key.
- The user will then be able to <command>ssh</command>
- to any host that has the corresponding public key installed.
- For example:</para>
+ <para>不同版本 <application>OpenSSH</application> 的選項與檔案會不同,要避免發生問題請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh-keygen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
+
+ <para>若使用了密碼,在每次連線到伺服器時都會提示使用者輸入密碼。要將 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 金鑰載入到記憶體並讓每次連線時不必再輸入密碼,可使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh-agent</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 與 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh-add</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
+
+ <para>認証可用 <command>ssh-agent</command> 來管理,只要將私鑰載入,<command>ssh-agent</command> 可用在執行其他應用程式,如 Shell 或視窗管理程式。</para>
+
+ <para>要在 Shell 使用 <command>ssh-agent</command>,使用 Shell 做為參數來啟動 <command>ssh-agent</command>。執行 <command>ssh-add</command> 來加入識別碼,然後輸入私鑰的密碼。使用者將可使用 <command>ssh</command> 連線到任何有安裝對應公鑰的主機,例如:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> ssh-agent <replaceable>csh</replaceable>
<prompt>%</prompt> ssh-add
@@ -19598,25 +19394,15 @@ Identity added: /usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa (/usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa)
<calloutlist>
<callout arearefs="co-ssh-agent-passphrase">
- <para xml:lang="en">Enter the passphrase for the key.</para>
+ <para>輸入金鑰的密碼。</para>
</callout>
</calloutlist>
- <para xml:lang="en">To use <command>ssh-agent</command> in
- <application>Xorg</application>, add an entry for it in
- <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename>. This provides the
- <command>ssh-agent</command> services to all programs
- launched in <application>Xorg</application>. An example
- <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> might look like this:</para>
+ <para>要在 <application>Xorg</application> 使用 <command>ssh-agent</command> 可在 <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> 加入一個設定項目,這可讓 <command>ssh-agent</command> 對所有在 <application>Xorg</application> 中執行的程式提供服務。<filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> 範例如下:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">exec ssh-agent <replaceable>startxfce4</replaceable></programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">This launches <command>ssh-agent</command>, which in
- turn launches <application>XFCE</application>, every time
- <application>Xorg</application> starts. Once
- <application>Xorg</application> has been restarted so that
- the changes can take effect, run <command>ssh-add</command>
- to load all of the <acronym>SSH</acronym> keys.</para>
+ <para>這會在每次啟動 <application>Xorg</application> 時,反過來先執行 <command>ssh-agent</command> 再由執行 <application>XFCE</application>,一但 <application>Xorg</application> 被重新啟動,要讓所有變更生效需執行 <command>ssh-add</command> 來載入所有的 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 金鑰。</para>
</sect3>
<sect3 xml:id="security-ssh-tunneling">
@@ -19627,26 +19413,21 @@ Identity added: /usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa (/usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa)
<secondary>tunneling</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>OpenSSH</application> has the ability to
- create a tunnel to encapsulate another protocol in an
- encrypted session.</para>
+ <para><application>OpenSSH</application> 可以建立一個通道 (Tunnel) 來封裝其他通訊協定到一個加密的連線。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The following command tells <command>ssh</command> to
- create a tunnel for
- <application>telnet</application>:</para>
+ <para>以下指令會告訴 <command>ssh</command> 建立一個供 <application>telnet</application> 使用的通道:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ssh -2 -N -f -L <replaceable>5023:localhost:23 user@foo.example.com</replaceable></userinput>
<prompt>%</prompt></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">This example uses the following options:</para>
+ <para>這個例子使用了以下選項:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
<term xml:lang="en"><option>-2</option></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Forces <command>ssh</command> to use version 2 to
- connect to the server.</para>
+ <para>強制 <command>ssh</command> 使用版本 2 的通訊協定連線到伺服器。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -19654,9 +19435,7 @@ Identity added: /usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa (/usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa)
<term xml:lang="en"><option>-N</option></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Indicates no command, or tunnel only. If omitted,
- <command>ssh</command> initiates a normal
- session.</para>
+ <para>代表不需下指令、只建立通道。若省略這個選項 <command>ssh</command> 會初始化一個正常的連線。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -19664,8 +19443,7 @@ Identity added: /usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa (/usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa)
<term xml:lang="en"><option>-f</option></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Forces <command>ssh</command> to run in the
- background.</para>
+ <para>強制 <command>ssh</command> 在背景執行。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -19673,9 +19451,7 @@ Identity added: /usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa (/usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa)
<term xml:lang="en"><option>-L</option></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Indicates a local tunnel in
- <replaceable>localport:remotehost:remoteport</replaceable>
- format.</para>
+ <para>代表這是一個本地通道,使用 <replaceable>localport:remotehost:remoteport</replaceable> 格式。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -19683,29 +19459,14 @@ Identity added: /usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa (/usr/home/user/.ssh/id_rsa)
<term xml:lang="en"><option>user@foo.example.com</option></term>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">The login name to use on the specified remote
- <acronym>SSH</acronym> server.</para>
+ <para>在指定的遠端 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 伺服器要使用的登入名稱。</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
- <para xml:lang="en">An <acronym>SSH</acronym> tunnel works by creating a
- listen socket on <systemitem>localhost</systemitem> on the
- specified <literal>localport</literal>. It then forwards
- any connections received on <literal>localport</literal> via
- the <acronym>SSH</acronym> connection to the specified
- <literal>remotehost:remoteport</literal>. In the example,
- port <literal>5023</literal> on the client is forwarded to
- port <literal>23</literal> on the remote machine. Since
- port 23 is used by <application>telnet</application>, this
- creates an encrypted <application>telnet</application>
- session through an <acronym>SSH</acronym> tunnel.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This method can be used to wrap any number of insecure
- <acronym>TCP</acronym> protocols such as
- <acronym>SMTP</acronym>, <acronym>POP3</acronym>, and
- <acronym>FTP</acronym>, as seen in the following
- examples.</para>
+ <para>SSH 通道會建立一個傾聽 <systemitem>localhost</systemitem> 指定 <literal>localport</literal> 的 Socket ,然後會透過 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 連線轉送任何在 <literal>localport</literal> 接收的連線。以這個例子來說在客戶端的 Port <literal>5023</literal> 會被轉送到遠端主機的 Port <literal>23</literal>,由於 Port 23 是由 <application>telnet</application> 使用,所以這會透過 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 通道建立一個加密的 <application>telnet</application> 連線。</para>
+
+ <para>這個方法可用來包裝許多不安全的 <acronym>TCP</acronym> 通訊協定,例如 <acronym>SMTP</acronym>, <acronym>POP3</acronym> 以及 <acronym>FTP</acronym>,如下例所示。</para>
<example>
<title>建立供 <acronym>SMTP</acronym> 使用的安全通道</title>
@@ -19718,58 +19479,31 @@ Connected to localhost.
Escape character is '^]'.
220 mailserver.example.com ESMTP</screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">This can be used in conjunction with
- <command>ssh-keygen</command> and additional user accounts
- to create a more seamless <acronym>SSH</acronym> tunneling
- environment. Keys can be used in place of typing a
- password, and the tunnels can be run as a separate
- user.</para>
+ <para>這可配合 <command>ssh-keygen</command> 與另一個使用者帳號與來建立一個更無縫的 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 通道環境,可使用金鑰來代替手動輸入密碼,然後該通道便可以另一個使用者執行。</para>
</example>
<example>
<title>安全存取 <acronym>POP3</acronym> 伺服器</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">In this example, there is an <acronym>SSH</acronym>
- server that accepts connections from the outside. On the
- same network resides a mail server running a
- <acronym>POP3</acronym> server. To check email in a
- secure manner, create an <acronym>SSH</acronym> connection
- to the <acronym>SSH</acronym> server and tunnel through to
- the mail server:</para>
+ <para>在這個例子中有一個 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 伺服器會接受來自外部的連線,在同個網段下有一個郵件伺服器執行 <acronym>POP3</acronym> 伺服器。要使用較安全的方式檢查有沒有新郵件可建立一個 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 連線到 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 伺服器然後透過通道連線到郵件伺服器:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ssh -2 -N -f -L <replaceable>2110:mail.example.com:110 user@ssh-server.example.com</replaceable></userinput>
user@ssh-server.example.com's password: <userinput>******</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Once the tunnel is up and running, point the email
- client to send <acronym>POP3</acronym> requests to
- <systemitem>localhost</systemitem> on port 2110. This
- connection will be forwarded securely across the tunnel to
- <systemitem>mail.example.com</systemitem>.</para>
+ <para>一但通道啟動並執行後,指定郵件客戶端將 <acronym>POP3</acronym> 請求傳送到 <systemitem>localhost</systemitem> 的 Port 2110,這個連線將會被安全的透過通道轉送到 <systemitem>mail.example.com</systemitem>。</para>
</example>
<example>
<title>跳過防火牆</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Some firewalls
- filter both incoming and outgoing connections. For
- example, a firewall might limit access from remote
- machines to ports 22 and 80 to only allow
- <acronym>SSH</acronym> and web surfing. This prevents
- access to any other service which uses a port other than
- 22 or 80.</para>
+ <para>有些防火牆會同時過濾傳入與傳出的連線。例如,防火牆很可能會限制來自遠端主機只能存取 Port 22 與 80 來只讓 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 與網頁瀏覽器連線,這會使得 Port 使用 22 或 80 以外的服務無法存取。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The solution is to create an <acronym>SSH</acronym>
- connection to a machine outside of the network's firewall
- and use it to tunnel to the desired service:</para>
+ <para>這問題的解決方法是建立一個 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 連線到在防火牆防護之外主機然後使用該連線的通道連到想要使用的服務:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ssh -2 -N -f -L <replaceable>8888:music.example.com:8000 user@unfirewalled-system.example.org</replaceable></userinput>
user@unfirewalled-system.example.org's password: <userinput>*******</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">In this example, a streaming Ogg Vorbis client can now
- be pointed to <systemitem>localhost</systemitem> port
- 8888, which will be forwarded over to
- <systemitem>music.example.com</systemitem> on port 8000,
- successfully bypassing the firewall.</para>
+ <para>在這個例子中,串流 Ogg Vorbis 客戶端現在可以指向 <systemitem>localhost</systemitem> Port 8888,連線將會被轉送到 <systemitem>music.example.com</systemitem> 於 Port 8000,成功的跳過防火牆。</para>
</example>
</sect3>
</sect2>
@@ -19782,112 +19516,59 @@ user@unfirewalled-system.example.org's password: <userinput>*******</userinput><
<secondary>enabling</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">In addition to providing built-in <acronym>SSH</acronym>
- client utilities, a FreeBSD system can be configured as an
- <acronym>SSH</acronym> server, accepting connections from
- other <acronym>SSH</acronym> clients.</para>
+ <para>除了提供內建的 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 客戶端工具外,還可以設定 FreeBSD 系統為一個 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 伺服器,以接受來自其他 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 客戶端的連線。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">To see if <application>sshd</application> is operating,
- use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command:</para>
+ <para>要查看 <application>sshd</application> 是否正在運作,可使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service sshd status</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">If the service is not running, add the following line to
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>.</para>
+ <para>若服務未執行,請加入下行到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>。</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">sshd_enable="YES"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">This will start <application>sshd</application>, the
- daemon program for <application>OpenSSH</application>, the
- next time the system boots. To start it now:</para>
+ <para>這會讓下次系統開機時啟動 <application>OpenSSH</application> 的 Daemon 程式 <application>sshd</application>。若要立即啟動:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service sshd start</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The first time <application>sshd</application> starts on a
- FreeBSD system, the system's host keys will be automatically
- created and the fingerprint will be displayed on the console.
- Provide users with the fingerprint so that they can verify it
- the first time they connect to the server.</para>
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 系統第一次啟動 <application>sshd</application> 時便會自動產生系統的主機金鑰且會顯示指紋在 Console 上,這個指紋可供使用者在第一次連線到伺服器時驗證用。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sshd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for the list of available options
- when starting <application>sshd</application> and a more
- complete discussion about authentication, the login process,
- and the various configuration files.</para>
+ <para>請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sshd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 可取得在啟動 <application>sshd</application> 時可用選項的清單以及更多完整有關認証、登入程序與各種設定檔的資訊。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">At this point, the <application>sshd</application> should
- be available to all users with a username and password on
- the system.</para>
+ <para>現在,<application>sshd</application> 應可供所有在系統上有使用者名稱及密碼的使用者使用。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>SSH 伺服器安全性</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">While <application>sshd</application> is the most widely
- used remote administration facility for FreeBSD, brute force
- and drive by attacks are common to any system exposed to
- public networks. Several additional parameters are available
- to prevent the success of these attacks and will be described
- in this section.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">It is a good idea to limit which users can log into the
- <acronym>SSH</acronym> server and from where using the
- <literal>AllowUsers</literal> keyword in the
- <application>OpenSSH</application> server configuration file.
- For example, to only allow <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> to log in from
- <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.32</systemitem>, add
- this line to <filename>/etc/ssh/sshd_config</filename>:</para>
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 廣泛使用 <application>sshd</application> 做為遠端管理基礎設施的同時,所有暴露在公有網路上的系統也會時常受到暴力攻擊 (Brute force attack) 與路過攻擊 (Drive by attack)。在本節會介紹一些可用來避免這些攻擊的參數。</para>
+
+ <para>使用在 <application>OpenSSH</application> 伺服器設定檔的 <literal>AllowUsers</literal> 關鍵字限制可以登入到 <acronym>SSH</acronym> 伺服器的使用者及來源是一個不錯的方式。例如要只允許來自 <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.32</systemitem> 的 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 登入,可加入下行到 <filename>/etc/ssh/sshd_config</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">AllowUsers root@192.168.1.32</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">To allow <systemitem class="username">admin</systemitem>
- to log in from anywhere, list that user without specifying an
- <acronym>IP</acronym> address:</para>
+ <para>要允許來自任何地方的 <systemitem class="username">admin</systemitem> 登入,可只列出使用者名稱,不指定 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">AllowUsers admin</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">Multiple users should be listed on the same line, like
- so:</para>
+ <para>有多位使用者也應列在同一行,例如:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">AllowUsers root@192.168.1.32 admin</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">After making changes to
- <filename>/etc/ssh/sshd_config</filename>,
- tell <application>sshd</application> to reload its
- configuration file by running:</para>
+ <para>在對 <filename>/etc/ssh/sshd_config</filename> 做完變更後,執行以下指令告訴 <application>sshd</application> 重新載入設定檔:
+ </para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service sshd reload</userinput></screen>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">When this keyword is used, it is important to list each
- user that needs to log into this machine. Any user that is
- not specified in that line will be locked out. Also, the
- keywords used in the <application>OpenSSH</application>
- server configuration file are case-sensitive. If the
- keyword is not spelled correctly, including its case, it
- will be ignored. Always test changes to this file to make
- sure that the edits are working as expected. Refer to
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sshd_config</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> to verify the spelling and use of the
- available keywords.</para>
+ <para>在使用了這個關鍵字時,列出每一位需要登入此主機的使用者很重要,任何未被在該行指定的使用者將無法登入。同時,在 <application>OpenSSH</application> 伺服器設定檔使用的關鍵字是區分大小寫的,若關鍵字未正確的拼寫 (含其大小寫),則將會被忽略,永遠要記得測試對這個檔案所做的更改來確保伺服器有如預期的方式運作。請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sshd_config</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來檢查拼寫以及可用的關鍵字。</para>
</note>
- <para xml:lang="en">In addition, users may be forced to use two factor
- authentication via the use of a public and private key. When
- required, the user may generate a key pair through the use
- of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh-keygen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and send the administrator the public
- key. This key file will be placed in the
- <filename>authorized_keys</filename> as described above in
- the client section. To force the users to use keys only,
- the following option may be configured:</para>
+ <para>此外,使用者可能被強制要透過公鑰與私鑰使用雙重認證 (Two factor authentication)。當需要時,使用者可以透過使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh-keygen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 產生一堆金鑰然後將公鑰傳送給管理者,這個金鑰檔會如以上在客戶端章節所述的被放在 <filename>authorized_keys</filename>。要強制使用者只能使用這個金鑰,可能需要設定以下選項:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">AuthenticationMethods publickey</programlisting>
<tip>
- <para xml:lang="en">Do not confuse <filename>/etc/ssh/sshd_config</filename>
- with <filename>/etc/ssh/ssh_config</filename> (note the
- extra <literal>d</literal> in the first filename). The
- first file configures the server and the second file
- configures the client. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh_config</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for a
- listing of the available client settings.</para>
+ <para>請不要將 <filename>/etc/ssh/sshd_config</filename> 以及 <filename>/etc/ssh/ssh_config</filename> 搞混 (注意在第一節檔名有多出個 <literal>d</literal>),第一個檔案用來設定伺服器,而第二個檔案用來設定客戶端。請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh_config</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來取得可用的客戶端設定清單。</para>
</tip>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -20870,104 +20551,42 @@ jail:httpd:memoryuse:deny=2G/jail</programlisting>
<secondary>Sudo</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">System administrators often need the ability to grant
- enhanced permissions to users so they may perform privileged
- tasks. The idea that team members are provided access
- to a FreeBSD system to perform their specific tasks opens up unique
- challenges to every administrator. These team members only
- need a subset of access beyond normal end user levels; however,
- they almost always tell management they are unable to
- perform their tasks without superuser access. Thankfully, there
- is no reason to provide such access to end users because tools
- exist to manage this exact requirement.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Up to this point, the security chapter has covered permitting
- access to authorized users and attempting to prevent unauthorized
- access. Another problem arises once authorized users have access
- to the system resources. In many cases, some users may need
- access to application startup scripts, or a team of
- administrators need to maintain the system. Traditionally, the
- standard users and groups, file permissions, and even the
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> command would manage this access. And as applications
- required more access, as more users needed to use system
- resources, a better solution was required. The most used
- application is currently <application>Sudo</application>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Sudo</application> allows administrators
- to configure more rigid access to system commands
- and provide for some advanced logging features.
- As a tool, it is available from the Ports Collection as
- <package role="port">security/sudo</package> or by use of
- the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> utility. To use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> tool:</para>
+ <para>系統管理者通常會要能夠授予額外的權限給其他使用者,以讓這些使用者可以執行需權限的工作。要讓團隊成員可以存取 FreeBSD 系統來完成其特定的工作對所有管理者都會帶來挑戰,這些團隊成員通常只需要比一般使用者多出一些存取權限便可作業,但他們總是會告訴管理者若沒有超級使用者的存取權便無法完成其工作。幸好,有工具可以管理這類的需求,這樣便不需提供這麼大的權限給一般使用者。</para>
+
+ <para>到目前為止,安全性章節已說明了如何允許已授權的使用者存取以及嘗試防止未經授權的存取,而現在有另一個問題,是由已授權的使用者擁有權限存取系統資源造成的。在很多的情況,使用者會需要存取應用程式啟動 Script 的權限或是管理者團隊需要維護系統,以往會使用標準的使用者與群組、檔案權限、甚至是 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令來管理存取權,但當應用程式需要更多存取權,更多使用者需要使用系統資源時,便需要更好的解決方案,目前最常用來解決此問題的應用程式便是 <application>Sudo</application>。</para>
+
+ <para><application>Sudo</application> 讓管理者可以對系統指令的存取設下更嚴格的限制並提供進階的記錄功能。如同其他工具,它可自 Port 套件集取得,於其中的 <package role="port">security/sudo</package>,或使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 工具取得,若要使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 工具可:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install sudo</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">After the installation is complete, the installed
- <command>visudo</command> will open the configuration file with
- a text editor. Using <command>visudo</command> is highly
- recommended as it comes with a built in syntax checker to verify
- there are no errors before the file is saved.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The configuration file is made up of several small sections
- which allow for extensive configuration. In the following
- example, web application maintainer, user1, needs to start,
- stop, and restart the web application known as
- <replaceable>webservice</replaceable>. To
- grant this user permission to perform these tasks, add
- this line to the end of
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/sudoers</filename>:</para>
+ <para>安裝完成之後,可用安裝的 <command>visudo</command> 以文字編輯器開啟設定檔,強烈建議使用 <command>visudo</command> 來編輯設定檔,由於它有內建的語法檢查程式可在檔案儲存之前檢驗是否有誤。</para>
+
+ <para>設定檔由個小節所組成,透過這些小節可做常廣泛的設定,在以下的範例中,網站應用程式維護人員 user1 需要啟動、停止與重新啟動名稱為 <replaceable>webservice</replaceable> 的網站應用程式 。要授權此使用者執行這些工作的權限,可加入此行到 <filename>/usr/local/etc/sudoers</filename> 的最後:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">user1 ALL=(ALL) /usr/sbin/service webservice *</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">The user may now start <replaceable>webservice</replaceable>
- using this command:</para>
+ <para>現在使用者可使用此指令來啟動 <replaceable>webservice</replaceable>:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>sudo /usr/sbin/service <replaceable>webservice</replaceable> start</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">While this configuration allows a single user access to the
- <application>webservice</application> service; however, in most
- organizations, there is an entire web team in charge of managing
- the service. A single line can also give access to an entire
- group. These steps will create a web group, add a user to this
- group, and allow all members of the group to manage the
- service:</para>
+ <para>雖然這項設定可以讓一位使用者存取 <application>webservice</application> 服務,但在大部份組織中會有一整個網站小組負責管理該服務,因此也可以一行來授予整個群組存取權,以下步驟會建立一個網站群組、加入使用者到這個群組,然後讓該群組中的所有成員能夠管理服務:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupadd -g 6001 -n webteam</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Using the same <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command, the user is added to
- the webteam group:</para>
+ <para>同樣使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令來加入該使用到 webteam 群組:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod -m user1 -n webteam</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Finally, this line in
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/sudoers</filename> allows any
- member of the webteam group to manage
- <replaceable>webservice</replaceable>:</para>
+ <para>最後,在 <filename>/usr/local/etc/sudoers</filename> 中的這行設定可以讓 webteam 群組的所有成員可以管理 <replaceable>webservice</replaceable>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">%webteam ALL=(ALL) /usr/sbin/service webservice *</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">Unlike <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <application>Sudo</application>
- only requires the end user password. This adds an advantage where
- users will not need shared passwords, a finding in most security
- audits and just bad all the way around.</para>
+ <para>與 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 不同的是 <application>Sudo</application> 只需要一般使用者的密碼,這有一個使用者不需要共用密碼的優點,在大多數安全稽查都會發現共用密碼的問題且這種情況只有壞處可言。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Users permitted to run applications with
- <application>Sudo</application> only enter their own passwords.
- This is more secure and gives better control than <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
- where the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
- password is entered and the user acquires all
- <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
- permissions.</para>
+ <para>使用 <application>Sudo</application> 允許使用者執行應用程式只需要輸入使用者自己的密碼,這更安全且提供比 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 更佳的控制權,因為 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 只要輸入 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 密碼之後該使用者便可取得所有的 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 權限。</para>
<tip>
- <para xml:lang="en">Most organizations are moving or have moved toward a two
- factor authentication model. In these cases, the user may
- not have a password to enter. <application>Sudo</application>
- provides for these cases with the <literal>NOPASSWD</literal>
- variable. Adding it to the configuration above
- will allow all members of the <replaceable>webteam</replaceable>
- group to manage the service without the password
- requirement:</para>
+ <para>大多數組織已正在導入或已導入雙重認証 (Two factor authentication),在這個情境下使用者可以不用輸入密碼,<application>Sudo</application> 提供了 <literal>NOPASSWD</literal> 變數來供這個情境使用,可將該設定加入到上述的設定將可允許所有 <replaceable>webteam</replaceable> 群組的成員不需要輸入密碼便可管理該服務:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">%webteam ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: /usr/sbin/service webservice *</programlisting>
</tip>
@@ -20975,64 +20594,31 @@ jail:httpd:memoryuse:deny=2G/jail</programlisting>
<sect2 xml:id="security-sudo-loggin">
<title>記錄輸出</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">An advantage to implementing
- <application>Sudo</application> is the ability to enable
- session logging. Using the built in log mechanisms
- and the included <application>sudoreplay</application>
- command, all commands initiated through
- <application>Sudo</application> are logged for later
- verification. To enable this feature, add a default log
- directory entry, this example uses a user variable.
- Several other log filename conventions exist, consult the
- manual page for <application>sudoreplay</application> for
- additional information.</para>
+ <para>採用 <application>Sudo</application> 的另一個優點是能夠開啟連線階段的記錄。使用內建立記錄機制與內含的 <application>sudoreplay</application> 指令,所有透過 <application>Sudo</application> 初始化的指令會被記錄下來供往後檢驗用。要開啟這個功能要加入預設記錄目錄的項目,在以下範例中使用了使用者變數來做目錄名稱,也還有許多其他記錄檔名稱慣例,可參考 <application>sudoreplay</application> 的操作手冊來取得進一步資訊。</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">Defaults iolog_dir=/var/log/sudo-io/%{user}</programlisting>
<tip>
- <para xml:lang="en">This directory will be created automatically after the
- logging is configured. It is best to let the system create
- directory with default permissions just to be safe. In
- addition, this entry will also log administrators who use the
- <application>sudoreplay</application> command. To change
- this behavior, read and uncomment the logging options inside
- <filename>sudoers</filename>.</para>
+ <para>這個目錄會在記錄功能設定之後自動建立,最好讓系統以預設的權限來建立目錄比較保險,除此之外,這個設定項目也會記錄使用 <application>sudoreplay</application> 指令的管理者,要更改設定請閱讀並取消在 <filename>sudoers</filename> 中記錄選項的註解。</para>
</tip>
- <para xml:lang="en">Once this directive has been added to the
- <filename>sudoers</filename> file, any user configuration
- can be updated with the request to log access. In the
- example shown, the updated <replaceable>webteam</replaceable>
- entry would have the following additional changes:</para>
+ <para>一旦這個設定加入至 <filename>sudoers</filename> 檔案之後,所有的使用者設定項目便可加上記錄存取動作的項目,在 <replaceable>webteam</replaceable> 項目加入額外設定之後的範例如下: </para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">%webteam ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD: LOG_INPUT: LOG_OUTPUT: /usr/sbin/service webservice *</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">From this point on, all <replaceable>webteam</replaceable>
- members altering the status of the
- <replaceable>webservice</replaceable> application
- will be logged. The list of previous and current sessions
- can be displayed with:</para>
+ <para>從此之後,所有 <replaceable>webteam</replaceable> 修改 <replaceable>webservice</replaceable> 應用程式狀態的成員將會被記錄下來。要列出先前與目前連線階段的記錄可:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sudoreplay -l</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">In the output, to replay a specific session, search for the
- <literal>TSID=</literal> entry, and pass that to
- <application>sudoreplay</application> with no other options to
- replay the session at normal speed. For example:</para>
+ <para>在輸出結果中要重播指定連線階段的記錄可搜尋 <literal>TSID=</literal> 項目,然後傳送給 <application>sudoreplay</application> 且不加其他選項便可以一般速度重播連線階段,例如:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sudoreplay user1/00/00/02</userinput></screen>
<warning>
- <para xml:lang="en">While sessions are logged, any administrator is
- able to remove sessions and leave only a question of why they
- had done so. It is worthwhile to add a daily check
- through an intrusion detection system (<acronym>IDS</acronym>)
- or similar software so that other administrators are alerted
- to manual alterations.</para>
+ <para>雖然所有連線階段都會被記錄,但任何管理者都可以移除連線階段,使得沒人知道它們做了什麼事,所以非常值得在入侵偵測系統 (<acronym>IDS</acronym>) 或類似的軟體加入每日檢查,以便在有人為修改時通知其他管理人員。</para>
</warning>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <command>sudoreplay</command> is extremely extendable.
- Consult the documentation for more information.</para>
+ <para><command>sudoreplay</command> 的擴充空間非常大,請參考說明文件來取得更多資訊。</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
</chapter>
@@ -25419,6 +25005,129 @@ da0: &lt;STECH Simple Drive 1.04&gt; s/n WD-WXE508CAN263 detached
<para>這個機制一般會用在記憶卡與 <acronym>USB</acronym> 隨身碟,也可用在任何 Block 裝置,包含光碟機或 <acronym>iSCSI</acronym> <acronym>LUN</acronym>。</para>
</sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title><acronym>USB</acronym> 大容量儲存目標</title>
+
+ <note>
+ <para><citerefentry><refentrytitle>cfumass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 驅動程式是一個在 FreeBSD 12.0 之後才可用的 <acronym>USB</acronym> 裝置模式驅動程式。</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When running on <acronym>USB</acronym>
+ <acronym>OTG</acronym>-compliant hardware like that built into
+ many embedded boards, the FreeBSD <acronym>USB</acronym> stack
+ can run in <emphasis>device mode</emphasis>. Device mode
+ makes it possible for the computer to present itself as
+ different kinds of <acronym>USB</acronym> device classes,
+ including serial ports, network adapters, and mass storage. A
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> host like a laptop or desktop computer
+ is able to access them just like physical
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> devices.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>usb_template</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> kernel module allows the
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> stack to switch between host-side and
+ device-side automatically, depending on what is connected to
+ the <acronym>USB</acronym> port. Connecting a
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> device like a memory stick to the
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> <acronym>OTG</acronym> port causes FreeBSD
+ to switch to host mode. Connecting a <acronym>USB</acronym>
+ host like a computer causes FreeBSD to switch to device
+ mode.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">What FreeBSD presents to the <acronym>USB</acronym> host
+ depends on the <varname>hw.usb.template</varname> sysctl. See
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>usb_template</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for the list of available values. Note
+ that for the host to notice the configuration change, it must
+ be either physically disconnected and reconnected, or forced
+ to rescan the <acronym>USB</acronym> bus in a system-specific
+ way. When FreeBSD is running on the host, <citerefentry vendor="current"><refentrytitle>usbconfig</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+ <command>reset</command> can be used. This also must be done
+ after loading <filename>usb_template.ko</filename> if the
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> host was already connected to the
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> <acronym>OTG</acronym> socket.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <varname>hw.usb.template</varname> sysctl
+ is set to 0 by default, making FreeBSD work as a
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> Mass Storage target. Both
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>usb_template</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cfumass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> kernel modules must
+ be loaded. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cfumass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> interfaces to the CTL subsystem,
+ the same one that is used for <acronym>iSCSI</acronym> or
+ Fibre Channel targets. On the host side,
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> Mass Storage initiators can only access
+ a single <acronym>LUN</acronym>,
+ <acronym>LUN</acronym> 0.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>USB</acronym> Mass Storage does not require the
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> daemon to be running, although it can be used if
+ desired. This is different from <acronym>iSCSI</acronym>.
+ Thus, there are two ways to configure the target:
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctladm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Both require the
+ <filename>cfumass.ko</filename> kernel module to be loaded.
+ The module can be loaded manually:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload cfumass</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">If <filename>cfumass.ko</filename> has not been built into
+ the kernel, <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> can be set
+ to load the module at boot:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">cfumass_load="YES"</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">A <acronym>LUN</acronym> can be created without the
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> daemon:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ctladm create -b block -o file=/data/target0</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">This presents the contents of the image file
+ <filename>/data/target0</filename> as a <acronym>LUN</acronym>
+ to the <acronym>USB</acronym> host. The file must exist
+ before executing the command. To configure the
+ <acronym>LUN</acronym> at system startup, add the command to
+ <filename>/etc/rc.local</filename>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en"><citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> can also be used to manage
+ <acronym>LUN</acronym>s. Create
+ <filename>/etc/ctl.conf</filename>, add a line to
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> to make sure <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is
+ automatically started at boot, and then start the
+ daemon.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">This is an example of a simple
+ <filename>/etc/ctl.conf</filename> configuration file. Refer
+ to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctl.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for a more complete description of the
+ options.</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">target naa.50015178f369f092 {
+ lun 0 {
+ path /data/target0
+ size 4G
+ }
+}</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The example creates a single target with a single
+ <acronym>LUN</acronym>. The
+ <literal>naa.50015178f369f092</literal> is a device identifier
+ composed of 32 random hexadecimal digits. The
+ <literal>path</literal> line defines the full path to a file
+ or zvol backing the <acronym>LUN</acronym>. That file must
+ exist before starting <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The second line is
+ optional and specifies the size of the
+ <acronym>LUN</acronym>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To make sure the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> daemon is started at
+ boot, add this line to
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">ctld_enable="YES"</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To start <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> now, run this command:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service ctld start</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>當 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> Daemon 啟動後,它會讀取 <filename>/etc/ctl.conf</filename>,若這個檔案在 Daemon 啟動之後才做修改,要重新載入變更的內容才能立即生效:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service ctld reload</userinput></screen>
+ </sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 xml:id="creating-cds">
@@ -28246,7 +27955,7 @@ esac</programlisting>
<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="geom">
<info>
- <title xml:lang="en">GEOM: Modular Disk Transformation Framework</title>
+ <title>GEOM: 模組化磁碟轉換框架</title>
<authorgroup>
<author xml:lang="en">
@@ -28270,13 +27979,7 @@ esac</programlisting>
<see><acronym>GEOM</acronym></see>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">In FreeBSD, the <acronym>GEOM</acronym> framework permits
- access and control to classes, such as Master Boot Records and
- <acronym>BSD</acronym> labels, through the use of providers, or
- the disk devices in <filename>/dev</filename>. By supporting
- various software <acronym>RAID</acronym> configurations,
- <acronym>GEOM</acronym> transparently provides access to the
- operating system and operating system utilities.</para>
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 中,<acronym>GEOM</acronym> 可允許對類別做存取與控制,例如:主開機記錄 (Master Boot Record) 與 <acronym>BSD</acronym> 標籤,透過利用提供者,或在 <filename>/dev</filename> 中的磁碟裝置。透過支援各種 <acronym>RAID</acronym> 的配置,<acronym>GEOM</acronym> 透明的提供了對作業系統與作業系統工具的存取。</para>
<para xml:lang="en">This chapter covers the use of disks under the
<acronym>GEOM</acronym> framework in FreeBSD. This includes the
@@ -33098,60 +32801,50 @@ http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/usb-disks.html
<sect1 xml:id="virtualization-guest-virtualbox">
<title>在 <trademark>VirtualBox</trademark> 使用 FreeBSD 作為客端</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD works well as a guest in
- <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application>. The virtualization
- software is available for most common operating systems,
- including FreeBSD itself.</para>
+ <para>在 <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> 中使用 FreeBSD 做為客端系統也可運作的很好,虛擬化軟體可支援最常見的幾個作業系統,這當然也包含 FreeBSD。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> guest additions
- provide support for:</para>
+ <para><application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> guest additions 支援以下功能:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Clipboard sharing.</para>
+ <para>剪貼簿共享。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Mouse pointer integration.</para>
+ <para>滑鼠指標整合。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Host time synchronization.</para>
+ <para>主機時間同步。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Window scaling.</para>
+ <para>視窗縮放。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Seamless mode.</para>
+ <para>無痕模式。</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">These commands are run in the FreeBSD guest.</para>
+ <para>以下指令均是在 FreeBSD 客端中執行。</para>
</note>
- <para xml:lang="en">First, install the
- <package>emulators/virtualbox-ose-additions</package> package
- or port in the FreeBSD guest. This will install the port:</para>
+ <para>首先,在 FreeBSD 客端安裝 <package>emulators/virtualbox-ose-additions</package> 套件或 Port,以下指令會安裝 Port:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/emulators/virtualbox-ose-additions &amp;&amp; make install clean</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Add these lines to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para>加入下行到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">vboxguest_enable="YES"
vboxservice_enable="YES"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">If <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpdate</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is used, disable host
- time synchronization:</para>
+ <para>若有使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 或 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ntpdate</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,便可關閉主機時間同步功能:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">vboxservice_flags="--disable-timesync"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Xorg</application> will automatically recognize
- the <literal>vboxvideo</literal> driver. It can also be
- manually entered in
- <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para><application>Xorg</application> 會自動辨識 <literal>vboxvideo</literal> 驅動程式,也可手動在 <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename> 中輸入:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">Section "Device"
Identifier "Card0"
@@ -33160,18 +32853,14 @@ vboxservice_enable="YES"</programlisting>
BoardName "VirtualBox Graphics Adapter"
EndSection</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">To use the <literal>vboxmouse</literal> driver, adjust the
- mouse section in <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para>要使用 <literal>vboxmouse</literal> 驅動程式,可調整在 <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename> 中與滑鼠相關的一節:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Mouse0"
Driver "vboxmouse"
EndSection</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>HAL</acronym> users should create the following
- <filename>/usr/local/etc/hal/fdi/policy/90-vboxguest.fdi</filename>
- or copy it from
- <filename>/usr/local/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/90-vboxguest.fdi</filename>:</para>
+ <para><acronym>HAL</acronym> 的使用者應建立以下 <filename>/usr/local/etc/hal/fdi/policy/90-vboxguest.fdi</filename> 或複製自 <filename>/usr/local/share/hal/fdi/policy/10osvendor/90-vboxguest.fdi</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?&gt;
&lt;!--
@@ -33210,141 +32899,69 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<sect1 xml:id="virtualization-host-virtualbox">
<title>以 FreeBSD 作為主端安裝 <application>VirtualBox</application> </title>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> is an actively
- developed, complete virtualization package, that is available
- for most operating systems including <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Mac OS</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark>
- and FreeBSD. It is equally capable of running <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> or
- <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>-like guests. It is released as open source software, but
- with closed-source components available in a separate extension
- pack. These components include support for USB 2.0 devices.
- More information may be found on the <link xlink:href="http://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads"><quote>Downloads</quote>
- page of the <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application>
- wiki</link>. Currently, these extensions are not available
- for FreeBSD.</para>
+ <para><application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> 是一套積極開發、完整的虛擬化套件,適用大多數作業系統,包含 <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Mac OS</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> 與 FreeBSD,它同樣能夠執行類 <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 或 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 的客端系統。它是以開源軟體的方式發佈,但閉源元件可獨立在擴充包中使用,這些元件包含對 USB 2.0 裝置的支援。更多資訊可在 <link xlink:href="http://www.virtualbox.org/wiki/Downloads"><application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> wiki 的 <quote>Downloads</quote> 頁面</link>。目前,這些擴充套件並不支援 FreeBSD。</para>
<sect2 xml:id="virtualization-virtualbox-install">
<title>安裝 <trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></title>
- <para xml:lang="en"><application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> is available as a
- FreeBSD package or port in
- <package>emulators/virtualbox-ose</package>. The port can be
- installed using these commands:</para>
+ <para><application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> 可於 <package>emulators/virtualbox-ose</package> 以 FreeBSD 套件或 Port 的方式取得。要安裝 Port 可使用以下指令:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/emulators/virtualbox-ose</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">One useful option in the port's configuration menu is the
- <literal>GuestAdditions</literal> suite of programs. These
- provide a number of useful features in guest operating
- systems, like mouse pointer integration (allowing the mouse to
- be shared between host and guest without the need to press a
- special keyboard shortcut to switch) and faster video
- rendering, especially in <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> guests. The guest
- additions are available in the <guimenu>Devices</guimenu>
- menu, after the installation of the guest is finished.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A few configuration changes are needed before
- <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> is started for the
- first time. The port installs a kernel module in
- <filename>/boot/modules</filename> which
- must be loaded into the running kernel:</para>
+ <para>在 Port 的設定選單中 <literal>GuestAdditions</literal> 相關程式是最有用的選項之一,這些程式可在客端作業系統提供數個有用的功能,如滑鼠指標整合 (允許滑鼠在主端與客端之間移動,不需要按特殊快速鍵來切換) 與較快的影像繪圖速度,特別是在 <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 的客端系統。Guest additions 可在客端系統安裝完之後的 <guimenu>Devices</guimenu> 選單找到。</para>
+
+ <para>還有一些設定需要在 <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> 第一次啟動端做修改,Port 會安裝一個核心模組在 <filename>/boot/modules</filename>,該模組必須在核心中載入:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload vboxdrv</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">To ensure the module is always loaded after a reboot,
- add this line to
- <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para>要確保該模組在重新開機後會載入,可加入下行到 <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">vboxdrv_load="YES"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">To use the kernel modules that allow bridged or host-only
- networking, add this line to
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and reboot the
- computer:</para>
+ <para>要使用可支援橋接或僅限主端 (Host-only) 的網路,可加入下行到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>,然後重新啟動電腦:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">vboxnet_enable="YES"</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <systemitem class="groupname">vboxusers</systemitem>
- group is created during installation of
- <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application>. All users that need
- access to <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> will have to
- be added as members of this group. <command>pw</command> can
- be used to add new members:</para>
+ <para>在安裝 <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> 的過程中會建立 <systemitem class="groupname">vboxusers</systemitem> 群組,所有需要存取 <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> 的使用者均需要加入成為此群組的成員,<command>pw</command> 可用來加入新的成員:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod vboxusers -m <replaceable>yourusername</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">The default permissions for
- <filename>/dev/vboxnetctl</filename> are restrictive and need
- to be changed for bridged networking:</para>
+ <para><filename>/dev/vboxnetctl</filename> 的預設權限是受限的,需要更改後才可使用橋接網路:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chown root:vboxusers /dev/vboxnetctl</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 0660 /dev/vboxnetctl</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">To make this permissions change permanent, add these
- lines to <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para>要永久變更權限,可加入下列幾行到 <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">own vboxnetctl root:vboxusers
perm vboxnetctl 0660</programlisting>
- <para xml:lang="en">To launch <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application>,
- type from a <application>Xorg</application> session:</para>
+ <para>要執行 <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application>,可在 <application>Xorg</application> 工作階段輸入:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>VirtualBox</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">For more information on configuring and using
- <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application>, refer to the
- <link xlink:href="http://www.virtualbox.org">official
- website</link>. For FreeBSD-specific information and
- troubleshooting instructions, refer to the <link xlink:href="http://wiki.FreeBSD.org/VirtualBox">relevant
- page in the FreeBSD wiki</link>.</para>
+ <para>要取得更多有關設定與使用 <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> 的資訊,請參考 <link xlink:href="http://www.virtualbox.org">官方網站</link>。供 FreeBSD 特定的資訊與疑難排解操作指示,可參考 <link xlink:href="http://wiki.FreeBSD.org/VirtualBox">FreeBSD wiki 中相關的頁面</link>。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="virtualization-virtualbox-usb-support">
<title><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark> USB 支援</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> extension
- pack is not available for FreeBSD hosts. Without the extension
- pack, the FreeBSD host cannot pass <acronym>USB</acronym>
- ports through to guest operating systems.</para>
+ <para><application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> 擴充包目前不支援 FreeBSD 主端系統,沒有這個擴充包,FreeBSD 主端系統無法傳遞 <acronym>USB</acronym> 埠給客端作業系統。</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="virtualization-virtualbox-host-dvd-cd-access">
<title><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark> Host <acronym>DVD</acronym>/<acronym>CD</acronym> 存取</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Access to the host
- <acronym>DVD</acronym>/<acronym>CD</acronym> drives from
- guests is achieved through the sharing of the physical drives.
- Within <trademark>VirtualBox</trademark>, this is set up from the Storage window in
- the Settings of the virtual machine. If needed, create an
- empty <acronym>IDE</acronym>
- <acronym>CD</acronym>/<acronym>DVD</acronym> device first.
- Then choose the Host Drive from the popup menu for the virtual
- <acronym>CD</acronym>/<acronym>DVD</acronym> drive selection.
- A checkbox labeled <literal>Passthrough</literal> will appear.
- This allows the virtual machine to use the hardware directly.
- For example, audio <acronym>CD</acronym>s or the burner will
- only function if this option is selected.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>HAL</acronym> needs to run for
- <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application>
- <acronym>DVD</acronym>/<acronym>CD</acronym> functions to
- work, so enable it in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and
- start it if it is not already running:</para>
+ <para>透過共享實體磁碟機可讓客端系統能夠存取主端系統的 <acronym>DVD</acronym>/<acronym>CD</acronym> 磁碟機。在 <trademark>VirtualBox</trademark> 中,這個功能可在虛擬機器設定中的儲存 (Storage) 視窗中設定。若需要,可先建立一個空的 <acronym>IDE</acronym> <acronym>CD</acronym>/<acronym>DVD</acronym> 裝置,然後在跳出的選單中選擇要做為虛擬 <acronym>CD</acronym>/<acronym>DVD</acronym> 磁碟機的主端磁碟機,此時會出現一個標籤為 <literal>Passthrough</literal> 的核選方塊,勾選這個核選方塊可讓虛擬機器直接使用該硬體,例如,音樂 <acronym>CD</acronym> 或燒錄機只會在有勾選此選項時能夠運作。</para>
+
+ <para><application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> <acronym>DVD</acronym>/<acronym>CD</acronym> 功能要能運作需要執行 <acronym>HAL</acronym>,因此需在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 中開啟,若該服務尚未啟動,則啟動它:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">hald_enable="YES"</programlisting>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service hald start</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">In order for users to be able to use
- <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application>
- <acronym>DVD</acronym>/<acronym>CD</acronym> functions, they
- need access to <filename>/dev/xpt0</filename>,
- <filename>/dev/cd<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename>, and
- <filename>/dev/pass<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename>.
- This is usually achieved by making the user a member of
- <systemitem class="groupname">operator</systemitem>.
- Permissions to these devices have to be corrected by adding
- these lines to <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <para>為了讓使用者能夠使用 <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> <acronym>DVD</acronym>/<acronym>CD</acronym> 功能,這些使用者需要存取 <filename>/dev/xpt0</filename>, <filename>/dev/cd<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename> 以及 <filename>/dev/pass<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename>,這通常可讓這些使用者成為 <systemitem class="groupname">operator</systemitem> 的成員來達成。對這些裝置的權限必須加入下行到 <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename> 來修正:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">perm cd* 0660
perm xpt0 0660
@@ -33361,9 +32978,9 @@ perm pass* 0660</programlisting>
<acronym>BSD</acronym>-licensed hypervisor became part of the
base system with FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE. This hypervisor supports a
number of guests, including FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and many <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark>
- distributions. Currently, <application>bhyve</application> only
- supports a serial console and does not emulate a graphical
- console. Virtualization offload features of newer
+ distributions. By default, <application>bhyve</application>
+ provides access to serial console and does not emulate a
+ graphical console. Virtualization offload features of newer
<acronym>CPU</acronym>s are used to avoid the legacy methods of
translating instructions and manually managing memory
mappings.</para>
@@ -33564,8 +33181,80 @@ grub&gt; <userinput>boot</userinput></screen>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyvectl --destroy --vm=<replaceable>linuxguest</replaceable></userinput></screen>
</sect2>
+ <sect2 xml:id="virtualization-bhyve-uefi">
+ <title>使用 <acronym>UEFI</acronym> 韌體開機 <application>bhyve</application> 虛擬機器</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">In addition to <application>bhyveload</application> and
+ <application>grub-bhyve</application>, the
+ <application>bhyve</application> hypervisor can also boot
+ virtual machines using the <acronym>UEFI</acronym> userspace
+ firmware. This option may support guest operating systems
+ that are not supported by the other loaders.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">In order to make use of the <acronym>UEFI</acronym>
+ support in <application>bhyve</application>, first obtain the
+ <acronym>UEFI</acronym> firmware images. This can be done
+ by installing <package>sysutils/bhyve-firmware</package>
+ port or package.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">With the firmware in place, add the flags
+ <option>-l bootrom,<replaceable>/path/to/firmware</replaceable></option>
+ to your <application>bhyve</application> command line.
+ The actual <application>bhyve</application> command may look
+ like this:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyve -AHP -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 1:0,lpc \
+-s 2:0,virtio-net,<replaceable>tap1</replaceable> -s 3:0,virtio-blk,<replaceable>./disk.img</replaceable> \
+-s 4:0,ahci-cd,<replaceable>./install.iso</replaceable> -c <replaceable>4</replaceable> -m <replaceable>1024M</replaceable> \
+-l bootrom,<replaceable>/usr/local/share/uefi-firmware/BHYVE_UEFI.fd</replaceable> \
+<replaceable>guest</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en"><package>sysutils/bhyve-firmware</package> also contains a
+ <acronym>CSM</acronym>-enabled firmware, to boot guests with no
+ <acronym>UEFI</acronym> support in legacy
+ <acronym>BIOS</acronym> mode:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyve -AHP -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 1:0,lpc \
+-s 2:0,virtio-net,<replaceable>tap1</replaceable> -s 3:0,virtio-blk,<replaceable>./disk.img</replaceable> \
+-s 4:0,ahci-cd,<replaceable>./install.iso</replaceable> -c <replaceable>4</replaceable> -m <replaceable>1024M</replaceable> \
+-l bootrom,<replaceable>/usr/local/share/uefi-firmware/BHYVE_UEFI_CSM.fd</replaceable> \
+<replaceable>guest</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="virtualization-bhyve-framebuffer">
+ <title>供 <application>bhyve</application> 客端用的圖型化 <acronym>UEFI</acronym> Framebuffer </title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>UEFI</acronym> firmware support is particularly
+ useful with predominantly graphical guest operating systems
+ such as Microsoft <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Support for the UEFI-GOP framebuffer may also be enabled
+ with the <option>-s 29,fbuf,tcp=<replaceable>0.0.0.0:5900</replaceable></option>
+ flags. The framebuffer resolution may be configured with
+ <option>w=<replaceable>800</replaceable></option> and
+ <option>h=<replaceable>600</replaceable></option>, and
+ <application>bhyve</application> can be instructed to wait for
+ a <acronym>VNC</acronym> connection before booting the guest
+ by adding <option>wait</option>. The framebuffer may be
+ accessed from the host or over the network via the
+ <acronym>VNC</acronym> protocol.</para>
+
+ <para><application>bhyve</application> 指令的結果會如下:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyve -AHP -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 31:0,lpc \
+-s 2:0,virtio-net,<replaceable>tap1</replaceable> -s 3:0,virtio-blk,<replaceable>./disk.img</replaceable> \
+-s 4:0,ahci-cd,<replaceable>./install.iso</replaceable> -c <replaceable>4</replaceable> -m <replaceable>1024M</replaceable> \
+-s 29,fbuf,tcp=<replaceable>0.0.0.0:5900</replaceable>,w=<replaceable>800</replaceable>,h=<replaceable>600</replaceable>,wait \
+-l bootrom,<replaceable>/usr/local/share/uefi-firmware/BHYVE_UEFI.fd</replaceable> \
+<replaceable>guest</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Note, in BIOS emulation mode, the framebuffer will cease
+ receiving updates once control is passed from firmware to
+ guest operating system.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
<sect2 xml:id="virtualization-bhyve-zfs">
- <title>在 <application>bhyve</application> Guests 使用 <acronym>ZFS</acronym></title>
+ <title>在 <application>bhyve</application> 客端使用 <acronym>ZFS</acronym></title>
<para xml:lang="en">If <acronym>ZFS</acronym> is available on the host
machine, using <acronym>ZFS</acronym> volumes
@@ -34571,13 +34260,13 @@ Option "XkbOptions" "grp:toggle"</programlisting>
<sect1 xml:id="updating-upgrading-synopsis">
<title>概述</title>
- <para>FreeBSD 在每次的發佈之間持續在開發。有些人喜歡官方發佈的版本,有些人則喜歡持續同步使用最新的開發版本。雖然如此,即使是官方發佈的版本仍時常會有安全性與其他緊急修復的更新。無論使用哪種版本,FreeBSD 都提供所有必要的工具來讓系統保持最新版,而且可以輕易升級不同版本。本章將說明如何追蹤開發版本的系統及保持 FreeBSD 系統維持新版的基本工具。</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 在每次的發佈之間持續在開發。有些人偏好正式發佈的版本,也有另一群人喜歡使用最新的開發版本。然而,即使是正式發佈的版本也時常會有安全性與其他緊急修復的更新,因此,無論使用哪種版本,FreeBSD 都提供所有必要的工具來讓系統能維持最新的版本,且讓各種版本都能簡單的升級。本章將說明如何追蹤開發版本的系統及讓 FreeBSD 系統維持最新版本的基本工具。</para>
<para>讀完這章,您將了解︰</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>如何使用 <application>freebsd-update</application>, <application>Subversion</application> 來讓 FreeBSD 系統保持新版。</para>
+ <para>如何使用 <application>freebsd-update</application>, <application>Subversion</application> 來維持 FreeBSD 系統為最新版。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -34647,7 +34336,7 @@ Option "XkbOptions" "grp:toggle"</programlisting>
<see>updating-upgrading</see>
</indexterm>
- <para>即時套用安全性更新並升級到新發佈的作業系統對管理一個持續運作的系統是重要的。FreeBSD 內含可以執行這兩項任務的工具程式,叫做 <command>freebsd-update</command>。</para>
+ <para>隨時套用安全性更新以及升級到新發佈的作業系統版本對管理一個持續運作的系統是非常重要的任務,FreeBSD 內含可以執行這兩項任務的工具程式,叫做 <command>freebsd-update</command>。</para>
<para>這個工具程式支援使用 Binary 對 FreeBSD 做安全性與和錯誤更新,不需要手動編譯和安裝修補 (Patch) 或新核心。目前由安全性團隊提供支援的 Binary 更新可用於所有的架構和發行版。支援的發行版清單及各自的支援期限列於 <uri xlink:href="http://www.FreeBSD.org/security/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/security/</uri>。</para>
@@ -34686,7 +34375,7 @@ UpdateIfUnmodified /etc/ /var/ /root/ /.cshrc /.profile</programlisting>
# will have any local changes merged into the version from the new release.
MergeChanges /etc/ /var/named/etc/ /boot/device.hints</programlisting>
- <para>列出 <command>freebsd-update</command> 應嘗試合併的設定檔目錄。 檔案合併程序是指一系列類似 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mergemaster</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 做的 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>diff</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 修補動作, 但是選項比較少。 合併的動作包含接受、開啟編輯器,或讓 <command>freebsd-update</command> 中止。 如果有疑慮,請先備份 <filename>/etc</filename>,然後再接受合併。 更多關於 <command>mergemaster</command> 的資訊, 參見 <xref linkend="mergemaster"/>。</para>
+ <para>列出 <command>freebsd-update</command> 應嘗試合併的設定檔目錄。 檔案合併程序是指一系列類似 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mergemaster</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 做的 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>diff</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 修補動作, 但是選項比較少。 合併的動作包含接受、開啟編輯器,或讓 <command>freebsd-update</command> 中止。 如果有疑慮,請先備份 <filename>/etc</filename>,然後再接受合併。 更多關於 <command>mergemaster</command> 的資訊, 參見 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mergemaster</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en"># Directory in which to store downloaded updates and temporary
# files used by FreeBSD Update.
@@ -35144,839 +34833,314 @@ before running "/usr/sbin/freebsd-update install"</screen>
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
</sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="stable">
- <title>使用 FreeBSD-STABLE</title>
-
- <para>主要發行版便是使用 FreeBSD-STABLE 這個開發分支所產生。變更進入這個分支的速度比較慢,並假設這些變更已經先在 FreeBSD-CURRENT 測試過。但這 <emphasis>仍然</emphasis> 是一個開發分支,而且 FreeBSD-STABLE 的原始碼在任何時候都有可能不適合一般的使用。它只是另一個開發分支,並非專門提供給終端使用者使用。若沒有替代資源可供測試的使用者應該改使用最新的 FreeBSD 發行版。</para>
-
- <para>有興趣追蹤或對 FreeBSD 開發流程貢獻的人,尤其是對 FreeBSD 接下來的發行版相關內容有興趣的人,應該考慮追蹤 FreeBSD-STABLE。</para>
-
- <para>儘管 FreeBSD-STABLE 分支應該在任何時候均能正確編譯、執行,但是並不保証不會有問題。因為使用 FreeBSD-STABLE 的人比 FreeBSD-CURRENT 多,有時無可避免地會在 FreeBSD-STABLE 發現在 FreeBSD-CURRENT 並非顯而易見的錯誤和極端的狀況。也因此,我們並不建議盲目追蹤 FreeBSD-STABLE。 特別重要的是 <emphasis>不要</emphasis> 在尚未使用開發或測試環境對程式碼做完整的測試之前,升級任何上線的伺服器為 FreeBSD-STABLE。</para>
-
- <para>若要追蹤 FreeBSD-STABLE:</para>
-
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>-STABLE</primary>
- <secondary>using</secondary>
- </indexterm>
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>加入 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-stable">freebsd-stable</link> 郵遞論壇來隨時瞭解 FreeBSD-STABLE 編譯的相依關係或是任何其他需特別注意的議題。開發者在評估一些有爭議的修正或更新時,也會先在這裡發信公告,讓使用者有機會可以對提案的更改提出問題。</para>
-
- <para>加入 <application>svn</application> 相關郵遞論壇來追蹤該分支的修訂。 例如,要追蹤 9-STABLE 分支的使用者應該加入 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/svn-src-stable-9">svn-src-stable-9</link> 郵遞論壇。這個郵遞論壇會記錄每一次修改的提交項目,以及可能產生的副作用的相關資訊。</para>
-
- <para>要加入這兩個郵遞論壇,請前往 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo">http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo</link> 點選要訂閱的郵遞論壇,並依照網頁指示的步驟操作。要追蹤整個原始碼樹,不單只有 FreeBSD-CURRENT 的變更,可訂閱 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/svn-src-all">svn-src-all</link> 郵遞論壇。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>要安裝新的 FreeBSD-STABLE 系統, 可從 <link linkend="mirrors">FreeBSD 鏡像站</link> 或從 FreeBSD-STABLE 每個月的快照 (Snapshot) 來安裝最新的 FreeBSD-STABLE 發行版。請參考 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/snapshots/">www.freebsd.org/snapshots</link> 來取得更多有關快照的資訊。</para>
-
- <para>要編譯或升級已經安裝的 FreeBSD 系統至 FreeBSD-STABLE,可使用 <link linkend="svn">svn</link> <indexterm>
- <primary>Subversion</primary>
- </indexterm> 來取得欲安裝分支的原始碼。分支的名稱列在 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releng/">www.freebsd.org/releng</link>,例如 <literal>stable/9</literal>。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>在編譯或升級到 FreeBSD-STABLE <indexterm>
- <primary>-STABLE</primary>
- <secondary>compiling</secondary>
- </indexterm> 之前 , 請仔細閱讀 <filename>/usr/src/Makefile</filename> 並依照 <xref linkend="makeworld"/> 的指示操作。閱讀 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-stable">FreeBSD-STABLE 郵遞論壇</link> 以及 <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename> 來了解升級的相關資訊,有時會含有升級下一個發行版的必要資訊。</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </sect2>
</sect1>
- <sect1 xml:id="synching">
- <title>同步原始碼</title>
-
- <para>有多許方法可以更新 FreeBSD 的原始碼,本節將說明主要的方法 <application>Subversion</application>。</para>
-
- <warning>
- <para>雖然有可能只更新部份原始碼樹,但是正式支援的更新步驟是更新整個樹並重新編譯所有在使用者空間 (User space) 中的程式,例如在 <filename>/bin</filename> 和 <filename>/sbin</filename> 中的程式及核心原始碼。只更新部份的原始碼樹,例如:只更新核心或使用者空間的程式的做法經常會導致編譯錯誤、核心錯誤或資料損毀的問題。</para>
- </warning>
-
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Subversion</primary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>Subversion</application> uses the
- <emphasis>pull</emphasis> model of updating sources. The user,
- or a <command>cron</command> script, invokes the
- <command>svn</command> program which updates the local version
- of the source. <application>Subversion</application> is the
- preferred method for updating local source trees as updates are
- up-to-the-minute and the user controls when updates are
- downloaded. It is easy to restrict updates to specific files or
- directories and the requested updates are generated on the fly
- by the server. How to synchronize source using
- <application>Subversion</application> is described in <xref linkend="svn"/>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">If a user inadvertently wipes out portions of the local
- archive, <application>Subversion</application> will detect and
- rebuild the damaged portions during an update.</para>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="makeworld">
- <title>重新編譯 World</title>
-
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Rebuilding <quote>world</quote></primary>
- </indexterm>
- <para>當本地的原始碼樹已與特定版本的 FreeBSD 如 FreeBSD-STABLE 或 FreeBSD-CURRENT 同步以後,便可使用原始碼樹來重新編譯系統。這個程序即為重新編譯 World。</para>
-
- <para>在重新編譯 World <emphasis>之前</emphasis>,請確定已完成以下工作:</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <title>編譯 World <emphasis>之前</emphasis> 要完成的工作</title>
-
- <step>
- <para>備份所有重要的資料到另一個系統或可卸除的媒體,檢查備份的完整性並在手中保留一份可開機的安裝媒體。如何強調都不足夠說明在重新編譯系統 <emphasis>之前</emphasis> 備份系統的重要性。即便重新編譯 World 已變成簡單的一件事,也難免會有原始碼樹失誤導致系統無法開機的時候。您可能永遠都用不上備份,但最好確保安全而非後悔。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>mailing list</primary></indexterm>
- <para>回顧最近 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-stable">freebsd-stable</link> 或 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-current">freebsd-current</link> 中的項目,依您所追蹤的分支決定。注意任何已知的問題以及會被影響的系統。若已知的問題影響您已同步的原始碼版本,請等候表明問題已被解決的 <quote>全部解決 (all clear)</quote> 公告發佈,然後重新同步原始碼並確認本地的原始碼版本已含有所需的修正。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>閱讀 <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename> 了解該版本的原始碼是否有必要的額外步驟要完成。 這個檔案中會包含有關潛藏問題的重要資訊,並且可能會要求執行某些指令。大多升級需要完成指定的額外步驟,例如:在安裝新 World 前重新命名或刪除指定檔案,這些步驟會列在檔案最後,明確說明目前建議的升級順序。若 <filename>UPDATING</filename> 中有與本章相矛盾的步驟,請以 <filename>UPDATING</filename> 為準並應遵循其內容。</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
-
- <warning>
- <title>不要使用 <command>make world</command></title>
-
- <para>部份舊版的文件建議使用 <command>make world</command>。然而該指令跳過了部份重要的步驟,應僅供專家使用。大多數的情況使用 <command>make world</command> 都是錯的,並應使用此處說明的程序。</para>
- </warning>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="canonical-build">
- <title>流程概述</title>
-
- <para>編譯 World 流程會假設您是依照 <xref linkend="synching"/> 指示取得最近版本的原始碼來升級舊版的 FreeBSD。</para>
+ <sect1 xml:id="updating-src">
+ <title>從原始碼更新 FreeBSD</title>
- <para>在 FreeBSD,<quote>world</quote> 一詞包含了核心,核心系統 Binary,程式庫,原始碼以及內建的編譯器。這些元件編譯與安裝的順序非常重要。</para>
+ <para>從編譯原始碼來更新 FreeBSD 比起用 Binary 更新有幾項優點,在編譯程式碼時可以自訂選項來充分運用特定硬體,部份基礎系統可以使用非預設的設定值編譯,或是在不需要或不想要的時候跳過編譯。使用編譯的程序來更新系統比起安裝 Binary 來更新會耗時許多,但能夠完整自訂一個量身定做版本的 FreeBSD。</para>
- <para>舉例來說,舊的編譯器可能有問題而無法編譯新的核心。新的核心需使用新的編譯器來編譯,因此新的編譯器必需先編譯,但在新核心編譯前並不一定要安裝。</para>
-
- <para>新的 World 可能需要使用新的核心功能,所以必須在新的 World 安裝之前先安裝新的核心。舊的 World 也可能在新的核心上無法正常執行,所以必須在新的核心安裝完之後
-馬上安裝新的 World。</para>
-
- <para>有一部份設定必須在新的 World 安裝前變更,但其他的部份在之前變更則可能會破壞舊的 World。因此會使用到兩種不同的設定升級步驟。大部份情況,更新程序只會取代或新增檔案,不會刪除已存在的舊檔案。當這可能會造成問題時 <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename> 便會說明需要手動刪除的檔案以及操作的步驟。</para>
-
- <para>這些問題會影響接下來的建議升級順序。</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>將執行 <command>make</command> 的輸出儲存到檔案是不錯的辦法,若發生錯誤時,便可複製錯誤訊息張貼到 FreeBSD 郵遞論壇。</para>
-
- <para>最簡單的方式是使用 <command>script</command> 並透過參數指定要儲存所有輸出的檔案名稱。請不要儲存輸出到 <filename>/tmp</filename>,因這個目錄可能在下次重新開機後被清除。儲存檔案最好的地方是 <filename>/var/tmp</filename>。在重新編譯 World 之前執行這個指令,並在流程完成後輸入 <userinput>exit</userinput>:</para>
+ <sect2 xml:id="updating-src-quick-start">
+ <title>快速開始</title>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>script <replaceable>/var/tmp/mw.out</replaceable></userinput>
-Script started, output file is /var/tmp/mw.out</screen>
- </note>
+ <para>這是從原始碼編譯來更新 FreeBSD 的標準步驟快速的參考,稍後的章節會更詳細的說明這個程序。</para>
<procedure>
- <title>編譯 World 流程概述</title>
-
- <para>編譯 World 流程中使用的指令應依此處指定的順序執行。本節將摘要各指令的功能。</para>
-
<step>
- <para>若編譯 World 流程先前已在系統執行過,先前編譯的結果可能遺留在 <filename>/usr/obj</filename>。要加速新的編譯 World 流程及節省處理相依問題的時間,若此目錄存在,請移除此目錄:</para>
+ <title>更新並編譯</title>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>svn update /usr/src</userinput> <co xml:id="updating-src-qs-svnup"/>
+<emphasis>check <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename></emphasis> <co xml:id="updating-src-qs-review-updating"/>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput> <co xml:id="updating-src-qs-cd"/>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make -j<replaceable>4</replaceable> buildworld</userinput> <co xml:id="updating-src-qs-buildworld"/>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make -j<replaceable>4</replaceable> kernel</userinput> <co xml:id="updating-src-qs-kernel"/>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>shutdown -r now</userinput> <co xml:id="updating-src-qs-reboot"/>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput> <co xml:id="updating-src-qs-cd2"/>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make installworld</userinput> <co xml:id="updating-src-qs-installworld"/>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mergemaster -Ui</userinput> <co xml:id="updating-src-qs-mergemaster"/>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>shutdown -r now</userinput> <co xml:id="updating-src-qs-shutdown"/></screen>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chflags -R noschg /usr/obj/*</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>rm -rf /usr/obj</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>編譯新的編譯器及一些相關工具,然後使用新的編譯器編譯新的 World。編譯的結果會儲存到 <filename>/usr/obj</filename>。</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make buildworld</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>使用在 <filename>/usr/obj</filename> 中的新編譯器來編譯新的核心,來確保不會發生編譯器與核心不相容的問題。因某些記憶體結構可能有修改,這個步驟是必要的,若核心與原始碼的版本不同,<command>ps</command> 及 <command>top</command> 這類的程式會無法運作。</para>
+ <calloutlist>
+ <callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-svnup">
+ <para>取得最新版本的原始碼,請參考 <xref linkend="updating-src-obtaining-src"/> 來了解更多取得與更新原始碼的資訊。</para>
+ </callout>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make buildkernel</userinput></screen>
- </step>
+ <callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-review-updating">
+ <para>從原始碼編譯之前與之後任何需要手動操作步驟會在 <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename> 中有說明。</para>
+ </callout>
- <step>
- <para>安裝新的核心與新的核心模組,讓開機時可以使用新的核心。這個指令可在多使用者模式執行,除非 <varname>kern.securelevel</varname> 設定在 <literal>1</literal> 以上 <emphasis>且</emphasis> 在核心 Binary 有設定 <literal>noschg</literal> 或類似的旗標 (Flag),請先讓系統進入單使用者模式。請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 取得有關 <varname>kern.securelevel</varname> 的詳細資訊以及 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chflags</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 取得有關各種檔案旗標的詳細資訊。</para>
+ <callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-cd">
+ <para>前往原始碼目錄。</para>
+ </callout>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make installkernel</userinput></screen>
- </step>
+ <callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-buildworld">
+ <para>編譯世界 (World),即除了核心 (Kernel) 外的所有東西。</para>
+ </callout>
- <step>
- <para>讓系統進入單使用者模組來減少升級任何已在執行中的 Binary 所產生的問題,同樣也可減少在新核心上執行舊 World 的問題。</para>
+ <callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-kernel">
+ <para>編譯並安裝核心,此動作等同於同時做 <buildtarget>buildkernel</buildtarget> <buildtarget>installkernel</buildtarget>。</para>
+ </callout>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>shutdown now</userinput></screen>
+ <callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-reboot">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Reboot the system to the new kernel.</para>
+ </callout>
- <para>進入單使用者模式後,若系統磁碟格式為 UFS 請執行以下指令:</para>
+ <callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-cd2">
+ <para>前往原始碼目錄。</para>
+ </callout>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -u /</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -a -t ufs</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>swapon -a</userinput></screen>
+ <callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-installworld">
+ <para>安裝世界。</para>
+ </callout>
- <para>若系統磁碟格式為 ZFS,則需執行以下兩個指令。此範例假設 zpool 名稱為 <literal>zroot</literal>:</para>
+ <callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-mergemaster">
+ <para>更新與合併在 <filename>/etc/</filename> 中的設定檔案。</para>
+ </callout>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs set readonly=off zroot</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs mount -a</userinput></screen>
+ <callout arearefs="updating-src-qs-shutdown">
+ <para>重新啟動系統以使用新編譯好的世界與核心。</para>
+ </callout>
+ </calloutlist>
</step>
+ </procedure>
+ </sect2>
- <step>
- <para>選用:若想要使用 US 英文以外的鍵盤對應表,可以使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kbdmap</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來變更:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kbdmap</userinput></screen>
- </step>
+ <sect2 xml:id="updating-src-preparing">
+ <title>準備原始碼更新</title>
- <step>
- <para>接著,不論那一種檔案系統,若 <acronym>CMOS</acronym> 時鐘設定為本地時間 (若 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>date</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 顯示不正確的時間與時區),請執行:</para>
+ <para>閱讀 <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename>,從原始碼編譯之前與之後任何需要手動操作步驟會在此檔案中說明。</para>
+ </sect2>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>adjkerntz -i</userinput></screen>
- </step>
+ <sect2 xml:id="updating-src-obtaining-src">
+ <title>更新原始碼</title>
- <step>
- <para>重新編譯 World 不會直接更新某些目錄中的設定檔,如 <filename>/etc</filename>, <filename>/var</filename> 以及 <filename>/usr</filename>。接下來的步驟是更新一部份的設定檔到 <filename>/etc</filename> 來準備安裝新的 World。以下指令只會比對影響 <buildtarget>installworld</buildtarget> 是否成功執行的必要檔案。例如,這個步驟會可能會加入新版 FreeBSD 的新群組、系統帳號或啟動 Script。為了讓 <buildtarget>installworld</buildtarget> 步驟可以使用任何新的系統帳號、群組與 Script,這是個必要的步驟。請參考 <xref linkend="mergemaster"/> 來取得更多有關此指令的詳細操作說明:</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 的原始碼位於 <filename>/usr/src/</filename>,較建議透過 <application>Subversion</application> 版本控制系統來更新這份原始碼,要確認原始碼已在版本控制系統的管控下可:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mergemaster -p</userinput></screen>
- </step>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>svn info /usr/src</userinput>
+Path: /usr/src
+Working Copy Root Path: /usr/src
+...</screen>
- <step>
- <para>從 <filename>/usr/obj</filename> 安裝新 World 與系統 Binary。</para>
+ <para>此結果代表 <filename>/usr/src/</filename> 已在版本控制系統的管控下並且可以使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>svn</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來更新:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make installworld</userinput></screen>
- </step>
+ <screen xml:id="synching" xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>svn update /usr/src</userinput></screen>
- <step>
- <para>更新任何剩下的設定檔。</para>
+ <para>若該目錄最近沒有更新過,可能會需要一些時間來完成更新動作。在更新完成之後,原始碼便為最新版本,並可開始依下一章節的說明來編譯程序。</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mergemaster -iF</userinput></screen>
- </step>
+ <note xml:id="updating-src-obtaining-src-checkout">
+ <title>取得原始碼</title>
- <step>
- <para>刪除任何過時的檔案。這很重要,因為若檔案遺留在磁碟上可能會造成問題。</para>
+ <para>若輸出結果顯示 <literal>'/usr/src' is not a working copy</literal> 代表有缺少檔案或原始碼是採用其他方式安裝,若是如此,便需重新取出 (checkout) 原始碼。</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make delete-old</userinput></screen>
- </step>
+ <table xml:id="updating-src-obtaining-src-repopath">
+ <title>FreeBSD 版本與檔案庫路徑</title>
- <step>
- <para>現在需要完整重新啟動來載入新的核心、新的 World 與新的設定檔。</para>
+ <tgroup cols="3">
+ <thead>
+ <row>
+ <entry><command>uname -r</command> 的輸出結果</entry>
+ <entry>檔案庫路徑</entry>
+ <entry>說明</entry>
+ </row>
+ </thead>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>reboot</userinput></screen>
- </step>
+ <tbody>
+ <row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><literal><replaceable>X.Y</replaceable>-RELEASE</literal></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>base/releng/</literal><replaceable>X.Y</replaceable></entry>
+ <entry>發佈版本加上關鍵的安全性與錯誤修正,較建議大多數使用者使用這個分支。</entry>
+ </row>
- <step>
- <para>確認所有已安裝的 Port 在舊的程式庫移除前已依照 <xref linkend="ports-upgrading"/> 的說明重新編譯。當重新編譯完成後,移除過時的程式庫來避免與新的程式庫發生衝突。有關此步驟更詳細的說明請參考 <xref linkend="make-delete-old"/>。</para>
+ <row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><literal><replaceable>X.Y</replaceable>-STABLE</literal></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>base/stable/</literal><replaceable>X</replaceable></entry>
+ <entry>
+ <para>發佈版本加上所有在該分支上其他開發中的程式,<emphasis>STABLE</emphasis> 代表不會更改應用程式 Binary 介面 (Applications Binary Interface, <acronym>ABI</acronym>),所以在先前版本所編譯的軟體仍可以正常運作,舉例來說,被編譯在 FreeBSD 10.1 可執行的軟體在編譯完 FreeBSD 10-STABLE 之後仍可以執行。</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make delete-old-libs</userinput></screen>
- </step>
- </procedure>
+ <para>STABLE 分支偶爾也會有錯誤或無法相容的問題會影響使用者,雖然這些問題通常會很快的被修正。</para>
+ </entry>
+ </row>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>single-user mode</primary></indexterm>
+ <row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><literal><replaceable>X</replaceable>-CURRENT</literal></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><literal>base/head/</literal></entry>
+ <entry>最新未發佈的 FreeBSD 開發版本,CURRENT 分支可能會有重大錯誤或不相容的問題,只建議進階的使用者使用。</entry>
+ </row>
+ </tbody>
+ </tgroup>
+ </table>
- <para>若系統允許停機一小段時間,請考慮以單使用者模式編譯系統來替代在多使用者模組編譯系統,然後進入單使用者模式來完成安裝。重新安裝系統會觸及到很多重要的系統檔案,所有的標準系統 Binary、程式庫以及引用檔。在執行中的系統更換這些檔案,特別是有使用者在使用時,是自找麻煩。</para>
- </sect2>
+ <para>查看 FreeBSD 目前使用的版本可使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>uname</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:</para>
- <sect2 xml:id="src-updating">
- <title>設定檔</title>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>uname -r</userinput>
+10.3-RELEASE</screen>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary><filename>make.conf</filename></primary>
- </indexterm>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Based on
+ <xref linkend="updating-src-obtaining-src-repopath"/>, the
+ source used to update <literal>10.3-RELEASE</literal> has
+ a repository path of <literal>base/releng/10.3</literal>.
+ That path is used when checking out the source:</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">This build world process uses several configuration
- files.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <filename>Makefile</filename> located in
- <filename>/usr/src</filename> describes how the programs that
- comprise FreeBSD should be built and the order in which they
- should be built.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The options available to <command>make</command> are
- described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>make.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> and some common examples are
- included in
- <filename>/usr/share/examples/etc/make.conf</filename>. Any
- options which are added to <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>
- will control the how <command>make</command> runs and builds
- programs. These options take effect every time
- <command>make</command> is used, including compiling
- applications from the Ports Collection, compiling custom C
- programs, or building the FreeBSD operating system. Changes to
- some settings can have far-reaching and potentially surprising
- effects. Read the comments in both locations and keep in mind
- that the defaults have been chosen for a combination of
- performance and safety.</para>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mv /usr/src /usr/src.bak</userinput> <co xml:id="updating-src-obtaining-src-mv"/>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>svn checkout https://svn.freebsd.org/base/<replaceable>releng/10.3</replaceable> /usr/src</userinput> <co xml:id="updating-src-obtaining-src-checkout-cmd"/></screen>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary><filename>src.conf</filename></primary>
- </indexterm>
+ <calloutlist>
+ <callout arearefs="updating-src-obtaining-src-mv">
+ <para>將舊的目錄移到其他地方,若沒有在這個目錄做過任何本地修改,可直接刪除這個目錄。</para>
+ </callout>
- <para xml:lang="en">How the operating system is built from source code is
- controlled by <filename>/etc/src.conf</filename>. Unlike
- <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>, the contents of
- <filename>/etc/src.conf</filename> only take effect when the
- FreeBSD operating system itself is being built. Descriptions of
- the many options available for this file are shown in
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>src.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Be cautious about disabling seemingly
- unneeded kernel modules and build options. Sometimes there
- are unexpected or subtle interactions.</para>
+ <callout arearefs="updating-src-obtaining-src-checkout-cmd">
+ <para>將從 <xref linkend="updating-src-obtaining-src-repopath"/> 查到的路徑加到檔案庫 <acronym>URL</acronym> 之後。第三個參數用來存放本地系統原始碼的目標目錄。</para>
+ </callout>
+ </calloutlist>
+ </note>
</sect2>
- <sect2 xml:id="make-buildworld">
- <title>變數與目標</title>
+ <sect2 xml:id="updating-src-building">
+ <title>從原始碼編譯</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">The general format for using <command>make</command> is as
- follows:</para>
+ <para xml:id="makeworld">編譯世界 (<emphasis>world</emphasis>) 即編譯整個作業系統除了核心 (Kernel),要先做這個動作以便提供最新的工具來編譯核心,接著便可編譯核心:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make -<replaceable>x</replaceable> -D<replaceable>VARIABLE</replaceable> <replaceable>target</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In this example,
- <option>-<replaceable>x</replaceable></option> is an option
- passed to <command>make</command>. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> for
- examples of the available options.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To pass a variable, specify the variable name with
- <option>-D<replaceable>VARIABLE</replaceable></option>. The
- behavior of the <filename>Makefile</filename> is controlled by
- variables. These can either be set in
- <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> or they can be specified
- when using <command>make</command>. For example, this
- variable specifies that profiled libraries should not be
- built:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make -DNO_PROFILE <replaceable>target</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">It corresponds with this setting in
- <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">NO_PROFILE= true # Avoid compiling profiled libraries</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <replaceable>target</replaceable> tells
- <command>make</command> what to do and the
- <filename>Makefile</filename> defines the available targets.
- Some targets are used by the build process to break out the
- steps necessary to rebuild the system into a number of
- sub-steps.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Having separate options is useful for two reasons. First,
- it allows for a build that does not affect any components of a
- running system. Because of this,
- <buildtarget xml:lang="en">buildworld</buildtarget> can be safely run on a
- machine running in multi-user mode. It is still recommended
- that <buildtarget xml:lang="en">installworld</buildtarget> be run in part in
- single-user mode, though.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Secondly, it allows <acronym>NFS</acronym> mounts to be
- used to upgrade multiple machines on a network, as described
- in <xref linkend="small-lan"/>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">It is possible to specify <option>-j</option> which will
- cause <command>make</command> to spawn several simultaneous
- processes. Since much of the compiling process is
- <acronym>I/O</acronym>-bound rather than
- <acronym>CPU</acronym>-bound, this is useful on both single
- <acronym>CPU</acronym> and multi-<acronym>CPU</acronym>
- machines.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">On a single-<acronym>CPU</acronym> machine, run the
- following command to have up to 4 processes running at any one
- time. Empirical evidence posted to the mailing lists shows
- this generally gives the best performance benefit.</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make -j4 buildworld</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">On a multi-<acronym>CPU</acronym> machine, try values
- between <literal>6</literal> and <literal>10</literal> to see
- how they speed things up.</para>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make buildworld</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make buildkernel</userinput></screen>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>rebuilding <quote>world</quote></primary>
- <secondary>timings</secondary>
- </indexterm>
+ <para>編譯完的程式會寫入至 <filename>/usr/obj</filename>。</para>
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">If any variables were specified to <command>make
- buildworld</command>, specify the same variables to
- <command>make installworld</command>. However,
- <option>-j</option> must <emphasis>never</emphasis> be used
- with <buildtarget xml:lang="en">installworld</buildtarget>.</para>
+ <para>以上這些均為基本的步驟,用來控制編譯的其他選項在以下章節會說明。</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">For example, if this command was used:</para>
+ <sect3 xml:id="updating-src-building-clean-build">
+ <title>執行清除編譯</title>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make -DNO_PROFILE buildworld</userinput></screen>
+ <para>部份 FreeBSD 編譯系統版本會保留先前編譯的程式於暫存的物件目錄 <filename>/usr/obj</filename>,避免重新編譯那些尚未更動過的程式碼可加速後續的編譯動作,若要強制重新編譯所有東西可在開始編譯前使用 <buildtarget>cleanworld</buildtarget>:</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Install the results with:</para>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make cleanworld</userinput></screen>
+ </sect3>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make -DNO_PROFILE installworld</userinput></screen>
+ <sect3 xml:id="updating-src-building-jobs">
+ <title>設定工作數量</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Otherwise, the second command will try to install
- profiled libraries that were not built during the
- <command>make buildworld</command> phase.</para>
- </note>
- </sect2>
+ <para>在多核處理器上增加編譯工作的數量可增加編譯速度,可使用 <command>sysctl hw.ncpu</command> 來查看有多少核心,不同處理器使用不同版本的 FreeBSD 編譯系統,所以唯一能了解不同工作數量對編譯速度影響的方式便是測試。在一開始可考慮選擇一個介於 1/2 到 2 倍核心數之間的數值,工作的數量可使用 <option>-j</option> 來指定。</para>
- <sect2 xml:id="mergemaster">
- <info>
- <title>合併設定檔</title>
+ <example xml:id="updating-src-building-jobs-example">
+ <title>增加編譯工作數</title>
- <authorgroup>
- <author xml:lang="en">
- <personname>
- <firstname>Tom</firstname>
- <surname>Rhodes</surname>
- </personname>
- <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
- </author>
- </authorgroup>
- </info>
+ <para>使用四個工作來編譯世界與核心:</para>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>
- <command>mergemaster</command>
- </primary>
- </indexterm>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make -j4 buildworld buildkernel</userinput></screen>
+ </example>
+ </sect3>
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD provides the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mergemaster</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> Bourne script to aid
- in determining the differences between the configuration files
- in <filename>/etc</filename>, and the configuration files in
- <filename>/usr/src/etc</filename>. This is the recommended
- solution for keeping the system configuration files up to date
- with those located in the source tree.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Before using <command>mergemaster</command>, it is
- recommended to first copy the existing
- <filename>/etc</filename> somewhere safe. Include
- <option>-R</option> which does a recursive copy and
- <option>-p</option> which preserves times and the ownerships
- on files:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cp -Rp /etc /etc.old</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When run, <command>mergemaster</command> builds a
- temporary root environment, from <filename>/</filename> down,
- and populates it with various system configuration files.
- Those files are then compared to the ones currently installed
- in the system. Files that differ will be shown in
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>diff</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> format, with the <option>+</option> sign
- representing added or modified lines, and <option>-</option>
- representing lines that will be either removed completely or
- replaced with a new file. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>diff</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more
- information about how file differences are shown.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Next, <command>mergemaster</command> will display each
- file that differs, and present options to: delete the new
- file, referred to as the temporary file, install the temporary
- file in its unmodified state, merge the temporary file with
- the currently installed file, or view the results
- again.</para>
+ <sect3 xml:id="updating-src-building-only-kernel">
+ <title>只編譯核心</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Choosing to delete the temporary file will tell
- <command>mergemaster</command> to keep the current file
- unchanged and to delete the new version. This option is not
- recommended. To get help at any time, type
- <keycap>?</keycap> at the <command>mergemaster</command>
- prompt. If the user chooses to skip a file, it will be
- presented again after all other files have been dealt
- with.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Choosing to install the unmodified temporary file will
- replace the current file with the new one. For most
- unmodified files, this is the best option.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Choosing to merge the file will present a text editor, and
- the contents of both files. The files can be merged by
- reviewing both files side by side on the screen, and choosing
- parts from both to create a finished product. When the files
- are compared side by side, <keycap>l</keycap> selects the left
- contents and <keycap>r</keycap> selects contents from the
- right. The final output will be a file consisting of both
- parts, which can then be installed. This option is
- customarily used for files where settings have been modified
- by the user.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Choosing to view the results again will redisplay the file
- differences.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">After <command>mergemaster</command> is done with the
- system files, it will prompt for other options. It may prompt
- to rebuild the password file and will finish up with an option
- to remove left-over temporary files.</para>
-<!--
-Probably not needed as changes should be minimal and mergemaster does
-a good job of merging.
- <tip>
- <title>Name the New Root Directory
- (<filename>/var/tmp/root</filename>)
- with a Time Stamp, so You Can Easily Compare Differences
- Between Versions</title>
+ <para>若原始碼有更動,便須執行 <buildtarget>buildworld</buildtarget>,完成之後,便可隨時執行 <buildtarget>buildkernel</buildtarget> 來編譯核心,若要只編譯核心可:</para>
- <para>Frequently rebuilding world entails frequently
- updating <filename>/etc</filename>
- as well, which can be a bit of a chore.</para>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make buildkernel</userinput></screen>
+ </sect3>
- <para>To speed up this process, use the following
- procedure to keep a copy of the last set of changed files
- that were merged into <filename>/etc</filename>.</para>
+ <sect3 xml:id="updating-src-building-custom-kernel">
+ <title>編譯自訂核心</title>
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>Make the world as normal. When updating
- <filename>/etc</filename> and the
- other directories, give the target directory a name
- based on the current date:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkdir /var/tmp/root-20130214</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/src/etc</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>make DESTDIR=/var/tmp/root-20130214 \
- distrib-dirs distribution</userinput></screen>
- </step>
+ <para>標準的 FreeBSD 核心是以一個名為 <filename>GENERIC</filename> 的<emphasis>核心設定檔 (Kernel config file)</emphasis>為基礎,<filename>GENERIC</filename> 核心中內含了所有最常用的裝置驅動程式與選項,有時這個檔案對編譯自訂核心也非常有用,可根據其來加入或移除裝置驅動程式或選項來滿足特定需求。</para>
- <step>
- <para>Merge in the changes from this directory as
- outlined above. <emphasis>Do not</emphasis> remove
- the <filename>/var/tmp/root-20130214</filename>
- directory when you have finished.</para>
- </step>
+ <para>例如,要開發一個 <acronym>RAM</acronym> 受到嚴重限制的小型嵌入式電腦,便可移除不需要的裝置驅動程式或選項來縮小核心。</para>
- <step>
- <para>After downloading the latest version of the
- source and remaking it, follow step 1. Create a new
- directory, which reflects the new date. This example
- uses
- <filename>/var/tmp/root-20130221</filename>.</para>
- </step>
+ <para>核心設定檔位於 <filename>/usr/src/sys/<replaceable>arch</replaceable>/conf/</filename>,其中使用的 <replaceable>arch</replaceable> 即為 <command>uname -m</command> 輸出的結果,大部份的電腦為 <literal>amd64</literal>,那其設定檔目錄則為 <filename>/usr/src/sys/<replaceable>amd64</replaceable>/conf/</filename>。</para>
- <step>
- <para>Use &man.diff.1; to see the differences that have
- been made in the intervening week by creating a
- recursive diff between the two directories:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /var/tmp</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>diff -r root-20130214 root-20130221</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Typically, this will be a much smaller set of
- differences than those between
- <filename>/var/tmp/root-20130221/etc</filename> and
- <filename>/etc</filename>. Because the set of
- differences is smaller, it is easier to migrate those
- changes across into <filename>/etc</filename>.</para>
- </step>
+ <tip>
+ <para><filename>/usr/src</filename> 可以被刪除或重建,所以較建議將自訂核心設定檔放在另一個目錄,如 <filename>/root</filename>,並將核心設定檔以連結放至 <filename>conf</filename> 目錄,若該目錄被刪除或覆寫,便可重新建立一個新的核心設定的連結。</para>
+ </tip>
- <step>
- <para>When finished, remove the older of the two
- <filename>/var/tmp/root-*</filename>
- directories:</para>
+ <para>自訂設定檔可由複製 <filename>GENERIC</filename> 設定檔來建立,在此範例,新的自訂核心要用在儲存伺服器,所以將其命名為 <filename>STORAGESERVER</filename>:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>rm -rf /var/tmp/root-20130214</userinput></screen>
- </step>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cp /usr/src/sys/amd64/conf/GENERIC /root/STORAGESERVER</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src/sys/amd64/conf</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ln -s /root/STORAGESERVER .</userinput></screen>
- <step>
- <para>Repeat this process whenever merging
- in changes to <filename>/etc</filename>.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
+ <para>接著編譯 <filename>/root/STORAGESERVER</filename>,要加入或移除裝置或選項可見 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>config</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
- <para>Use &man.date.1; to automate the generation of the
- directory names:</para>
+ <para>自訂核心要在指令列設定 <varname>KERNCONF</varname> 為核心設定檔來編譯:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkdir /var/tmp/root-`date "+%Y%m%d"`</userinput></screen>
- </tip>
- -->
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make buildkernel KERNCONF=STORAGESERVER</userinput></screen>
+ </sect3>
</sect2>
- <sect2 xml:id="make-delete-old">
- <info>
- <title>刪除過時的檔案及程式庫</title>
+ <sect2 xml:id="updating-src-installing">
+ <title>安裝編譯好的程式</title>
- <authorgroup>
- <author xml:lang="en">
- <personname>
- <firstname>Anton</firstname>
- <surname>Shterenlikht</surname>
- </personname>
- <contrib>Based on notes provided by </contrib>
- </author>
- </authorgroup>
- </info>
-
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Deleting obsolete files and directories</primary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">As a part of the FreeBSD development lifecycle, files and
- their contents occasionally become obsolete. This may be
- because functionality is implemented elsewhere, the version
- number of the library has changed, or it was removed from the
- system entirely. These obsoleted files, libraries, and
- directories should be removed when updating the system.
- This ensures that the system is not cluttered with old files
- which take up unnecessary space on the storage and backup
- media. Additionally, if the old library has a security or
- stability issue, the system should be updated to the newer
- library to keep it safe and to prevent crashes caused by the
- old library. Files, directories, and libraries which are
- considered obsolete are listed in
- <filename>/usr/src/ObsoleteFiles.inc</filename>. The
- following instructions should be used to remove obsolete files
- during the system upgrade process.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">After the <command>make installworld</command> and the
- subsequent <command>mergemaster</command> have finished
- successfully, check for obsolete files and libraries:</para>
+ <para>在完成 <buildtarget>buildworld</buildtarget> 與 <buildtarget>buildkernel</buildtarget> 兩個步驟之後,便可安裝新的核心與世界:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make check-old</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">If any obsolete files are found, they can be deleted using
- the following command:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make delete-old</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A prompt is displayed before deleting each obsolete file.
- To skip the prompt and let the system remove these files
- automatically, use
- <varname>BATCH_DELETE_OLD_FILES</varname>:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make -DBATCH_DELETE_OLD_FILES delete-old</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The same goal can be achieved by piping these commands
- through <command>yes</command>:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>yes|make delete-old</userinput></screen>
-
- <warning>
- <title xml:lang="en">Warning</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Deleting obsolete files will break applications that
- still depend on those obsolete files. This is especially
- true for old libraries. In most cases, the programs, ports,
- or libraries that used the old library need to be recompiled
- before <command>make delete-old-libs</command> is
- executed.</para>
- </warning>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Utilities for checking shared library dependencies include
- <package>sysutils/libchk</package> and
- <package>sysutils/bsdadminscripts</package>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Obsolete shared libraries can conflict with newer
- libraries, causing messages like these:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en">/usr/bin/ld: warning: libz.so.4, needed by /usr/local/lib/libtiff.so, may conflict with libz.so.5
-/usr/bin/ld: warning: librpcsvc.so.4, needed by /usr/local/lib/libXext.so, may conflict with librpcsvc.so.5</screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To solve these problems, determine which port installed
- the library:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg which /usr/local/lib/libtiff.so</userinput>
- /usr/local/lib/libtiff.so was installed by package tiff-3.9.4
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg which /usr/local/lib/libXext.so</userinput>
- /usr/local/lib/libXext.so was installed by package libXext-1.1.1,1</screen>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make installkernel</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>shutdown -r now</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make installworld</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>shutdown -r now</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Then deinstall, rebuild, and reinstall the port. To
- automate this process,
- <package>ports-mgmt/portmaster</package> can be used. After
- all ports are rebuilt and no longer use the old libraries,
- delete the old libraries using the following command:</para>
+ <para>若使用自訂核心,則同樣須設定 <varname>KERNCONF</varname> 來使用新的自訂核心:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make delete-old-libs</userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make installkernel KERNCONF=STORAGESERVER</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>shutdown -r now</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make installworld</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>shutdown -r now</userinput></screen>
+ </sect2>
- <para xml:lang="en">If something goes wrong, it is easy to rebuild a
- particular piece of the system. For example, if
- <filename>/etc/magic</filename> was accidentally deleted as
- part of the upgrade or merge of <filename>/etc</filename>,
- <command>file</command> will stop working. To fix this,
- run:</para>
+ <sect2 xml:id="updating-src-completing">
+ <title>完成更新</title>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src/usr.bin/file</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make all install</userinput></screen>
- </sect2>
+ <para>還有最後一些的工作要做來完成更新,任何修改過的設定檔要與新版本的設定檔合併、移除找到的過時程式庫,然後重新啟動系統。</para>
- <sect2 xml:id="updating-questions">
- <title>常見問題</title>
+ <sect3 xml:id="updating-src-completing-merge-mergemaster">
+ <title>使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mergemaster</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 合併設定檔案</title>
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>每個變更是否都需要重新編譯 World?</term>
+ <para><citerefentry><refentrytitle>mergemaster</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 可簡單的將修改過的系統設定檔與新版設定檔合併。</para>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">It depends upon the nature of the change. For
- example, if <application>svn</application> only shows
- the following files as being updated:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><filename>src/games/cribbage/instr.c</filename>
-<filename>src/games/sail/pl_main.c</filename>
-<filename>src/release/sysinstall/config.c</filename>
-<filename>src/release/sysinstall/media.c</filename>
-<filename>src/share/mk/bsd.port.mk</filename></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">it probably is not worth rebuilding the entire
- world. Instead, go into the appropriate sub-directories
- and run <command>make all install</command>. But if
- something major changes, such as
- <filename>src/lib/libc/stdlib</filename>, consider
- rebuilding world.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Some users rebuild world every fortnight and let
- changes accumulate over that fortnight. Others only
- re-make those things that have changed and are careful
- to spot all the dependencies. It all depends on how
- often a user wants to upgrade and whether they are
- tracking FreeBSD-STABLE or FreeBSD-CURRENT.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
+ <para>使用 <option>-Ui</option>,<citerefentry><refentrytitle>mergemaster</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 會自動更新那些未被使用者修改過的設定檔並安裝尚不存在的檔案:</para>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>什麼會造成有很多信號 11<indexterm>
- <primary>signal 11</primary>
- </indexterm> (或其他信號) 錯誤的編譯失敗?</term>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mergemaster -Ui</userinput></screen>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">This normally indicates a hardware problem.
- Building world is an effective way to stress test
- hardware, especially memory. A sure indicator of a
- hardware issue is when <application>make</application>
- is restarted and it dies at a different point in the
- process.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To resolve this error, swap out the components in
- the machine, starting with RAM, to determine which
- component is failing.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
+ <para>若檔案需要手動合併,會有互動式介面可讓使用者選擇要保留那一邊的檔案,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mergemaster</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 取得更多資訊。</para>
+ </sect3>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>完成編譯後是可否移除 <filename>/usr/obj</filename>?</term>
+ <sect3 xml:id="updating-src-completing-check-old">
+ <title>檢查過時的檔案與程式庫</title>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">This directory contains all the object files that
- were produced during the compilation phase. Normally,
- one of the first steps in the <command>make
- buildworld</command> process is to remove this
- directory and start afresh. Keeping
- <filename>/usr/obj</filename> around when finished makes
- little sense, and its removal frees up a approximately
- 2GB of disk space.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
+ <para>部份廢棄的檔案或目錄可以在更新之後保留,可使用以下指令找出這些檔案:</para>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>是否能繼續中斷的編譯?</term>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make check-old</userinput></screen>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">This depends on how far into the process the
- problem occurs. In general, <command>make
- buildworld</command> builds new copies of essential
- tools and the system libraries. These tools and
- libraries are then installed, used to rebuild
- themselves, and are installed again. The rest of the
- system is then rebuilt with the new system
- tools.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">During the last stage, it is fairly safe to run
- these commands as they will not undo the work of the
- previous <command>make buildworld</command>:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make -DNO_CLEAN all</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">If this message appears:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en">--------------------------------------------------------------
-Building everything..
---------------------------------------------------------------</screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">in the <command>make buildworld</command> output,
- it is probably fairly safe to do so.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">If that message is not displayed, it is always
- better to be safe than sorry and to restart the build
- from scratch.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
+ <para>並用以下指令刪除:</para>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>有可能加速編譯 World 的速度嗎?</term>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make delete-old</userinput></screen>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">Several actions can speed up the build world
- process. For example, the entire process can be run
- from single-user mode. However, this will prevent users
- from having access to the system until the process is
- complete.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Careful file system design or the use of ZFS
- datasets can make a difference. Consider putting
- <filename>/usr/src</filename> and
- <filename>/usr/obj</filename> on
- separate file systems. If possible, place the file
- systems on separate disks on separate disk controllers.
- When mounting <filename>/usr/src</filename>, use
- <option>noatime</option> which prevents the file system
- from recording the file access time. If <filename>/usr/src</filename> is not on its
- own file system, consider remounting <filename>/usr</filename> with
- <option>noatime</option>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The file system holding <filename>/usr/obj</filename> can be mounted
- or remounted with <option>async</option> so that disk
- writes happen asynchronously. The write completes
- immediately, and the data is written to the disk a few
- seconds later. This allows writes to be clustered
- together, and can provide a dramatic performance
- boost.</para>
+ <para>部份廢棄的程式庫也可以保留下來,可使用以下指令來偵測這些程式庫:</para>
- <warning>
- <para xml:lang="en">Keep in mind that this option makes the file
- system more fragile. With this option, there is an
- increased chance that, should power fail, the file
- system will be in an unrecoverable state when the
- machine restarts.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">If <filename>/usr/obj</filename> is the only
- directory on this file system, this is not a problem.
- If you have other, valuable data on the same file
- system, ensure that there are verified backups before
- enabling this option.</para>
- </warning>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make check-old-libs</userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Turn off profiling by setting
- <quote>NO_PROFILE=true</quote> in
- <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>.</para>
+ <para>並使用以下指令刪除</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Pass <option>-j<replaceable>n</replaceable></option>
- to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to run multiple processes in parallel.
- This usually helps on both single- and multi-processor
- machines.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make delete-old-libs</userinput></screen>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>若發生錯誤時該怎麼辦?</term>
+ <para>那些仍使用舊程式庫的程式將在刪除程式庫之後無法正常運作,而這些程式須要在刪除舊程式庫之後重新編譯或更換。</para>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en">First, make absolutely sure that the environment has
- no extraneous cruft from earlier builds:</para>
+ <tip>
+ <para>當確認所有舊檔案或目錄可安全的刪除時,要避免刪除每一個檔案時均需按下 <keycap>y</keycap> 與 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 鍵可在指令設定 <varname>BATCH_DELETE_OLD_FILES</varname>,例如:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chflags -R noschg /usr/obj/usr</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>rm -rf /usr/obj/usr</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make cleandir</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make cleandir</userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make BATCH_DELETE_OLD_FILES=yes delete-old-libs</userinput></screen>
+ </tip>
+ </sect3>
- <para xml:lang="en">Yes, <command>make cleandir</command> really should
- be run twice.</para>
+ <sect3 xml:id="updating-src-completing-restart">
+ <title>更新後重新啟動</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">Then, restart the whole process, starting with
- <command>make buildworld</command>.</para>
+ <para>更新之後的最後一個步驟便是重新啟動電腦,來讓所有的變更生效:</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">If problems persist, send the error and the output
- of <command>uname -a</command> to <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-questions">FreeBSD general questions mailing list</link>. Be
- prepared to answer other questions about the
- setup!</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>shutdown -r now</userinput></screen>
+ </sect3>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -36000,76 +35164,21 @@ Building everything..
<secondary>installing multiple machines</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para xml:lang="en">When multiple machines need to track the same source tree,
- it is a waste of disk space, network bandwidth, and
- <acronym>CPU</acronym> cycles to have each system download the
- sources and rebuild everything. The solution is to have one
- machine do most of the work, while the rest of the machines
- mount that work via <acronym>NFS</acronym>. This section
- outlines a method of doing so. For more information about using
- <acronym>NFS</acronym>, refer to <xref linkend="network-nfs"/>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">First, identify a set of machines which will run the same
- set of binaries, known as a <firstterm>build set</firstterm>.
- Each machine can have a custom kernel, but will run the same
- userland binaries. From that set, choose a machine to be the
- <firstterm>build machine</firstterm> that the world and kernel
- are built on. Ideally, this is a fast machine that has
- sufficient spare <acronym>CPU</acronym> to run <command>make
- buildworld</command> and <command>make
- buildkernel</command>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Select a machine to be the <firstterm>test
- machine</firstterm>, which will test software updates before
- they are put into production. This <emphasis>must</emphasis> be
- a machine that can afford to be down for an extended period of
- time. It can be the build machine, but need not be.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">All the machines in this build set need to mount
- <filename>/usr/obj</filename> and <filename>/usr/src</filename>
- from the build machine via <acronym>NFS</acronym>. For multiple
- build sets, <filename>/usr/src</filename> should be on one build
- machine, and <acronym>NFS</acronym> mounted on the rest.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Ensure that <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> and
- <filename>/etc/src.conf</filename> on all the machines in the
- build set agree with the build machine. That means that the
- build machine must build all the parts of the base system that
- any machine in the build set is going to install. Also, each
- build machine should have its kernel name set with
- <varname>KERNCONF</varname> in
- <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>, and the build machine
- should list them all in its <varname>KERNCONF</varname>,
- listing its own kernel first. The build machine must have the
- kernel configuration files for each machine in its <filename>/usr/src/sys/<replaceable>arch</replaceable>/conf</filename>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">On the build machine, build the kernel and world as
- described in <xref linkend="makeworld"/>, but do not install
- anything on the build machine. Instead, install the built
- kernel on the test machine. On the test machine, mount
- <filename>/usr/src</filename> and
- <filename>/usr/obj</filename> via <acronym>NFS</acronym>. Then,
- run <command>shutdown now</command> to go to single-user mode in
- order to install the new kernel and world and run
- <command>mergemaster</command> as usual. When done, reboot to
- return to normal multi-user operations.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">After verifying that everything on the test machine is
- working properly, use the same procedure to install the new
- software on each of the other machines in the build set.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The same methodology can be used for the ports tree. The
- first step is to share <filename>/usr/ports</filename> via
- <acronym>NFS</acronym> to all the machines in the build set. To
- configure <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> to share
- distfiles, set <varname>DISTDIR</varname> to a common shared
- directory that is writable by whichever user <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> is mapped to by the
- <acronym>NFS</acronym> mount. Each machine should set
- <varname>WRKDIRPREFIX</varname> to a local build directory, if
- ports are to be built locally. Alternately, if the build system
- is to build and distribute packages to the machines in the build
- set, set <varname>PACKAGES</varname> on the build system to a
- directory similar to <varname>DISTDIR</varname>.</para>
+ <para>當有多部主機需要追蹤相同的原始碼樹,要在每一部主機的系統下載原始碼與重新編譯所有的東西會耗費不少磁碟空間、網路頻寬與 <acronym>CPU</acronym> 運算,要解決這個問題的方法是先在一部主機上做完大部份的工作,而其餘的主機透過 <acronym>NFS</acronym> 掛載使用編譯完的成果。本節會介紹如何做這件事。要取得更多有關使用 <acronym>NFS</acronym> 的資訊請參考 <xref linkend="network-nfs"/>。</para>
+
+ <para>首先,要先確認要執行同一組 Binary 的一群主機,這群主機又稱作 <firstterm>建置集 (Build set)</firstterm>,其中每部主機可以有自己的自訂核心,但會執行相同的 Userland binary。建置集中需挑選一部做為<firstterm>建置主機 (Build machine)</firstterm>,這部主機將會拿來編譯 World 與核心 (Kernel),理想情況下,要挑選一部速度較快、有足夠的 <acronym>CPU</acronym> 能夠執行 <command>make buildworld</command> 與 <command>make buildkernel</command> 的主機。</para>
+
+ <para>再挑選一部主機做為<firstterm>測試主機 (Test machine)</firstterm>,這部主機,要在將系統更新上正式運作的環境前做測試,這<emphasis>必須</emphasis>一部能夠承受服務停止一段時間的主機,它也可是同時是建置主機,但不是一定要。</para>
+
+ <para>所有在此建置集中的主機需要透過 <acronym>NFS</acronym> 掛載在建置主機上的 <filename>/usr/obj</filename> 與 <filename>/usr/src</filename>。在有多個建置集時,<filename>/usr/src</filename> 也應放在其中一部建置主機,然後由其他主機使用 <acronym>NFS</acronym> 掛載。</para>
+
+ <para>確保在建置集中的所有主機的 <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> 及 <filename>/etc/src.conf</filename> 與建置主機一致,這是由於建置主機必須編譯整個基礎系統 (Base system) 給所有建置集中的主機安裝。此外,每一部建置主機應在 <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> 使用 <varname>KERNCONF</varname> 設定其核心名稱,且建置主機應列出所有要編譯的核心名稱在 <varname>KERNCONF</varname>,並且把自己要用的核心放在第一個。建置主機也必須有每部主機的核心設定檔在其 <filename>/usr/src/sys/<replaceable>arch</replaceable>/conf</filename>。</para>
+
+ <para>在建置主機上,編譯核心與 World 如 <xref linkend="makeworld"/> 所述,但不要在建置主機上安裝所有編譯好的東西,而是要將編譯好的核心安裝到測試主機,在測試主機透過 <acronym>NFS</acronym> 掛載 <filename>/usr/src</filename> 及 <filename>/usr/obj</filename>。然後執行 <command>shutdown now</command> 進入單使用者模式來安裝新的核心與 World 並如同往常執行 <command>mergemaster</command>。完成之後,重新開機回到正常的多使用者模式運作。</para>
+
+ <para>在測試主機上檢驗完所有東西皆運作正常之後,使用相同的程序將編譯好的結果安裝到在建置集中的其他主機。</para>
+
+ <para>同樣的方法也可用在 Port 樹,第一個步驟是透過 <acronym>NFS</acronym> 共享 <filename>/usr/ports</filename> 給所有在建置集中的主機。要設定 <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> 使用共享的 distfiles,可設定 <varname>DISTDIR</varname> 為由 <acronym>NFS</acronym> 掛載對應到的使用者 <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> 可寫入的通用共享目錄。每一台主機應設定 <varname>WRKDIRPREFIX</varname> 到一個本地的編譯目錄,若 Port 要在本地編譯。或者,若建置系統要編譯並散佈套件到建置集中的主機可在建置系統上設定 <varname>PACKAGES</varname> 到一個類似 <varname>DISTDIR</varname> 的目錄。</para>
</sect1>
</chapter>
@@ -45960,9 +45069,9 @@ mail IN A 192.168.1.5</programlisting>
<para xml:lang="en">The SHA-256 <acronym>RR</acronym> can now be compared
to the digest in <link xlink:href="https://data.iana.org/root-anchors/root-anchors.xml">https://data.iana.org/root-anchors/root-anchors.xml</link>.
To be absolutely sure that the key has not been tampered
- with the data in the <acronym>XML</acronym> file can be
- verified using the <acronym>PGP</acronym> signature in
- <link xlink:href="https://data.iana.org/root-anchors/root-anchors.asc">https://data.iana.org/root-anchors/root-anchors.asc</link>.</para>
+ with the data in the <acronym>XML</acronym> file should be
+ verified using a proper <acronym>PGP</acronym> signature.</para>
+
<para xml:lang="en">Next, the key must be formatted properly. This
differs a little between <acronym>BIND</acronym> versions
@@ -46913,7 +46022,8 @@ AddModule mod_php5.c
<para xml:lang="en">A FreeBSD system can also be configured to act as a
<application>Samba</application> server by installing the
<package>net/samba43</package> port or package. This allows the
- administrator to create <acronym>SMB</acronym>/<acronym>CIFS</acronym>shares on
+ administrator to create <acronym>SMB</acronym>/<acronym>CIFS</acronym>
+ shares on
the FreeBSD system which can be accessed by clients running
<trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> or the <application>Samba</application>
client libraries.</para>
@@ -52031,6 +51141,11 @@ route_net2="-net 192.168.1.0/24 192.168.1.1"</programlisting>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig | grep -B3 -i wireless</userinput></screen>
+ <para xml:lang="en">On FreeBSD 11 or higher, use this command
+ instead:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>sysctl net.wlan.devices</userinput></screen>
+
<para xml:lang="en">If a wireless adapter is not listed, an additional
kernel module might be required, or it might be a model
not supported by FreeBSD.</para>
@@ -53493,7 +52608,7 @@ freebsdap 00:11:95:c3:0d:ac 1 54M 22:1 100 EPS</screen>
scanning for access points and the 802.11 protocol
handshakes required to arrange communication:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>wlandebug -i <replaceable>ath0</replaceable> +scan+auth+debug+assoc</userinput>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>wlandebug -i <replaceable>wlan0</replaceable> +scan+auth+debug+assoc</userinput>
net.wlan.0.debug: 0 =&gt; 0xc80000&lt;assoc,auth,scan&gt;</screen>
<para xml:lang="en">Many useful statistics are maintained by the 802.11
@@ -55872,12 +54987,6 @@ rtsold_enable="YES"</programlisting>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.sixxs.net">SixXS</link>
- offers tunnels with end-points all around the
- globe.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.tunnelbroker.net">Hurricane
Electric</link> offers tunnels with end-points all
around the globe.</para>
diff --git a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po
index 2ca7eea39c..63f013879c 100644
--- a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po
+++ b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po
@@ -2,15 +2,15 @@
msgid ""
msgstr ""
"Project-Id-Version: \n"
-"POT-Creation-Date: 2017-02-23 16:27+0800\n"
-"PO-Revision-Date: 2017-02-23 16:17+0800\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2017-05-24 18:05+0800\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: 2017-05-24 00:49+0800\n"
"Last-Translator: Chien Wei Lin <cwlin0416@gmail.com>\n"
"Language-Team: \n"
"Language: zh_TW\n"
"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
-"X-Generator: Poedit 1.8.12\n"
+"X-Generator: Poedit 2.0.2\n"
#. Put one translator per line, in the form NAME <EMAIL>, YEAR1, YEAR2
msgctxt "_"
@@ -18,42 +18,42 @@ msgid "translator-credits"
msgstr "Chien Wei Lin <cwlin0416@gmail.com>"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:612
+#: book.translate.xml:618
msgid "FreeBSD Handbook"
msgstr "FreeBSD 使用手冊"
#. (itstool) path: info/author
-#: book.translate.xml:614
+#: book.translate.xml:620
msgid "<orgname>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</orgname>"
msgstr "<orgname>FreeBSD 文件計劃</orgname>"
#. (itstool) path: info/pubdate
#. (itstool) path: info/releaseinfo
-#: book.translate.xml:618 book.translate.xml:620
+#: book.translate.xml:624 book.translate.xml:626
msgid ""
-"$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/book.xml 49576 2016-10-25 "
-"16:21:58Z gjb $"
+"$FreeBSD: head/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/book.xml 50274 2017-05-23 "
+"18:00:40Z gjb $"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: info/copyright
-#: book.translate.xml:622
+#: book.translate.xml:628
msgid ""
"<year>1995</year> <year>1996</year> <year>1997</year> <year>1998</year> "
"<year>1999</year> <year>2000</year> <year>2001</year> <year>2002</year> "
"<year>2003</year> <year>2004</year> <year>2005</year> <year>2006</year> "
"<year>2007</year> <year>2008</year> <year>2009</year> <year>2010</year> "
"<year>2011</year> <year>2012</year> <year>2013</year> <year>2014</year> "
-"<year>2015</year> <year>2016</year> <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation "
-"Project</holder>"
+"<year>2015</year> <year>2016</year> <year>2017</year> <holder>The FreeBSD "
+"Documentation Project</holder>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/title
-#: book.translate.xml:650
+#: book.translate.xml:657
msgid "Copyright"
msgstr "版權"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:652
+#: book.translate.xml:659
msgid ""
"Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, "
"HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are "
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:659
+#: book.translate.xml:666
msgid ""
"Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the above copyright "
"notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer as the first "
@@ -69,7 +69,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:665
+#: book.translate.xml:672
msgid ""
"Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs, converted to "
"PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce the above copyright "
@@ -78,7 +78,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:674
+#: book.translate.xml:681
msgid ""
"THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT \"AS IS"
"\" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE "
@@ -94,32 +94,32 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:691
+#: book.translate.xml:698
msgid "FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation."
msgstr "FreeBSD 是 FreeBSD 基金會的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:693
+#: book.translate.xml:700
msgid "3Com and HomeConnect are registered trademarks of 3Com Corporation."
msgstr "3Com 和 HomeConnect 是 3Com Corporation 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:695
+#: book.translate.xml:702
msgid "3ware is a registered trademark of 3ware Inc."
msgstr "3ware 是 3ware Inc 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:697
+#: book.translate.xml:704
msgid "ARM is a registered trademark of ARM Limited."
msgstr "ARM 是 ARM Limited. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:699
+#: book.translate.xml:706
msgid "Adaptec is a registered trademark of Adaptec, Inc."
msgstr "Adaptec 是 Adaptec, Inc. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:701
+#: book.translate.xml:708
msgid ""
"Adobe, Acrobat, Acrobat Reader, Flash and PostScript are either registered "
"trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States "
@@ -129,7 +129,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Incorporated 在美國和/或其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:705
+#: book.translate.xml:712
msgid ""
"Apple, AirPort, FireWire, iMac, iPhone, iPad, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, "
"Quicktime, and TrueType are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. "
@@ -139,12 +139,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Quicktime 以及 TrueType 是 Apple Inc. 在美國以及其他國家的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:710
+#: book.translate.xml:717
msgid "Android is a trademark of Google Inc."
msgstr "Android 是 Google Inc 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:712
+#: book.translate.xml:719
msgid ""
"Heidelberg, Helvetica, Palatino, and Times Roman are either registered "
"trademarks or trademarks of Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG in the U.S. and "
@@ -154,7 +154,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Druckmaschinen AG 在美國以及其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:716
+#: book.translate.xml:723
msgid ""
"IBM, AIX, OS/2, PowerPC, PS/2, S/390, and ThinkPad are trademarks of "
"International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other "
@@ -164,7 +164,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Machines Corporation 在美國和其他國家的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:720
+#: book.translate.xml:727
msgid ""
"IEEE, POSIX, and 802 are registered trademarks of Institute of Electrical "
"and Electronics Engineers, Inc. in the United States."
@@ -173,7 +173,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Inc. 在美國的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:723
+#: book.translate.xml:730
msgid ""
"Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, "
"and Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its "
@@ -183,7 +183,7 @@ msgstr ""
"及 Xeon 是 Intel Corporation 及其分支機構在美國和其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:727
+#: book.translate.xml:734
msgid ""
"Intuit and Quicken are registered trademarks and/or registered service marks "
"of Intuit Inc., or one of its subsidiaries, in the United States and other "
@@ -193,12 +193,12 @@ msgstr ""
"標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:730
+#: book.translate.xml:737
msgid "Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds."
msgstr "Linux 是 Linus Torvalds 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:732
+#: book.translate.xml:739
msgid ""
"LSI Logic, AcceleRAID, eXtremeRAID, MegaRAID and Mylex are trademarks or "
"registered trademarks of LSI Logic Corp."
@@ -207,7 +207,7 @@ msgstr ""
"商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:735
+#: book.translate.xml:742
msgid ""
"Microsoft, IntelliMouse, MS-DOS, Outlook, Windows, Windows Media and Windows "
"NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation "
@@ -217,7 +217,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Windows NT 是 Microsoft Corporation 在美國和/或其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:739
+#: book.translate.xml:746
msgid ""
"Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and The "
"Open Group are trademarks of The Open Group in the United States and other "
@@ -227,12 +227,12 @@ msgstr ""
"DialTone 和 The Open Group 是其商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:743
+#: book.translate.xml:750
msgid "Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation."
msgstr "Oracle 是 Oracle Corporation 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:745
+#: book.translate.xml:752
msgid ""
"RealNetworks, RealPlayer, and RealAudio are the registered trademarks of "
"RealNetworks, Inc."
@@ -240,14 +240,14 @@ msgstr ""
"RealNetworks, RealPlayer, 和 RealAudio 是 RealNetworks, Inc. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:748
+#: book.translate.xml:755
msgid ""
"Red Hat, RPM, are trademarks or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in "
"the United States and other countries."
msgstr "Red Hat, RPM, 是 Red Hat, Inc. 在美國和其他國家的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:751
+#: book.translate.xml:758
msgid ""
"Sun, Sun Microsystems, Java, Java Virtual Machine, JDK, JRE, JSP, JVM, "
"Netra, OpenJDK, Solaris, StarOffice, SunOS and VirtualBox are trademarks or "
@@ -259,37 +259,37 @@ msgstr ""
"Microsystems, Inc. 在美國和其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:756
+#: book.translate.xml:763
msgid "MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc."
msgstr "MATLAB 是 The MathWorks, Inc. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:758
+#: book.translate.xml:765
msgid "SpeedTouch is a trademark of Thomson."
msgstr "SpeedTouch 是 Thomson 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:760
+#: book.translate.xml:767
msgid "VMware is a trademark of VMware, Inc."
msgstr "VMware 是 VMware, Inc. 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:762
+#: book.translate.xml:769
msgid "Mathematica is a registered trademark of Wolfram Research, Inc."
msgstr "Mathematica 是 Wolfram Research, Inc 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:764
+#: book.translate.xml:771
msgid "XFree86 is a trademark of The XFree86 Project, Inc."
msgstr "XFree86 是 The XFree86 Project, Inc 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:766
+#: book.translate.xml:773
msgid "Ogg Vorbis and Xiph.Org are trademarks of Xiph.Org."
msgstr "Ogg Vorbis 以及 Xiph.Org 是 Xiph.Org 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:768
+#: book.translate.xml:775
msgid ""
"Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish "
"their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in "
@@ -302,7 +302,7 @@ msgstr ""
"quote> 或 <quote>®</quote> 符號來標示。"
#. (itstool) path: abstract/para
-#: book.translate.xml:777
+#: book.translate.xml:784
msgid ""
"Welcome to FreeBSD! This handbook covers the installation and day to day use "
"of <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.0-RELEASE</emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 10.3-"
@@ -320,7 +320,7 @@ msgstr ""
"mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc\">FreeBSD 文件專案郵遞論壇</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: abstract/para
-#: book.translate.xml:786
+#: book.translate.xml:793
msgid ""
"The latest version of this book is available from the <link xlink:href="
"\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/\">FreeBSD web site</link>. Previous versions can "
@@ -345,18 +345,18 @@ msgstr ""
"件的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/title
-#: book.translate.xml:807
+#: book.translate.xml:814
msgid "Preface"
msgstr "序"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-audience
-#: book.translate.xml:809
+#: book.translate.xml:816
msgid "Intended Audience"
msgstr "給讀者的話"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:812
+#: book.translate.xml:819
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD newcomer will find that the first section of this book guides "
"the user through the FreeBSD installation process and gently introduces the "
@@ -370,7 +370,7 @@ msgstr ""
"一些常用、共通的東西。而閱讀這部分並不難,只需要您有探索的精神和接受新概念。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:819
+#: book.translate.xml:826
msgid ""
"Once you have traveled this far, the second, far larger, section of the "
"Handbook is a comprehensive reference to all manner of topics of interest to "
@@ -383,7 +383,7 @@ msgstr ""
"不熟的話,可在閱讀前先預習一番。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:826
+#: book.translate.xml:833
msgid ""
"For a list of additional sources of information, please see <xref linkend="
"\"bibliography\"/>."
@@ -391,12 +391,12 @@ msgstr "延伸閱讀方面,可參閱 <xref linkend=\"bibliography\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes-from3
-#: book.translate.xml:829
+#: book.translate.xml:836
msgid "Changes from the Third Edition"
msgstr "自第三版後的主要修訂"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:832
+#: book.translate.xml:839
msgid ""
"The current online version of the Handbook represents the cumulative effort "
"of many hundreds of contributors over the past 10 years. The following are "
@@ -407,7 +407,7 @@ msgstr ""
"2014 年發佈的兩冊第三版後所做的主要修訂:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:839
+#: book.translate.xml:846
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"dtrace\"/> has been added with information about the "
"powerful DTrace performance analysis tool."
@@ -415,7 +415,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"dtrace\"/> 增加說明有關強大的 DTrace 效能分析工具的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:844
+#: book.translate.xml:851
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"filesystems\"/> has been added with information about non-"
"native file systems in FreeBSD, such as ZFS from <trademark>Sun</trademark>."
@@ -424,7 +424,7 @@ msgstr ""
"自 <trademark>Sun</trademark> 的 ZSF。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:850
+#: book.translate.xml:857
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"audit\"/> has been added to cover the new auditing "
"capabilities in FreeBSD and explain its use."
@@ -432,7 +432,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"audit\"/> 增加的內容涵蓋 FreeBSD 的新稽查功能及其使用說明。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:855
+#: book.translate.xml:862
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"virtualization\"/> has been added with information about "
"installing FreeBSD on virtualization software."
@@ -440,7 +440,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"virtualization\"/> 增加有關在虛擬化軟體安裝 FreeBSD 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:861
+#: book.translate.xml:868
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"bsdinstall\"/> has been added to cover installation of "
"FreeBSD using the new installation utility, <application>bsdinstall</"
@@ -451,12 +451,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes-from2
-#: book.translate.xml:867
+#: book.translate.xml:874
msgid "Changes from the Second Edition (2004)"
msgstr "自第二版後的主要修訂 (2004)"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:870
+#: book.translate.xml:877
msgid ""
"The third edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the "
"dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project. The printed edition "
@@ -467,7 +467,7 @@ msgstr ""
"文件內容成長到一定大小,印刷版需要分成兩冊發佈。新版的主要修訂部分如下:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:878
+#: book.translate.xml:885
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/> has been expanded with new information "
"about the ACPI power and resource management, the <command>cron</command> "
@@ -477,7 +477,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>cron</command> 以及其他更多的核心調校選項說明內容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:885
+#: book.translate.xml:892
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"security\"/> has been expanded with new information about "
"virtual private networks (VPNs), file system access control lists (ACLs), "
@@ -487,7 +487,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(ACL),以及安全報告。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:891
+#: book.translate.xml:898
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"mac\"/> is a new chapter with this edition. It explains what "
"MAC is and how this mechanism can be used to secure a FreeBSD system."
@@ -496,7 +496,7 @@ msgstr ""
"何運用它來使您的 FreeBSD 系統更安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:897
+#: book.translate.xml:904
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"disks\"/> has been expanded with new information about USB "
"storage devices, file system snapshots, file system quotas, file and network "
@@ -507,13 +507,13 @@ msgstr ""
"詳解。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:904
+#: book.translate.xml:911
msgid ""
"A troubleshooting section has been added to <xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/> 增加了疑難排解的章節。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:908
+#: book.translate.xml:915
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"mail\"/> has been expanded with new information about using "
"alternative transport agents, SMTP authentication, UUCP, "
@@ -525,7 +525,7 @@ msgstr ""
"application> 的運用以及其它進階主題。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:916
+#: book.translate.xml:923
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"network-servers\"/> is all new with this edition. This "
"chapter includes information about setting up the <application>Apache HTTP "
@@ -543,7 +543,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"advanced-networking\"/> 。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:926
+#: book.translate.xml:933
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/> has been expanded with new "
"information about using <trademark class=\"registered\">Bluetooth</"
@@ -555,14 +555,14 @@ msgstr ""
"式 (Asynchronous Transfer Mode, ATM) 網路的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:933
+#: book.translate.xml:940
msgid ""
"A glossary has been added to provide a central location for the definitions "
"of technical terms used throughout the book."
msgstr "增加詞彙表,用以說明全書中出現的術語。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:939
+#: book.translate.xml:946
msgid ""
"A number of aesthetic improvements have been made to the tables and figures "
"throughout the book."
@@ -570,12 +570,12 @@ msgstr "重新美編書中所列的圖表。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes
-#: book.translate.xml:944
+#: book.translate.xml:951
msgid "Changes from the First Edition (2001)"
msgstr "自第一版後的主要修訂 (2001)"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:947
+#: book.translate.xml:954
msgid ""
"The second edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the "
"dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project. The following were "
@@ -585,17 +585,17 @@ msgstr ""
"變動如下︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:955
+#: book.translate.xml:962
msgid "A complete Index has been added."
msgstr "增加完整的目錄索引。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:959
+#: book.translate.xml:966
msgid "All ASCII figures have been replaced by graphical diagrams."
msgstr "所有的 ASCII 圖表均改成圖檔格式的圖表。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:964
+#: book.translate.xml:971
msgid ""
"A standard synopsis has been added to each chapter to give a quick summary "
"of what information the chapter contains, and what the reader is expected to "
@@ -603,7 +603,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr "每個章節均加入概述,以便快速的瀏覽該章節內容摘要、讀者所欲了解的部分。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:970
+#: book.translate.xml:977
msgid ""
"The content has been logically reorganized into three parts: <quote>Getting "
"Started</quote>, <quote>System Administration</quote>, and "
@@ -613,7 +613,7 @@ msgstr ""
"及 <quote>附錄</quote>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:977
+#: book.translate.xml:984
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"basics\"/> has been expanded to contain additional "
"information about processes, daemons, and signals."
@@ -621,14 +621,14 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"basics\"/> 新增了程序、Daemon 以及信號 (Signal) 的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:983
+#: book.translate.xml:990
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"ports\"/> has been expanded to contain additional "
"information about binary package management."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"ports\"/> 新增了介紹如何管理 Binary 套件的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:989
+#: book.translate.xml:996
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"x11\"/> has been completely rewritten with an emphasis on "
"using modern desktop technologies such as <application>KDE</application> and "
@@ -639,12 +639,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>GNOME</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:996
+#: book.translate.xml:1003
msgid "<xref linkend=\"boot\"/> has been expanded."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"boot\"/> 更新相關內容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1000
+#: book.translate.xml:1007
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"disks\"/> has been written from what used to be two separate "
"chapters on <quote>Disks</quote> and <quote>Backups</quote>. We feel that "
@@ -656,7 +656,7 @@ msgstr ""
"體、軟體 RAID) 的段落也新增上去了。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1009
+#: book.translate.xml:1016
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"serialcomms\"/> has been completely reorganized and updated "
"for FreeBSD 4.X/5.X."
@@ -665,18 +665,18 @@ msgstr ""
"容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1014
+#: book.translate.xml:1021
msgid "<xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/> has been substantially updated."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/> 有相當程度的更新。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1019
+#: book.translate.xml:1026
msgid ""
"Many new sections have been added to <xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/> 加入許多新內容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1023
+#: book.translate.xml:1030
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"mail\"/> has been expanded to include more information about "
"configuring <application>sendmail</application>."
@@ -685,7 +685,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1029
+#: book.translate.xml:1036
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"linuxemu\"/> has been expanded to include information about "
"installing <application><trademark class=\"registered\">Oracle</trademark></"
@@ -698,28 +698,28 @@ msgstr ""
"trademark></application> 的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1036
+#: book.translate.xml:1043
msgid "The following new topics are covered in this second edition:"
msgstr "此外,第二版還新加章節,以介紹下列新主題:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1041
+#: book.translate.xml:1048
msgid "<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1045
+#: book.translate.xml:1052
msgid "<xref linkend=\"multimedia\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"multimedia\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-overview
-#: book.translate.xml:1051
+#: book.translate.xml:1058
msgid "Organization of This Book"
msgstr "本書架構"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1053
+#: book.translate.xml:1060
msgid ""
"This book is split into five logically distinct sections. The first section, "
"<emphasis>Getting Started</emphasis>, covers the installation and basic "
@@ -744,14 +744,14 @@ msgstr ""
"則包括網路和各式伺服器主題;而第五部分則為附錄包含各種有關 FreeBSD 的資源。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1078
+#: book.translate.xml:1085
msgid ""
"Introduces FreeBSD to a new user. It describes the history of the FreeBSD "
"Project, its goals and development model."
msgstr "向新手介紹 FreeBSD。該篇說明了 FreeBSD 計劃的歷史、目標和開發模式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1088
+#: book.translate.xml:1095
msgid ""
"Walks a user through the entire installation process of FreeBSD 9."
"<replaceable>x</replaceable> and later using <application>bsdinstall</"
@@ -761,7 +761,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>x</replaceable> 及之後版本的完整安裝流程。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1098
+#: book.translate.xml:1105
msgid ""
"Covers the basic commands and functionality of the FreeBSD operating system. "
"If you are familiar with <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> "
@@ -772,7 +772,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\">Linux</trademark> 或其他類 UNIX® 系統,您則可跳過此章。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1109
+#: book.translate.xml:1116
msgid ""
"Covers the installation of third-party software with both FreeBSD's "
"innovative <quote>Ports Collection</quote> and standard binary packages."
@@ -781,7 +781,7 @@ msgstr ""
"第三方軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1119
+#: book.translate.xml:1126
msgid ""
"Describes the X Window System in general and using X11 on FreeBSD in "
"particular. Also describes common desktop environments such as "
@@ -791,7 +791,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>KDE</application> 與 <application>GNOME</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1132
+#: book.translate.xml:1139
msgid ""
"Lists some common desktop applications, such as web browsers and "
"productivity suites, and describes how to install them on FreeBSD."
@@ -800,7 +800,7 @@ msgstr ""
"程式到 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1141
+#: book.translate.xml:1148
msgid ""
"Shows how to set up sound and video playback support for your system. Also "
"describes some sample audio and video applications."
@@ -809,14 +809,14 @@ msgstr ""
"用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1151
+#: book.translate.xml:1158
msgid ""
"Explains why you might need to configure a new kernel and provides detailed "
"instructions for configuring, building, and installing a custom kernel."
msgstr "說明為何需要設定新的核心並會提供設定、編譯與安裝的詳細操作說明。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1161
+#: book.translate.xml:1168
msgid ""
"Describes managing printers on FreeBSD, including information about banner "
"pages, printer accounting, and initial setup."
@@ -824,7 +824,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹如何在 FreeBSD 管理印表機,包含橫幅頁面、列印帳務以及初始設定等資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1171
+#: book.translate.xml:1178
msgid ""
"Describes the <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> "
"compatibility features of FreeBSD. Also provides detailed installation "
@@ -840,7 +840,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"registered\">Mathematica</trademark></application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1185
+#: book.translate.xml:1192
msgid ""
"Describes the parameters available for system administrators to tune a "
"FreeBSD system for optimum performance. Also describes the various "
@@ -850,14 +850,14 @@ msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 用到的各種設定檔以及到何處尋找這些設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1196
+#: book.translate.xml:1203
msgid ""
"Describes the FreeBSD boot process and explains how to control this process "
"with configuration options."
msgstr "介紹 FreeBSD 開機流程並說明如何使用設定選項控制開機流程。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1205
+#: book.translate.xml:1212
msgid ""
"Describes many different tools available to help keep your FreeBSD system "
"secure, including Kerberos, IPsec and OpenSSH."
@@ -866,7 +866,7 @@ msgstr ""
"OpenSSH。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1215
+#: book.translate.xml:1222
msgid ""
"Describes the jails framework, and the improvements of jails over the "
"traditional chroot support of FreeBSD."
@@ -874,7 +874,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹 Jail Framework,以及 Jail 改進那些 FreeBSD 傳統 chroot 不足的地方。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1224
+#: book.translate.xml:1231
msgid ""
"Explains what Mandatory Access Control (MAC) is and how this mechanism can "
"be used to secure a FreeBSD system."
@@ -883,7 +883,7 @@ msgstr ""
"保 FreeBSD 系統的安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1234
+#: book.translate.xml:1241
msgid ""
"Describes what FreeBSD Event Auditing is, how it can be installed, "
"configured, and how audit trails can be inspected or monitored."
@@ -891,7 +891,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹什麼事 FreeBSD 事件稽查,如何安裝與設定,以及如何檢查與監控稽查線索。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1244
+#: book.translate.xml:1251
msgid ""
"Describes how to manage storage media and filesystems with FreeBSD. This "
"includes physical disks, RAID arrays, optical and tape media, memory-backed "
@@ -901,7 +901,7 @@ msgstr ""
"與磁帶媒體、記憶體為基礎的磁碟以及網路檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1255
+#: book.translate.xml:1262
msgid ""
"Describes what the GEOM framework in FreeBSD is and how to configure various "
"supported RAID levels."
@@ -909,7 +909,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹在 FreeBSD 中的 GEOM Framework 是什麼,以及如何設定各種支援的 RAID 階層。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1264
+#: book.translate.xml:1271
msgid ""
"Examines support of non-native file systems in FreeBSD, like the Z File "
"System from <trademark>Sun</trademark>."
@@ -918,21 +918,21 @@ msgstr ""
"案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1273
+#: book.translate.xml:1280
msgid ""
"Describes what virtualization systems offer, and how they can be used with "
"FreeBSD."
msgstr "介紹虛擬化系統提供了那些功能,以及如何在 FreeBSD 上使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1282
+#: book.translate.xml:1289
msgid ""
"Describes how to use FreeBSD in languages other than English. Covers both "
"system and application level localization."
msgstr "介紹如何在 FreeBSD 使用非英文的語言,這涵蓋了系統及應用層的在地化。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1292
+#: book.translate.xml:1299
msgid ""
"Explains the differences between FreeBSD-STABLE, FreeBSD-CURRENT, and "
"FreeBSD releases. Describes which users would benefit from tracking a "
@@ -944,7 +944,7 @@ msgstr ""
"佈版本的方法。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1305
+#: book.translate.xml:1312
msgid ""
"Describes how to configure and use the DTrace tool from <trademark>Sun</"
"trademark> in FreeBSD. Dynamic tracing can help locate performance issues, "
@@ -954,19 +954,19 @@ msgstr ""
"追蹤可以透過執行真實時間系統分析來協助定位效能問題。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1318
+#: book.translate.xml:1325
msgid ""
"Explains how to connect terminals and modems to your FreeBSD system for both "
"dial in and dial out connections."
msgstr "介紹如何使用撥入及撥出連線到您的 FreeBSD 系統的終端機與數據機。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1328
+#: book.translate.xml:1335
msgid "Describes how to use PPP to connect to remote systems with FreeBSD."
msgstr "介紹如何在 FreeBSD 使用 PPP 來連線遠端的系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1337
+#: book.translate.xml:1344
msgid ""
"Explains the different components of an email server and dives into simple "
"configuration topics for the most popular mail server software: "
@@ -976,7 +976,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>sendmail</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1348
+#: book.translate.xml:1355
msgid ""
"Provides detailed instructions and example configuration files to set up "
"your FreeBSD machine as a network filesystem server, domain name server, "
@@ -986,7 +986,7 @@ msgstr ""
"網域名稱伺服器、網路資訊系統伺服器或時間同步伺服器。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1359
+#: book.translate.xml:1366
msgid ""
"Explains the philosophy behind software-based firewalls and provides "
"detailed information about the configuration of the different firewalls "
@@ -996,7 +996,7 @@ msgstr ""
"細資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1369
+#: book.translate.xml:1376
msgid ""
"Describes many networking topics, including sharing an Internet connection "
"with other computers on your LAN, advanced routing topics, wireless "
@@ -1008,7 +1008,7 @@ msgstr ""
"ATM、IPv6 以及更多相關主題。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1382
+#: book.translate.xml:1389
msgid ""
"Lists different sources for obtaining FreeBSD media on CDROM or DVD as well "
"as different sites on the Internet that allow you to download and install "
@@ -1018,7 +1018,7 @@ msgstr ""
"您可以下載並安裝 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1392
+#: book.translate.xml:1399
msgid ""
"This book touches on many different subjects that may leave you hungry for a "
"more detailed explanation. The bibliography lists many excellent books that "
@@ -1028,7 +1028,7 @@ msgstr ""
"多優秀書籍。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1403
+#: book.translate.xml:1410
msgid ""
"Describes the many forums available for FreeBSD users to post questions and "
"engage in technical conversations about FreeBSD."
@@ -1036,18 +1036,18 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹了可讓 FreeBSD 使用者提出問題以及參與有關 FreeBSD 技術會談的許多論壇。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1413
+#: book.translate.xml:1420
msgid "Lists the PGP fingerprints of several FreeBSD Developers."
msgstr "列出了數個 FreeBSD 開發人員的 PGP 指紋。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv
-#: book.translate.xml:1419
+#: book.translate.xml:1426
msgid "Conventions used in this book"
msgstr "本書的編排體裁"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1422
+#: book.translate.xml:1429
msgid ""
"To provide a consistent and easy to read text, several conventions are "
"followed throughout the book."
@@ -1055,17 +1055,17 @@ msgstr "為方便閱讀本書,以下是一些本書所遵循的編排體裁:
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-typographic
-#: book.translate.xml:1425
+#: book.translate.xml:1432
msgid "Typographic Conventions"
msgstr "文字編排體裁"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:1429
+#: book.translate.xml:1436
msgid "<emphasis>Italic</emphasis>"
msgstr "<emphasis>斜體字</emphasis>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1432
+#: book.translate.xml:1439
msgid ""
"An <emphasis>italic</emphasis> font is used for filenames, URLs, emphasized "
"text, and the first usage of technical terms."
@@ -1074,12 +1074,12 @@ msgstr ""
"次提及的技術詞彙。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:1439
+#: book.translate.xml:1446
msgid "<literal>Monospace</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>等寬字</literal>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1442
+#: book.translate.xml:1449
msgid ""
"A <literal>monospaced</literal> font is used for error messages, commands, "
"environment variables, names of ports, hostnames, user names, group names, "
@@ -1089,24 +1089,24 @@ msgstr ""
"稱、帳號、群組、裝置名稱、變數、程式碼等。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:1450
+#: book.translate.xml:1457
msgid "<application>Bold</application>"
msgstr "<application>粗體字</application>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1453
+#: book.translate.xml:1460
msgid ""
"A <keycap>bold</keycap> font is used for applications, commands, and keys."
msgstr "以<keycap>粗體字</keycap>表示:應用程式、指令、按鍵。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-commands
-#: book.translate.xml:1460
+#: book.translate.xml:1467
msgid "User Input"
msgstr "使用者輸入"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1463
+#: book.translate.xml:1470
msgid ""
"Keys are shown in <keycap>bold</keycap> to stand out from other text. Key "
"combinations that are meant to be typed simultaneously are shown with "
@@ -1116,14 +1116,14 @@ msgstr ""
"按下一些按鍵,我們以 `<literal>+</literal>' 來表示連接,像是:"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1468
+#: book.translate.xml:1475
msgid ""
"<keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>Alt</keycap> "
"<keycap>Del</keycap></keycombo>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1474
+#: book.translate.xml:1481
msgid ""
"Meaning the user should type the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>, <keycap>Alt</"
"keycap>, and <keycap>Del</keycap> keys at the same time."
@@ -1132,14 +1132,14 @@ msgstr ""
"keycap> 鍵。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1478
+#: book.translate.xml:1485
msgid ""
"Keys that are meant to be typed in sequence will be separated with commas, "
"for example:"
msgstr "若要逐一按鍵,那麼會以逗號 (,) 來表示,像是:"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1481
+#: book.translate.xml:1488
msgid ""
"<keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>X</keycap> </"
"keycombo>, <keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>S</"
@@ -1147,7 +1147,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1490
+#: book.translate.xml:1497
msgid ""
"Would mean that the user is expected to type the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> and "
"<keycap>X</keycap> keys simultaneously and then to type the <keycap>Ctrl</"
@@ -1158,12 +1158,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-examples
-#: book.translate.xml:1496
+#: book.translate.xml:1503
msgid "Examples"
msgstr "範例"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1498
+#: book.translate.xml:1505
msgid ""
"Examples starting with <filename>C:\\&gt;</filename> indicate a <trademark "
"class=\"registered\">MS-DOS</trademark> command. Unless otherwise noted, "
@@ -1178,13 +1178,13 @@ msgstr ""
"Prompt)</quote> 視窗內執行。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:1504
+#: book.translate.xml:1511
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>E:\\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>tools\\fdimage floppies\\kern.flp A:</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1506
+#: book.translate.xml:1513
msgid ""
"Examples starting with <prompt>#</prompt> indicate a command that must be "
"invoked as the superuser in FreeBSD. You can login as <systemitem class="
@@ -1198,13 +1198,13 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來取得超級使用者權限。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:1512
+#: book.translate.xml:1519
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dd if=kern.flp of=/dev/fd0</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1514
+#: book.translate.xml:1521
msgid ""
"Examples starting with <prompt>%</prompt> indicate a command that should be "
"invoked from a normal user account. Unless otherwise noted, C-shell syntax "
@@ -1215,19 +1215,19 @@ msgstr ""
"其他指令的意思。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:1519
+#: book.translate.xml:1526
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>top</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-acknowledgements
-#: book.translate.xml:1521
+#: book.translate.xml:1528
msgid "Acknowledgments"
msgstr "銘謝"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1523
+#: book.translate.xml:1530
msgid ""
"The book you are holding represents the efforts of many hundreds of people "
"around the world. Whether they sent in fixes for typos, or submitted "
@@ -1237,7 +1237,7 @@ msgstr ""
"糾正一些錯誤或提交完整的章節,所有的點滴貢獻都是非常寶貴有用的。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1528
+#: book.translate.xml:1535
msgid ""
"Several companies have supported the development of this document by paying "
"authors to work on it full-time, paying for publication, etc. In particular, "
@@ -1263,43 +1263,43 @@ msgstr ""
"手冊以使第三版印刷版本能夠出版的志工。"
#. (itstool) path: part/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1547
+#: book.translate.xml:1554
msgid "Getting Started"
msgstr "入門"
#. (itstool) path: partintro/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1550
+#: book.translate.xml:1557
msgid ""
"This part of the handbook is for users and administrators who are new to "
"FreeBSD. These chapters:"
msgstr "這部份是提供給初次使用 FreeBSD 的使用者和系統管理者。 這些章節包括:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1555
+#: book.translate.xml:1562
msgid "Introduce FreeBSD."
msgstr "介紹 FreeBSD 給您。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1559
+#: book.translate.xml:1566
msgid "Guide readers through the installation process."
msgstr "在安裝過程給您指引。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1563
+#: book.translate.xml:1570
msgid ""
"Teach <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> basics and "
"fundamentals."
msgstr "教您 <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> 的基礎及原理。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1567
+#: book.translate.xml:1574
msgid ""
"Show how to install the wealth of third party applications available for "
"FreeBSD."
msgstr "展示給您看如何安裝豐富的 FreeBSD 的應用軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1572
+#: book.translate.xml:1579
msgid ""
"Introduce X, the <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> windowing "
"system, and detail how to configure a desktop environment that makes users "
@@ -1309,7 +1309,7 @@ msgstr ""
"細的桌面環境設定,讓您更有生產力。"
#. (itstool) path: partintro/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1578
+#: book.translate.xml:1585
msgid ""
"The number of forward references in the text have been kept to a minimum so "
"that this section can be read from front to back with minimal page flipping."
@@ -1320,12 +1320,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: info/title
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1592 book.translate.xml:23826 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:1599 book.translate.xml:23833 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "Introduction"
msgstr "簡介"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:1595 book.translate.xml:2860
+#: book.translate.xml:1602 book.translate.xml:2867
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Jim</firstname> <surname>Mock</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Restructured, reorganized, and parts rewritten by </"
@@ -1333,21 +1333,21 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1607 book.translate.xml:2915 book.translate.xml:5527
-#: book.translate.xml:8916 book.translate.xml:10649 book.translate.xml:12839
-#: book.translate.xml:13968 book.translate.xml:15589 book.translate.xml:18072
-#: book.translate.xml:19340 book.translate.xml:22825 book.translate.xml:23738
-#: book.translate.xml:27837 book.translate.xml:29447 book.translate.xml:31215
-#: book.translate.xml:31949 book.translate.xml:35602 book.translate.xml:41534
-#: book.translate.xml:41741 book.translate.xml:43022 book.translate.xml:44062
-#: book.translate.xml:46211 book.translate.xml:46596 book.translate.xml:48799
-#: book.translate.xml:50467 book.translate.xml:52380 book.translate.xml:58109
-#: book.translate.xml:61796
+#: book.translate.xml:1614 book.translate.xml:2922 book.translate.xml:5534
+#: book.translate.xml:8923 book.translate.xml:10656 book.translate.xml:12846
+#: book.translate.xml:13975 book.translate.xml:15596 book.translate.xml:18079
+#: book.translate.xml:19347 book.translate.xml:22832 book.translate.xml:23745
+#: book.translate.xml:27844 book.translate.xml:29454 book.translate.xml:31222
+#: book.translate.xml:31956 book.translate.xml:35736 book.translate.xml:41668
+#: book.translate.xml:41875 book.translate.xml:43231 book.translate.xml:44271
+#: book.translate.xml:45832 book.translate.xml:46217 book.translate.xml:48420
+#: book.translate.xml:50088 book.translate.xml:52001 book.translate.xml:57731
+#: book.translate.xml:61418
msgid "Synopsis"
msgstr "概述"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1609
+#: book.translate.xml:1616
msgid ""
"Thank you for your interest in FreeBSD! The following chapter covers various "
"aspects of the FreeBSD Project, such as its history, goals, development "
@@ -1357,55 +1357,55 @@ msgstr ""
"史、目標、開發模式等等。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1613 book.translate.xml:2942 book.translate.xml:5534
-#: book.translate.xml:8928 book.translate.xml:10670 book.translate.xml:15602
-#: book.translate.xml:18098 book.translate.xml:19354 book.translate.xml:23751
-#: book.translate.xml:27909 book.translate.xml:29474 book.translate.xml:31239
-#: book.translate.xml:31957 book.translate.xml:35628 book.translate.xml:41566
-#: book.translate.xml:41749 book.translate.xml:44074 book.translate.xml:46249
-#: book.translate.xml:46607 book.translate.xml:48810 book.translate.xml:50478
-#: book.translate.xml:58164 book.translate.xml:61801
+#: book.translate.xml:1620 book.translate.xml:2949 book.translate.xml:5541
+#: book.translate.xml:8935 book.translate.xml:10677 book.translate.xml:15609
+#: book.translate.xml:18105 book.translate.xml:19361 book.translate.xml:23758
+#: book.translate.xml:27916 book.translate.xml:29481 book.translate.xml:31246
+#: book.translate.xml:31964 book.translate.xml:35762 book.translate.xml:41700
+#: book.translate.xml:41883 book.translate.xml:44283 book.translate.xml:45870
+#: book.translate.xml:46228 book.translate.xml:48431 book.translate.xml:50099
+#: book.translate.xml:57786 book.translate.xml:61423
msgid "After reading this chapter, you will know:"
msgstr "讀完這章,您將了解︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1617
+#: book.translate.xml:1624
msgid "How FreeBSD relates to other computer operating systems."
msgstr "FreeBSD 與其他作業系統之間的關係。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1622
+#: book.translate.xml:1629
msgid "The history of the FreeBSD Project."
msgstr "FreeBSD 計劃的歷史。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1626
+#: book.translate.xml:1633
msgid "The goals of the FreeBSD Project."
msgstr "FreeBSD 計劃的目標。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1630
+#: book.translate.xml:1637
msgid "The basics of the FreeBSD open-source development model."
msgstr "FreeBSD 開源開發模式的基礎概念。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1635
+#: book.translate.xml:1642
msgid "And of course: where the name <quote>FreeBSD</quote> comes from."
msgstr "當然囉,還有 <quote>FreeBSD</quote> 這名字的由來。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1642
+#: book.translate.xml:1649
msgid "Welcome to FreeBSD!"
msgstr "歡迎使用 FreeBSD!"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1644 book.translate.xml:1813
+#: book.translate.xml:1651 book.translate.xml:1820
msgid "<primary>4.4BSD-Lite</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1646
+#: book.translate.xml:1653
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is a 4.4BSD-Lite based operating system for Intel (x86 and "
"<trademark class=\"registered\">Itanium</trademark>), AMD64, Sun <trademark "
@@ -1428,22 +1428,22 @@ msgstr ""
"對 FreeBSD 貢獻</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1656
+#: book.translate.xml:1663
msgid "What Can FreeBSD Do?"
msgstr "FreeBSD 能做什麼?"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1658
+#: book.translate.xml:1665
msgid "FreeBSD has many noteworthy features. Some of these are:"
msgstr "FreeBSD 提供給你許多先進功能。這些功能包括:"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1664
+#: book.translate.xml:1671
msgid "<primary>preemptive multitasking</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>先佔式多工</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1663
+#: book.translate.xml:1670
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Preemptive multitasking</emphasis> <_:indexterm-1/> with dynamic "
"priority adjustment to ensure smooth and fair sharing of the computer "
@@ -1453,12 +1453,12 @@ msgstr ""
"即使在系統負擔很重的情況下,程式執行平順並且應用程式與使用者公平地共享資源。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1673
+#: book.translate.xml:1680
msgid "<primary>multi-user facilities</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>多人共用</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1673
+#: book.translate.xml:1680
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Multi-user facilities</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> which allow many "
"people to use a FreeBSD system simultaneously for a variety of things. This "
@@ -1473,12 +1473,12 @@ msgstr ""
"保護系統不致被過度使用。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1686
+#: book.translate.xml:1693
msgid "<primary>TCP/IP networking</primary>"
msgstr "TCP/IP 網路"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1685
+#: book.translate.xml:1692
msgid ""
"Strong <emphasis>TCP/IP networking</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> with support "
"for industry standards such as SCTP, DHCP, NFS, NIS, PPP, SLIP, IPsec, and "
@@ -1495,12 +1495,12 @@ msgstr ""
"供 WWW、FTP、路由及防火牆 (安全性) 等必備服務。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1699
+#: book.translate.xml:1706
msgid "<primary>memory protection</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>記憶體保護</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1699
+#: book.translate.xml:1706
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Memory protection</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> ensures that "
"applications (or users) cannot interfere with each other. One application "
@@ -1510,12 +1510,12 @@ msgstr ""
"程式有不正常的運作,都不會影響其他程式的執行。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1708 book.translate.xml:1951
+#: book.translate.xml:1715 book.translate.xml:1958
msgid "<primary>X Window System</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>X Window 系統</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1707
+#: book.translate.xml:1714
msgid ""
"The industry standard <emphasis>X Window System</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> "
"(X11R7) can provide a graphical user interface (GUI) on any machine and "
@@ -1527,32 +1527,32 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1717 book.translate.xml:18077
+#: book.translate.xml:1724 book.translate.xml:18084
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>Linux</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>Linux</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1721
+#: book.translate.xml:1728
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>SCO</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>SCO</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1725
+#: book.translate.xml:1732
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>SVR4</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>SVR4</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1729
+#: book.translate.xml:1736
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>BSD/OS</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>BSD/OS</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1733
+#: book.translate.xml:1740
msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>NetBSD</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>NetBSD</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1716
+#: book.translate.xml:1723
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <_:indexterm-4/> <_:"
"indexterm-5/> <emphasis>Binary compatibility</emphasis> with many programs "
@@ -1563,7 +1563,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(如: Linux、SCO、SVR4、BSDI 和 NetBSD) 的可執行檔。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1743
+#: book.translate.xml:1750
msgid ""
"Thousands of <emphasis>ready-to-run</emphasis> applications are available "
"from the FreeBSD <emphasis>ports</emphasis> and <emphasis>packages</"
@@ -1574,7 +1574,7 @@ msgstr ""
"取得。 不再需要費心到網路上到處搜尋所需要的軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1751
+#: book.translate.xml:1758
msgid ""
"Thousands of additional and <emphasis>easy-to-port</emphasis> applications "
"are available on the Internet. FreeBSD is source code compatible with most "
@@ -1587,12 +1587,12 @@ msgstr ""
"行。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1760
+#: book.translate.xml:1767
msgid "<primary>virtual memory</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>虛擬記憶體</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1759
+#: book.translate.xml:1766
msgid ""
"Demand paged <emphasis>virtual memory</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> and "
"<quote>merged VM/buffer cache</quote> design efficiently satisfies "
@@ -1604,12 +1604,12 @@ msgstr ""
"維持與其他使用者的互動。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1769
+#: book.translate.xml:1776
msgid "<primary>Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>對稱多工處理 (SMP)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1769
+#: book.translate.xml:1776
msgid ""
"<emphasis>SMP</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> support for machines with multiple "
"CPUs."
@@ -1618,17 +1618,17 @@ msgstr ""
"多 CPU 的電腦系統。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1778
+#: book.translate.xml:1785
msgid "<primary>compilers</primary> <secondary>C</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>編譯器</primary> <secondary>C</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1782
+#: book.translate.xml:1789
msgid "<primary>compilers</primary> <secondary>C++</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>編譯器</primary> <secondary>C++</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1777
+#: book.translate.xml:1784
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> A full complement of <emphasis>C</"
"emphasis> and <emphasis>C++</emphasis> development tools. Many additional "
@@ -1640,12 +1640,12 @@ msgstr ""
"進階研發的程式語言也收集在 Port 和套件集。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1795
+#: book.translate.xml:1802
msgid "<primary>source code</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>原始碼</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1795
+#: book.translate.xml:1802
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Source code</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> for the entire system means "
"you have the greatest degree of control over your environment. Why be locked "
@@ -1657,22 +1657,22 @@ msgstr ""
"廠商擺佈呢?"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1804
+#: book.translate.xml:1811
msgid "Extensive <emphasis>online documentation</emphasis>."
msgstr "廣泛且豐富的 <emphasis>線上文件</emphasis>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1809
+#: book.translate.xml:1816
msgid "<emphasis>And many more!</emphasis>"
msgstr "<emphasis>當然囉,還不止如此!</emphasis>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1816
+#: book.translate.xml:1823
msgid "<primary>Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>電腦系統研究組 (CSRG)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1813
+#: book.translate.xml:1820
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is based on the 4.4BSD-Lite<_:indexterm-1/> release from Computer "
"Systems Research Group (CSRG)<_:indexterm-2/> at the University of "
@@ -1691,7 +1691,7 @@ msgstr ""
"時,FreeBSD 已經具備這樣的特質,並具有其他地方沒有的尖端功能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1827
+#: book.translate.xml:1834
msgid ""
"The applications to which FreeBSD can be put are truly limited only by your "
"own imagination. From software development to factory automation, inventory "
@@ -1711,7 +1711,7 @@ msgstr ""
"軟體,而且出現的數目是與日俱增。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1839
+#: book.translate.xml:1846
msgid ""
"Because the source code for FreeBSD itself is generally available, the "
"system can also be customized to an almost unheard of degree for special "
@@ -1724,7 +1724,7 @@ msgstr ""
"地被修改。 以下提供一些人們使用 FreeBSD 的例子:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1849
+#: book.translate.xml:1856
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Internet Services:</emphasis> The robust TCP/IP networking built "
"into FreeBSD makes it an ideal platform for a variety of Internet services "
@@ -1734,34 +1734,34 @@ msgstr ""
"務 (如下例) 的理想平台:"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1856
+#: book.translate.xml:1863
msgid "<primary>web servers</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>網頁伺服器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1856
+#: book.translate.xml:1863
msgid "World Wide Web servers<_:indexterm-1/> (standard or secure [SSL])"
msgstr "全球資訊網伺服器<_:indexterm-1/> (標準的或更安全的 [SSL])"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1863
+#: book.translate.xml:1870
msgid "IPv4 and IPv6 routing"
msgstr "IPv4 及 IPv6 路由"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: chapter/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1867 book.translate.xml:58100
+#: book.translate.xml:1874 book.translate.xml:57722
msgid "<primary>firewall</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>防火牆</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1870 book.translate.xml:61266
+#: book.translate.xml:1877 book.translate.xml:60888
msgid "<primary>NAT</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1867
+#: book.translate.xml:1874
msgid ""
"Firewalls<_:indexterm-1/> and NAT<_:indexterm-2/> (<quote>IP masquerading</"
"quote>) gateways"
@@ -1770,38 +1770,38 @@ msgstr ""
"閘。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1877
+#: book.translate.xml:1884
msgid "<primary>FTP servers</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>FTP 伺服器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1877
+#: book.translate.xml:1884
msgid "FTP servers<_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr "檔案傳輸協定伺服器<_:indexterm-1/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1884
+#: book.translate.xml:1891
msgid "<primary>electronic mail</primary> <see>email</see>"
msgstr "<primary>電子郵件</primary> <see>email</see>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1888 book.translate.xml:50469
+#: book.translate.xml:1895 book.translate.xml:50090
msgid "<primary>email</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1883
+#: book.translate.xml:1890
msgid "<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> Electronic Mail servers"
msgstr "<_:indexterm-1/><_:indexterm-2/> 電子郵件伺服器"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1895
+#: book.translate.xml:1902
msgid "And more..."
msgstr "還有更多..."
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1901
+#: book.translate.xml:1908
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Education:</emphasis> Are you a student of computer science or a "
"related engineering field? There is no better way of learning about "
@@ -1817,7 +1817,7 @@ msgstr ""
"等可以免費地取得使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1913
+#: book.translate.xml:1920
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Research:</emphasis> With source code for the entire system "
"available, FreeBSD is an excellent platform for research in operating "
@@ -1832,17 +1832,17 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1925 book.translate.xml:62149
+#: book.translate.xml:1932 book.translate.xml:61771
msgid "<primary>router</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>路由器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1927
+#: book.translate.xml:1934
msgid "<primary>DNS Server</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>DNS 伺服器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1924
+#: book.translate.xml:1931
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Networking:</emphasis> Need a new router?<_:indexterm-1/> A name "
"server (DNS)?<_:indexterm-2/> A firewall to keep people out of your internal "
@@ -1854,12 +1854,12 @@ msgstr ""
"或 486 PC 變身成為絕佳的伺服器,甚至具有過濾封包的功能。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1938
+#: book.translate.xml:1945
msgid "<primary>embedded</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>嵌入式</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1936
+#: book.translate.xml:1943
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Embedded:</emphasis> FreeBSD makes an excellent platform to build "
"embedded systems upon. <_:indexterm-1/> With support for the <trademark "
@@ -1881,18 +1881,18 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1954 book.translate.xml:12039
+#: book.translate.xml:1961 book.translate.xml:12046
msgid "<primary>GNOME</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1957 book.translate.xml:12126
+#: book.translate.xml:1964 book.translate.xml:12133
msgid "<primary>KDE</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1950
+#: book.translate.xml:1957
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <emphasis>Desktop:</"
"emphasis> FreeBSD makes a fine choice for an inexpensive desktop solution "
@@ -1910,12 +1910,12 @@ msgstr ""
"於管理。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1976
+#: book.translate.xml:1983
msgid "<primary>Compiler</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>編譯器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1973
+#: book.translate.xml:1980
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Software Development:</emphasis> The basic FreeBSD system comes "
"with a full complement of development tools including a full C/C++<_:"
@@ -1927,7 +1927,7 @@ msgstr ""
"援需多其他語言。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1985
+#: book.translate.xml:1992
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is available to download free of charge, or can be obtained on "
"either CD-ROM or DVD. Please see <xref linkend=\"mirrors\"/> for more "
@@ -1937,19 +1937,19 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"mirrors\"/> 取得 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1992
+#: book.translate.xml:1999
msgid "Who Uses FreeBSD?"
msgstr "誰在用 FreeBSD?"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1994
+#: book.translate.xml:2001
msgid ""
"<primary>users</primary> <secondary>large sites running FreeBSD</secondary>"
msgstr ""
"<primary>使用者</primary> <secondary>執行 FreeBSD 的大型站台</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1999
+#: book.translate.xml:2006
msgid ""
"FreeBSD's advanced features, proven security, predictable release cycle, and "
"permissive license have led to its use as a platform for building many "
@@ -1962,12 +1962,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2009 book.translate.xml:56770
+#: book.translate.xml:2016 book.translate.xml:56391
msgid "<primary>Apache</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2008
+#: book.translate.xml:2015
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.apache.org/\">Apache</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The Apache Software Foundation runs most of its public facing "
@@ -1979,12 +1979,12 @@ msgstr ""
"庫 (擁有超過 140 萬次提交) 都是在 FreeBSD 上運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2019
+#: book.translate.xml:2026
msgid "<primary>Apple</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2018
+#: book.translate.xml:2025
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.apple.com/\">Apple</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"OS X borrows heavily from FreeBSD for the network stack, virtual file "
@@ -1996,12 +1996,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Apple iOS 中含有從 FreeBSD 借鑒來的元素。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2029
+#: book.translate.xml:2036
msgid "<primary>Cisco</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2028
+#: book.translate.xml:2035
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.cisco.com/\">Cisco</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"IronPort network security and anti-spam appliances run a modified FreeBSD "
@@ -2011,12 +2011,12 @@ msgstr ""
"IronPort 網路安全及反垃圾郵件設備是採用改良後 FreeBSD 核心來運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2037
+#: book.translate.xml:2044
msgid "<primary>Citrix</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2036
+#: book.translate.xml:2043
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.citrix.com/\">Citrix</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The NetScaler line of security appliances provide layer 4-7 load balancing, "
@@ -2028,12 +2028,12 @@ msgstr ""
"牆、安全的 VPN 以及行動雲端網路存取,皆運用了 FreeBSD Shell 強大的功能。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2048
+#: book.translate.xml:2055
msgid "<primary>Dell KACE</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2046
+#: book.translate.xml:2053
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.dell.com/KACE\">Dell KACE</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The KACE system management appliances run FreeBSD because of "
@@ -2045,12 +2045,12 @@ msgstr ""
"擴展性以及支持其持續發展的社群。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2058
+#: book.translate.xml:2065
msgid "<primary>Experts Exchange</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2056
+#: book.translate.xml:2063
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.experts-exchange.com/\">Experts Exchange</"
"link> <_:indexterm-1/> - All public facing web servers are powered by "
@@ -2062,12 +2062,12 @@ msgstr ""
"量使用 Jail 來隔離開發與測試環境,減少了虛擬化的額外開銷。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2068
+#: book.translate.xml:2075
msgid "<primary>Isilon</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2067
+#: book.translate.xml:2074
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.isilon.com/\">Isilon</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"Isilon's enterprise storage appliances are based on FreeBSD. The extremely "
@@ -2080,30 +2080,30 @@ msgstr ""
"整合了它們的智慧財產到整個核心,並專注打造自己的產品,而不是一個作業系統。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2080
+#: book.translate.xml:2087
msgid "<primary>iXsystems</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2079
+#: book.translate.xml:2086
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.ixsystems.com/\">iXsystems</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The TrueNAS line of unified storage appliances is based on "
"FreeBSD. In addition to their commercial products, iXsystems also manages "
-"development of the open source projects PC-BSD and FreeNAS."
+"development of the open source projects TrueOS and FreeNAS."
msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.ixsystems.com/\">iXsystems</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - 統合存儲 (Unified Storage) 設備的 TrueNAS 產品線是以 FreeBSD "
-"為基礎。除了該公司自己的商業產品外,iXsystems 也管理著 PC-BSD 和 FreeNAS 兩個"
+"為基礎。除了該公司自己的商業產品外,iXsystems 也管理著 TrueOS 和 FreeNAS 兩個"
"開源計劃的開發。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2090
+#: book.translate.xml:2097
msgid "<primary>Juniper</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2089
+#: book.translate.xml:2096
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.juniper.net/\">Juniper</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- The JunOS operating system that powers all Juniper networking gear "
@@ -2121,12 +2121,12 @@ msgstr ""
"功能從 FreeBSD 整合回 JunOS 的複雜性。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2105
+#: book.translate.xml:2112
msgid "<primary>McAfee</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2104
+#: book.translate.xml:2111
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.mcafee.com/\">McAfee</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"SecurOS, the basis of McAfee enterprise firewall products including "
@@ -2137,12 +2137,12 @@ msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 為基礎。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2114
+#: book.translate.xml:2121
msgid "<primary>NetApp</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2113
+#: book.translate.xml:2120
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netapp.com/\">NetApp</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The Data ONTAP GX line of storage appliances are based on FreeBSD. In "
@@ -2154,12 +2154,12 @@ msgstr ""
"了回 FreeBSD 許多功能,包括新 BSD 條款授權的 hypervisor, bhyve。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2124 book.translate.xml:2398
+#: book.translate.xml:2131 book.translate.xml:2405
msgid "<primary>Netflix</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2123
+#: book.translate.xml:2130
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netflix.com/\">Netflix</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- The OpenConnect appliance that Netflix uses to stream movies to its "
@@ -2174,15 +2174,16 @@ msgstr ""
"Netflix 的 OpenConnect 設備負責了北美所有的網路流量 32% 以上。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2137
+#: book.translate.xml:2144
msgid "<primary>Sandvine</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2136
+#: book.translate.xml:2143
+#, fuzzy
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sandvine.com/\">Sandvine</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
-"> - Sandvine uses FreeBSD as the basis of their high performance realtime "
+"> - Sandvine uses FreeBSD as the basis of their high performance real-time "
"network processing platforms that make up their intelligent network policy "
"control products."
msgstr ""
@@ -2191,12 +2192,12 @@ msgstr ""
"網路策略控制產品。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2147
+#: book.translate.xml:2154
msgid "<primary>Sony</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2146
+#: book.translate.xml:2153
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sony.com/\">Sony</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The "
"PlayStation 4 gaming console runs a modified version of FreeBSD."
@@ -2205,12 +2206,12 @@ msgstr ""
"PlayStation 4 遊戲主機使用了修改過的 FreeBSD 版本來運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2155
+#: book.translate.xml:2162
msgid "<primary>Sophos</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2154
+#: book.translate.xml:2161
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sophos.com/\">Sophos</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The Sophos Email Appliance product is based on a hardened FreeBSD and scans "
@@ -2222,12 +2223,12 @@ msgstr ""
"郵件中的垃圾郵件和病毒,同時也可監控出站郵件中的惡意軟體及敏感資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2167
+#: book.translate.xml:2174
msgid "<primary>Spectra Logic</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2165
+#: book.translate.xml:2172
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.spectralogic.com/\">Spectra Logic</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The nTier line of archive grade storage appliances run "
@@ -2237,35 +2238,34 @@ msgstr ""
"indexterm-1/> - 儲藏級儲存設備的 nTier 產品線以 FreeBSD 和 OpenZFS 來運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2175
+#: book.translate.xml:2182
msgid "<primary>Stormshield</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>Stormshield</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2174
+#: book.translate.xml:2181
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"https://www.stormshield.eu\">Stormshield</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - Stormshield Network Security appliances are based on a "
-"hardened version of FreeBSD. The BSD license allows us to integrate our own "
-"intellectual property with the system while returning a great deal of "
+"hardened version of FreeBSD. The BSD license allows them to integrate their "
+"own intellectual property with the system while returning a great deal of "
"interesting development to the community."
msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"https://www.stormshield.eu\">Stormshield</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - Stormshield 網路安全設備使用了硬體化版本的 FreeBSD 做為基礎,"
-"BSD 授權條款讓我們我們的智慧財產與系統可以整合,並同時回饋大量有趣的發展給社"
-"群。"
+"BSD 授權條款讓他們可將其智慧財產與系統整合並同時回饋大量有趣的發展給社群。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2188
+#: book.translate.xml:2195
msgid "<primary>The Weather Channel</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2186
+#: book.translate.xml:2193
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.weather.com/\">The Weather Channel</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The IntelliStar appliance that is installed at each local "
-"cable providers headend and is responsible for injecting local weather "
+"cable provider's headend and is responsible for injecting local weather "
"forecasts into the cable TV network's programming runs FreeBSD."
msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.weather.com/\">The Weather Channel</link> <_:"
@@ -2273,12 +2273,12 @@ msgstr ""
"視網路節目的 IntelliStar 設備便是使用 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2199
+#: book.translate.xml:2206
msgid "<primary>Verisign</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2198
+#: book.translate.xml:2205
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.verisign.com/\">Verisign</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - Verisign is responsible for operating the .com and .net root domain "
@@ -2292,12 +2292,12 @@ msgstr ""
"點故障的問題。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2212
+#: book.translate.xml:2219
msgid "<primary>Voxer</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2211
+#: book.translate.xml:2218
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.voxer.com/\">Voxer</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"Voxer powers their mobile voice messaging platform with ZFS on FreeBSD. "
@@ -2313,12 +2313,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 也支援了 TRIM。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2226
+#: book.translate.xml:2233
msgid "<primary>WhatsApp</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2225
+#: book.translate.xml:2232
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.whatsapp.com/\">WhatsApp</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - When WhatsApp needed a platform that would be able to handle more than 1 "
@@ -2330,12 +2330,12 @@ msgstr ""
"台時,它們選擇了 FreeBSD。它們接著擴大規模到每台伺服器處理超過 250 萬的連線。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2238
+#: book.translate.xml:2245
msgid "<primary>Wheel Systems</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2236
+#: book.translate.xml:2243
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://wheelsystems.com/\">Wheel Systems</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The FUDO security appliance allows enterprises to monitor, "
@@ -2349,17 +2349,17 @@ msgstr ""
"GELI, Capsicum, HAST 及 auditdistd。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2250
+#: book.translate.xml:2257
msgid "FreeBSD has also spawned a number of related open source projects:"
msgstr "FreeBSD 也催生了數個相關的開源計劃:"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2257
+#: book.translate.xml:2264
msgid "<primary>BSD Router</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2255
+#: book.translate.xml:2262
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://bsdrp.net/\">BSD Router</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"A FreeBSD based replacement for large enterprise routers designed to run on "
@@ -2369,12 +2369,12 @@ msgstr ""
"以 FreeBSD 為基礎的大型企業路由器替代方案,專門設計為可在標準 PC 硬體上運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2266
+#: book.translate.xml:2273
msgid "<primary>FreeNAS</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2265
+#: book.translate.xml:2272
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.freenas.org/\">FreeNAS</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- A customized FreeBSD designed to be used as a network file server "
@@ -2389,12 +2389,12 @@ msgstr ""
"iSCSI,還有以 FreeBSD Jail 為基礎的套件系統。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2278
+#: book.translate.xml:2285
msgid "<primary>GhostBSD</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2277
+#: book.translate.xml:2284
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.ghostbsd.org/\">GhostBSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - A desktop oriented distribution of FreeBSD bundled with the Gnome "
@@ -2404,12 +2404,12 @@ msgstr ""
"> - 採用 Gnome 桌面環境的 FreeBSD 發行版。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2286
+#: book.translate.xml:2293
msgid "<primary>mfsBSD</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2285
+#: book.translate.xml:2292
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://mfsbsd.vx.sk/\">mfsBSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - A "
"toolkit for building a FreeBSD system image that runs entirely from memory."
@@ -2418,12 +2418,12 @@ msgstr ""
"來建置可完全從記憶體執行 FreeBSD 系統映像檔工具。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2294
+#: book.translate.xml:2301
msgid "<primary>NAS4Free</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2293
+#: book.translate.xml:2300
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.nas4free.org/\">NAS4Free</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - A file server distribution based on FreeBSD with a PHP powered web "
@@ -2433,12 +2433,12 @@ msgstr ""
"> - 以 FreeBSD 及 PHP 驅動網頁介面為基礎的檔案伺服器。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2302
+#: book.translate.xml:2309
msgid "<primary>OPNsense</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2301
+#: book.translate.xml:2308
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.opnsense.org/\">OPNSense</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - OPNsense is an open source, easy-to-use and easy-to-build FreeBSD based "
@@ -2453,29 +2453,29 @@ msgstr ""
"功能集,同時擁有開放和安全的來源。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2314
-msgid "<primary>PC-BSD</primary>"
-msgstr ""
+#: book.translate.xml:2321
+msgid "<primary>TrueOS</primary>"
+msgstr "<primary>TrueOS</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2313
+#: book.translate.xml:2320
msgid ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pcbsd.org/\">PC-BSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
+"<link xlink:href=\"https://www.trueos.org\">TrueOS</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"A customized version of FreeBSD geared towards desktop users with graphical "
"utilities to exposing the power of FreeBSD to all users. Designed to ease "
"the transition of Windows and OS X users."
msgstr ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pcbsd.org/\">PC-BSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
+"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pcbsd.org/\">TrueOS</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"訂製版本的 FreeBSD,裝備了給桌面使用者使用的圖型化工具來展示 FreeBSD 強大的功"
"能給所有使用者,專門設計來緩解使用者在 Windows 與 OS X 間的過渡。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2324
+#: book.translate.xml:2331
msgid "<primary>pfSense</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2323
+#: book.translate.xml:2330
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pfsense.org/\">pfSense</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- A firewall distribution based on FreeBSD with a huge array of features and "
@@ -2485,12 +2485,12 @@ msgstr ""
"- 以 FreeBSD 為基礎的防火牆發行版,支援巨型陣列及大規模 IPv6。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2333
+#: book.translate.xml:2340
msgid "<primary>ZRouter</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2332
+#: book.translate.xml:2339
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://zrouter.org/\">ZRouter</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"An open source alternative firmware for embedded devices based on FreeBSD. "
@@ -2501,135 +2501,135 @@ msgstr ""
"用韌體。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2341
+#: book.translate.xml:2348
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is also used to power some of the biggest sites on the Internet, "
"including:"
msgstr "FreeBSD 也同時被用來驅動一些網際網路上的大型網站,包括:"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2347
+#: book.translate.xml:2354
msgid "<primary>Yahoo!</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2346
+#: book.translate.xml:2353
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.yahoo.com/\">Yahoo!</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2354
+#: book.translate.xml:2361
msgid "<primary>Yandex</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2353
+#: book.translate.xml:2360
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.yandex.ru/\">Yandex</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2361
+#: book.translate.xml:2368
msgid "<primary>Rambler</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2360
+#: book.translate.xml:2367
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.rambler.ru/\">Rambler</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2368
+#: book.translate.xml:2375
msgid "<primary>Sina</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2367
+#: book.translate.xml:2374
msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sina.com/\">Sina</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2376
+#: book.translate.xml:2383
msgid "<primary>Pair Networks</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2374
+#: book.translate.xml:2381
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pair.com/\">Pair Networks</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2384
+#: book.translate.xml:2391
msgid "<primary>Sony Japan</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2382
+#: book.translate.xml:2389
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sony.co.jp/\">Sony Japan</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
">"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2391
+#: book.translate.xml:2398
msgid "<primary>Netcraft</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2390
+#: book.translate.xml:2397
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netcraft.com/\">Netcraft</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
">"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2397
+#: book.translate.xml:2404
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"https://signup.netflix.com/openconnect\">Netflix</link> "
"<_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2405
+#: book.translate.xml:2412
msgid "<primary>NetEase</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2404
+#: book.translate.xml:2411
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.163.com/\">NetEase</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2412
+#: book.translate.xml:2419
msgid "<primary>Weathernews</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2411
+#: book.translate.xml:2418
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.weathernews.com/\">Weathernews</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2420
+#: book.translate.xml:2427
msgid "<primary>TELEHOUSE America</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2418
+#: book.translate.xml:2425
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.telehouse.com/\">TELEHOUSE America</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2427
+#: book.translate.xml:2434
msgid ""
"and many more. Wikipedia also maintains a <link xlink:href=\"http://en."
"wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_products_based_on_FreeBSD\">list of products "
@@ -2639,12 +2639,12 @@ msgstr ""
"org/wiki/List_of_products_based_on_FreeBSD\">以 FreeBSD 為基礎的產品</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2433
+#: book.translate.xml:2440
msgid "About the FreeBSD Project"
msgstr "關於 FreeBSD 計劃"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2435
+#: book.translate.xml:2442
msgid ""
"The following section provides some background information on the project, "
"including a brief history, project goals, and the development model of the "
@@ -2652,37 +2652,37 @@ msgid ""
msgstr "接下來講的是 FreeBSD 計劃的背景,包含歷史、計劃目標以及開發模式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2440
+#: book.translate.xml:2447
msgid "A Brief History of FreeBSD"
msgstr "FreeBSD 歷史簡介"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2442
+#: book.translate.xml:2449
msgid "<primary>386BSD Patchkit</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2443
+#: book.translate.xml:2450
msgid "<primary>Hubbard, Jordan</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2444
+#: book.translate.xml:2451
msgid "<primary>Williams, Nate</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2445
+#: book.translate.xml:2452
msgid "<primary>Grimes, Rod</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2446
+#: book.translate.xml:2453
msgid "<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>history</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2451
+#: book.translate.xml:2458
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD Project had its genesis in the early part of 1993, partially as "
"an outgrowth of the Unofficial 386BSDPatchkit by the patchkit's last 3 "
@@ -2692,12 +2692,12 @@ msgstr ""
"劃的最後三個協調人 Nate Williams,Rod Grimes 和 Jordan Hubbard。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2456 book.translate.xml:2496
+#: book.translate.xml:2463 book.translate.xml:2503
msgid "<primary>386BSD</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2457
+#: book.translate.xml:2464
msgid ""
"The original goal was to produce an intermediate snapshot of 386BSD in order "
"to fix a number of problems with it that the patchkit mechanism just was not "
@@ -2709,12 +2709,12 @@ msgstr ""
"386BSD Interim 便是這個原因。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2463
+#: book.translate.xml:2470
msgid "<primary>Jolitz, Bill</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2464
+#: book.translate.xml:2471
msgid ""
"386BSD was Bill Jolitz's operating system, which had been up to that point "
"suffering rather severely from almost a year's worth of neglect. As the "
@@ -2730,17 +2730,17 @@ msgstr ""
"出未來的打算,所以該計劃便突然面臨中止。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2474
+#: book.translate.xml:2481
msgid "<primary>Greenman, David</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2475
+#: book.translate.xml:2482
msgid "<primary>Walnut Creek CDROM</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2477
+#: book.translate.xml:2484
msgid ""
"The trio thought that the goal remained worthwhile, even without Bill's "
"support, and so they adopted the name \"FreeBSD\" coined by David Greenman. "
@@ -2765,27 +2765,27 @@ msgstr ""
"模。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2493
+#: book.translate.xml:2500
msgid "<primary>4.3BSD-Lite</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2494 book.translate.xml:2509
+#: book.translate.xml:2501 book.translate.xml:2516
msgid "<primary>Net/2</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2495 book.translate.xml:2508
+#: book.translate.xml:2502 book.translate.xml:2515
msgid "<primary>U.C. Berkeley</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2497 book.translate.xml:8883
+#: book.translate.xml:2504 book.translate.xml:8890
msgid "<primary>Free Software Foundation</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2499
+#: book.translate.xml:2506
msgid ""
"The first CD-ROM (and general net-wide) distribution was FreeBSD 1.0, "
"released in December of 1993. This was based on the 4.3BSD-Lite "
@@ -2800,17 +2800,17 @@ msgstr ""
"還算成功,我們又接著於 1994 年 5 月發行了相當成功的 FreeBSD 1.1。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2507
+#: book.translate.xml:2514
msgid "<primary>Novell</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2510
+#: book.translate.xml:2517
msgid "<primary>AT&amp;T</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2511
+#: book.translate.xml:2518
msgid ""
"Around this time, some rather unexpected storm clouds formed on the horizon "
"as Novell and U.C. Berkeley settled their long-running lawsuit over the "
@@ -2835,7 +2835,7 @@ msgstr ""
"最後一次發行,也就是 FreeBSD 1.1.5.1。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2528
+#: book.translate.xml:2535
msgid ""
"FreeBSD then set about the arduous task of literally re-inventing itself "
"from a completely new and rather incomplete set of 4.4BSD-Lite bits. The "
@@ -2857,7 +2857,7 @@ msgstr ""
"之於 1995 年 6 月又發行了更容易安裝,更好的 FreeBSD 2.0.5。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2542
+#: book.translate.xml:2549
msgid ""
"Since that time, FreeBSD has made a series of releases each time improving "
"the stability, speed, and feature set of the previous version."
@@ -2866,7 +2866,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的發佈版本。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2546
+#: book.translate.xml:2553
msgid ""
"For now, long-term development projects continue to take place in the 10.X-"
"CURRENT (trunk) branch, and snapshot releases of 10.X are continually made "
@@ -2878,24 +2878,24 @@ msgstr ""
"snapshots/\">快照伺服器</link> 取得。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2554
+#: book.translate.xml:2561
msgid "FreeBSD Project Goals"
msgstr "FreeBSD 計劃目標"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2557
+#: book.translate.xml:2564
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Jordan</firstname> <surname>Hubbard</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2567
+#: book.translate.xml:2574
msgid "<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>goals</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>FreeBSD 計劃</primary> <secondary>目標</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2571
+#: book.translate.xml:2578
msgid ""
"The goals of the FreeBSD Project are to provide software that may be used "
"for any purpose and without strings attached. Many of us have a significant "
@@ -2915,22 +2915,22 @@ msgstr ""
"是我們所倡導的一個目標。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2583
+#: book.translate.xml:2590
msgid "<primary>GNU General Public License (GPL)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>GNU 通用公共授權條款 (GPL)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2586
+#: book.translate.xml:2593
msgid "<primary>GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>GNU 較寬鬆通用公共授權條款 (LGPL)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2589
+#: book.translate.xml:2596
msgid "<primary>BSD Copyright</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>BSD 版權</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2590
+#: book.translate.xml:2597
msgid ""
"That code in our source tree which falls under the GNU General Public "
"License (GPL) or Library General Public License (LGPL) comes with slightly "
@@ -2946,25 +2946,25 @@ msgstr ""
"果可以選擇的話, 我們會比較喜歡使用限制相對更寬鬆的 BSD 版權來發佈軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2602
+#: book.translate.xml:2609
msgid "The FreeBSD Development Model"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開發模式"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2605
+#: book.translate.xml:2612
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Satoshi</firstname> <surname>Asami</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2615
+#: book.translate.xml:2622
msgid ""
"<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>development model</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>FreeBSD 專案</primary> <secondary>開發模式</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2620
+#: book.translate.xml:2627
msgid ""
"The development of FreeBSD is a very open and flexible process, being "
"literally built from the contributions of thousands of people around the "
@@ -2991,7 +2991,7 @@ msgstr ""
"link> 對那些希望了解我們進度的人也是相當有用的。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2633
+#: book.translate.xml:2640
msgid ""
"Useful things to know about the FreeBSD Project and its development process, "
"whether working independently or in close cooperation:"
@@ -3000,44 +3000,43 @@ msgstr ""
"錯的︰"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2639
+#: book.translate.xml:2646
msgid "The SVN repositories<anchor xml:id=\"development-cvs-repository\"/>"
msgstr "SVN 檔案庫<anchor xml:id=\"development-cvs-repository\"/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2643
+#: book.translate.xml:2650
msgid "<primary>CVS</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2647
+#: book.translate.xml:2654
msgid "<primary>CVS Repository</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>CVS 檔案庫</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2651
+#: book.translate.xml:2658
msgid "<primary>Concurrent Versions System</primary> <see>CVS</see>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2656 book.translate.xml:45130 book.translate.xml:45170
-#: book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:2663 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "<primary>Subversion</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2660
+#: book.translate.xml:2667
msgid "<primary>Subversion Repository</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2664
+#: book.translate.xml:2671
msgid "<primary>SVN</primary> <see>Subversion</see>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2642
+#: book.translate.xml:2649
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <_:indexterm-4/> <_:"
"indexterm-5/> <_:indexterm-6/> For several years, the central source tree "
@@ -3070,17 +3069,17 @@ msgstr ""
"\"ports-using\">使用 Port 套件集</link> 了解如何取得 FreeBSD Port 套件集。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2691
+#: book.translate.xml:2698
msgid "The committers list<anchor xml:id=\"development-committers\"/>"
msgstr "提交者名單<anchor xml:id=\"development-committers\"/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2695
+#: book.translate.xml:2702
msgid "<primary>committers</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>提交者</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2694
+#: book.translate.xml:2701
msgid ""
"The <firstterm>committers</firstterm> <_:indexterm-1/> are the people who "
"have <emphasis>write</emphasis> access to the Subversion tree, and are "
@@ -3101,17 +3100,17 @@ msgstr ""
"誤 (Bug)。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2711
+#: book.translate.xml:2718
msgid "The FreeBSD core team<anchor xml:id=\"development-core\"/>"
msgstr "FreeBSD 核心團隊<anchor xml:id=\"development-core\"/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2715
+#: book.translate.xml:2722
msgid "<primary>core team</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>核心團隊</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2714
+#: book.translate.xml:2721
msgid ""
"The <firstterm>FreeBSD core team</firstterm> <_:indexterm-1/> would be "
"equivalent to the board of directors if the FreeBSD Project were a company. "
@@ -3129,7 +3128,7 @@ msgstr ""
"2014 年 7 月從提交者候選人之中選出來的,這個選舉每兩年會舉辦一次。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2730
+#: book.translate.xml:2737
msgid ""
"Like most developers, most members of the core team are also volunteers when "
"it comes to FreeBSD development and do not benefit from the project "
@@ -3146,12 +3145,12 @@ msgstr ""
"而選擇投入 FreeBSD 開發的熱血有為者才對!"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2745
+#: book.translate.xml:2752
msgid "Outside contributors"
msgstr "非官方貢獻者"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2748
+#: book.translate.xml:2755
msgid ""
"Last, but definitely not least, the largest group of developers are the "
"users themselves who provide feedback and bug fixes to us on an almost "
@@ -3169,12 +3168,12 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"eresources\"/> 以瞭解各式不同的 FreeBSD 郵遞論壇。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2759
+#: book.translate.xml:2766
msgid "<primary>contributors</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>貢獻者</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2757
+#: book.translate.xml:2764
msgid ""
"<citetitle><link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/"
"contributors/article.html\">The FreeBSD Contributors List</link></citetitle> "
@@ -3187,7 +3186,7 @@ msgstr ""
"貢獻 FreeBSD 一些回饋呢?"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2764
+#: book.translate.xml:2771
msgid ""
"Providing code is not the only way of contributing to the project; for a "
"more complete list of things that need doing, please refer to the <link "
@@ -3197,7 +3196,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html\">FreeBSD 計畫網站</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2772
+#: book.translate.xml:2779
msgid ""
"In summary, our development model is organized as a loose set of concentric "
"circles. The centralized model is designed for the convenience of the "
@@ -3214,7 +3213,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用 — 而這個開發模式對我們要完成這個目標來說運作的非常好。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2782
+#: book.translate.xml:2789
msgid ""
"All we ask of those who would join us as FreeBSD developers is some of the "
"same dedication its current people have to its continued success!"
@@ -3223,12 +3222,12 @@ msgstr ""
"保繼續成功!"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2788
+#: book.translate.xml:2795
msgid "Third Party Programs"
msgstr "第三方程式"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2790
+#: book.translate.xml:2797
msgid ""
"In addition to the base distributions, FreeBSD offers a ported software "
"collection with thousands of commonly sought-after programs. At the time of "
@@ -3256,12 +3255,12 @@ msgstr ""
"更多有關套件與 Port 的資訊可於 <xref linkend=\"ports\"/> 取得。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2811
+#: book.translate.xml:2818
msgid "Additional Documentation"
msgstr "其他文件"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2813
+#: book.translate.xml:2820
msgid ""
"All recent FreeBSD versions provide an option in the installer (either "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
@@ -3283,12 +3282,12 @@ msgstr ""
"已安裝在本機的操作手冊:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2825
+#: book.translate.xml:2832
msgid "The FreeBSD Handbook"
msgstr "FreeBSD 使用手冊"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2828
+#: book.translate.xml:2835
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"file://localhost/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/handbook/"
"index.html\"><filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/handbook/index.html</"
@@ -3296,12 +3295,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2833
+#: book.translate.xml:2840
msgid "The FreeBSD FAQ"
msgstr "FreeBSD 常見問答集"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2836
+#: book.translate.xml:2843
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"file://localhost/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/faq/index."
"html\"><filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/faq/index.html</filename></"
@@ -3309,7 +3308,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2841
+#: book.translate.xml:2848
msgid ""
"You can also view the master (and most frequently updated) copies at <uri "
"xlink:href=\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/\">http://www.FreeBSD.org/</uri>."
@@ -3318,38 +3317,38 @@ msgstr ""
"\"http://www.FreeBSD.org/\">http://www.FreeBSD.org/</uri>。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2857
+#: book.translate.xml:2864
msgid "Installing FreeBSD"
msgstr "安裝 FreeBSD"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2885
+#: book.translate.xml:2892
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Gavin</firstname> <surname>Atkinson</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Updated for bsdinstall by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2894
+#: book.translate.xml:2901
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Warren</firstname> <surname>Block</surname> </"
"personname>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2903
+#: book.translate.xml:2910
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Allan</firstname> <surname>Jude</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Updated for root-on-ZFS by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2917
+#: book.translate.xml:2924
msgid "<primary>installation</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>安裝</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2919
+#: book.translate.xml:2926
msgid ""
"Beginning with FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE, FreeBSD provides an easy to use, text-"
"based installation program named <application>bsdinstall</application>. This "
@@ -3361,7 +3360,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>bsdinstall</application> 來安裝 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2925
+#: book.translate.xml:2932
msgid ""
"In general, the installation instructions in this chapter are written for "
"the <trademark>i386</trademark> and <acronym>AMD64</acronym> architectures. "
@@ -3376,38 +3375,38 @@ msgstr ""
"著來做。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2934
+#: book.translate.xml:2941
msgid ""
"Users who prefer to install FreeBSD using a graphical installer may be "
"interested in <application>pc-sysinstall</application>, the installer used "
-"by the PC-BSD Project. It can be used to install either a graphical desktop "
-"(PC-BSD) or a command line version of FreeBSD. Refer to the PC-BSD Users "
-"Handbook for details (<link xlink:href=\"http://wiki.pcbsd.org/index.php/"
-"Colophon\">http://wiki.pcbsd.org/index.php/Colophon</link>)."
+"by the TrueOS Project. It can be used to install either a graphical desktop "
+"(TrueOS) or a command line version of FreeBSD. Refer to the TrueOS Users "
+"Handbook for details (<link xlink:href=\"https://www.trueos.org/handbook/"
+"trueos.html\">https://www.trueos.org/handbook/trueos.html</link>)."
msgstr ""
"喜歡用圖形化安裝程式安裝 FreeBSD 的使用者, 可能會對 <application>pc-"
-"sysinstall</application> 有興趣,這是 PC-BSD 計畫所使用的。 他可以用來安裝圖"
-"形化桌面 (PC-BSD) 或是指令列版本的 FreeBSD。 細節請參考 PC-BSD 使用者 "
-"Handbook (<link xlink:href=\"http://wiki.pcbsd.org/index.php/Colophon"
-"\">http://wiki.pcbsd.org/index.php/Colophon</link>)。"
+"sysinstall</application> 有興趣,這是 TrueOS 計畫所使用的。 他可以用來安裝圖"
+"形化桌面 (TrueOS) 或是指令列版本的 FreeBSD。 細節請參考 TrueOS 使用者 "
+"Handbook (<link xlink:href=\"https://www.trueos.org/handbook/trueos.html"
+"\">https://www.trueos.org/handbook/trueos.html</link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2946
+#: book.translate.xml:2953
msgid "The minimum hardware requirements and FreeBSD supported architectures."
msgstr "最低的硬體需求和 FreeBSD 支援的架構。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2951
+#: book.translate.xml:2958
msgid "How to create the FreeBSD installation media."
msgstr "如何建立 FreeBSD 的安裝媒體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2955
+#: book.translate.xml:2962
msgid "How to start <application>bsdinstall</application>."
msgstr "如何開始執行 <application>bsdinstall</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2960
+#: book.translate.xml:2967
msgid ""
"The questions <application>bsdinstall</application> will ask, what they "
"mean, and how to answer them."
@@ -3416,29 +3415,29 @@ msgstr ""
"回答。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2965
+#: book.translate.xml:2972
msgid "How to troubleshoot a failed installation."
msgstr "安裝失敗時如何做故障排除。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2969
+#: book.translate.xml:2976
msgid ""
"How to access a live version of FreeBSD before committing to an installation."
msgstr "如何在正式安裝前使用 live 版本的 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2974 book.translate.xml:10699 book.translate.xml:14031
-#: book.translate.xml:18122 book.translate.xml:19387 book.translate.xml:23811
-#: book.translate.xml:29510 book.translate.xml:31257 book.translate.xml:32009
-#: book.translate.xml:35653 book.translate.xml:41584 book.translate.xml:41779
-#: book.translate.xml:43082 book.translate.xml:44105 book.translate.xml:46266
-#: book.translate.xml:46625 book.translate.xml:48836 book.translate.xml:50542
-#: book.translate.xml:58192 book.translate.xml:61843
+#: book.translate.xml:2981 book.translate.xml:10706 book.translate.xml:14038
+#: book.translate.xml:18129 book.translate.xml:19394 book.translate.xml:23818
+#: book.translate.xml:29517 book.translate.xml:31264 book.translate.xml:32016
+#: book.translate.xml:35787 book.translate.xml:41718 book.translate.xml:41913
+#: book.translate.xml:43291 book.translate.xml:44314 book.translate.xml:45887
+#: book.translate.xml:46246 book.translate.xml:48457 book.translate.xml:50163
+#: book.translate.xml:57814 book.translate.xml:61465
msgid "Before reading this chapter, you should:"
msgstr "在開始閱讀這章之前,您需要︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2978
+#: book.translate.xml:2985
msgid ""
"Read the supported hardware list that shipped with the version of FreeBSD to "
"be installed and verify that the system's hardware is supported."
@@ -3446,12 +3445,12 @@ msgstr ""
"閱讀即將安裝的 FreeBSD 版本所附帶的硬體支援清單,並核對系統的硬體是否有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2986
+#: book.translate.xml:2993
msgid "Minimum Hardware Requirements"
msgstr "最低硬體需求"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2988
+#: book.translate.xml:2995
msgid ""
"The hardware requirements to install FreeBSD vary by architecture. Hardware "
"architectures and devices supported by a FreeBSD release are listed on the "
@@ -3467,7 +3466,7 @@ msgstr ""
"也有建議如何正確的選擇在不同架構使用的映像檔。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2995
+#: book.translate.xml:3002
msgid ""
"A FreeBSD installation requires a minimum of 96 MB of <acronym>RAM</acronym> "
"and 1.5 GB of free hard drive space. However, such small amounts of memory "
@@ -3480,17 +3479,17 @@ msgstr ""
"途的桌面系統會需要更多的資源,2-4 GB RAM 與至少 8 GB 的硬碟空間是不錯的起點。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3003
+#: book.translate.xml:3010
msgid "These are the processor requirements for each architecture:"
msgstr "每一種架構的處理器需求概述如下:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3008
+#: book.translate.xml:3015
msgid "amd64"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3010
+#: book.translate.xml:3017
msgid ""
"This is the most common desktop and laptop processor type, used in most "
"modern systems. <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> calls it "
@@ -3502,7 +3501,7 @@ msgstr ""
"製造商則稱該類型為 <acronym>x86-64</acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3015
+#: book.translate.xml:3022
msgid ""
"Examples of amd64 compatible processsors include: <trademark>AMD Athlon</"
"trademark>64, <trademark>AMD Opteron</trademark>, multi-core <trademark "
@@ -3517,17 +3516,17 @@ msgstr ""
"器。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3023
+#: book.translate.xml:3030
msgid "i386"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3025
+#: book.translate.xml:3032
msgid "Older desktops and laptops often use this 32-bit, x86 architecture."
msgstr "舊型的桌面電腦與筆記型電腦常使用此 32-bit, x86 架構。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3028
+#: book.translate.xml:3035
msgid ""
"Almost all i386-compatible processors with a floating point unit are "
"supported. All <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> processors "
@@ -3537,7 +3536,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"registered\">Intel</trademark> 486 或是更高階的處理器也有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3032
+#: book.translate.xml:3039
msgid ""
"FreeBSD will take advantage of Physical Address Extensions (<acronym>PAE</"
"acronym>) support on <acronym>CPU</acronym>s with this feature. A kernel "
@@ -3555,12 +3554,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3044
+#: book.translate.xml:3051
msgid "ia64"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3046
+#: book.translate.xml:3053
msgid ""
"Currently supported processors are the <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Itanium</trademark> and the <trademark class=\"registered\">Itanium</"
@@ -3578,12 +3577,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>SMP</acronym>) 的設定都有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3056
+#: book.translate.xml:3063
msgid "pc98"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3058
+#: book.translate.xml:3065
msgid ""
"NEC PC-9801/9821 series with almost all i386-compatible processors, "
"including 80486, <trademark class=\"registered\">Pentium</trademark>, "
@@ -3601,7 +3600,7 @@ msgstr ""
"FC-9801/9821 及 NEC SV-98 系列也有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3067
+#: book.translate.xml:3074
msgid ""
"High-resolution mode is not supported. NEC PC-98XA/XL/RL/XL^2, and NEC PC-"
"H98 series are supported in normal (PC-9801 compatible) mode only. The "
@@ -3615,12 +3614,12 @@ msgstr ""
"流排不支援。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3078
+#: book.translate.xml:3085
msgid "powerpc"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3080
+#: book.translate.xml:3087
msgid ""
"All New World <acronym>ROM</acronym> <trademark class=\"registered\">Apple</"
"trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">Mac</trademark> systems with "
@@ -3633,17 +3632,17 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>CPU</acronym> 的機器都有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3085
+#: book.translate.xml:3092
msgid "A 32-bit kernel can only use the first 2 GB of <acronym>RAM</acronym>."
msgstr "32 位元的核心只能使用前 2 GB 的 <acronym>RAM</acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3091
+#: book.translate.xml:3098
msgid "sparc64"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3093
+#: book.translate.xml:3100
msgid ""
"Systems supported by FreeBSD/sparc64 are listed at the <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/platforms/sparc.html\">FreeBSD/sparc64 Project</link>."
@@ -3652,7 +3651,7 @@ msgstr ""
"platforms/sparc.html\">FreeBSD/sparc64 計劃</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3097
+#: book.translate.xml:3104
msgid ""
"<acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on all systems with more than 1 "
"processor. A dedicated disk is required as it is not possible to share a "
@@ -3662,12 +3661,12 @@ msgstr ""
"因為此時無法和其他作業系統共用磁碟。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3107
+#: book.translate.xml:3114
msgid "Pre-Installation Tasks"
msgstr "安裝前準備工作"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3109
+#: book.translate.xml:3116
msgid ""
"Once it has been determined that the system meets the minimum hardware "
"requirements for installing FreeBSD, the installation file should be "
@@ -3679,12 +3678,12 @@ msgstr ""
"體。 做這些之前,先檢查以下核對清單的項目是否準備好了:"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3118
+#: book.translate.xml:3125
msgid "Back Up Important Data"
msgstr "備份重要資料"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3120
+#: book.translate.xml:3127
msgid ""
"Before installing any operating system, <emphasis>always</emphasis> backup "
"all important data first. Do not store the backup on the system being "
@@ -3701,12 +3700,12 @@ msgstr ""
"面的資料都會遺失。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3132
+#: book.translate.xml:3139
msgid "Decide Where to Install FreeBSD"
msgstr "決定 FreeBSD 安裝在哪裡"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3134
+#: book.translate.xml:3141
msgid ""
"If FreeBSD will be the only operating system installed, this step can be "
"skipped. But if FreeBSD will share the disk with another operating system, "
@@ -3717,7 +3716,7 @@ msgstr ""
"是哪個分割區 (Partition)。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3139
+#: book.translate.xml:3146
msgid ""
"In the i386 and amd64 architectures, disks can be divided into multiple "
"partitions using one of two partitioning schemes. A traditional "
@@ -3743,7 +3742,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個分割區,不再需要使用邏輯分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3157
+#: book.translate.xml:3164
msgid ""
"Some older operating systems, like <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</"
"trademark> XP, are not compatible with the <acronym>GPT</acronym> partition "
@@ -3755,7 +3754,7 @@ msgstr ""
"這類作業系統共用一個磁碟,則需要用 <acronym>MBR</acronym> 分割表格式。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3164
+#: book.translate.xml:3171
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD boot loader requires either a primary or <acronym>GPT</acronym> "
"partition. If all of the primary or <acronym>GPT</acronym> partitions are "
@@ -3769,7 +3768,7 @@ msgstr ""
"工具來縮小現有的分割區,並使用釋放出來的空間建立新分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3172
+#: book.translate.xml:3179
msgid ""
"A variety of free and commercial partition resizing tools are listed at "
"<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
@@ -3790,7 +3789,7 @@ msgstr ""
"GParted 同時也被許多 Linux Live <acronym>CD</acronym> 發行版所收錄。"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3182
+#: book.translate.xml:3189
msgid ""
"When used properly, disk shrinking utilities can safely create space for "
"creating a new partition. Since the possibility of selecting the wrong "
@@ -3802,7 +3801,7 @@ msgstr ""
"料,並確認備份的完整性。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3189
+#: book.translate.xml:3196
msgid ""
"Disk partitions containing different operating systems make it possible to "
"install multiple operating systems on one computer. An alternative is to use "
@@ -3815,12 +3814,12 @@ msgstr ""
"執行而不需要改變任何磁碟分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3198
+#: book.translate.xml:3205
msgid "Collect Network Information"
msgstr "收集網路資訊"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3200
+#: book.translate.xml:3207
msgid ""
"Some FreeBSD installation methods require a network connection in order to "
"download the installation files. After any installation, the installer will "
@@ -3830,7 +3829,7 @@ msgstr ""
"入設定系統網路的介面。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3205
+#: book.translate.xml:3212
msgid ""
"If the network has a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server, it can be used to "
"provide automatic network configuration. If <acronym>DHCP</acronym> is not "
@@ -3842,45 +3841,45 @@ msgstr ""
"商 (Internet Service Provider, ISP) 取得以的網路資訊供系統使用:"
#. (itstool) path: orderedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3213
+#: book.translate.xml:3220
msgid "Required Network Information"
msgstr "需要的網路資訊"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:3216 book.translate.xml:53596
+#: book.translate.xml:3223 book.translate.xml:53217
msgid "<acronym>IP</acronym> address"
msgstr "<acronym>IP</acronym> 位址"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3220
+#: book.translate.xml:3227
msgid "Subnet mask"
msgstr "子網路遮罩"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3224
+#: book.translate.xml:3231
msgid "<acronym>IP</acronym> address of default gateway"
msgstr "預設通訊閘 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3229
+#: book.translate.xml:3236
msgid "Domain name of the network"
msgstr "網路的網域名稱"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3233
+#: book.translate.xml:3240
msgid ""
"<acronym>IP</acronym> addresses of the network's <acronym>DNS</acronym> "
"servers"
msgstr "網路 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3240
+#: book.translate.xml:3247
msgid "Check for FreeBSD Errata"
msgstr "檢查 FreeBSD 勘誤表"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3242
+#: book.translate.xml:3249
msgid ""
"Although the FreeBSD Project strives to ensure that each release of FreeBSD "
"is as stable as possible, bugs occasionally creep into the process. On very "
@@ -3899,7 +3898,7 @@ msgstr ""
"裝的問題。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3252
+#: book.translate.xml:3259
msgid ""
"Information and errata for all the releases can be found on the release "
"information section of the FreeBSD web site (<link xlink:href="
@@ -3911,12 +3910,12 @@ msgstr ""
"index.html</link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3259
+#: book.translate.xml:3266
msgid "Prepare the Installation Media"
msgstr "準備安裝的媒體"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3261
+#: book.translate.xml:3268
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD installer is not an application that can be run from within "
"another operating system. Instead, download a FreeBSD installation file, "
@@ -3930,7 +3929,7 @@ msgstr ""
"媒體來安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3268
+#: book.translate.xml:3275
msgid ""
"FreeBSD installation files are available at <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/where.html#download\">www.freebsd.org/where."
@@ -3949,7 +3948,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>DVD</acronym> 來開機。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3277
+#: book.translate.xml:3284
msgid ""
"Installation files are available in several formats. The formats vary "
"depending on computer architecture and media type."
@@ -3957,7 +3956,7 @@ msgstr "安裝檔有許多種可用的格式,格式會依據電腦架構及媒
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#bsdinstall-installation-media-uefi
-#: book.translate.xml:3281
+#: book.translate.xml:3288
msgid ""
"Additional installation files are included for computers that boot with "
"<acronym>UEFI</acronym> (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface). The names "
@@ -3968,12 +3967,12 @@ msgstr ""
"filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3287
+#: book.translate.xml:3294
msgid "File types:"
msgstr "檔案類型:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3291
+#: book.translate.xml:3298
msgid ""
"<literal>-bootonly.iso</literal>: This is the smallest installation file as "
"it only contains the installer. A working Internet connection is required "
@@ -3986,7 +3985,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>CD</acronym> 燒錄應用程式燒錄到 <acronym>CD</acronym> 使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3301
+#: book.translate.xml:3308
msgid ""
"<literal>-disc1.iso</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed to "
"install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It should be burned "
@@ -3997,7 +3996,7 @@ msgstr ""
"到 <acronym>CD</acronym> 使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3309
+#: book.translate.xml:3316
msgid ""
"<literal>-dvd1.iso</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed to "
"install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It also contains a "
@@ -4012,7 +4011,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>DVD</acronym> 燒錄應用程式燒錄到 <acronym>DVD</acronym> 使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3320
+#: book.translate.xml:3327
msgid ""
"<literal>-memstick.img</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed "
"to install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It should be "
@@ -4023,7 +4022,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 隨身碟使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3328
+#: book.translate.xml:3335
msgid ""
"<literal>-mini-memstick.img</literal>: Like <literal>-bootonly.iso</"
"literal>, does not include installation files, but downloads them as needed. "
@@ -4037,7 +4036,7 @@ msgstr ""
"碟。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3337
+#: book.translate.xml:3344
msgid ""
"After downloading the image file, download <filename>CHECKSUM.SHA256</"
"filename> from the same directory. Calculate a <firstterm>checksum</"
@@ -4054,7 +4053,7 @@ msgstr ""
"程式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3345
+#: book.translate.xml:3352
msgid ""
"Compare the calculated checksum with the one shown in <filename>CHECKSUM."
"SHA256</filename>. The checksums must match exactly. If the checksums do not "
@@ -4064,12 +4063,12 @@ msgstr ""
"應該要完全相符,若校驗碼不相符,則代表該映像檔是損壞的,必須再下載一次。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3351
+#: book.translate.xml:3358
msgid "Writing an Image File to <acronym>USB</acronym>"
msgstr "寫入映象檔到 <acronym>USB</acronym>"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3353
+#: book.translate.xml:3360
msgid ""
"The <filename>*.img</filename> file is an <emphasis>image</emphasis> of the "
"complete contents of a memory stick. It <emphasis>cannot</emphasis> be "
@@ -4083,7 +4082,7 @@ msgstr ""
"隨身碟,本節會介紹其中兩種。"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3362
+#: book.translate.xml:3369
msgid ""
"Before proceeding, back up any important data on the <acronym>USB</acronym> "
"stick. This procedure will erase the existing data on the stick."
@@ -4092,12 +4091,12 @@ msgstr ""
"身碟上既有的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3368
+#: book.translate.xml:3375
msgid "Using <command>dd</command> to Write the Image"
msgstr "使用 <command>dd</command> 來寫入映像檔"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3372
+#: book.translate.xml:3379
msgid ""
"This example uses <filename>/dev/da0</filename> as the target device where "
"the image will be written. Be <emphasis>very careful</emphasis> that the "
@@ -4109,7 +4108,7 @@ msgstr ""
"毀所有在指定目標裝置上已存在的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3380
+#: book.translate.xml:3387
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> command-line utility is available on BSD, <trademark class="
@@ -4130,13 +4129,13 @@ msgstr ""
"到第一個 <acronym>USB</acronym> 裝置。"
#. (itstool) path: step/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:3391
+#: book.translate.xml:3398
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dd if=<replaceable>FreeBSD-10.2-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img</replaceable> of=/dev/<replaceable>da0</replaceable> bs=1M conv=sync</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3393
+#: book.translate.xml:3400
msgid ""
"If this command fails, verify that the <acronym>USB</acronym> stick is not "
"mounted and that the device name is for the disk, not a partition. Some "
@@ -4156,13 +4155,13 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3404
+#: book.translate.xml:3411
msgid ""
"Using <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> to Write the Image"
msgstr "使用 <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> 來寫入映象檔"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3407
+#: book.translate.xml:3414
msgid ""
"Be sure to give the correct drive letter as the existing data on the "
"specified drive will be overwritten and destroyed."
@@ -4170,7 +4169,7 @@ msgstr ""
"務必確認指定的磁碟機代號正確,因在指定磁碟機上的既有資料將會被覆蓋與摧毀。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3413
+#: book.translate.xml:3420
msgid ""
"Obtaining <application>Image Writer for <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Windows</trademark></application>"
@@ -4179,27 +4178,27 @@ msgstr ""
"trademark> 版</application>"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3416
+#: book.translate.xml:3423
msgid ""
"<application>Image Writer for <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</"
"trademark></application> is a free application that can correctly write an "
"image file to a memory stick. Download it from <uri xlink:href=\"https://"
-"launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/\">https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/"
-"</uri> and extract it into a folder."
+"sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/\">https://sourceforge.net/projects/"
+"win32diskimager/</uri> and extract it into a folder."
msgstr ""
"<application>Image Writer <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</"
"trademark> 版</application> 是一個免費的應用程式,可以正確地將映像檔寫入隨身"
-"碟。 從 <uri xlink:href=\"https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/"
-"\">https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/</uri> 下載,並解壓縮到一個資料"
-"夾。"
+"碟。可從 <uri xlink:href=\"https://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/"
+"\">https://sourceforge.net/projects/win32diskimager/</uri> 下載,並解壓縮到一"
+"個資料夾。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3424
+#: book.translate.xml:3431
msgid "Writing the Image with Image Writer"
msgstr "用 Image Writer 寫入映象檔"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3426
+#: book.translate.xml:3433
msgid ""
"Double-click the <application>Win32DiskImager</application> icon to start "
"the program. Verify that the drive letter shown under "
@@ -4218,24 +4217,24 @@ msgstr ""
"入隨身碟。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3441
+#: book.translate.xml:3448
msgid "You are now ready to start installing FreeBSD."
msgstr "您現在可以開始安裝 FreeBSD 。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3447
+#: book.translate.xml:3454
msgid "Starting the Installation"
msgstr "開始安裝"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3450
+#: book.translate.xml:3457
msgid ""
"By default, the installation will not make any changes to the disk(s) before "
"the following message:"
msgstr "預設安裝程序在下列訊息顯示之前不會對磁碟做任何更動:"
#. (itstool) path: important/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:3453
+#: book.translate.xml:3460
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Your changes will now be written to disk. If you\n"
@@ -4245,7 +4244,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3458
+#: book.translate.xml:3465
msgid ""
"The install can be exited at any time prior to this warning. If there is a "
"concern that something is incorrectly configured, just turn the computer off "
@@ -4255,7 +4254,7 @@ msgstr ""
"腦,將不會對系統磁碟做任何更改。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3465
+#: book.translate.xml:3472
msgid ""
"This section describes how to boot the system from the installation media "
"which was prepared using the instructions in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
@@ -4272,12 +4271,12 @@ msgstr ""
"會有所不同。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3476
+#: book.translate.xml:3483
msgid "Booting on <trademark>i386</trademark> and amd64"
msgstr "在 <trademark>i386</trademark> 及 amd64 開機"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3478
+#: book.translate.xml:3485
msgid ""
"These architectures provide a <acronym>BIOS</acronym> menu for selecting the "
"boot device. Depending upon the installation media being used, select the "
@@ -4295,14 +4294,14 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>Escape</keycap> 其中之一。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3489
+#: book.translate.xml:3496
msgid ""
"If the computer loads the existing operating system instead of the FreeBSD "
"installer, then either:"
msgstr "若電腦仍載入了現有的作業系統,而不是 FreeBSD 安裝程式,原因可能為:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3494
+#: book.translate.xml:3501
msgid ""
"The installation media was not inserted early enough in the boot process. "
"Leave the media inserted and try restarting the computer."
@@ -4311,7 +4310,7 @@ msgstr ""
"電腦。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3500
+#: book.translate.xml:3507
msgid ""
"The <acronym>BIOS</acronym> changes were incorrect or not saved. Double-"
"check that the right boot device is selected as the first boot device."
@@ -4320,7 +4319,7 @@ msgstr ""
"確的裝置。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3506
+#: book.translate.xml:3513
msgid ""
"This system is too old to support booting from the chosen media. In this "
"case, the <application>Plop Boot Manager</application> (<link xlink:href="
@@ -4332,12 +4331,12 @@ msgstr ""
"plop.at/en/bootmanagers.html\"/>) 來從選擇的開機媒體開機。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3516
+#: book.translate.xml:3523
msgid "Booting on <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</trademark>"
msgstr "在 <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</trademark> 開機"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3518
+#: book.translate.xml:3525
msgid ""
"On most machines, holding <keycap>C</keycap> on the keyboard during boot "
"will boot from the <acronym>CD</acronym>. Otherwise, hold <keycombo action="
@@ -4356,18 +4355,18 @@ msgstr ""
"prompt> 提示時,輸入"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:3534
+#: book.translate.xml:3541
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput>boot cd:,\\ppc\\loader cd:0</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3538
+#: book.translate.xml:3545
msgid "Booting on <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark>"
msgstr "在 <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark> 開機"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3540
+#: book.translate.xml:3547
msgid ""
"Most <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark> systems are set up "
"to boot automatically from disk. To install FreeBSD from a <acronym>CD</"
@@ -4378,7 +4377,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3544
+#: book.translate.xml:3551
msgid ""
"To do this, reboot the system and wait until the boot message appears. The "
"message depends on the model, but should look something like this:"
@@ -4387,7 +4386,7 @@ msgstr ""
"機型而有所不同,但大致結果會如:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:3548
+#: book.translate.xml:3555
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Sun Blade 100 (UltraSPARC-IIe), Keyboard Present\n"
@@ -4397,7 +4396,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3553
+#: book.translate.xml:3560
msgid ""
"If the system proceeds to boot from disk at this point, press <keycombo "
"action=\"simul\"><keycap>L1</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo> or "
@@ -4420,7 +4419,7 @@ msgstr ""
"prompt>,其中的數字代表啟動的 <acronym>CPU</acronym> 數。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3565
+#: book.translate.xml:3572
msgid ""
"At this point, place the <acronym>CD</acronym> into the drive and type "
"<command>boot cdrom</command> from the <acronym>PROM</acronym> prompt."
@@ -4429,19 +4428,19 @@ msgstr ""
"畫面輸入 <command>boot cdrom</command>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3571
+#: book.translate.xml:3578
msgid "FreeBSD Boot Menu"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開機選單"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3573
+#: book.translate.xml:3580
msgid ""
"Once the system boots from the installation media, a menu similar to the "
"following will be displayed:"
msgstr "從安裝媒體開機之後,會顯示如下的選單:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3577
+#: book.translate.xml:3584
msgid "FreeBSD Boot Loader Menu"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開機載入程式選單"
@@ -4450,14 +4449,14 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 開機載入程式選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3581
+#: book.translate.xml:3588
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3586
+#: book.translate.xml:3593
msgid ""
"By default, the menu will wait ten seconds for user input before booting "
"into the FreeBSD installer or, if FreeBSD is already installed, before "
@@ -4471,7 +4470,7 @@ msgstr ""
"以下選項可選。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3596
+#: book.translate.xml:3603
msgid ""
"<literal>Boot Multi User</literal>: This will continue the FreeBSD boot "
"process. If the boot timer has been paused, press <keycap>1</keycap>, upper- "
@@ -4482,7 +4481,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>B</keycap> 或 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 鍵。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3604
+#: book.translate.xml:3611
msgid ""
"<literal>Boot Single User</literal>: This mode can be used to fix an "
"existing FreeBSD installation as described in <xref linkend=\"boot-singleuser"
@@ -4494,7 +4493,7 @@ msgstr ""
"keycap>、大寫或小寫 <keycap>S</keycap> 進入這個模式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3612
+#: book.translate.xml:3619
msgid ""
"<literal>Escape to loader prompt</literal>: This will boot the system into a "
"repair prompt that contains a limited number of low-level commands. This "
@@ -4507,12 +4506,12 @@ msgstr ""
"入這個提示。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3621
+#: book.translate.xml:3628
msgid "<literal>Reboot</literal>: Reboots the system."
msgstr "重新開機 (<literal>Reboot</literal>):重新開啟系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3625
+#: book.translate.xml:3632
msgid ""
"<literal>Configure Boot Options</literal>: Opens the menu shown in, and "
"described under, <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-boot-options-menu\"/>."
@@ -4521,7 +4520,7 @@ msgstr ""
"說明於 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-boot-options-menu\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3631
+#: book.translate.xml:3638
msgid "FreeBSD Boot Options Menu"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開機選項選單"
@@ -4530,13 +4529,13 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 開機選項選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3635
+#: book.translate.xml:3642
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-boot-options-menu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3640
+#: book.translate.xml:3647
msgid ""
"The boot options menu is divided into two sections. The first section can be "
"used to either return to the main boot menu or to reset any toggled options "
@@ -4546,7 +4545,7 @@ msgstr ""
"回預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3645
+#: book.translate.xml:3652
msgid ""
"The next section is used to toggle the available options to <literal>On</"
"literal> or <literal>Off</literal> by pressing the option's highlighted "
@@ -4559,7 +4558,7 @@ msgstr ""
"到選項被修改。有數個選項可以在這個選單做切換:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3654
+#: book.translate.xml:3661
msgid ""
"<literal>ACPI Support</literal>: If the system hangs during boot, try "
"toggling this option to <literal>Off</literal>."
@@ -4568,7 +4567,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個選項為關 (<literal>Off</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3660
+#: book.translate.xml:3667
msgid ""
"<literal>Safe Mode</literal>: If the system still hangs during boot even "
"with <literal>ACPI Support</literal> set to <literal>Off</literal>, try "
@@ -4579,7 +4578,7 @@ msgstr ""
"將此選項設為開 (<literal>On</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3667
+#: book.translate.xml:3674
msgid ""
"<literal>Single User</literal>: Toggle this option to <literal>On</literal> "
"to fix an existing FreeBSD installation as described in <xref linkend=\"boot-"
@@ -4591,7 +4590,7 @@ msgstr ""
"述,問題修正後,將其設回關 (<literal>Off</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3675
+#: book.translate.xml:3682
msgid ""
"<literal>Verbose</literal>: Toggle this option to <literal>On</literal> to "
"see more detailed messages during the boot process. This can be useful when "
@@ -4601,7 +4600,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 來查看開機程序中更詳細的訊息,這在診斷硬體問題時非常有用。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3682
+#: book.translate.xml:3689
msgid ""
"After making the needed selections, press <keycap>1</keycap> or "
"<keycap>Backspace</keycap> to return to the main boot menu, then press "
@@ -4616,7 +4615,7 @@ msgstr ""
"選單如 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-choose-mode\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3691
+#: book.translate.xml:3698
msgid "Welcome Menu"
msgstr "歡迎選單"
@@ -4625,13 +4624,13 @@ msgstr "歡迎選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3695
+#: book.translate.xml:3702
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-choose-mode' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3700
+#: book.translate.xml:3707
msgid ""
"Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to select the default of "
"<guibutton>[ Install ]</guibutton> to enter the installer. The rest of this "
@@ -4651,7 +4650,7 @@ msgstr ""
"本的詳細說明於 <xref linkend=\"using-live-cd\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3713
+#: book.translate.xml:3720
msgid ""
"To review the boot messages, including the hardware device probe, press the "
"upper- or lower-case <keycap>S</keycap> and then <keycap>Enter</keycap> to "
@@ -4665,12 +4664,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>exit</command> 返回歡迎選單。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3726
+#: book.translate.xml:3733
msgid "Using <application>bsdinstall</application>"
msgstr "使用 <application>bsdinstall</application>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3728
+#: book.translate.xml:3735
msgid ""
"This section shows the order of the <application>bsdinstall</application> "
"menus and the type of information that will be asked before the system is "
@@ -4685,12 +4684,12 @@ msgstr ""
"選項然後進入下一個畫面。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3737
+#: book.translate.xml:3744
msgid "Selecting the Keymap Menu"
msgstr "選擇鍵盤對應表選單"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3739
+#: book.translate.xml:3746
msgid ""
"Depending on the system console being used, <application>bsdinstall</"
"application> may initially display the menu shown in <xref linkend="
@@ -4700,7 +4699,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的選單會如 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-keymap-select-default\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3744
+#: book.translate.xml:3751
msgid "Keymap Selection"
msgstr "鍵盤對應表選擇"
@@ -4709,14 +4708,14 @@ msgstr "鍵盤對應表選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3748
+#: book.translate.xml:3755
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-select-default' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3753
+#: book.translate.xml:3760
msgid ""
"To configure the keyboard layout, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> with "
"<guibutton>[ YES ]</guibutton> selected, which will display the menu shown "
@@ -4730,7 +4729,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>Enter</keycap> 跳過這個選單畫面。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3762
+#: book.translate.xml:3769
msgid "Selecting Keyboard Menu"
msgstr "選擇鍵盤選單"
@@ -4739,13 +4738,13 @@ msgstr "選擇鍵盤選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3766
+#: book.translate.xml:3773
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-keymap' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3771
+#: book.translate.xml:3778
msgid ""
"When configuring the keyboard layout, use the up and down arrows to select "
"the keymap that most closely represents the mapping of the keyboard attached "
@@ -4755,7 +4754,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Keymap),然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 儲存選項。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3777
+#: book.translate.xml:3784
msgid ""
"Pressing <keycap>Esc</keycap> will exit this menu and use the default "
"keymap. If the choice of keymap is not clear, <guimenuitem>United States of "
@@ -4766,7 +4765,7 @@ msgstr ""
"guimenuitem> 是也是保險的選項。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3783
+#: book.translate.xml:3790
msgid ""
"In FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE and later, this menu has been enhanced. The full "
"selection of keymaps is shown, with the default preselected. In addition, "
@@ -4778,7 +4777,7 @@ msgstr ""
"對話框讓使用者測試鍵盤對應表來確認。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3790
+#: book.translate.xml:3797
msgid "Enhanced Keymap Menu"
msgstr "改進後的鍵盤對應表選單"
@@ -4787,19 +4786,19 @@ msgstr "改進後的鍵盤對應表選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3794
+#: book.translate.xml:3801
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-10' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3802 book.translate.xml:3809
+#: book.translate.xml:3809 book.translate.xml:3816
msgid "Setting the Hostname"
msgstr "設定主機名稱"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3804
+#: book.translate.xml:3811
msgid ""
"The next <application>bsdinstall</application> menu is used to set the "
"hostname for the newly installed system."
@@ -4812,13 +4811,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3813
+#: book.translate.xml:3820
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-hostname' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3818
+#: book.translate.xml:3825
msgid ""
"Type in a hostname that is unique for the network. It should be a fully-"
"qualified hostname, such as <systemitem class=\"fqdomainname\">machine3."
@@ -4829,12 +4828,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3823 book.translate.xml:3829
+#: book.translate.xml:3830 book.translate.xml:3836
msgid "Selecting Components to Install"
msgstr "選擇要安裝的元件"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3825
+#: book.translate.xml:3832
msgid ""
"Next, <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt to select optional "
"components to install."
@@ -4846,13 +4845,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3833
+#: book.translate.xml:3840
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-components' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3838
+#: book.translate.xml:3845
msgid ""
"Deciding which components to install will depend largely on the intended use "
"of the system and the amount of disk space available. The FreeBSD kernel and "
@@ -4865,7 +4864,7 @@ msgstr ""
"必須安裝的部份。依據系統的架構,部份元件可能不會顯示:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3847
+#: book.translate.xml:3854
msgid ""
"<literal>doc</literal> - Additional documentation, mostly of historical "
"interest, to install into <filename>/usr/share/doc</filename>. The "
@@ -4879,7 +4878,7 @@ msgstr ""
"操作。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3855
+#: book.translate.xml:3862
msgid ""
"<literal>games</literal> - Several traditional <acronym>BSD</acronym> games, "
"including <application>fortune</application>, <application>rot13</"
@@ -4890,7 +4889,7 @@ msgstr ""
"他。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3862
+#: book.translate.xml:3869
msgid ""
"<literal>lib32</literal> - Compatibility libraries for running 32-bit "
"applications on a 64-bit version of FreeBSD."
@@ -4899,7 +4898,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用的相容性程式庫。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3868
+#: book.translate.xml:3875
msgid ""
"<literal>ports</literal> - The FreeBSD Ports Collection is a collection of "
"files which automates the downloading, compiling and installation of third-"
@@ -4910,7 +4909,7 @@ msgstr ""
"方軟體套件的集合,<xref linkend=\"ports\"/> 中會討論到如何使用 Port 套件集。"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3875
+#: book.translate.xml:3882
msgid ""
"The installation program does not check for adequate disk space. Select this "
"option only if sufficient hard disk space is available. The FreeBSD Ports "
@@ -4920,7 +4919,7 @@ msgstr ""
"磁碟空間,只有在有足夠的磁碟空間時才選擇這個選項。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3884
+#: book.translate.xml:3891
msgid ""
"<literal>src</literal> - The complete FreeBSD source code for both the "
"kernel and the userland. Although not required for the majority of "
@@ -4937,12 +4936,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3897 book.translate.xml:3908
+#: book.translate.xml:3904 book.translate.xml:3915
msgid "Installing from the Network"
msgstr "從網路安裝"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3899
+#: book.translate.xml:3906
msgid ""
"The menu shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-netinstall-notify\"/> only "
"appears when installing from a <filename>-bootonly.iso</filename> "
@@ -4961,13 +4960,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3912
+#: book.translate.xml:3919
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-files' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3917
+#: book.translate.xml:3924
msgid ""
"To configure the network connection, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> and follow "
"the instructions in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-config-network-dev\"/>. Once "
@@ -4982,7 +4981,7 @@ msgstr ""
"載的速度會比較快,這會減少安裝的時間。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3926
+#: book.translate.xml:3933
msgid "Choosing a Mirror"
msgstr "選擇鏡像站"
@@ -4991,26 +4990,26 @@ msgstr "選擇鏡像站"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3930
+#: book.translate.xml:3937
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-mirrorselect' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3935
+#: book.translate.xml:3942
msgid ""
"Installation will then continue as if the installation files were located on "
"the local installation media."
msgstr "若在本機的安裝媒體中找到安裝檔案,安裝程序便會繼續。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3941
+#: book.translate.xml:3948
msgid "Allocating Disk Space"
msgstr "配置磁碟空間"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3943
+#: book.translate.xml:3950
msgid ""
"The next menu is used to determine the method for allocating disk space. The "
"options available in the menu depend upon the version of FreeBSD being "
@@ -5020,7 +5019,7 @@ msgstr ""
"本而有所不同。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3948
+#: book.translate.xml:3955
msgid "Partitioning Choices on FreeBSD 9.x"
msgstr "FreeBSD 9.x 的磁碟分割選項"
@@ -5029,14 +5028,14 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 9.x 的磁碟分割選項"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3952
+#: book.translate.xml:3959
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-manual' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3958
+#: book.translate.xml:3965
msgid "Partitioning Choices on FreeBSD 10.x and Higher"
msgstr "FreeBSD 10.x 或更新版本的磁碟分割選項"
@@ -5045,13 +5044,13 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 10.x 或更新版本的磁碟分割選項"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3962
+#: book.translate.xml:3969
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3967
+#: book.translate.xml:3974
msgid ""
"<literal>Guided</literal> partitioning automatically sets up the disk "
"partitions, <literal>Manual</literal> partitioning allows advanced users to "
@@ -5079,7 +5078,7 @@ msgstr ""
"firstterm>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3978
+#: book.translate.xml:3985
msgid ""
"This section describes what to consider when laying out the disk partitions. "
"It then demonstrates how to use the different partitioning methods."
@@ -5087,32 +5086,32 @@ msgstr ""
"本節會介紹在配置磁碟分割時需要考量那些事情,並且會示範各種磁碟分割的方式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3983
+#: book.translate.xml:3990
msgid "Designing the Partition Layout"
msgstr "規劃分割區配置"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:3985
+#: book.translate.xml:3992
msgid "<primary>partition layout</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>分割區配置</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:3986
+#: book.translate.xml:3993
msgid "<primary><filename>/etc</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:3989
+#: book.translate.xml:3996
msgid "<primary><filename>/var</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:3992
+#: book.translate.xml:3999
msgid "<primary><filename>/usr</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3996
+#: book.translate.xml:4003
msgid ""
"When laying out file systems, remember that hard drives transfer data faster "
"from the outer tracks to the inner. Thus, smaller and heavier-accessed file "
@@ -5128,7 +5127,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>/var</filename> 然後 <filename>/usr</filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4006
+#: book.translate.xml:4013
msgid ""
"The size of the <filename>/var</filename> partition reflects the intended "
"machine's usage. This partition is used to hold mailboxes, log files, and "
@@ -5143,7 +5142,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>/var</filename> 需要超過 1 GB 的可用磁碟空間。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4016
+#: book.translate.xml:4023
msgid ""
"Sometimes, a lot of disk space is required in <filename>/var/tmp</filename>. "
"When new software is installed, the packaging tools extract a temporary copy "
@@ -5160,17 +5159,17 @@ msgstr ""
"application> 或 <application>LibreOffice</application> 會很困難。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4027
+#: book.translate.xml:4034
msgid ""
"The <filename>/usr</filename> partition holds many of the files which "
"support the system, including the FreeBSD Ports Collection and system source "
-"code. At least 2 gigabytes is recommended for this partition."
+"code. At least 2 gigabytes of space is recommended for this partition."
msgstr ""
-"<filename>/usr</filename> 分割區會保存許多支持系統運作的檔案,包含 FreeBSD "
-"Port 套件集以及系統原始碼。這個分割區建議至少要有 2 GB 的空間。"
+"<filename>/usr</filename> 分割區保存了許多支持系統運作的檔案,包含 FreeBSD "
+"Port 套件集以及系統原始碼,這個分割區建議至少要有 2 GB 的空間。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4032
+#: book.translate.xml:4039
msgid ""
"When selecting partition sizes, keep the space requirements in mind. Running "
"out of space in one partition while barely using another can be a hassle."
@@ -5179,17 +5178,17 @@ msgstr ""
"區時會很麻煩。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:4036
+#: book.translate.xml:4043
msgid "<primary>swap sizing</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:4039
+#: book.translate.xml:4046
msgid "<primary>swap partition</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4043
+#: book.translate.xml:4050
msgid ""
"As a rule of thumb, the swap partition should be about double the size of "
"physical memory (<acronym>RAM</acronym>). Systems with minimal <acronym>RAM</"
@@ -5203,7 +5202,7 @@ msgstr ""
"往後增加更多記憶體時可能會產生問題。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4051
+#: book.translate.xml:4058
msgid ""
"On larger systems with multiple <acronym>SCSI</acronym> disks or multiple "
"<acronym>IDE</acronym> disks operating on different controllers, it is "
@@ -5223,7 +5222,7 @@ msgstr ""
"換空間,這也會讓要從失控的程式恢復運作更容易,而不需強制重新啟動系統。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4064
+#: book.translate.xml:4071
msgid ""
"By properly partitioning a system, fragmentation introduced in the smaller "
"write heavy partitions will not bleed over into the mostly read partitions. "
@@ -5241,12 +5240,12 @@ msgstr ""
"顯著。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4077
+#: book.translate.xml:4084
msgid "Guided Partitioning"
msgstr "引導式磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4079
+#: book.translate.xml:4086
msgid ""
"When this method is selected, a menu will display the available disk(s). If "
"multiple disks are connected, choose the one where FreeBSD is to be "
@@ -5256,7 +5255,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個來安裝 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4084
+#: book.translate.xml:4091
msgid "Selecting from Multiple Disks"
msgstr "自多個磁碟選擇"
@@ -5265,13 +5264,13 @@ msgstr "自多個磁碟選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4088
+#: book.translate.xml:4095
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-disk' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4093
+#: book.translate.xml:4100
msgid ""
"Once the disk is selected, the next menu prompts to install to either the "
"entire disk or to create a partition using free space. If "
@@ -5286,7 +5285,7 @@ msgstr ""
"未使用的空間來建立分割區配置。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4103
+#: book.translate.xml:4110
msgid "Selecting Entire Disk or Partition"
msgstr "選擇完整磁碟或分割區"
@@ -5295,13 +5294,13 @@ msgstr "選擇完整磁碟或分割區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4107
+#: book.translate.xml:4114
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-entire-part' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4112
+#: book.translate.xml:4119
msgid ""
"After the partition layout has been created, review it to ensure it meets "
"the needs of the installation. Selecting <guibutton>[ Revert ]</guibutton> "
@@ -5318,7 +5317,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<guibutton>[ Finish ]</guibutton> 繼續安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4123
+#: book.translate.xml:4130
msgid "Review Created Partitions"
msgstr "確認已建立的分割區"
@@ -5327,23 +5326,23 @@ msgstr "確認已建立的分割區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4127
+#: book.translate.xml:4134
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-review' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4134
+#: book.translate.xml:4141
msgid "Manual Partitioning"
msgstr "手動磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4136
+#: book.translate.xml:4143
msgid "Selecting this method opens the partition editor:"
msgstr "選擇這個方法會開啟分割區編輯程式:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4139 book.translate.xml:4154 book.translate.xml:4225
+#: book.translate.xml:4146 book.translate.xml:4161 book.translate.xml:4232
msgid "Manually Create Partitions"
msgstr "手動建立分割區"
@@ -5352,14 +5351,14 @@ msgstr "手動建立分割區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4143
+#: book.translate.xml:4150
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-create' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4148
+#: book.translate.xml:4155
msgid ""
"Highlight the installation drive (<filename>ada0</filename> in this example) "
"and select <guibutton>[ Create ]</guibutton> to display a menu of available "
@@ -5374,14 +5373,14 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4158
+#: book.translate.xml:4165
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4163
+#: book.translate.xml:4170
msgid ""
"<acronym>GPT</acronym> is usually the most appropriate choice for amd64 "
"computers. Older computers that are not compatible with <acronym>GPT</"
@@ -5393,33 +5392,34 @@ msgstr ""
"那些較罕見或較舊的電腦上。"
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4170
+#: book.translate.xml:4177
msgid "Partitioning Schemes"
msgstr "磁碟分割表格式"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4175
+#: book.translate.xml:4182
msgid "Abbreviation"
msgstr "縮寫"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4176 book.translate.xml:7134 book.translate.xml:8477
-#: book.translate.xml:11905 book.translate.xml:23134 book.translate.xml:23313
-#: book.translate.xml:27423 book.translate.xml:31411 book.translate.xml:43117
-#: book.translate.xml:52938 book.translate.xml:53445 book.translate.xml:54204
-#: book.translate.xml:54245 book.translate.xml:55571 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:4183 book.translate.xml:7141 book.translate.xml:8484
+#: book.translate.xml:11912 book.translate.xml:23141 book.translate.xml:23320
+#: book.translate.xml:27430 book.translate.xml:31418 book.translate.xml:43326
+#: book.translate.xml:45412 book.translate.xml:52559 book.translate.xml:53066
+#: book.translate.xml:53825 book.translate.xml:53866 book.translate.xml:55192
+#: book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "Description"
msgstr "說明"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/glossterm
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/acronym
-#: book.translate.xml:4182 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:4189 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "APM"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4183
+#: book.translate.xml:4190
msgid ""
"Apple Partition Map, used by <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</"
"trademark>."
@@ -5430,12 +5430,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/glossterm
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/acronym
-#: book.translate.xml:4187 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:4194 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "BSD"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4188
+#: book.translate.xml:4195
msgid ""
"<acronym>BSD</acronym> label without an <acronym>MBR</acronym>, sometimes "
"called <firstterm>dangerously dedicated mode</firstterm> as non-"
@@ -5446,12 +5446,12 @@ msgstr ""
"(Dangerously dedicated mode)</firstterm>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4196
+#: book.translate.xml:4203
msgid "GPT"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4197
+#: book.translate.xml:4204
msgid ""
"GUID Partition Table (<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
"GUID_Partition_Table\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table</"
@@ -5462,12 +5462,12 @@ msgstr ""
"link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4201
+#: book.translate.xml:4208
msgid "MBR"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4202
+#: book.translate.xml:4209
msgid ""
"Master Boot Record (<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
"Master_boot_record\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record</link>)."
@@ -5477,12 +5477,12 @@ msgstr ""
"link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4206
+#: book.translate.xml:4213
msgid "PC98"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4207
+#: book.translate.xml:4214
msgid ""
"<acronym>MBR</acronym> variant used by NEC PC-98 computers (<link xlink:href="
"\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801</"
@@ -5493,17 +5493,17 @@ msgstr ""
"link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4212
+#: book.translate.xml:4219
msgid "VTOC8"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4213
+#: book.translate.xml:4220
msgid "Volume Table Of Contents used by Sun SPARC64 and UltraSPARC computers."
msgstr "Volume Table Of Contents,用於 Sun SPARC64 及 UltraSPARC 電腦。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4220
+#: book.translate.xml:4227
msgid ""
"After the partitioning scheme has been selected and created, select "
"<guibutton>[ Create ]</guibutton> again to create the partitions."
@@ -5516,26 +5516,26 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4229
+#: book.translate.xml:4236
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-addpart' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4234
+#: book.translate.xml:4241
msgid ""
"A standard FreeBSD <acronym>GPT</acronym> installation uses at least three "
"partitions:"
msgstr "標準的 FreeBSD <acronym>GPT</acronym> 安裝會使用至少三種分割區:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4239
+#: book.translate.xml:4246
msgid "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal> - Holds the FreeBSD boot code."
msgstr "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal> - 儲存 FreeBSD 開機程式 (Boot code)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4244
+#: book.translate.xml:4251
msgid ""
"<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal> - A FreeBSD <acronym>UFS</acronym> file "
"system."
@@ -5543,12 +5543,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal> - FreeBSD 的 <acronym>UFS</acronym> 檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4249
+#: book.translate.xml:4256
msgid "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal> - FreeBSD swap space."
msgstr "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal> - FreeBSD 交換空間。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4254
+#: book.translate.xml:4261
msgid ""
"Another partition type worth noting is <literal>freebsd-zfs</literal>, used "
"for partitions that will contain a FreeBSD <acronym>ZFS</acronym> file "
@@ -5563,7 +5563,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 取得可用的 <acronym>GPT</acronym> 分割區類型說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4260
+#: book.translate.xml:4267
msgid ""
"Multiple file system partitions can be created and some people prefer a "
"traditional layout with separate partitions for <filename>/</filename>, "
@@ -5577,7 +5577,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"bsdinstall-part-manual-splitfs\"/> 的範例。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4267
+#: book.translate.xml:4274
msgid ""
"The <literal>Size</literal> may be entered with common abbreviations: "
"<emphasis>K</emphasis> for kilobytes, <emphasis>M</emphasis> for megabytes, "
@@ -5588,7 +5588,7 @@ msgstr ""
"表 GB。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4273
+#: book.translate.xml:4280
msgid ""
"Proper sector alignment provides the best performance, and making partition "
"sizes even multiples of 4K bytes helps to ensure alignment on drives with "
@@ -5605,7 +5605,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Boot code) 的限制,不可大於 512K。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4284
+#: book.translate.xml:4291
msgid ""
"A <literal>Mountpoint</literal> is needed if the partition will contain a "
"file system. If only a single <acronym>UFS</acronym> partition will be "
@@ -5616,7 +5616,7 @@ msgstr ""
"filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4289
+#: book.translate.xml:4296
msgid ""
"The <literal>Label</literal> is a name by which the partition will be known. "
"Drive names or numbers can change if the drive is connected to a different "
@@ -5636,7 +5636,7 @@ msgstr ""
"且標籤會在 <filename>/dev/</filename> 中有各自的目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4302
+#: book.translate.xml:4309
msgid ""
"Use a unique label on every partition to avoid conflicts from identical "
"labels. A few letters from the computer's name, use, or location can be "
@@ -5650,12 +5650,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>UFS</acronym> 根目錄分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4312
+#: book.translate.xml:4319
msgid "Creating Traditional Split File System Partitions"
msgstr "建立傳統分割的檔案系統分割區"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4315
+#: book.translate.xml:4322
msgid ""
"For a traditional partition layout where the <filename>/</filename>, "
"<filename>/var</filename>, <filename>/tmp</filename>, and <filename>/usr</"
@@ -5676,7 +5676,7 @@ msgstr ""
"說明使用其他獨一無二的標籤。"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4328
+#: book.translate.xml:4335
msgid ""
"By default, FreeBSD's <filename>gptboot</filename> expects the first "
"<acronym>UFS</acronym> partition to be the <filename>/</filename> partition."
@@ -5685,113 +5685,113 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 分割區為 <filename>/</filename> 分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4336
+#: book.translate.xml:4343
msgid "Partition Type"
msgstr "分割區類型"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4337
+#: book.translate.xml:4344
msgid "Size"
msgstr "大小"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4338
+#: book.translate.xml:4345
msgid "Mountpoint"
msgstr "掛載點"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4339
+#: book.translate.xml:4346
msgid "Label"
msgstr "標籤"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4345
+#: book.translate.xml:4352
msgid "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4346
+#: book.translate.xml:4353
msgid "<literal>512K</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4350 book.translate.xml:4364 book.translate.xml:4371
-#: book.translate.xml:4378
+#: book.translate.xml:4357 book.translate.xml:4371 book.translate.xml:4378
+#: book.translate.xml:4385
msgid "<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4351 book.translate.xml:4365
+#: book.translate.xml:4358 book.translate.xml:4372
msgid "<literal>2G</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4352 book.translate.xml:7139
+#: book.translate.xml:4359 book.translate.xml:7146
msgid "<filename>/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4353
+#: book.translate.xml:4360
msgid "<literal>exrootfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4357
+#: book.translate.xml:4364
msgid "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4358
+#: book.translate.xml:4365
msgid "<literal>4G</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4360
+#: book.translate.xml:4367
msgid "<literal>exswap</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4366
+#: book.translate.xml:4373
msgid "<filename>/var</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4367
+#: book.translate.xml:4374
msgid "<literal>exvarfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4372
+#: book.translate.xml:4379
msgid "<literal>1G</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4373
+#: book.translate.xml:4380
msgid "<filename>/tmp</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4374
+#: book.translate.xml:4381
msgid "<literal>extmpfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4379
+#: book.translate.xml:4386
msgid "accept the default (remainder of the disk)"
msgstr "接受預設值 (依磁碟提示)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4381
+#: book.translate.xml:4388
msgid "<filename>/usr</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4382
+#: book.translate.xml:4389
msgid "<literal>exusrfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4389
+#: book.translate.xml:4396
msgid ""
"After the custom partitions have been created, select <guibutton>[ Finish ]</"
"guibutton> to continue with the installation."
@@ -5799,12 +5799,12 @@ msgstr ""
"自訂的分割區建立完後,選擇 <guibutton>[ Finish ]</guibutton> 繼續安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4395
+#: book.translate.xml:4402
msgid "Root-on-ZFS Automatic Partitioning"
msgstr "Root-on-ZFS 自動磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4397
+#: book.translate.xml:4404
msgid ""
"Support for automatic creation of root-on-ZFS installations was added in "
"FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE. This partitioning mode only works with whole disks and "
@@ -5833,7 +5833,7 @@ msgstr ""
"存池使用。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4416
+#: book.translate.xml:4423
msgid ""
"The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu offers a number of "
"options to control the creation of the pool."
@@ -5841,7 +5841,7 @@ msgstr ""
"主要 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 設定選單提供了數個設定選項來控制儲存池的建立。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4421
+#: book.translate.xml:4428
msgid "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> Partitioning Menu"
msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 磁碟分割選單"
@@ -5850,13 +5850,13 @@ msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 磁碟分割選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4425
+#: book.translate.xml:4432
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-menu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4430
+#: book.translate.xml:4437
msgid ""
"Select <keycap>T</keycap> to configure the <literal>Pool Type</literal> and "
"the disk(s) that will constitute the pool. The automatic <acronym>ZFS</"
@@ -5866,7 +5866,7 @@ msgid ""
"pool. The installer supports the creation of various pool types, including "
"stripe (not recommended, no redundancy), mirror (best performance, least "
"usable space), and RAID-Z 1, 2, and 3 (with the capability to withstand the "
-"concurrent failure of 1, 2, and 3 disks, respectively). while selecting the "
+"concurrent failure of 1, 2, and 3 disks, respectively). While selecting the "
"pool type, a tooltip is displayed across the bottom of the screen with "
"advice about the number of required disks, and in the case of RAID-Z, the "
"optimal number of disks for each configuration."
@@ -5877,11 +5877,11 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"bsdinstall-part-shell\"/> 的操作來建立儲存池。安裝程式支援建立各種"
"儲存池類型,包含串連 Stripe (不建議,沒有備援功能)、鏡像 Mirror (效能較佳,但"
"可用空間較少) 以及 RAID-Z 1, 2, 與 3 (分別有能力承受同時 1, 2 與 3 個磁碟的損"
-"壞)。在選擇儲存池類型時會有提示顯示在螢幕的下方,提示所需要的磁碟數以及在使"
-"用 RAID-Z 時,每個配置最佳的磁碟數。"
+"壞)。在選擇儲存池類型時會在螢幕的下方提示所需的磁碟數量,以及在使用 RAID-Z "
+"時,每種配置最佳的磁碟數。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4447
+#: book.translate.xml:4454
msgid "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> Pool Type"
msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池類型"
@@ -5890,13 +5890,13 @@ msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池類型"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4451
+#: book.translate.xml:4458
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_type' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4456
+#: book.translate.xml:4463
msgid ""
"Once a <literal>Pool Type</literal> has been selected, a list of available "
"disks is displayed, and the user is prompted to select one or more disks to "
@@ -5911,7 +5911,7 @@ msgstr ""
"返回磁碟清單或取消 (<guibutton>&lt;Cancel&gt;</guibutton>) 來更改儲存池類型。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4466
+#: book.translate.xml:4473
msgid "Disk Selection"
msgstr "磁碟選擇"
@@ -5920,13 +5920,13 @@ msgstr "磁碟選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4470
+#: book.translate.xml:4477
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_select' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4476
+#: book.translate.xml:4483
msgid "Invalid Selection"
msgstr "無效的選擇"
@@ -5935,13 +5935,13 @@ msgstr "無效的選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4480
+#: book.translate.xml:4487
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_invalid' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4485
+#: book.translate.xml:4492
msgid ""
"If one or more disks are missing from the list, or if disks were attached "
"after the installer was started, select <guibutton>- Rescan Devices</"
@@ -5956,7 +5956,7 @@ msgstr ""
"磁碟,包含磁碟中的分割表以及各種其他資訊如裝置型號與序號 (若有的話)。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4496
+#: book.translate.xml:4503
msgid "Analyzing a Disk"
msgstr "分析磁碟"
@@ -5965,13 +5965,13 @@ msgstr "分析磁碟"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4500
+#: book.translate.xml:4507
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_info' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4505
+#: book.translate.xml:4512
msgid ""
"The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu also allows the user to "
"enter a pool name, disable forcing 4k sectors, enable or disable encryption, "
@@ -5986,7 +5986,7 @@ msgstr ""
"單上方的安裝 (<guibutton>&gt;&gt;&gt; Install</guibutton>) 選項。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4515
+#: book.translate.xml:4522
msgid ""
"If <acronym>GELI</acronym> disk encryption was enabled, the installer will "
"prompt twice for the passphrase to be used to encrypt the disks."
@@ -5995,7 +5995,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4520
+#: book.translate.xml:4527
msgid "Disk Encryption Password"
msgstr "磁碟加密密碼"
@@ -6004,13 +6004,13 @@ msgstr "磁碟加密密碼"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4524
+#: book.translate.xml:4531
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-geli_password' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4529
+#: book.translate.xml:4536
msgid ""
"The installer then offers a last chance to cancel before the contents of the "
"selected drives are destroyed to create the <acronym>ZFS</acronym> pool."
@@ -6019,7 +6019,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池的磁碟機。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4534
+#: book.translate.xml:4541
msgid "Last Chance"
msgstr "最後修改"
@@ -6028,23 +6028,23 @@ msgstr "最後修改"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4538
+#: book.translate.xml:4545
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-warning' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4543
+#: book.translate.xml:4550
msgid "The installation then proceeds normally."
msgstr "然後安裝程序會正常繼續。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4548
+#: book.translate.xml:4555
msgid "Shell Mode Partitioning"
msgstr "Shell 模式磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4550
+#: book.translate.xml:4557
msgid ""
"When creating advanced installations, the <application>bsdinstall</"
"application> partitioning menus may not provide the level of flexibility "
@@ -6063,12 +6063,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>bsdinstall</application> 繼續安裝程序。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4565
+#: book.translate.xml:4572
msgid "Committing to the Installation"
msgstr "確認安裝"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4567
+#: book.translate.xml:4574
msgid ""
"Once the disks are configured, the next menu provides the last chance to "
"make changes before the selected hard drive(s) are formatted. If changes "
@@ -6082,7 +6082,7 @@ msgstr ""
"何變更。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4577
+#: book.translate.xml:4584
msgid "Final Confirmation"
msgstr "最後確認"
@@ -6091,14 +6091,14 @@ msgstr "最後確認"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4581
+#: book.translate.xml:4588
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-confirmation' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4586
+#: book.translate.xml:4593
msgid ""
"To instead start the actual installation, select <guibutton>[ Commit ]</"
"guibutton> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>."
@@ -6107,7 +6107,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4590
+#: book.translate.xml:4597
msgid ""
"Installation time will vary depending on the distributions chosen, "
"installation media, and speed of the computer. A series of messages will "
@@ -6117,7 +6117,7 @@ msgstr ""
"訊息會告知目前的進度。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4594
+#: book.translate.xml:4601
msgid ""
"First, the installer formats the selected disk(s) and initializes the "
"partitions. Next, in the case of a bootonly media, it downloads the selected "
@@ -6127,7 +6127,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Boot only) 的媒體則會開始下載選擇的元件:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4599
+#: book.translate.xml:4606
msgid "Fetching Distribution Files"
msgstr "取得發行版檔案"
@@ -6136,13 +6136,13 @@ msgstr "取得發行版檔案"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4603
+#: book.translate.xml:4610
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-fetching' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4608
+#: book.translate.xml:4615
msgid ""
"Next, the integrity of the distribution files is verified to ensure they "
"have not been corrupted during download or misread from the installation "
@@ -6152,7 +6152,7 @@ msgstr ""
"取錯誤造成的損壞:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4613
+#: book.translate.xml:4620
msgid "Verifying Distribution Files"
msgstr "檢驗發行版檔案"
@@ -6161,19 +6161,19 @@ msgstr "檢驗發行版檔案"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4617
+#: book.translate.xml:4624
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-verifying' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4622
+#: book.translate.xml:4629
msgid "Finally, the verified distribution files are extracted to the disk:"
msgstr "最後,檢驗過的發行版檔案會被取出儲存至磁碟:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4626
+#: book.translate.xml:4633
msgid "Extracting Distribution Files"
msgstr "解開發行版檔案"
@@ -6182,14 +6182,14 @@ msgstr "解開發行版檔案"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4630
+#: book.translate.xml:4637
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-extracting' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4635
+#: book.translate.xml:4642
msgid ""
"Once all requested distribution files have been extracted, "
"<application>bsdinstall</application> displays the first post-installation "
@@ -6200,12 +6200,12 @@ msgstr ""
"次安裝後設定畫面,可用的安裝後設定選項會在下一節說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4643
+#: book.translate.xml:4650
msgid "Post-Installation"
msgstr "安裝後注意事項"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4645
+#: book.translate.xml:4652
msgid ""
"Once FreeBSD is installed, <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt "
"to configure several options before booting into the newly installed system. "
@@ -6215,7 +6215,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的系統之前提示設定數個選項,本節將介紹這些設定選項。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4651
+#: book.translate.xml:4658
msgid ""
"Once the system has booted, <command>bsdconfig</command> provides a menu-"
"driven method for configuring the system using these and additional options."
@@ -6225,12 +6225,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4658 book.translate.xml:4669
+#: book.translate.xml:4665 book.translate.xml:4676
msgid "Setting the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> Password"
msgstr "設定 <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> 密碼"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4662
+#: book.translate.xml:4669
msgid ""
"First, the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> password must be "
"set. While entering the password, the characters being typed are not "
@@ -6246,25 +6246,25 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4673
+#: book.translate.xml:4680
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-post-root-passwd' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4680
+#: book.translate.xml:4687
msgid "Configuring Network Interfaces"
msgstr "設定網路介面卡"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4682
+#: book.translate.xml:4689
msgid ""
"Next, a list of the network interfaces found on the computer is shown. "
"Select the interface to configure."
msgstr "接著,會顯示在電腦上找到的網路介面卡清單。請選擇要設定的介面卡。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4686
+#: book.translate.xml:4693
msgid ""
"The network configuration menus will be skipped if the network was "
"previously configured as part of a <emphasis>bootonly</emphasis> "
@@ -6274,7 +6274,7 @@ msgstr ""
"網路設定選單。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4692
+#: book.translate.xml:4699
msgid "Choose a Network Interface"
msgstr "選擇網路介面卡"
@@ -6283,7 +6283,7 @@ msgstr "選擇網路介面卡"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4696
+#: book.translate.xml:4703
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface' "
@@ -6291,7 +6291,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4701
+#: book.translate.xml:4708
msgid ""
"If an Ethernet interface is selected, the installer will skip ahead to the "
"menu shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-configure-net-ipv4\"/>. If a "
@@ -6303,7 +6303,7 @@ msgstr ""
"描無線存取點 (Wireless Access Point):"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4707
+#: book.translate.xml:4714
msgid "Scanning for Wireless Access Points"
msgstr "掃描無線網路存取點"
@@ -6312,14 +6312,14 @@ msgstr "掃描無線網路存取點"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4711
+#: book.translate.xml:4718
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-scan' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4716
+#: book.translate.xml:4723
msgid ""
"Wireless networks are identified by a Service Set Identifier (<acronym>SSID</"
"acronym>), a short, unique name given to each network. <acronym>SSIDs</"
@@ -6338,7 +6338,7 @@ msgstr ""
"題,或者嘗試將電腦移至更靠近存取點的位置,然後再掃描一次。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4728
+#: book.translate.xml:4735
msgid "Choosing a Wireless Network"
msgstr "選擇無線網路"
@@ -6347,7 +6347,7 @@ msgstr "選擇無線網路"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4732
+#: book.translate.xml:4739
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-accesspoints' "
@@ -6355,7 +6355,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4737
+#: book.translate.xml:4744
msgid ""
"Next, enter the encryption information for connecting to the selected "
"wireless network. <acronym>WPA2</acronym> encryption is strongly recommended "
@@ -6370,7 +6370,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<acronym>PSK</acronym>)。考量安全性,輸入到輸入框的字元會以星號顯示。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4747
+#: book.translate.xml:4754
msgid "WPA2 Setup"
msgstr "WPA2 設定"
@@ -6379,7 +6379,7 @@ msgstr "WPA2 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4751
+#: book.translate.xml:4758
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-wpa2setup' "
@@ -6387,7 +6387,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4756
+#: book.translate.xml:4763
msgid ""
"Next, choose whether or not an <acronym>IPv4</acronym> address should be "
"configured on the Ethernet or wireless interface:"
@@ -6396,7 +6396,7 @@ msgstr ""
"址:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4761
+#: book.translate.xml:4768
msgid "Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> Networking"
msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> 網路"
@@ -6405,7 +6405,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> 網路"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4765
+#: book.translate.xml:4772
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4' "
@@ -6413,7 +6413,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4770
+#: book.translate.xml:4777
msgid ""
"There are two methods of <acronym>IPv4</acronym> configuration. "
"<acronym>DHCP</acronym> will automatically configure the network interface "
@@ -6426,7 +6426,7 @@ msgstr ""
"手動輸入位址的資訊來做靜態設定。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4778
+#: book.translate.xml:4785
msgid ""
"Do not enter random network information as it will not work. If a "
"<acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available, obtain the information "
@@ -6438,7 +6438,7 @@ msgstr ""
"列於 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-collect-network-information\"/> 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4785
+#: book.translate.xml:4792
msgid ""
"If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is available, select <guibutton>[ Yes ]</"
"guibutton> in the next menu to automatically configure the network "
@@ -6451,7 +6451,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 伺服器並且取得系統的位址資訊時,安裝程式會出現一分鐘左右的停頓。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4793
+#: book.translate.xml:4800
msgid "Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym> Configuration"
msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 設定"
@@ -6460,7 +6460,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4798
+#: book.translate.xml:4805
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-dhcp' "
@@ -6468,7 +6468,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4803
+#: book.translate.xml:4810
msgid ""
"If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available, select "
"<guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> and input the following addressing information "
@@ -6478,7 +6478,7 @@ msgstr ""
"guibutton> 然後在這個選單中輸入以下位址資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4808
+#: book.translate.xml:4815
msgid "<acronym>IPv4</acronym> Static Configuration"
msgstr "<acronym>IPv4</acronym> 靜態位置設定"
@@ -6487,7 +6487,7 @@ msgstr "<acronym>IPv4</acronym> 靜態位置設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4812
+#: book.translate.xml:4819
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-static' "
@@ -6495,7 +6495,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4819
+#: book.translate.xml:4826
msgid ""
"<literal>IP Address</literal> - The <acronym>IPv4</acronym> address assigned "
"to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use by "
@@ -6505,12 +6505,12 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 位址。位址必須獨一無二且不可已被其他在區域網路上的設備使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4826
+#: book.translate.xml:4833
msgid "<literal>Subnet Mask</literal> - The subnet mask for the network."
msgstr "子網路遮罩 (<literal>Subnet Mask</literal>) - 網路的子網路遮罩。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4831
+#: book.translate.xml:4838
msgid ""
"<literal>Default Router</literal> - The <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the "
"network's default gateway."
@@ -6519,7 +6519,7 @@ msgstr ""
"在網段的預設通訊閘。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4837
+#: book.translate.xml:4844
msgid ""
"The next screen will ask if the interface should be configured for "
"<acronym>IPv6</acronym>. If <acronym>IPv6</acronym> is available and "
@@ -6529,7 +6529,7 @@ msgstr ""
"要使用 <acronym>IPv6</acronym>,請選擇 <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4843
+#: book.translate.xml:4850
msgid "Choose IPv6 Networking"
msgstr "選擇 IPv6 網路"
@@ -6538,7 +6538,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 IPv6 網路"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4847
+#: book.translate.xml:4854
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6' "
@@ -6546,7 +6546,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4852
+#: book.translate.xml:4859
msgid ""
"<acronym>IPv6</acronym> also has two methods of configuration. StateLess "
"Address AutoConfiguration (<acronym>SLAAC</acronym>) will automatically "
@@ -6562,7 +6562,7 @@ msgstr ""
"則需要手動輸入網路資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4860
+#: book.translate.xml:4867
msgid ""
"If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is available, select "
"<guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> in the next menu to automatically configure "
@@ -6574,7 +6574,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的位址資訊時,安裝程式會出現一分鐘左右的停頓。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4867
+#: book.translate.xml:4874
msgid "Choose IPv6 SLAAC Configuration"
msgstr "選擇 IPv6 SLAAC 設定"
@@ -6583,7 +6583,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 IPv6 SLAAC 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4871
+#: book.translate.xml:4878
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-slaac' "
@@ -6591,7 +6591,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4876
+#: book.translate.xml:4883
msgid ""
"If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is not available, select "
"<guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> and input the following addressing information "
@@ -6601,7 +6601,7 @@ msgstr ""
"guibutton> 然後在這個選單中輸入以下位址資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4881
+#: book.translate.xml:4888
msgid "IPv6 Static Configuration"
msgstr "IPv6 靜態位置設定"
@@ -6610,7 +6610,7 @@ msgstr "IPv6 靜態位置設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4885
+#: book.translate.xml:4892
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6-static' "
@@ -6618,7 +6618,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4892
+#: book.translate.xml:4899
msgid ""
"<literal>IPv6 Address</literal> - The <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address "
"assigned to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use "
@@ -6629,7 +6629,7 @@ msgstr ""
"備使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4899
+#: book.translate.xml:4906
msgid ""
"<literal>Default Router</literal> - The <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address of "
"the network's default gateway."
@@ -6638,7 +6638,7 @@ msgstr ""
"所在網段的預設通訊閘。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4905
+#: book.translate.xml:4912
msgid ""
"The last network configuration menu is used to configure the Domain Name "
"System (<acronym>DNS</acronym>) resolver, which converts hostnames to and "
@@ -6661,7 +6661,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4919
+#: book.translate.xml:4926
msgid "DNS Configuration"
msgstr "DNS 設定"
@@ -6670,7 +6670,7 @@ msgstr "DNS 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4923
+#: book.translate.xml:4930
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-ipv4-dns' "
@@ -6678,12 +6678,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4930
+#: book.translate.xml:4937
msgid "Setting the Time Zone"
msgstr "設定時區"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4932
+#: book.translate.xml:4939
msgid ""
"The next menu asks if the system clock uses <acronym>UTC</acronym> or local "
"time. When in doubt, select <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> to choose the more "
@@ -6693,7 +6693,7 @@ msgstr ""
"問時可選擇 <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton>使用更常用的當地時間。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4938
+#: book.translate.xml:4945
msgid "Select Local or UTC Clock"
msgstr "選擇本地或 UTC 時鐘"
@@ -6702,14 +6702,14 @@ msgstr "選擇本地或 UTC 時鐘"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4942
+#: book.translate.xml:4949
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-set-clock-local-utc' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4947
+#: book.translate.xml:4954
msgid ""
"The next series of menus are used to determine the correct local time by "
"selecting the geographic region, country, and time zone. Setting the time "
@@ -6722,7 +6722,7 @@ msgstr ""
"能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4954
+#: book.translate.xml:4961
msgid ""
"The example shown here is for a machine located in the Eastern time zone of "
"the United States. The selections will vary according to the geographical "
@@ -6730,7 +6730,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr "此處以位於美國東部時區的機器為例,選擇會依據地理位置不同改變。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4959
+#: book.translate.xml:4966
msgid "Select a Region"
msgstr "選擇區域"
@@ -6739,20 +6739,20 @@ msgstr "選擇區域"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4963
+#: book.translate.xml:4970
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-region' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4968
+#: book.translate.xml:4975
msgid ""
"The appropriate region is selected using the arrow keys and then pressing "
"<keycap>Enter</keycap>."
msgstr "使用方向鍵選擇適當的區域然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4972
+#: book.translate.xml:4979
msgid "Select a Country"
msgstr "選擇城市"
@@ -6761,20 +6761,20 @@ msgstr "選擇城市"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4976
+#: book.translate.xml:4983
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-country' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4981
+#: book.translate.xml:4988
msgid ""
"Select the appropriate country using the arrow keys and press <keycap>Enter</"
"keycap>."
msgstr "使用方向鍵選擇適當的城市然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4985
+#: book.translate.xml:4992
msgid "Select a Time Zone"
msgstr "選擇時區"
@@ -6783,20 +6783,20 @@ msgstr "選擇時區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4989
+#: book.translate.xml:4996
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-zone' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4994
+#: book.translate.xml:5001
msgid ""
"The appropriate time zone is selected using the arrow keys and pressing "
"<keycap>Enter</keycap>."
msgstr "使用方向鍵選擇適當的時區然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4998
+#: book.translate.xml:5005
msgid "Confirm Time Zone"
msgstr "確認時區"
@@ -6805,13 +6805,13 @@ msgstr "確認時區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5002
+#: book.translate.xml:5009
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-confirm' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5007
+#: book.translate.xml:5014
msgid ""
"Confirm the abbreviation for the time zone is correct. If it is, press "
"<keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue with the post-installation configuration."
@@ -6819,12 +6819,12 @@ msgstr ""
"確認時區的縮寫是否正確,若正確,按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 繼續安裝後設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5013
+#: book.translate.xml:5020
msgid "Enabling Services"
msgstr "開啟服務"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5015
+#: book.translate.xml:5022
msgid ""
"The next menu is used to configure which system services will be started "
"whenever the system boots. All of these services are optional. Only start "
@@ -6834,7 +6834,7 @@ msgstr ""
"開啟系統運作真正需要的服務。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5021
+#: book.translate.xml:5028
msgid "Selecting Additional Services to Enable"
msgstr "選擇要開啟的其他服務"
@@ -6843,18 +6843,18 @@ msgstr "選擇要開啟的其他服務"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5025
+#: book.translate.xml:5032
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-services' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5030
+#: book.translate.xml:5037
msgid "Here is a summary of the services which can be enabled in this menu:"
msgstr "這是可以在這個選單開啟的服務摘要:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5035
+#: book.translate.xml:5042
msgid ""
"<literal>sshd</literal> - The Secure Shell (<acronym>SSH</acronym>) daemon "
"is used to remotely access a system over an encrypted connection. Only "
@@ -6864,7 +6864,7 @@ msgstr ""
"端透過加密的連線存取系統,只有在系統允許遠端登入時開啟這個服務。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5043
+#: book.translate.xml:5050
msgid ""
"<literal>moused</literal> - Enable this service if the mouse will be used "
"from the command-line system console."
@@ -6873,7 +6873,7 @@ msgstr ""
"務。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5049
+#: book.translate.xml:5056
msgid ""
"<literal>ntpd</literal> - The Network Time Protocol (<acronym>NTP</acronym>) "
"daemon for automatic clock synchronization. Enable this service if there is "
@@ -6886,7 +6886,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 伺服器時,可開啟此服務。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5057
+#: book.translate.xml:5064
msgid ""
"<literal>powerd</literal> - System power control utility for power control "
"and energy saving."
@@ -6894,12 +6894,12 @@ msgstr "<literal>powerd</literal> - 系統電源控制工具用來做電源控
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5064 book.translate.xml:5072
+#: book.translate.xml:5071 book.translate.xml:5079
msgid "Enabling Crash Dumps"
msgstr "開啟當機資訊 (Crash Dump)"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5066
+#: book.translate.xml:5073
msgid ""
"The next menu is used to configure whether or not crash dumps should be "
"enabled. Enabling crash dumps can be useful in debugging issues with the "
@@ -6913,18 +6913,18 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5076
+#: book.translate.xml:5083
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-crashdump' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5083
+#: book.translate.xml:5090
msgid "Add Users"
msgstr "新增使用者"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5085
+#: book.translate.xml:5092
msgid ""
"The next menu prompts to create at least one user account. It is recommended "
"to login to the system using a user account rather than as <systemitem class="
@@ -6939,12 +6939,12 @@ msgstr ""
"使用一般使用者登入較保險且安全。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5092
+#: book.translate.xml:5099
msgid "Select <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> to add new users."
msgstr "選擇 <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> 來新增新使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5096
+#: book.translate.xml:5103
msgid "Add User Accounts"
msgstr "新增使用者帳號"
@@ -6953,13 +6953,13 @@ msgstr "新增使用者帳號"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5100
+#: book.translate.xml:5107
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser1' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5105
+#: book.translate.xml:5112
msgid ""
"Follow the prompts and input the requested information for the user account. "
"The example shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-add-user2\"/> creates the "
@@ -6970,7 +6970,7 @@ msgstr ""
"號。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5109
+#: book.translate.xml:5116
msgid "Enter User Information"
msgstr "輸入使用者資訊"
@@ -6979,18 +6979,18 @@ msgstr "輸入使用者資訊"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5113
+#: book.translate.xml:5120
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser2' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5118
+#: book.translate.xml:5125
msgid "Here is a summary of the information to input:"
msgstr "這裡是要輸入的資訊摘要:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5122
+#: book.translate.xml:5129
msgid ""
"<literal>Username</literal> - The name the user will enter to log in. A "
"common convention is to use the first letter of the first name combined with "
@@ -7002,7 +7002,7 @@ msgstr ""
"區分大小寫且不應含有任何空白字元。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5131
+#: book.translate.xml:5138
msgid ""
"<literal>Full name</literal> - The user's full name. This can contain spaces "
"and is used as a description for the user account."
@@ -7011,7 +7011,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用來描述該使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5137
+#: book.translate.xml:5144
msgid ""
"<literal>Uid</literal> - User <acronym>ID</acronym>. Typically, this is left "
"blank so the system will assign a value."
@@ -7020,7 +7020,7 @@ msgstr ""
"統會自動分配一個值。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5143
+#: book.translate.xml:5150
msgid ""
"<literal>Login group</literal> - The user's group. Typically this is left "
"blank to accept the default."
@@ -7029,7 +7029,7 @@ msgstr ""
"來使用預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5148
+#: book.translate.xml:5155
msgid ""
"<literal>Invite <replaceable>user</replaceable> into other groups?</literal> "
"- Additional groups to which the user will be added as a member. If the user "
@@ -7040,12 +7040,12 @@ msgstr ""
"需要管理權限,則在此輸入 <literal>wheel</literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5156
+#: book.translate.xml:5163
msgid "<literal>Login class</literal> - Typically left blank for the default."
msgstr "登入類別 (<literal>Login class</literal>) - 通常會留空來使用預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5161
+#: book.translate.xml:5168
msgid ""
"<literal>Shell</literal> - Type in one of the listed values to set the "
"interactive shell for the user. Refer to <xref linkend=\"shells\"/> for more "
@@ -7055,7 +7055,7 @@ msgstr ""
"參考 <xref linkend=\"shells\"/> 取得更多有關 Shell 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5168
+#: book.translate.xml:5175
msgid ""
"<literal>Home directory</literal> - The user's home directory. The default "
"is usually correct."
@@ -7064,7 +7064,7 @@ msgstr ""
"問題的。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5173
+#: book.translate.xml:5180
msgid ""
"<literal>Home directory permissions</literal> - Permissions on the user's "
"home directory. The default is usually correct."
@@ -7073,7 +7073,7 @@ msgstr ""
"限,預設值通常是沒有問題的。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5179
+#: book.translate.xml:5186
msgid ""
"<literal>Use password-based authentication?</literal> - Typically "
"<literal>yes</literal> so that the user is prompted to input their password "
@@ -7083,7 +7083,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) - 通常為是 (<literal>yes</literal>),使用者才可於登入時輸入密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5185
+#: book.translate.xml:5192
msgid ""
"<literal>Use an empty password?</literal> - Typically <literal>no</literal> "
"as it is insecure to have a blank password."
@@ -7092,7 +7092,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<literal>no</literal>),因為使用空白密碼並不安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5191
+#: book.translate.xml:5198
msgid ""
"<literal>Use a random password?</literal> - Typically <literal>no</literal> "
"so that the user can set their own password in the next prompt."
@@ -7101,7 +7101,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<literal>no</literal>),這樣使用者接下來才可設定自己的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5197
+#: book.translate.xml:5204
msgid ""
"<literal>Enter password</literal> - The password for this user. Characters "
"typed will not show on the screen."
@@ -7110,7 +7110,7 @@ msgstr ""
"會顯示在畫面上。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5203
+#: book.translate.xml:5210
msgid ""
"<literal>Enter password again</literal> - The password must be typed again "
"for verification."
@@ -7119,7 +7119,7 @@ msgstr ""
"認無誤。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5208
+#: book.translate.xml:5215
msgid ""
"<literal>Lock out the account after creation?</literal> - Typically "
"<literal>no</literal> so that the user can login."
@@ -7128,7 +7128,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) - 通常為否 (<literal>no</literal>),這樣使用者才可以登入。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5214
+#: book.translate.xml:5221
msgid ""
"After entering everything, a summary is shown for review. If a mistake was "
"made, enter <literal>no</literal> and try again. If everything is correct, "
@@ -7139,7 +7139,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 以後便會建立新使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5220
+#: book.translate.xml:5227
msgid "Exit User and Group Management"
msgstr "離開使用者與群組管理"
@@ -7148,13 +7148,13 @@ msgstr "離開使用者與群組管理"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5224
+#: book.translate.xml:5231
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser3' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5229
+#: book.translate.xml:5236
msgid ""
"If there are more users to add, answer the <literal>Add another user?</"
"literal> question with <literal>yes</literal>. Enter <literal>no</literal> "
@@ -7165,7 +7165,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 來完成加入使用者然後繼續安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5234
+#: book.translate.xml:5241
msgid ""
"For more information on adding users and user management, see <xref linkend="
"\"users-synopsis\"/>."
@@ -7175,12 +7175,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5239 book.translate.xml:5245
+#: book.translate.xml:5246 book.translate.xml:5252
msgid "Final Configuration"
msgstr "最後設定"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5241
+#: book.translate.xml:5248
msgid ""
"After everything has been installed and configured, a final chance is "
"provided to modify settings."
@@ -7191,21 +7191,21 @@ msgstr "在所有東西安裝並設定完之後,會提供最後一次修改設
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5249
+#: book.translate.xml:5256
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-finalconfiguration' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5254
+#: book.translate.xml:5261
msgid ""
"Use this menu to make any changes or do any additional configuration before "
"completing the installation."
msgstr "使用這個選單在完成安裝前做任何更改或做任何額外的設定。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5259
+#: book.translate.xml:5266
msgid ""
"<literal>Add User</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"addusers\"/>."
@@ -7214,7 +7214,7 @@ msgstr ""
"addusers\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5263
+#: book.translate.xml:5270
msgid ""
"<literal>Root Password</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"post-root\"/>."
@@ -7223,7 +7223,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"bsdinstall-post-root\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5267
+#: book.translate.xml:5274
msgid ""
"<literal>Hostname</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"hostname\"/>."
@@ -7232,7 +7232,7 @@ msgstr ""
"hostname\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5271
+#: book.translate.xml:5278
msgid ""
"<literal>Network</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-config-"
"network-dev\"/>."
@@ -7241,7 +7241,7 @@ msgstr ""
"network-dev\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5275
+#: book.translate.xml:5282
msgid ""
"<literal>Services</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-sysconf"
"\"/>."
@@ -7250,7 +7250,7 @@ msgstr ""
"sysconf\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5279
+#: book.translate.xml:5286
msgid ""
"<literal>Time Zone</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"timezone\"/>."
@@ -7259,13 +7259,13 @@ msgstr ""
"timezone\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5283
+#: book.translate.xml:5290
msgid ""
"<literal>Handbook</literal> - Download and install the FreeBSD Handbook."
msgstr "使用手冊 (<literal>Handbook</literal>) - 下載並安裝 FreeBSD 使用手冊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5288
+#: book.translate.xml:5295
msgid ""
"After any final configuration is complete, select <guibutton>Exit</"
"guibutton>."
@@ -7273,7 +7273,7 @@ msgstr "完成最後的設定之後,選擇 <guibutton>Exit</guibutton>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5292 book.translate.xml:11491
+#: book.translate.xml:5299 book.translate.xml:11498
msgid "Manual Configuration"
msgstr "手動設定"
@@ -7282,7 +7282,7 @@ msgstr "手動設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5296
+#: book.translate.xml:5303
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-modification-shell' "
@@ -7290,7 +7290,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5301
+#: book.translate.xml:5308
msgid ""
"<application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt if there are any "
"additional configuration that needs to be done before rebooting into the new "
@@ -7303,7 +7303,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的 Shell 或 <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> 繼續最後的安裝步驟。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5310
+#: book.translate.xml:5317
msgid "Complete the Installation"
msgstr "完成安裝"
@@ -7312,13 +7312,13 @@ msgstr "完成安裝"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5314
+#: book.translate.xml:5321
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-mainexit' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5319
+#: book.translate.xml:5326
msgid ""
"If further configuration or special setup is needed, select "
"<guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton> to boot the install media into Live "
@@ -7328,7 +7328,7 @@ msgstr ""
"進入安裝媒體的 Live <acronym>CD</acronym> 模式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5324
+#: book.translate.xml:5331
msgid ""
"If the installation is complete, select <guibutton>[ Reboot ]</guibutton> to "
"reboot the computer and start the new FreeBSD system. Do not forget to "
@@ -7339,7 +7339,7 @@ msgstr ""
"式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5330
+#: book.translate.xml:5337
msgid ""
"As FreeBSD boots, informational messages are displayed. After the system "
"finishes booting, a login prompt is displayed. At the <prompt>login:</"
@@ -7354,7 +7354,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"users-superuser\"/> 來取得當需要管理權限時如何成為超級使用者的說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5339
+#: book.translate.xml:5346
msgid ""
"The messages that appeared during boot can be reviewed by pressing "
"<keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> to turn on the scroll-back buffer. The "
@@ -7373,7 +7373,7 @@ msgstr ""
"列。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5351
+#: book.translate.xml:5358
msgid ""
"If <application>sshd</application> was enabled in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"config-serv\"/>, the first boot may be a bit slower as the system will "
@@ -7387,7 +7387,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Fingerprint),如這個範例:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5357
+#: book.translate.xml:5364
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.\n"
@@ -7428,7 +7428,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5393
+#: book.translate.xml:5400
msgid ""
"Refer to <xref linkend=\"openssh\"/> for more information about fingerprints "
"and <acronym>SSH</acronym>."
@@ -7437,7 +7437,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5396
+#: book.translate.xml:5403
msgid ""
"FreeBSD does not install a graphical environment by default. Refer to <xref "
"linkend=\"x11\"/> for more information about installing and configuring a "
@@ -7447,7 +7447,7 @@ msgstr ""
"與設定圖型化視窗管理程式的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5400
+#: book.translate.xml:5407
msgid ""
"Proper shutdown of a FreeBSD computer helps protect data and hardware from "
"damage. <emphasis>Do not turn off the power before the system has been "
@@ -7468,27 +7468,27 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5413 book.translate.xml:12443 book.translate.xml:15206
-#: book.translate.xml:20381 book.translate.xml:35537 book.translate.xml:36307
-#: book.translate.xml:47947 book.translate.xml:51193 book.translate.xml:62289
-#: book.translate.xml:63944 book.translate.xml:64667
+#: book.translate.xml:5420 book.translate.xml:12450 book.translate.xml:15213
+#: book.translate.xml:20388 book.translate.xml:35671 book.translate.xml:36441
+#: book.translate.xml:47568 book.translate.xml:50814 book.translate.xml:61911
+#: book.translate.xml:63571 book.translate.xml:64294
msgid "Troubleshooting"
msgstr "疑難排解"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5415
+#: book.translate.xml:5422
msgid "<primary>installation</primary> <secondary>troubleshooting</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5419
+#: book.translate.xml:5426
msgid ""
"This section covers basic installation troubleshooting, such as common "
"problems people have reported."
msgstr "本節涵蓋基礎的安裝疑難排解,例如一些已有人回報的常見問題。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5423
+#: book.translate.xml:5430
msgid ""
"Check the Hardware Notes (<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/"
"index.html\">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>) document for "
@@ -7512,7 +7512,7 @@ msgstr ""
"訴 FreeBSD 到那找到這些裝置。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5437
+#: book.translate.xml:5444
msgid ""
"Some installation problems can be avoided or alleviated by updating the "
"firmware on various hardware components, most notably the motherboard. "
@@ -7525,7 +7525,7 @@ msgstr ""
"得升級程式與升級資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5444
+#: book.translate.xml:5451
msgid ""
"Manufacturers generally advise against upgrading the motherboard "
"<acronym>BIOS</acronym> unless there is a good reason for doing so, like a "
@@ -7535,7 +7535,7 @@ msgstr ""
"製造商通常會建議若沒有特殊原因盡量避免升級主機板 <acronym>BIOS</acronym>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5452
+#: book.translate.xml:5459
msgid ""
"If the system hangs while probing hardware during boot, or it behaves "
"strangely during install, <acronym>ACPI</acronym> may be the culprit. "
@@ -7555,13 +7555,13 @@ msgstr ""
"disabled</literal> Hint 來關閉 <acronym>ACPI</acronym>:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5464
+#: book.translate.xml:5471
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput>set hint.acpi.0.disabled=\"1\"</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5466
+#: book.translate.xml:5473
msgid ""
"This is reset each time the system is booted, so it is necessary to add "
"<literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled=\"1\"</literal> to the file <filename>/boot/"
@@ -7573,12 +7573,12 @@ msgstr ""
"機載入程式的資訊可於 <xref linkend=\"boot-synopsis\"/> 取得。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5473
+#: book.translate.xml:5480
msgid "Using the Live <acronym>CD</acronym>"
msgstr "使用 Live <acronym>CD</acronym>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5475
+#: book.translate.xml:5482
msgid ""
"The welcome menu of <application>bsdinstall</application>, shown in <xref "
"linkend=\"bsdinstall-choose-mode\"/>, provides a <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</"
@@ -7592,14 +7592,14 @@ msgstr ""
"測試一部份功能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5482
+#: book.translate.xml:5489
msgid ""
"The following points should be noted before using the "
"<guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton>:"
msgstr "在使用 <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton> 之前必須注意以下幾點事項:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5487
+#: book.translate.xml:5494
msgid ""
"To gain access to the system, authentication is required. The username is "
"<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> and the password is blank."
@@ -7608,25 +7608,25 @@ msgstr ""
"\">root</systemitem> 而密碼則是空白。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5493
+#: book.translate.xml:5500
msgid ""
"As the system runs directly from the installation media, performance will be "
"significantly slower than that of a system installed on a hard disk."
msgstr "系統是直接從安裝媒體上執行,比起安裝到硬碟的系統,效能可能較差。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5499
+#: book.translate.xml:5506
msgid ""
"This option only provides a command prompt and not a graphical interface."
msgstr "這個選項只提供指令提示,不會有圖型化介面。"
#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5524
+#: book.translate.xml:5531
msgid "FreeBSD Basics"
msgstr "FreeBSD 基礎"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5529
+#: book.translate.xml:5536
msgid ""
"This chapter covers the basic commands and functionality of the FreeBSD "
"operating system. Much of this material is relevant for any <trademark class="
@@ -7639,17 +7639,17 @@ msgstr ""
"細的讀完這章。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5538
+#: book.translate.xml:5545
msgid "How to use and configure virtual consoles."
msgstr "如何使用 FreeBSD 的虛擬 Console。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5542
+#: book.translate.xml:5549
msgid "How to create and manage users and groups on FreeBSD."
msgstr "如何在 FreeBSD 建立與管理使用者與群組。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5547
+#: book.translate.xml:5554
msgid ""
"How <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> file permissions and "
"FreeBSD file flags work."
@@ -7658,68 +7658,68 @@ msgstr ""
"記的運作方式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5552
+#: book.translate.xml:5559
msgid "The default FreeBSD file system layout."
msgstr "預設的 FreeBSD 檔案系統配置。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5556
+#: book.translate.xml:5563
msgid "The FreeBSD disk organization."
msgstr "FreeBSD 的磁碟組織。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5560
+#: book.translate.xml:5567
msgid "How to mount and unmount file systems."
msgstr "如何掛載 (Mount)、卸載 (Umount) 檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5564
+#: book.translate.xml:5571
msgid "What processes, daemons, and signals are."
msgstr "什麼是程序、Daemon 以及信號 (Signal)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5568
+#: book.translate.xml:5575
msgid "What a shell is, and how to change the default login environment."
msgstr "什麼是 Shell,以及如何變更您預設的登入環境。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5573
+#: book.translate.xml:5580
msgid "How to use basic text editors."
msgstr "如何使用基本的文字編輯器。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5577
+#: book.translate.xml:5584
msgid "What devices and device nodes are."
msgstr "什麼是裝置 (Device) 和裝置節點 (Device node)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5581
+#: book.translate.xml:5588
msgid "How to read manual pages for more information."
msgstr "如何閱讀操作手冊以獲得更多的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5587
+#: book.translate.xml:5594
msgid "Virtual Consoles and Terminals"
msgstr "虛擬 Console 與終端機"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5589
+#: book.translate.xml:5596
msgid "<primary>virtual consoles</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5592 book.translate.xml:47229
+#: book.translate.xml:5599 book.translate.xml:46850
msgid "<primary>terminals</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5595 book.translate.xml:23363
+#: book.translate.xml:5602 book.translate.xml:23370
msgid "<primary>console</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5599
+#: book.translate.xml:5606
msgid ""
"Unless FreeBSD has been configured to automatically start a graphical "
"environment during startup, the system will boot into a command line login "
@@ -7729,7 +7729,7 @@ msgstr ""
"是這樣的東西:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5604
+#: book.translate.xml:5611
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"FreeBSD/amd64 (pc3.example.org) (ttyv0)\n"
@@ -7738,7 +7738,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5608
+#: book.translate.xml:5615
msgid ""
"The first line contains some information about the system. The "
"<literal>amd64</literal> indicates that the system in this example is "
@@ -7752,7 +7752,7 @@ msgstr ""
"quote>。第二行則是登人的提示訊息。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5616
+#: book.translate.xml:5623
msgid ""
"Since FreeBSD is a multiuser system, it needs some way to distinguish "
"between different users. This is accomplished by requiring every user to log "
@@ -7766,7 +7766,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<quote>password</quote>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5623
+#: book.translate.xml:5630
msgid ""
"To log into the system console, type the username that was configured during "
"system installation, as described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-addusers\"/"
@@ -7780,7 +7780,7 @@ msgstr ""
"示</emphasis>在畫面上。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5631
+#: book.translate.xml:5638
msgid ""
"Once the correct password is input, the message of the day (<acronym>MOTD</"
"acronym>) will be displayed followed by a command prompt. Depending upon the "
@@ -7796,12 +7796,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Console 且已經準備好可以下指令。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5641
+#: book.translate.xml:5648
msgid "Virtual Consoles"
msgstr "虛擬 Console"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5643
+#: book.translate.xml:5650
msgid ""
"While the system console can be used to interact with the system, a user "
"working from the command line at the keyboard of a FreeBSD system will "
@@ -7815,7 +7815,7 @@ msgstr ""
"這些訊些會在使用者作業的過程中不斷出現,讓使用者難以專心作業。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5652
+#: book.translate.xml:5659
msgid ""
"By default, FreeBSD is configured to provide several virtual consoles for "
"inputting commands. Each virtual console has its own login prompt and shell "
@@ -7828,7 +7828,7 @@ msgstr ""
"於圖型化環境中可以同時開啟多個視窗的功能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5659
+#: book.translate.xml:5666
msgid ""
"The key combinations <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></"
"keycombo> through <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F8</keycap></"
@@ -7850,7 +7850,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<filename>ttyv2</filename>),以此類推。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5675
+#: book.translate.xml:5682
msgid ""
"When switching from one console to the next, FreeBSD manages the screen "
"output. The result is an illusion of having multiple virtual screens and "
@@ -7863,7 +7863,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Console 上執行的程式並不會因為使用者切到別的 Console 而停止執行。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5682
+#: book.translate.xml:5689
msgid ""
"Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kbdcontrol</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, "
@@ -7885,7 +7885,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 來取得更多有關 FreeBSD Console 及鍵盤驅動程式的技術說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5687
+#: book.translate.xml:5694
msgid ""
"In FreeBSD, the number of available virtual consoles is configured in this "
"section of <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:"
@@ -7894,7 +7894,7 @@ msgstr ""
"列章節:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:5691
+#: book.translate.xml:5698
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"# name getty type status comments\n"
@@ -7912,7 +7912,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5705
+#: book.translate.xml:5712
msgid ""
"To disable a virtual console, put a comment symbol (<literal>#</literal>) at "
"the beginning of the line representing that virtual console. For example, to "
@@ -7934,7 +7934,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個虛擬 Console (<filename>ttyv8</filename>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5719
+#: book.translate.xml:5726
msgid ""
"For a detailed description of every column in this file and the available "
"options for the virtual consoles, refer to "
@@ -7945,12 +7945,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5725
+#: book.translate.xml:5732
msgid "Single User Mode"
msgstr "單使用者模式"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5727
+#: book.translate.xml:5734
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD boot menu provides an option labelled as <quote>Boot Single "
"User</quote>. If this option is selected, the system will boot into a "
@@ -7975,7 +7975,7 @@ msgstr ""
"鍵盤的人員。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5743
+#: book.translate.xml:5750
msgid ""
"The settings which control single user mode are found in this section of "
"<filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:"
@@ -7984,7 +7984,7 @@ msgstr ""
"到:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:5746
+#: book.translate.xml:5753
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"# name getty type status comments\n"
@@ -7995,7 +7995,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5752
+#: book.translate.xml:5759
msgid ""
"By default, the status is set to <literal>secure</literal>. This assumes "
"that who has physical access to the keyboard is either not important or it "
@@ -8014,7 +8014,7 @@ msgstr ""
"碼。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5764
+#: book.translate.xml:5771
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Be careful when changing this setting to <literal>insecure</"
"literal></emphasis>! If the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> "
@@ -8027,12 +8027,12 @@ msgstr ""
"有其他辦法可以登入單使用者模式,只是對不熟 FreeBSD 開機程序的人可就麻煩了。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5774
+#: book.translate.xml:5781
msgid "Changing Console Video Modes"
msgstr "更改 Console 影像模式"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5776
+#: book.translate.xml:5783
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD console default video mode may be adjusted to 1024x768, "
"1280x1024, or any other size supported by the graphics chip and monitor. To "
@@ -8043,13 +8043,13 @@ msgstr ""
"組:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5781
+#: book.translate.xml:5788
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload vesa</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5783
+#: book.translate.xml:5790
msgid ""
"To determine which video modes are supported by the hardware, use "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
@@ -8061,13 +8061,13 @@ msgstr ""
"清單可輸入以下指令:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5787
+#: book.translate.xml:5794
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>vidcontrol -i mode</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5789
+#: book.translate.xml:5796
msgid ""
"The output of this command lists the video modes that are supported by the "
"hardware. To select a new video mode, specify the mode using "
@@ -8081,13 +8081,13 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5794
+#: book.translate.xml:5801
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>vidcontrol MODE_279</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5796
+#: book.translate.xml:5803
msgid ""
"If the new video mode is acceptable, it can be permanently set on boot by "
"adding it to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:"
@@ -8096,18 +8096,18 @@ msgstr ""
"次重開機後會自動生效:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:5800
+#: book.translate.xml:5807
#, no-wrap
msgid "allscreens_flags=\"MODE_279\""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5817
+#: book.translate.xml:5824
msgid "Users and Basic Account Management"
msgstr "使用者與基礎帳號管理"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5819
+#: book.translate.xml:5826
msgid ""
"FreeBSD allows multiple users to use the computer at the same time. While "
"only one user can sit in front of the screen and use the keyboard at any one "
@@ -8119,39 +8119,39 @@ msgstr ""
"用者應有自己的帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5825
+#: book.translate.xml:5832
msgid "This chapter describes:"
msgstr "本章介紹︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5829
+#: book.translate.xml:5836
msgid "The different types of user accounts on a FreeBSD system."
msgstr "FreeBSD 系統中各種類型的使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5834
+#: book.translate.xml:5841
msgid "How to add, remove, and modify user accounts."
msgstr "如何加入、移除與修改使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5838
+#: book.translate.xml:5845
msgid ""
"How to set limits to control the resources that users and groups are allowed "
"to access."
msgstr "如何設定用來控制使用者與群組允許存取的資源的限制。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5844
+#: book.translate.xml:5851
msgid "How to create groups and add users as members of a group."
msgstr "如何建立群組與加入使用者作為群組成員。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5850
+#: book.translate.xml:5857
msgid "Account Types"
msgstr "帳號類型"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5852
+#: book.translate.xml:5859
msgid ""
"Since all access to the FreeBSD system is achieved using accounts and all "
"processes are run by users, user and account management is important."
@@ -8160,24 +8160,24 @@ msgstr ""
"者來執行,因此使用者帳號管理非常重要。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5856
+#: book.translate.xml:5863
msgid ""
"There are three main types of accounts: system accounts, user accounts, and "
"the superuser account."
msgstr "有三種主要類型的帳號:系統帳號、使用者帳號以及超級使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5860
+#: book.translate.xml:5867
msgid "System Accounts"
msgstr "系統帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5862
+#: book.translate.xml:5869
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>system</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5867
+#: book.translate.xml:5874
msgid ""
"System accounts are used to run services such as DNS, mail, and web servers. "
"The reason for this is security; if all services ran as the superuser, they "
@@ -8187,21 +8187,21 @@ msgstr ""
"若所有的服務均以超級使用者來執行,那麼這些服務的運作將不會受到限制。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5872
+#: book.translate.xml:5879
msgid ""
"<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username"
"\">daemon</systemitem></secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5876
+#: book.translate.xml:5883
msgid ""
"<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username"
"\">operator</systemitem></secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5881
+#: book.translate.xml:5888
msgid ""
"Examples of system accounts are <systemitem class=\"username\">daemon</"
"systemitem>, <systemitem class=\"username\">operator</systemitem>, "
@@ -8215,14 +8215,14 @@ msgstr ""
"systemitem>, and <systemitem class=\"username\">www</systemitem>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5888
+#: book.translate.xml:5895
msgid ""
"<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username"
"\">nobody</systemitem></secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5893
+#: book.translate.xml:5900
msgid ""
"<systemitem class=\"username\">nobody</systemitem> is the generic "
"unprivileged system account. However, the more services that use <systemitem "
@@ -8236,17 +8236,17 @@ msgstr ""
"限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5902
+#: book.translate.xml:5909
msgid "User Accounts"
msgstr "使用者帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5904
+#: book.translate.xml:5911
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>user</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5909
+#: book.translate.xml:5916
msgid ""
"User accounts are assigned to real people and are used to log in and use the "
"system. Every person accessing the system should have a unique user account. "
@@ -8258,7 +8258,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5915
+#: book.translate.xml:5922
msgid ""
"Each user can set up their own environment to accommodate their use of the "
"system, by configuring their default shell, editor, key bindings, and "
@@ -8268,19 +8268,19 @@ msgstr ""
"編輯器、組合鍵 (Key Binding) 及語言設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5920
+#: book.translate.xml:5927
msgid ""
"Every user account on a FreeBSD system has certain information associated "
"with it:"
msgstr "每個在 FreeBSD 系統的使用者帳號都會有一些相關的資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5925
+#: book.translate.xml:5932
msgid "User name"
msgstr "使用者名稱 (User name)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5928
+#: book.translate.xml:5935
msgid ""
"The user name is typed at the <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt. Each user must "
"have a unique user name. There are a number of rules for creating valid user "
@@ -8296,22 +8296,22 @@ msgstr ""
"元以向下相容應用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5940
+#: book.translate.xml:5947
msgid "Password"
msgstr "密碼 (Password)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5943
+#: book.translate.xml:5950
msgid "Each account has an associated password."
msgstr "每個帳號都會有密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5948
+#: book.translate.xml:5955
msgid "User ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>)"
msgstr "使用者 ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5951
+#: book.translate.xml:5958
msgid ""
"The User ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>) is a number used to uniquely identify "
"the user to the FreeBSD system. Commands that allow a user name to be "
@@ -8325,12 +8325,12 @@ msgstr ""
"體的相容性問題。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5962
+#: book.translate.xml:5969
msgid "Group ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>)"
msgstr "群組 ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5965
+#: book.translate.xml:5972
msgid ""
"The Group ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>) is a number used to uniquely identify "
"the primary group that the user belongs to. Groups are a mechanism for "
@@ -8347,12 +8347,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的 GID 可能會讓部份軟體無法運作。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5979
+#: book.translate.xml:5986
msgid "Login class"
msgstr "登入類別 (Login class)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5982
+#: book.translate.xml:5989
msgid ""
"Login classes are an extension to the group mechanism that provide "
"additional flexibility when tailoring the system to different users. Login "
@@ -8362,12 +8362,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的彈性。在 <xref linkend=\"users-limiting\"/> 有對登入類別更進一步的討論。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5991
+#: book.translate.xml:5998
msgid "Password change time"
msgstr "密碼更改時間 (Password change time)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5994
+#: book.translate.xml:6001
msgid ""
"By default, passwords do not expire. However, password expiration can be "
"enabled on a per-user basis, forcing some or all users to change their "
@@ -8377,12 +8377,12 @@ msgstr ""
"或所有使用者在某段期間過後更改他們的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6003
+#: book.translate.xml:6010
msgid "Account expiration time"
msgstr "帳號到期時間 (Account expiration time)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6006
+#: book.translate.xml:6013
msgid ""
"By default, FreeBSD does not expire accounts. When creating accounts that "
"need a limited lifespan, such as student accounts in a school, specify the "
@@ -8397,12 +8397,12 @@ msgstr ""
"期日期過後,便無法使用該帳號登入到系統,儘管該帳號的目錄及檔案仍存在。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6017
+#: book.translate.xml:6024
msgid "User's full name"
msgstr "使用者的全名 (User's full name)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6020
+#: book.translate.xml:6027
msgid ""
"The user name uniquely identifies the account to FreeBSD, but does not "
"necessarily reflect the user's real name. Similar to a comment, this "
@@ -8413,12 +8413,12 @@ msgstr ""
"名。類似註解,這個資訊可以含有空白、大寫字元並可超過 8 個字母的長度。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6029
+#: book.translate.xml:6036
msgid "Home directory"
msgstr "家目錄 (Home directory)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6032
+#: book.translate.xml:6039
msgid ""
"The home directory is the full path to a directory on the system. This is "
"the user's starting directory when the user logs in. A common convention is "
@@ -8433,12 +8433,12 @@ msgstr ""
"filename>。每位使用者可以儲存他們的個人檔案及子目錄於他們自己的家目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6043
+#: book.translate.xml:6050
msgid "User shell"
msgstr "使用者 Shell (User shell)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6046
+#: book.translate.xml:6053
msgid ""
"The shell provides the user's default environment for interacting with the "
"system. There are many different kinds of shells and experienced users will "
@@ -8448,17 +8448,17 @@ msgstr ""
"用者會有自己偏好的選擇,可儲存在自己的帳號設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6057
+#: book.translate.xml:6064
msgid "The Superuser Account"
msgstr "超級使用者帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6059
+#: book.translate.xml:6066
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>superuser (root)</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6064
+#: book.translate.xml:6071
msgid ""
"The superuser account, usually called <systemitem class=\"username\">root</"
"systemitem>, is used to manage the system with no limitations on privileges. "
@@ -8470,7 +8470,7 @@ msgstr ""
"如:寄信與收信、系統的一般探索或程式設計。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6071
+#: book.translate.xml:6078
msgid ""
"The superuser, unlike other user accounts, can operate without limits, and "
"misuse of the superuser account may result in spectacular disasters. User "
@@ -8483,7 +8483,7 @@ msgstr ""
"登入一般使用者帳號,只有在指令需要額外權限時切換為超級使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6079
+#: book.translate.xml:6086
msgid ""
"Always double and triple-check any commands issued as the superuser, since "
"an extra space or missing character can mean irreparable data loss."
@@ -8492,7 +8492,7 @@ msgstr ""
"著無法挽回的資料遺失。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6083
+#: book.translate.xml:6090
msgid ""
"There are several ways to gain superuser privilege. While one can log in as "
"<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>, this is highly discouraged."
@@ -8501,7 +8501,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"username\">root</systemitem>,但強烈不建議這樣做。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6088
+#: book.translate.xml:6095
msgid ""
"Instead, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> to become the superuser. If <literal>-</literal> "
@@ -8519,7 +8519,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6098
+#: book.translate.xml:6105
msgid ""
"In this example, the user only becomes superuser in order to run "
"<command>make install</command> as this step requires superuser privilege. "
@@ -8531,12 +8531,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>exit</command> 離開超級使用者帳號並返回他的使用者帳號權限。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6106
+#: book.translate.xml:6113
msgid "Install a Program As the Superuser"
msgstr "以超級使用者的身份安裝程式"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6108
+#: book.translate.xml:6115
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>configure</userinput>\n"
@@ -8549,7 +8549,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6117
+#: book.translate.xml:6124
msgid ""
"The built-in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> framework works well for single systems or small "
@@ -8564,17 +8564,17 @@ msgstr ""
"體提供了活動記錄且允許管理者設定那個使用者可以用超級使用者執行那個指令。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6128
+#: book.translate.xml:6135
msgid "Managing Accounts"
msgstr "管理帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6130
+#: book.translate.xml:6137
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>modifying</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6135
+#: book.translate.xml:6142
msgid ""
"FreeBSD provides a variety of different commands to manage user accounts. "
"The most common commands are summarized in <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-"
@@ -8586,110 +8586,110 @@ msgstr ""
"的操作手冊來取得更多詳細的資訊與用法範例。"
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6142
+#: book.translate.xml:6149
msgid "Utilities for Managing User Accounts"
msgstr "管理使用者帳號的工具"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6150 book.translate.xml:58523 book.translate.xml:62055
+#: book.translate.xml:6157 book.translate.xml:58145 book.translate.xml:61677
msgid "Command"
msgstr "指令"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6151 book.translate.xml:17123 book.translate.xml:17277
+#: book.translate.xml:6158 book.translate.xml:17130 book.translate.xml:17284
msgid "Summary"
msgstr "摘要"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6156
+#: book.translate.xml:6163
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6157
+#: book.translate.xml:6164
msgid "The recommended command-line application for adding new users."
msgstr "建議用來新增新使用者的指令列應用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6162
+#: book.translate.xml:6169
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6163
+#: book.translate.xml:6170
msgid "The recommended command-line application for removing users."
msgstr "建議用來移除使用者的指令列應用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6168
+#: book.translate.xml:6175
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6169
+#: book.translate.xml:6176
msgid "A flexible tool for changing user database information."
msgstr "用來更改使用者資料庫資訊的工具。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6174
+#: book.translate.xml:6181
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6175
+#: book.translate.xml:6182
msgid "The command-line tool to change user passwords."
msgstr "用來更改使用者密碼的指令列工具。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6180
+#: book.translate.xml:6187
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6181
+#: book.translate.xml:6188
msgid ""
"A powerful and flexible tool for modifying all aspects of user accounts."
msgstr "用來修改使用者帳號各方面資訊強大且靈活的工具。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6189
+#: book.translate.xml:6196
msgid "<command>adduser</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6191
+#: book.translate.xml:6198
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>adding</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect4/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6195 book.translate.xml:43302
+#: book.translate.xml:6202 book.translate.xml:43511
msgid "<primary><command>adduser</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6198
+#: book.translate.xml:6205
msgid "<primary><filename>/usr/share/skel</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6201
+#: book.translate.xml:6208
msgid "<primary>skeleton directory</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6205
+#: book.translate.xml:6212
msgid ""
"The recommended program for adding new users is "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
@@ -8708,7 +8708,7 @@ msgstr ""
"具必須使用超級使用者執行。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6215
+#: book.translate.xml:6222
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> utility is interactive and walks through the steps "
@@ -8731,12 +8731,12 @@ msgstr ""
"離開。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6227
+#: book.translate.xml:6234
msgid "Adding a User on FreeBSD"
msgstr "在 FreeBSD 新增使用者"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6229
+#: book.translate.xml:6236
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>adduser</userinput>\n"
@@ -8772,29 +8772,29 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6262
+#: book.translate.xml:6269
msgid ""
"Since the password is not echoed when typed, be careful to not mistype the "
"password when creating the user account."
msgstr "由於密碼在輸入時並不會顯示,在建立使用者帳號時要小心密碼不要輸入錯誤。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6269
+#: book.translate.xml:6276
msgid "<command>rmuser</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6271
+#: book.translate.xml:6278
msgid "<primary><command>rmuser</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6274
+#: book.translate.xml:6281
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>removing</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6279
+#: book.translate.xml:6286
msgid ""
"To completely remove a user from the system, run "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -8805,7 +8805,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。這個指令會執行以下步驟:"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6285
+#: book.translate.xml:6292
msgid ""
"Removes the user's <citerefentry><refentrytitle>crontab</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> entry, if one exists."
@@ -8814,7 +8814,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 項目,若項目存在。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6290
+#: book.translate.xml:6297
msgid ""
"Removes any <citerefentry><refentrytitle>at</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> jobs belonging to the user."
@@ -8823,30 +8823,30 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 工作。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6295
+#: book.translate.xml:6302
msgid "Kills all processes owned by the user."
msgstr "中止所有該使用者擁有的程序。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6299
+#: book.translate.xml:6306
msgid "Removes the user from the system's local password file."
msgstr "自系統本地密碼檔移除該使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6304
+#: book.translate.xml:6311
msgid ""
"Optionally removes the user's home directory, if it is owned by the user."
msgstr "選擇性移除該使用者的家目錄,若使用者擁有該目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6309
+#: book.translate.xml:6316
msgid ""
"Removes the incoming mail files belonging to the user from <filename>/var/"
"mail</filename>."
msgstr "自 <filename>/var/mail</filename> 移除屬於該使用者的收件郵件檔。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6314
+#: book.translate.xml:6321
msgid ""
"Removes all files owned by the user from temporary file storage areas such "
"as <filename>/tmp</filename>."
@@ -8854,7 +8854,7 @@ msgstr ""
"自暫存檔儲存區域 (如 <filename>/tmp</filename>) 移除所有使用者擁有的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6320
+#: book.translate.xml:6327
msgid ""
"Finally, removes the username from all groups to which it belongs in "
"<filename>/etc/group</filename>. If a group becomes empty and the group name "
@@ -8868,7 +8868,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 替每位使用者建立獨一無二的群組。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6329
+#: book.translate.xml:6336
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> cannot be used to remove superuser accounts since that is "
@@ -8878,18 +8878,18 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 無法用來移除超級使用者帳號,因為這幾乎代表著大規模破壞。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6333
+#: book.translate.xml:6340
msgid ""
"By default, an interactive mode is used, as shown in the following example."
msgstr "預設會使用互動式模式,如下範例所示。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6337
+#: book.translate.xml:6344
msgid "<command>rmuser</command> Interactive Account Removal"
msgstr "<command>rmuser</command> 互動式帳號移除"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6340
+#: book.translate.xml:6347
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>rmuser jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -8902,17 +8902,17 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6351
+#: book.translate.xml:6358
msgid "<command>chpass</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6353
+#: book.translate.xml:6360
msgid "<primary><command>chpass</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6357
+#: book.translate.xml:6364
msgid ""
"Any user can use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to change their "
@@ -8926,7 +8926,7 @@ msgstr ""
"者的其他帳號資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6362
+#: book.translate.xml:6369
msgid ""
"When passed no options, aside from an optional username, "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -8939,7 +8939,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的資訊到使用者資料庫。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6368
+#: book.translate.xml:6375
msgid ""
"This utility will prompt for the user's password when exiting the editor, "
"unless the utility is run as the superuser."
@@ -8947,7 +8947,7 @@ msgstr ""
"離開編輯器時,此工具會提示使用者輸入密碼,除非使用超級使用者執行此工具。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6373
+#: book.translate.xml:6380
msgid ""
"In <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-chpass-su\"/>, the superuser has typed "
"<command>chpass jru</command> and is now viewing the fields that can be "
@@ -8962,12 +8962,12 @@ msgstr ""
"個欄位供編輯,如 <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-chpass-ru\"/> 所示。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6382
+#: book.translate.xml:6389
msgid "Using <command>chpass</command> as Superuser"
msgstr "以超級使用者的身份使用 <command>chpass</command>"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6385
+#: book.translate.xml:6392
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"#Changing user database information for jru.\n"
@@ -8988,12 +8988,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6403
+#: book.translate.xml:6410
msgid "Using <command>chpass</command> as Regular User"
msgstr "以一般使用者的身份使用 <command>chpass</command>"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6406
+#: book.translate.xml:6413
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"#Changing user database information for jru.\n"
@@ -9006,7 +9006,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6416
+#: book.translate.xml:6423
msgid ""
"The commands <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chfn</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chsh</"
@@ -9034,22 +9034,22 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"network-servers\"/> 中有說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6426
+#: book.translate.xml:6433
msgid "<command>passwd</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6428
+#: book.translate.xml:6435
msgid "<primary><command>passwd</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6431
+#: book.translate.xml:6438
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>changing password</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6436
+#: book.translate.xml:6443
msgid ""
"Any user can easily change their password using "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -9062,12 +9062,12 @@ msgstr ""
"意外或未授權的變更,這個指令在設定新密碼之前會提示使用者輸入原來的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6442
+#: book.translate.xml:6449
msgid "Changing Your Password"
msgstr "更改您的密碼"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6444
+#: book.translate.xml:6451
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>passwd</userinput>\n"
@@ -9080,7 +9080,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6453
+#: book.translate.xml:6460
msgid ""
"The superuser can change any user's password by specifying the username when "
"running <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
@@ -9094,12 +9094,12 @@ msgstr ""
"用者目前的密碼,這可在使用者忘記原來的密碼時更改密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6461
+#: book.translate.xml:6468
msgid "Changing Another User's Password as the Superuser"
msgstr "以超級使用者的身份更改其他使用者的密碼"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6464
+#: book.translate.xml:6471
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>passwd jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -9111,7 +9111,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6473
+#: book.translate.xml:6480
msgid ""
"As with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>yppasswd</"
@@ -9126,18 +9126,18 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>,因此 <acronym>NIS</acronym> 在兩個指令上皆可運作。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6480
+#: book.translate.xml:6487
msgid "<command>pw</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect4/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6482 book.translate.xml:43325
+#: book.translate.xml:6489 book.translate.xml:43534
msgid "<primary><command>pw</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6486
+#: book.translate.xml:6493
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> utility can create, remove, modify, and display users and "
@@ -9155,27 +9155,27 @@ msgstr ""
"本節的指令要複雜許多。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6497
+#: book.translate.xml:6504
msgid "Managing Groups"
msgstr "管理群組"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6499
+#: book.translate.xml:6506
msgid "<primary>groups</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6502
+#: book.translate.xml:6509
msgid "<primary><filename>/etc/groups</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6505
+#: book.translate.xml:6512
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>groups</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6510
+#: book.translate.xml:6517
msgid ""
"A group is a list of users. A group is identified by its group name and "
"<acronym>GID</acronym>. In FreeBSD, the kernel uses the <acronym>UID</"
@@ -9189,7 +9189,7 @@ msgstr ""
"單中的第一個群組。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6517
+#: book.translate.xml:6524
msgid ""
"The group name to <acronym>GID</acronym> mapping is listed in <filename>/etc/"
"group</filename>. This is a plain text file with four colon-delimited "
@@ -9207,7 +9207,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6525
+#: book.translate.xml:6532
msgid ""
"The superuser can modify <filename>/etc/group</filename> using a text "
"editor. Alternatively, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
@@ -9221,7 +9221,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"groupname\">teamtwo</systemitem> 的群組然後確認該群組已新增:"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6532
+#: book.translate.xml:6539
msgid ""
"Adding a Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -9230,7 +9230,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 新增群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6534
+#: book.translate.xml:6541
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupadd teamtwo</userinput>\n"
@@ -9239,7 +9239,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6539
+#: book.translate.xml:6546
msgid ""
"In this example, <literal>1100</literal> is the <acronym>GID</acronym> of "
"<systemitem class=\"groupname\">teamtwo</systemitem>. Right now, <systemitem "
@@ -9254,7 +9254,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\">teamtwo</systemitem> 的成員。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6548
+#: book.translate.xml:6555
msgid ""
"Adding User Accounts to a New Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -9263,7 +9263,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 加入使用者帳號到新的群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6551
+#: book.translate.xml:6558
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod teamtwo -M jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -9272,7 +9272,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6556
+#: book.translate.xml:6563
msgid ""
"The argument to <option>-M</option> is a comma-delimited list of users to be "
"added to a new (empty) group or to replace the members of an existing group. "
@@ -9299,7 +9299,7 @@ msgstr ""
"filename> 且不會嘗試自 <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> 讀取其他的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6570
+#: book.translate.xml:6577
msgid ""
"Adding a New Member to a Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -9308,7 +9308,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 加入新成員到群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6572
+#: book.translate.xml:6579
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod teamtwo -m db</userinput>\n"
@@ -9317,7 +9317,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6577
+#: book.translate.xml:6584
msgid ""
"In this example, the argument to <option>-m</option> is a comma-delimited "
"list of users who are to be added to the group. Unlike the previous example, "
@@ -9329,7 +9329,7 @@ msgstr ""
"者。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6584
+#: book.translate.xml:6591
msgid ""
"Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>id</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> to Determine Group Membership"
@@ -9338,7 +9338,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 來查看所屬群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6586
+#: book.translate.xml:6593
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>id jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -9346,7 +9346,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6590
+#: book.translate.xml:6597
msgid ""
"In this example, <systemitem class=\"username\">jru</systemitem> is a member "
"of the groups <systemitem class=\"groupname\">jru</systemitem> and "
@@ -9357,7 +9357,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\">teamtwo</systemitem> 的成員。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6595
+#: book.translate.xml:6602
msgid ""
"For more information about this command and the format of <filename>/etc/"
"group</filename>, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
@@ -9371,17 +9371,17 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6602
+#: book.translate.xml:6609
msgid "Permissions"
msgstr "權限"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6604
+#: book.translate.xml:6611
msgid "<primary>UNIX</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6608
+#: book.translate.xml:6615
msgid ""
"In FreeBSD, every file and directory has an associated set of permissions "
"and several utilities are available for viewing and modifying these "
@@ -9395,7 +9395,7 @@ msgstr ""
"無法不正確的存取供作業系統或其他使用者擁有的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6616
+#: book.translate.xml:6623
msgid ""
"This section discusses the traditional <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</"
"trademark> permissions used in FreeBSD. For finer grained file system access "
@@ -9406,7 +9406,7 @@ msgstr ""
">。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6620
+#: book.translate.xml:6627
msgid ""
"In <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark>, basic permissions are "
"assigned using three types of access: read, write, and execute. These access "
@@ -9430,7 +9430,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 以及 <literal>x</literal> 開啟的值為 <literal>1</literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6635
+#: book.translate.xml:6642
msgid ""
"Table 4.1 summarizes the possible numeric and alphabetic possibilities. When "
"reading the <quote>Directory Listing</quote> column, a <literal>-</literal> "
@@ -9440,183 +9440,183 @@ msgstr ""
"位時,<literal>-</literal> 用來代表該權限設為關閉。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6640
+#: book.translate.xml:6647
msgid "<primary>permissions</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6643
+#: book.translate.xml:6650
msgid "<primary>file permissions</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6648
+#: book.translate.xml:6655
msgid "<trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> Permissions"
msgstr "<trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> 權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6653
+#: book.translate.xml:6660
msgid "Value"
msgstr "數值"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6654
+#: book.translate.xml:6661
msgid "Permission"
msgstr "權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6655
+#: book.translate.xml:6662
msgid "Directory Listing"
msgstr "目錄清單標示"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6661
+#: book.translate.xml:6668
msgid "0"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6662
+#: book.translate.xml:6669
msgid "No read, no write, no execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 不可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6663
+#: book.translate.xml:6670
msgid "<literal>---</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6667 book.translate.xml:46927 book.translate.xml:46949
-#: book.translate.xml:47039
+#: book.translate.xml:6674 book.translate.xml:46548 book.translate.xml:46570
+#: book.translate.xml:46660
msgid "1"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6668
+#: book.translate.xml:6675
msgid "No read, no write, execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 不可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6669
+#: book.translate.xml:6676
msgid "<literal>--x</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6673 book.translate.xml:46819 book.translate.xml:46829
-#: book.translate.xml:46901 book.translate.xml:46911 book.translate.xml:46991
-#: book.translate.xml:46993
+#: book.translate.xml:6680 book.translate.xml:46440 book.translate.xml:46450
+#: book.translate.xml:46522 book.translate.xml:46532 book.translate.xml:46612
+#: book.translate.xml:46614
msgid "2"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6674
+#: book.translate.xml:6681
msgid "No read, write, no execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6675
+#: book.translate.xml:6682
msgid "<literal>-w-</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6679 book.translate.xml:46821 book.translate.xml:46827
-#: book.translate.xml:46903 book.translate.xml:46909 book.translate.xml:46999
-#: book.translate.xml:47001
+#: book.translate.xml:6686 book.translate.xml:46442 book.translate.xml:46448
+#: book.translate.xml:46524 book.translate.xml:46530 book.translate.xml:46620
+#: book.translate.xml:46622
msgid "3"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6680
+#: book.translate.xml:6687
msgid "No read, write, execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6681
+#: book.translate.xml:6688
msgid "<literal>-wx</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6685 book.translate.xml:46835 book.translate.xml:46845
-#: book.translate.xml:46917 book.translate.xml:46925 book.translate.xml:46943
-#: book.translate.xml:46951 book.translate.xml:47007 book.translate.xml:47015
-#: book.translate.xml:47057
+#: book.translate.xml:6692 book.translate.xml:46456 book.translate.xml:46466
+#: book.translate.xml:46538 book.translate.xml:46546 book.translate.xml:46564
+#: book.translate.xml:46572 book.translate.xml:46628 book.translate.xml:46636
+#: book.translate.xml:46678
msgid "4"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6686
+#: book.translate.xml:6693
msgid "Read, no write, no execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 不可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6687
+#: book.translate.xml:6694
msgid "<literal>r--</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6691 book.translate.xml:46837 book.translate.xml:46843
-#: book.translate.xml:46933 book.translate.xml:46935 book.translate.xml:47023
-#: book.translate.xml:47049
+#: book.translate.xml:6698 book.translate.xml:46458 book.translate.xml:46464
+#: book.translate.xml:46554 book.translate.xml:46556 book.translate.xml:46644
+#: book.translate.xml:46670
msgid "5"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6692
+#: book.translate.xml:6699
msgid "Read, no write, execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 不可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6693
+#: book.translate.xml:6700
msgid "<literal>r-x</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6697 book.translate.xml:46853 book.translate.xml:46867
-#: book.translate.xml:46919 book.translate.xml:46941 book.translate.xml:47009
-#: book.translate.xml:47031
+#: book.translate.xml:6704 book.translate.xml:46474 book.translate.xml:46488
+#: book.translate.xml:46540 book.translate.xml:46562 book.translate.xml:46630
+#: book.translate.xml:46652
msgid "6"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6698
+#: book.translate.xml:6705
msgid "Read, write, no execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6699
+#: book.translate.xml:6706
msgid "<literal>rw-</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6703 book.translate.xml:46811 book.translate.xml:46813
-#: book.translate.xml:46957 book.translate.xml:46967 book.translate.xml:47025
-#: book.translate.xml:47047
+#: book.translate.xml:6710 book.translate.xml:46432 book.translate.xml:46434
+#: book.translate.xml:46578 book.translate.xml:46588 book.translate.xml:46646
+#: book.translate.xml:46668
msgid "7"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6704
+#: book.translate.xml:6711
msgid "Read, write, execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6705
+#: book.translate.xml:6712
msgid "<literal>rwx</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6711
+#: book.translate.xml:6718
msgid ""
"<primary><citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6714
+#: book.translate.xml:6721
msgid "<primary>directories</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6718
+#: book.translate.xml:6725
msgid ""
"Use the <option>-l</option> argument to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to view a long "
@@ -9630,7 +9630,7 @@ msgstr ""
"一個目錄底下執行 <command>ls -l</command>,會顯示如下的結果:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6724
+#: book.translate.xml:6731
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls -l</userinput>\n"
@@ -9641,7 +9641,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6730
+#: book.translate.xml:6737
msgid ""
"The first (leftmost) character in the first column indicates whether this "
"file is a regular file, a directory, a special character device, a socket, "
@@ -9668,7 +9668,7 @@ msgstr ""
"案的三種權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6747
+#: book.translate.xml:6754
msgid ""
"How does the system control permissions on devices? FreeBSD treats most "
"hardware devices as a file that programs can open, read, and write data to. "
@@ -9679,7 +9679,7 @@ msgstr ""
"</filename> 目錄中。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6752
+#: book.translate.xml:6759
msgid ""
"Directories are also treated as files. They have read, write, and execute "
"permissions. The executable bit for a directory has a slightly different "
@@ -9695,7 +9695,7 @@ msgstr ""
"代表能夠存取在此目錄之中的已知檔名的檔案,但仍會受限於檔案本身所設定的權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6761
+#: book.translate.xml:6768
msgid ""
"In order to perform a directory listing, the read permission must be set on "
"the directory. In order to delete a file that one knows the name of, it is "
@@ -9706,7 +9706,7 @@ msgstr ""
"案所在目錄的寫入 <emphasis>以及</emphasis> 執行的權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6767
+#: book.translate.xml:6774
msgid ""
"There are more permission bits, but they are primarily used in special "
"circumstances such as setuid binaries and sticky directories. For more "
@@ -9720,27 +9720,27 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6774
+#: book.translate.xml:6781
msgid "Symbolic Permissions"
msgstr "權限符號"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:6777 book.translate.xml:6912 book.translate.xml:6963
-#: book.translate.xml:19407 book.translate.xml:19514 book.translate.xml:19692
-#: book.translate.xml:20811 book.translate.xml:21337 book.translate.xml:23586
-#: book.translate.xml:34021 book.translate.xml:45628 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:6784 book.translate.xml:6919 book.translate.xml:6970
+#: book.translate.xml:19414 book.translate.xml:19521 book.translate.xml:19699
+#: book.translate.xml:20818 book.translate.xml:21344 book.translate.xml:23593
+#: book.translate.xml:34155 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Tom</firstname> <surname>Rhodes</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6787
+#: book.translate.xml:6794
msgid "<primary>permissions</primary> <secondary>symbolic</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6792
+#: book.translate.xml:6799
msgid ""
"Symbolic permissions use characters instead of octal values to assign "
"permissions to files or directories. Symbolic permissions use the syntax of "
@@ -9750,159 +9750,159 @@ msgstr ""
"符號表示的格式依序為 (某人)(動作)(權限),可使用的符號如下:"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6802 book.translate.xml:23312
+#: book.translate.xml:6809 book.translate.xml:23319
msgid "Option"
msgstr "項目"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6803
+#: book.translate.xml:6810
msgid "Letter"
msgstr "字母"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6804
+#: book.translate.xml:6811
msgid "Represents"
msgstr "代表意義"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6810 book.translate.xml:6816 book.translate.xml:6822
-#: book.translate.xml:6828
+#: book.translate.xml:6817 book.translate.xml:6823 book.translate.xml:6829
+#: book.translate.xml:6835
msgid "(who)"
msgstr "(某人)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6811
+#: book.translate.xml:6818
msgid "u"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6812
+#: book.translate.xml:6819
msgid "User"
msgstr "使用者"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6817
+#: book.translate.xml:6824
msgid "g"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6818
+#: book.translate.xml:6825
msgid "Group owner"
msgstr "群組所有者"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6823
+#: book.translate.xml:6830
msgid "o"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6824
+#: book.translate.xml:6831
msgid "Other"
msgstr "其他"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6829
+#: book.translate.xml:6836
msgid "a"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6830
+#: book.translate.xml:6837
msgid "All (<quote>world</quote>)"
msgstr "全部 (<quote>world</quote>)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6834 book.translate.xml:6840 book.translate.xml:6846
+#: book.translate.xml:6841 book.translate.xml:6847 book.translate.xml:6853
msgid "(action)"
msgstr "(動作)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6835 book.translate.xml:31582 book.translate.xml:39314
+#: book.translate.xml:6842 book.translate.xml:31589 book.translate.xml:39448
msgid "+"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6836
+#: book.translate.xml:6843
msgid "Adding permissions"
msgstr "\t增加權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6841 book.translate.xml:31587 book.translate.xml:39319
+#: book.translate.xml:6848 book.translate.xml:31594 book.translate.xml:39453
msgid "-"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6842
+#: book.translate.xml:6849
msgid "Removing permissions"
msgstr "移除權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6847
+#: book.translate.xml:6854
msgid "="
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6848
+#: book.translate.xml:6855
msgid "Explicitly set permissions"
msgstr "指定權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6852 book.translate.xml:6858 book.translate.xml:6864
-#: book.translate.xml:6870 book.translate.xml:6876
+#: book.translate.xml:6859 book.translate.xml:6865 book.translate.xml:6871
+#: book.translate.xml:6877 book.translate.xml:6883
msgid "(permissions)"
msgstr "(權限)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6853
+#: book.translate.xml:6860
msgid "r"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6854
+#: book.translate.xml:6861
msgid "Read"
msgstr "讀取"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6859
+#: book.translate.xml:6866
msgid "w"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6860
+#: book.translate.xml:6867
msgid "Write"
msgstr "寫入"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6865
+#: book.translate.xml:6872
msgid "x"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6866
+#: book.translate.xml:6873
msgid "Execute"
msgstr "執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6871
+#: book.translate.xml:6878
msgid "t"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6872
+#: book.translate.xml:6879
msgid "Sticky bit"
msgstr "Sticky 位元"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6877
+#: book.translate.xml:6884
msgid "s"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6878
+#: book.translate.xml:6885
msgid "Set UID or GID"
msgstr "設定 UID 或 GID"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6884
+#: book.translate.xml:6891
msgid ""
"These values are used with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, but with letters "
@@ -9915,13 +9915,13 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>FILE</replaceable>:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6889
+#: book.translate.xml:6896
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod go= FILE</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6891
+#: book.translate.xml:6898
msgid ""
"A comma separated list can be provided when more than one set of changes to "
"a file must be made. For example, the following command removes the group "
@@ -9933,18 +9933,18 @@ msgstr ""
"(<quote>world</quote>) 對該檔有執行權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6898
+#: book.translate.xml:6905
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod go-w,a+x <replaceable>FILE</replaceable></userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6909
+#: book.translate.xml:6916
msgid "FreeBSD File Flags"
msgstr "FreeBSD 檔案旗標"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6922
+#: book.translate.xml:6929
msgid ""
"In addition to file permissions, FreeBSD supports the use of <quote>file "
"flags</quote>. These flags add an additional level of security and control "
@@ -9957,7 +9957,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> 不會意外將檔案修改或移除。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6929
+#: book.translate.xml:6936
msgid ""
"File flags are modified using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chflags</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For example, to "
@@ -9970,13 +9970,13 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>file1</filename>,使用下列指令:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6934
+#: book.translate.xml:6941
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chflags sunlink file1</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6936
+#: book.translate.xml:6943
msgid ""
"To disable the system undeletable flag, put a <quote>no</quote> in front of "
"the <option>sunlink</option>:"
@@ -9985,13 +9985,13 @@ msgstr ""
"<quote>no</quote>,例如:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6940
+#: book.translate.xml:6947
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chflags nosunlink file1</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6942
+#: book.translate.xml:6949
msgid ""
"To view the flags of a file, use <option>-lo</option> with "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -10001,19 +10001,19 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 及參數 <option>-lo</option> 可檢視檔案目前的旗標:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6945
+#: book.translate.xml:6952
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls -lo file1</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:6947
+#: book.translate.xml:6954
#, no-wrap
msgid "-rw-r--r-- 1 trhodes trhodes sunlnk 0 Mar 1 05:54 file1"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6949
+#: book.translate.xml:6956
msgid ""
"Several file flags may only be added or removed by the <systemitem class="
"\"username\">root</systemitem> user. In other cases, the file owner may set "
@@ -10029,7 +10029,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> 說明以瞭解相關細節。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6958
+#: book.translate.xml:6965
msgid ""
"The <literal>setuid</literal>, <literal>setgid</literal>, and "
"<literal>sticky</literal> Permissions"
@@ -10038,7 +10038,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 權限"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6973
+#: book.translate.xml:6980
msgid ""
"Other than the permissions already discussed, there are three other specific "
"settings that all administrators should know about. They are the "
@@ -10050,7 +10050,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>sticky</literal> 權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6979
+#: book.translate.xml:6986
msgid ""
"These settings are important for some <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</"
"trademark> operations as they provide functionality not normally granted to "
@@ -10062,7 +10062,7 @@ msgstr ""
"說明真實使用者 ID (Real user ID) 與有效使用者 ID (Effective user ID) 的差異。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6984
+#: book.translate.xml:6991
msgid ""
"The real user ID is the <acronym>UID</acronym> who owns or starts the "
"process. The effective <acronym>UID</acronym> is the user ID the process "
@@ -10082,20 +10082,20 @@ msgstr ""
"(<errorname>Permission Denied</errorname>) 的錯誤。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6994
+#: book.translate.xml:7001
msgid ""
"The setuid permission may be set by prefixing a permission set with the "
"number four (4) as shown in the following example:"
msgstr "setuid 權限可以透過在權限集前加上數字 (4) 來設定,如下範例所示:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6998
+#: book.translate.xml:7005
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 4755 suidexample.sh</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7000
+#: book.translate.xml:7007
msgid ""
"The permissions on <filename><replaceable>suidexample.sh</replaceable></"
"filename> now look like the following:"
@@ -10104,13 +10104,13 @@ msgstr ""
"如下所示:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:7004
+#: book.translate.xml:7011
#, no-wrap
msgid "-rwsr-xr-x 1 trhodes trhodes 63 Aug 29 06:36 suidexample.sh"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7006
+#: book.translate.xml:7013
msgid ""
"Note that a <literal>s</literal> is now part of the permission set "
"designated for the file owner, replacing the executable bit. This allows "
@@ -10123,7 +10123,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 可正常使用。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7012
+#: book.translate.xml:7019
msgid ""
"The <literal>nosuid</literal> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> option will cause such "
@@ -10137,7 +10137,7 @@ msgstr ""
"該選項並非完全可靠。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7019
+#: book.translate.xml:7026
msgid ""
"To view this in real time, open two terminals. On one, type <command>passwd</"
"command> as a normal user. While it waits for a new password, check the "
@@ -10151,12 +10151,12 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 程序的使用者資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7025
+#: book.translate.xml:7032
msgid "In terminal A:"
msgstr "於終端機 A:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7027
+#: book.translate.xml:7034
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Changing local password for trhodes\n"
@@ -10164,18 +10164,18 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7030
+#: book.translate.xml:7037
msgid "In terminal B:"
msgstr "於終端機 B:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7032
+#: book.translate.xml:7039
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ps aux | grep passwd</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7034
+#: book.translate.xml:7041
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"trhodes 5232 0.0 0.2 3420 1608 0 R+ 2:10AM 0:00.00 grep passwd\n"
@@ -10183,7 +10183,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7037
+#: book.translate.xml:7044
msgid ""
"Although <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> is run as a normal user, it is using the effective "
@@ -10195,7 +10195,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7041
+#: book.translate.xml:7048
msgid ""
"The <literal>setgid</literal> permission performs the same function as the "
"<literal>setuid</literal> permission; except that it alters the group "
@@ -10208,7 +10208,7 @@ msgstr ""
"使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7048
+#: book.translate.xml:7055
msgid ""
"To set the <literal>setgid</literal> permission on a file, provide "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -10219,26 +10219,26 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 的參數前加上 (2):"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7051
+#: book.translate.xml:7058
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 2755 sgidexample.sh</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7053
+#: book.translate.xml:7060
msgid ""
"In the following listing, notice that the <literal>s</literal> is now in the "
"field designated for the group permission settings:"
msgstr "注意以下清單中,<literal>s</literal> 現在位於指定群組權限設定的欄位:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7057
+#: book.translate.xml:7064
#, no-wrap
msgid "-rwxr-sr-x 1 trhodes trhodes 44 Aug 31 01:49 sgidexample.sh"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7060
+#: book.translate.xml:7067
msgid ""
"In these examples, even though the shell script in question is an executable "
"file, it will not run with a different <acronym>EUID</acronym> or effective "
@@ -10252,7 +10252,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 系統呼叫 (System call)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7067
+#: book.translate.xml:7074
msgid ""
"The <literal>setuid</literal> and <literal>setgid</literal> permission bits "
"may lower system security, by allowing for elevated permissions. The third "
@@ -10264,7 +10264,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>,可以加強系統的安全性。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7073
+#: book.translate.xml:7080
msgid ""
"When the <literal>sticky bit</literal> is set on a directory, it allows file "
"deletion only by the file owner. This is useful to prevent file deletion in "
@@ -10277,13 +10277,13 @@ msgstr ""
"非常有用。要使用這個權限,可在權限集前加上 (1):"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7080
+#: book.translate.xml:7087
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 1777 /tmp</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7082
+#: book.translate.xml:7089
msgid ""
"The <literal>sticky bit</literal> permission will display as a <literal>t</"
"literal> at the very end of the permission set:"
@@ -10292,29 +10292,29 @@ msgstr ""
"後:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7086
+#: book.translate.xml:7093
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls -al / | grep tmp</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7088
+#: book.translate.xml:7095
#, no-wrap
msgid "drwxrwxrwt 10 root wheel 512 Aug 31 01:49 tmp"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7094
+#: book.translate.xml:7101
msgid "Directory Structure"
msgstr "目錄結構"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7096
+#: book.translate.xml:7103
msgid "<primary>directory hierarchy</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7100
+#: book.translate.xml:7107
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD directory hierarchy is fundamental to obtaining an overall "
"understanding of the system. The most important directory is root or, "
@@ -10329,7 +10329,7 @@ msgstr ""
"會有開機所會用到必備檔案。 此外,根目錄還有紀錄其他檔案系統的掛載點相關設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7109
+#: book.translate.xml:7116
msgid ""
"A mount point is a directory where additional file systems can be grafted "
"onto a parent file system (usually the root file system). This is further "
@@ -10356,7 +10356,7 @@ msgstr ""
"option> 選項。 其中細節說明可參閱 <xref linkend=\"disks-fstab\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7124
+#: book.translate.xml:7131
msgid ""
"A complete description of the file system hierarchy is available in "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>hier</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></"
@@ -10369,45 +10369,45 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7133 book.translate.xml:10995
+#: book.translate.xml:7140 book.translate.xml:11002
msgid "Directory"
msgstr "目錄"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7140
+#: book.translate.xml:7147
msgid "Root directory of the file system."
msgstr "檔案系統的根目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7144
+#: book.translate.xml:7151
msgid "<filename>/bin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7145
+#: book.translate.xml:7152
msgid ""
"User utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments."
msgstr ""
"單使用者 (Single-user)、多使用者 (Multi-user) 兩種模式皆可使用的基本工具 。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7150
+#: book.translate.xml:7157
msgid "<filename>/boot/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7151
+#: book.translate.xml:7158
msgid ""
"Programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap."
msgstr "作業系統開機過程會用到的程式、設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7156
+#: book.translate.xml:7163
msgid "<filename>/boot/defaults/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7157
+#: book.translate.xml:7164
msgid ""
"Default boot configuration files. Refer to "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</"
@@ -10417,12 +10417,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7162
+#: book.translate.xml:7169
msgid "<filename>/dev/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7163
+#: book.translate.xml:7170
msgid ""
"Device nodes. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>intro</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details."
@@ -10431,22 +10431,22 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7168
+#: book.translate.xml:7175
msgid "<filename>/etc/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7169
+#: book.translate.xml:7176
msgid "System configuration files and scripts."
msgstr "系統設定檔及一些 Script 檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7173
+#: book.translate.xml:7180
msgid "<filename>/etc/defaults/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7174
+#: book.translate.xml:7181
msgid ""
"Default system configuration files. Refer to "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -10456,12 +10456,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7179
+#: book.translate.xml:7186
msgid "<filename>/etc/mail/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7180
+#: book.translate.xml:7187
msgid ""
"Configuration files for mail transport agents such as "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sendmail</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
@@ -10471,12 +10471,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 的相關設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7185
+#: book.translate.xml:7192
msgid "<filename>/etc/namedb/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7186
+#: book.translate.xml:7193
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> configuration files."
@@ -10485,12 +10485,12 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7190
+#: book.translate.xml:7197
msgid "<filename>/etc/periodic/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7191
+#: book.translate.xml:7198
msgid ""
"Scripts that run daily, weekly, and monthly, via "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>cron</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -10503,12 +10503,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7197
+#: book.translate.xml:7204
msgid "<filename>/etc/ppp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7198
+#: book.translate.xml:7205
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> configuration files."
@@ -10517,24 +10517,24 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7202
+#: book.translate.xml:7209
msgid "<filename>/mnt/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7203
+#: book.translate.xml:7210
msgid ""
"Empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount "
"point."
msgstr "系統管理者慣用充當臨時掛載點的空目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7208
+#: book.translate.xml:7215
msgid "<filename>/proc/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7209
+#: book.translate.xml:7216
msgid ""
"Process file system. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>procfs</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>, "
@@ -10547,12 +10547,12 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7214
+#: book.translate.xml:7221
msgid "<filename>/rescue/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7215
+#: book.translate.xml:7222
msgid ""
"Statically linked programs for emergency recovery as described in "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rescue</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -10563,24 +10563,24 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7220
+#: book.translate.xml:7227
msgid "<filename>/root/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7221
+#: book.translate.xml:7228
msgid ""
"Home directory for the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> "
"account."
msgstr "<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> 帳號的家目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7227
+#: book.translate.xml:7234
msgid "<filename>/sbin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7228
+#: book.translate.xml:7235
msgid ""
"System programs and administration utilities fundamental to both single-user "
"and multi-user environments."
@@ -10589,12 +10589,12 @@ msgstr ""
"具 。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7234
+#: book.translate.xml:7241
msgid "<filename>/tmp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7235
+#: book.translate.xml:7242
msgid ""
"Temporary files which are usually <emphasis>not</emphasis> preserved across "
"a system reboot. A memory-based file system is often mounted at <filename>/"
@@ -10613,72 +10613,72 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7245
+#: book.translate.xml:7252
msgid "<filename>/usr/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7246
+#: book.translate.xml:7253
msgid "The majority of user utilities and applications."
msgstr "主要是使用者所安裝的工具程式、應用程式存放處。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7251
+#: book.translate.xml:7258
msgid "<filename>/usr/bin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7252
+#: book.translate.xml:7259
msgid "Common utilities, programming tools, and applications."
msgstr "常用工具、開發工具、應用軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7257
+#: book.translate.xml:7264
msgid "<filename>/usr/include/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7258
+#: book.translate.xml:7265
msgid "Standard C include files."
msgstr "標準 C include 檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7262
+#: book.translate.xml:7269
msgid "<filename>/usr/lib/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7263
+#: book.translate.xml:7270
msgid "Archive libraries."
msgstr "程式庫存放處。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7268
+#: book.translate.xml:7275
msgid "<filename>/usr/libdata/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7269
+#: book.translate.xml:7276
msgid "Miscellaneous utility data files."
msgstr "其他各式工具的資料檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7273
+#: book.translate.xml:7280
msgid "<filename>/usr/libexec/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7274
+#: book.translate.xml:7281
msgid "System daemons and system utilities executed by other programs."
msgstr "系統 Daemon 及系統工具程式 (透過其他程式來執行)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7279
+#: book.translate.xml:7286
msgid "<filename>/usr/local/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7280
+#: book.translate.xml:7287
msgid ""
"Local executables and libraries. Also used as the default destination for "
"the FreeBSD ports framework. Within <filename>/usr/local</filename>, the "
@@ -10698,64 +10698,64 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>port</replaceable></filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7293
+#: book.translate.xml:7300
msgid "<filename>/usr/obj/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7294
+#: book.translate.xml:7301
msgid ""
"Architecture-specific target tree produced by building the <filename>/usr/"
"src</filename> tree."
msgstr "在編譯 <filename>/usr/src</filename> 目錄時所產生的相關架構目地檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7300
+#: book.translate.xml:7307
msgid "<filename>/usr/ports/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7301
+#: book.translate.xml:7308
msgid "The FreeBSD Ports Collection (optional)."
msgstr "FreeBSD Port 套件集 (選用)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7305
+#: book.translate.xml:7312
msgid "<filename>/usr/sbin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7306
+#: book.translate.xml:7313
msgid "System daemons and system utilities executed by users."
msgstr "由使用者執行的系統 Daemon 及系統工具。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7311
+#: book.translate.xml:7318
msgid "<filename>/usr/share/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7312
+#: book.translate.xml:7319
msgid "Architecture-independent files."
msgstr "各架構皆共通的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7316
+#: book.translate.xml:7323
msgid "<filename>/usr/src/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7317
+#: book.translate.xml:7324
msgid "BSD and/or local source files."
msgstr "BSD 原始碼 (或自行新增的)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7321
+#: book.translate.xml:7328
msgid "<filename>/var/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7322
+#: book.translate.xml:7329
msgid ""
"Multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files. A memory-based "
"file system is sometimes mounted at <filename>/var</filename>. This can be "
@@ -10774,42 +10774,42 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7333
+#: book.translate.xml:7340
msgid "<filename>/var/log/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7334
+#: book.translate.xml:7341
msgid "Miscellaneous system log files."
msgstr "各項系統記錄的日誌 (Log) 檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7338
+#: book.translate.xml:7345
msgid "<filename>/var/mail/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7339
+#: book.translate.xml:7346
msgid "User mailbox files."
msgstr "各使用者的郵件 (Mailbox) 檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7343
+#: book.translate.xml:7350
msgid "<filename>/var/spool/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7344
+#: book.translate.xml:7351
msgid "Miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling directories."
msgstr "各種印表機、郵件系統的緩衝 (Spool) 目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7349
+#: book.translate.xml:7356
msgid "<filename>/var/tmp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7350
+#: book.translate.xml:7357
msgid ""
"Temporary files which are usually preserved across a system reboot, unless "
"<filename>/var</filename> is a memory-based file system."
@@ -10818,22 +10818,22 @@ msgstr ""
"屬於以記憶體為基礎 (Memory-based) 的檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7357
+#: book.translate.xml:7364
msgid "<filename>/var/yp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7358
+#: book.translate.xml:7365
msgid "NIS maps."
msgstr "NIS 對應表。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7366
+#: book.translate.xml:7373
msgid "Disk Organization"
msgstr "磁碟組織"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7368
+#: book.translate.xml:7375
msgid ""
"The smallest unit of organization that FreeBSD uses to find files is the "
"filename. Filenames are case-sensitive, which means that <filename>readme."
@@ -10847,7 +10847,7 @@ msgstr ""
"他類型的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7375
+#: book.translate.xml:7382
msgid ""
"Files are stored in directories. A directory may contain no files, or it may "
"contain many hundreds of files. A directory can also contain other "
@@ -10858,7 +10858,7 @@ msgstr ""
"中也可以包含其他的目錄; 您可以建立階層式的目錄以便資料的管理。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7381
+#: book.translate.xml:7388
msgid ""
"Files and directories are referenced by giving the file or directory name, "
"followed by a forward slash, <literal>/</literal>, followed by any other "
@@ -10883,7 +10883,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>c:\\foo\\bar\\readme.txt</filename> 這種路徑。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7396
+#: book.translate.xml:7403
msgid ""
"Directories and files are stored in a file system. Each file system contains "
"exactly one directory at the very top level, called the <firstterm>root "
@@ -10902,7 +10902,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個磁碟,所有目錄都會成為該磁碟的一部份。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7407
+#: book.translate.xml:7414
msgid ""
"Consider three file systems, called <literal>A</literal>, <literal>B</"
"literal>, and <literal>C</literal>. Each file system has one root directory, "
@@ -10916,7 +10916,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>B2</literal> 及 <literal>C1</literal>, <literal>C2</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7414
+#: book.translate.xml:7421
msgid ""
"Call <literal>A</literal> the root file system. If "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -10934,13 +10934,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7422
+#: book.translate.xml:7429
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir1' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7426
+#: book.translate.xml:7433
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -10951,7 +10951,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7434
+#: book.translate.xml:7441
msgid ""
"A file system must be mounted on to a directory in another file system. When "
"mounting file system <literal>B</literal> on to the directory <literal>A1</"
@@ -10968,13 +10968,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7443
+#: book.translate.xml:7450
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir2' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7447
+#: book.translate.xml:7454
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -10989,7 +10989,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7459
+#: book.translate.xml:7466
msgid ""
"Any files that are in the <literal>B1</literal> or <literal>B2</literal> "
"directories can be reached with the path <filename>/A1/B1</filename> or "
@@ -11004,7 +11004,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 被<firstterm>卸載 (Unmount)</firstterm> 後才會再顯現出來。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7468
+#: book.translate.xml:7475
msgid ""
"If <literal>B</literal> had been mounted on <literal>A2</literal> then the "
"diagram would look like this:"
@@ -11016,13 +11016,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7474
+#: book.translate.xml:7481
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir3' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7478
+#: book.translate.xml:7485
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -11037,7 +11037,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7490
+#: book.translate.xml:7497
msgid ""
"and the paths would be <filename>/A2/B1</filename> and <filename>/A2/B2</"
"filename> respectively."
@@ -11045,7 +11045,7 @@ msgstr ""
"上面的路徑分別為 <filename>/A2/B1</filename> 及 <filename>/A2/B2</filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7495
+#: book.translate.xml:7502
msgid ""
"File systems can be mounted on top of one another. Continuing the last "
"example, the <literal>C</literal> file system could be mounted on top of the "
@@ -11061,13 +11061,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7503
+#: book.translate.xml:7510
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir4' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7507
+#: book.translate.xml:7514
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -11086,7 +11086,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7523
+#: book.translate.xml:7530
msgid ""
"Or <literal>C</literal> could be mounted directly on to the <literal>A</"
"literal> file system, under the <literal>A1</literal> directory:"
@@ -11099,13 +11099,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7529
+#: book.translate.xml:7536
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir5' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7533
+#: book.translate.xml:7540
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -11124,7 +11124,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7549
+#: book.translate.xml:7556
msgid ""
"It is entirely possible to have one large root file system, and not need to "
"create any others. There are some drawbacks to this approach, and one "
@@ -11134,12 +11134,12 @@ msgstr ""
"處。"
#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7554
+#: book.translate.xml:7561
msgid "Benefits of Multiple File Systems"
msgstr "使用多個檔案系統的好處"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7557
+#: book.translate.xml:7564
msgid ""
"Different file systems can have different <firstterm>mount options</"
"firstterm>. For example, the root file system can be mounted read-only, "
@@ -11158,7 +11158,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<firstterm>guid</firstterm> 位元失效,可讓系統更安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7571
+#: book.translate.xml:7578
msgid ""
"FreeBSD automatically optimizes the layout of files on a file system, "
"depending on how the file system is being used. So a file system that "
@@ -11171,7 +11171,7 @@ msgstr ""
"如果您只有單一個大的檔案系統,這部分就沒用了。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7580
+#: book.translate.xml:7587
msgid ""
"FreeBSD's file systems are robust if power is lost. However, a power loss at "
"a critical point could still damage the structure of the file system. By "
@@ -11183,12 +11183,12 @@ msgstr ""
"以便您在需要的時候將備份資料回存回來。"
#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7590
+#: book.translate.xml:7597
msgid "Benefit of a Single File System"
msgstr "使用單一檔案系統的好處"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7593
+#: book.translate.xml:7600
msgid ""
"File systems are a fixed size. If you create a file system when you install "
"FreeBSD and give it a specific size, you may later discover that you need to "
@@ -11201,7 +11201,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的大小,然後將備份回存回來。"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7601
+#: book.translate.xml:7608
msgid ""
"FreeBSD features the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>growfs</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command, which makes "
@@ -11212,7 +11212,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令可以突破此限制直接變更檔案系統的大小。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7608
+#: book.translate.xml:7615
msgid ""
"File systems are contained in partitions. This does not have the same "
"meaning as the common usage of the term partition (for example, <trademark "
@@ -11231,7 +11231,7 @@ msgstr ""
"點表示外,也可以使用該檔案系統所在的分區來表示。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7618
+#: book.translate.xml:7625
msgid ""
"FreeBSD also uses disk space for <firstterm>swap space</firstterm> to "
"provide <firstterm>virtual memory</firstterm>. This allows your computer to "
@@ -11246,47 +11246,47 @@ msgstr ""
"移到交換空間,然後在用到的時候移回去 (同時移出部份沒用到的)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7627
+#: book.translate.xml:7634
msgid "Some partitions have certain conventions associated with them."
msgstr "部份分區有使用的慣例如下:"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7637
+#: book.translate.xml:7644
msgid "Partition"
msgstr "分區"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7638
+#: book.translate.xml:7645
msgid "Convention"
msgstr "慣例"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7644
+#: book.translate.xml:7651
msgid "<literal>a</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7645
+#: book.translate.xml:7652
msgid "Normally contains the root file system."
msgstr "通常內含根檔案系統"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7649
+#: book.translate.xml:7656
msgid "<literal>b</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7650
+#: book.translate.xml:7657
msgid "Normally contains swap space."
msgstr "通常內含交換空間"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7654
+#: book.translate.xml:7661
msgid "<literal>c</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7655
+#: book.translate.xml:7662
msgid ""
"Normally the same size as the enclosing slice. This allows utilities that "
"need to work on the entire slice, such as a bad block scanner, to work on "
@@ -11298,12 +11298,12 @@ msgstr ""
"執行。一般來說不會把檔案系統建立在這個分區。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7663
+#: book.translate.xml:7670
msgid "<literal>d</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7664
+#: book.translate.xml:7671
msgid ""
"Partition <literal>d</literal> used to have a special meaning associated "
"with it, although that is now gone and <literal>d</literal> may work as any "
@@ -11313,7 +11313,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>d</literal> 和一般的分區相同。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7673
+#: book.translate.xml:7680
msgid ""
"Disks in FreeBSD are divided into slices, referred to in <trademark class="
"\"registered\">Windows</trademark> as partitions, which are numbered from 1 "
@@ -11325,22 +11325,22 @@ msgstr ""
"再分成數個分區,每個分區內含檔案系統,且會使用字母來標示。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7678
+#: book.translate.xml:7685
msgid "<primary>slices</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7681 book.translate.xml:32052 book.translate.xml:32148
+#: book.translate.xml:7688 book.translate.xml:32059 book.translate.xml:32155
msgid "<primary>partitions</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7684
+#: book.translate.xml:7691
msgid "<primary>dangerously dedicated</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7688
+#: book.translate.xml:7695
msgid ""
"Slice numbers follow the device name, prefixed with an <literal>s</literal>, "
"starting at 1. So <quote>da0<emphasis>s1</emphasis></quote> is the first "
@@ -11359,7 +11359,7 @@ msgstr ""
"檔案系統使用的裝置 (Device) 上均會各別佔據一個切割區。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7698
+#: book.translate.xml:7705
msgid ""
"Slices, <quote>dangerously dedicated</quote> physical drives, and other "
"drives contain <firstterm>partitions</firstterm>, which are represented as "
@@ -11379,7 +11379,7 @@ msgstr ""
"三個切割區的第五個分區。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7711
+#: book.translate.xml:7718
msgid ""
"Finally, each disk on the system is identified. A disk name starts with a "
"code that indicates the type of disk, and then a number, indicating which "
@@ -11391,7 +11391,7 @@ msgstr ""
"始。常見的代碼可以參考 <xref linkend=\"disks-naming\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7717
+#: book.translate.xml:7724
msgid ""
"When referring to a partition, include the disk name, <literal>s</literal>, "
"the slice number, and then the partition letter. Examples are shown in <xref "
@@ -11401,7 +11401,7 @@ msgstr ""
"及分區字母。範例可以參考 <xref linkend=\"basics-disk-slice-part\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7722
+#: book.translate.xml:7729
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"basics-concept-disk-model\"/> shows a conceptual model of a "
"disk layout."
@@ -11410,7 +11410,7 @@ msgstr ""
"對您有些幫助。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7725
+#: book.translate.xml:7732
msgid ""
"When installing FreeBSD, configure the disk slices, create partitions within "
"the slice to be used for FreeBSD, create a file system or swap space in each "
@@ -11421,44 +11421,44 @@ msgstr ""
"哪裡。"
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7731
+#: book.translate.xml:7738
msgid "Disk Device Names"
msgstr "磁碟裝置名稱"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7739
+#: book.translate.xml:7746
msgid "Drive Type"
msgstr "磁碟機類型"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7740
+#: book.translate.xml:7747
msgid "Drive Device Name"
msgstr "磁碟機裝置稱"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7746
+#: book.translate.xml:7753
msgid "<acronym>SATA</acronym> and <acronym>IDE</acronym> hard drives"
msgstr "<acronym>SATA</acronym> 及 <acronym>IDE</acronym> 硬碟"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7748
+#: book.translate.xml:7755
msgid "<literal>ada</literal> or <literal>ad</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>ada</literal> 或 <literal>ad</literal>"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7753
+#: book.translate.xml:7760
msgid ""
"<acronym>SCSI</acronym> hard drives and <acronym>USB</acronym> storage "
"devices"
msgstr "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> 硬碟與 <acronym>USB</acronym> 儲存裝置"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7755
+#: book.translate.xml:7762
msgid "<literal>da</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7759
+#: book.translate.xml:7766
msgid ""
"<acronym>SATA</acronym> and <acronym>IDE</acronym> <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> "
"drives"
@@ -11467,37 +11467,37 @@ msgstr ""
"光碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7761
+#: book.translate.xml:7768
msgid "<literal>cd</literal> or <literal>acd</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>cd</literal> 或 <literal>acd</literal>"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7766
+#: book.translate.xml:7773
msgid "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> drives"
msgstr "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> 光碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7768
+#: book.translate.xml:7775
msgid "<literal>cd</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7772
+#: book.translate.xml:7779
msgid "Floppy drives"
msgstr "軟碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7773
+#: book.translate.xml:7780
msgid "<literal>fd</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7777
+#: book.translate.xml:7784
msgid "Assorted non-standard <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> drives"
msgstr "各種非標準 <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> 光碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7779
+#: book.translate.xml:7786
msgid ""
"<literal>mcd</literal> for Mitsumi <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> and "
"<literal>scd</literal> for Sony <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> devices"
@@ -11506,32 +11506,32 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>scd</literal> 代表 Sony <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> 光碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7785
+#: book.translate.xml:7792
msgid "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> tape drives"
msgstr "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> 磁帶機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7786
+#: book.translate.xml:7793
msgid "<literal>sa</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7790
+#: book.translate.xml:7797
msgid "<acronym>IDE</acronym> tape drives"
msgstr "<acronym>IDE</acronym> 磁帶機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7791
+#: book.translate.xml:7798
msgid "<literal>ast</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7795
+#: book.translate.xml:7802
msgid "RAID drives"
msgstr "RAID 磁碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7796
+#: book.translate.xml:7803
msgid ""
"Examples include <literal>aacd</literal> for <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Adaptec</trademark> AdvancedRAID, <literal>mlxd</literal> and "
@@ -11550,27 +11550,27 @@ msgstr ""
"trademark> RAID."
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7808
+#: book.translate.xml:7815
msgid "Sample Disk, Slice, and Partition Names"
msgstr "磁碟、切割區及分區命名範例"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7817
+#: book.translate.xml:7824
msgid "Name"
msgstr "名稱"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7818 book.translate.xml:62712
+#: book.translate.xml:7825 book.translate.xml:62339
msgid "Meaning"
msgstr "意義"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7824
+#: book.translate.xml:7831
msgid "<literal>ada0s1a</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7825
+#: book.translate.xml:7832
msgid ""
"The first partition (<literal>a</literal>) on the first slice (<literal>s1</"
"literal>) on the first <acronym>SATA</acronym> disk (<literal>ada0</"
@@ -11580,12 +11580,12 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>)的第一個分區(<literal>a</literal>) 。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7832
+#: book.translate.xml:7839
msgid "<literal>da1s2e</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7833
+#: book.translate.xml:7840
msgid ""
"The fifth partition (<literal>e</literal>) on the second slice (<literal>s2</"
"literal>) on the second SCSI disk (<literal>da1</literal>)."
@@ -11594,12 +11594,12 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 的第五個分區 (<literal>e</literal>) 。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7843
+#: book.translate.xml:7850
msgid "Conceptual Model of a Disk"
msgstr "磁碟的概念模型"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7845
+#: book.translate.xml:7852
msgid ""
"This diagram shows FreeBSD's view of the first <acronym>SATA</acronym> disk "
"attached to the system. Assume that the disk is 250 GB in size, and contains "
@@ -11618,7 +11618,7 @@ msgstr ""
"裝了 FreeBSD。 本範例中安裝的 FreeBSD 有四個資料分區及一個交換分區。"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7855
+#: book.translate.xml:7862
msgid ""
"The four partitions each hold a file system. Partition <literal>a</literal> "
"is used for the root file system, <literal>d</literal> for <filename>/var/</"
@@ -11638,18 +11638,18 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7865
+#: book.translate.xml:7872
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/disk-layout' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7872
+#: book.translate.xml:7879
msgid "Mounting and Unmounting File Systems"
msgstr "掛載與卸載檔案系統"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7874
+#: book.translate.xml:7881
msgid ""
"The file system is best visualized as a tree, rooted, as it were, at "
"<filename>/</filename>. <filename>/dev</filename>, <filename>/usr</"
@@ -11662,12 +11662,12 @@ msgstr ""
"些樹枝上面又還有分支,像是 <filename>/usr/local</filename> 等。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7883
+#: book.translate.xml:7890
msgid "<primary>root file system</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7887
+#: book.translate.xml:7894
msgid ""
"There are various reasons to house some of these directories on separate "
"file systems. <filename>/var</filename> contains the directories "
@@ -11683,7 +11683,7 @@ msgstr ""
"filename> 中拉出來。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7898
+#: book.translate.xml:7905
msgid ""
"Another common reason to contain certain directory trees on other file "
"systems is if they are to be housed on separate physical disks, or are "
@@ -11695,18 +11695,18 @@ msgstr ""
"\"network-nfs\"/> 或是光碟機。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7905
+#: book.translate.xml:7912
msgid "The <filename>fstab</filename> File"
msgstr "<filename>fstab</filename> 檔"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7907
+#: book.translate.xml:7914
msgid ""
"<primary>file systems</primary> <secondary>mounted with fstab</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7912
+#: book.translate.xml:7919
msgid ""
"During the boot process (<xref linkend=\"boot\"/>), file systems listed in "
"<filename>/etc/fstab</filename> are automatically mounted except for the "
@@ -11718,39 +11718,39 @@ msgstr ""
"<option>noauto</option> 參數)。檔案內容的格式如下:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:7918
+#: book.translate.xml:7925
#, no-wrap
msgid "<replaceable>device</replaceable> <replaceable>/mount-point</replaceable> <replaceable>fstype</replaceable> <replaceable>options</replaceable> <replaceable>dumpfreq</replaceable> <replaceable>passno</replaceable>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7922
+#: book.translate.xml:7929
msgid "<literal>device</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7924
+#: book.translate.xml:7931
msgid ""
"An existing device name as explained in <xref linkend=\"disks-naming\"/>."
msgstr "已存在的裝置名稱,詳情請參閱 <xref linkend=\"disks-naming\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7930
+#: book.translate.xml:7937
msgid "<literal>mount-point</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7933
+#: book.translate.xml:7940
msgid "An existing directory on which to mount the file system."
msgstr "檔案系統要掛載到的目錄 (該目錄必須存在)。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7939
+#: book.translate.xml:7946
msgid "<literal>fstype</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7942
+#: book.translate.xml:7949
msgid ""
"The file system type to pass to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The default FreeBSD "
@@ -11761,12 +11761,12 @@ msgstr ""
"檔案系統是 <literal>ufs</literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7949
+#: book.translate.xml:7956
msgid "<literal>options</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7952
+#: book.translate.xml:7959
msgid ""
"Either <option>rw</option> for read-write file systems, or <option>ro</"
"option> for read-only file systems, followed by any other options that may "
@@ -11782,12 +11782,12 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 說明。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7963
+#: book.translate.xml:7970
msgid "<literal>dumpfreq</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7966
+#: book.translate.xml:7973
msgid ""
"Used by <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> to determine which file systems require dumping. "
@@ -11797,12 +11797,12 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 由此項目決定那些檔案系統需要傾印。 如果這格空白則以零為預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7973
+#: book.translate.xml:7980
msgid "<literal>passno</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7976
+#: book.translate.xml:7983
msgid ""
"Determines the order in which file systems should be checked. File systems "
"that should be skipped should have their <literal>passno</literal> set to "
@@ -11822,7 +11822,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的話) 檢查這些檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7990
+#: book.translate.xml:7997
msgid ""
"Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fstab</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information on the format of <filename>/"
@@ -11833,7 +11833,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 說明文件。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7995
+#: book.translate.xml:8002
msgid ""
"Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -11842,12 +11842,12 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7997
+#: book.translate.xml:8004
msgid "<primary>file systems</primary> <secondary>mounting</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8002
+#: book.translate.xml:8009
msgid ""
"File systems are mounted using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The most basic syntax "
@@ -11857,13 +11857,13 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 指令是拿來掛載檔案系統用的。基本的操作指令格式如下:"
#. (itstool) path: informalexample/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8006
+#: book.translate.xml:8013
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount <replaceable>device</replaceable> <replaceable>mountpoint</replaceable></userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8009
+#: book.translate.xml:8016
msgid ""
"This command provides many options which are described in "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -11873,18 +11873,18 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 裡面有提到一大堆的選項,不過最常用的就是這些:"
#. (itstool) path: variablelist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8013
+#: book.translate.xml:8020
msgid "Mount Options"
msgstr "掛載選項"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8016 book.translate.xml:23319
+#: book.translate.xml:8023 book.translate.xml:23326
msgid "<option>-a</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8019
+#: book.translate.xml:8026
msgid ""
"Mount all the file systems listed in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>, except "
"those marked as <quote>noauto</quote>, excluded by the <option>-t</option> "
@@ -11894,12 +11894,12 @@ msgstr ""
"filename> 而且沒有用 <option>-t</option> 排除的檔案系統掛載起來。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8028
+#: book.translate.xml:8035
msgid "<option>-d</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8032
+#: book.translate.xml:8039
msgid ""
"Do everything except for the actual mount system call. This option is useful "
"in conjunction with the <option>-v</option> flag to determine what "
@@ -11912,12 +11912,12 @@ msgstr ""
"用。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8040 book.translate.xml:26440
+#: book.translate.xml:8047 book.translate.xml:26447
msgid "<option>-f</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8043
+#: book.translate.xml:8050
msgid ""
"Force the mount of an unclean file system (dangerous), or the revocation of "
"write access when downgrading a file system's mount status from read-write "
@@ -11927,12 +11927,12 @@ msgstr ""
"態從可存取變成唯讀)。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8051
+#: book.translate.xml:8058
msgid "<option>-r</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8054
+#: book.translate.xml:8061
msgid ""
"Mount the file system read-only. This is identical to using <option>-o ro</"
"option>."
@@ -11940,12 +11940,12 @@ msgstr ""
"用唯讀的方式掛載檔案系統。 這個選項和在 -o 選項中指定 ro 參數是一樣的。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8060
+#: book.translate.xml:8067
msgid "<option>-t</option> <replaceable>fstype</replaceable>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8064
+#: book.translate.xml:8071
msgid ""
"Mount the specified file system type or mount only file systems of the given "
"type, if <option>-a</option> is included. <quote>ufs</quote> is the default "
@@ -11955,50 +11955,50 @@ msgstr ""
"只掛載指定型態的檔案系統。預設的檔案系統類型為 <quote>ufs</quote>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8072
+#: book.translate.xml:8079
msgid "<option>-u</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8075
+#: book.translate.xml:8082
msgid "Update mount options on the file system."
msgstr "更新檔案系統的掛載選項。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8080 book.translate.xml:23336
+#: book.translate.xml:8087 book.translate.xml:23343
msgid "<option>-v</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8083
+#: book.translate.xml:8090
msgid "Be verbose."
msgstr "顯示詳細資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8088
+#: book.translate.xml:8095
msgid "<option>-w</option>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8091
+#: book.translate.xml:8098
msgid "Mount the file system read-write."
msgstr "以可讀寫的模式掛載檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8096
+#: book.translate.xml:8103
msgid ""
"The following options can be passed to <option>-o</option> as a comma-"
"separated list:"
msgstr "<option>-o</option> 選項後面會接著以逗號分隔的參數:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:8101
+#: book.translate.xml:8108
msgid "nosuid"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8104
+#: book.translate.xml:8111
msgid ""
"Do not interpret setuid or setgid flags on the file system. This is also a "
"useful security option."
@@ -12006,7 +12006,7 @@ msgstr ""
"不解析檔案系統上的 setuid 或 setgid 旗標, 這也是一個蠻有用的安全選項。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8113
+#: book.translate.xml:8120
msgid ""
"Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>umount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -12015,12 +12015,12 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8115
+#: book.translate.xml:8122
msgid "<primary>file systems</primary> <secondary>unmounting</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8120
+#: book.translate.xml:8127
msgid ""
"To unmount a file system use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>umount</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. This command takes "
@@ -12031,7 +12031,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(mountpoint),裝置名稱,以及 -a 或是 -A 等選項。 "
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8124
+#: book.translate.xml:8131
msgid ""
"All forms take <option>-f</option> to force unmounting, and <option>-v</"
"option> for verbosity. Be warned that <option>-f</option> is not generally a "
@@ -12042,7 +12042,7 @@ msgstr ""
"案系統有可能會造成電腦當機, 或者損壞檔案系統內的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8129
+#: book.translate.xml:8136
msgid ""
"To unmount all mounted file systems, or just the file system types listed "
"after <option>-t</option>, use <option>-a</option> or <option>-A</option>. "
@@ -12054,12 +12054,12 @@ msgstr ""
"是 <option>-A</option> 並不會試圖卸載根檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8138
+#: book.translate.xml:8145
msgid "Processes and Daemons"
msgstr "程序與 Daemon"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8140
+#: book.translate.xml:8147
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is a multi-tasking operating system. Each program running at any one "
"time is called a <firstterm>process</firstterm>. Every running command "
@@ -12071,7 +12071,7 @@ msgstr ""
"令都至少會開啟一個新的程序, 而有些系統程序是一直在跑以維持系統正常運作的。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8146
+#: book.translate.xml:8153
msgid ""
"Each process is uniquely identified by a number called a <firstterm>process "
"ID</firstterm> (<acronym>PID</acronym>). Similar to files, each process has "
@@ -12096,7 +12096,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8158
+#: book.translate.xml:8165
msgid ""
"Some programs are not designed to be run with continuous user input and "
"disconnect from the terminal at the first opportunity. For example, a web "
@@ -12115,7 +12115,7 @@ msgstr ""
"情。這也就是為何 BSD 的吉祥物,是一隻穿著帆布鞋拿著三叉耙的快樂小惡魔的原因。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8169
+#: book.translate.xml:8176
msgid ""
"There is a convention to name programs that normally run as daemons with a "
"trailing <quote>d</quote>. For example, <application>BIND</application> is "
@@ -12136,12 +12136,12 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8183
+#: book.translate.xml:8190
msgid "Viewing Processes"
msgstr "檢視程序"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8185
+#: book.translate.xml:8192
msgid ""
"To see the processes running on the system, use "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -12167,7 +12167,7 @@ msgstr ""
"互動式的觀看您的電腦正在做什麼。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8193
+#: book.translate.xml:8200
msgid ""
"By default, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> only shows the commands that are running and owned "
@@ -12177,7 +12177,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令只會顯示使用者所擁有的的程序。 例如:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8196
+#: book.translate.xml:8203
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ps</userinput>\n"
@@ -12187,7 +12187,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8201
+#: book.translate.xml:8208
msgid ""
"The output from <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> is organized into a number of columns. The "
@@ -12214,7 +12214,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>COMMAND</literal> 是執行這個程式的指令。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8216
+#: book.translate.xml:8223
msgid ""
"A number of different options are available to change the information that "
"is displayed. One of the most useful sets is <literal>auxww</literal>, where "
@@ -12235,7 +12235,7 @@ msgstr ""
"了。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8227
+#: book.translate.xml:8234
msgid ""
"The output from <citerefentry><refentrytitle>top</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> is similar:"
@@ -12244,7 +12244,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 也有類似的輸出。 一般的情況看像是這樣:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8229
+#: book.translate.xml:8236
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>top</userinput>\n"
@@ -12270,7 +12270,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8250
+#: book.translate.xml:8257
msgid ""
"The output is split into two sections. The header (the first five or six "
"lines) shows the <acronym>PID</acronym> of the last process to run, the "
@@ -12290,7 +12290,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>ARC</literal> 標示有多少資料從磁碟改由記憶體快取中取得。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8262
+#: book.translate.xml:8269
msgid ""
"Below the header is a series of columns containing similar information to "
"the output from <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
@@ -12312,7 +12312,7 @@ msgstr ""
"式的記憶體使用量。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8272
+#: book.translate.xml:8279
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>top</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> automatically updates the display every two seconds. A "
@@ -12322,12 +12322,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的時間。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8278
+#: book.translate.xml:8285
msgid "Killing Processes"
msgstr "終止程序"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8280
+#: book.translate.xml:8287
msgid ""
"One way to communicate with any running process or daemon is to send a "
"<firstterm>signal</firstterm> using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kill</"
@@ -12348,7 +12348,7 @@ msgstr ""
"systemitem>使用者,他可以送信號給任何人的程序。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8290
+#: book.translate.xml:8297
msgid ""
"The operating system can also send a signal to a process. If an application "
"is badly written and tries to access memory that it is not supposed to, "
@@ -12368,7 +12368,7 @@ msgstr ""
"該程式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8300
+#: book.translate.xml:8307
msgid ""
"Two signals can be used to stop a process: <literal>SIGTERM</literal> and "
"<literal>SIGKILL</literal>. <literal>SIGTERM</literal> is the polite way to "
@@ -12384,7 +12384,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>,如它正在做一些不能中斷的工作的話。"
#. (itstool) path: footnote/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8312
+#: book.translate.xml:8319
msgid ""
"There are a few tasks that cannot be interrupted. For example, if the "
"process is trying to read from a file that is on another computer on the "
@@ -12399,7 +12399,7 @@ msgstr ""
"結束掉了。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8309
+#: book.translate.xml:8316
msgid ""
"<literal>SIGKILL</literal> cannot be ignored by a process. Sending a "
"<literal>SIGKILL</literal> to a process will usually stop that process there "
@@ -12409,7 +12409,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 信號給程序通常會將程序直接中止<_:footnote-1/>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8321
+#: book.translate.xml:8328
msgid ""
"Other commonly used signals are <literal>SIGHUP</literal>, <literal>SIGUSR1</"
"literal>, and <literal>SIGUSR2</literal>. Since these are general purpose "
@@ -12420,7 +12420,7 @@ msgstr ""
"應。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8326
+#: book.translate.xml:8333
msgid ""
"For example, after changing a web server's configuration file, the web "
"server needs to be told to re-read its configuration. Restarting "
@@ -12436,12 +12436,12 @@ msgstr ""
"為,所以使用前請先參考 Deamon 的說明文件查看是否可以達到想要的結果。"
#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8337
+#: book.translate.xml:8344
msgid "Sending a Signal to a Process"
msgstr "送信號給程序"
#. (itstool) path: procedure/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8339
+#: book.translate.xml:8346
msgid ""
"This example shows how to send a signal to "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>inetd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -12460,7 +12460,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 會在收到 <literal>SIGHUP</literal> 的時候重新讀取這個設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8346
+#: book.translate.xml:8353
msgid ""
"Find the <acronym>PID</acronym> of the process to send the signal to using "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pgrep</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -12474,7 +12474,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 的 <acronym>PID</acronym> 為 198:"
#. (itstool) path: step/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8350
+#: book.translate.xml:8357
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>pgrep -l inetd</userinput>\n"
@@ -12482,7 +12482,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8356
+#: book.translate.xml:8363
msgid ""
"Use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> to send the signal. Because "
@@ -12501,7 +12501,7 @@ msgstr ""
"systemitem> 先。"
#. (itstool) path: step/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8363
+#: book.translate.xml:8370
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>su</userinput>\n"
@@ -12510,7 +12510,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8367
+#: book.translate.xml:8374
msgid ""
"Like most <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> commands, "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>kill</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -12533,12 +12533,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>PID</replaceable>: No such process</errorname>。"
#. (itstool) path: note/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8380
+#: book.translate.xml:8387
msgid "Why Use <command>/bin/kill</command>?"
msgstr "為何要使用 <command>/bin/kill</command>? "
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8382
+#: book.translate.xml:8389
msgid ""
"Many shells provide <command>kill</command> as a built in command, meaning "
"that the shell will send the signal directly, rather than running <filename>/"
@@ -12552,7 +12552,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的直接用 <command>/bin/kill</command>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8394
+#: book.translate.xml:8401
msgid ""
"When sending other signals, substitute <literal>TERM</literal> or "
"<literal>KILL</literal> with the name of the signal."
@@ -12561,7 +12561,7 @@ msgstr ""
"或 <literal>KILL</literal> 替換成其他信號的名稱即可。"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8399
+#: book.translate.xml:8406
msgid ""
"Killing a random process on the system is a bad idea. In particular, "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -12580,22 +12580,22 @@ msgstr ""
"要</emphasis>記得再次確認您下的參數。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8411
+#: book.translate.xml:8418
msgid "Shells"
msgstr "Shell"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8413
+#: book.translate.xml:8420
msgid "<primary>shells</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8416
+#: book.translate.xml:8423
msgid "<primary>command line</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8420
+#: book.translate.xml:8427
msgid ""
"A <firstterm>shell</firstterm> provides a command line interface for "
"interacting with the operating system. A shell receives commands from the "
@@ -12618,7 +12618,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>zsh</command> 以及 <command>bash</command> 等。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8431
+#: book.translate.xml:8438
msgid ""
"The shell that is used is really a matter of taste. A C programmer might "
"feel more comfortable with a C-like shell such as "
@@ -12636,7 +12636,7 @@ msgstr ""
"合使用者的喜好,就是您選擇 shell 的重點了。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8438
+#: book.translate.xml:8445
msgid ""
"One common shell feature is filename completion. After a user types the "
"first few letters of a command or filename and presses <keycap>Tab</keycap>, "
@@ -12652,7 +12652,7 @@ msgstr ""
"輸入 <command>rm foo</command> 然後按下 <keycap>Tab</keycap> 來補齊檔名。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8447
+#: book.translate.xml:8454
msgid ""
"But the shell only shows <command>rm foo</command>. It was unable to "
"complete the filename because both <filename>foobar</filename> and "
@@ -12670,12 +12670,12 @@ msgstr ""
"次,那 Shell 就能夠替您把剩下的檔名填滿了。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8457
+#: book.translate.xml:8464
msgid "<primary>environment variables</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8461
+#: book.translate.xml:8468
msgid ""
"Another feature of the shell is the use of environment variables. "
"Environment variables are a variable/key pair stored in the shell's "
@@ -12691,42 +12691,42 @@ msgstr ""
"供了常見的環境變數與其涵義的清單。 請注意環境變數的名稱永遠以大寫表示。"
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8471
+#: book.translate.xml:8478
msgid "Common Environment Variables"
msgstr "常用環境變數"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8476 book.translate.xml:23133
+#: book.translate.xml:8483 book.translate.xml:23140
msgid "Variable"
msgstr "變數"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8483
+#: book.translate.xml:8490
msgid "<envar>USER</envar>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8484
+#: book.translate.xml:8491
msgid "Current logged in user's name."
msgstr "目前登入的使用者名稱。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8488
+#: book.translate.xml:8495
msgid "<envar>PATH</envar>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8489
+#: book.translate.xml:8496
msgid "Colon-separated list of directories to search for binaries."
msgstr "以冒號 (:) 隔開的目錄列表,用以搜尋執行檔的路徑。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8494
+#: book.translate.xml:8501
msgid "<envar>DISPLAY</envar>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8495
+#: book.translate.xml:8502
msgid ""
"Network name of the <application>Xorg</application> display to connect to, "
"if available."
@@ -12734,34 +12734,34 @@ msgstr ""
"若存在這個環境變數,則代表 <application>Xorg</application> 顯示器的網路名稱。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8501
+#: book.translate.xml:8508
msgid "<envar>SHELL</envar>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8502
+#: book.translate.xml:8509
msgid "The current shell."
msgstr "目前使用的 Shell。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8506
+#: book.translate.xml:8513
msgid "<envar>TERM</envar>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8508
+#: book.translate.xml:8515
msgid ""
"The name of the user's type of terminal. Used to determine the capabilities "
"of the terminal."
msgstr "使用者終端機類型的名稱,用來判斷終端機有那些功能。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8513
+#: book.translate.xml:8520
msgid "<envar>TERMCAP</envar>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8515
+#: book.translate.xml:8522
msgid ""
"Database entry of the terminal escape codes to perform various terminal "
"functions."
@@ -12769,62 +12769,62 @@ msgstr ""
"用來執行各種終端機功能的終端機跳脫碼 (Terminal escape code) 的資料庫項目。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8520
+#: book.translate.xml:8527
msgid "<envar>OSTYPE</envar>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8521
+#: book.translate.xml:8528
msgid "Type of operating system."
msgstr "作業系統的類型。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8525
+#: book.translate.xml:8532
msgid "<envar>MACHTYPE</envar>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8526
+#: book.translate.xml:8533
msgid "The system's CPU architecture."
msgstr "系統的 CPU 架構。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8530
+#: book.translate.xml:8537
msgid "<envar>EDITOR</envar>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8531
+#: book.translate.xml:8538
msgid "The user's preferred text editor."
msgstr "使用者偏好的文字編輯器。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8535
+#: book.translate.xml:8542
msgid "<envar>PAGER</envar>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8536
+#: book.translate.xml:8543
msgid "The user's preferred utility for viewing text one page at a time."
msgstr "使用者偏好的文字分頁檢視工具。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8541
+#: book.translate.xml:8548
msgid "<envar>MANPATH</envar>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:8542
+#: book.translate.xml:8549
msgid "Colon-separated list of directories to search for manual pages."
msgstr "以冒號 (:) 隔開的目錄列表,用以搜尋使用手冊的路徑。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8549
+#: book.translate.xml:8556
msgid "<primary>Bourne shells</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8553
+#: book.translate.xml:8560
msgid ""
"How to set an environment variable differs between shells. In "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -12849,24 +12849,24 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>/usr/local/bin/emacs</filename>:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8562
+#: book.translate.xml:8569
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>setenv EDITOR /usr/local/bin/emacs</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8564
+#: book.translate.xml:8571
msgid "The equivalent command for <command>bash</command> would be:"
msgstr "相同功能的指令在 <command>bash</command> 下則是:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8567
+#: book.translate.xml:8574
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>export EDITOR=\"/usr/local/bin/emacs\"</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8569
+#: book.translate.xml:8576
msgid ""
"To expand an environment variable in order to see its current setting, type "
"a <literal>$</literal> character in front of its name on the command line. "
@@ -12878,7 +12878,7 @@ msgstr ""
"$TERM</envar> 的設定值。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8575
+#: book.translate.xml:8582
msgid ""
"Shells treat special characters, known as meta-characters, as special "
"representations of data. The most common meta-character is <literal>*</"
@@ -12895,7 +12895,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>*</literal> 字元的檔案由 <command>echo</command> 顯示出來。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8585
+#: book.translate.xml:8592
msgid ""
"To prevent the shell from interpreting a special character, escape it from "
"the shell by starting it with a backslash (<literal>\\</literal>). For "
@@ -12909,12 +12909,12 @@ msgstr ""
"$TERM</command> 則會直接印出 <literal>$TERM</literal> 這幾個字。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8593
+#: book.translate.xml:8600
msgid "Changing the Shell"
msgstr "變更 Shell"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8595
+#: book.translate.xml:8602
msgid ""
"The easiest way to permanently change the default shell is to use "
"<command>chsh</command>. Running this command will open the editor that is "
@@ -12930,7 +12930,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>Shell:</literal> 為新的 Shell 的完整路徑。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8602
+#: book.translate.xml:8609
msgid ""
"Alternately, use <command>chsh -s</command> which will set the specified "
"shell without opening an editor. For example, to change the shell to "
@@ -12940,13 +12940,13 @@ msgstr ""
"器。 例如, 假設想把 Shell 更改為 <command>bash</command>:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8606
+#: book.translate.xml:8613
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chsh -s /usr/local/bin/bash</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8609
+#: book.translate.xml:8616
msgid ""
"The new shell <emphasis>must</emphasis> be present in <filename>/etc/shells</"
"filename>. If the shell was installed from the FreeBSD Ports Collection as "
@@ -12960,13 +12960,13 @@ msgstr ""
"Shell 的路徑):"
#. (itstool) path: note/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8616
+#: book.translate.xml:8623
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>echo <replaceable>/usr/local/bin/bash</replaceable> &gt;&gt; /etc/shells</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8618
+#: book.translate.xml:8625
msgid ""
"Then, rerun <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>."
@@ -12975,21 +12975,21 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8624
+#: book.translate.xml:8631
msgid "Advanced Shell Techniques"
msgstr "進階 Shell 技巧"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:8627 book.translate.xml:31197 book.translate.xml:35591
-#: book.translate.xml:35671 book.translate.xml:37280 book.translate.xml:44132
-#: book.translate.xml:54584 book.translate.xml:57019
+#: book.translate.xml:8634 book.translate.xml:31204 book.translate.xml:35725
+#: book.translate.xml:35805 book.translate.xml:37414 book.translate.xml:44341
+#: book.translate.xml:54205 book.translate.xml:56640
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Tom</firstname> <surname>Rhodes</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Written by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8637
+#: book.translate.xml:8644
msgid ""
"The <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> shell is not just a "
"command interpreter, it acts as a powerful tool which allows users to "
@@ -13004,7 +13004,7 @@ msgstr ""
"可提供一個可以最佳化效率的環境給使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8645
+#: book.translate.xml:8652
msgid ""
"Shell redirection is the action of sending the output or the input of a "
"command into another command or into a file. To capture the output of the "
@@ -13016,13 +13016,13 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 指令的輸出到一個檔案,可以重新導向輸出:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8650
+#: book.translate.xml:8657
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls &gt; directory_listing.txt</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8652
+#: book.translate.xml:8659
msgid ""
"The directory contents will now be listed in <filename>directory_listing."
"txt</filename>. Some commands can be used to read input, such as "
@@ -13035,13 +13035,13 @@ msgstr ""
"導向輸入:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8657
+#: book.translate.xml:8664
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>sort &lt; directory_listing.txt</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8659
+#: book.translate.xml:8666
msgid ""
"The input will be sorted and placed on the screen. To redirect that input "
"into another file, one could redirect the output of "
@@ -13053,13 +13053,13 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 的出輸:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8663
+#: book.translate.xml:8670
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>sort &lt; directory_listing.txt &gt; sorted.txt</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8665
+#: book.translate.xml:8672
msgid ""
"In all of the previous examples, the commands are performing redirection "
"using file descriptors. Every <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</"
@@ -13079,7 +13079,7 @@ msgstr ""
"皆被認為是以 I/O 為基礎的檔案描述符,有些也會被當做串流。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8676
+#: book.translate.xml:8683
msgid ""
"Through the use of these descriptors, the shell allows output and input to "
"be passed around through various commands and redirected to or from a file. "
@@ -13089,7 +13089,7 @@ msgstr ""
"自檔案。另一種重新導向的方式是使用管線運算子 (Pipe operator)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8681
+#: book.translate.xml:8688
msgid ""
"The <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> pipe operator, <quote>|"
"</quote> allows the output of one command to be directly passed or directed "
@@ -13101,13 +13101,13 @@ msgstr ""
"指令的標準輸出以標準輸入傳遞給另一個指令,例如:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8687
+#: book.translate.xml:8694
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cat directory_listing.txt | sort | less</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8689
+#: book.translate.xml:8696
msgid ""
"In that example, the contents of <filename>directory_listing.txt</filename> "
"will be sorted and the output passed to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>less</"
@@ -13121,22 +13121,22 @@ msgstr ""
"果直接捲動出畫面。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8698
+#: book.translate.xml:8705
msgid "Text Editors"
msgstr "文字編輯器"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8700
+#: book.translate.xml:8707
msgid "<primary>text editors</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8703 book.translate.xml:8739
+#: book.translate.xml:8710 book.translate.xml:8746
msgid "<primary>editors</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8707
+#: book.translate.xml:8714
msgid ""
"Most FreeBSD configuration is done by editing text files. Because of this, "
"it is a good idea to become familiar with a text editor. FreeBSD comes with "
@@ -13148,19 +13148,19 @@ msgstr ""
"其他的文字編輯器。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8712
+#: book.translate.xml:8719
msgid "<primary><command>ee</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8715
+#: book.translate.xml:8722
msgid ""
"<primary>editors</primary> <secondary><citerefentry><refentrytitle>ee</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry></secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8720
+#: book.translate.xml:8727
msgid ""
"A simple editor to learn is <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ee</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, which stands for easy "
@@ -13190,17 +13190,17 @@ msgstr ""
"要存檔。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8736
+#: book.translate.xml:8743
msgid "<primary><command>vi</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8742
+#: book.translate.xml:8749
msgid "<primary><command>emacs</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8746
+#: book.translate.xml:8753
msgid ""
"FreeBSD also comes with more powerful text editors, such as "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -13219,7 +13219,7 @@ msgstr ""
"在日後為您省下更多的時間。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8756
+#: book.translate.xml:8763
msgid ""
"Many applications which modify files or require typed input will "
"automatically open a text editor. To change the default editor, set the "
@@ -13230,12 +13230,12 @@ msgstr ""
"可設定 <envar>EDITOR</envar> 環境變數如 <xref linkend=\"shells\"/> 所說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8763
+#: book.translate.xml:8770
msgid "Devices and Device Nodes"
msgstr "裝置及裝置節點"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8765
+#: book.translate.xml:8772
msgid ""
"A device is a term used mostly for hardware-related activities in a system, "
"including disks, printers, graphics cards, and keyboards. When FreeBSD "
@@ -13248,7 +13248,7 @@ msgstr ""
"裝置,開機訊息的複本也會存放在 <filename>/var/run/dmesg.boot</filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8772
+#: book.translate.xml:8779
msgid ""
"Each device has a device name and number. For example, <filename>ada0</"
"filename> is the first SATA hard drive, while <filename>kbd0</filename> "
@@ -13258,26 +13258,26 @@ msgstr ""
"台 SATA 硬碟,而 <filename>kbd0</filename> 則代表鍵盤。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8777
+#: book.translate.xml:8784
msgid ""
-"Most devices in a FreeBSD must be accessed through special files called "
-"device nodes, which are located in <filename>/dev</filename>."
+"Most devices in FreeBSD must be accessed through special files called device "
+"nodes, which are located in <filename>/dev</filename>."
msgstr ""
"在 FreeBSD 中大多數的裝置必須透過裝置節點 (Device Node) 的特殊檔案來存取,這"
"些檔案會放置在 <filename>/dev</filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8783
+#: book.translate.xml:8790
msgid "Manual Pages"
msgstr "操作手冊"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8785
+#: book.translate.xml:8792
msgid "<primary>manual pages</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8789
+#: book.translate.xml:8796
msgid ""
"The most comprehensive documentation on FreeBSD is in the form of manual "
"pages. Nearly every program on the system comes with a short reference "
@@ -13289,13 +13289,13 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>man</command> 指令來檢視:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8795
+#: book.translate.xml:8802
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>man <replaceable>command</replaceable></userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8797
+#: book.translate.xml:8804
msgid ""
"where <replaceable>command</replaceable> is the name of the command to learn "
"about. For example, to learn more about <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</"
@@ -13306,13 +13306,13 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 的詳細用法,就可以打:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8801
+#: book.translate.xml:8808
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>man ls</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8803
+#: book.translate.xml:8810
msgid ""
"Manual pages are divided into sections which represent the type of topic. In "
"FreeBSD, the following sections are available:"
@@ -13321,52 +13321,52 @@ msgstr ""
"章節:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8809
+#: book.translate.xml:8816
msgid "User commands."
msgstr "使用者指令。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8813
+#: book.translate.xml:8820
msgid "System calls and error numbers."
msgstr "系統呼叫 (System call) 與錯誤編號。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8817
+#: book.translate.xml:8824
msgid "Functions in the C libraries."
msgstr "C 程式庫函數。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8821
+#: book.translate.xml:8828
msgid "Device drivers."
msgstr "裝置驅動程式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8825
+#: book.translate.xml:8832
msgid "File formats."
msgstr "檔案格式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8829
+#: book.translate.xml:8836
msgid "Games and other diversions."
msgstr "遊戲及其他程式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8833
+#: book.translate.xml:8840
msgid "Miscellaneous information."
msgstr "其他資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8837
+#: book.translate.xml:8844
msgid "System maintenance and operation commands."
msgstr "系統維護與操作指令。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8841
+#: book.translate.xml:8848
msgid "System kernel interfaces."
msgstr "系統核心介面。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8845
+#: book.translate.xml:8852
msgid ""
"In some cases, the same topic may appear in more than one section of the "
"online manual. For example, there is a <command>chmod</command> user command "
@@ -13380,13 +13380,13 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 要查詢的章節編號:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8851
+#: book.translate.xml:8858
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>man 1 chmod</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8853
+#: book.translate.xml:8860
msgid ""
"This will display the manual page for the user command "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -13405,7 +13405,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 則是指系統呼叫。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8859
+#: book.translate.xml:8866
msgid ""
"If the name of the manual page is unknown, use <command>man -k</command> to "
"search for keywords in the manual page descriptions:"
@@ -13414,13 +13414,13 @@ msgstr ""
"操作手冊的描述:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8863
+#: book.translate.xml:8870
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>man -k <replaceable>mail</replaceable></userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8865
+#: book.translate.xml:8872
msgid ""
"This command displays a list of commands that have the keyword <quote>mail</"
"quote> in their descriptions. This is equivalent to using "
@@ -13432,14 +13432,14 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8869
+#: book.translate.xml:8876
msgid ""
"To read the descriptions for all of the commands in <filename>/usr/bin</"
"filename>, type:"
msgstr "想要閱讀所有在 <filename>/usr/bin</filename> 底下的指令說明則可輸入:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8872
+#: book.translate.xml:8879
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/bin</userinput>\n"
@@ -13448,12 +13448,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8875 book.translate.xml:49553
+#: book.translate.xml:8882 book.translate.xml:49174
msgid "or"
msgstr "或"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8877
+#: book.translate.xml:8884
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/bin</userinput>\n"
@@ -13461,12 +13461,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8881
+#: book.translate.xml:8888
msgid "GNU Info Files"
msgstr "GNU Info 檔"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8887
+#: book.translate.xml:8894
msgid ""
"FreeBSD includes several applications and utilities produced by the Free "
"Software Foundation (FSF). In addition to manual pages, these programs may "
@@ -13484,7 +13484,7 @@ msgstr ""
"過 <application>emacs</application> 的 info 模式閱讀。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8895
+#: book.translate.xml:8902
msgid ""
"To use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>info</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>, type:"
@@ -13493,13 +13493,13 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令,只需輸入:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:8897
+#: book.translate.xml:8904
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>info</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8899
+#: book.translate.xml:8906
msgid ""
"For a brief introduction, type <literal>h</literal>. For a quick command "
"reference, type <literal>?</literal>."
@@ -13508,22 +13508,22 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>?</literal> 鍵。"
#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8913
+#: book.translate.xml:8920
msgid "Installing Applications: Packages and Ports"
msgstr "安裝應用程式:套件與 Port"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8918
+#: book.translate.xml:8925
msgid "<primary>ports</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:8919
+#: book.translate.xml:8926
msgid "<primary>packages</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>套件</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8920
+#: book.translate.xml:8927
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is bundled with a rich collection of system tools as part of the "
"base system. In addition, FreeBSD provides two complementary technologies "
@@ -13537,45 +13537,45 @@ msgstr ""
"Binary 套件集。兩種方法都可使用本地的媒體或網路來安裝軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8932
+#: book.translate.xml:8939
msgid "The difference between binary packages and ports."
msgstr "Binary 套件集與 Port 的差別。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8936
+#: book.translate.xml:8943
msgid "How to find third-party software that has been ported to FreeBSD."
msgstr "如何找到已移植到 FreeBSD 的第三方軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8941
+#: book.translate.xml:8948
msgid "How to manage binary packages using <application>pkg</application>."
msgstr "如何使用 <application>pkg</application> 管理 Binary 套件。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8946
+#: book.translate.xml:8953
msgid ""
"How to build third-party software from source using the Ports Collection."
msgstr "如何編譯來自 Port 套件集的第三方軟體原始碼。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8951
+#: book.translate.xml:8958
msgid ""
"How to find the files installed with the application for post-installation "
"configuration."
msgstr "如何找到應用程式已安裝的檔案來完成安裝後的設定。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8956
+#: book.translate.xml:8963
msgid "What to do if a software installation fails."
msgstr "若軟體安裝失敗要如何處理。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:8962
+#: book.translate.xml:8969
msgid "Overview of Software Installation"
msgstr "安裝軟體的概要"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8964
+#: book.translate.xml:8971
msgid ""
"The typical steps for installing third-party software on a <trademark class="
"\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> system include:"
@@ -13584,14 +13584,14 @@ msgstr ""
"體時,有幾個步驟要作:"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8969
+#: book.translate.xml:8976
msgid ""
"Find and download the software, which might be distributed in source code "
"format or as a binary."
msgstr "找到並且下載軟體,該軟體有可能以原始碼或 Binary 格式發佈。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8974
+#: book.translate.xml:8981
msgid ""
"Unpack the software from its distribution format. This is typically a "
"tarball compressed with a program such as "
@@ -13611,7 +13611,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8980
+#: book.translate.xml:8987
msgid ""
"Locate the documentation in <filename>INSTALL</filename>, <filename>README</"
"filename> or some file in a <filename>doc/</filename> subdirectory and read "
@@ -13621,7 +13621,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>doc/</filename> 子目錄底下的檔案閱讀如何安裝該軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8987
+#: book.translate.xml:8994
msgid ""
"If the software was distributed in source format, compile it. This may "
"involve editing a <filename>Makefile</filename> or running a "
@@ -13631,12 +13631,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>Makefile</filename> 或執行 <command>configure</command> Script。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8994
+#: book.translate.xml:9001
msgid "Test and install the software."
msgstr "測試並安裝該軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:8998
+#: book.translate.xml:9005
msgid ""
"A FreeBSD <emphasis>port</emphasis> is a collection of files designed to "
"automate the process of compiling an application from source code. The files "
@@ -13648,7 +13648,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用程式的必要資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9005
+#: book.translate.xml:9012
msgid ""
"If the software has not already been adapted and tested on FreeBSD, the "
"source code might need editing in order for it to install and run properly."
@@ -13656,7 +13656,7 @@ msgstr ""
"若軟體尚未被 FreeBSD 採用並測試,可能會需要經過一些修正才能正常安裝並執行。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9009
+#: book.translate.xml:9016
msgid ""
"However, over <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/ports/index.html"
"\">24,000</link> third-party applications have already been ported to "
@@ -13668,13 +13668,13 @@ msgstr ""
"也會做成預先編譯好的 <emphasis>套件 (Package)</emphasis> 供下載。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9015
+#: book.translate.xml:9022
msgid ""
"Packages can be manipulated with the FreeBSD package management commands."
msgstr "這些 Binary 套件可使用 FreeBSD 套件管理指令來管理。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9019
+#: book.translate.xml:9026
msgid ""
"Both packages and ports understand dependencies. If a package or port is "
"used to install an application and a dependent library is not already "
@@ -13684,7 +13684,7 @@ msgstr ""
"式,且該應用程式若有相依的程式庫尚未被安裝,則會自動先安裝該程式庫。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9024
+#: book.translate.xml:9031
msgid ""
"A FreeBSD package contains pre-compiled copies of all the commands for an "
"application, as well as any configuration files and documentation. A package "
@@ -13698,7 +13698,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>pkg install</command>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9030
+#: book.translate.xml:9037
msgid ""
"While the two technologies are similar, packages and ports each have their "
"own strengths. Select the technology that meets your requirements for "
@@ -13708,19 +13708,19 @@ msgstr ""
"程式需求來選擇。"
#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:9036
+#: book.translate.xml:9043
msgid "Package Benefits"
msgstr "Binary 套件優點"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9039
+#: book.translate.xml:9046
msgid ""
"A compressed package tarball is typically smaller than the compressed "
"tarball containing the source code for the application."
msgstr "應用程式壓縮 Binary 套件的 tarball 會比壓縮原始碼的 tarball 還要小。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9045
+#: book.translate.xml:9052
msgid ""
"Packages do not require compilation time. For large applications, such as "
"<application>Mozilla</application>, <application>KDE</application>, or "
@@ -13731,19 +13731,19 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>GNOME</application> 這點顯的相當重要。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9053
+#: book.translate.xml:9060
msgid ""
"Packages do not require any understanding of the process involved in "
"compiling software on FreeBSD."
msgstr "Binary 套件不需要了解在 FreeBSD 上編譯軟體的流程。"
#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:9059
+#: book.translate.xml:9066
msgid "Port Benefits"
msgstr "Port 套件優點"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9062
+#: book.translate.xml:9069
msgid ""
"Packages are normally compiled with conservative options because they have "
"to run on the maximum number of systems. By compiling from the port, one can "
@@ -13753,7 +13753,7 @@ msgstr ""
"譯,由 Port 來編輯可更改編譯選項。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9069
+#: book.translate.xml:9076
msgid ""
"Some applications have compile-time options relating to which features are "
"installed. For example, <application>Apache</application> can be configured "
@@ -13763,7 +13763,7 @@ msgstr ""
"application> 便有大量不同的內建選項可以設定。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9074
+#: book.translate.xml:9081
msgid ""
"In some cases, multiple packages will exist for the same application to "
"specify certain settings. For example, <application>Ghostscript</"
@@ -13780,7 +13780,7 @@ msgstr ""
"這個方式來區別 Binary 套件。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9086
+#: book.translate.xml:9093
msgid ""
"The licensing conditions of some software forbid binary distribution. Such "
"software must be distributed as source code which must be compiled by the "
@@ -13790,19 +13790,19 @@ msgstr ""
"使用者編譯。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9092
+#: book.translate.xml:9099
msgid ""
"Some people do not trust binary distributions or prefer to read through "
"source code in order to look for potential problems."
msgstr "部份人並不相信 Binary 發佈版本,寧願閱讀原始碼來查看是否潛藏的問題。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9098
+#: book.translate.xml:9105
msgid "Source code is needed in order to apply custom patches."
msgstr "原始碼可套用自訂的修補。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9103
+#: book.translate.xml:9110
msgid ""
"To keep track of updated ports, subscribe to the <link xlink:href=\"http://"
"lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-ports\">FreeBSD ports mailing "
@@ -13815,7 +13815,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\">FreeBSD Port 問題郵遞論壇</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9107
+#: book.translate.xml:9114
msgid ""
"Before installing any application, check <link xlink:href=\"http://vuxml."
"freebsd.org/\"/> for security issues related to the application or type "
@@ -13827,7 +13827,7 @@ msgstr ""
"command> 來檢查所有已安裝的應用程式是否有已知的漏洞。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9113
+#: book.translate.xml:9120
msgid ""
"The remainder of this chapter explains how to use packages and ports to "
"install and manage third-party software on FreeBSD."
@@ -13836,12 +13836,12 @@ msgstr ""
"三方軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:9119
+#: book.translate.xml:9126
msgid "Finding Software"
msgstr "搜尋軟體"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9121
+#: book.translate.xml:9128
msgid ""
"FreeBSD's list of available applications is growing all the time. There are "
"a number of ways to find software to install:"
@@ -13849,7 +13849,7 @@ msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 上可安裝的軟體清單不斷在增加, 有幾種方式可以來找你想安裝的軟體:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9127
+#: book.translate.xml:9134
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD web site maintains an up-to-date searchable list of all the "
"available applications, at <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/ports/index."
@@ -13861,12 +13861,12 @@ msgstr ""
"link>。 可以依應用程式名稱或軟體分類來搜尋 Port。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:9134
+#: book.translate.xml:9141
msgid "<primary>FreshPorts</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9136
+#: book.translate.xml:9143
msgid ""
"Dan Langille maintains <link xlink:href=\"http://www.FreshPorts.org/"
"\">FreshPorts.org</link> which provides a comprehensive search utility and "
@@ -13880,12 +13880,12 @@ msgstr ""
"新資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:9145
+#: book.translate.xml:9152
msgid "<primary>SourceForge</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9147
+#: book.translate.xml:9154
msgid ""
"If finding a particular application becomes challenging, try searching a "
"site like <link xlink:href=\"http://www.sourceforge.net/\">SourceForge.net</"
@@ -13900,18 +13900,18 @@ msgstr ""
"已被移植。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:9155
+#: book.translate.xml:9162
msgid "<primary>pkg</primary> <secondary>search</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#pkg-search
-#: book.translate.xml:9160
+#: book.translate.xml:9167
msgid "To search the binary package repository for an application:"
msgstr "要搜尋 Binary 套件檔案庫中的應用程式可:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9163
+#: book.translate.xml:9170
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg search <replaceable>subversion</replaceable></userinput>\n"
@@ -13929,28 +13929,28 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9176
+#: book.translate.xml:9183
msgid ""
-"Package names include the version number and in case of ports based on "
+"Package names include the version number and, in the case of ports based on "
"python, the version number of the version of python the package was built "
-"with. Some ports also have multiple versions available. In case of "
-"<application>subversion</application> there are different versions "
+"with. Some ports also have multiple versions available. In the case of "
+"<application>Subversion</application>, there are different versions "
"available, as well as different compile options. In this case, the "
-"statically linked version of <application>subversion</application>. When "
+"statically linked version of <application>Subversion</application>. When "
"indicating which package to install, it is best to specify the application "
"by the port origin, which is the path in the ports tree. Repeat the "
"<command>pkg search</command> with <option>-o</option> to list the origin of "
"each package:"
msgstr ""
"套件名稱包含版本編號,且若 Port 使用 Python 為基礎,也會包含用來編譯該套件的 "
-"Python 版本。有些 Port 會有多個版本可使用,如 <application>subversion</"
+"Python 版本。有些 Port 會有多個版本可使用,如 <application>Subversion</"
"application> ,因編譯選項不同,有多個版本可用,這個例子中即指靜態連結版本的 "
-"<application>subversion</application>。在指定要安裝的套件時,最好使用 Port 來"
+"<application>Subversion</application>。在指定要安裝的套件時,最好使用 Port 來"
"源來指定該應用程式,Port 來源是指應用程式在 Port 樹中的路徑。再輸入一次 "
"<command>pkg search</command> 並加上 <option>-o</option> 來列出每個套件來源:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9190
+#: book.translate.xml:9197
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg search -o <replaceable>subversion</replaceable></userinput>\n"
@@ -13968,7 +13968,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9203
+#: book.translate.xml:9210
msgid ""
"Searching by shell globs, regular expressions, exact match, by description, "
"or any other field in the repository database is also supported by "
@@ -13984,7 +13984,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 以取得更多詳細資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9212
+#: book.translate.xml:9219
msgid ""
"If the Ports Collection is already installed, there are several methods to "
"query the local version of the ports tree. To find out which category a port "
@@ -13996,7 +13996,7 @@ msgstr ""
"其中 <replaceable>file</replaceable> 是要安裝的程式:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9219
+#: book.translate.xml:9226
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>whereis lsof</userinput>\n"
@@ -14004,7 +14004,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9222
+#: book.translate.xml:9229
msgid ""
"Alternately, an <citerefentry><refentrytitle>echo</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> statement can be used:"
@@ -14013,7 +14013,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9225
+#: book.translate.xml:9232
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>echo /usr/ports/*/*lsof*</userinput>\n"
@@ -14021,7 +14021,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9228
+#: book.translate.xml:9235
msgid ""
"Note that this will also return any matched files downloaded into the "
"<filename>/usr/ports/distfiles</filename> directory."
@@ -14030,7 +14030,7 @@ msgstr ""
"何已符合條件的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9234
+#: book.translate.xml:9241
msgid ""
"Another way to find software is by using the Ports Collection's built-in "
"search mechanism. To use the search feature, <application>cd</application> "
@@ -14044,7 +14044,7 @@ msgstr ""
"name</replaceable> 代表軟體的名稱。舉例搜尋 <command>lsof</command>:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9243
+#: book.translate.xml:9250
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>\n"
@@ -14059,7 +14059,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9254
+#: book.translate.xml:9261
msgid ""
"The built-in search mechanism uses a file of index information. If a message "
"indicates that the <filename>INDEX</filename> is required, run <command>make "
@@ -14073,18 +14073,18 @@ msgstr ""
"行請求的搜尋動作。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9263
+#: book.translate.xml:9270
msgid "The <quote>Path:</quote> line indicates where to find the port."
msgstr "<quote>Path:</quote> 此行代表 Port 的所在位置。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9266
+#: book.translate.xml:9273
msgid ""
"To receive less information, use the <command>quicksearch</command> feature:"
msgstr "若不要接受這麼多資訊,可使用 <command>quicksearch</command> 功能:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9269
+#: book.translate.xml:9276
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports</userinput>\n"
@@ -14095,7 +14095,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9275
+#: book.translate.xml:9282
msgid ""
"For more in-depth searching, use <command>make search "
"key=<replaceable>string</replaceable></command> or <command>make quicksearch "
@@ -14111,17 +14111,17 @@ msgstr ""
"特定主題相關的 Port。"
#. (itstool) path: para/buildtarget
-#: book.translate.xml:9286
+#: book.translate.xml:9293
msgid "search"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/buildtarget
-#: book.translate.xml:9287
+#: book.translate.xml:9294
msgid "quicksearch"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9286
+#: book.translate.xml:9293
msgid ""
"When using <_:buildtarget-1/> or <_:buildtarget-2/>, the search string is "
"case-insensitive. Searching for <quote>LSOF</quote> will yield the same "
@@ -14131,12 +14131,12 @@ msgstr ""
"尋 <quote>LSOF</quote> 會與搜尋 <quote>lsof</quote> 產生相同的結果。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:9296
+#: book.translate.xml:9303
msgid "Using <application>pkg</application> for Binary Package Management"
msgstr "使用 <application>pkg</application> 管理 Binary 套件"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9299
+#: book.translate.xml:9306
msgid ""
"<application>pkg</application> is the next generation replacement for the "
"traditional FreeBSD package management tools, offering many features that "
@@ -14146,7 +14146,7 @@ msgstr ""
"功能讓處理 Binary 套件更快更簡單。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9304
+#: book.translate.xml:9311
msgid ""
"For sites wishing to only use prebuilt binary packages from the FreeBSD "
"mirrors, managing packages with <application>pkg</application> can be "
@@ -14156,7 +14156,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>pkg</application> 管理套件便已足夠。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9308
+#: book.translate.xml:9315
msgid ""
"However, for those sites building from source or using their own "
"repositories, a separate <link linkend=\"ports-upgrading-tools\">port "
@@ -14166,7 +14166,7 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"ports-upgrading-tools\">Port 管理工具</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9313
+#: book.translate.xml:9320
msgid ""
"Since <application>pkg</application> only works with binary packages, it is "
"not a replacement for such tools. Those tools can be used to install "
@@ -14178,12 +14178,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>pkg</application> 僅能安裝 Binary 套件。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:9322
+#: book.translate.xml:9329
msgid "Getting Started with <application>pkg</application>"
msgstr "開始使用 <application>pkg</application>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9325
+#: book.translate.xml:9332
msgid ""
"FreeBSD includes a bootstrap utility which can be used to download and "
"install <application>pkg</application> and its manual pages. This utility is "
@@ -14195,7 +14195,7 @@ msgstr ""
"replaceable> 之後使用。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9332
+#: book.translate.xml:9339
msgid ""
"Not all FreeBSD versions and architectures support this bootstrap process. "
"The current list is at <link xlink:href=\"http://pkg.freebsd.org/\"/>. For "
@@ -14207,30 +14207,30 @@ msgstr ""
"者 Binary 套件來安裝 <application>pkg</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9341
+#: book.translate.xml:9348
msgid "To bootstrap the system, run:"
msgstr "要啟動 (Bootstrap) 系統請執行:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9343
+#: book.translate.xml:9350
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>/usr/sbin/pkg</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9345
+#: book.translate.xml:9352
msgid ""
"You must have a working Internet connection for the bootstrap process to "
-"suceed."
-msgstr "您必須有網際網路連線供啟動程式使用。"
+"succeed."
+msgstr "您必須有可用的網際網路連線供啟動程式使用方可成功。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9348
+#: book.translate.xml:9355
msgid "Otherwise, to install the port, run:"
msgstr "否則,要安裝 Port 套件,則須執行:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9350
+#: book.translate.xml:9357
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/ports-mgmt/pkg</userinput>\n"
@@ -14239,7 +14239,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9354
+#: book.translate.xml:9361
msgid ""
"When upgrading an existing system that originally used the older pkg_* "
"tools, the database must be converted to the new format, so that the new "
@@ -14252,20 +14252,20 @@ msgstr ""
"須執行以下指令將套件資料庫從舊版格式轉換到新版格式:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9362
+#: book.translate.xml:9369
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg2ng</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9364
+#: book.translate.xml:9371
msgid ""
"This step is not required for new installations that do not yet have any "
"third-party software installed."
msgstr "新安裝的版本因尚未安裝任何第三方軟體因此不須做這個步驟。"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9369
+#: book.translate.xml:9376
msgid ""
"This step is not reversible. Once the package database has been converted to "
"the <application>pkg</application> format, the traditional <literal>pkg_*</"
@@ -14275,7 +14275,7 @@ msgstr ""
"式,舊版 <literal>pkg_*</literal> 工具就不該再繼續使用。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9376
+#: book.translate.xml:9383
msgid ""
"The package database conversion may emit errors as the contents are "
"converted to the new version. Generally, these errors can be safely ignored. "
@@ -14288,7 +14288,7 @@ msgstr ""
"單,這些應用程式則必須手動重新安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9384
+#: book.translate.xml:9391
msgid ""
"To ensure that the Ports Collection registers new software with "
"<application>pkg</application> instead of the traditional packages database, "
@@ -14300,13 +14300,13 @@ msgstr ""
"replaceable> 之前需要在 <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> 加入此行:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:9390
+#: book.translate.xml:9397
#, no-wrap
msgid "WITH_PKGNG=\tyes"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9392
+#: book.translate.xml:9399
msgid ""
"By default, <application>pkg</application> uses the binary packages from the "
"FreeBSD package mirrors (the <emphasis>repository</emphasis>). For "
@@ -14318,7 +14318,7 @@ msgstr ""
"案庫的資訊,請參考 <xref linkend=\"ports-poudriere\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9399
+#: book.translate.xml:9406
msgid ""
"Additional <application>pkg</application> configuration options are "
"described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg.conf</"
@@ -14329,7 +14329,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9402
+#: book.translate.xml:9409
msgid ""
"Usage information for <application>pkg</application> is available in the "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -14341,7 +14341,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 操作手冊或不加任何參數執行 <command>pkg</command> 來取得。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9406
+#: book.translate.xml:9413
msgid ""
"Each <application>pkg</application> command argument is documented in a "
"command-specific manual page. To read the manual page for <command>pkg "
@@ -14351,19 +14351,19 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>pkg install</command> 的操作手冊,可執行以下指令:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9411
+#: book.translate.xml:9418
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg help install</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9413
+#: book.translate.xml:9420
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>man pkg-install</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9415
+#: book.translate.xml:9422
msgid ""
"The rest of this section demonstrates common binary package management tasks "
"which can be performed using <application>pkg</application>. Each "
@@ -14375,12 +14375,12 @@ msgstr ""
"操作手冊以取得詳細資訊或更多範例。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:9424
+#: book.translate.xml:9431
msgid "Obtaining Information About Installed Packages"
msgstr "取得有關已安裝套件的資訊"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9426
+#: book.translate.xml:9433
msgid ""
"Information about the packages installed on a system can be viewed by "
"running <command>pkg info</command> which, when run without any switches, "
@@ -14391,14 +14391,14 @@ msgstr ""
"行時未指定任何參數,將會列出所有已安裝或指定的套件版本。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9432
+#: book.translate.xml:9439
msgid ""
"For example, to see which version of <application>pkg</application> is "
"installed, run:"
msgstr "例如,要查看已安裝的 <application>pkg</application> 版本可執行:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9435
+#: book.translate.xml:9442
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg info pkg</userinput>\n"
@@ -14406,12 +14406,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:9440
+#: book.translate.xml:9447
msgid "Installing and Removing Packages"
msgstr "安裝與移除套件"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9442
+#: book.translate.xml:9449
msgid ""
"To install a binary package use the following command, where "
"<replaceable>packagename</replaceable> is the name of the package to install:"
@@ -14420,13 +14420,13 @@ msgstr ""
"replaceable> 為要安裝的套件名稱:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9446
+#: book.translate.xml:9453
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install <replaceable>packagename</replaceable></userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9448
+#: book.translate.xml:9455
msgid ""
"This command uses repository data to determine which version of the software "
"to install and if it has any uninstalled dependencies. For example, to "
@@ -14436,7 +14436,7 @@ msgstr ""
"例如,要安裝 <application>curl</application>:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9453
+#: book.translate.xml:9460
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install curl</userinput>\n"
@@ -14463,14 +14463,14 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9475
+#: book.translate.xml:9482
msgid ""
"The new package and any additional packages that were installed as "
"dependencies can be seen in the installed packages list:"
msgstr "新的套件以及任何做為相依安裝的額外套件可在已安裝的套件清單中看到:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9479
+#: book.translate.xml:9486
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg info</userinput>\n"
@@ -14480,14 +14480,14 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9484
+#: book.translate.xml:9491
msgid ""
"Packages that are no longer needed can be removed with <command>pkg delete</"
"command>. For example:"
msgstr "不再需要的套件可以使用 <command>pkg delete</command> 來移除,例如:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9487
+#: book.translate.xml:9494
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg delete curl</userinput>\n"
@@ -14502,23 +14502,23 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:9499
+#: book.translate.xml:9506
msgid "Upgrading Installed Packages"
msgstr "升級已安裝套件"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9501
+#: book.translate.xml:9508
msgid "Installed packages can be upgraded to their latest versions by running:"
msgstr "執行以下指令,可將已安裝的套件升級到最新版本:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9504
+#: book.translate.xml:9511
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg upgrade</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9506
+#: book.translate.xml:9513
msgid ""
"This command will compare the installed versions with those available in the "
"repository catalogue and upgrade them from the repository."
@@ -14526,12 +14526,12 @@ msgstr ""
"這個指令將會比對已安裝的版本與在檔案庫分類中的版本,並從檔案庫升級這些套件。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:9512
+#: book.translate.xml:9519
msgid "Auditing Installed Packages"
msgstr "稽查已安裝套件"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9514
+#: book.translate.xml:9521
msgid ""
"Software vulnerabilities are regularly discovered in third-party "
"applications. To address this, <application>pkg</application> includes a "
@@ -14544,18 +14544,18 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9521 book.translate.xml:26870
+#: book.translate.xml:9528 book.translate.xml:26877
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg audit -F</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:9525
+#: book.translate.xml:9532
msgid "Automatically Removing Leaf Dependencies"
msgstr "自動移除不使用的相依"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9527
+#: book.translate.xml:9534
msgid ""
"Removing a package may leave behind dependencies which are no longer "
"required. Unneeded packages that were installed as dependencies can be "
@@ -14565,7 +14565,7 @@ msgstr ""
"指令自動偵測並移除:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9532
+#: book.translate.xml:9539
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg autoremove</userinput>\n"
@@ -14579,12 +14579,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:9543
+#: book.translate.xml:9550
msgid "Restoring the Package Database"
msgstr "還原套件資料庫"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9545
+#: book.translate.xml:9552
msgid ""
"Unlike the traditional package management system, <application>pkg</"
"application> includes its own package database backup mechanism. This "
@@ -14594,7 +14594,7 @@ msgstr ""
"機制,此功能預設是開啟的。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9551
+#: book.translate.xml:9558
msgid ""
"To disable the periodic script from backing up the package database, set "
"<literal>daily_backup_pkgdb_enable=\"NO\"</literal> in "
@@ -14606,7 +14606,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>daily_backup_pkgdb_enable=\"NO\"</literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9557
+#: book.translate.xml:9564
msgid ""
"To restore the contents of a previous package database backup, run the "
"following command replacing <replaceable>/path/to/pkg.sql</replaceable> with "
@@ -14616,20 +14616,20 @@ msgstr ""
"sql</replaceable> 替換為備份的位置:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:9562
+#: book.translate.xml:9569
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg backup -r <replaceable>/path/to/pkg.sql</replaceable></userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9565
+#: book.translate.xml:9572
msgid ""
"If restoring a backup taken by the periodic script, it must be decompressed "
"prior to being restored."
msgstr "若要還原有週期 Script 所產生的備份必須在還原前先解壓縮。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:9569
+#: book.translate.xml:9576
msgid ""
"To run a manual backup of the <application>pkg</application> database, run "
"the following command, replacing <replaceable>/path/to/pkg.sql</replaceable> "
@@ -14639,18 +14639,18 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>/path/to/pkg.sql</replaceable> 為適當的檔案名稱與位置:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen