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authorRuey-Cherng Yu <rcyu@FreeBSD.org>2018-12-20 06:29:19 +0000
committerRuey-Cherng Yu <rcyu@FreeBSD.org>2018-12-20 06:29:19 +0000
commite886a027cfc8be4ec5b67dacf7fab2372a6119cc (patch)
tree1fab56c83b547bb5817fb8f8f45484465b9decae /zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook
parentc187b39df1f9780da6d0611f8a76abf1962a9b6b (diff)
downloaddoc-e886a027cfc8be4ec5b67dacf7fab2372a6119cc.tar.gz
doc-e886a027cfc8be4ec5b67dacf7fab2372a6119cc.zip
- fix typo.
Reported by: lwhsu
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=52701
Diffstat (limited to 'zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook')
-rw-r--r--zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml3672
-rw-r--r--zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po26090
2 files changed, 13661 insertions, 16101 deletions
diff --git a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml
index 69ee9389f8..70a94c5b1b 100644
--- a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml
+++ b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/book.xml
@@ -16,7 +16,8 @@
$FreeBSD$
--><!ENTITY chap.preface SYSTEM "preface/preface.xml">
<!ENTITY % pgpkeys SYSTEM "../../../share/pgpkeys/pgpkeys.ent">
-<!-- $FreeBSD$ --><!-- PGP keyblocks --><!ENTITY pgpkey.aaron SYSTEM "aaron.key">
+<!-- $FreeBSD$ --><!-- PGP keyblocks --><!ENTITY pgpkey.0mp SYSTEM "0mp.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.aaron SYSTEM "aaron.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ache SYSTEM "ache.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.achim SYSTEM "achim.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.acm SYSTEM "acm.key">
@@ -44,7 +45,9 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.anray SYSTEM "anray.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.antoine SYSTEM "antoine.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.araujo SYSTEM "araujo.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.arichardson SYSTEM "arichardson.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ariff SYSTEM "ariff.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.arrowd SYSTEM "arrowd.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.art SYSTEM "art.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.arun SYSTEM "arun.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.arundel SYSTEM "arundel.key">
@@ -97,6 +100,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.bsd SYSTEM "bsd.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.bushman SYSTEM "bushman.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.bvs SYSTEM "bvs.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.bwidawsk SYSTEM "bwidawsk.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.bz SYSTEM "bz.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.carl SYSTEM "carl.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.cel SYSTEM "cel.key">
@@ -165,9 +169,11 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ed SYSTEM "ed.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.edavis SYSTEM "edavis.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.edwin SYSTEM "edwin.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.egypcio SYSTEM "egypcio.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ehaupt SYSTEM "ehaupt.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.emaste SYSTEM "emaste.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.emax SYSTEM "emax.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.ericbsd SYSTEM "ericbsd.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.erj SYSTEM "erj.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.erwin SYSTEM "erwin.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.eugen SYSTEM "eugen.key">
@@ -175,6 +181,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.fanf SYSTEM "fanf.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.farrokhi SYSTEM "farrokhi.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.feld SYSTEM "feld.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.fernape SYSTEM "fernape.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.fjoe SYSTEM "fjoe.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.flo SYSTEM "flo.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.fluffy SYSTEM "fluffy.key">
@@ -230,6 +237,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jch SYSTEM "jch.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jchandra SYSTEM "jchandra.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jdp SYSTEM "jdp.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.jeb SYSTEM "jeb.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jedgar SYSTEM "jedgar.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jesper SYSTEM "jesper.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jgh SYSTEM "jgh.key">
@@ -238,6 +246,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jhay SYSTEM "jhay.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jhb SYSTEM "jhb.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jhibbits SYSTEM "jhibbits.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.jhixson SYSTEM "jhixson.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jilles SYSTEM "jilles.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jim SYSTEM "jim.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jinmei SYSTEM "jinmei.key">
@@ -263,8 +272,10 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jpaetzel SYSTEM "jpaetzel.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jrm SYSTEM "jrm.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jsa SYSTEM "jsa.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.jsm SYSTEM "jsm.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jtl SYSTEM "jtl.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.junovitch SYSTEM "junovitch.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.jwb SYSTEM "jwb.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.jylefort SYSTEM "jylefort.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.kadesai SYSTEM "kadesai.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.kaiw SYSTEM "kaiw.key">
@@ -272,6 +283,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.kan SYSTEM "kan.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.karels SYSTEM "karels.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.kato SYSTEM "kato.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.kbowling SYSTEM "kbowling.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ken SYSTEM "ken.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.kensmith SYSTEM "kensmith.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.keramida SYSTEM "keramida.key">
@@ -294,6 +306,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.lbr SYSTEM "lbr.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.le SYSTEM "le.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.leeym SYSTEM "leeym.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.leitao SYSTEM "leitao.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ler SYSTEM "ler.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.leres SYSTEM "leres.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.lesi SYSTEM "lesi.key">
@@ -311,6 +324,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.lth SYSTEM "lth.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.lulf SYSTEM "lulf.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.luoqi SYSTEM "luoqi.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.luporl SYSTEM "luporl.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.lwhsu SYSTEM "lwhsu.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.lx SYSTEM "lx.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.madpilot SYSTEM "madpilot.key">
@@ -343,7 +357,9 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mckusick SYSTEM "mckusick.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mdf SYSTEM "mdf.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.melifaro SYSTEM "melifaro.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.meta SYSTEM "meta.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.metal SYSTEM "metal.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.mfechner SYSTEM "mfechner.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mheinen SYSTEM "mheinen.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mi SYSTEM "mi.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.mich SYSTEM "mich.key">
@@ -426,6 +442,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.qingli SYSTEM "qingli.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rafan SYSTEM "rafan.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rakuco SYSTEM "rakuco.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.ram SYSTEM "ram.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ray SYSTEM "ray.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rcyu SYSTEM "rcyu.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rdivacky SYSTEM "rdivacky.key">
@@ -437,6 +454,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rgrimes SYSTEM "rgrimes.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rich SYSTEM "rich.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.riggs SYSTEM "riggs.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.rigoletto SYSTEM "rigoletto.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rik SYSTEM "rik.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rink SYSTEM "rink.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rlibby SYSTEM "rlibby.key">
@@ -452,6 +470,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.romain SYSTEM "romain.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.royger SYSTEM "royger.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rpaulo SYSTEM "rpaulo.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.rpokala SYSTEM "rpokala.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rrs SYSTEM "rrs.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.rstone SYSTEM "rstone.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ru SYSTEM "ru.key">
@@ -471,6 +490,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.seanc SYSTEM "seanc.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.secteam-secretary SYSTEM "secteam-secretary.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.security-officer SYSTEM "security-officer.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.sef SYSTEM "sef.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.sem SYSTEM "sem.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.sephe SYSTEM "sephe.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.sepotvin SYSTEM "sepotvin.key">
@@ -484,6 +504,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.sjg SYSTEM "sjg.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.skra SYSTEM "skra.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.skreuzer SYSTEM "skreuzer.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.slavash SYSTEM "slavash.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.slm SYSTEM "slm.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.snb SYSTEM "snb.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.sobomax SYSTEM "sobomax.key">
@@ -506,6 +527,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.tdb SYSTEM "tdb.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.theraven SYSTEM "theraven.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.thierry SYSTEM "thierry.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.thj SYSTEM "thj.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.thomas SYSTEM "thomas.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.thompsa SYSTEM "thompsa.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.tijl SYSTEM "tijl.key">
@@ -514,6 +536,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.tmclaugh SYSTEM "tmclaugh.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.tmm SYSTEM "tmm.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.tmseck SYSTEM "tmseck.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.tmunro SYSTEM "tmunro.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.tobez SYSTEM "tobez.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.tobik SYSTEM "tobik.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.tota SYSTEM "tota.key">
@@ -538,6 +561,7 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.vg SYSTEM "vg.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.viny SYSTEM "viny.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.vkashyap SYSTEM "vkashyap.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.vmaffione SYSTEM "vmaffione.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.vs SYSTEM "vs.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.vsevolod SYSTEM "vsevolod.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.wblock SYSTEM "wblock.key">
@@ -560,6 +584,8 @@
<!ENTITY pgpkey.ygy SYSTEM "ygy.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.yoichi SYSTEM "yoichi.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.yongari SYSTEM "yongari.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.yuri SYSTEM "yuri.key">
+<!ENTITY pgpkey.yuripv SYSTEM "yuripv.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.yzlin SYSTEM "yzlin.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.zack SYSTEM "zack.key">
<!ENTITY pgpkey.zbb SYSTEM "zbb.key">
@@ -595,6 +621,7 @@
<!ENTITY chap.l10n SYSTEM "l10n/chapter.xml">
<!ENTITY chap.cutting-edge SYSTEM "cutting-edge/chapter.xml">
<!ENTITY chap.dtrace SYSTEM "dtrace/chapter.xml">
+<!ENTITY chap.usb-device-mode SYSTEM "usb-device-mode/chapter.xml">
<!-- Part Four --><!ENTITY chap.serialcomms SYSTEM "serialcomms/chapter.xml">
<!ENTITY chap.ppp-and-slip SYSTEM "ppp-and-slip/chapter.xml">
<!ENTITY chap.mail SYSTEM "mail/chapter.xml">
@@ -670,6 +697,7 @@
<year>2015</year>
<year>2016</year>
<year>2017</year>
+ <year>2018</year>
<holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>
</copyright>
@@ -747,7 +775,13 @@
</legalnotice>
<abstract>
- <para>歡迎使用 FreeBSD! 本使用手冊涵蓋範圍包括了 <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE</emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.0-RELEASE</emphasis> 與 <emphasis>FreeBSD 10.4-RELEASE</emphasis> 的安裝與平日操作的說明。 這份使用手冊是很多人的集體創作,而且仍然『持續不斷』的進行中,因此部份章節可能尚未仍未完成,如果您有興趣協助本計畫的話,請寄電子郵件至 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD 文件專案郵遞論壇</link>。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Welcome to FreeBSD! This handbook covers the installation
+ and day to day use of
+ <emphasis>FreeBSD 12.0-RELEASE</emphasis> and
+ <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.2-RELEASE</emphasis>. This book is
+ the result of ongoing work by many individuals. Some sections
+ might be outdated. Those interested in helping to update and
+ expand this document should send email to the <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link>.</para>
<para>在 <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/">FreeBSD 網站</link> 可以找到本文件的最新版本,舊版文件可從 <uri xlink:href="https://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/">https://docs.FreeBSD.org/doc/</uri> 取得。本文件也提供各種格式與不同壓縮方式的版本可自 <link xlink:href="https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/">FreeBSD FTP 伺服器</link> 或是其中一個 <link linkend="mirrors-ftp">鏡像網站</link> 下載。 列印出來的實體書面資料可在 <link xlink:href="http://www.freebsdmall.com/">FreeBSD 商城</link> 購買。 此外,您可在 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/search/index.html">搜尋頁面</link> 中搜尋本文件或其他文件的資料。</para>
</abstract>
@@ -1369,111 +1403,123 @@
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>4.4BSD-Lite</primary></indexterm>
- <para>FreeBSD 是一個從 4.4BSD-Lite 衍生出而能在以 Intel (x86 與 <trademark class="registered">Itanium</trademark>), AMD64, <trademark class="registered">ARM</trademark>, Sun <trademark class="registered">UltraSPARC</trademark> 為基礎的電腦上執行的作業系統。同時,移植到其他平台的工作也在進行中。 對於本計劃歷史的介紹,請看 <link linkend="history">FreeBSD 歷史</link>, 對於 FreeBSD 的最新版本介紹,請看 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases">最新的發行版</link>。 若打算對於 FreeBSD 計劃有所貢獻的話 (程式碼、硬體、經費), 請看 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/articles/contributing/index.html">如何對 FreeBSD 貢獻</link>。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD is an Open Source, standards-compliant Unix-like
+ operating system for x86 (both 32 and 64 bit), <trademark class="registered">ARM</trademark>, AArch64,
+ <trademark class="registered">RISC-V</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">MIPS</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">POWER</trademark>, <trademark class="registered">PowerPC</trademark>, and Sun <trademark class="registered">UltraSPARC</trademark>
+ computers. It provides all the features that are
+ nowadays taken for granted, such as preemptive multitasking,
+ memory protection, virtual memory, multi-user facilities, SMP
+ support, all the Open Source development tools for different
+ languages and frameworks, and desktop features centered around
+ X Window System, KDE, or GNOME. Its particular strengths
+ are:</para>
- <sect2 xml:id="os-overview">
- <title>FreeBSD 能做什麼?</title>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 提供給你許多先進功能。這些功能包括:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>動態優先權調整的 <emphasis>先佔式多工</emphasis> <indexterm>
- <primary>preemptive multitasking</primary>
- </indexterm> 能夠確保,即使在系統負擔很重的情況下,程式執行平順並且應用程式與使用者公平地共享資源。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><emphasis>多人共用</emphasis><indexterm>
- <primary>multi-user facilities</primary>
- </indexterm> 代表著許多人可以同時使用一個 FreeBSD 系統來處理各自的事務。 系統的硬體周邊 (如印表機及磁帶機) 也可以讓所有的使用者適當地分享。 也可以針對各別使用者或一群使用者的系統資源,予以設限,以保護系統不致被過度使用。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>強大的 <emphasis>TCP/IP 網路</emphasis><indexterm>
- <primary>TCP/IP networking</primary>
- </indexterm> 功能可支援許多業界標準,如:SCTP、DHCP、NFS、NIS、PPP、SLIP、IPSec、IPv6 的支援,也就是說 FreeBSD 可以容易地跟其他作業系統透過網路共同運作,或是當作企業的伺服器用途 ,例如提供遠端檔案共享 (NFS) 及電子郵件等服務, 或是讓您的企業連上網際網路並提供 WWW、FTP、路由及防火牆 (安全性) 等必備服務。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Liberal Open Source license</emphasis>,
+ which grants you rights to freely modify and extend
+ its source code and incorporate it in both Open Source
+ projects and closed products without imposing
+ restrictions typical to copyleft licenses, as well
+ as avoiding potential license incompatibility
+ problems.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para><emphasis>記憶體保護</emphasis> 能確保程式 (或使用者) 不會互相干擾,即使任何程式有不正常的運作,都不會影響其他程式的執行。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Strong TCP/IP networking</emphasis>
+ <indexterm xml:lang="en"> <primary>TCP/IP
+ networking</primary></indexterm> - FreeBSD
+ implements industry standard protocols with ever
+ increasing performance and scalability. This makes
+ it a good match in both server, and routing/firewalling
+ roles - and indeed many companies and vendors use it
+ precisely for that purpose.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>業界標準的 <emphasis>X Window 系統</emphasis><indexterm>
- <primary>X Window System</primary>
- </indexterm> (X11R7) 可以在常見的便宜 VGA 顯示卡/螢幕, 提供了圖形化的使用者介面 (GUI),並且包括了完整的原始程式碼。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Fully integrated OpenZFS support</emphasis>,
+ including root-on-ZFS, ZFS Boot Environments, fault
+ management, administrative delegation, support for jails,
+ FreeBSD specific documentation, and system installer
+ support.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para><indexterm>
- <primary>binary compatibility</primary>
- <secondary>Linux</secondary>
- </indexterm> <indexterm>
- <primary>binary compatibility</primary>
- <secondary>SCO</secondary>
- </indexterm> <indexterm>
- <primary>binary compatibility</primary>
- <secondary>SVR4</secondary>
- </indexterm> <indexterm>
- <primary>binary compatibility</primary>
- <secondary>BSD/OS</secondary>
- </indexterm> <indexterm>
- <primary>binary compatibility</primary>
- <secondary>NetBSD</secondary>
- </indexterm> <emphasis>Binary 相容性</emphasis> 可執行許多其他作業系統 (如: Linux、SCO、SVR4、BSDI 和 NetBSD) 的可執行檔。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Extensive security features</emphasis>,
+ from the Mandatory Access Control framework to Capsicum
+ capability and sandbox mechanisms.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>數以萬計的 <emphasis>立即可以執行</emphasis> 的應用程式,這些都可透過 FreeBSD 的 <emphasis>Port</emphasis> 及 <emphasis>套件</emphasis> 管理機制來取得。 不再需要費心到網路上到處搜尋所需要的軟體。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Over 30 thousand prebuilt
+ packages</emphasis> for all supported architectures,
+ and the Ports Collection which makes it easy to build your
+ own, customized ones.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>在網路上有數以千計 <emphasis>易於移植</emphasis> 的應用程式。FreeBSD 的原始程式碼與許多常見的商業版 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 系統都相容, 所以大部分的程式都只需要很少的修改 (或根本不用修改) ,就可以編譯執行。</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>依需要換頁的 <emphasis>虛擬記憶體</emphasis><indexterm>
- <primary>virtual memory</primary>
- </indexterm> 及 <quote>合併式 VM/buffer 快取</quote> 設計,有效的滿足了需使用大量記憶體的程式,同時也能維持與其他使用者的互動。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Documentation</emphasis> - in addition
+ to Handbook and books from different authors that cover
+ topics ranging from system administration to kernel
+ internals, there are also the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>man</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> pages, not only
+ for userspace daemons, utilities, and configuration files,
+ but also for kernel driver APIs (section 9) and individual
+ drivers (section 4).</para>
+ </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>支援 CPU 的<emphasis>對稱多工處理 (SMP)</emphasis><indexterm>
- <primary>Symmetric Multi-Processing
- (SMP)</primary>
- </indexterm>:可以支援多 CPU 的電腦系統。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Simple and consistent repository structure
+ and build system</emphasis> - FreeBSD uses a single
+ repository for all of its components, both kernel and
+ userspace. This, along with an unified and easy to
+ customize build system and a well thought out development
+ process makes it easy to integrate FreeBSD with build
+ infrastructure for your own product.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para><indexterm>
- <primary>compilers</primary>
- <secondary>C</secondary>
- </indexterm><indexterm>
- <primary>compilers</primary>
- <secondary>C++</secondary>
- </indexterm>完全相容的 <emphasis>C</emphasis>、<emphasis>C++</emphasis> 以及 Fortran 的環境和其他開發工具。 以及其他許多可供進階研發的程式語言也收集在 Port 和套件集。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Staying true to Unix philosophy</emphasis>,
+ preferring composability instead of monolithic <quote>all
+ in one</quote> daemons with hardcoded behavior.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>整個系統都有 <emphasis>原始程式碼</emphasis><indexterm>
- <primary>source code</primary>
- </indexterm>, 這讓你對作業環境擁有最完全的掌握度。 既然能擁有完全開放的系統,何苦被特定封閉軟體所約束,任廠商擺佈呢?</para>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><indexterm xml:lang="en"> <primary>binary compatibility</primary>
+ <secondary>Linux</secondary></indexterm>
+ <emphasis>Binary compatibility</emphasis> with Linux,
+ which makes it possible to run many Linux binaries without
+ the need for virtualisation.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>廣泛且豐富的 <emphasis>線上文件</emphasis>。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD is based on the 4.4BSD-Lite<indexterm xml:lang="en">
+ <primary>4.4BSD-Lite</primary>
+ </indexterm> release from Computer
+ Systems Research Group (CSRG)<indexterm xml:lang="en">
+ <primary>Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG)</primary>
+ </indexterm> at the University of California at Berkeley, and
+ carries on the distinguished tradition of BSD systems
+ development. In addition to the fine work provided by CSRG,
+ the FreeBSD Project has put in many thousands of man-hours
+ into extending the functionality and fine-tuning the system
+ for maximum performance and reliability
+ in real-life load situations. FreeBSD offers performance and
+ reliability on par with other Open Source and commercial
+ offerings, combined with cutting-edge features not available
+ anywhere else.</para>
- <listitem>
- <para><emphasis>當然囉,還不止如此!</emphasis></para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 系統乃是基於美國加州大學柏克萊分校的電腦系統研究組 (Computer Systems Research Group 也就是 CSRG) 所發行的 4.4BSD-Lite<indexterm>
- <primary>4.4BSD-Lite</primary>
- </indexterm>,以及基於 BSD 系統開發的優良傳統。 除了由 CSRG 所提供的高品質的成果, 為了提供可處理真正具負荷的工作, FreeBSD 計劃也投入了數千小時以上的細部調整, 以能獲得最好的執行效率以及系統的穩定度。 正當許多商業上的巨人正努力地希望能提供效能及穩定時,FreeBSD 已經具備這樣的特質,並具有其他地方沒有的尖端功能。</para>
+ <sect2 xml:id="os-overview">
+ <title>FreeBSD 能做什麼?</title>
- <para>FreeBSD 的運用範圍無限,其實完全限制在你的想像力上。 從軟體的開發到工廠自動化,或是人造衛星上面的天線的方位角度的遠端控制; 這些功能若可以用商用的 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 產品來達成, 那麼極有可能使用 FreeBSD 也能辦到! FreeBSD 也受益於來自於全球各研究中心及大學所開發的數千個高品質的軟體 ,這些通常只需要花費很少的費用或根本就是免費的。 當然也有商業軟體,而且出現的數目是與日俱增。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The applications to which FreeBSD can be put are truly
+ limited only by your own imagination. From software
+ development to factory automation, inventory control to
+ azimuth correction of remote satellite antennae; if it can be
+ done with a commercial <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> product then it is more than
+ likely that you can do it with FreeBSD too! FreeBSD also benefits
+ significantly from literally thousands of high quality
+ applications developed by research centers and universities
+ around the world, often available at little to no cost.</para>
<para>由於每個人都可以取得 FreeBSD 的原始程式碼, 這個系統可以被量身訂做成能執行任何原本完全無法想像的功能或計劃, 而對於從各廠商取得的作業系統通常沒有辦法這樣地被修改。 以下提供一些人們使用 FreeBSD 的例子:</para>
@@ -1483,9 +1529,7 @@
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>全球資訊網伺服器<indexterm>
- <primary>web servers</primary>
- </indexterm> (標準的或更安全的 [SSL])</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Web servers</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -1507,12 +1551,15 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para><indexterm>
+ <para xml:lang="en">
+ <indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary>electronic mail</primary>
<see>email</see>
- </indexterm><indexterm>
+ </indexterm>
+ <indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary>email</primary>
- </indexterm> 電子郵件伺服器</para>
+ </indexterm>
+ Email servers</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -1568,6 +1615,19 @@
<indexterm><primary>使用者</primary> <secondary>執行 FreeBSD 的大型站台</secondary></indexterm>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD has been known for its web serving capabilities -
+ sites that run on FreeBSD include
+ <link xlink:href="https://news.ycombinator.com/">Hacker News</link>,
+ <link xlink:href="http://www.netcraft.com/">Netcraft</link>,
+ <link xlink:href="http://www.163.com/">NetEase</link>,
+ <link xlink:href="https://signup.netflix.com/openconnect">Netflix</link>,
+ <link xlink:href="http://www.sina.com/">Sina</link>,
+ <link xlink:href="http://www.sony.co.jp/">Sony Japan</link>,
+ <link xlink:href="http://www.rambler.ru/">Rambler</link>,
+ <link xlink:href="http://www.yahoo.com/">Yahoo!</link>, and
+ <link xlink:href="http://www.yandex.ru/">Yandex</link>.
+ </para>
+
<para>FreeBSD 先進的功能、成熟的安全性、可預測的發佈週期以及自由的授權條款,讓 FreeBSD 已經被用來做為建立許多商業、開源應用、裝置以及產品的平台,有許多世界上最大的資訊公司使用 FreeBSD:</para>
<itemizedlist>
@@ -1597,22 +1657,20 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.dell.com/KACE">Dell KACE</link> <indexterm>
- <primary>Dell KACE</primary>
- </indexterm> - KACE 系統管理設備中運作了 FreeBSD,因為 FreeBSD 的可靠性、可擴展性以及支持其持續發展的社群。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.experts-exchange.com/">Experts Exchange</link> <indexterm>
- <primary>Experts Exchange</primary>
- </indexterm> - 所有面對大眾的 Web 伺服器皆由 FreeBSD 驅動,且他們大量使用 Jail 來隔離開發與測試環境,減少了虛擬化的額外開銷。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="https://www.emc.com/isilon">Dell EMC Isilon</link>
+ <indexterm xml:lang="en">
+ <primary>Isilon</primary>
+ </indexterm> - Isilon's enterprise storage appliances
+ are based on FreeBSD. The extremely liberal FreeBSD license
+ allowed Isilon to integrate their intellectual property
+ throughout the kernel and focus on building their product
+ instead of an operating system.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para><link xlink:href="http://www.isilon.com/">Isilon</link> <indexterm>
- <primary>Isilon</primary>
- </indexterm> - Isilon 的企業存儲設備以 FreeBSD 為基礎。非常自由的 FreeBSD 授權條款讓 Isilon 整合了它們的智慧財產到整個核心,並專注打造自己的產品,而不是一個作業系統。</para>
-
+ <para><link xlink:href="http://www.dell.com/KACE">Dell KACE</link> <indexterm>
+ <primary>Dell KACE</primary>
+ </indexterm> - KACE 系統管理設備中運作了 FreeBSD,因為 FreeBSD 的可靠性、可擴展性以及支持其持續發展的社群。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -1769,92 +1827,9 @@
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
- <para>FreeBSD 也同時被用來驅動一些網際網路上的大型網站,包括:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.yahoo.com/">Yahoo!</link>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Yahoo!</primary>
- </indexterm></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.yandex.ru/">Yandex</link>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Yandex</primary>
- </indexterm></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.rambler.ru/">Rambler</link>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Rambler</primary>
- </indexterm></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.sina.com/">Sina</link>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Sina</primary>
- </indexterm></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.pair.com/">Pair
- Networks</link>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Pair Networks</primary>
- </indexterm></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.sony.co.jp/">Sony
- Japan</link>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Sony Japan</primary>
- </indexterm></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.netcraft.com/">Netcraft</link>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Netcraft</primary>
- </indexterm></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="https://signup.netflix.com/openconnect">Netflix</link>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Netflix</primary>
- </indexterm></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.163.com/">NetEase</link>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>NetEase</primary>
- </indexterm></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.weathernews.com/">Weathernews</link>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Weathernews</primary>
- </indexterm></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.telehouse.com/">TELEHOUSE
- America</link>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>TELEHOUSE America</primary>
- </indexterm></para>
- </listitem>
-
- </itemizedlist>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Wikipedia also maintains a <link xlink:href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_products_based_on_FreeBSD">list
+ of products based on FreeBSD</link>.</para>
- <para>還有許多的應用。維基百科也維護了一份 <link xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_products_based_on_FreeBSD">以 FreeBSD 為基礎的產品</link>。</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -1989,9 +1964,20 @@
<term>FreeBSD 核心團隊<anchor xml:id="development-core"/></term>
<listitem>
- <para>如果把 FreeBSD 看成是一家公司的話, <firstterm>FreeBSD 核心團隊 (FreeBSD core team)</firstterm><indexterm>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <firstterm>FreeBSD core team</firstterm>
+ <indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary>core team</primary>
- </indexterm> 就相當於董事會。 核心團隊的主要職責在於確保此計劃有良好的架構,以朝著正確的方向發展。 此外,邀請熱血且負責的軟體開發者加入提交者的行列, 以在若干成員離去時得以補充新血。 目前的核心團隊是在 2014 年 7 月從提交者候選人之中選出來的,這個選舉每兩年會舉辦一次。</para>
+ </indexterm> would be equivalent to the board of
+ directors if the FreeBSD Project were a company. The
+ primary task of the core team is to make sure the
+ project, as a whole, is in good shape and is heading in
+ the right directions. Inviting dedicated and
+ responsible developers to join our group of committers
+ is one of the functions of the core team, as is the
+ recruitment of new core team members as others move on.
+ The current core team was elected from a pool of
+ committer candidates in July 2018. Elections are held
+ every 2 years.</para>
<note>
<para>如同多數的開發者,核心團隊大部分成員加入 FreeBSD 開發都是志工性質而已, 並未從本計劃中獲得任何薪酬,所以這只是一個 <quote>承諾</quote> 不應該被誤解為 <quote>保證支援</quote> 才對。 前面用 <quote>董事會</quote> 來舉例可能不是很恰當,或許我們應該說: 他們是一群自願放棄原本的優渥生活、個人其他領域成就, 而選擇投入 FreeBSD 開發的熱血有為者才對!</para>
@@ -2028,7 +2014,15 @@
<sect2>
<title>其他文件</title>
- <para>所有最近的 FreeBSD 版本在安裝程式 (不是 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 就是 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsdinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>) 都有提供一個選項在初始系統安裝時可安裝額外的說明文件到 <filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd</filename>。說明文件也可在往後使用套件安裝,詳細說明於 <xref linkend="doc-ports-install-package"/>。您可以使用任何支援 HTML 的瀏覽器進入下列 URL 檢視已安裝在本機的操作手冊:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">All supported FreeBSD versions provide an option in the
+ installer to
+ install additional documentation under
+ <filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd</filename> during the
+ initial system setup. Documentation may also be installed at
+ any later time using packages as described in
+ <xref linkend="doc-ports-install-package"/>. You may view the
+ locally installed manuals with any HTML capable browser using
+ the following URLs:</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
@@ -2125,7 +2119,53 @@
<indexterm><primary>安裝</primary></indexterm>
- <para>自從 FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE 開始,FreeBSD 提供一個易用,文字介面的安裝程式 <application>bsdinstall</application>。 本章描述如何用 <application>bsdinstall</application> 來安裝 FreeBSD。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">There are several different ways of getting FreeBSD to run,
+ depending on the environment. Those are:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Virtual Machine images, to download and import on a
+ virtual environment of choice. These can be downloaded from
+ the <link xlink:href="https://www.freebsd.org/where.html">Download
+ FreeBSD</link> page. There are images for KVM
+ (<quote>qcow2</quote>), VMWare (<quote>vmdk</quote>),
+ Hyper-V (<quote>vhd</quote>), and raw device images that are
+ universally supported. These are not installation images,
+ but rather the preconfigured (<quote>already
+ installed</quote>) instances, ready to run and perform
+ post-installation tasks.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Virtual Machine images available at Amazon's <link xlink:href="https://aws.amazon.com/mp/solutions/freebsd/">AWS
+ Marketplace</link>, <link xlink:href="https://azuremarketplace.microsoft.com/en-us/marketplace/apps?search=freebsd&amp;page=1">Microsoft
+ Azure Marketplace</link>, and <link xlink:href="https://console.cloud.google.com/launcher/details/freebsd-cloud/freebsd-11">Google
+ Cloud Platform</link>, to run on their respective hosting
+ services. For more information on deploying FreeBSD on Azure
+ please consult the relevant chapter in the <link xlink:href="https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/azure/virtual-machines/linux/freebsd-intro-on-azure">Azure
+ Documentation</link>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">SD card images, for embedded systems such as Raspberry
+ Pi or BeagleBone Black. These can be downloaded from the
+ <link xlink:href="https://www.freebsd.org/where.html">Download
+ FreeBSD</link> page. These files must be uncompressed and
+ written as a raw image to an SD card, from which the board
+ will then boot.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Installation images, to install FreeBSD on
+ a hard drive for the usual desktop, laptop, or server
+ systems.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The rest of this chapter describes the fourth case,
+ explaining how to install FreeBSD using the text-based
+ installation program named
+ <application>bsdinstall</application>.</para>
<para>一般來說,本章所寫的安裝說明是針對 <trademark>i386</trademark> 和 <acronym>AMD64</acronym> 架構。如果可以用於其他平台,將會列表說明。 安裝程式和本章所敘述的內容可能會有些微差異,所以請將本章視為通用的指引,而不是完全照著來做。</para>
@@ -2209,15 +2249,6 @@
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">pc98</term>
- <listitem>
- <para>NEC PC-9801/9821 系列幾乎所有 i386 相容處理器包括 80486、<trademark class="registered">Pentium</trademark>、 <trademark class="registered">Pentium</trademark> Pro 和 <trademark class="registered">Pentium</trademark> II 都有支援。 所有 AMD, Cyrix, IBM, 及 IDT 的i386 相容處理器都有支援。 相容 NEC PC-9801 的 EPSON PC-386/486/586 系列都有支援。 NEC FC-9801/9821 及 NEC SV-98 系列也有支援。</para>
-
- <para>不支援高解析度模式。NEC PC-98XA/XL/RL/XL^2 和 NEC PC-H98 系列只支援正常 (PC-9801 相容) 模式。 FreeBSD 對稱多處理器 <acronym>SMP</acronym> 相關功能並不支援。 PC-H98, SV-H98 和FC-H98 新延伸標準架構 (<acronym>NESA</acronym>) 匯流排不支援。</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
<term xml:lang="en">powerpc</term>
<listitem>
<para>所有內建 <acronym>USB</acronym> 的 New World <acronym>ROM</acronym> <trademark class="registered">Apple</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Mac</trademark> 系統都有支援。 <acronym>SMP</acronym> 在多 <acronym>CPU</acronym> 的機器都有支援。</para>
@@ -2306,7 +2337,15 @@
<step>
<title>檢查 FreeBSD 勘誤表</title>
- <para>儘管 FreeBSD 計劃努力確保每個 FreeBSD 發行版能夠儘可能地穩定,但錯誤偶爾還是會悄悄出現,並有極小的可能會發生影響安裝流程的錯誤,當這些問題被發現並修正後,會被紀錄在 FreeBSD 網站的 FreeBSD 勘誤表 (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/11.1R/errata.html">https://www.freebsd.org/releases/11.1R/errata.html</link>)。 安裝前先檢查勘誤表,以確保沒有會影響到安裝的問題。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Although the FreeBSD Project strives to ensure that
+ each release of FreeBSD is as stable as possible, bugs
+ occasionally creep into the process. On very rare occasions
+ those bugs affect the installation process. As these
+ problems are discovered and fixed, they are noted in the
+ FreeBSD Errata (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/12.0R/errata.html">https://www.freebsd.org/releases/12.0R/errata.html</link>)
+ on the FreeBSD web site. Check the errata before installing to
+ make sure that there are no problems that might affect the
+ installation.</para>
<para>所有發行版的資訊和勘誤表可以在 FreeBSD 網站的發行資訊找到 (<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/index.html">https://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>)。</para>
</step>
@@ -2341,7 +2380,7 @@
<listitem>
<para><literal>-memstick.img</literal>:這個檔案含有所有安裝 FreeBSD 所需的檔案,包含原始碼及 Port 套件集。這個檔案應依據以下操作指示寫入到 <acronym>USB</acronym> 隨身碟使用。</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para><literal>-mini-memstick.img</literal>:類似 <literal>-bootonly.iso</literal>,但不含安裝檔 (可依所要下載),安裝時需要網際網路連線,可依 <xref linkend="bsdinstall-usb"/> 的說明將此檔案寫入至 <acronym>USB</acronym> 隨身碟。</para>
</listitem>
@@ -4895,11 +4934,6 @@ root 5211 0.0 0.2 3620 1724 2 I+ 2:09AM 0:00.01 passwd</screen>
</row>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/namedb/</filename></entry>
- <entry><citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 設定檔。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/periodic/</filename></entry>
<entry>每日、每週、每月透過 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cron</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>,執行的定期排程 Script,詳情請參閱 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>periodic</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</entry>
</row>
@@ -6108,7 +6142,10 @@ Swap: 2048M Total, 2048M Free
<para>要持續追蹤 Port 的更新可以訂閱 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-ports">FreeBSD Port 郵遞論壇</link> 與 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-ports-bugs">FreeBSD Port 問題郵遞論壇</link>。</para>
<warning>
- <para>在安裝任何應用程式之前,請先查看 <link xlink:href="http://vuxml.freebsd.org/"/> 是否有與該應用程式相關的安全性問題或輸入 <command>pkg audit -F</command> 來檢查所有已安裝的應用程式是否有已知的漏洞。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Before installing any application, check <link xlink:href="https://vuxml.freebsd.org/"/>
+ for security issues related to the application or type
+ <command>pkg audit -F</command> to check all installed
+ applications for known vulnerabilities.</para>
</warning>
<para>本章接下來的部份將說明如何在 FreeBSD 使用 Binary 套件及 Port 套件安裝與管理第三方軟體。</para>
@@ -6240,7 +6277,12 @@ Info: Lists information about open files (similar to fstat(1))</screen>
<para>FreeBSD 內建啟動 (Bootstrap) 工具可用來下載並安裝 <application>pkg</application> 及其操作手冊。這個工具是設計在 FreeBSD 版本 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 之後使用。</para>
<note>
- <para>不是所有 FreeBSD 版本及架構支援此啟動程序,目前支援的清單列於 <link xlink:href="http://pkg.freebsd.org/"/>,對不支援的版本,必須改透過 Port 套件集或者 Binary 套件來安裝 <application>pkg</application>。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Not all FreeBSD versions and architectures
+ support this bootstrap process. The current list is at
+ <link xlink:href="https://pkg.freebsd.org/"/>.
+ For other cases,
+ <application>pkg</application> must instead be installed
+ from the Ports Collection or as a binary package.</para>
</note>
@@ -6550,7 +6592,18 @@ Deinstalling ca_root_nss-3.15.1_1... done</screen>
<para>下面我們會介紹如何使用 Port 套件集來安裝、移除軟體的基本用法。 <command>make</command> 可用的目標及環境變數詳細說明可參閱 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ports</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
<warning>
- <para>在編譯任何 Port 套件前,請先確認已經如前章節所敘述之方法更新 Port 套件集。安裝任何第三方軟體皆可能會導致安全性漏洞,建議在安裝前先閱讀 <link xlink:href="http://vuxml.freebsd.org/"/> 了解 Port 已知的安全性問題。或者在每次安裝新 Port 前執行 <command>pkg audit -F</command>。此指令可以設定在每日系統安全性檢查時自動完成安全性稽查以及更新漏洞資料庫。要取得更多資訊,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg-audit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 及 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>periodic</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Before compiling any port, be sure to update the Ports
+ Collection as described in the previous section. Since
+ the installation of any third-party software can introduce
+ security vulnerabilities, it is recommended to first check
+ <link xlink:href="https://vuxml.freebsd.org/"/>
+ for known security issues related to the port. Alternately,
+ run <command>pkg audit -F</command> before installing a new
+ port. This command can be configured to automatically
+ perform a security audit and an update of the vulnerability
+ database during the daily security system check. For more
+ information, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg-audit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>periodic</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
</warning>
<para>使用 Port 套件集會假設您擁有可正常連線的網路,同時也會需要超級使用者的權限。</para>
@@ -6692,7 +6745,7 @@ The deinstallation will free 229 kB
</important>
<sect3 xml:id="ports-upgrading-tools">
- <title>升級與管理 Port 的工具</title>
+ <title xml:lang="en">Tools to Upgrade and Manage Ports</title>
<indexterm><primary>ports</primary> <secondary>upgrading-tools</secondary></indexterm>
@@ -7266,7 +7319,40 @@ ports-mgmt/pkg
<sect2 xml:id="x-config-video-cards">
<title>顯示卡</title>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Because of changes made in recent versions of FreeBSD, it
+ is now possible to use graphics drivers provided by the Ports
+ framework or as packages. As such, users can use one of the
+ following drivers available from
+ <package>graphics/drm-kmod</package>.</para>
+
<variablelist>
+ <varlistentry xml:id="x-config-video-cards-ports">
+ <term xml:lang="en">Intel KMS driver</term>
+ <term xml:lang="en">Radeon KMS driver</term>
+ <term xml:lang="en">AMD KMS driver</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">2D and 3D acceleration is supported on most
+ Intel KMS driver graphics cards provided by Intel.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Driver name: <literal>i915kms</literal></para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">2D and 3D acceleration is supported on most older
+ Radeon KMS driver graphics cards provided by AMD.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Driver name: <literal>radeonkms</literal></para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">2D and 3D acceleration is supported on most newer
+ AMD KMS driver graphics cards provided by AMD.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Driver name: <literal>amdgpu</literal></para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For reference, please see <link xlink:href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Intel_graphics_processing_units"/>
+ or <link xlink:href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_AMD_graphics_processing_units"/>
+ for a list of supported GPUs.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
<varlistentry xml:id="x-config-video-cards-intel">
<term xml:lang="en"><trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark></term>
@@ -7836,7 +7922,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<firstname>Seth</firstname>
<surname>Kingsley</surname>
</personname>
- <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
+ <contrib>Originally contributed by </contrib>
</author>
</authorgroup>
</info>
@@ -7855,7 +7941,14 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<para>更改關 (<literal>off</literal>) 為開 (<literal>on</literal>) 然後儲存編輯。在此項目中的 <literal>ttyv8</literal> 代表 <application>XDM</application> 會在第 9 個虛擬終端機執行。</para>
- <para><application>XDM</application> 的設定目錄位於 <filename>/usr/local/lib/X11/xdm</filename>。此目錄中包含數個可用來更改 <application>XDM</application> 行為與外觀的檔案以及在 <application>XDM</application> 執行時用來設定桌面的一些 Script 及程式,<xref linkend="xdm-config-files"/> 摘要了每個檔案的功能。這些檔案正確的語法與用法在 <citerefentry vendor="xfree86"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 有說明。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <application>XDM</application> configuration directory
+ is located in <filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xdm</filename>.
+ This directory contains several files used to change the
+ behavior and appearance of <application>XDM</application>, as
+ well as a few scripts and programs used to set up the desktop
+ when <application>XDM</application> is running. <xref linkend="xdm-config-files"/> summarizes the function of each
+ of these files. The exact syntax and usage of these files is
+ described in <citerefentry vendor="xfree86"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
<table frame="none" pgwide="1" xml:id="xdm-config-files">
<title>XDM 設定檔</title>
@@ -7886,7 +7979,10 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><filename>Xsession</filename></entry>
- <entry>預設的登入階段 Script,使用者登入之後由 <application>XDM</application> 執行。一般每一位使用者都會有自訂的階段 Script 在 <filename>~/.xsession</filename> 來覆蓋此 Script 的設定。</entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">Default session script for logins which is run by
+ <application>XDM</application> after a user has logged
+ in. This points to a customized session
+ script in <filename>~/.xsession</filename>.</entry>
</row>
<row>
@@ -7918,13 +8014,20 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<para>預設只有同系統的使用者可以使用 <application>XDM</application> 登入。要開啟讓其他系統的使用者可連線到顯示伺服器,需編輯存取控制規則及開啟連線傾聽程式。</para>
- <para>要設定 <application>XDM</application> 傾聽作何遠端的連線,在 <filename>/usr/local/lib/X11/xdm/xdm-config</filename> 中的 <literal>DisplayManager.requestPort</literal> 行前加上 <literal>!</literal> 來註解該行:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To configure <application>XDM</application> to listen for
+ any remote connection, comment out the
+ <literal>DisplayManager.requestPort</literal> line in
+ <filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xdm/xdm-config</filename> by
+ putting a <literal>!</literal> in front of it:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en">! SECURITY: do not listen for XDMCP or Chooser requests
! Comment out this line if you want to manage X terminals with xdm
DisplayManager.requestPort: 0</screen>
- <para>儲存編輯並重新啟動 <application>XDM</application>,要限制遠端存取,請看 <filename>/usr/local/lib/X11/xdm/Xaccess</filename> 中的範例項目,並參考 <citerefentry vendor="xfree86"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 取得進一步資訊。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Save the edits and restart <application>XDM</application>.
+ To restrict remote access, look at the example entries in
+ <filename>/usr/local/etc/X11/xdm/Xaccess</filename> and refer
+ to <citerefentry vendor="xfree86"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> for further information.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -7986,9 +8089,7 @@ hald_enable="YES"</programlisting>
<para>第三種方法是使用 <application>XDM</application> 做為顯示管理程式,在這個方法需要建立一個可執行的 <filename>~/.xsession</filename>:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "#!/bin/sh" &gt; ~/.xsession</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "exec /usr/local/bin/gnome-session" &gt;&gt; ~/.xsession</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod +x ~/.xsession</userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "exec /usr/local/bin/gnome-session" &gt; ~/.xsession</userinput></screen>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="x11-wm-kde">
@@ -8031,9 +8132,7 @@ hald_enable="YES"</programlisting>
<para>第三種啟動 <application>KDE</application> 的方式是透過 <application>XDM</application>,要使用這個方法需要建立一個可執行的 <filename>~/.xsession</filename> 如下:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "#!/bin/sh" &gt; ~/.xsession</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "exec /usr/local/bin/startkde" &gt;&gt; ~/.xsession</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod +x ~/.xsession</userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "exec /usr/local/bin/startkde" &gt; ~/.xsession</userinput></screen>
<para>啟動 <application>KDE</application> 之後,請參考內建的說明系統來取得更多有關如何使用各種選單及應用程式的資訊。</para>
</sect2>
@@ -8052,15 +8151,28 @@ hald_enable="YES"</programlisting>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/x11-wm/xfce4</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
- <para>不像 <application>GNOME</application> 或 <application>KDE</application>,<application>Xfce</application> 並沒有自己的登入管理程式,要由指令列啟動 <application>Xfce</application> 需輸入 <command>startx</command>,在這之前需先加入其項目到 <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename>:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><application>Xfce</application> uses
+ <application>D-Bus</application> for a message bus. This
+ application is automatically installed as dependency of
+ <application>Xfce</application>. Enable it in
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> so it will be started when
+ the system boots:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">dbus_enable="YES"</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Unlike <application>GNOME</application> or
+ <application>KDE</application>,
+ <application>Xfce</application> does not provide its own login
+ manager. In order to start <application>Xfce</application>
+ from the command line by typing <command>startx</command>,
+ first create <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> with this
+ command:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "exec /usr/local/bin/startxfce4 --with-ck-launch" &gt; ~/.xinitrc</userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo ". /usr/local/etc/xdg/xfce4/xinitrc" &gt; ~/.xinitrc</userinput></screen>
<para>另一種方式是使用 <application>XDM</application>,要設定這個方式需建立一個可執行的 <filename>~/.xsession</filename>:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "#!/bin/sh" &gt; ~/.xsession</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo "exec /usr/local/bin/startxfce4 --with-ck-launch" &gt;&gt; ~/.xsession</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod +x ~/.xsession</userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>echo ". /usr/local/etc/xdg/xfce4/xinitrc" &gt; ~/.xsession</userinput></screen>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -8548,7 +8660,12 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<primary><application>Firefox</application></primary>
</indexterm>
- <para><application>Firefox</application> 是一套已完整植到 FreeBSD 的開放源始碼瀏覽器,它具備符合 HTML 標準的顯示引擎、頁籤瀏覽、彈出視窗封鎖、擴充套件、強化安全性及其他更多功能。<application>Firefox</application> 的基礎使用了 <application>Mozilla</application> 的程式庫。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><application>Firefox</application> is an open source
+ browser that features a
+ standards-compliant HTML display engine, tabbed browsing,
+ popup blocking, extensions, improved security, and more.
+ <application>Firefox</application> is based on the
+ <application>Mozilla</application> codebase.</para>
<para>要安裝最新釋出版本的 <application>Firefox</application> 套件可輸入:</para>
@@ -8564,81 +8681,6 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/firefox</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="moz-java-plugin">
- <title>Firefox 與 <trademark>Java</trademark> 附加元件</title>
-
- <para><application>Firefox</application> 的安裝並不包含 <trademark>Java</trademark> 支援,雖然如此 <package>java/icedtea-web</package> 提供了免費的網頁瀏覽器附加元件來執行 Java applet,此附加元件可以用 Binary 套件安裝:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install icedtea-web</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>或由 Port 套件集編譯:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/java/icedtea-web</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>編譯 Port 時使用預設設定選項。</para>
-
- <para>安裝完成後,啟動 <application>firefox</application>,在網址列輸入 <literal>about:plugins</literal> 並按 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 鍵,便會出現一個列出已安裝附加元件的頁面,清單中應該要有 <application><trademark>Java</trademark></application> 附加元件。</para>
-
- <para>若瀏覽器無法找到附加元件,每位使用者則須執行以下指令並重新執行瀏覽器:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ln -s /usr/local/lib/IcedTeaPlugin.so \
- $HOME/.mozilla/plugins/</userinput></screen>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="moz-flash-plugin">
-
- <title>Firefox 與 <trademark class="registered">Adobe</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Flash</trademark> 附加元件</title>
-
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>Flash</primary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 並沒有原生的 <trademark class="registered">Adobe</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Flash</trademark> 附加原件。雖然如此,仍可以使用軟體包裝程式來執行 <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> 版本 的附加元件。該包裝程式也提供其他瀏覽器附加元件的支援,如 <trademark class="registered">RealPlayer</trademark>。</para>
-
- <para>要安裝並開啟此附加元件,可執行以下步驟:</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>自 Port 安裝 <package role="port">www/nspluginwrapper</package> ,受到授權條款的限制,該套件無 Binary 版本。此 Port 需安裝 <package>emulators/linux_base-c6</package>。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>自 Port 安裝 <package role="port">www/linux-flashplayer</package> ,受到授權條款的限制,該套件無 Binary 版本。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>第一次使用附加元件前,每位使用者需要先執行:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>nspluginwrapper -v -a -i</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>當附加元件 Port 完成更新並且重新安裝後,每位使用者需要執行:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>nspluginwrapper -v -a -u</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>開啟瀏覽器並在網址列輸入 <literal>about:plugins</literal> 並按 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 鍵,目前可用的附加元件清單中應會顯示該附加元件。</para>
- </step>
-
- </procedure>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="moz-swfdec-flash-plugin">
- <title>Firefox 與 Swfdec <trademark class="registered">Flash</trademark> 附加元件</title>
-
- <para><application>Swfdec</application> 是 <trademark class="registered">Flash</trademark> 動畫的解碼程式及繪製程式。<application>Swfdec-Mozilla</application> 是供 <application>Firefox</application> 瀏覽器使用的附加元件,可使用 Swfdec 程式庫來播放 SWF 檔案。</para>
-
- <para>要安裝套件可:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install swfdec-plugin</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>若無套件可用,可自 Port 套件集編譯並安裝該附加元件:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/swfdec-plugin</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>重新啟動瀏覽器來啟動此附加元件。</para>
- </sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2>
@@ -8661,16 +8703,22 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<para>要安裝 <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> 則替換 <literal>opera</literal> 為 <literal>linux-opera</literal>。</para>
- <para>要安裝 <trademark class="registered">Adobe</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Flash</trademark> 附加元件,需先編譯 <package role="port">www/linux-c6-flashplugin11</package> Port,因受到授權條款限制無法事先做為 Binary 套件。然後安裝 <package role="port">www/opera-linuxplugins</package>。以下範例示範編譯 Port 中的這兩個應用程式。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To install <trademark class="registered">Adobe</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Flash</trademark> plugin support, first compile
+ the <package role="port">www/linux-flashplayer</package>
+ port. Licensing restrictions prevent making a package
+ available. Then install <package role="port">www/opera-linuxplugins</package>. This example
+ compiles both applications from ports:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/linux-c6-flashplugin11</userinput>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/linux-flashplayer</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/ports/www/opera-linuxplugins</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
<para>安裝完成後,開啟瀏覽器檢查附加元件是否存在,在網址列輸入 <literal>opera:plugins</literal> 並按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 鍵,便會有清單顯示目前可用的附加元件。</para>
- <para>若要安裝 <application><trademark>Java</trademark></application> 附加元件請依照 <xref linkend="moz-java-plugin"/> 中的指示。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To add the <application><trademark>Java</trademark></application> plugin,
+ follow install
+ <package role="port">java/icedtea-web</package>.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
@@ -8717,33 +8765,19 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<note>
<para><application>Chromium</application> 的執行檔為 <filename>/usr/local/bin/chrome</filename>,並非 <filename>/usr/local/bin/chromium</filename>。</para>
</note>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="chromium-java-plugin">
- <title>Chromium 與 <trademark>Java</trademark> 附加元件</title>
-
- <para><application>Chromium</application> 的安裝並不包含 <trademark>Java</trademark> 的支援。要安裝 <trademark>Java</trademark> 附加元件支援,請依照 <xref linkend="moz-java-plugin"/> 的指示操作。</para>
-
- <para><trademark>Java</trademark> 支援安裝完成後,啟動 <application>Chromium</application> 然後在網址列輸入 <literal>about:plugins</literal>。已安裝的附件元件其中之一應該會有 IcedTea-Web。</para>
-
- <para>若 <application>Chromium</application> 未顯示 IcedTea-Web 為附件元件,請執行以下指令然後重新啟動網頁瀏覽器:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mkdir -p /usr/local/share/chromium/plugins
-<prompt>#</prompt> ln -s /usr/local/lib/IcedTeaPlugin.so \
- /usr/local/share/chromium/plugins/</userinput></screen>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="chromium-flash-plugin">
- <title>Chromium 與 <trademark class="registered">Adobe</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Flash</trademark> 附加元件</title>
-
- <para>設定 <application>Chromium</application> 及 <trademark class="registered">Adobe</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Flash</trademark> 與 <xref linkend="moz-flash-plugin"/> 中的操作相似,無須額外的設定,因 <application>Chromium</application> 能夠使用部份來自其他瀏覽器的附加元件。</para>
- </sect3>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 xml:id="desktop-productivity">
<title>辦工工具</title>
- <para>當開始進行辦公,新的使用者通常會去找好用的辦公室軟體或是好上手的文件處理程式。 雖然有些 <link linkend="x11-wm">桌面環境</link> 像是 <application>KDE</application> 已經提供了辦公軟體組合的套件,FreeBSD 預設未提供任何辦工工具。 不論是否有安裝視窗管理程式,FreeBSD 可安裝多套辦公軟體以及圖型化文件處理程式。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">When it comes to productivity, users often look for an
+ office suite or an easy-to-use word processor. While some
+ <link linkend="x11-wm">desktop environments</link> like
+ <application>KDE</application> provide an office suite, there
+ is no default productivity package. Several office suites and
+ graphical word processors are available for FreeBSD, regardless
+ of the installed window manager.</para>
<para>本章節元範如何安裝以下熱門的辦工軟體以及說明該應用程式所需的資源、自 Port 編譯的時間或者是否有其他主要相依套件。</para>
@@ -9326,7 +9360,12 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>PCI</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>sound cards</primary></indexterm>
- <para>開始設定之前,必須先知道你的音效卡型號、晶片為何。 FreeBSD 支援許多種音效卡,請檢查支援的音效硬體表 <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/11.1R/hardware.html">Hardware Notes</link>,以確認你的音效卡是否支援以及如何在 FreeBSD 上驅動。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Before beginning the configuration, determine the model of
+ the sound card and the chip it uses. FreeBSD supports a wide
+ variety of sound cards. Check the supported audio devices
+ list of the <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/12.0R/hardware.html">Hardware
+ Notes</link> to see if the card is supported and which FreeBSD
+ driver it uses.</para>
<indexterm xml:lang="en">
<primary>kernel</primary>
@@ -9679,14 +9718,15 @@ pcm7: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #3 Digital&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1
<title>MP3 播放器</title>
<para xml:lang="en">A popular graphical <acronym>MP3</acronym> player is
- <application>XMMS</application>. It supports
+ <application>Audacious</application>. It supports
<application>Winamp</application> skins and additional
plugins. The interface is intuitive, with a playlist, graphic
equalizer, and more. Those familiar with
<application>Winamp</application> will find
- <application>XMMS</application> simple to use. On FreeBSD,
- <application>XMMS</application> can be installed from the
- <package>multimedia/xmms</package> port or package.</para>
+ <application>Audacious</application> simple to use. On FreeBSD,
+ <application>Audacious</application> can be installed from the
+ <package>multimedia/audacious</package> port or package.
+ Audacious is a descendant of XMMS.</para>
<para xml:lang="en">The <package>audio/mpg123</package> package or port
provides an alternative, command-line <acronym>MP3</acronym>
@@ -10471,7 +10511,7 @@ bktr0: Pinnacle/Miro TV, Philips SECAM tuner.</programlisting>
Digital Video Broadcasting (<acronym>DVB</acronym>) card
supported by <application>webcamd</application> should work
with MythTV. A list of known working cards can be found at
- <link xlink:href="http://wiki.freebsd.org/WebcamCompat">wiki.freebsd.org/WebcamCompat</link>.
+ <link xlink:href="https://wiki.freebsd.org/WebcamCompat">wiki.freebsd.org/WebcamCompat</link>.
Drivers are also available for Hauppauge cards in the
<package>multimedia/pvr250</package> and
<package>multimedia/pvrxxx</package> ports, but they provide a
@@ -10480,7 +10520,7 @@ bktr0: Pinnacle/Miro TV, Philips SECAM tuner.</programlisting>
no packages are available and these two ports must be
compiled.</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <link xlink:href="http://wiki.freebsd.org/HTPC">wiki.freebsd.org/HTPC</link>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <link xlink:href="https://wiki.freebsd.org/HTPC">wiki.freebsd.org/HTPC</link>
page contains a list of all available <acronym>DVB</acronym>
drivers.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -10507,7 +10547,7 @@ bktr0: Pinnacle/Miro TV, Philips SECAM tuner.</programlisting>
<para xml:lang="en">Finally, start the backend:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>echo 'mythbackend_enable="YES"' &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf</userinput>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc mythbackend_enable=yes</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service mythbackend start</userinput></screen>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -10952,7 +10992,19 @@ ath_hal(4) - Atheros Hardware Access Layer (HAL)</screen>
<para>若 <filename>/usr/src/</filename> 目錄不存在或者是空的,代表尚未安裝。原始碼可以使用 <application>Subversion</application> 並依據 <xref linkend="svn"/> 中的操作說明來安裝。</para>
- <para>完成原始碼完成後,需檢查 <filename>/usr/src/sys</filename> 內的檔案。該目錄內包含數個子目錄,這些子目錄中包了支援的硬體架構 (Architecture) 如下:<filename>amd64</filename>, <filename>i386</filename>, <filename>ia64</filename>, <filename>pc98</filename>, <filename>powerpc</filename> 以及 <filename>sparc64</filename>。在指定架構目錄中的內容只對該架構有效,其餘部份的程式碼與硬體架構無關,可通用所有平台。每個支援的硬體架構中會有 <filename>conf</filename> 子目錄,裡面含有供該架構使用的 <filename>GENERIC</filename> 核心設定檔。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Once source is installed, review the contents of
+ <filename>/usr/src/sys</filename>. This directory contains a
+ number of subdirectories, including those which represent the
+ following supported architectures: <filename>amd64</filename>,
+ <filename>i386</filename>, <filename>ia64</filename>,
+ <filename>powerpc</filename>, and
+ <filename>sparc64</filename>. Everything inside a particular
+ architecture's directory deals with that architecture only and
+ the rest of the code is machine independent code common to all
+ platforms. Each supported architecture has a
+ <filename>conf</filename> subdirectory which contains the
+ <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel configuration file for that
+ architecture.</para>
<para>請不要直接對 <filename>GENERIC</filename> 檔案做編輯。複製該檔案為另一個名稱,並對複製出來的檔案做編輯,習慣上檔名會全部使用大寫字元。當維護多台安裝不同的硬體的 FreeBSD 機器時,將檔名後方加上機器的主機名稱 (Host name) 是個不錯的方法。以下範例使用 <literal>amd64</literal> 架構的 <filename>GENERIC</filename> 設定檔建立了一個複本名稱為 <filename>MYKERNEL</filename>:</para>
@@ -15241,11 +15293,6 @@ Logging to FILE /var/log/messages</screen>
</row>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/namedb</filename></entry>
- <entry><citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 資料的預設位置。<filename>named.conf</filename> 及區域 (Zone) 檔案正常會儲存在此處。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/usr/local/etc</filename></entry>
<entry>已安裝應用程式的設定檔,可能會有以應用程式區分的子目錄。</entry>
</row>
@@ -16733,8 +16780,8 @@ debug.acpi.level="ACPI_LV_ERROR"</programlisting>
<para xml:lang="en">Most FreeBSD developers watch the <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-current">FreeBSD-CURRENT mailing list</link>, but one should
submit problems to <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-acpi">freebsd-acpi</link> to be sure it is seen. Be
patient when waiting for a response. If the bug is not
- immediately apparent, submit a <acronym>PR</acronym> using
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>send-pr</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. When entering a <acronym>PR</acronym>,
+ immediately apparent, submit a bug report.
+ When entering a <acronym>PR</acronym>,
include the same information as requested above. This helps
developers to track the problem and resolve it. Do not send a
<acronym>PR</acronym> without emailing <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-acpi">freebsd-acpi</link> first as
@@ -16750,7 +16797,7 @@ debug.acpi.level="ACPI_LV_ERROR"</programlisting>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">The FreeBSD <acronym>ACPI</acronym> Mailing List Archives
- (<uri xlink:href="http://lists.freebsd.org/pipermail/freebsd-acpi/">http://lists.freebsd.org/pipermail/freebsd-acpi/</uri>)</para>
+ (<uri xlink:href="https://lists.freebsd.org/pipermail/freebsd-acpi/">https://lists.freebsd.org/pipermail/freebsd-acpi/</uri>)</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -17500,7 +17547,7 @@ password with characters from at least 3 of these 4 classes, or
a 10 character long password containing characters from all the
classes. Characters that form a common pattern are discarded by
the check.
-Alternatively, if noone else can see your terminal now, you can
+Alternatively, if no one else can see your terminal now, you can
pick this as your password: "trait-useful&amp;knob".
Enter new password:</screen>
@@ -19967,7 +20014,7 @@ machine with Subversion installed:
Or visit the following URL, replacing NNNNNN with the revision number:
-&lt;URL:http://svnweb.freebsd.org/base?view=revision&amp;revision=NNNNNN&gt;
+&lt;URL:https://svnweb.freebsd.org/base?view=revision&amp;revision=NNNNNN&gt;
VII. References
@@ -20169,7 +20216,7 @@ UWWemqWuz3lAZuORQ9KX
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>touch /var/account/acct</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 600 /var/account/acct</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>accton /var/account/acct</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>echo 'accounting_enable="YES"' &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf</userinput></screen>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc accounting_enable=yes</userinput></screen>
<para xml:lang="en">Once enabled, accounting will begin to track information
such as <acronym>CPU</acronym> statistics and executed
@@ -20236,8 +20283,7 @@ UWWemqWuz3lAZuORQ9KX
consuming, depending upon the number of users to
configure.</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Beginning with FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE,
- <command>rctl</command> can be used to provide a more
+ <para xml:lang="en"><command>rctl</command> can be used to provide a more
fine-grained method for controlling resource limits. This
command supports more than user limits as it can also be used to
set resource constraints on processes and jails.</para>
@@ -20480,11 +20526,9 @@ UWWemqWuz3lAZuORQ9KX
<sect2>
<title>開啟並設定資源限制</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">As of FreeBSD 10.2, <command>rctl</command> support is
- built into the kernel. Previous supported releases will
- need to be recompiled using the instructions in <xref linkend="kernelconfig"/>. Add these lines to either
- <filename>GENERIC</filename> or a custom kernel configuration
- file, then rebuild the kernel:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <varname>kern.racct.enable</varname> tunable must be
+ set to a non-zero value. Custom kernels require specific
+ configuration:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">options RACCT
options RCTL</programlisting>
@@ -20779,7 +20823,7 @@ jail:httpd:memoryuse:deny=2G/jail</programlisting>
<para>安裝全部不含核心:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>for <replaceable>sets</replaceable> in BASE PORTS; do tar -xf /mnt/FREEBSD_INSTALL/USR/FREEBSD_DIST/$<replaceable>sets</replaceable>.TXZ -C $DESTDIR ; done</userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>for set in base ports; do tar -xf /mnt/usr/freebsd-dist/$set.txz -C $DESTDIR ; done</userinput></screen>
<para>依 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>jail</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 操作手冊說明的程序建置 Jail:</para>
@@ -20819,33 +20863,41 @@ jail:httpd:memoryuse:deny=2G/jail</programlisting>
<procedure>
<step>
- <para>要在開機時啟動的 Jail 應加入到 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 檔案中:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">jail_enable="YES" # Set to NO to disable starting of any jails
-jail_list="<replaceable>www</replaceable>" # Space separated list of names of jails</programlisting>
-
- <note>
- <para>在 <varname>jail_list</varname> 中的 Jail 名稱只允許使用英數字元。</para>
- </note>
- </step>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Configure jail parameters in
+ <filename>jail.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en"><replaceable>www</replaceable> {
+ host.hostname = <replaceable>www.example.org</replaceable>; # Hostname
+ ip4.addr = <replaceable>192.168.0.10</replaceable>; # IP address of the jail
+ path ="<replaceable>/usr/jail/www</replaceable>"; # Path to the jail
+ devfs_ruleset = "<replaceable>www_ruleset</replaceable>"; # devfs ruleset
+ mount.devfs; # Mount devfs inside the jail
+ exec.start = "/bin/sh /etc/rc"; # Start command
+ exec.stop = "/bin/sh /etc/rc.shutdown"; # Stop command
+}</programlisting>
- <step>
- <para>針對每個列在 <varname>jail_list</varname> 中的 Jail 圴需加入一組 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 設定來描述指定的 Jail:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Configure jails to start at boot time in
+ <filename>rc.conf</filename>:</para>
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">jail_<replaceable>www</replaceable>_rootdir="/usr/jail/www" # jail's root directory
-jail_<replaceable>www</replaceable>_hostname="<replaceable>www</replaceable>.example.org" # jail's hostname
-jail_<replaceable>www</replaceable>_ip="192.168.0.10" # jail's IP address
-jail_<replaceable>www</replaceable>_devfs_enable="YES" # mount devfs in the jail</programlisting>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">jail_enable="YES" # Set to NO to disable starting of any jails</programlisting>
- <para><citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>中會假設 Jail 是完整的虛擬系統,預設會啟動 Jail 的 <filename>/etc/rc</filename> Script。針對服務的 Jail 則需設定適當的 <varname>jail_<replaceable>jailname</replaceable>_exec_start</varname> 選項來修改預設啟動的指令。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The default startup of jails configured in
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>jail.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>, will run the <filename>/etc/rc</filename>
+ script of the jail, which assumes the jail is a complete
+ virtual system. For service jails, the default startup
+ command of the jail should be changed, by setting the
+ <varname>exec.start</varname>
+ option appropriately.</para>
<note>
- <para>要取得完整可用選項的清單,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 操作手冊。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For a full list of available options, please see the
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>jail.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page.</para>
</note>
</step>
</procedure>
- <para>若該 Jail 已經在 <filename>rc.conf</filename> 中設定,可以用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來啟動或停止 Jail:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><citerefentry><refentrytitle>service</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> can be used to start or stop a jail by hand,
+ if an entry for it exists in
+ <filename>jail.conf</filename>:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service jail start <replaceable>www</replaceable></userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service jail stop <replaceable>www</replaceable></userinput></screen>
@@ -24796,9 +24848,22 @@ ada0 recovered</screen>
79691810 4194236 3 freebsd-swap (2G)
83886046 18513921 - free - (8.8G)</screen>
- <para>分割區只能重設大小到連續的未使用空間。在這個例子磁碟上最後的分割區為交換 (Swap) 分割區,而第二個分割區才是需要重設大小的分割區。交換分割區中只會有暫存的資料,所以可以安全的卸載、刪除,然後在重設其他分割區大小之後再重建。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Partitions can only be resized into contiguous free space.
+ Here, the last partition on the disk is the swap partition, but
+ the second partition is the one that needs to be resized. Swap
+ partitions only contain temporary data, so it can safely be
+ unmounted, deleted, and then recreate the third partition after
+ resizing the second partition.</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>swapoff <replaceable>/dev/ada0p3</replaceable></userinput>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Disable the swap partition:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>swapoff <replaceable>/dev/ada0p3</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Delete the third partition, specified by the
+ <option>-i</option> flag, from the disk
+ <replaceable>ada0</replaceable>.</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en">
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart delete -i <replaceable>3</replaceable> <replaceable>ada0</replaceable></userinput>
ada0p3 deleted
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart show <replaceable>ada0</replaceable></userinput>
@@ -24813,9 +24878,15 @@ ada0p3 deleted
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl kern.geom.debugflags=16</userinput></screen>
</warning>
- <para>重設分割區大小,保留要用來重建交換分割區的大小。這個動作只會修改分割區大小,分割區中的檔案系統會在另一個步驟擴增。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Resize the partition, leaving room to recreate a swap
+ partition of the desired size. The partition to resize is
+ specified with <option>-i</option>, and the new desired size
+ with <option>-s</option>. Optionally, alignment of the
+ partition is controlled with <option>-a</option>. This only
+ modifies the size of the partition. The file system in the
+ partition will be expanded in a separate step.</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart resize -i <replaceable>2</replaceable> -a 4k -s <replaceable>47G</replaceable> <replaceable>ada0</replaceable></userinput>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart resize -i <replaceable>2</replaceable> -s <replaceable>47G</replaceable> -a 4k <replaceable>ada0</replaceable></userinput>
ada0p2 resized
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart show <replaceable>ada0</replaceable></userinput>
=&gt; 34 102399933 ada0 GPT (48G)
@@ -24823,7 +24894,9 @@ ada0p2 resized
162 98566144 2 freebsd-ufs (47G)
98566306 3833661 - free - (1.8G)</screen>
- <para>重新建立交換分割區:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Recreate the swap partition and activate it. If no size
+ is specified with <option>-s</option>, all remaining space is
+ used:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart add -t freebsd-swap -a 4k <replaceable>ada0</replaceable></userinput>
ada0p3 added
@@ -24836,10 +24909,6 @@ ada0p3 added
<para>擴增 <acronym>UFS</acronym> 檔案系統來使用重設分割區大小之後的新容量:</para>
- <note>
- <para>只能在 FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE 或之後的版本擴增運作中的 <acronym>UFS</acronym> 檔案系統,較先前的版本必須將檔案系統卸載。</para>
- </note>
-
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>growfs <replaceable>/dev/ada0p2</replaceable></userinput>
Device is mounted read-write; resizing will result in temporary write suspension for /.
It's strongly recommended to make a backup before growing the file system.
@@ -24848,6 +24917,12 @@ super-block backups (for fsck -b #) at:
80781312, 82063552, 83345792, 84628032, 85910272, 87192512, 88474752,
89756992, 91039232, 92321472, 93603712, 94885952, 96168192, 97450432</screen>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the file system is <acronym>ZFS</acronym>, the resize is
+ triggered by running the <option>online</option> subcommand with
+ <option>-e</option>:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zpool online -e <replaceable>zroot</replaceable> <replaceable>/dev/ada0p2</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+
<para>現在分割區與檔案系統已透過重設大小來使用新增加的磁碟空間。</para>
</sect1>
@@ -24978,10 +25053,6 @@ da0: &lt;STECH Simple Drive 1.04&gt; s/n WD-WXE508CAN263 detached
<sect2>
<title>自動掛載可移除的媒體</title>
- <note>
- <para>自 FreeBSD 10.2-RELEASE 開始 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>autofs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 支援自動掛載可移除的媒體。</para>
- </note>
-
<para>可以取消註解在 <filename>/etc/auto_master</filename> 中的下行來自動掛載 <acronym>USB</acronym> 裝置:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en">/media -media -nosuid</screen>
@@ -24996,7 +25067,7 @@ da0: &lt;STECH Simple Drive 1.04&gt; s/n WD-WXE508CAN263 detached
<para>若 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>autofs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 以及 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>devd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 已經正在執行,則需重新載入設定:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service automount reload</userinput>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service automount restart</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service devd restart</userinput></screen>
<para>要設定讓 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>autofs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 在開機時啟動可以加入此行到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
@@ -25020,129 +25091,6 @@ da0: &lt;STECH Simple Drive 1.04&gt; s/n WD-WXE508CAN263 detached
<para>這個機制一般會用在記憶卡與 <acronym>USB</acronym> 隨身碟,也可用在任何 Block 裝置,包含光碟機或 <acronym>iSCSI</acronym> <acronym>LUN</acronym>。</para>
</sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title><acronym>USB</acronym> 大容量儲存目標</title>
-
- <note>
- <para><citerefentry><refentrytitle>cfumass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 驅動程式是一個在 FreeBSD 12.0 之後才可用的 <acronym>USB</acronym> 裝置模式驅動程式。</para>
- </note>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">When running on <acronym>USB</acronym>
- <acronym>OTG</acronym>-compliant hardware like that built into
- many embedded boards, the FreeBSD <acronym>USB</acronym> stack
- can run in <emphasis>device mode</emphasis>. Device mode
- makes it possible for the computer to present itself as
- different kinds of <acronym>USB</acronym> device classes,
- including serial ports, network adapters, and mass storage. A
- <acronym>USB</acronym> host like a laptop or desktop computer
- is able to access them just like physical
- <acronym>USB</acronym> devices.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>usb_template</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> kernel module allows the
- <acronym>USB</acronym> stack to switch between host-side and
- device-side automatically, depending on what is connected to
- the <acronym>USB</acronym> port. Connecting a
- <acronym>USB</acronym> device like a memory stick to the
- <acronym>USB</acronym> <acronym>OTG</acronym> port causes FreeBSD
- to switch to host mode. Connecting a <acronym>USB</acronym>
- host like a computer causes FreeBSD to switch to device
- mode.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">What FreeBSD presents to the <acronym>USB</acronym> host
- depends on the <varname>hw.usb.template</varname> sysctl. See
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>usb_template</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for the list of available values. Note
- that for the host to notice the configuration change, it must
- be either physically disconnected and reconnected, or forced
- to rescan the <acronym>USB</acronym> bus in a system-specific
- way. When FreeBSD is running on the host, <citerefentry vendor="current"><refentrytitle>usbconfig</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
- <command>reset</command> can be used. This also must be done
- after loading <filename>usb_template.ko</filename> if the
- <acronym>USB</acronym> host was already connected to the
- <acronym>USB</acronym> <acronym>OTG</acronym> socket.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The <varname>hw.usb.template</varname> sysctl
- is set to 0 by default, making FreeBSD work as a
- <acronym>USB</acronym> Mass Storage target. Both
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>usb_template</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cfumass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> kernel modules must
- be loaded. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cfumass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> interfaces to the CTL subsystem,
- the same one that is used for <acronym>iSCSI</acronym> or
- Fibre Channel targets. On the host side,
- <acronym>USB</acronym> Mass Storage initiators can only access
- a single <acronym>LUN</acronym>,
- <acronym>LUN</acronym> 0.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>USB</acronym> Mass Storage does not require the
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> daemon to be running, although it can be used if
- desired. This is different from <acronym>iSCSI</acronym>.
- Thus, there are two ways to configure the target:
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctladm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Both require the
- <filename>cfumass.ko</filename> kernel module to be loaded.
- The module can be loaded manually:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload cfumass</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">If <filename>cfumass.ko</filename> has not been built into
- the kernel, <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> can be set
- to load the module at boot:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">cfumass_load="YES"</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">A <acronym>LUN</acronym> can be created without the
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> daemon:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ctladm create -b block -o file=/data/target0</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This presents the contents of the image file
- <filename>/data/target0</filename> as a <acronym>LUN</acronym>
- to the <acronym>USB</acronym> host. The file must exist
- before executing the command. To configure the
- <acronym>LUN</acronym> at system startup, add the command to
- <filename>/etc/rc.local</filename>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> can also be used to manage
- <acronym>LUN</acronym>s. Create
- <filename>/etc/ctl.conf</filename>, add a line to
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> to make sure <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is
- automatically started at boot, and then start the
- daemon.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">This is an example of a simple
- <filename>/etc/ctl.conf</filename> configuration file. Refer
- to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctl.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for a more complete description of the
- options.</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">target naa.50015178f369f092 {
- lun 0 {
- path /data/target0
- size 4G
- }
-}</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The example creates a single target with a single
- <acronym>LUN</acronym>. The
- <literal>naa.50015178f369f092</literal> is a device identifier
- composed of 32 random hexadecimal digits. The
- <literal>path</literal> line defines the full path to a file
- or zvol backing the <acronym>LUN</acronym>. That file must
- exist before starting <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The second line is
- optional and specifies the size of the
- <acronym>LUN</acronym>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To make sure the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> daemon is started at
- boot, add this line to
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">ctld_enable="YES"</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To start <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> now, run this command:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service ctld start</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>當 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> Daemon 啟動後,它會讀取 <filename>/etc/ctl.conf</filename>,若這個檔案在 Daemon 啟動之後才做修改,要重新載入變更的內容才能立即生效:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service ctld reload</userinput></screen>
- </sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 xml:id="creating-cds">
@@ -25618,7 +25566,7 @@ scsibus1:
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">DVD-R: This was the first <acronym>DVD</acronym>
recordable format available. The DVD-R standard is defined
- by the <link xlink:href="http://www.dvdforum.com/forum.shtml"><acronym>DVD</acronym>
+ by the <link xlink:href="http://www.dvdforum.org/forum.shtml"><acronym>DVD</acronym>
Forum</link>. This format is write once.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -25641,9 +25589,10 @@ scsibus1:
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><acronym>DVD+RW</acronym>: This is a rewritable format
- defined by the <link xlink:href="http://www.dvdrw.com/"><acronym>DVD+RW</acronym>
- Alliance</link>. A <acronym>DVD+RW</acronym> can be
- rewritten about 1000 times.</para>
+ defined by the <link xlink:href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DVD%2BRW_Alliance">
+ <acronym>DVD+RW</acronym> Alliance</link>. A
+ <acronym>DVD+RW</acronym> can be rewritten about 1000
+ times.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -26383,9 +26332,10 @@ scsibus1:
on <filename>/mnt</filename>:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mdconfig -f <replaceable>diskimage.iso</replaceable> -u <replaceable>0</replaceable></userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /dev/md<replaceable>0</replaceable> <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -t cd9660 /dev/md<replaceable>0</replaceable> <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">If a unit number is not specified with
+ <para xml:lang="en">Notice that <option>-t cd9660</option> was used to mount
+ an ISO format. If a unit number is not specified with
<option>-u</option>, <command>mdconfig</command> will
automatically allocate an unused memory device and output
the name of the allocated unit, such as
@@ -28178,7 +28128,7 @@ Done.</screen>
adding a line to
<filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>echo 'geom_stripe_load="YES"' &gt;&gt; /boot/loader.conf</userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc -f /boot/loader.conf geom_stripe_load=YES</userinput></screen>
</step>
</procedure>
</sect1>
@@ -30386,8 +30336,8 @@ config:
errors: No known data errors
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zpool list</userinput>
-NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
-healer 960M 92.5K 960M 0% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
+NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CKPOINT EXPANDSZ FRAG CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
+healer 960M 92.5K 960M - - 0% 0% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
<para>將部份需要使用自我修復功能來保護的重要資料複製到該儲存池,建立一個儲存池的校驗碼供稍後做比較時使用。</para>
@@ -30421,7 +30371,7 @@ SHA1 (/healer) = 2753eff56d77d9a536ece6694bf0a82740344d1f</screen>
attempt was made to correct the error. Applications are unaffected.
action: Determine if the device needs to be replaced, and clear the errors
using 'zpool clear' or replace the device with 'zpool replace'.
- see: http://www.sun.com/msg/ZFS-8000-9P
+ see: http://illumos.org/msg/ZFS-8000-4J
scan: none requested
config:
@@ -30450,7 +30400,7 @@ status: One or more devices has experienced an unrecoverable error. An
attempt was made to correct the error. Applications are unaffected.
action: Determine if the device needs to be replaced, and clear the errors
using 'zpool clear' or replace the device with 'zpool replace'.
- see: http://www.sun.com/msg/ZFS-8000-9P
+ see: http://illumos.org/msg/ZFS-8000-4J
scan: scrub in progress since Mon Dec 10 12:23:30 2012
10.4M scanned out of 67.0M at 267K/s, 0h3m to go
9.63M repaired, 15.56% done
@@ -30473,7 +30423,7 @@ status: One or more devices has experienced an unrecoverable error. An
attempt was made to correct the error. Applications are unaffected.
action: Determine if the device needs to be replaced, and clear the errors
using 'zpool clear' or replace the device with 'zpool replace'.
- see: http://www.sun.com/msg/ZFS-8000-9P
+ see: http://illumos.org/msg/ZFS-8000-4J
scan: scrub repaired 66.5M in 0h2m with 0 errors on Mon Dec 10 12:26:25 2012
config:
@@ -30648,7 +30598,26 @@ Enabled the following features on 'mypool':
filesystem_limits</screen>
<warning>
- <para>在使用儲存池來開機的系統上的 Boot code 也必須一併更新來支援新的儲存池版本,可在含有 Boot code 的分割區使用 <command>gpart bootcode</command> 來更新。請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gpart</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 取得更多資訊。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The boot code on systems that boot from a pool must be
+ updated to support the new pool version. Use
+ <command>gpart bootcode</command> on the partition that
+ contains the boot code. There are two types of bootcode
+ available, depending on way the system boots:
+ <acronym>GPT</acronym> (the most common option) and
+ <acronym>EFI</acronym> (for more modern systems).</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For legacy boot using GPT, use the following
+ command:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart bootcode -b /boot/pmbr -p /boot/gptzfsboot -i <replaceable>1</replaceable> <replaceable>ada1</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For systems using EFI to boot, execute the following
+ command:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart bootcode -p /boot/boot1.efifat -i <replaceable>1</replaceable> <replaceable>ada1</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Apply the bootcode to all bootable disks in the pool.
+ See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gpart</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information.</para>
</warning>
</sect2>
@@ -31217,9 +31186,9 @@ usr/home/joe 1.3G 128k 1.3G 0% /usr/home/joe</screen>
<para>以下例子將示範使用兩個儲存池來做 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 備份:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zpool list</userinput>
-NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
-backup 960M 77K 896M 0% 1.00x ONLINE -
-mypool 984M 43.7M 940M 4% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
+NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CKPOINT EXPANDSZ FRAG CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
+backup 960M 77K 896M - - 0% 0% 1.00x ONLINE -
+mypool 984M 43.7M 940M - - 0% 4% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
<para>名為 <replaceable>mypool</replaceable> 的儲存池為主要的儲存池,資料會定期寫入與讀取的位置。第二個儲存池 <replaceable>backup</replaceable> 用來待命 (Standby),萬一主要儲存池無法使用時可替換。注意,<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 並不會自動做容錯移轉 (Fail-over),必須要由系統管理者在需要的時候手動完成。快照會用來提供一個與檔系統一致的版本來做備份,<replaceable>mypool</replaceable> 的快照建立之後,便可以複製到 <replaceable>backup</replaceable> 儲存池,只有快照可以做備份,最近一次快照之後所做的變更不會含在內容裡面。</para>
@@ -31238,9 +31207,9 @@ You must redirect standard output.</screen>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs send <replaceable>mypool</replaceable>@<replaceable>backup1</replaceable> &gt; <replaceable>/backup/backup1</replaceable></userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zpool list</userinput>
-NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
-backup 960M 63.7M 896M 6% 1.00x ONLINE -
-mypool 984M 43.7M 940M 4% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
+NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CKPOINT EXPANDSZ FRAG CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
+backup 960M 63.7M 896M - - 0% 6% 1.00x ONLINE -
+mypool 984M 43.7M 940M - - 0% 4% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
<para><command>zfs send</command> 會傳輸在快照 <replaceable>backup1</replaceable> 中所有的資料到儲存池 <replaceable>backup</replaceable>。可以使用 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cron</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 排程來自動完成建立與傳送快照的動作。</para>
@@ -31253,9 +31222,9 @@ total estimated size is 50.1M
TIME SENT SNAPSHOT
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zpool list</userinput>
-NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
-backup 960M 63.7M 896M 6% 1.00x ONLINE -
-mypool 984M 43.7M 940M 4% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
+NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CKPOINT EXPANDSZ FRAG CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
+backup 960M 63.7M 896M - - 0% 6% 1.00x ONLINE -
+mypool 984M 43.7M 940M - - 0% 4% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
<sect3 xml:id="zfs-send-incremental">
<title>漸進式備份</title>
@@ -31268,9 +31237,9 @@ NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT
mypool@replica1 5.72M - 43.6M -
mypool@replica2 0 - 44.1M -
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zpool list</userinput>
-NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
-backup 960M 61.7M 898M 6% 1.00x ONLINE -
-mypool 960M 50.2M 910M 5% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
+NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CKPOINT EXPANDSZ FRAG CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
+backup 960M 61.7M 898M - - 0% 6% 1.00x ONLINE -
+mypool 960M 50.2M 910M - - 0% 5% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
<para>會建立一個名為 <replaceable>replica2</replaceable> 的第二個快照,這個快照只中只會含有目前與前次快照 <replaceable>replica1</replaceable> 之間檔案系統所做的變更。使用 <command>zfs send -i</command> 並指定要用來產生漸進備份串流的快照,串流中只會含有做過更改的資料。這個動作只在接收端已經有初始快照時才可用。</para>
@@ -31280,9 +31249,9 @@ total estimated size is 5.02M
TIME SENT SNAPSHOT
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zpool list</userinput>
-NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
-backup 960M 80.8M 879M 8% 1.00x ONLINE -
-mypool 960M 50.2M 910M 5% 1.00x ONLINE -
+NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CKPOINT EXPANDSZ FRAG CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
+backup 960M 80.8M 879M - - 0% 8% 1.00x ONLINE -
+mypool 960M 50.2M 910M - - 0% 5% 1.00x ONLINE -
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zfs list</userinput>
NAME USED AVAIL REFER MOUNTPOINT
@@ -31305,7 +31274,19 @@ mypool@replica2 0 - 55.0M -</screen>
<sect3 xml:id="zfs-send-ssh">
<title>透過 <application>SSH</application> 傳送加密的備份</title>
- <para>透過網路來傳送串流對要遠端備份是相當不錯的方式,但是也有一些缺點,透過網路連結傳送的資料沒有加密,這會讓任何人都可以在未告知傳送使用者的情況下攔截並轉換串流回資料,這是我們所不想見到的情況,特別是在使用網際網路傳送串流到遠端的主機時。<application>SSH</application> 可用來安全的加密要透過網路連線傳送的資料,在 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 只需要從標準輸出重新導向便可簡單的轉接到 <application>SSH</application>。要在傳送或在遠端系統中維持檔案系統內容在加密的狀態也可考慮使用 <link xlink:href="http://wiki.freebsd.org/PEFS">PEFS</link>。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Sending streams over the network is a good way to keep a
+ remote backup, but it does come with a drawback. Data sent
+ over the network link is not encrypted, allowing anyone to
+ intercept and transform the streams back into data without
+ the knowledge of the sending user. This is undesirable,
+ especially when sending the streams over the internet to a
+ remote host. <application>SSH</application> can be used to
+ securely encrypt data send over a network connection. Since
+ <acronym>ZFS</acronym> only requires the stream to be
+ redirected from standard output, it is relatively easy to
+ pipe it through <application>SSH</application>. To keep the
+ contents of the file system encrypted in transit and on the
+ remote system, consider using <link xlink:href="https://wiki.freebsd.org/PEFS">PEFS</link>.</para>
<para>有一些設定以及安全性注意事項必須先完成,只有對 <command>zfs send</command> 操作必要的步驟才會在此說明,要取得更多有關 <application>SSH</application> 的資訊請參考 <xref linkend="openssh"/>。</para>
@@ -31471,8 +31452,8 @@ mypool/compressed_dataset logicalused 496G -</screen>
<para>只有要被寫入到儲存池的新資料才會做去重複的動作,先前已被寫入到儲存池的資料不會因此啟動了這個選項而做去重複。查看已開啟去重複屬性的儲存池會如下:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zpool list</userinput>
-NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
-pool 2.84G 2.19M 2.83G 0% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
+NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CKPOINT EXPANDSZ FRAG CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
+pool 2.84G 2.19M 2.83G - - 0% 0% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
<para><literal>DEDUP</literal> 欄位會顯示儲存池的實際去重複率,數值為 <literal>1.00x</literal> 代表資料尚未被去重複。在下一個例子會在前面所建立的去重複儲存池中複製三份 Port 樹到不同的目錄中。</para>
@@ -31483,8 +31464,8 @@ pool 2.84G 2.19M 2.83G 0% 1.00x ONLINE -</screen>
<para>已經偵測到重複的資料並做去重複:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>zpool list</userinput>
-NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
-pool 2.84G 20.9M 2.82G 0% 3.00x ONLINE -</screen>
+NAME SIZE ALLOC FREE CKPOINT EXPANDSZ FRAG CAP DEDUP HEALTH ALTROOT
+pool 2.84G 20.9M 2.82G - - 0% 0% 3.00x ONLINE -</screen>
<para><literal>DEDUP</literal> 欄位顯示有 <literal>3.00x</literal> 的去重複率,這代表已偵測到多份複製的 Port 樹資料並做了去重複的動作,且只會使用第三份資料所佔的空間。去重複能節省空間的潛力可以非常巨大,但會需要消耗大量的記憶體來持續追蹤去重複的資料區塊。</para>
@@ -31555,8 +31536,10 @@ dedup = 1.05, compress = 1.11, copies = 1.00, dedup * compress / copies = 1.16</
or one half of <acronym>RAM</acronym>, whichever is more.
However, a lower value should be used if the system will
be running any other daemons or processes that may require
- memory. This value can only be adjusted at boot time, and
- is set in <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>.</para>
+ memory. This value can be adjusted at runtime with
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and can be set in
+ <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> or
+ <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -31569,8 +31552,10 @@ dedup = 1.05, compress = 1.11, copies = 1.00, dedup * compress / copies = 1.16</
involves operations on a large number of files and
directories, or frequent metadata operations, at the cost
of less file data fitting in the <link linkend="zfs-term-arc"><acronym>ARC</acronym></link>.
- This value can only be adjusted at boot time, and is set
- in <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>.</para>
+ This value can be adjusted at runtime with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+ and can be set in
+ <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> or
+ <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -31580,8 +31565,10 @@ dedup = 1.05, compress = 1.11, copies = 1.00, dedup * compress / copies = 1.16</
<varname>vfs.zfs.arc_meta_limit</varname>. Adjust this
value to prevent other applications from pressuring out
the entire <link linkend="zfs-term-arc"><acronym>ARC</acronym></link>.
- This value can only be adjusted at boot time, and is set
- in <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>.</para>
+ This value can be adjusted at runtime with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+ and can be set in
+ <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> or
+ <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -31836,7 +31823,8 @@ vm.kmem_size_max="330M"
vfs.zfs.arc_max="40M"
vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size="5M"</programlisting>
- <para>要取得更多詳細的 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 相關調校的建議清單,請參考 <link xlink:href="http://wiki.freebsd.org/ZFSTuningGuide"/>。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For a more detailed list of recommendations for
+ <acronym>ZFS</acronym>-related tuning, see <link xlink:href="https://wiki.freebsd.org/ZFSTuningGuide"/>.</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -31867,16 +31855,6 @@ vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size="5M"</programlisting>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.solarisinternals.com/wiki/index.php/ZFS_Evil_Tuning_Guide"><acronym>ZFS</acronym>
- Evil Tuning Guide</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.solarisinternals.com/wiki/index.php/ZFS_Best_Practices_Guide"><acronym>ZFS</acronym>
- Best Practices Guide</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="https://calomel.org/zfs_raid_speed_capacity.html">Calomel
Blog - <acronym>ZFS</acronym> Raidz Performance, Capacity
and Integrity</link></para>
@@ -31895,9 +31873,17 @@ vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size="5M"</programlisting>
<row>
<entry xml:id="zfs-term-pool">儲存池 (Pool)</entry>
- <entry><emphasis>儲存池 (Pool)</emphasis> 是建構 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 最基礎的單位。一個儲存池可由一個或多個 vdev 所組成,是用來儲存資料的底層裝置。儲存池會被拿來建立一個或多個檔案系統 (資料集 Dataset) 或區塊裝置 (磁碟區 Volume),這些資料集與磁碟區會共用儲存池的剩餘可用空間。每一個儲存池可由名稱與 <acronym>GUID</acronym> 來辨識。可用的功能會依儲存池上的 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 版本而有不同。<note>
- <para>FreeBSD 9.0 與 9.1 支援 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 版本 28,之後的版本使用 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 版本 5000 與功能旗標,新的功能旗標 (Feature flags) 系統有更佳的相容性,能夠與其他人實作的 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 相容。</para>
- </note></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">A storage <emphasis>pool</emphasis> is the most
+ basic building block of <acronym>ZFS</acronym>. A pool
+ is made up of one or more vdevs, the underlying devices
+ that store the data. A pool is then used to create one
+ or more file systems (datasets) or block devices
+ (volumes). These datasets and volumes share the pool of
+ remaining free space. Each pool is uniquely identified
+ by a name and a <acronym>GUID</acronym>. The features
+ available are determined by the <acronym>ZFS</acronym>
+ version number on the pool.
+ </entry>
</row>
<row>
@@ -32041,10 +32027,6 @@ vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size="5M"</programlisting>
<entry>每個資料集都有壓縮 (Compression) 屬性,預設是關閉的,這個屬性可以設定使用以下幾個壓縮演算法的其中一個來壓縮寫入到資料集的新資料。壓縮除了減少空間使用量外,常也會增加讀取與寫入的吞吐量,因為會減少讀取與寫入的資料區塊。 <itemizedlist>
<listitem xml:id="zfs-term-compression-lz4">
<para><emphasis><acronym>LZ4</acronym></emphasis> - <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池版本 5000 (功能旗標) 後所增加,<acronym>LZ4</acronym> 現在是建議的壓縮演算法,在處理可壓縮的資料時 <acronym>LZ4</acronym> 壓縮比 <acronym>LZJB</acronym> 快將近 50%,在處理不可壓縮的資料時快將近三倍,<acronym>LZ4</acronym> 解壓縮也比 <acronym>LZJB</acronym> 將近 80%。在現代的 <acronym>CPU</acronym> 上,<acronym>LZ4</acronym> 經常平均可用 500 MB/s 的速度壓縮,而解壓縮可到達 1.5 GB/s (每個 CPU 核心)。</para>
-
- <note>
- <para><acronym>LZ4</acronym> 壓縮只在 FreeBSD 9.2 之後可使用。</para>
- </note>
</listitem>
<listitem xml:id="zfs-term-compression-lzjb">
@@ -32197,8 +32179,7 @@ vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size="5M"</programlisting>
operating systems can be accessed locally, such as data stored
on locally attached <acronym>USB</acronym> storage devices,
flash drives, and hard disks. This includes support for the
- <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> Extended File System (<acronym>EXT</acronym>) and the
- Reiser file system.</para>
+ <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> Extended File System (<acronym>EXT</acronym>).</para>
<para xml:lang="en">There are different levels of FreeBSD support for the various
file systems. Some require a kernel module to be loaded and
@@ -32288,22 +32269,6 @@ vfs.zfs.vdev.cache.size="5M"</programlisting>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -t ext2fs <replaceable>/dev/ad1s1</replaceable> <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput></screen>
</sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title xml:lang="en">ReiserFS</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD provides read-only support for The Reiser file
- system, ReiserFS.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To load the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>reiserfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload reiserfs</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Then, to mount a ReiserFS volume located on
- <filename>/dev/ad1s1</filename>:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -t reiserfs <replaceable>/dev/ad1s1</replaceable> <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- </sect2>
</sect1>
<!--
@@ -33003,20 +32968,36 @@ perm vboxnetctl 0660</programlisting>
<title><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark> USB 支援</title>
<para xml:lang="en"><application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> can be configured
- to pass <acronym>USB</acronym> devices through to the guest
- operating system. The host controller of the OSE version is
- limited to emulating <acronym>USB</acronym> 1.1 devices until
- the extension pack supporting <acronym>USB</acronym> 2.0 and 3.0
- devices becomes available on FreeBSD.</para>
+ to pass <acronym>USB</acronym> devices through to the guest
+ operating system. The host controller of the OSE version is
+ limited to emulating <acronym>USB</acronym> 1.1 devices until
+ the extension pack supporting <acronym>USB</acronym> 2.0 and
+ 3.0 devices becomes available on FreeBSD.</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">For <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> to be
- aware of <acronym>USB</acronym> devices attached to the
- machine, the user needs to be a member of the <systemitem class="groupname">operator</systemitem> group.</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> to be aware of
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> devices attached to the machine, the
+ user needs to be a member of the <systemitem class="groupname">operator</systemitem> group.</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod operator -m <replaceable>yourusername</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Then, add the following to
+ <filename>/etc/devfs.rules</filename>, or create this file if
+ it does not exist yet:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">[system=10]
+add path 'usb/*' mode 0660 group operator</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To load these new rules, add the following to
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">devfs_system_ruleset="system"</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Then, restart devfs:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service devfs restart</userinput></screen>
+
<para>重新啟動登作階段與 <application><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark></application> 來讓這些變更生效,且建立必要的 <acronym>USB</acronym> 的過濾器。</para>
- </sect2>
+ </sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="virtualization-virtualbox-host-dvd-cd-access">
<title><trademark>VirtualBox</trademark> Host <acronym>DVD</acronym>/<acronym>CD</acronym> 存取</title>
@@ -33139,16 +33120,7 @@ FreeBSD-10.3-RELEASE-amd64-bootonly.iso 100% of 230 MB 570 kBps 06m17s</
<para xml:lang="en">The virtual machine will boot and start the installer.
After installing a system in the virtual machine, when the
system asks about dropping in to a shell at the end of the
- installation, choose <guibutton>Yes</guibutton>. A small
- change needs to be made to make the system start with a serial
- console. Edit <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> and replace the
- existing <literal>ttyu0</literal> line with:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">ttyu0 "/usr/libexec/getty 3wire" xterm on secure</programlisting>
-
- <note><para xml:lang="en">Beginning with FreeBSD 9.3-RELEASE and
- 10.1-RELEASE the console is configured
- automatically.</para></note>
+ installation, choose <guibutton>Yes</guibutton>.</para>
<para xml:lang="en">Reboot the virtual machine. While rebooting the virtual
machine causes <application>bhyve</application> to exit, the
@@ -33260,16 +33232,16 @@ grub&gt; <userinput>boot</userinput></screen>
that are not supported by the other loaders.</para>
<para xml:lang="en">In order to make use of the <acronym>UEFI</acronym>
- support in <application>bhyve</application>, first obtain the
- <acronym>UEFI</acronym> firmware images. This can be done
- by installing <package>sysutils/bhyve-firmware</package>
- port or package.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">With the firmware in place, add the flags
- <option>-l bootrom,<replaceable>/path/to/firmware</replaceable></option>
- to your <application>bhyve</application> command line.
- The actual <application>bhyve</application> command may look
- like this:</para>
+ support in <application>bhyve</application>, first obtain the
+ <acronym>UEFI</acronym> firmware images. This can be done by
+ installing <package>sysutils/bhyve-firmware</package> port or
+ package.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">With the firmware in place, add the flags <option>-l
+ bootrom,<replaceable>/path/to/firmware</replaceable></option>
+ to your <application>bhyve</application> command line. The
+ actual <application>bhyve</application> command may look like
+ this:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyve -AHP -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 1:0,lpc \
-s 2:0,virtio-net,<replaceable>tap1</replaceable> -s 3:0,virtio-blk,<replaceable>./disk.img</replaceable> \
@@ -33278,8 +33250,8 @@ grub&gt; <userinput>boot</userinput></screen>
<replaceable>guest</replaceable></userinput></screen>
<para xml:lang="en"><package>sysutils/bhyve-firmware</package> also contains a
- <acronym>CSM</acronym>-enabled firmware, to boot guests with no
- <acronym>UEFI</acronym> support in legacy
+ <acronym>CSM</acronym>-enabled firmware, to boot guests with
+ no <acronym>UEFI</acronym> support in legacy
<acronym>BIOS</acronym> mode:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>bhyve -AHP -s 0:0,hostbridge -s 1:0,lpc \
@@ -33292,12 +33264,13 @@ grub&gt; <userinput>boot</userinput></screen>
<sect2 xml:id="virtualization-bhyve-framebuffer">
<title>供 <application>bhyve</application> 客端用的圖型化 <acronym>UEFI</acronym> Framebuffer </title>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>UEFI</acronym> firmware support is particularly
- useful with predominantly graphical guest operating systems
- such as Microsoft <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>.</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>UEFI</acronym> firmware support is
+ particularly useful with predominantly graphical guest
+ operating systems such as Microsoft <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>.</para>
<para xml:lang="en">Support for the UEFI-GOP framebuffer may also be enabled
- with the <option>-s 29,fbuf,tcp=<replaceable>0.0.0.0:5900</replaceable></option>
+ with the <option>-s
+ 29,fbuf,tcp=<replaceable>0.0.0.0:5900</replaceable></option>
flags. The framebuffer resolution may be configured with
<option>w=<replaceable>800</replaceable></option> and
<option>h=<replaceable>600</replaceable></option>, and
@@ -33407,19 +33380,11 @@ crw------- 1 root wheel 0x1a1 Mar 17 12:19 otherguest</screen>
</step>
<step>
- <title xml:lang="en"><filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename></title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">vmm_load="YES"
-nmdm_load="YES"
-if_bridge_load="YES"
-if_tap_load="YES"</programlisting>
- </step>
-
- <step>
<title xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename></title>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">cloned_interfaces="<replaceable>bridge0</replaceable> <replaceable>tap0</replaceable>"
-ifconfig_bridge0="addm <replaceable>igb0</replaceable> addm <replaceable>tap0</replaceable>"</programlisting>
+ifconfig_bridge0="addm <replaceable>igb0</replaceable> addm <replaceable>tap0</replaceable>"
+kld_list="nmdm vmm"</programlisting>
</step>
</procedure>
</sect2>
@@ -33488,21 +33453,20 @@ ifconfig_bridge0="addm <replaceable>igb0</replaceable> addm <replaceable>tap0</r
<sect2 xml:id="virtualization-host-xen-dom0-setup">
<title xml:lang="en"><trademark>Xen</trademark> Dom0 Control Domain Setup</title>
- <para xml:lang="en">The <package>emulators/xen</package> package works with
- FreeBSD 11 amd64 binary snapshots and equivalent systems
- built from source. This example assumes VNC output for
- unprivileged domains which is accessed from a another system
- using a tool such as <package>net/tightvnc</package>.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Install <package>emulators/xen</package>:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pkg install xen</userinput></screen>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Users of FreeBSD 11 should install the
+ <package>emulators/xen-kernel47</package> and
+ <package>sysutils/xen-tools47</package> packages that are
+ based on Xen version 4.7. Systems running on FreeBSD-CURRENT
+ with at least revision r336475 or higher, can use Xen 4.11
+ provided by <package>emulators/xen-kernel411</package> and
+ <package>sysutils/xen-tools411</package>, respectively.</para>
<para xml:lang="en">Configuration files must be edited to prepare the host
- for the Dom0 integration. An entry to
- <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename> disables the limit on
- how many pages of memory are allowed to be wired. Otherwise,
- DomU VMs with higher memory requirements will not run.</para>
+ for the Dom0 integration after the Xen packages are installed.
+ An entry to <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename> disables the
+ limit on how many pages of memory are allowed to be wired.
+ Otherwise, DomU VMs with higher memory requirements will not
+ run.</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc -f /etc/sysctl.conf vm.max_wired=-1</userinput></screen>
@@ -33535,10 +33499,19 @@ ifconfig_bridge0="addm <replaceable>igb0</replaceable> addm <replaceable>tap0</r
console is also activated and logging options are
defined.</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The following command is used for Xen 4.7 packages:</para>
+
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc -f /boot/loader.conf hw.pci.mcfg=0</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc -f /boot/loader.conf xen_kernel="/boot/xen"</userinput>
<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc -f /boot/loader.conf xen_cmdline="dom0_mem=<replaceable>8192M</replaceable> dom0_max_vcpus=<replaceable>4</replaceable> dom0pvh=1 console=com1,vga com1=115200,8n1 guest_loglvl=all loglvl=all"</userinput></screen>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For Xen versions 4.11 and higher, the following command
+ should be used instead:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc -f /boot/loader.conf hw.pci.mcfg=0</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc -f /boot/loader.conf xen_kernel="/boot/xen"</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysrc -f /boot/loader.conf xen_cmdline="dom0_mem=<replaceable>8192M</replaceable> dom0_max_vcpus=<replaceable>4</replaceable> dom0=pvh console=com1,vga com1=115200,8n1 guest_loglvl=all loglvl=all"</userinput></screen>
+
<para xml:lang="en">Log files that <trademark>Xen</trademark> creates for the Dom0 and DomU VMs
are stored in <filename>/var/log/xen</filename>. This
directory does not exist by default and must be
@@ -35215,6 +35188,94 @@ before running "/usr/sbin/freebsd-update install"</screen>
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
</sect2>
+
+ <sect2 xml:id="stable">
+ <title xml:lang="en">Using FreeBSD-STABLE</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD-STABLE is the development branch from which major
+ releases are made. Changes go into this branch at a slower
+ pace and with the general assumption that they have first been
+ tested in FreeBSD-CURRENT. This is <emphasis>still</emphasis> a
+ development branch and, at any given time, the sources for
+ FreeBSD-STABLE may or may not be suitable for general use. It is
+ simply another engineering development track, not a resource
+ for end-users. Users who do not have the resources to perform
+ testing should instead run the most recent release of
+ FreeBSD.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Those interested in tracking or contributing to the FreeBSD
+ development process, especially as it relates to the next
+ release of FreeBSD, should consider following FreeBSD-STABLE.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">While the FreeBSD-STABLE branch should compile and run at all
+ times, this cannot be guaranteed. Since more people run
+ FreeBSD-STABLE than FreeBSD-CURRENT, it is inevitable that bugs and
+ corner cases will sometimes be found in FreeBSD-STABLE that were
+ not apparent in FreeBSD-CURRENT. For this reason, one should not
+ blindly track FreeBSD-STABLE. It is particularly important
+ <emphasis>not</emphasis> to update any production servers to
+ FreeBSD-STABLE without thoroughly testing the code in a
+ development or testing environment.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To track FreeBSD-STABLE:</para>
+
+ <indexterm xml:lang="en">
+ <primary>-STABLE</primary>
+ <secondary>using</secondary>
+ </indexterm>
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Join the <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-stable">freebsd-stable</link> list in order to stay
+ informed of build dependencies that may appear in
+ FreeBSD-STABLE or any other issues requiring special
+ attention. Developers will also make announcements in
+ this mailing list when they are contemplating some
+ controversial fix or update, giving the users a chance to
+ respond if they have any issues to raise concerning the
+ proposed change.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Join the relevant <application>svn</application> list
+ for the branch being tracked. For example, users
+ tracking the 9-STABLE branch should join the
+ <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/svn-src-stable-9">svn-src-stable-9</link> list. This list records the
+ commit log entry for each change as it is made, along
+ with any pertinent information on possible
+ side effects.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To join these lists, go to <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo">http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo</link>,
+ click on the list to subscribe to, and follow the
+ instructions. In order to track changes for the whole
+ source tree, subscribe to <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/svn-src-all">svn-src-all</link>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To install a new FreeBSD-STABLE system, install the most
+ recent FreeBSD-STABLE release from the <link linkend="mirrors">FreeBSD mirror sites</link> or use a
+ monthly snapshot built from FreeBSD-STABLE. Refer to <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/snapshots/">www.freebsd.org/snapshots</link>
+ for more information about snapshots.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To compile or upgrade to an existing FreeBSD system to
+ FreeBSD-STABLE, use <link linkend="svn">svn</link>
+ <indexterm xml:lang="en">
+ <primary>Subversion</primary>
+ </indexterm> to check out the source for the desired
+ branch. Branch names, such as
+ <literal>stable/9</literal>, are listed at <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releng/">www.freebsd.org/releng</link>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Before compiling or upgrading to FreeBSD-STABLE
+ <indexterm xml:lang="en">
+ <primary>-STABLE</primary>
+ <secondary>compiling</secondary>
+ </indexterm>, read <filename>/usr/src/Makefile</filename>
+ carefully and follow the instructions in <xref linkend="makeworld"/>. Read the <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-stable">FreeBSD-STABLE mailing list</link> and
+ <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename> to keep up-to-date
+ on other bootstrapping procedures that sometimes become
+ necessary on the road to the next release.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+ </sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 xml:id="makeworld">
@@ -35771,8 +35832,8 @@ makeoptions WITH_CTF=1</programlisting>
language of DTrace. This language is called the D language
and it is very similar to C++. An in depth discussion of the
language is beyond the scope of this document. It is
- extensively discussed at <uri xlink:href="http://wikis.oracle.com/display/DTrace/Documentation">http://wikis.oracle.com/display/DTrace/Documentation</uri>.</para>
- </sect1>
+ covered extensively in the <uri xlink:href="http://www.dtrace.org/guide">Illumos Dynamic
+ Tracing Guide</uri>.</para></sect1>
<sect1 xml:id="dtrace-using">
<title>使用 DTrace</title>
@@ -35918,6 +35979,375 @@ Elapsed Times for processes csh,
</sect1>
</chapter>
+
+<!--
+ The FreeBSD Documentation Project
+
+ $FreeBSD$
+-->
+
+<chapter version="5.0" xml:id="usb-device-mode">
+
+ <title xml:lang="en">USB Device Mode / USB OTG</title>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="usb-device-mode-synopsis">
+ <title>概述</title>
+
+ <info>
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author xml:lang="en">
+ <personname>
+ <firstname>Edward Tomasz</firstname>
+ <surname>Napierala</surname>
+ </personname>
+ <affiliation>
+ <address xml:lang="en">
+ <email>trasz@FreeBSD.org</email>
+ </address>
+ </affiliation>
+ <contrib>Written by </contrib>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
+ </info>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">This chapter covers the use of USB Device Mode and USB On
+ The Go (<acronym>USB OTG</acronym>) in FreeBSD. This includes
+ virtual serial consoles, virtual network interfaces, and
+ virtual USB drives.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When running on hardware that supports USB device mode
+ or <acronym>USB OTG</acronym>, like that built into
+ many embedded boards, the FreeBSD <acronym>USB</acronym> stack
+ can run in <emphasis>device mode</emphasis>. Device mode
+ makes it possible for the computer to present itself as
+ different kinds of <acronym>USB</acronym> device classes,
+ including serial ports, network adapters, and mass storage,
+ or a combination thereof. A <acronym>USB</acronym> host like
+ a laptop or desktop computer is able to access them just like
+ physical <acronym>USB</acronym> devices. Device mode is
+ sometimes called the <quote>USB gadget mode</quote>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">There are two basic ways the hardware can provide the
+ device mode functionality: with a separate "client port", which
+ only supports the device mode, and with a USB OTG port, which
+ can provide both device and host mode. For
+ <acronym>USB OTG</acronym> ports, the <acronym>USB</acronym>
+ stack switches between host-side and device-side automatically,
+ depending on what is connected to the port. Connecting a
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> device like a memory stick to the
+ port causes FreeBSD to switch to host mode. Connecting a
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> host like a computer causes FreeBSD to
+ switch to device mode. Single purpose "client ports" always
+ work in device mode.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">What FreeBSD presents to the <acronym>USB</acronym> host
+ depends on the <varname>hw.usb.template</varname> sysctl. Some
+ templates provide a single device, such as a serial terminal;
+ others provide multiple ones, which can all be used at the same
+ time. An example is the template 10, which provides a mass
+ storage device, a serial console, and a network interface.
+ See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>usb_template</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for the list of available
+ values.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Note that in some cases, depending on the hardware and the
+ hosts operating system, for the host to notice the configuration
+ change, it must be either physically disconnected and
+ reconnected, or forced to rescan the <acronym>USB</acronym>
+ bus in a system-specific way. When FreeBSD is running on the host,
+ <citerefentry vendor="current"><refentrytitle>usbconfig</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> <command>reset</command> can be used.
+ This also must be done after loading
+ <filename>usb_template.ko</filename> if the
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> host was already connected to the
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> <acronym>OTG</acronym> socket.</para>
+
+ <para>讀完這章,您將了解︰</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">How to set up USB Device Mode functionality on
+ FreeBSD.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">How to configure the virtual serial port on
+ FreeBSD.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">How to connect to the virtual serial port
+ from various operating systems.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">How to configure FreeBSD to provide a virtual
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> network interface.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">How to configure FreeBSD to provide a virtual
+ <acronym>USB</acronym> storage device.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="usb-device-mode-terminals">
+ <title xml:lang="en"><acronym>USB</acronym> Virtual Serial Ports</title>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title xml:lang="en">Configuring USB Device Mode Serial Ports</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Virtual serial port support is provided by templates
+ number 3, 8, and 10. Note that template 3 works with
+ Microsoft Windows 10 without the need for special drivers
+ and INF files. Other host operating systems work with all
+ three templates. Both <citerefentry><refentrytitle>usb_template</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>umodem</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+ kernel modules must be loaded.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To enable USB device mode serial ports, add those lines
+ to <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en">ttyU0 "/usr/libexec/getty 3wire" vt100 onifconsole secure
+ttyU1 "/usr/libexec/getty 3wire" vt100 onifconsole secure</screen>
+
+ <para>然後加入這些行到 <filename>/etc/devd.conf</filename>:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en">notify 100 {
+ match "system" "DEVFS";
+ match "subsystem" "CDEV";
+ match "type" "CREATE";
+ match "cdev" "ttyU[0-9]+";
+ action "/sbin/init q";
+};</screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Reload the configuration if
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>devd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is already running:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service devd restart</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Make sure the necessary modules are loaded and the
+ correct template is set at boot by adding
+ those lines to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>,
+ creating it if it does not already exist:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en">umodem_load="YES"
+hw.usb.template=3</screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To load the module and set the template without rebooting
+ use:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload umodem</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl hw.usb.template=3</userinput></screen>
+
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title xml:lang="en">Connecting to USB Device Mode Serial Ports from
+ FreeBSD</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To connect to a board configured to provide USB device
+ mode serial ports, connect the USB host, such as a laptop, to
+ the boards USB OTG or USB client port. Use
+ <command>pstat -t</command> on the host to list the terminal
+ lines. Near the end of the list you should see a USB serial
+ port, eg "ttyU0". To open the connection, use:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cu -l /dev/ttyU0</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">After pressing the Enter key a few times you will see
+ a login prompt.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title xml:lang="en">Connecting to USB Device Mode Serial Ports from
+ macOS</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To connect to a board configured to provide USB device
+ mode serial ports, connect the USB host, such as a laptop,
+ to the boards USB OTG or USB client port. To open the
+ connection, use:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cu -l /dev/cu.usbmodemFreeBSD1</userinput></screen>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title xml:lang="en">Connecting to USB Device Mode Serial Ports from
+ Linux</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To connect to a board configured to provide USB device
+ mode serial ports, connect the USB host, such as a laptop,
+ to the boards USB OTG or USB client port. To open the
+ connection, use:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>minicom -D /dev/ttyACM0</userinput></screen>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title xml:lang="en">Connecting to USB Device Mode Serial Ports from
+ Microsoft Windows 10</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To connect to a board configured to provide USB device
+ mode serial ports, connect the USB host, such as a laptop,
+ to the boards USB OTG or USB client port. To open a
+ connection you will need a serial terminal program, such as
+ <application>PuTTY</application>. To check the COM port name
+ used by Windows, run Device Manager, expand "Ports (COM &amp;
+ LPT)". You will see a name similar to "USB Serial Device
+ (COM4)". Run serial terminal program of your choice, for
+ example <application>PuTTY</application>. In the
+ <application>PuTTY</application> dialog set "Connection type"
+ to "Serial", type the COMx obtained from Device Manager in the
+ "Serial line" dialog box and click Open.</para>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="usb-device-mode-network">
+
+ <title xml:lang="en"><acronym>USB</acronym> Device Mode Network
+ Interfaces</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Virtual network interfaces support is provided by templates
+ number 1, 8, and 10. Note that none of them works with
+ Microsoft Windows. Other host operating systems work with all
+ three templates. Both <citerefentry><refentrytitle>usb_template</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>if_cdce</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+ kernel modules must be loaded.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Make sure the necessary modules are loaded and the correct
+ template is set at boot by adding
+ those lines to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>, creating
+ it if it does not already exist:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en">if_cdce_load="YES"
+hw.usb.template=1</screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To load the module and set the template without rebooting
+ use:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload if_cdce</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl hw.usb.template=1</userinput></screen>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="usb-device-mode-storage">
+ <title xml:lang="en"><acronym>USB</acronym> Virtual Storage Device</title>
+
+ <note>
+ <para><citerefentry><refentrytitle>cfumass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 驅動程式是一個在 FreeBSD 12.0 之後才可用的 <acronym>USB</acronym> 裝置模式驅動程式。</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Mass Storage target is provided by templates 0 and 10.
+ Both <citerefentry><refentrytitle>usb_template</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cfumass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> kernel modules
+ must be loaded. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cfumass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> interfaces to the CTL
+ subsystem, the same one that is used for
+ <acronym>iSCSI</acronym> or Fibre Channel targets.
+ On the host side, <acronym>USB</acronym> Mass Storage
+ initiators can only access a single <acronym>LUN</acronym>,
+ <acronym>LUN</acronym> 0.</para>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title xml:lang="en">Configuring USB Mass Storage Target Using the cfumass
+ Startup Script</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The simplest way to set up a read-only USB storage target
+ is to use the <filename>cfumass</filename> rc script. To
+ configure it this way, copy the files to be presented to the
+ USB host machine into the <literal>/var/cfumass</literal>
+ directory, and add this line to
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">cfumass_enable="YES"</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To configure the target without restarting,
+ run this command:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service cfumass start</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Differently from serial and network functionality, the
+ template should not be set to 0 or 10 in
+ <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>. This is because the
+ LUN must be set up before setting the template. The cfumass
+ startup script sets the correct template number automatically
+ when started.</para>
+ </sect2>
+ <sect2>
+ <title xml:lang="en">Configuring USB Mass Storage Using Other Means</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The rest of this chapter provides detailed description of
+ setting the target without using the cfumass rc file. This is
+ necessary if eg one wants to provide a writeable LUN.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en"><acronym>USB</acronym> Mass Storage does not require the
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> daemon to be running, although it can be used if
+ desired. This is different from <acronym>iSCSI</acronym>.
+ Thus, there are two ways to configure the target:
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctladm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Both require the
+ <filename>cfumass.ko</filename> kernel module to be loaded.
+ The module can be loaded manually:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload cfumass</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">If <filename>cfumass.ko</filename> has not been built into
+ the kernel, <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> can be set
+ to load the module at boot:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">cfumass_load="YES"</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">A <acronym>LUN</acronym> can be created without the
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> daemon:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ctladm create -b block -o file=/data/target0</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">This presents the contents of the image file
+ <filename>/data/target0</filename> as a <acronym>LUN</acronym>
+ to the <acronym>USB</acronym> host. The file must exist
+ before executing the command. To configure the
+ <acronym>LUN</acronym> at system startup, add the command to
+ <filename>/etc/rc.local</filename>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en"><citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> can also be used to manage
+ <acronym>LUN</acronym>s. Create
+ <filename>/etc/ctl.conf</filename>, add a line to
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> to make sure <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> is
+ automatically started at boot, and then start the
+ daemon.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">This is an example of a simple
+ <filename>/etc/ctl.conf</filename> configuration file. Refer
+ to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctl.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for a more complete description of the
+ options.</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">target naa.50015178f369f092 {
+ lun 0 {
+ path /data/target0
+ size 4G
+ }
+}</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The example creates a single target with a single
+ <acronym>LUN</acronym>. The
+ <literal>naa.50015178f369f092</literal> is a device identifier
+ composed of 32 random hexadecimal digits. The
+ <literal>path</literal> line defines the full path to a file
+ or zvol backing the <acronym>LUN</acronym>. That file must
+ exist before starting <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The second line is
+ optional and specifies the size of the
+ <acronym>LUN</acronym>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To make sure the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> daemon is started at
+ boot, add this line to
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">ctld_enable="YES"</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To start <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> now, run this command:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service ctld start</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>當 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ctld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> Daemon 啟動後,它會讀取 <filename>/etc/ctl.conf</filename>,若這個檔案在 Daemon 啟動之後才做修改,要重新載入變更的內容才能立即生效:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service ctld reload</userinput></screen>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
+</chapter>
+
</part>
<part xml:id="network-communication">
@@ -36661,20 +37091,11 @@ Elapsed Times for processes csh,
<para xml:lang="en">For example, to connect from a client system that runs
FreeBSD to the serial connection of another system:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cu -l <replaceable>serial-port-device</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cu -l /dev/cuau<replaceable>N</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para xml:lang="en">Replace <replaceable>serial-port-device</replaceable>
- with the device name of the connected serial port. These
- device files are called
- <filename>/dev/cuau<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename>
- on FreeBSD versions 10.x and higher and
- <filename>/dev/cuad<replaceable>N</replaceable></filename>
- on FreeBSD versions 9.x and lower. In either case,
- <replaceable>N</replaceable> is the serial port number,
- starting from zero. This means that
+ <para xml:lang="en">Ports are numbered starting from zero. This means that
<filename>COM1</filename> is
- <filename>/dev/cuau0</filename> or
- <filename>/dev/cuad0</filename> in FreeBSD.</para>
+ <filename>/dev/cuau0</filename>.</para>
<para xml:lang="en">Additional programs are available through the Ports
Collection, such as
@@ -37734,7 +38155,7 @@ raisechar=^^</programlisting>
console, issue the following command as the
superuser:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> echo 'console="comconsole"' &gt;&gt; /boot/loader.conf</screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> sysrc -f /boot/loader.conf console=comconsole</screen>
</step>
<step>
@@ -40857,7 +41278,7 @@ freefall MX 20 who.cdrom.com</programlisting>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en">The computer is a desktop machine that needs to use
- programs such as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>send-pr</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, using the
+ programs such as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mail</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, using the
<acronym>ISP</acronym>'s mail relay.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -44151,7 +44572,7 @@ result: 0 Success
<para>若系統已經在安裝時設定使用 <acronym>DHCP</acronym>,這行可能會已存在。替換在例子中的 <replaceable>fxp0</replaceable> 為實際要動態設置的網路介面名稱,如 <xref linkend="config-network-setup"/> 中的說明。</para>
- <para>要改設定系統採用同步模式,會在啟動時暫停動後 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 完成,使用 <quote><literal>SYNCDHCP</literal></quote>:</para>
+ <para>要改設定系統採用同步模式,在啟動時暫停等候 <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 完成,使用 <quote><literal>SYNCDHCP</literal></quote>:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">ifconfig_<replaceable>fxp0</replaceable>="SYNCDHCP"</programlisting>
@@ -44351,10 +44772,6 @@ dhcpd_ifaces="dc0"</programlisting>
<para>網域名稱系統 (Domain Name System, <acronym>DNS</acronym>) 是一種協定用來轉換網域名稱為 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址,反之亦然。<acronym>DNS</acronym> 會協調網際網路上有權的根節點 (Authoritative root)、最上層網域 (Top Level Domain, <acronym>TLD</acronym>) 及其他小規模名稱伺服器來取得結果,而這些伺服器可管理與快取個自的網域資訊。要在系統上做 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 查詢並不需要架設一個名稱伺服器。</para>
- <indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>BIND</primary></indexterm>
-
- <para>在 FreeBSD 10,已自基礎系統移除了 Berkeley Internet Name Domain (<acronym>BIND</acronym>),並替換為 Unbound。Unbound 被設置來做為 FreeBSD 的基礎中的本地快取解析程式。<acronym>BIND</acronym> 仍可以自 Port 套件集取得,名稱為 <package role="port">dns/bind99</package> 或 <package role="port">dns/bind98</package>。在 FreeBSD 9 與較先前的版本,FreeBSD 基礎系統中是內建 <acronym>BIND</acronym>,FreeBSD 的版本提供了增強的安全性功能、新檔案系統配置及自動化 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 設置,而 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 是由 <link xlink:href="https://www.isc.org/">Internet Systems Consortium</link> 所維護。</para>
-
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>resolver</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm xml:lang="en"><primary>reverse
<acronym>DNS</acronym></primary></indexterm>
@@ -44388,11 +44805,6 @@ dhcpd_ifaces="dc0"</programlisting>
</row>
<row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><application>named</application>, BIND</entry>
- <entry>在 FreeBSD 中對 BIND 名稱伺服器套件的通用稱呼。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
<entry>解析器 (Resolver)</entry>
<entry>主機向名稱伺服器查詢轄區資訊的系統程序。</entry>
</row>
@@ -44480,9 +44892,7 @@ dhcpd_ifaces="dc0"</programlisting>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title><acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器設定於 FreeBSD 10.0 及之後版本</title>
-
- <para>於 FreeBSD 10.0,<application>BIND</application> 已被替換為 <application>Unbound</application>,<application>Unbound</application> 只會驗證快取解析程式,若需要有權的 (Authoritative) 伺服器,有很多可在 Port 套件集找到。</para>
+ <title xml:lang="en"><acronym>DNS</acronym> Server Configuration</title>
<para><application>Unbound</application> 由 FreeBSD 基礎系統提供,預設只會提供本機的 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 解析,雖然基礎系統的套件可被設定提供本機以外的解析服務,但要解決這樣的需求仍建議安裝 FreeBSD Port 套件集中的 <application>Unbound</application>。</para>
@@ -44524,998 +44934,6 @@ freebsd.org. (A)
|---. (DNSKEY keytag: 19036 alg: 8 flags: 257)
;; Chase successful</screen>
</sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>DNS 伺服器設定於 FreeBSD 9.<replaceable>X</replaceable></title>
-
- <para>在 FreeBSD 中,會稱 BIND daemon 為 <application>named</application>。</para>
-
- <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>檔案</entry>
- <entry>說明</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry></entry>
- <entry>BIND daemon 本身。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><citerefentry><refentrytitle>rndc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry></entry>
- <entry>名稱伺服器控制工具。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/namedb</filename></entry>
- <entry>儲存 BIND 轄區 (Zone) 資訊的目錄。</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/namedb/named.conf</filename></entry>
- <entry>Daemon 的設定檔。</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
-
- <para>依指定轄區在伺服器上設定的方式,與該轄區相關的檔案會存放在 <filename>/etc/namedb</filename> 目錄中的 <filename>master</filename>, <filename>slave</filename> 或 <filename>dynamic</filename> 子目錄,這些檔案中會含有 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 資訊,會在名稱伺服器回覆查詢時使用到。</para>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>啟動 BIND</title>
-
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>BIND</primary>
- <secondary>starting</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para>由於 BIND 預設已經安裝,要設定它相對簡單。</para>
-
- <para>預設的 <application>named</application> 設定成只做基本的名稱解析伺服器,運作於 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 環境中,並限制只傾聽本地 IPv4 loopback 位址 (127.0.0.1),若只要使用這個設定啟動伺服器一次可使用以下指令:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service named onestart</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>要讓 <application>named</application> 在每次開機都會啟動,可加入下行到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">named_enable="YES"</programlisting>
-
- <para>還有許多 <filename>/etc/namedb/named.conf</filename> 的設定選項以超出本文章的範圍,<application>named</application> 其他在 FreeBSD 上的啟動選項可在 <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> 與在 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 中尋找 <literal>named_<replaceable>*</replaceable></literal> 項目,也建議閱讀 <xref linkend="configtuning-rcd"/> 一節。</para>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>設定檔</title>
-
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>BIND</primary>
- <secondary>configuration files</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para><application>named</application> 的設定檔目前儲存在 <filename>/etc/namedb</filename> 目錄中且使用前必須先做修改,除非您只需要它做簡單的解析,這也是需要做最多設定的地方。</para>
-
- <sect4>
- <title xml:lang="en"><filename>/etc/namedb/named.conf</filename></title>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">// <phrase its:translate="no">$FreeBSD$</phrase>
-//
-// Refer to the named.conf(5) and named(8) man pages, and the documentation
-// in /usr/share/doc/bind9 for more details.
-//
-// If you are going to set up an authoritative server, make sure you
-// understand the hairy details of how DNS works. Even with
-// simple mistakes, you can break connectivity for affected parties,
-// or cause huge amounts of useless Internet traffic.
-
-options {
- // All file and path names are relative to the chroot directory,
- // if any, and should be fully qualified.
- directory "/etc/namedb/working";
- pid-file "/var/run/named/pid";
- dump-file "/var/dump/named_dump.db";
- statistics-file "/var/stats/named.stats";
-
-// If named is being used only as a local resolver, this is a safe default.
-// For named to be accessible to the network, comment this option, specify
-// the proper IP address, or delete this option.
- listen-on { 127.0.0.1; };
-
-// If you have IPv6 enabled on this system, uncomment this option for
-// use as a local resolver. To give access to the network, specify
-// an IPv6 address, or the keyword "any".
-// listen-on-v6 { ::1; };
-
-// These zones are already covered by the empty zones listed below.
-// If you remove the related empty zones below, comment these lines out.
- disable-empty-zone "255.255.255.255.IN-ADDR.ARPA";
- disable-empty-zone "0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.IP6.ARPA";
- disable-empty-zone "1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.IP6.ARPA";
-
-// If you have a DNS server around at your upstream provider, enter
-// its IP address here, and enable the line below. This will make you
-// benefit from its cache, thus reduce overall DNS traffic in the Internet.
-/*
- forwarders {
- 127.0.0.1;
- };
-*/
-
-// If the 'forwarders' clause is not empty the default is to 'forward first'
-// which will fall back to sending a query from your local server if the name
-// servers in 'forwarders' do not have the answer. Alternatively you can
-// force your name server to never initiate queries of its own by enabling the
-// following line:
-// forward only;
-
-// If you wish to have forwarding configured automatically based on
-// the entries in /etc/resolv.conf, uncomment the following line and
-// set named_auto_forward=yes in /etc/rc.conf. You can also enable
-// named_auto_forward_only (the effect of which is described above).
-// include "/etc/namedb/auto_forward.conf";</programlisting>
-
- <para>如同註解所述,要利用上游的快取功能,可以在此啟動 <literal>forwarders</literal>,正常的情況下,名稱伺服器會在網際網路上做遞迴查詢來尋找特定名稱伺服器,直到找到要查詢的答案,開啟快取功能會讓名稱伺服器先查詢上游的名稱伺服器 (或自行設定的名稱伺服器) 來利用該伺服器的快取,若查詢的上游名稱伺服器是有規模營運且快速的名稱伺服器,則開啟此功能是相當值得的。</para>
-
- <warning>
- <para>在此處使用 <systemitem class="ipaddress">127.0.0.1</systemitem> 會<emphasis>沒有</emphasis>作用,請更改此 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址為上游的名稱伺服器。</para>
- </warning>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"> /*
- Modern versions of BIND use a random <acronym>UDP</acronym> port for each outgoing
- query by default in order to dramatically reduce the possibility
- of cache poisoning. All users are strongly encouraged to utilize
- this feature, and to configure their firewalls to accommodate it.
-
- AS A LAST RESORT in order to get around a restrictive firewall
- policy you can try enabling the option below. Use of this option
- will significantly reduce your ability to withstand cache poisoning
- attacks, and should be avoided if at all possible.
-
- Replace NNNNN in the example with a number between 49160 and 65530.
- */
- // query-source address * port NNNNN;
-};
-
-// If you enable a local name server, do not forget to enter 127.0.0.1
-// first in your /etc/resolv.conf so this server will be queried.
-// Also, make sure to enable it in /etc/rc.conf.
-
-// The traditional root hints mechanism. Use this, OR the slave zones below.
-zone "." { type hint; file "/etc/namedb/named.root"; };
-
-/* Slaving the following zones from the root name servers has some
- significant advantages:
- 1. Faster local resolution for your users
- 2. No spurious traffic will be sent from your network to the roots
- 3. Greater resilience to any potential root server failure/DDoS
-
- On the other hand, this method requires more monitoring than the
- hints file to be sure that an unexpected failure mode has not
- incapacitated your server. Name servers that are serving a lot
- of clients will benefit more from this approach than individual
- hosts. Use with caution.
-
- To use this mechanism, uncomment the entries below, and comment
- the hint zone above.
-
- As documented at http://dns.icann.org/services/axfr/ these zones:
- "." (the root), ARPA, IN-ADDR.ARPA, IP6.ARPA, and ROOT-SERVERS.NET
- are available for AXFR from these servers on IPv4 and IPv6:
- xfr.lax.dns.icann.org, xfr.cjr.dns.icann.org
-*/
-/*
-zone "." {
- type slave;
- file "/etc/namedb/slave/root.slave";
- masters {
- 192.5.5.241; // F.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
- };
- notify no;
-};
-zone "arpa" {
- type slave;
- file "/etc/namedb/slave/arpa.slave";
- masters {
- 192.5.5.241; // F.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
- };
- notify no;
-};
-*/
-
-/* Serving the following zones locally will prevent any queries
- for these zones leaving your network and going to the root
- name servers. This has two significant advantages:
- 1. Faster local resolution for your users
- 2. No spurious traffic will be sent from your network to the roots
-*/
-// RFCs 1912 and 5735 (and BCP 32 for localhost)
-zone "localhost" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/localhost-forward.db"; };
-zone "127.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/localhost-reverse.db"; };
-zone "255.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// RFC 1912-style zone for IPv6 localhost address
-zone "0.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/localhost-reverse.db"; };
-
-// "This" Network (RFCs 1912 and 5735)
-zone "0.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// Private Use Networks (RFCs 1918 and 5735)
-zone "10.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "16.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "17.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "18.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "19.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "20.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "21.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "22.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "23.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "24.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "25.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "26.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "27.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "28.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "29.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "30.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "31.172.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "168.192.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// Link-local/APIPA (RFCs 3927 and 5735)
-zone "254.169.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// IETF protocol assignments (RFCs 5735 and 5736)
-zone "0.0.192.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// TEST-NET-[1-3] for Documentation (RFCs 5735 and 5737)
-zone "2.0.192.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "100.51.198.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "113.0.203.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// IPv6 Range for Documentation (RFC 3849)
-zone "8.b.d.0.1.0.0.2.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// Domain Names for Documentation and Testing (BCP 32)
-zone "test" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "example" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "invalid" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "example.com" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "example.net" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "example.org" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// Router Benchmark Testing (RFCs 2544 and 5735)
-zone "18.198.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "19.198.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// IANA Reserved - Old Class E Space (RFC 5735)
-zone "240.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "241.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "242.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "243.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "244.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "245.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "246.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "247.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "248.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "249.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "250.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "251.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "252.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "253.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "254.in-addr.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// IPv6 Unassigned Addresses (RFC 4291)
-zone "1.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "3.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "4.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "5.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "6.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "7.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "8.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "9.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "a.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "b.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "c.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "d.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "e.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "0.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "1.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "2.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "3.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "4.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "5.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "6.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "7.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "8.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "9.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "a.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "b.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "0.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "1.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "2.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "3.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "4.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "5.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "6.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "7.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// IPv6 ULA (RFC 4193)
-zone "c.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "d.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// IPv6 Link Local (RFC 4291)
-zone "8.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "9.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "a.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "b.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// IPv6 Deprecated Site-Local Addresses (RFC 3879)
-zone "c.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "d.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "e.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-zone "f.e.f.ip6.arpa" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// IP6.INT is Deprecated (RFC 4159)
-zone "ip6.int" { type master; file "/etc/namedb/master/empty.db"; };
-
-// NB: Do not use the IP addresses below, they are faked, and only
-// serve demonstration/documentation purposes!
-//
-// Example slave zone config entries. It can be convenient to become
-// a slave at least for the zone your own domain is in. Ask
-// your network administrator for the IP address of the responsible
-// master name server.
-//
-// Do not forget to include the reverse lookup zone!
-// This is named after the first bytes of the IP address, in reverse
-// order, with ".IN-ADDR.ARPA" appended, or ".IP6.ARPA" for IPv6.
-//
-// Before starting to set up a master zone, make sure you fully
-// understand how DNS and BIND work. There are sometimes
-// non-obvious pitfalls. Setting up a slave zone is usually simpler.
-//
-// NB: Do not blindly enable the examples below. :-) Use actual names
-// and addresses instead.
-
-/* An example dynamic zone
-key "exampleorgkey" {
- algorithm hmac-md5;
- secret "sf87HJqjkqh8ac87a02lla==";
-};
-zone "example.org" {
- type master;
- allow-update {
- key "exampleorgkey";
- };
- file "/etc/namedb/dynamic/example.org";
-};
-*/
-
-/* Example of a slave reverse zone
-zone "1.168.192.in-addr.arpa" {
- type slave;
- file "/etc/namedb/slave/1.168.192.in-addr.arpa";
- masters {
- 192.168.1.1;
- };
-};
-*/</programlisting>
-
- <para>在 <filename>named.conf</filename> 中,這些為正向與反向轄區的備援 (Slave) 項目範例。</para>
-
- <para>每一個要提供的新轄區 (Zone),都必須在 <filename>named.conf</filename> 加入新轄區的項目。</para>
-
- <para>以最簡單的轄區項目 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem> 來舉例:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">zone "example.org" {
- type master;
- file "master/example.org";
-};</programlisting>
-
- <para>該轄區的角色為主要 (Master),使用 <option>type</option> 述敘句來指定,該轄區的資訊會儲存在 <filename>/etc/namedb/master/example.org</filename>,使用 <option>file</option> 述敘句來指定。</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">zone "example.org" {
- type slave;
- file "slave/example.org";
-};</programlisting>
-
- <para>若為次要轄區,則會由主要名稱伺服器接收特定轄區的轄區資訊,並儲存到指定的檔案,若主要伺服器故障或無法連線,次要名稱伺服器會有先前接收過的轄區資訊可用來繼續提供服務。</para>
- </sect4>
-
- <sect4>
- <title>轄區檔案</title>
-
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>BIND</primary>
- <secondary>zone files</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para><systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem> 的主要轄區檔範例 (位於 <filename>/etc/namedb/master/example.org</filename>) 如下:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">$TTL 3600 ; 1 hour default TTL
-example.org. IN SOA ns1.example.org. admin.example.org. (
- 2006051501 ; Serial
- 10800 ; Refresh
- 3600 ; Retry
- 604800 ; Expire
- 300 ; Negative Response TTL
- )
-
-; DNS Servers
- IN NS ns1.example.org.
- IN NS ns2.example.org.
-
-; MX Records
- IN MX 10 mx.example.org.
- IN MX 20 mail.example.org.
-
- IN A 192.168.1.1
-
-; Machine Names
-localhost IN A 127.0.0.1
-ns1 IN A 192.168.1.2
-ns2 IN A 192.168.1.3
-mx IN A 192.168.1.4
-mail IN A 192.168.1.5
-
-; Aliases
-www IN CNAME example.org.</programlisting>
-
- <para>注意,每個有以 <quote>.</quote> 號結尾的主機是完整的主機名稱,也就是說,若沒有以 <quote>.</quote> 結尾則是該源頭 (Origin) 的相對主機名稱。例如 <literal>ns1</literal> 會被轉換成 <literal>ns1.<replaceable>example.org.</replaceable></literal>。</para>
-
- <para>轄區檔案的格式如下:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">recordname IN recordtype value</programlisting>
-
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary><acronym>DNS</acronym></primary>
- <secondary>records</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para>最常用到的 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 記錄有:</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">SOA</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>開始轄區授權 (Authority)</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">NS</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>一台有權的名稱伺服器</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">A</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>主機位址</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">CNAME</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>別名的正規名稱 (Canonical name)</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">MX</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>郵件交換器 (Mail exchanger)</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en">PTR</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>網域名稱指標 (用在反向 <acronym>DNS</acronym>)</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">example.org. IN SOA ns1.example.org. admin.example.org. (
- 2006051501 ; Serial
- 10800 ; Refresh after 3 hours
- 3600 ; Retry after 1 hour
- 604800 ; Expire after 1 week
- 300 ) ; Negative Response TTL</programlisting>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org.</systemitem></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>網域名稱,也同樣是此轄區檔案的源頭 (Origin)。</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><systemitem class="fqdomainname">ns1.example.org.</systemitem></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>此轄區主要/有權的名稱伺服器。</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>admin.example.org.</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>此轄區的負責人,將 <quote>@</quote> 取代後的電子郵件位址。 (<email>admin@example.org</email> 會變成 <literal>admin.example.org</literal>)</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term xml:lang="en"><literal>2006051501</literal></term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>該檔案的序號,每次修改轄區檔案之後應該增加此序號,目前許多管理者會偏好採用 <literal>yyyymmddrr</literal> 格式來編號,如 <literal>2006051501</literal> 代表最後一次修改於 2006 年 5 月 15 號,再後面的 <literal>01</literal> 代表這是在那一天做的第一次修改,序號的編號很重要,因為它會在更新轄區之後用來通知備援 (Slave) 的名稱伺服器。</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"> IN NS ns1.example.org.</programlisting>
-
- <para>這是一個 NS 項目,每個要有權力能做回覆的名稱伺服器必須具有至少設定一個項目。</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">localhost IN A 127.0.0.1
-ns1 IN A 192.168.1.2
-ns2 IN A 192.168.1.3
-mx IN A 192.168.1.4
-mail IN A 192.168.1.5</programlisting>
-
- <para>A 記錄代表主機名稱,以上述例子來說,<systemitem class="fqdomainname">ns1.example.org</systemitem> 會解析為 <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.2</systemitem>。</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"> IN A 192.168.1.1</programlisting>
-
- <para>這行會分配 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址 <systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.1</systemitem> 給目前的源頭 (Origin),在這個例子為 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem>。</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">www IN CNAME @</programlisting>
-
- <para>canonical name 記錄通常用來替主機設定別名,在這個例子中 <systemitem>www</systemitem> 是 <quote>master</quote> 主機的別名,其名稱會與網域名稱 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem> (<systemitem class="ipaddress">192.168.1.1</systemitem>) 相同。CNAME 不能與其他類型的記錄同時用在一個主機上。</para>
-
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>MX record</primary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en"> IN MX 10 mail.example.org.</programlisting>
-
- <para>MX 記錄用來指定該轄區要負責處理內寄郵件的郵件伺服器,<systemitem class="fqdomainname">mail.example.org</systemitem> 是郵件伺服器的主機名稱,而 10 是該郵件伺服器的優先順序。</para>
-
- <para>一個轄區可以有很多台郵件伺服器,每一台使用不同的優先順序 10, 20 以此類推,一台郵件伺服器嘗試要寄件給 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.org</systemitem> 會先嘗試優先順序最高的 MX (優先順序數字最低的記錄),然後第二高的,接著繼續,直到郵件被寄出。</para>
-
- <para>in-addr.arpa 轄區檔案 (反向 <acronym>DNS</acronym>) 也使用相同的格式,除了項目要改使用 PTR 而非 A 或 CNAME。</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">$TTL 3600
-
-1.168.192.in-addr.arpa. IN SOA ns1.example.org. admin.example.org. (
- 2006051501 ; Serial
- 10800 ; Refresh
- 3600 ; Retry
- 604800 ; Expire
- 300 ) ; Negative Response TTL
-
- IN NS ns1.example.org.
- IN NS ns2.example.org.
-
-1 IN PTR example.org.
-2 IN PTR ns1.example.org.
-3 IN PTR ns2.example.org.
-4 IN PTR mx.example.org.
-5 IN PTR mail.example.org.</programlisting>
-
- <para>這個檔案會對上述虛擬網域給予 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位置到主機名稱的正確對應表。</para>
-
- <para>值得注意的是,所有在 PTR 記錄右邊的名字必須要是完整的 (即以 <quote>.</quote> 結尾)。</para>
- </sect4>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>快取名稱伺服器</title>
-
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>BIND</primary>
- <secondary>caching name server</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para>快取名稱伺服器是一種主要用來解析遞迴查詢的名稱伺服器,它只會詢問自己的查詢並記住結果供以後使用。</para>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title xml:lang="en"><acronym role="Domain Name Security Extensions">DNSSEC</acronym></title>
-
- <indexterm xml:lang="en">
- <primary>BIND</primary>
- <secondary><acronym>DNS</acronym> security
- extensions</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para>網域名稱系統安全性擴充 (Domain Name System Security Extension),或簡稱 <acronym role="Domain Name Security Extensions">DNSSEC</acronym>,是一套規範,用來保護解析名稱伺服器收到偽造的 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 資料,如:假 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 記錄,利用數位簽章,解析器可以驗証記錄的正確性。注意,<acronym role="Domain Name Security Extensions">DNSSEC</acronym> 只提供透過數位簽署資源記錄 (Resource Records, <acronym role="Resource Record">RR</acronym>) 的方式來確認正確性,這代表它無法保護要前往 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.net</systemitem> 但卻跑去 <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.com</systemitem> 的使用者,<acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> 所做的唯一一件事便是認証資料在傳輸時沒有被竄改。<acronym>DNS</acronym> 的安全性是保護網際網路重要的一步,要取得更進一步有關 <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> 如何運作的資訊可從相關的 <acronym>RFC</acronym> 文件開始,請參考 <xref linkend="dns-read"/> 清單。</para>
-
- <para>接下來的章節會示範如何在一台運行 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 9 的有權的 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器與遞迴 (或快取) <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器開啟 <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>。雖然所有 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 9 的版本階支援 <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>,但要能夠在驗証 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 查詢時使用已簽署的根轄區必須使用版本 9.6.2 以上,這是因為較先前的版本缺少必要的演算法來開啟使用根轄區金鑰驗證的功能,強烈建議使用 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 9.7 的最新版本或之後的版本以支援根金鑰的自動自動金鑰更新以及自動確保轄區已簽署與更新簽名為最新版的功能,9.6.2 與 9.7 之後版本的設定會有一些差異,差異點會再特別說明。</para>
-
- <sect4>
- <title xml:lang="en">Recursive <acronym>DNS</acronym> Server
- Configuration</title>
-
- <para>需要對 <filename>named.conf</filename> 做一些修改才能開啟遞迴 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器執行查詢 <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> 的驗証,在做這更改前,必須先取得根轄區金鑰或信任的錨點 (Anchor),目前 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 可用的檔案格式不支援根轄區金鑰 (Root zone key),因此必須手動轉換為需要的格式,金鑰本身可使用 <application>dig</application> 查詢根轄區來取得,透過執行</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>dig +multi +noall +answer DNSKEY . &gt; root.dnskey</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>金鑰會儲存到 <filename>root.dnskey</filename>,其內容應會如下:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">. 93910 IN DNSKEY 257 3 8 (
- AwEAAagAIKlVZrpC6Ia7gEzahOR+9W29euxhJhVVLOyQ
- bSEW0O8gcCjFFVQUTf6v58fLjwBd0YI0EzrAcQqBGCzh
- /RStIoO8g0NfnfL2MTJRkxoXbfDaUeVPQuYEhg37NZWA
- JQ9VnMVDxP/VHL496M/QZxkjf5/Efucp2gaDX6RS6CXp
- oY68LsvPVjR0ZSwzz1apAzvN9dlzEheX7ICJBBtuA6G3
- LQpzW5hOA2hzCTMjJPJ8LbqF6dsV6DoBQzgul0sGIcGO
- Yl7OyQdXfZ57relSQageu+ipAdTTJ25AsRTAoub8ONGc
- LmqrAmRLKBP1dfwhYB4N7knNnulqQxA+Uk1ihz0=
- ) ; key id = 19036
-. 93910 IN DNSKEY 256 3 8 (
- AwEAAcaGQEA+OJmOzfzVfoYN249JId7gx+OZMbxy69Hf
- UyuGBbRN0+HuTOpBxxBCkNOL+EJB9qJxt+0FEY6ZUVjE
- g58sRr4ZQ6Iu6b1xTBKgc193zUARk4mmQ/PPGxn7Cn5V
- EGJ/1h6dNaiXuRHwR+7oWh7DnzkIJChcTqlFrXDW3tjt
-) ; key id = 34525</programlisting>
-
- <para>若取得的金鑰與此範例不同不要感到訝異,可能在最後一次更新這些操作指示之後有更改過,這個輸出結果實際上包含了兩組金鑰,在清單中的第一組金鑰,即在 DNSKEY 記錄類型之後有數值 257 的這組,是我們需要的,這個數值代表該金鑰是一個 Secure Entry Point (<acronym role="Secure Entry Point">SEP</acronym>)、俗稱 Key Signing Key (<acronym role="Key Signing Key">KSK</acronym>)。第二組金鑰,數值為 256,這是一個附屬金鑰,俗稱 Zone Signing Key (<acronym role="Zone Signing Key">ZSK</acronym>)。更多有關不同金鑰類型的資訊之後在 <xref linkend="dns-dnssec-auth"/> 會說明。</para>
-
- <para>現在必須驗証這個金鑰並格式化才可供 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 使用。產生 <acronym role="Delegation Signer">DS</acronym> <acronym role="Resource Record">RR</acronym> 集來驗証這個金鑰,使用以下指令建立一個包含這些 <acronym role="Resource Record">RR</acronym> 的檔案</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>dnssec-dsfromkey -f root.dnskey . &gt; root.ds</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>這些記錄分別使用 SHA-1 與 SHA-256,且如下範例所示,使用 SHA-256 的段落較長。</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">. IN DS 19036 8 1
- B256BD09DC8DD59F0E0F0D8541B8328DD986DF6E
-. IN DS 19036 8 2 49AAC11D7B6F6446702E54A1607371607A1A41855200FD2CE1CDDE32F24E8FB5</programlisting>
-
- <para>SHA-256 <acronym>RR</acronym> 現在可以與在 <link xlink:href="https://data.iana.org/root-anchors/root-anchors.xml">https://data.iana.org/root-anchors/root-anchors.xml</link> 中的 digest 比對。要完全確保該金鑰沒有被竄改,<acronym>XML</acronym> 檔案中的資料應使用正確的 <acronym>PGP</acronym> 簽名來驗證。</para>
-
-
- <para>接著,金鑰必須正確的格式化,<acronym>BIND</acronym> 版本 9.6.2 與 9.7 及之後的版本有一些不同,在版本 9.7 開始支援自動追蹤對金鑰的變更並在需要的時候更新,這可使用 <literal>managed-keys</literal> 如下範例所示來達成。若使用較舊的版本,金鑰必須使用 <literal>trusted-keys</literal> 敘述加入且必須手動更新,供 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 9.6.2 的格式如下:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">trusted-keys {
- "." 257 3 8
- "AwEAAagAIKlVZrpC6Ia7gEzahOR+9W29euxhJhVVLOyQbSEW0O8gcCjF
- FVQUTf6v58fLjwBd0YI0EzrAcQqBGCzh/RStIoO8g0NfnfL2MTJRkxoX
- bfDaUeVPQuYEhg37NZWAJQ9VnMVDxP/VHL496M/QZxkjf5/Efucp2gaD
- X6RS6CXpoY68LsvPVjR0ZSwzz1apAzvN9dlzEheX7ICJBBtuA6G3LQpz
- W5hOA2hzCTMjJPJ8LbqF6dsV6DoBQzgul0sGIcGOYl7OyQdXfZ57relS
- Qageu+ipAdTTJ25AsRTAoub8ONGcLmqrAmRLKBP1dfwhYB4N7knNnulq
- QxA+Uk1ihz0=";
-};</programlisting>
-
- <para>供 9.7 的格式則為:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">managed-keys {
- "." initial-key 257 3 8
- "AwEAAagAIKlVZrpC6Ia7gEzahOR+9W29euxhJhVVLOyQbSEW0O8gcCjF
- FVQUTf6v58fLjwBd0YI0EzrAcQqBGCzh/RStIoO8g0NfnfL2MTJRkxoX
- bfDaUeVPQuYEhg37NZWAJQ9VnMVDxP/VHL496M/QZxkjf5/Efucp2gaD
- X6RS6CXpoY68LsvPVjR0ZSwzz1apAzvN9dlzEheX7ICJBBtuA6G3LQpz
- W5hOA2hzCTMjJPJ8LbqF6dsV6DoBQzgul0sGIcGOYl7OyQdXfZ57relS
- Qageu+ipAdTTJ25AsRTAoub8ONGcLmqrAmRLKBP1dfwhYB4N7knNnulq
- QxA+Uk1ihz0=";
-};</programlisting>
-
- <para>現在可以直接或透過引用包含金鑰的檔案將根金鑰 (Root key) 加入到 <filename>named.conf</filename>,完成這些步驟後,編輯 <filename>named.conf</filename> 來設定 <acronym>BIND</acronym> 執行 <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> 在查詢時驗證並加入以下項目到 <literal>options</literal> 指示項目中:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">dnssec-enable yes;
-dnssec-validation yes;</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To verify that it is actually working use
- <application>dig</application> to make a query for a
- signed zone using the resolver just configured. A
- successful reply will contain the <literal>AD</literal>
- flag to indicate the data was authenticated. Running a
- query such as</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>dig @<replaceable>resolver</replaceable> +dnssec se ds </userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">should return the <acronym>DS</acronym>
- <acronym>RR</acronym> for the <literal>.se</literal> zone.
- In the <literal>flags:</literal> section the
- <literal>AD</literal> flag should be set, as seen
- in:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">...
-;; flags: qr rd ra ad; QUERY: 1, ANSWER: 3, AUTHORITY: 0, ADDITIONAL: 1
-...</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The resolver is now capable of authenticating
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> queries.</para>
- </sect4>
-
- <sect4 xml:id="dns-dnssec-auth">
- <title xml:lang="en">Authoritative <acronym>DNS</acronym> Server
- Configuration</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">In order to get an authoritative name server to serve
- a <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> signed zone a little more work
- is required. A zone is signed using cryptographic keys
- which must be generated. It is possible to use only one
- key for this. The preferred method however is to have a
- strong well-protected Key Signing Key
- (<acronym role="Key Signing Key">KSK</acronym>) that is
- not rotated very often and a Zone Signing Key
- (<acronym role="Zone Signing Key">ZSK</acronym>) that is
- rotated more frequently. Information on recommended
- operational practices can be found in <link xlink:href="http://tools.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4641.txt"><acronym>RFC</acronym>
- 4641: <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> Operational
- Practices</link>. Practices regarding the root zone can
- be found in <link xlink:href="http://www.root-dnssec.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/icann-dps-00.txt"><acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>
- Practice Statement for the Root Zone
- <acronym>KSK</acronym> operator</link> and <link xlink:href="http://www.root-dnssec.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/vrsn-dps-00.txt"><acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>
- Practice Statement for the Root Zone
- <acronym>ZSK</acronym> operator</link>. The
- <acronym role="Key Signing Key">KSK</acronym> is used to
- build a chain of authority to the data in need of
- validation and as such is also called a Secure Entry Point
- (<acronym role="Secure Entry Point">SEP</acronym>) key. A
- message digest of this key, called a Delegation Signer
- (<acronym role="Delegation Signer">DS</acronym>) record,
- must be published in the parent zone to establish the
- trust chain. How this is accomplished depends on the
- parent zone owner. The
- <acronym role="Zone Signing Key">ZSK</acronym> is used to
- sign the zone, and only needs to be published
- there.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">To enable <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> for the
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.com</systemitem>
- zone depicted in previous examples, the first step is to
- use <application>dnssec-keygen</application> to generate
- the <acronym>KSK</acronym> and <acronym>ZSK</acronym> key
- pair. This key pair can utilize different cryptographic
- algorithms. It is recommended to use RSA/SHA256 for the
- keys and 2048 bits key length should be enough. To
- generate the <acronym>KSK</acronym> for
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.com</systemitem>,
- run</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>dnssec-keygen -f KSK -a RSASHA256 -b 2048 -n ZONE example.com</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">and to generate the <acronym>ZSK</acronym>, run</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>dnssec-keygen -a RSASHA256 -b 2048 -n ZONE example.com</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en"><application>dnssec-keygen</application> outputs two
- files, the public and the private keys in files named
- similar to
- <filename>Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.key</filename> (public)
- and <filename>Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.private</filename>
- (private). The <literal>nnnnn</literal> part of the file
- name is a five digit key ID. Keep track of which key ID
- belongs to which key. This is especially important when
- having more than one key in a zone. It is also possible
- to rename the keys. For each <acronym>KSK</acronym> file
- do:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>mv Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.key Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.KSK.key</userinput>
-<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>mv Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.private Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.KSK.private</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">For the <acronym>ZSK</acronym> files, substitute
- <literal>KSK</literal> for <literal>ZSK</literal> as
- necessary. The files can now be included in the zone
- file, using the <literal>$include</literal> statement. It
- should look something like this:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">$include Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.KSK.key ; KSK
-$include Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key ; ZSK</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Finally, sign the zone and tell
- <acronym>BIND</acronym> to use the signed zone file. To
- sign a zone <application>dnssec-signzone</application> is
- used. The command to sign the zone
- <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.com</systemitem>,
- located in <filename>example.com.db</filename> would look
- similar to</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>dnssec-signzone -o example.com -k Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.KSK example.com.db Kexample.com.+005+nnnnn.ZSK.key</userinput></screen>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">The key supplied to the <option>-k</option> argument
- is the <acronym>KSK</acronym> and the other key file is
- the <acronym>ZSK</acronym> that should be used in the
- signing. It is possible to supply more than one
- <acronym>KSK</acronym> and <acronym>ZSK</acronym>, which
- will result in the zone being signed with all supplied
- keys. This can be needed to supply zone data signed using
- more than one algorithm. The output of
- <application>dnssec-signzone</application> is a zone file
- with all <acronym>RR</acronym>s signed. This output will
- end up in a file with the extension
- <literal>.signed</literal>, such as
- <filename>example.com.db.signed</filename>. The
- <acronym role="Delegation Signer">DS</acronym> records
- will also be written to a separate file
- <filename>dsset-example.com</filename>. To use this
- signed zone just modify the zone directive in
- <filename>named.conf</filename> to use
- <filename>example.com.db.signed</filename>. By default,
- the signatures are only valid 30 days, meaning that the
- zone needs to be resigned in about 15 days to be sure
- that resolvers are not caching records with stale
- signatures. It is possible to make a script and a cron
- job to do this. See relevant manuals for details.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Be sure to keep private keys confidential, as with all
- cryptographic keys. When changing a key it is best to
- include the new key into the zone, while still signing
- with the old one, and then move over to using the new key
- to sign. After these steps are done the old key can be
- removed from the zone. Failure to do this might render
- the <acronym>DNS</acronym> data unavailable for a time,
- until the new key has propagated through the
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> hierarchy. For more information on
- key rollovers and other <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>
- operational issues, see <link xlink:href="http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4641.txt"><acronym>RFC</acronym>
- 4641: <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym> Operational
- practices</link>.</para>
- </sect4>
-
- <sect4>
- <title xml:lang="en">Automation Using <acronym>BIND</acronym> 9.7 or
- Later</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Beginning with <acronym>BIND</acronym> version 9.7 a
- new feature called <emphasis>Smart Signing</emphasis> was
- introduced. This feature aims to make the key management
- and signing process simpler by automating parts of the
- task. By putting the keys into a directory called a
- <emphasis>key repository</emphasis>, and using the new
- option <literal>auto-dnssec</literal>, it is possible to
- create a dynamic zone which will be resigned as needed.
- To update this zone use
- <application>nsupdate</application> with the new option
- <option>-l</option>. <application>rndc</application> has
- also grown the ability to sign zones with keys in the key
- repository, using the option <option>sign</option>. To
- tell <acronym>BIND</acronym> to use this automatic signing
- and zone updating for <systemitem class="fqdomainname">example.com</systemitem>, add the
- following to <filename>named.conf</filename>:</para>
-
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">zone example.com {
- type master;
- key-directory "/etc/named/keys";
- update-policy local;
- auto-dnssec maintain;
- file "/etc/named/dynamic/example.com.zone";
-};</programlisting>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">After making these changes, generate keys for the zone
- as explained in <xref linkend="dns-dnssec-auth"/>, put
- those keys in the key repository given as the argument to
- the <literal>key-directory</literal> in the zone
- configuration and the zone will be signed automatically.
- Updates to a zone configured this way must be done using
- <application>nsupdate</application>, which will take care
- of re-signing the zone with the new data added. For
- further details, see <xref linkend="dns-read"/> and the
- <acronym>BIND</acronym> documentation.</para>
- </sect4>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>安全性</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Although BIND is the most common implementation of
- <acronym>DNS</acronym>, there is always the issue of
- security. Possible and exploitable security holes are
- sometimes found.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">While FreeBSD automatically drops
- <application>named</application> into a <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chroot</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
- environment; there are several other security mechanisms in
- place which could help to lure off possible
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> service attacks.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">It is always good idea to read
- <link xlink:href="http://www.cert.org/">CERT</link>'s
- security advisories and to subscribe to the
- <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-security-notifications">FreeBSD security notifications mailing list</link> to stay up to date with the
- current Internet and FreeBSD security issues.</para>
-
- <tip>
- <para xml:lang="en">If a problem arises, keeping sources up to date and
- having a fresh build of <application>named</application>
- may help.</para>
- </tip>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="dns-read">
- <title>延伸閱讀</title>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">BIND/<application>named</application> manual pages:
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rndc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>named.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>nsupdate</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dnssec-signzone</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
- <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dnssec-keygen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry></para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="https://www.isc.org/software/bind">Official
- ISC BIND Page</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="https://www.isc.org/software/guild">Official
- ISC BIND Forum</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/dns5/">O'Reilly
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> and BIND 5th
- Edition</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.root-dnssec.org/documentation/">Root
- <acronym>DNSSEC</acronym></link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://data.iana.org/root-anchors/draft-icann-dnssec-trust-anchor.html"><acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>
- Trust Anchor Publication for the Root
- Zone</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1034">RFC1034
- - Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1035">RFC1035
- - Domain Names - Implementation and
- Specification</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4033">RFC4033
- - <acronym>DNS</acronym> Security Introduction and
- Requirements</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4034">RFC4034
- - Resource Records for the <acronym>DNS</acronym>
- Security Extensions</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4035">RFC4035
- - Protocol Modifications for the
- <acronym>DNS</acronym> Security
- Extensions</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4641">RFC4641
- - DNSSEC Operational Practices</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5011">RFC
- 5011 - Automated Updates of <acronym>DNS</acronym>
- Security (<acronym>DNSSEC</acronym>
- Trust Anchors</link></para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 xml:id="network-apache">
@@ -45869,9 +45287,21 @@ AddModule mod_php5.c
<para><application>Samba</application> 是熱門的開放源碼軟體套件,使用 <acronym>SMB/CIFS</acronym> 通訊協定提供檔案與列印服務,此通訊協定內建於 <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 系統,在非 <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 的系統可透過安裝 <application>Samba</application> 客戶端程式庫來支援此協定。此通訊協定讓客戶端可以存取共享的資料與印表機,這些共享的資源可掛載到一個本機的磁碟機,而共享的印表機則可以當做本機的印表機使用。</para>
- <para>在 FreeBSD 上,可以使用 <package>net/samba-smbclient</package> Port 或套件來安裝 <application>Samba</application> 客戶端程式庫,這個客戶端提供了讓 FreeBSD 系統能存取 <acronym>SMB/CIFS</acronym> 在 <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 網路中共享的資源。</para>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 系統也可以透過安裝 <package>net/samba46</package> Port 或套件來設定成 <application>Samba</application> 伺服器,這讓管理者可以在 FreeBSD 系統上建立 <acronym>SMB</acronym>/<acronym>CIFS</acronym> 的共享資源,讓執行 <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 或 <application>Samba</application> 客戶端程式庫的客戶端能夠存取。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">On FreeBSD, the <application>Samba</application> client
+ libraries can be installed using the
+ <package>net/samba48</package> port or package. The
+ client provides the ability for a FreeBSD system to access
+ <acronym>SMB/CIFS</acronym> shares in a <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>
+ network.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">A FreeBSD system can also be configured to act as a
+ <application>Samba</application> server by installing the same
+ <package>net/samba48</package> port or package. This allows the
+ administrator to create <acronym>SMB</acronym>/<acronym>CIFS</acronym>
+ shares on
+ the FreeBSD system which can be accessed by clients running
+ <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> or the <application>Samba</application>
+ client libraries.</para>
<sect2>
<title>伺服器設定</title>
@@ -45987,15 +45417,12 @@ directory mask = 0755</programlisting>
<para>要在開機時啟動 <application>Samba</application>,可加入下行到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">samba_enable="YES"</programlisting>
-
- <para>要啟動 Samba4 可使用:</para>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">samba_server_enable="YES"</programlisting>
<para>要立即啟動 <application>Samba</application>:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service samba start</userinput>
-Starting SAMBA: removing stale tdbs :
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service samba_server start</userinput>
+Performing sanity check on Samba configuration: OK
Starting nmbd.
Starting smbd.</screen>
@@ -46005,7 +45432,7 @@ Starting smbd.</screen>
<para><application>Samba</application> 可以隨時停止,要停止可輸入:</para>
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service samba stop</userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service samba_server stop</userinput></screen>
<para><application>Samba</application> 是一套擁有能整合 <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 網路功能的複雜軟體套件,除了在此處說明的基礎設定,要取得更多的功能資訊,請參考 <uri xlink:href="http://www.samba.org">http://www.samba.org</uri>。</para>
</sect2>
@@ -46140,7 +45567,7 @@ driftfile /var/db/ntp.drift</programlisting>
appear in <filename>/dev/</filename> and the device must be
separately formatted and mounted.</para>
- <para xml:lang="en">Beginning with 10.0-RELEASE, FreeBSD provides a native,
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD provides a native,
kernel-based <acronym>iSCSI</acronym> target and initiator.
This section describes how to configure a FreeBSD system as a
target or an initiator.</para>
@@ -46148,15 +45575,6 @@ driftfile /var/db/ntp.drift</programlisting>
<sect2 xml:id="network-iscsi-target">
<title>設定 <acronym>iSCSI</acronym> Target</title>
- <note>
- <para xml:lang="en">The native <acronym>iSCSI</acronym> target is supported
- starting with FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE. To use
- <acronym>iSCSI</acronym> in older versions of FreeBSD, install
- a userspace target from the Ports Collection, such as
- <package>net/istgt</package>. This chapter only describes
- the native target.</para>
- </note>
-
<para xml:lang="en">To configure an <acronym>iSCSI</acronym> target, create
the <filename>/etc/ctl.conf</filename> configuration file, add
a line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> to make sure the
@@ -53481,6 +52899,7 @@ BEGEMOT-BRIDGE-MIB::begemotBridgeDefaultBridgeIf.0 s bridge2</screen>
lagg0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; metric 0 mtu 1500
options=8&lt;VLAN_MTU&gt;
ether 00:05:5d:71:8d:b8
+ inet 10.0.0.3 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 10.0.0.255
media: Ethernet autoselect
status: active
laggproto lacp
@@ -53798,7 +53217,7 @@ ifconfig_<literal>lagg<replaceable>0</replaceable></literal>="up laggproto failo
<acronym>NFS</acronym> by adding the following to
<filename>/etc/exports</filename>:</para>
- <programlisting xml:lang="en">/b -ro -alldirs</programlisting>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">/b -ro -alldirs -maproot=root</programlisting>
</step>
<step>
@@ -53837,21 +53256,16 @@ ifconfig_<literal>lagg<replaceable>0</replaceable></literal>="up laggproto failo
</step>
<step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Rebuild the FreeBSD kernel and userland (refer to <xref linkend="makeworld"/> for more detailed
- instructions):</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make buildworld</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make buildkernel</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para xml:lang="en">Install FreeBSD into the directory mounted over
- <acronym>NFS</acronym>:</para>
-
- <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make installworld DESTDIR=${NFSROOTDIR}</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make installkernel DESTDIR=${NFSROOTDIR}</userinput>
-<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>make distribution DESTDIR=${NFSROOTDIR}</userinput></screen>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Install the base system into
+ <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}</filename>, either by
+ decompressing the official archives or by rebuilding
+ the FreeBSD kernel and userland (refer to
+ <xref linkend="makeworld"/> for more detailed
+ instructions, but do not forget to add
+ <option>DESTDIR=<replaceable>${NFSROOTDIR}</replaceable></option>
+ when running the
+ <command>make installkernel</command> and
+ <command>make installworld</command> commands.</para>
</step>
<step>
@@ -53925,7 +53339,16 @@ Received 264951 bytes in 0.1 seconds</screen>
<filename>/etc</filename> and <filename>/var</filename> will
be created and mounted and the contents of the
<filename>cpio.gz</filename> files will be copied into
- them.</para>
+ them. By default, these file systems have a maximum capacity
+ of 5 megabytes. If your archives do not fit, which is
+ usually the case for <filename>/var</filename> when binary
+ packages have been installed, request a larger size by putting
+ the number of 512 byte sectors needed (e.g., 5 megabytes
+ is 10240 sectors) in
+ <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}/conf/base/etc/md_size</filename> and
+ <filename>${NFSROOTDIR}/conf/base/var/md_size</filename>
+ files for <filename>/etc</filename> and
+ <filename>/var</filename> file systems respectively.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 xml:id="network-pxe-setting-up-dhcp">
@@ -53965,7 +53388,7 @@ Received 264951 bytes in 0.1 seconds</screen>
next-server <replaceable>192.168.0.1</replaceable> ;
# path of boot loader obtained via tftp
- filename "<replaceable>FreeBSD/install/boot/pxeboot</replaceable>" ;
+ filename "<replaceable>FreeBSD/install/boot/pxeboot</replaceable>" ;
# pxeboot boot loader will try to NFS mount this directory for root FS
option root-path "<replaceable>192.168.0.1:/b/tftpboot/FreeBSD/install/</replaceable>" ;
@@ -54501,7 +53924,7 @@ Received 264951 bytes in 0.1 seconds</screen>
rtsold_enable="YES"</programlisting>
<para xml:lang="en">The first line enables the specified interface to receive
- router solicitation messages. The second line enables the
+ router advertisement messages. The second line enables the
router solicitation daemon, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rtsol</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
<para xml:lang="en">If the interface needs a statically assigned
@@ -54594,7 +54017,7 @@ rtsold_enable="YES"</programlisting>
<programlisting xml:lang="en">rtadvd_enable="YES"</programlisting>
<para xml:lang="en">It is important to specify the interface on which to
- do <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router solicitation. For example,
+ do <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router advertisement. For example,
to tell <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rtadvd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to use
<filename>rl0</filename>:</para>
@@ -54982,13 +54405,15 @@ ifconfig_<replaceable>em0</replaceable>_alias1="inet vhid <replaceable>2</replac
the master becomes available again.</para>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Preemption is disabled by default. If preemption has
- been enabled, <systemitem>hostc.example.org</systemitem>
- might not release the virtual <acronym>IP</acronym> address
- back to the original master server. The administrator
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the original master server becomes available again,
+ <systemitem>hostc.example.org</systemitem> will not release
+ the virtual <acronym>IP</acronym> address back to it
+ automatically. For this to happen, preemption has to be
+ enabled. The feature is disabled by default,
+ it is controlled via the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> variable
+ <varname>net.inet.carp.preempt</varname>. The administrator
can force the backup server to return the
- <acronym>IP</acronym> address to the master with the
- command:</para>
+ <acronym>IP</acronym> address to the master:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig em0 vhid 1 state backup</userinput></screen>
</note>
@@ -55065,7 +54490,8 @@ ifconfig_carp0="vhid <replaceable>1</replaceable> advskew <replaceable>100</repl
ifconfig_carp1="vhid <replaceable>2</replaceable> advskew <replaceable>100</replaceable> pass <replaceable>testpass</replaceable> <replaceable>192.168.1.51/24</replaceable>"</programlisting>
<note>
- <para xml:lang="en">Preemption is disabled in the GENERIC FreeBSD kernel. If
+ <para xml:lang="en">Preemption is disabled in the
+ <filename>GENERIC</filename> FreeBSD kernel. If
preemption has been enabled with a custom kernel,
<systemitem>hostc.example.org</systemitem> may not release
the <acronym>IP</acronym> address back to the original
@@ -55095,8 +54521,9 @@ ifconfig_carp1="vhid <replaceable>2</replaceable> advskew <replaceable>100</repl
<indexterm><primary>虛擬 LAN</primary></indexterm>
<para xml:lang="en"><acronym>VLANs</acronym> are a way of virtually dividing up
- a network into many different subnetworks. Each will have its
- own broadcast domain and be isolated from the rest of the
+ a network into many different subnetworks, also referred
+ to as segmenting. Each segment will have its
+ own broadcast domain and be isolated from other
<acronym>VLANs</acronym>.</para>
<para>在 FreeBSD 上,要使用 <acronym>VLANs</acronym> 必須有網路卡驅動程式的支援,要查看那些驅動程式支援 vlan,請參考 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vlan</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 操作手冊。</para>
@@ -55107,7 +54534,7 @@ ifconfig_carp1="vhid <replaceable>2</replaceable> advskew <replaceable>100</repl
<para xml:lang="en">To configure <acronym>VLANs</acronym> at run time, with a
<acronym>NIC</acronym> of <literal>em0</literal> and a
- <acronym>VLAN</acronym> tag of <systemitem>5</systemitem>. The
+ <acronym>VLAN</acronym> tag of <systemitem>5</systemitem> the
command would look like this:</para>
<screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>em0.5</replaceable> create vlan <replaceable>5</replaceable> vlandev <replaceable>em0</replaceable> inet 192.168.20.20/24</userinput></screen>
@@ -55134,6 +54561,38 @@ ifconfig_<replaceable>em0</replaceable>_<replaceable>5</replaceable>="inet 192.1
<literal>vlans_<replaceable>em0</replaceable></literal>
field and adding an additional line configuring the network on
that <acronym>VLAN</acronym> tag's interface.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">It is useful to assign a symbolic name to an interface so
+ that when the associated hardware is changed, only a few
+ configuration variables need to be updated. For example,
+ security cameras need to be run over VLAN 1 on
+ <literal>em0</literal>. Later, if the <literal>em0</literal>
+ card is replaced with a card that uses the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ixgb</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> driver,
+ all references to <literal>em0.1</literal> will not have to
+ change to <literal>ixgb0.1</literal>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To configure <acronym>VLAN</acronym>
+ <systemitem>5</systemitem>, on the
+ <acronym>NIC</acronym> <literal>em0</literal>, assign the
+ interface name <literal>cameras</literal>, and assign the
+ interface an IP address of <systemitem class="ipaddress"><replaceable>192.168.20.20</replaceable></systemitem>
+ with a <systemitem class="netmask">24</systemitem>-bit prefix,
+ use this command:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>em0.5</replaceable> create vlan <replaceable>5</replaceable> vlandev <replaceable>em0</replaceable> name <replaceable>cameras</replaceable> inet <replaceable>192.168.20.20/24</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For an interface named <literal>video</literal>, use the
+ following:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>video.5</replaceable> create vlan <replaceable>5</replaceable> vlandev <replaceable>video</replaceable> name <replaceable>cameras inet 192.168.20.20/24</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To apply the changes at boot time, add the following lines to
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">vlans_<replaceable>video</replaceable>="<replaceable>camera</replaceable>"
+create_args_<replaceable>camera</replaceable>="vlan <replaceable>5</replaceable>"
+ifconfig_<replaceable>camera</replaceable>="inet <replaceable>192.168.20.20/24</replaceable>"</programlisting>
+
</sect1>
</chapter>
@@ -55166,7 +54625,7 @@ ifconfig_<replaceable>em0</replaceable>_<replaceable>5</replaceable>="inet 192.1
Phone: <phone>+1 925 240-6652</phone>
Fax: <fax>+1 925 674-0821</fax>
Email: <email>info@freebsdmall.com</email>
- WWW: <otheraddr xlink:href="http://www.freebsdmall.com/">http://www.freebsdmall.com/</otheraddr>
+ WWW: <otheraddr xlink:href="https://www.freebsdmall.com">https://www.freebsdmall.com</otheraddr>
</address>
</listitem>
@@ -55192,35 +54651,6 @@ ifconfig_<replaceable>em0</replaceable>_<replaceable>5</replaceable>="inet 192.1
</address>
</listitem>
-<!--
-This site is just showing the Apache test page.
- <listitem>
- <address>
- Linux Distro UK
- <street>42 Wharfedale Road</street>
- <city>Margate</city>
- <postcode>CT9 2TB</postcode>
- <country>United Kingdom</country>
- WWW: <otheraddr
- xlink:href="https://linux-distro.co.uk/">https://linux-distro.co.uk/</otheraddr>
- </address>
- </listitem>
-
-This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
- <listitem>
- <address>The Linux Emporium
- <street>The Techno Centre, Puma Way</street>
- <city>Parkside</city>
- <postcode>CV1 2TT</postcode>
- <country>United Kingdom</country>
- Phone: <phone>+44 (0)247 615 8121</phone>
- Fax: <fax>+44 1491 837016</fax>
- WWW: <otheraddr
- xlink:href="http://www.linuxemporium.co.uk/products/bsd/">http://www.linuxemporium.co.uk/products/bsd/</otheraddr>
- </address>
- </listitem>
--->
-
<listitem>
<address xml:lang="en">Linux Center
<street>Galernaya Street, 55</street>
@@ -56012,7 +55442,14 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<sect1 xml:id="mirrors-rsync">
<title>使用 <application>rsync</application></title>
- <para>這些站台讓 FreeBSD 可透過 rsync 通訊協定取得。<application>rsync</application> 工具運作的方式類似 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rcp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令,但有更多的選項可用,且使用 rsync 遠端更新協定,該協定只會傳輸兩個檔案集之間的差異,所以能夠大大的加快在網路上同步的速度,這對大多數 FreeBSD <acronym>FTP</acronym> 伺服器的鏡像站非常有用。<application>rsync</application> 在許多作業系統上也可以使用,在 FreeBSD 上請參考 <package>net/rsync</package> Port 或使用套件。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">These sites make FreeBSD available through the rsync
+ protocol. The <application>rsync</application> utility
+ transfers only the differences between two sets of files.
+ This is useful for mirror sites of the FreeBSD
+ <acronym>FTP</acronym> server. The
+ <application>rsync</application> suite is available for many
+ operating systems, on FreeBSD, see the <package>net/rsync</package>
+ port or use the package.</para>
<variablelist>
<varlistentry>
@@ -56301,15 +55738,6 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.jp.FreeBSD.org/">Jpman
- Project, Japan FreeBSD Users Group</link>. <link xlink:href="http://www.pc.mycom.co.jp/FreeBSD/urm.html">FreeBSD
- User's Reference Manual</link> (Japanese translation).
- <link xlink:href="http://www.pc.mycom.co.jp/">Mainichi
- Communications Inc.</link>, 1998. ISBN4-8399-0088-4
- P3800E.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.ed.ac.uk/">Edinburgh
University</link> has written an <link xlink:href="http://www.ed.ac.uk/information-services/help-consultancy/is-skills/catalogue/program-op-sys-catalogue/unix1">Online
Guide</link> for newcomers to the UNIX environment.</para>
@@ -56707,7 +56135,7 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://planet.freebsd.org/">Planet
+ <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="https://planet.freebsd.org/">Planet
FreeBSD</link> offers an aggregation feed of dozens of blogs
written by FreeBSD developers. Many developers use this to
post quick notes about what they are working on, new
@@ -56866,6 +56294,11 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<entry xml:lang="en">Where to send test messages instead of to
one of the actual lists</entry>
</row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-women">freebsd-women</link></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">FreeBSD advocacy for women</entry>
+ </row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</informaltable>
@@ -56945,6 +56378,18 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</row>
<row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/dev-ci">dev-ci</link></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">Build and test reports from the Continuous
+ Integration servers</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/dev-reviews">dev-reviews</link></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">Notifications of the FreeBSD review
+ system</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">freebsd-doc</link></entry>
<entry xml:lang="en">Creating FreeBSD related documents</entry>
</row>
@@ -56966,6 +56411,11 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</row>
<row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-elastic">freebsd-elastic</link></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">FreeBSD-specific ElasticSearch discussions</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-embedded">freebsd-embedded</link></entry>
<entry xml:lang="en">Using FreeBSD in embedded applications</entry>
</row>
@@ -56990,6 +56440,11 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</row>
<row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-erlang">freebsd-erlang</link></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">FreeBSD-specific Erlang discussions</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-firewire">freebsd-firewire</link></entry>
<entry xml:lang="en">FreeBSD <trademark class="registered">FireWire</trademark> (iLink, IEEE 1394) technical
discussion</entry>
@@ -57039,6 +56494,12 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</row>
<row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-haskell">freebsd-haskell</link></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">FreeBSD-specific Haskell issues and
+ discussions</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-hardware">freebsd-hardware</link></entry>
<entry xml:lang="en">General discussion of hardware for running
FreeBSD</entry>
@@ -57561,6 +57022,20 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</row>
<row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/svn-src-stable-12">svn-src-stable-12</link></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/usr/src</filename></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">All changes to the <filename>stable/12</filename>
+ branch of the src Subversion repository</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/svn-src-stable-12">svn-src-stable-12</link></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/usr/src</filename></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">All changes to the <filename>stable/12</filename>
+ branch of the src Subversion repository</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
<entry xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/svn-src-stable-other">svn-src-stable-other</link></entry>
<entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/usr/src</filename></entry>
<entry xml:lang="en">All changes to the
@@ -57895,6 +57370,29 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
+ <term xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/dev-ci">dev-ci</link></term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Continuous Integration reports of build
+ and test results</emphasis></para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">All Continuous Integration reports of build and test
+ results</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/dev-reviews">dev-reviews</link></term>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><emphasis>Notifications of work in progress in
+ FreeBSD's review tool</emphasis></para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Automated notifications of work in progress for
+ review in FreeBSD's review tools, including
+ patches.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
<term xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">freebsd-doc</link></term>
<listitem>
@@ -58987,11 +58485,6 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="news:fr.comp.os.bsd">fr.comp.os.bsd</link>
(French)</para>
</listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="news:it.comp.os.freebsd">it.comp.os.freebsd</link>
- (Italian)</para>
- </listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</sect2>
@@ -59036,18 +58529,6 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
<listitem>
<para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="news:comp.windows.x">comp.windows.x</link></para>
</listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="news:comp.windows.x.apps">comp.windows.x.apps</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="news:comp.windows.x.announce">comp.windows.x.announce</link></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="news:comp.emulators.ms-windows.wine">comp.emulators.ms-windows.wine</link></para>
- </listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -59356,40 +58837,6 @@ This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
</itemizedlist>
</sect1>
-<!--
-Comment out for now as only one address
- <sect1 xml:id="eresources-email">
- <title>Email Addresses</title>
-
- <para>The following user groups provide &os; related email
- addresses for their members. The listed administrator reserves
- the right to revoke the address if it is abused in any
- way.</para>
-
- <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
- <tgroup cols="4">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>Domain</entry>
- <entry>Facilities</entry>
- <entry>User Group</entry>
- <entry>Administrator</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry>ukug.uk.FreeBSD.org</entry>
- <entry>Forwarding only</entry>
- <entry><email>ukfreebsd@uk.FreeBSD.org</email></entry>
- <entry>Lee Johnston
- <email>lee@uk.FreeBSD.org</email></entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
- </sect1>
- -->
</appendix>
@@ -59435,247 +58882,85 @@ Comment out for now as only one address
<title>Security Officer Team <email>security-officer@FreeBSD.org</email></title>
<!-- $FreeBSD$ -->
<!--
-sh addkey.sh security-officer ED67ECD65DCF6AE7 ;
+sh addkey.sh security-officer D39792F49EA7E5C2 ;
-->
<programlisting role="pgpfingerprint"><![CDATA[
-pub rsa4096/ED67ECD65DCF6AE7 2013-09-24 [expires: 2018-01-01]
- Key fingerprint = 1CF7 FF6F ADF5 CA9F BE1B 8CB2 ED67 ECD6 5DCF 6AE7
+pub rsa4096/D39792F49EA7E5C2 2017-08-16 [SC] [expires: 2023-01-02]
+ Key fingerprint = FC0E 878A E5AF E788 028D 6355 D397 92F4 9EA7 E5C2
uid FreeBSD Security Officer <security-officer@FreeBSD.org>
-sub rsa4096/B64357A343D9CBAE 2013-09-24 [expires: 2018-01-01]
+sub rsa4096/6DD0A349F26ADEFD 2017-08-16 [E] [expires: 2023-01-02]
]]></programlisting>
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-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
]]></programlisting>
@@ -59777,213 +59062,70 @@ lIjBtlclVhaUrE2uLx/yTz2Apbm+GAmD8M0dQ7IYsOFlZNBW9zjgLLCtWDW+p1A=
<title>Core Team Secretary <email>core-secretary@FreeBSD.org</email></title>
<!-- $FreeBSD$ -->
<!--
-sh addkey.sh core-secretary 36A7C05FE1ECF9BB ;
+sh addkey.sh core-secretary 0CB403E4E95B96EC ;
-->
<programlisting role="pgpfingerprint"><![CDATA[
-pub rsa4096/36A7C05FE1ECF9BB 2014-07-09 [SC] [expires: 2018-07-08]
- Key fingerprint = C07B F5E3 10AE 64BF 6120 B0F6 36A7 C05F E1EC F9BB
+pub rsa2048/0CB403E4E95B96EC 2018-06-30 [SC] [expires: 2020-06-29]
+ Key fingerprint = 9F02 836F 50D3 AD5A B75A C588 0CB4 03E4 E95B 96EC
uid FreeBSD Core Team Secretary <core-secretary@freebsd.org>
-uid Core Secretary <core-secretary@freebsd.org>
-sub rsa4096/7B5150C8D7CE5D02 2014-07-09 [E] [expires: 2018-07-08]
+sub rsa2048/133C3338A5B95A60 2018-06-30 [E] [expires: 2020-06-29]
+ Key fingerprint = FA37 B8AA C667 C3AA D310 751D 133C 3338 A5B9 5A60
]]></programlisting>
<programlisting role="pgpkey"><![CDATA[
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+SKjezMbru9cgFYk6R3LO+mK5DwtGMgyzipKAN8Kh92pX2WERUeMFulkYa4+rdVkP
+kBtB49hmDj25GPw/72Vuksg5m7sbpEZzt6JjXQN0ynDjBuizE/HYm2E8VW5tH1aH
+wdzVGruNVIOMMF3gHKbJbrxKiq/SPJfph0YGeL6v5bF9mgizGamEUn9YHVkCqZ7z
+wDuSIDVTSiQQOJesD58WOADCDINEP3uXFhlI1A0Au7X+XYyjIjHCdyTNhBI=
+=5VKx
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
]]></programlisting>
@@ -61051,11 +60193,6 @@ O8MgMjzGhlE=
</glossentry>
<glossentry>
- <glossterm xml:lang="en">MFP4</glossterm>
- <glosssee otherterm="mfp4-glossary"/>
- </glossentry>
-
- <glossentry>
<glossterm xml:lang="en">MFS</glossterm>
<glosssee otherterm="mfs-glossary"/>
</glossentry>
@@ -61139,16 +60276,6 @@ O8MgMjzGhlE=
</glossdef>
</glossentry>
- <glossentry xml:id="mfp4-glossary">
- <glossterm xml:lang="en">Merge From Perforce</glossterm>
- <acronym xml:lang="en">MFP4</acronym>
- <glossdef subject="FreeBSD">
- <para xml:lang="en">To merge functionality or a patch from the Perforce
- repository to the -CURRENT branch.</para>
- <glossseealso otherterm="perforce-glossary"/>
- </glossdef>
- </glossentry>
-
<glossentry xml:id="mfs-glossary">
<glossterm xml:lang="en">Merge From Stable</glossterm>
<acronym xml:lang="en">MFS</acronym>
@@ -61312,11 +60439,6 @@ O8MgMjzGhlE=
<title xml:lang="en">P</title>
<glossentry>
- <glossterm xml:lang="en">p4</glossterm>
- <glosssee otherterm="perforce-glossary"/>
- </glossentry>
-
- <glossentry>
<glossterm xml:lang="en">PAE</glossterm>
<glosssee otherterm="pae-glossary"/>
</glossentry>
@@ -61420,20 +60542,6 @@ O8MgMjzGhlE=
</glossdef>
</glossentry>
- <glossentry xml:id="perforce-glossary">
- <glossterm xml:lang="en">Perforce</glossterm>
- <glossdef>
- <para xml:lang="en">A source code control product made by
- <link xlink:href="http://www.perforce.com/">Perforce Software</link>.
- Although not open source, its use
- is free of charge to open-source projects such as FreeBSD.</para>
-
- <para xml:lang="en">Some FreeBSD developers use a Perforce repository as a staging
- area for code that is considered too experimental for the
- -CURRENT branch.</para>
- </glossdef>
- </glossentry>
-
<glossentry xml:id="pc-glossary">
<glossterm xml:lang="en">Personal Computer</glossterm>
<acronym xml:lang="en">PC</acronym>
diff --git a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po
index 1debc02a62..d2a09f123f 100644
--- a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po
+++ b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/zh_TW.po
@@ -2,15 +2,15 @@
msgid ""
msgstr ""
"Project-Id-Version: \n"
-"POT-Creation-Date: 2017-10-22 10:34+0800\n"
-"PO-Revision-Date: 2017-10-22 11:43+0800\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2018-12-20 22:25+0800\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: 2018-12-20 14:22+0800\n"
"Last-Translator: Chien Wei Lin <cwlin0416@gmail.com>\n"
"Language-Team: \n"
"Language: zh_TW\n"
"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
-"X-Generator: Poedit 2.0.4\n"
+"X-Generator: Poedit 1.8.11\n"
#. Put one translator per line, in the form NAME <EMAIL>, YEAR1, YEAR2
msgctxt "_"
@@ -18,34 +18,34 @@ msgid "translator-credits"
msgstr "Chien Wei Lin <cwlin0416@gmail.com>"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:641
+#: book.translate.xml:668
msgid "FreeBSD Handbook"
msgstr "FreeBSD 使用手冊"
#. (itstool) path: info/author
-#: book.translate.xml:643
+#: book.translate.xml:670
msgid "<orgname>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</orgname>"
msgstr "<orgname>FreeBSD 文件計劃</orgname>"
#. (itstool) path: info/copyright
-#: book.translate.xml:651
+#: book.translate.xml:678
msgid ""
"<year>1995</year> <year>1996</year> <year>1997</year> <year>1998</year> "
"<year>1999</year> <year>2000</year> <year>2001</year> <year>2002</year> "
"<year>2003</year> <year>2004</year> <year>2005</year> <year>2006</year> "
"<year>2007</year> <year>2008</year> <year>2009</year> <year>2010</year> "
"<year>2011</year> <year>2012</year> <year>2013</year> <year>2014</year> "
-"<year>2015</year> <year>2016</year> <year>2017</year> <holder>The FreeBSD "
-"Documentation Project</holder>"
+"<year>2015</year> <year>2016</year> <year>2017</year> <year>2018</year> "
+"<holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/title
-#: book.translate.xml:680
+#: book.translate.xml:708
msgid "Copyright"
msgstr "版權"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:682
+#: book.translate.xml:710
msgid ""
"Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms (XML, "
"HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without modification, are "
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:689
+#: book.translate.xml:717
msgid ""
"Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the above copyright "
"notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer as the first "
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:695
+#: book.translate.xml:723
msgid ""
"Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs, converted to "
"PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce the above copyright "
@@ -70,7 +70,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:704
+#: book.translate.xml:732
msgid ""
"THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT \"AS IS"
"\" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE "
@@ -86,32 +86,32 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:721
+#: book.translate.xml:749
msgid "FreeBSD is a registered trademark of the FreeBSD Foundation."
msgstr "FreeBSD 是 FreeBSD 基金會的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:723
+#: book.translate.xml:751
msgid "3Com and HomeConnect are registered trademarks of 3Com Corporation."
msgstr "3Com 和 HomeConnect 是 3Com Corporation 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:725
+#: book.translate.xml:753
msgid "3ware is a registered trademark of 3ware Inc."
msgstr "3ware 是 3ware Inc 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:727
+#: book.translate.xml:755
msgid "ARM is a registered trademark of ARM Limited."
msgstr "ARM 是 ARM Limited. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:729
+#: book.translate.xml:757
msgid "Adaptec is a registered trademark of Adaptec, Inc."
msgstr "Adaptec 是 Adaptec, Inc. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:731
+#: book.translate.xml:759
msgid ""
"Adobe, Acrobat, Acrobat Reader, Flash and PostScript are either registered "
"trademarks or trademarks of Adobe Systems Incorporated in the United States "
@@ -121,7 +121,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Incorporated 在美國和/或其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:735
+#: book.translate.xml:763
msgid ""
"Apple, AirPort, FireWire, iMac, iPhone, iPad, Mac, Macintosh, Mac OS, "
"Quicktime, and TrueType are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the U.S. "
@@ -131,12 +131,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Quicktime 以及 TrueType 是 Apple Inc. 在美國以及其他國家的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:740
+#: book.translate.xml:768
msgid "Android is a trademark of Google Inc."
msgstr "Android 是 Google Inc 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:742
+#: book.translate.xml:770
msgid ""
"Heidelberg, Helvetica, Palatino, and Times Roman are either registered "
"trademarks or trademarks of Heidelberger Druckmaschinen AG in the U.S. and "
@@ -146,7 +146,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Druckmaschinen AG 在美國以及其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:746
+#: book.translate.xml:774
msgid ""
"IBM, AIX, OS/2, PowerPC, PS/2, S/390, and ThinkPad are trademarks of "
"International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other "
@@ -156,7 +156,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Machines Corporation 在美國和其他國家的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:750
+#: book.translate.xml:778
msgid ""
"IEEE, POSIX, and 802 are registered trademarks of Institute of Electrical "
"and Electronics Engineers, Inc. in the United States."
@@ -165,7 +165,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Inc. 在美國的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:753
+#: book.translate.xml:781
msgid ""
"Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, "
"and Xeon are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its "
@@ -175,7 +175,7 @@ msgstr ""
"及 Xeon 是 Intel Corporation 及其分支機構在美國和其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:757
+#: book.translate.xml:785
msgid ""
"Intuit and Quicken are registered trademarks and/or registered service marks "
"of Intuit Inc., or one of its subsidiaries, in the United States and other "
@@ -185,12 +185,12 @@ msgstr ""
"標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:760
+#: book.translate.xml:788
msgid "Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds."
msgstr "Linux 是 Linus Torvalds 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:762
+#: book.translate.xml:790
msgid ""
"LSI Logic, AcceleRAID, eXtremeRAID, MegaRAID and Mylex are trademarks or "
"registered trademarks of LSI Logic Corp."
@@ -199,7 +199,7 @@ msgstr ""
"商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:765
+#: book.translate.xml:793
msgid ""
"Microsoft, IntelliMouse, MS-DOS, Outlook, Windows, Windows Media and Windows "
"NT are either registered trademarks or trademarks of Microsoft Corporation "
@@ -209,7 +209,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Windows NT 是 Microsoft Corporation 在美國和/或其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:769
+#: book.translate.xml:797
msgid ""
"Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and The "
"Open Group are trademarks of The Open Group in the United States and other "
@@ -219,12 +219,12 @@ msgstr ""
"DialTone 和 The Open Group 是其商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:773
+#: book.translate.xml:801
msgid "Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation."
msgstr "Oracle 是 Oracle Corporation 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:775
+#: book.translate.xml:803
msgid ""
"RealNetworks, RealPlayer, and RealAudio are the registered trademarks of "
"RealNetworks, Inc."
@@ -232,14 +232,14 @@ msgstr ""
"RealNetworks, RealPlayer, 和 RealAudio 是 RealNetworks, Inc. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:778
+#: book.translate.xml:806
msgid ""
"Red Hat, RPM, are trademarks or registered trademarks of Red Hat, Inc. in "
"the United States and other countries."
msgstr "Red Hat, RPM, 是 Red Hat, Inc. 在美國和其他國家的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:781
+#: book.translate.xml:809
msgid ""
"Sun, Sun Microsystems, Java, Java Virtual Machine, JDK, JRE, JSP, JVM, "
"Netra, OpenJDK, Solaris, StarOffice, SunOS and VirtualBox are trademarks or "
@@ -251,37 +251,37 @@ msgstr ""
"Microsystems, Inc. 在美國和其他國家的商標或註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:786
+#: book.translate.xml:814
msgid "MATLAB is a registered trademark of The MathWorks, Inc."
msgstr "MATLAB 是 The MathWorks, Inc. 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:788
+#: book.translate.xml:816
msgid "SpeedTouch is a trademark of Thomson."
msgstr "SpeedTouch 是 Thomson 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:790
+#: book.translate.xml:818
msgid "VMware is a trademark of VMware, Inc."
msgstr "VMware 是 VMware, Inc. 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:792
+#: book.translate.xml:820
msgid "Mathematica is a registered trademark of Wolfram Research, Inc."
msgstr "Mathematica 是 Wolfram Research, Inc 的註冊商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:794
+#: book.translate.xml:822
msgid "XFree86 is a trademark of The XFree86 Project, Inc."
msgstr "XFree86 是 The XFree86 Project, Inc 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:796
+#: book.translate.xml:824
msgid "Ogg Vorbis and Xiph.Org are trademarks of Xiph.Org."
msgstr "Ogg Vorbis 以及 Xiph.Org 是 Xiph.Org 的商標。"
#. (itstool) path: legalnotice/para
-#: book.translate.xml:798
+#: book.translate.xml:826
msgid ""
"Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish "
"their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in "
@@ -294,15 +294,16 @@ msgstr ""
"quote> 或 <quote>®</quote> 符號來標示。"
#. (itstool) path: abstract/para
-#: book.translate.xml:807
+#: book.translate.xml:835
+#, fuzzy
msgid ""
"Welcome to FreeBSD! This handbook covers the installation and day to day use "
-"of <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE</emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.0-"
-"RELEASE</emphasis>, and <emphasis>FreeBSD 10.4-RELEASE</emphasis>. This book "
-"is the result of ongoing work by many individuals. Some sections might be "
-"outdated. Those interested in helping to update and expand this document "
-"should send email to the <link xlink:href=\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/"
-"listinfo/freebsd-doc\">FreeBSD documentation project mailing list</link>."
+"of <emphasis>FreeBSD 12.0-RELEASE</emphasis> and <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.2-"
+"RELEASE</emphasis>. This book is the result of ongoing work by many "
+"individuals. Some sections might be outdated. Those interested in helping to "
+"update and expand this document should send email to the <link xlink:href="
+"\"http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc\">FreeBSD "
+"documentation project mailing list</link>."
msgstr ""
"歡迎使用 FreeBSD! 本使用手冊涵蓋範圍包括了 <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE</"
"emphasis>, <emphasis>FreeBSD 11.0-RELEASE</emphasis> 與 <emphasis>FreeBSD "
@@ -312,7 +313,7 @@ msgstr ""
"mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc\">FreeBSD 文件專案郵遞論壇</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: abstract/para
-#: book.translate.xml:816
+#: book.translate.xml:843
msgid ""
"The latest version of this book is available from the <link xlink:href="
"\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/\">FreeBSD web site</link>. Previous versions can "
@@ -337,18 +338,18 @@ msgstr ""
"件的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/title
-#: book.translate.xml:837
+#: book.translate.xml:864
msgid "Preface"
msgstr "序"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-audience
-#: book.translate.xml:839
+#: book.translate.xml:866
msgid "Intended Audience"
msgstr "給讀者的話"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:842
+#: book.translate.xml:869
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD newcomer will find that the first section of this book guides "
"the user through the FreeBSD installation process and gently introduces the "
@@ -362,7 +363,7 @@ msgstr ""
"一些常用、共通的東西。而閱讀這部分並不難,只需要您有探索的精神和接受新概念。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:849
+#: book.translate.xml:876
msgid ""
"Once you have traveled this far, the second, far larger, section of the "
"Handbook is a comprehensive reference to all manner of topics of interest to "
@@ -375,7 +376,7 @@ msgstr ""
"不熟的話,可在閱讀前先預習一番。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:856
+#: book.translate.xml:883
msgid ""
"For a list of additional sources of information, please see <xref linkend="
"\"bibliography\"/>."
@@ -383,12 +384,12 @@ msgstr "延伸閱讀方面,可參閱 <xref linkend=\"bibliography\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes-from3
-#: book.translate.xml:859
+#: book.translate.xml:886
msgid "Changes from the Third Edition"
msgstr "自第三版後的主要修訂"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:862
+#: book.translate.xml:889
msgid ""
"The current online version of the Handbook represents the cumulative effort "
"of many hundreds of contributors over the past 10 years. The following are "
@@ -399,7 +400,7 @@ msgstr ""
"2014 年發佈的兩冊第三版後所做的主要修訂:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:869
+#: book.translate.xml:896
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"dtrace\"/> has been added with information about the "
"powerful DTrace performance analysis tool."
@@ -407,7 +408,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"dtrace\"/> 增加說明有關強大的 DTrace 效能分析工具的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:874
+#: book.translate.xml:901
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"filesystems\"/> has been added with information about non-"
"native file systems in FreeBSD, such as ZFS from <trademark>Sun</trademark>."
@@ -416,7 +417,7 @@ msgstr ""
"自 <trademark>Sun</trademark> 的 ZSF。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:880
+#: book.translate.xml:907
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"audit\"/> has been added to cover the new auditing "
"capabilities in FreeBSD and explain its use."
@@ -424,7 +425,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"audit\"/> 增加的內容涵蓋 FreeBSD 的新稽查功能及其使用說明。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:885
+#: book.translate.xml:912
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"virtualization\"/> has been added with information about "
"installing FreeBSD on virtualization software."
@@ -432,7 +433,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"virtualization\"/> 增加有關在虛擬化軟體安裝 FreeBSD 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:891
+#: book.translate.xml:918
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"bsdinstall\"/> has been added to cover installation of "
"FreeBSD using the new installation utility, <application>bsdinstall</"
@@ -443,12 +444,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes-from2
-#: book.translate.xml:897
+#: book.translate.xml:924
msgid "Changes from the Second Edition (2004)"
msgstr "自第二版後的主要修訂 (2004)"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:900
+#: book.translate.xml:927
msgid ""
"The third edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the "
"dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project. The printed edition "
@@ -459,7 +460,7 @@ msgstr ""
"文件內容成長到一定大小,印刷版需要分成兩冊發佈。新版的主要修訂部分如下:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:908
+#: book.translate.xml:935
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/> has been expanded with new information "
"about the ACPI power and resource management, the <command>cron</command> "
@@ -469,7 +470,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>cron</command> 以及其他更多的核心調校選項說明內容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:915
+#: book.translate.xml:942
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"security\"/> has been expanded with new information about "
"virtual private networks (VPNs), file system access control lists (ACLs), "
@@ -479,7 +480,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(ACL),以及安全報告。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:921
+#: book.translate.xml:948
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"mac\"/> is a new chapter with this edition. It explains what "
"MAC is and how this mechanism can be used to secure a FreeBSD system."
@@ -488,7 +489,7 @@ msgstr ""
"何運用它來使您的 FreeBSD 系統更安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:927
+#: book.translate.xml:954
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"disks\"/> has been expanded with new information about USB "
"storage devices, file system snapshots, file system quotas, file and network "
@@ -499,13 +500,13 @@ msgstr ""
"詳解。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:934
+#: book.translate.xml:961
msgid ""
"A troubleshooting section has been added to <xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/> 增加了疑難排解的章節。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:938
+#: book.translate.xml:965
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"mail\"/> has been expanded with new information about using "
"alternative transport agents, SMTP authentication, UUCP, "
@@ -517,7 +518,7 @@ msgstr ""
"application> 的運用以及其它進階主題。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:946
+#: book.translate.xml:973
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"network-servers\"/> is all new with this edition. This "
"chapter includes information about setting up the <application>Apache HTTP "
@@ -535,7 +536,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"advanced-networking\"/> 。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:956
+#: book.translate.xml:983
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/> has been expanded with new "
"information about using <trademark class=\"registered\">Bluetooth</"
@@ -547,14 +548,14 @@ msgstr ""
"式 (Asynchronous Transfer Mode, ATM) 網路的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:963
+#: book.translate.xml:990
msgid ""
"A glossary has been added to provide a central location for the definitions "
"of technical terms used throughout the book."
msgstr "增加詞彙表,用以說明全書中出現的術語。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:969
+#: book.translate.xml:996
msgid ""
"A number of aesthetic improvements have been made to the tables and figures "
"throughout the book."
@@ -562,12 +563,12 @@ msgstr "重新美編書中所列的圖表。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-changes
-#: book.translate.xml:974
+#: book.translate.xml:1001
msgid "Changes from the First Edition (2001)"
msgstr "自第一版後的主要修訂 (2001)"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:977
+#: book.translate.xml:1004
msgid ""
"The second edition was the culmination of over two years of work by the "
"dedicated members of the FreeBSD Documentation Project. The following were "
@@ -577,17 +578,17 @@ msgstr ""
"變動如下︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:985
+#: book.translate.xml:1012
msgid "A complete Index has been added."
msgstr "增加完整的目錄索引。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:989
+#: book.translate.xml:1016
msgid "All ASCII figures have been replaced by graphical diagrams."
msgstr "所有的 ASCII 圖表均改成圖檔格式的圖表。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:994
+#: book.translate.xml:1021
msgid ""
"A standard synopsis has been added to each chapter to give a quick summary "
"of what information the chapter contains, and what the reader is expected to "
@@ -595,7 +596,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr "每個章節均加入概述,以便快速的瀏覽該章節內容摘要、讀者所欲了解的部分。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1000
+#: book.translate.xml:1027
msgid ""
"The content has been logically reorganized into three parts: <quote>Getting "
"Started</quote>, <quote>System Administration</quote>, and "
@@ -605,7 +606,7 @@ msgstr ""
"及 <quote>附錄</quote>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1007
+#: book.translate.xml:1034
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"basics\"/> has been expanded to contain additional "
"information about processes, daemons, and signals."
@@ -613,14 +614,14 @@ msgstr ""
"<xref linkend=\"basics\"/> 新增了程序、Daemon 以及信號 (Signal) 的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1013
+#: book.translate.xml:1040
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"ports\"/> has been expanded to contain additional "
"information about binary package management."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"ports\"/> 新增了介紹如何管理 Binary 套件的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1019
+#: book.translate.xml:1046
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"x11\"/> has been completely rewritten with an emphasis on "
"using modern desktop technologies such as <application>KDE</application> and "
@@ -631,12 +632,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>GNOME</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1026
+#: book.translate.xml:1053
msgid "<xref linkend=\"boot\"/> has been expanded."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"boot\"/> 更新相關內容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1030
+#: book.translate.xml:1057
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"disks\"/> has been written from what used to be two separate "
"chapters on <quote>Disks</quote> and <quote>Backups</quote>. We feel that "
@@ -648,7 +649,7 @@ msgstr ""
"體、軟體 RAID) 的段落也新增上去了。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1039
+#: book.translate.xml:1066
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"serialcomms\"/> has been completely reorganized and updated "
"for FreeBSD 4.X/5.X."
@@ -657,18 +658,18 @@ msgstr ""
"容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1044
+#: book.translate.xml:1071
msgid "<xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/> has been substantially updated."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"ppp-and-slip\"/> 有相當程度的更新。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1049
+#: book.translate.xml:1076
msgid ""
"Many new sections have been added to <xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"advanced-networking\"/> 加入許多新內容。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1053
+#: book.translate.xml:1080
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"mail\"/> has been expanded to include more information about "
"configuring <application>sendmail</application>."
@@ -677,7 +678,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1059
+#: book.translate.xml:1086
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"linuxemu\"/> has been expanded to include information about "
"installing <application><trademark class=\"registered\">Oracle</trademark></"
@@ -690,28 +691,28 @@ msgstr ""
"trademark></application> 的介紹。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1066
+#: book.translate.xml:1093
msgid "The following new topics are covered in this second edition:"
msgstr "此外,第二版還新加章節,以介紹下列新主題:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1071
+#: book.translate.xml:1098
msgid "<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"config-tuning\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1075
+#: book.translate.xml:1102
msgid "<xref linkend=\"multimedia\"/>."
msgstr "<xref linkend=\"multimedia\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-overview
-#: book.translate.xml:1081
+#: book.translate.xml:1108
msgid "Organization of This Book"
msgstr "本書架構"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1083
+#: book.translate.xml:1110
msgid ""
"This book is split into five logically distinct sections. The first section, "
"<emphasis>Getting Started</emphasis>, covers the installation and basic "
@@ -736,14 +737,14 @@ msgstr ""
"則包括網路和各式伺服器主題;而第五部分則為附錄包含各種有關 FreeBSD 的資源。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1108
+#: book.translate.xml:1135
msgid ""
"Introduces FreeBSD to a new user. It describes the history of the FreeBSD "
"Project, its goals and development model."
msgstr "向新手介紹 FreeBSD。該篇說明了 FreeBSD 計劃的歷史、目標和開發模式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1118
+#: book.translate.xml:1145
msgid ""
"Walks a user through the entire installation process of FreeBSD 9."
"<replaceable>x</replaceable> and later using <application>bsdinstall</"
@@ -753,7 +754,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>x</replaceable> 及之後版本的完整安裝流程。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1128
+#: book.translate.xml:1155
msgid ""
"Covers the basic commands and functionality of the FreeBSD operating system. "
"If you are familiar with <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> "
@@ -764,7 +765,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\">Linux</trademark> 或其他類 UNIX® 系統,您則可跳過此章。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1139
+#: book.translate.xml:1166
msgid ""
"Covers the installation of third-party software with both FreeBSD's "
"innovative <quote>Ports Collection</quote> and standard binary packages."
@@ -773,7 +774,7 @@ msgstr ""
"第三方軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1149
+#: book.translate.xml:1176
msgid ""
"Describes the X Window System in general and using X11 on FreeBSD in "
"particular. Also describes common desktop environments such as "
@@ -783,7 +784,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>KDE</application> 與 <application>GNOME</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1162
+#: book.translate.xml:1189
msgid ""
"Lists some common desktop applications, such as web browsers and "
"productivity suites, and describes how to install them on FreeBSD."
@@ -792,7 +793,7 @@ msgstr ""
"程式到 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1171
+#: book.translate.xml:1198
msgid ""
"Shows how to set up sound and video playback support for your system. Also "
"describes some sample audio and video applications."
@@ -801,14 +802,14 @@ msgstr ""
"用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1181
+#: book.translate.xml:1208
msgid ""
"Explains why you might need to configure a new kernel and provides detailed "
"instructions for configuring, building, and installing a custom kernel."
msgstr "說明為何需要設定新的核心並會提供設定、編譯與安裝的詳細操作說明。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1191
+#: book.translate.xml:1218
msgid ""
"Describes managing printers on FreeBSD, including information about banner "
"pages, printer accounting, and initial setup."
@@ -816,7 +817,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹如何在 FreeBSD 管理印表機,包含橫幅頁面、列印帳務以及初始設定等資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1201
+#: book.translate.xml:1228
msgid ""
"Describes the <trademark class=\"registered\">Linux</trademark> "
"compatibility features of FreeBSD. Also provides detailed installation "
@@ -832,7 +833,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"registered\">Mathematica</trademark></application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1215
+#: book.translate.xml:1242
msgid ""
"Describes the parameters available for system administrators to tune a "
"FreeBSD system for optimum performance. Also describes the various "
@@ -842,14 +843,14 @@ msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 用到的各種設定檔以及到何處尋找這些設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1226
+#: book.translate.xml:1253
msgid ""
"Describes the FreeBSD boot process and explains how to control this process "
"with configuration options."
msgstr "介紹 FreeBSD 開機流程並說明如何使用設定選項控制開機流程。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1235
+#: book.translate.xml:1262
msgid ""
"Describes many different tools available to help keep your FreeBSD system "
"secure, including Kerberos, IPsec and OpenSSH."
@@ -858,7 +859,7 @@ msgstr ""
"OpenSSH。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1245
+#: book.translate.xml:1272
msgid ""
"Describes the jails framework, and the improvements of jails over the "
"traditional chroot support of FreeBSD."
@@ -866,7 +867,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹 Jail Framework,以及 Jail 改進那些 FreeBSD 傳統 chroot 不足的地方。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1254
+#: book.translate.xml:1281
msgid ""
"Explains what Mandatory Access Control (MAC) is and how this mechanism can "
"be used to secure a FreeBSD system."
@@ -875,7 +876,7 @@ msgstr ""
"保 FreeBSD 系統的安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1264
+#: book.translate.xml:1291
msgid ""
"Describes what FreeBSD Event Auditing is, how it can be installed, "
"configured, and how audit trails can be inspected or monitored."
@@ -883,7 +884,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹什麼事 FreeBSD 事件稽查,如何安裝與設定,以及如何檢查與監控稽查線索。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1274
+#: book.translate.xml:1301
msgid ""
"Describes how to manage storage media and filesystems with FreeBSD. This "
"includes physical disks, RAID arrays, optical and tape media, memory-backed "
@@ -893,7 +894,7 @@ msgstr ""
"與磁帶媒體、記憶體為基礎的磁碟以及網路檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1285
+#: book.translate.xml:1312
msgid ""
"Describes what the GEOM framework in FreeBSD is and how to configure various "
"supported RAID levels."
@@ -901,7 +902,7 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹在 FreeBSD 中的 GEOM Framework 是什麼,以及如何設定各種支援的 RAID 階層。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1294
+#: book.translate.xml:1321
msgid ""
"Examines support of non-native file systems in FreeBSD, like the Z File "
"System from <trademark>Sun</trademark>."
@@ -910,21 +911,21 @@ msgstr ""
"案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1303
+#: book.translate.xml:1330
msgid ""
"Describes what virtualization systems offer, and how they can be used with "
"FreeBSD."
msgstr "介紹虛擬化系統提供了那些功能,以及如何在 FreeBSD 上使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1312
+#: book.translate.xml:1339
msgid ""
"Describes how to use FreeBSD in languages other than English. Covers both "
"system and application level localization."
msgstr "介紹如何在 FreeBSD 使用非英文的語言,這涵蓋了系統及應用層的在地化。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1322
+#: book.translate.xml:1349
msgid ""
"Explains the differences between FreeBSD-STABLE, FreeBSD-CURRENT, and "
"FreeBSD releases. Describes which users would benefit from tracking a "
@@ -936,7 +937,7 @@ msgstr ""
"佈版本的方法。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1335
+#: book.translate.xml:1362
msgid ""
"Describes how to configure and use the DTrace tool from <trademark>Sun</"
"trademark> in FreeBSD. Dynamic tracing can help locate performance issues, "
@@ -946,19 +947,19 @@ msgstr ""
"追蹤可以透過執行真實時間系統分析來協助定位效能問題。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1348
+#: book.translate.xml:1375
msgid ""
"Explains how to connect terminals and modems to your FreeBSD system for both "
"dial in and dial out connections."
msgstr "介紹如何使用撥入及撥出連線到您的 FreeBSD 系統的終端機與數據機。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1358
+#: book.translate.xml:1385
msgid "Describes how to use PPP to connect to remote systems with FreeBSD."
msgstr "介紹如何在 FreeBSD 使用 PPP 來連線遠端的系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1367
+#: book.translate.xml:1394
msgid ""
"Explains the different components of an email server and dives into simple "
"configuration topics for the most popular mail server software: "
@@ -968,7 +969,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>sendmail</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1378
+#: book.translate.xml:1405
msgid ""
"Provides detailed instructions and example configuration files to set up "
"your FreeBSD machine as a network filesystem server, domain name server, "
@@ -978,7 +979,7 @@ msgstr ""
"網域名稱伺服器、網路資訊系統伺服器或時間同步伺服器。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1389
+#: book.translate.xml:1416
msgid ""
"Explains the philosophy behind software-based firewalls and provides "
"detailed information about the configuration of the different firewalls "
@@ -988,7 +989,7 @@ msgstr ""
"細資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1399
+#: book.translate.xml:1426
msgid ""
"Describes many networking topics, including sharing an Internet connection "
"with other computers on your LAN, advanced routing topics, wireless "
@@ -1000,7 +1001,7 @@ msgstr ""
"ATM、IPv6 以及更多相關主題。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1412
+#: book.translate.xml:1439
msgid ""
"Lists different sources for obtaining FreeBSD media on CDROM or DVD as well "
"as different sites on the Internet that allow you to download and install "
@@ -1010,7 +1011,7 @@ msgstr ""
"您可以下載並安裝 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1422
+#: book.translate.xml:1449
msgid ""
"This book touches on many different subjects that may leave you hungry for a "
"more detailed explanation. The bibliography lists many excellent books that "
@@ -1020,7 +1021,7 @@ msgstr ""
"多優秀書籍。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1433
+#: book.translate.xml:1460
msgid ""
"Describes the many forums available for FreeBSD users to post questions and "
"engage in technical conversations about FreeBSD."
@@ -1028,18 +1029,18 @@ msgstr ""
"介紹了可讓 FreeBSD 使用者提出問題以及參與有關 FreeBSD 技術會談的許多論壇。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1443
+#: book.translate.xml:1470
msgid "Lists the PGP fingerprints of several FreeBSD Developers."
msgstr "列出了數個 FreeBSD 開發人員的 PGP 指紋。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv
-#: book.translate.xml:1449
+#: book.translate.xml:1476
msgid "Conventions used in this book"
msgstr "本書的編排體裁"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1452
+#: book.translate.xml:1479
msgid ""
"To provide a consistent and easy to read text, several conventions are "
"followed throughout the book."
@@ -1047,17 +1048,17 @@ msgstr "為方便閱讀本書,以下是一些本書所遵循的編排體裁:
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-typographic
-#: book.translate.xml:1455
+#: book.translate.xml:1482
msgid "Typographic Conventions"
msgstr "文字編排體裁"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:1459
+#: book.translate.xml:1486
msgid "<emphasis>Italic</emphasis>"
msgstr "<emphasis>斜體字</emphasis>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1462
+#: book.translate.xml:1489
msgid ""
"An <emphasis>italic</emphasis> font is used for filenames, URLs, emphasized "
"text, and the first usage of technical terms."
@@ -1066,12 +1067,12 @@ msgstr ""
"次提及的技術詞彙。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:1469
+#: book.translate.xml:1496
msgid "<literal>Monospace</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>等寬字</literal>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1472
+#: book.translate.xml:1499
msgid ""
"A <literal>monospaced</literal> font is used for error messages, commands, "
"environment variables, names of ports, hostnames, user names, group names, "
@@ -1081,24 +1082,24 @@ msgstr ""
"稱、帳號、群組、裝置名稱、變數、程式碼等。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:1480
+#: book.translate.xml:1507
msgid "<application>Bold</application>"
msgstr "<application>粗體字</application>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1483
+#: book.translate.xml:1510
msgid ""
"A <keycap>bold</keycap> font is used for applications, commands, and keys."
msgstr "以<keycap>粗體字</keycap>表示:應用程式、指令、按鍵。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-commands
-#: book.translate.xml:1490
+#: book.translate.xml:1517
msgid "User Input"
msgstr "使用者輸入"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1493
+#: book.translate.xml:1520
msgid ""
"Keys are shown in <keycap>bold</keycap> to stand out from other text. Key "
"combinations that are meant to be typed simultaneously are shown with "
@@ -1108,14 +1109,14 @@ msgstr ""
"按下一些按鍵,我們以 `<literal>+</literal>' 來表示連接,像是:"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1498
+#: book.translate.xml:1525
msgid ""
"<keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>Alt</keycap> "
"<keycap>Del</keycap></keycombo>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1504
+#: book.translate.xml:1531
msgid ""
"Meaning the user should type the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>, <keycap>Alt</"
"keycap>, and <keycap>Del</keycap> keys at the same time."
@@ -1124,14 +1125,14 @@ msgstr ""
"keycap> 鍵。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1508
+#: book.translate.xml:1535
msgid ""
"Keys that are meant to be typed in sequence will be separated with commas, "
"for example:"
msgstr "若要逐一按鍵,那麼會以逗號 (,) 來表示,像是:"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1511
+#: book.translate.xml:1538
msgid ""
"<keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>X</keycap> </"
"keycombo>, <keycombo action=\"simul\"> <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> <keycap>S</"
@@ -1139,7 +1140,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1520
+#: book.translate.xml:1547
msgid ""
"Would mean that the user is expected to type the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> and "
"<keycap>X</keycap> keys simultaneously and then to type the <keycap>Ctrl</"
@@ -1150,12 +1151,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-conv-examples
-#: book.translate.xml:1526
+#: book.translate.xml:1553
msgid "Examples"
msgstr "範例"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1528
+#: book.translate.xml:1555
msgid ""
"Examples starting with <filename>C:\\&gt;</filename> indicate a <trademark "
"class=\"registered\">MS-DOS</trademark> command. Unless otherwise noted, "
@@ -1170,13 +1171,13 @@ msgstr ""
"Prompt)</quote> 視窗內執行。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:1534
+#: book.translate.xml:1561
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>E:\\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>tools\\fdimage floppies\\kern.flp A:</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1536
+#: book.translate.xml:1563
msgid ""
"Examples starting with <prompt>#</prompt> indicate a command that must be "
"invoked as the superuser in FreeBSD. You can login as <systemitem class="
@@ -1190,13 +1191,13 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 來取得超級使用者權限。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:1542
+#: book.translate.xml:1569
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dd if=kern.flp of=/dev/fd0</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1544
+#: book.translate.xml:1571
msgid ""
"Examples starting with <prompt>%</prompt> indicate a command that should be "
"invoked from a normal user account. Unless otherwise noted, C-shell syntax "
@@ -1207,19 +1208,19 @@ msgstr ""
"其他指令的意思。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:1549
+#: book.translate.xml:1576
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>top</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: preface/bridgehead
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#preface-acknowledgements
-#: book.translate.xml:1551
+#: book.translate.xml:1578
msgid "Acknowledgments"
msgstr "銘謝"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1553
+#: book.translate.xml:1580
msgid ""
"The book you are holding represents the efforts of many hundreds of people "
"around the world. Whether they sent in fixes for typos, or submitted "
@@ -1229,7 +1230,7 @@ msgstr ""
"糾正一些錯誤或提交完整的章節,所有的點滴貢獻都是非常寶貴有用的。"
#. (itstool) path: preface/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1558
+#: book.translate.xml:1585
msgid ""
"Several companies have supported the development of this document by paying "
"authors to work on it full-time, paying for publication, etc. In particular, "
@@ -1255,43 +1256,43 @@ msgstr ""
"手冊以使第三版印刷版本能夠出版的志工。"
#. (itstool) path: part/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1577
+#: book.translate.xml:1604
msgid "Getting Started"
msgstr "入門"
#. (itstool) path: partintro/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1580
+#: book.translate.xml:1607
msgid ""
"This part of the handbook is for users and administrators who are new to "
"FreeBSD. These chapters:"
msgstr "這部份是提供給初次使用 FreeBSD 的使用者和系統管理者。 這些章節包括:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1585
+#: book.translate.xml:1612
msgid "Introduce FreeBSD."
msgstr "介紹 FreeBSD 給您。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1589
+#: book.translate.xml:1616
msgid "Guide readers through the installation process."
msgstr "在安裝過程給您指引。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1593
+#: book.translate.xml:1620
msgid ""
"Teach <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> basics and "
"fundamentals."
msgstr "教您 <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> 的基礎及原理。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1597
+#: book.translate.xml:1624
msgid ""
"Show how to install the wealth of third party applications available for "
"FreeBSD."
msgstr "展示給您看如何安裝豐富的 FreeBSD 的應用軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1602
+#: book.translate.xml:1629
msgid ""
"Introduce X, the <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> windowing "
"system, and detail how to configure a desktop environment that makes users "
@@ -1301,7 +1302,7 @@ msgstr ""
"細的桌面環境設定,讓您更有生產力。"
#. (itstool) path: partintro/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1608
+#: book.translate.xml:1635
msgid ""
"The number of forward references in the text have been kept to a minimum so "
"that this section can be read from front to back with minimal page flipping."
@@ -1312,12 +1313,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: info/title
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1622 book.translate.xml:23852 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:1649 book.translate.xml:23626 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "Introduction"
msgstr "簡介"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:1625 book.translate.xml:2890
+#: book.translate.xml:1652 book.translate.xml:2755
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Jim</firstname> <surname>Mock</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Restructured, reorganized, and parts rewritten by </"
@@ -1325,21 +1326,21 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1637 book.translate.xml:2945 book.translate.xml:5557
-#: book.translate.xml:8946 book.translate.xml:10679 book.translate.xml:12869
-#: book.translate.xml:13998 book.translate.xml:15619 book.translate.xml:18101
-#: book.translate.xml:19366 book.translate.xml:22851 book.translate.xml:23764
-#: book.translate.xml:27863 book.translate.xml:29473 book.translate.xml:31241
-#: book.translate.xml:31975 book.translate.xml:35756 book.translate.xml:41717
-#: book.translate.xml:41934 book.translate.xml:43617 book.translate.xml:44657
-#: book.translate.xml:46217 book.translate.xml:46602 book.translate.xml:48805
-#: book.translate.xml:50473 book.translate.xml:52386 book.translate.xml:58114
-#: book.translate.xml:61801
+#: book.translate.xml:1664 book.translate.xml:2810 book.translate.xml:5442
+#: book.translate.xml:8826 book.translate.xml:10562 book.translate.xml:12788
+#: book.translate.xml:13778 book.translate.xml:15400 book.translate.xml:17882
+#: book.translate.xml:19147 book.translate.xml:22625 book.translate.xml:23538
+#: book.translate.xml:27634 book.translate.xml:29239 book.translate.xml:31007
+#: book.translate.xml:31741 book.translate.xml:35405 book.translate.xml:41363
+#: book.translate.xml:41563 book.translate.xml:43254 book.translate.xml:44294
+#: book.translate.xml:45942 book.translate.xml:46286 book.translate.xml:46701
+#: book.translate.xml:48895 book.translate.xml:50563 book.translate.xml:52476
+#: book.translate.xml:56975 book.translate.xml:60662
msgid "Synopsis"
msgstr "概述"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1639
+#: book.translate.xml:1666
msgid ""
"Thank you for your interest in FreeBSD! The following chapter covers various "
"aspects of the FreeBSD Project, such as its history, goals, development "
@@ -1349,333 +1350,179 @@ msgstr ""
"史、目標、開發模式等等。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1643 book.translate.xml:2972 book.translate.xml:5564
-#: book.translate.xml:8958 book.translate.xml:10700 book.translate.xml:15632
-#: book.translate.xml:18127 book.translate.xml:19380 book.translate.xml:23777
-#: book.translate.xml:27935 book.translate.xml:29500 book.translate.xml:31265
-#: book.translate.xml:31983 book.translate.xml:35782 book.translate.xml:41749
-#: book.translate.xml:41942 book.translate.xml:44669 book.translate.xml:46255
-#: book.translate.xml:46613 book.translate.xml:48816 book.translate.xml:50484
-#: book.translate.xml:58169 book.translate.xml:61806
+#: book.translate.xml:1670 book.translate.xml:2879 book.translate.xml:5449
+#: book.translate.xml:8838 book.translate.xml:10583 book.translate.xml:15413
+#: book.translate.xml:17908 book.translate.xml:19161 book.translate.xml:23551
+#: book.translate.xml:27706 book.translate.xml:29266 book.translate.xml:31031
+#: book.translate.xml:31749 book.translate.xml:35431 book.translate.xml:41394
+#: book.translate.xml:41571 book.translate.xml:44306 book.translate.xml:45980
+#: book.translate.xml:46355 book.translate.xml:46712 book.translate.xml:48906
+#: book.translate.xml:50574 book.translate.xml:57030 book.translate.xml:60667
msgid "After reading this chapter, you will know:"
msgstr "讀完這章,您將了解︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1647
+#: book.translate.xml:1674
msgid "How FreeBSD relates to other computer operating systems."
msgstr "FreeBSD 與其他作業系統之間的關係。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1652
+#: book.translate.xml:1679
msgid "The history of the FreeBSD Project."
msgstr "FreeBSD 計劃的歷史。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1656
+#: book.translate.xml:1683
msgid "The goals of the FreeBSD Project."
msgstr "FreeBSD 計劃的目標。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1660
+#: book.translate.xml:1687
msgid "The basics of the FreeBSD open-source development model."
msgstr "FreeBSD 開源開發模式的基礎概念。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1665
+#: book.translate.xml:1692
msgid "And of course: where the name <quote>FreeBSD</quote> comes from."
msgstr "當然囉,還有 <quote>FreeBSD</quote> 這名字的由來。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1672
+#: book.translate.xml:1699
msgid "Welcome to FreeBSD!"
msgstr "歡迎使用 FreeBSD!"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1674 book.translate.xml:1843
+#: book.translate.xml:1701 book.translate.xml:1792
msgid "<primary>4.4BSD-Lite</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1676
-msgid ""
-"FreeBSD is a 4.4BSD-Lite based operating system for Intel (x86 and "
-"<trademark class=\"registered\">Itanium</trademark>), AMD64, <trademark "
-"class=\"registered\">ARM</trademark>, and Sun <trademark class=\"registered"
-"\">UltraSPARC</trademark> computers. Ports to other architectures are also "
-"under way. You can also read about <link linkend=\"history\">the history of "
-"FreeBSD</link>, or the <link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases"
-"\">current release</link>. If you are interested in contributing something "
-"to the Project (code, hardware, funding), see the <link xlink:href="
-"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributing/index.html"
-"\">Contributing to FreeBSD</link> article."
-msgstr ""
-"FreeBSD 是一個從 4.4BSD-Lite 衍生出而能在以 Intel (x86 與 <trademark class="
-"\"registered\">Itanium</trademark>), AMD64, <trademark class=\"registered"
-"\">ARM</trademark>, Sun <trademark class=\"registered\">UltraSPARC</"
-"trademark> 為基礎的電腦上執行的作業系統。同時,移植到其他平台的工作也在進行"
-"中。 對於本計劃歷史的介紹,請看 <link linkend=\"history\">FreeBSD 歷史</"
-"link>, 對於 FreeBSD 的最新版本介紹,請看 <link xlink:href="
-"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases\">最新的發行版</link>。 若打算對於 FreeBSD 計劃"
-"有所貢獻的話 (程式碼、硬體、經費), 請看 <link xlink:href="
-"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/articles/contributing/index.html\">如何"
-"對 FreeBSD 貢獻</link>。"
-
-#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:1686
-msgid "What Can FreeBSD Do?"
-msgstr "FreeBSD 能做什麼?"
-
-#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1688
-msgid "FreeBSD has many noteworthy features. Some of these are:"
-msgstr "FreeBSD 提供給你許多先進功能。這些功能包括:"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1694
-msgid "<primary>preemptive multitasking</primary>"
-msgstr "<primary>先佔式多工</primary>"
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1693
+#: book.translate.xml:1703
msgid ""
-"<emphasis>Preemptive multitasking</emphasis> <_:indexterm-1/> with dynamic "
-"priority adjustment to ensure smooth and fair sharing of the computer "
-"between applications and users, even under the heaviest of loads."
+"FreeBSD is an Open Source, standards-compliant Unix-like operating system "
+"for x86 (both 32 and 64 bit), <trademark class=\"registered\">ARM</"
+"trademark>, AArch64, <trademark class=\"registered\">RISC-V</trademark>, "
+"<trademark class=\"registered\">MIPS</trademark>, <trademark class="
+"\"registered\">POWER</trademark>, <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</"
+"trademark>, and Sun <trademark class=\"registered\">UltraSPARC</trademark> "
+"computers. It provides all the features that are nowadays taken for granted, "
+"such as preemptive multitasking, memory protection, virtual memory, multi-"
+"user facilities, SMP support, all the Open Source development tools for "
+"different languages and frameworks, and desktop features centered around X "
+"Window System, KDE, or GNOME. Its particular strengths are:"
msgstr ""
-"動態優先權調整的 <emphasis>先佔式多工</emphasis> <_:indexterm-1/> 能夠確保,"
-"即使在系統負擔很重的情況下,程式執行平順並且應用程式與使用者公平地共享資源。"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1703
-msgid "<primary>multi-user facilities</primary>"
-msgstr "<primary>多人共用</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1703
+#: book.translate.xml:1716
msgid ""
-"<emphasis>Multi-user facilities</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> which allow many "
-"people to use a FreeBSD system simultaneously for a variety of things. This "
-"means, for example, that system peripherals such as printers and tape drives "
-"are properly shared between all users on the system or the network and that "
-"individual resource limits can be placed on users or groups of users, "
-"protecting critical system resources from over-use."
+"<emphasis>Liberal Open Source license</emphasis>, which grants you rights to "
+"freely modify and extend its source code and incorporate it in both Open "
+"Source projects and closed products without imposing restrictions typical to "
+"copyleft licenses, as well as avoiding potential license incompatibility "
+"problems."
msgstr ""
-"<emphasis>多人共用</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> 代表著許多人可以同時使用一個 "
-"FreeBSD 系統來處理各自的事務。 系統的硬體周邊 (如印表機及磁帶機) 也可以讓所有"
-"的使用者適當地分享。 也可以針對各別使用者或一群使用者的系統資源,予以設限,以"
-"保護系統不致被過度使用。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1716
+#: book.translate.xml:1727
msgid "<primary>TCP/IP networking</primary>"
msgstr "TCP/IP 網路"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1715
+#: book.translate.xml:1726
msgid ""
-"Strong <emphasis>TCP/IP networking</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> with support "
-"for industry standards such as SCTP, DHCP, NFS, NIS, PPP, SLIP, IPsec, and "
-"IPv6. This means that your FreeBSD machine can interoperate easily with "
-"other systems as well as act as an enterprise server, providing vital "
-"functions such as NFS (remote file access) and email services or putting "
-"your organization on the Internet with WWW, FTP, routing and firewall "
-"(security) services."
+"<emphasis>Strong TCP/IP networking</emphasis> <_:indexterm-1/> - FreeBSD "
+"implements industry standard protocols with ever increasing performance and "
+"scalability. This makes it a good match in both server, and routing/"
+"firewalling roles - and indeed many companies and vendors use it precisely "
+"for that purpose."
msgstr ""
-"強大的 <emphasis>TCP/IP 網路</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> 功能可支援許多業界標"
-"準,如:SCTP、DHCP、NFS、NIS、PPP、SLIP、IPSec、IPv6 的支援,也就是說 "
-"FreeBSD 可以容易地跟其他作業系統透過網路共同運作,或是當作企業的伺服器用途 ,"
-"例如提供遠端檔案共享 (NFS) 及電子郵件等服務, 或是讓您的企業連上網際網路並提"
-"供 WWW、FTP、路由及防火牆 (安全性) 等必備服務。"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1729
-msgid "<primary>memory protection</primary>"
-msgstr "<primary>記憶體保護</primary>"
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1729
-msgid ""
-"<emphasis>Memory protection</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> ensures that "
-"applications (or users) cannot interfere with each other. One application "
-"crashing will not affect others in any way."
-msgstr ""
-"<emphasis>記憶體保護</emphasis> 能確保程式 (或使用者) 不會互相干擾,即使任何"
-"程式有不正常的運作,都不會影響其他程式的執行。"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1738 book.translate.xml:1981
-msgid "<primary>X Window System</primary>"
-msgstr "<primary>X Window 系統</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#: book.translate.xml:1737
msgid ""
-"The industry standard <emphasis>X Window System</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> "
-"(X11R7) can provide a graphical user interface (GUI) on any machine and "
-"comes with full sources."
+"<emphasis>Fully integrated OpenZFS support</emphasis>, including root-on-"
+"ZFS, ZFS Boot Environments, fault management, administrative delegation, "
+"support for jails, FreeBSD specific documentation, and system installer "
+"support."
msgstr ""
-"業界標準的 <emphasis>X Window 系統</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> (X11R7) 可以在"
-"常見的便宜 VGA 顯示卡/螢幕, 提供了圖形化的使用者介面 (GUI),並且包括了完整的"
-"原始程式碼。"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1747 book.translate.xml:18106
-msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>Linux</secondary>"
-msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>Linux</secondary>"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1751
-msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>SCO</secondary>"
-msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>SCO</secondary>"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1755
-msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>SVR4</secondary>"
-msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>SVR4</secondary>"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1759
-msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>BSD/OS</secondary>"
-msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>BSD/OS</secondary>"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1763
-msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>NetBSD</secondary>"
-msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>NetBSD</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1746
+#: book.translate.xml:1745
msgid ""
-"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <_:indexterm-4/> <_:"
-"indexterm-5/> <emphasis>Binary compatibility</emphasis> with many programs "
-"built for Linux, SCO, SVR4, BSDI and NetBSD."
+"<emphasis>Extensive security features</emphasis>, from the Mandatory Access "
+"Control framework to Capsicum capability and sandbox mechanisms."
msgstr ""
-"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <_:indexterm-4/> <_:"
-"indexterm-5/> <emphasis>Binary 相容性</emphasis> 可執行許多其他作業系統 "
-"(如: Linux、SCO、SVR4、BSDI 和 NetBSD) 的可執行檔。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1773
+#: book.translate.xml:1751
msgid ""
-"Thousands of <emphasis>ready-to-run</emphasis> applications are available "
-"from the FreeBSD <emphasis>ports</emphasis> and <emphasis>packages</"
-"emphasis> collection. Why search the net when you can find it all right here?"
+"<emphasis>Over 30 thousand prebuilt packages</emphasis> for all supported "
+"architectures, and the Ports Collection which makes it easy to build your "
+"own, customized ones."
msgstr ""
-"數以萬計的 <emphasis>立即可以執行</emphasis> 的應用程式,這些都可透過 "
-"FreeBSD 的 <emphasis>Port</emphasis> 及 <emphasis>套件</emphasis> 管理機制來"
-"取得。 不再需要費心到網路上到處搜尋所需要的軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1781
+#: book.translate.xml:1758
msgid ""
-"Thousands of additional and <emphasis>easy-to-port</emphasis> applications "
-"are available on the Internet. FreeBSD is source code compatible with most "
-"popular commercial <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> systems "
-"and thus most applications require few, if any, changes to compile."
+"<emphasis>Documentation</emphasis> - in addition to Handbook and books from "
+"different authors that cover topics ranging from system administration to "
+"kernel internals, there are also the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>man</"
+"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> pages, not only for "
+"userspace daemons, utilities, and configuration files, but also for kernel "
+"driver APIs (section 9) and individual drivers (section 4)."
msgstr ""
-"在網路上有數以千計 <emphasis>易於移植</emphasis> 的應用程式。FreeBSD 的原始程"
-"式碼與許多常見的商業版 <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> 系統"
-"都相容, 所以大部分的程式都只需要很少的修改 (或根本不用修改) ,就可以編譯執"
-"行。"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1790
-msgid "<primary>virtual memory</primary>"
-msgstr "<primary>虛擬記憶體</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1789
+#: book.translate.xml:1768
msgid ""
-"Demand paged <emphasis>virtual memory</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> and "
-"<quote>merged VM/buffer cache</quote> design efficiently satisfies "
-"applications with large appetites for memory while still maintaining "
-"interactive response to other users."
+"<emphasis>Simple and consistent repository structure and build system</"
+"emphasis> - FreeBSD uses a single repository for all of its components, both "
+"kernel and userspace. This, along with an unified and easy to customize "
+"build system and a well thought out development process makes it easy to "
+"integrate FreeBSD with build infrastructure for your own product."
msgstr ""
-"依需要換頁的 <emphasis>虛擬記憶體</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> 及 <quote>合併"
-"式 VM/buffer 快取</quote> 設計,有效的滿足了需使用大量記憶體的程式,同時也能"
-"維持與其他使用者的互動。"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1799
-msgid "<primary>Symmetric Multi-Processing (SMP)</primary>"
-msgstr "<primary>對稱多工處理 (SMP)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1799
+#: book.translate.xml:1778
msgid ""
-"<emphasis>SMP</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> support for machines with multiple "
-"CPUs."
+"<emphasis>Staying true to Unix philosophy</emphasis>, preferring "
+"composability instead of monolithic <quote>all in one</quote> daemons with "
+"hardcoded behavior."
msgstr ""
-"支援 CPU 的<emphasis>對稱多工處理 (SMP)</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/>:可以支援"
-"多 CPU 的電腦系統。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1808
-msgid "<primary>compilers</primary> <secondary>C</secondary>"
-msgstr "<primary>編譯器</primary> <secondary>C</secondary>"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1812
-msgid "<primary>compilers</primary> <secondary>C++</secondary>"
-msgstr "<primary>編譯器</primary> <secondary>C++</secondary>"
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1784 book.translate.xml:17887
+msgid "<primary>binary compatibility</primary> <secondary>Linux</secondary>"
+msgstr "<primary>Binary 相容性</primary> <secondary>Linux</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1807
+#: book.translate.xml:1784
msgid ""
-"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> A full complement of <emphasis>C</"
-"emphasis> and <emphasis>C++</emphasis> development tools. Many additional "
-"languages for advanced research and development are also available in the "
-"ports and packages collection."
+"<_:indexterm-1/> <emphasis>Binary compatibility</emphasis> with Linux, which "
+"makes it possible to run many Linux binaries without the need for "
+"virtualisation."
msgstr ""
-"<_:indexterm-1/><_:indexterm-2/>完全相容的 <emphasis>C</emphasis>、"
-"<emphasis>C++</emphasis> 以及 Fortran 的環境和其他開發工具。 以及其他許多可供"
-"進階研發的程式語言也收集在 Port 和套件集。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1825
-msgid "<primary>source code</primary>"
-msgstr "<primary>原始碼</primary>"
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1825
-msgid ""
-"<emphasis>Source code</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/> for the entire system means "
-"you have the greatest degree of control over your environment. Why be locked "
-"into a proprietary solution at the mercy of your vendor when you can have a "
-"truly open system?"
-msgstr ""
-"整個系統都有 <emphasis>原始程式碼</emphasis><_:indexterm-1/>, 這讓你對作業環"
-"境擁有最完全的掌握度。 既然能擁有完全開放的系統,何苦被特定封閉軟體所約束,任"
-"廠商擺佈呢?"
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1834
-msgid "Extensive <emphasis>online documentation</emphasis>."
-msgstr "廣泛且豐富的 <emphasis>線上文件</emphasis>。"
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1839
-msgid "<emphasis>And many more!</emphasis>"
-msgstr "<emphasis>當然囉,還不止如此!</emphasis>"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1846
+#: book.translate.xml:1795
msgid "<primary>Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>電腦系統研究組 (CSRG)</primary>"
-#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1843
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1792
+#, fuzzy
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is based on the 4.4BSD-Lite<_:indexterm-1/> release from Computer "
"Systems Research Group (CSRG)<_:indexterm-2/> at the University of "
"California at Berkeley, and carries on the distinguished tradition of BSD "
"systems development. In addition to the fine work provided by CSRG, the "
-"FreeBSD Project has put in many thousands of hours in fine tuning the system "
-"for maximum performance and reliability in real-life load situations. "
-"FreeBSD offers performance and reliability on par with commercial offerings, "
-"combined with many cutting-edge features not available anywhere else."
+"FreeBSD Project has put in many thousands of man-hours into extending the "
+"functionality and fine-tuning the system for maximum performance and "
+"reliability in real-life load situations. FreeBSD offers performance and "
+"reliability on par with other Open Source and commercial offerings, combined "
+"with cutting-edge features not available anywhere else."
msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 系統乃是基於美國加州大學柏克萊分校的電腦系統研究組 (Computer Systems "
"Research Group 也就是 CSRG) 所發行的 4.4BSD-Lite<_:indexterm-1/>,以及基於 "
@@ -1684,8 +1531,14 @@ msgstr ""
"執行效率以及系統的穩定度。 正當許多商業上的巨人正努力地希望能提供效能及穩定"
"時,FreeBSD 已經具備這樣的特質,並具有其他地方沒有的尖端功能。"
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
+#: book.translate.xml:1809
+msgid "What Can FreeBSD Do?"
+msgstr "FreeBSD 能做什麼?"
+
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1857
+#: book.translate.xml:1811
+#, fuzzy
msgid ""
"The applications to which FreeBSD can be put are truly limited only by your "
"own imagination. From software development to factory automation, inventory "
@@ -1694,8 +1547,7 @@ msgid ""
"product then it is more than likely that you can do it with FreeBSD too! "
"FreeBSD also benefits significantly from literally thousands of high quality "
"applications developed by research centers and universities around the "
-"world, often available at little to no cost. Commercial applications are "
-"also available and appearing in greater numbers every day."
+"world, often available at little to no cost."
msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 的運用範圍無限,其實完全限制在你的想像力上。 從軟體的開發到工廠自動"
"化,或是人造衛星上面的天線的方位角度的遠端控制; 這些功能若可以用商用的 "
@@ -1705,7 +1557,7 @@ msgstr ""
"軟體,而且出現的數目是與日俱增。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1869
+#: book.translate.xml:1821
msgid ""
"Because the source code for FreeBSD itself is generally available, the "
"system can also be customized to an almost unheard of degree for special "
@@ -1718,7 +1570,7 @@ msgstr ""
"地被修改。 以下提供一些人們使用 FreeBSD 的例子:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1879
+#: book.translate.xml:1831
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Internet Services:</emphasis> The robust TCP/IP networking built "
"into FreeBSD makes it an ideal platform for a variety of Internet services "
@@ -1727,35 +1579,31 @@ msgstr ""
"<emphasis>網際網路服務:</emphasis> FreeBSD 內建強勁的網路功能使它成為網路服"
"務 (如下例) 的理想平台:"
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1886
-msgid "<primary>web servers</primary>"
-msgstr "<primary>網頁伺服器</primary>"
-
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1886
-msgid "World Wide Web servers<_:indexterm-1/> (standard or secure [SSL])"
-msgstr "全球資訊網伺服器<_:indexterm-1/> (標準的或更安全的 [SSL])"
+#: book.translate.xml:1838
+#, fuzzy
+msgid "Web servers"
+msgstr "X 伺服器 (X Server)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1893
+#: book.translate.xml:1842
msgid "IPv4 and IPv6 routing"
msgstr "IPv4 及 IPv6 路由"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: chapter/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1897 book.translate.xml:58105
+#: book.translate.xml:1846 book.translate.xml:56966
msgid "<primary>firewall</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>防火牆</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1900 book.translate.xml:61271
+#: book.translate.xml:1849 book.translate.xml:60132
msgid "<primary>NAT</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1897
+#: book.translate.xml:1846
msgid ""
"Firewalls<_:indexterm-1/> and NAT<_:indexterm-2/> (<quote>IP masquerading</"
"quote>) gateways"
@@ -1764,38 +1612,39 @@ msgstr ""
"閘。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1907
+#: book.translate.xml:1856
msgid "<primary>FTP servers</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>FTP 伺服器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1907
+#: book.translate.xml:1856
msgid "FTP servers<_:indexterm-1/>"
msgstr "檔案傳輸協定伺服器<_:indexterm-1/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1914
+#: book.translate.xml:1863
msgid "<primary>electronic mail</primary> <see>email</see>"
msgstr "<primary>電子郵件</primary> <see>email</see>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1918 book.translate.xml:50475
+#: book.translate.xml:1867 book.translate.xml:50565
msgid "<primary>email</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1913
-msgid "<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> Electronic Mail servers"
+#: book.translate.xml:1862
+#, fuzzy
+msgid "<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> Email servers"
msgstr "<_:indexterm-1/><_:indexterm-2/> 電子郵件伺服器"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1925
+#: book.translate.xml:1874
msgid "And more..."
msgstr "還有更多..."
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1931
+#: book.translate.xml:1880
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Education:</emphasis> Are you a student of computer science or a "
"related engineering field? There is no better way of learning about "
@@ -1811,7 +1660,7 @@ msgstr ""
"等可以免費地取得使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1943
+#: book.translate.xml:1892
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Research:</emphasis> With source code for the entire system "
"available, FreeBSD is an excellent platform for research in operating "
@@ -1826,17 +1675,17 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1955 book.translate.xml:62154
+#: book.translate.xml:1904 book.translate.xml:61015
msgid "<primary>router</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>路由器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1957
+#: book.translate.xml:1906
msgid "<primary>DNS Server</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>DNS 伺服器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1954
+#: book.translate.xml:1903
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Networking:</emphasis> Need a new router?<_:indexterm-1/> A name "
"server (DNS)?<_:indexterm-2/> A firewall to keep people out of your internal "
@@ -1848,12 +1697,12 @@ msgstr ""
"或 486 PC 變身成為絕佳的伺服器,甚至具有過濾封包的功能。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1968
+#: book.translate.xml:1917
msgid "<primary>embedded</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>嵌入式</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1966
+#: book.translate.xml:1915
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Embedded:</emphasis> FreeBSD makes an excellent platform to build "
"embedded systems upon. <_:indexterm-1/> With support for the <trademark "
@@ -1874,19 +1723,24 @@ msgstr ""
"為用來建置嵌入式路由器、防火牆及其他裝置的絕佳基礎。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:1930
+msgid "<primary>X Window System</primary>"
+msgstr "<primary>X Window 系統</primary>"
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1984 book.translate.xml:12069
+#: book.translate.xml:1933 book.translate.xml:11984
msgid "<primary>GNOME</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:1987 book.translate.xml:12156
+#: book.translate.xml:1936 book.translate.xml:12069
msgid "<primary>KDE</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:1980
+#: book.translate.xml:1929
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <emphasis>Desktop:</"
"emphasis> FreeBSD makes a fine choice for an inexpensive desktop solution "
@@ -1904,12 +1758,12 @@ msgstr ""
"於管理。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2006
+#: book.translate.xml:1955
msgid "<primary>Compiler</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>編譯器</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2003
+#: book.translate.xml:1952
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Software Development:</emphasis> The basic FreeBSD system comes "
"with a full complement of development tools including a full C/C++<_:"
@@ -1921,7 +1775,7 @@ msgstr ""
"援需多其他語言。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2015
+#: book.translate.xml:1964
msgid ""
"FreeBSD is available to download free of charge, or can be obtained on "
"either CD-ROM or DVD. Please see <xref linkend=\"mirrors\"/> for more "
@@ -1931,19 +1785,33 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"mirrors\"/> 取得 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2022
+#: book.translate.xml:1971
msgid "Who Uses FreeBSD?"
msgstr "誰在用 FreeBSD?"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2024
+#: book.translate.xml:1973
msgid ""
"<primary>users</primary> <secondary>large sites running FreeBSD</secondary>"
msgstr ""
"<primary>使用者</primary> <secondary>執行 FreeBSD 的大型站台</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2029
+#: book.translate.xml:1978
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD has been known for its web serving capabilities - sites that run on "
+"FreeBSD include <link xlink:href=\"https://news.ycombinator.com/\">Hacker "
+"News</link>, <link xlink:href=\"http://www.netcraft.com/\">Netcraft</link>, "
+"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.163.com/\">NetEase</link>, <link xlink:href="
+"\"https://signup.netflix.com/openconnect\">Netflix</link>, <link xlink:href="
+"\"http://www.sina.com/\">Sina</link>, <link xlink:href=\"http://www.sony.co."
+"jp/\">Sony Japan</link>, <link xlink:href=\"http://www.rambler.ru/"
+"\">Rambler</link>, <link xlink:href=\"http://www.yahoo.com/\">Yahoo!</link>, "
+"and <link xlink:href=\"http://www.yandex.ru/\">Yandex</link>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
+#: book.translate.xml:1991
msgid ""
"FreeBSD's advanced features, proven security, predictable release cycle, and "
"permissive license have led to its use as a platform for building many "
@@ -1956,12 +1824,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2039 book.translate.xml:56774
+#: book.translate.xml:2001 book.translate.xml:55647
msgid "<primary>Apache</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2038
+#: book.translate.xml:2000
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.apache.org/\">Apache</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The Apache Software Foundation runs most of its public facing "
@@ -1973,12 +1841,12 @@ msgstr ""
"庫 (擁有超過 140 萬次提交) 都是在 FreeBSD 上運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2049
+#: book.translate.xml:2011
msgid "<primary>Apple</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2048
+#: book.translate.xml:2010
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.apple.com/\">Apple</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"OS X borrows heavily from FreeBSD for the network stack, virtual file "
@@ -1990,12 +1858,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Apple iOS 中含有從 FreeBSD 借鑒來的元素。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2059
+#: book.translate.xml:2021
msgid "<primary>Cisco</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2058
+#: book.translate.xml:2020
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.cisco.com/\">Cisco</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"IronPort network security and anti-spam appliances run a modified FreeBSD "
@@ -2005,12 +1873,12 @@ msgstr ""
"IronPort 網路安全及反垃圾郵件設備是採用改良後 FreeBSD 核心來運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2067
+#: book.translate.xml:2029
msgid "<primary>Citrix</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2066
+#: book.translate.xml:2028
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.citrix.com/\">Citrix</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The NetScaler line of security appliances provide layer 4-7 load balancing, "
@@ -2022,12 +1890,31 @@ msgstr ""
"牆、安全的 VPN 以及行動雲端網路存取,皆運用了 FreeBSD Shell 強大的功能。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2078
+#: book.translate.xml:2039
+msgid "<primary>Isilon</primary>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2038
+#, fuzzy
+msgid ""
+"<link xlink:href=\"https://www.emc.com/isilon\">Dell EMC Isilon</link> <_:"
+"indexterm-1/> - Isilon's enterprise storage appliances are based on FreeBSD. "
+"The extremely liberal FreeBSD license allowed Isilon to integrate their "
+"intellectual property throughout the kernel and focus on building their "
+"product instead of an operating system."
+msgstr ""
+"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.isilon.com/\">Isilon</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
+"Isilon 的企業存儲設備以 FreeBSD 為基礎。非常自由的 FreeBSD 授權條款讓 Isilon "
+"整合了它們的智慧財產到整個核心,並專注打造自己的產品,而不是一個作業系統。"
+
+#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
+#: book.translate.xml:2051
msgid "<primary>Dell KACE</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2076
+#: book.translate.xml:2049
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.dell.com/KACE\">Dell KACE</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The KACE system management appliances run FreeBSD because of "
@@ -2039,47 +1926,12 @@ msgstr ""
"擴展性以及支持其持續發展的社群。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2088
-msgid "<primary>Experts Exchange</primary>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2086
-msgid ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.experts-exchange.com/\">Experts Exchange</"
-"link> <_:indexterm-1/> - All public facing web servers are powered by "
-"FreeBSD and they make extensive use of jails to isolate development and "
-"testing environments without the overhead of virtualization."
-msgstr ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.experts-exchange.com/\">Experts Exchange</"
-"link> <_:indexterm-1/> - 所有面對大眾的 Web 伺服器皆由 FreeBSD 驅動,且他們大"
-"量使用 Jail 來隔離開發與測試環境,減少了虛擬化的額外開銷。"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2098
-msgid "<primary>Isilon</primary>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2097
-msgid ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.isilon.com/\">Isilon</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
-"Isilon's enterprise storage appliances are based on FreeBSD. The extremely "
-"liberal FreeBSD license allowed Isilon to integrate their intellectual "
-"property throughout the kernel and focus on building their product instead "
-"of an operating system."
-msgstr ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.isilon.com/\">Isilon</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
-"Isilon 的企業存儲設備以 FreeBSD 為基礎。非常自由的 FreeBSD 授權條款讓 Isilon "
-"整合了它們的智慧財產到整個核心,並專注打造自己的產品,而不是一個作業系統。"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2110
+#: book.translate.xml:2060
msgid "<primary>iXsystems</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2109
+#: book.translate.xml:2059
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.ixsystems.com/\">iXsystems</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The TrueNAS line of unified storage appliances is based on "
@@ -2092,12 +1944,12 @@ msgstr ""
"開源計劃的開發。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2120
+#: book.translate.xml:2070
msgid "<primary>Juniper</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2119
+#: book.translate.xml:2069
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.juniper.net/\">Juniper</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- The JunOS operating system that powers all Juniper networking gear "
@@ -2115,12 +1967,12 @@ msgstr ""
"功能從 FreeBSD 整合回 JunOS 的複雜性。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2135
+#: book.translate.xml:2085
msgid "<primary>McAfee</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2134
+#: book.translate.xml:2084
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.mcafee.com/\">McAfee</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"SecurOS, the basis of McAfee enterprise firewall products including "
@@ -2131,12 +1983,12 @@ msgstr ""
"FreeBSD 為基礎。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2144
+#: book.translate.xml:2094
msgid "<primary>NetApp</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2143
+#: book.translate.xml:2093
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netapp.com/\">NetApp</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The Data ONTAP GX line of storage appliances are based on FreeBSD. In "
@@ -2148,12 +2000,12 @@ msgstr ""
"了回 FreeBSD 許多功能,包括新 BSD 條款授權的 hypervisor, bhyve。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2154 book.translate.xml:2428
+#: book.translate.xml:2104
msgid "<primary>Netflix</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2153
+#: book.translate.xml:2103
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netflix.com/\">Netflix</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- The OpenConnect appliance that Netflix uses to stream movies to its "
@@ -2168,12 +2020,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Netflix 的 OpenConnect 設備負責了北美所有的網路流量 32% 以上。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2167
+#: book.translate.xml:2117
msgid "<primary>Sandvine</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2166
+#: book.translate.xml:2116
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sandvine.com/\">Sandvine</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - Sandvine uses FreeBSD as the basis of their high performance real-time "
@@ -2185,12 +2037,12 @@ msgstr ""
"慧網路策略控制產品。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2177
+#: book.translate.xml:2127
msgid "<primary>Sony</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2176
+#: book.translate.xml:2126
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sony.com/\">Sony</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - The "
"PlayStation 4 gaming console runs a modified version of FreeBSD."
@@ -2199,12 +2051,12 @@ msgstr ""
"PlayStation 4 遊戲主機使用了修改過的 FreeBSD 版本來運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2185
+#: book.translate.xml:2135
msgid "<primary>Sophos</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2184
+#: book.translate.xml:2134
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sophos.com/\">Sophos</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"The Sophos Email Appliance product is based on a hardened FreeBSD and scans "
@@ -2216,12 +2068,12 @@ msgstr ""
"郵件中的垃圾郵件和病毒,同時也可監控出站郵件中的惡意軟體及敏感資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2197
+#: book.translate.xml:2147
msgid "<primary>Spectra Logic</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2195
+#: book.translate.xml:2145
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.spectralogic.com/\">Spectra Logic</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The nTier line of archive grade storage appliances run "
@@ -2231,12 +2083,12 @@ msgstr ""
"indexterm-1/> - 儲藏級儲存設備的 nTier 產品線以 FreeBSD 和 OpenZFS 來運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2205
+#: book.translate.xml:2155
msgid "<primary>Stormshield</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>Stormshield</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2204
+#: book.translate.xml:2154
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"https://www.stormshield.eu\">Stormshield</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - Stormshield Network Security appliances are based on a "
@@ -2249,12 +2101,12 @@ msgstr ""
"BSD 授權條款讓他們可將其智慧財產與系統整合並同時回饋大量有趣的發展給社群。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2218
+#: book.translate.xml:2168
msgid "<primary>The Weather Channel</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2216
+#: book.translate.xml:2166
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.weather.com/\">The Weather Channel</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The IntelliStar appliance that is installed at each local "
@@ -2266,12 +2118,12 @@ msgstr ""
"視網路節目的 IntelliStar 設備便是使用 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2229
+#: book.translate.xml:2179
msgid "<primary>Verisign</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2228
+#: book.translate.xml:2178
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.verisign.com/\">Verisign</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - Verisign is responsible for operating the .com and .net root domain "
@@ -2285,12 +2137,12 @@ msgstr ""
"點故障的問題。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2242
+#: book.translate.xml:2192
msgid "<primary>Voxer</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2241
+#: book.translate.xml:2191
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.voxer.com/\">Voxer</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"Voxer powers their mobile voice messaging platform with ZFS on FreeBSD. "
@@ -2306,12 +2158,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 也支援了 TRIM。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2256
+#: book.translate.xml:2206
msgid "<primary>WhatsApp</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2255
+#: book.translate.xml:2205
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.whatsapp.com/\">WhatsApp</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - When WhatsApp needed a platform that would be able to handle more than 1 "
@@ -2323,12 +2175,12 @@ msgstr ""
"台時,它們選擇了 FreeBSD。它們接著擴大規模到每台伺服器處理超過 250 萬的連線。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2268
+#: book.translate.xml:2218
msgid "<primary>Wheel Systems</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2266
+#: book.translate.xml:2216
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://wheelsystems.com/\">Wheel Systems</link> <_:"
"indexterm-1/> - The FUDO security appliance allows enterprises to monitor, "
@@ -2342,17 +2194,17 @@ msgstr ""
"GELI, Capsicum, HAST 及 auditdistd。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2280
+#: book.translate.xml:2230
msgid "FreeBSD has also spawned a number of related open source projects:"
msgstr "FreeBSD 也催生了數個相關的開源計劃:"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2287
+#: book.translate.xml:2237
msgid "<primary>BSD Router</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2285
+#: book.translate.xml:2235
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://bsdrp.net/\">BSD Router</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"A FreeBSD based replacement for large enterprise routers designed to run on "
@@ -2362,12 +2214,12 @@ msgstr ""
"以 FreeBSD 為基礎的大型企業路由器替代方案,專門設計為可在標準 PC 硬體上運作。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2296
+#: book.translate.xml:2246
msgid "<primary>FreeNAS</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2295
+#: book.translate.xml:2245
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.freenas.org/\">FreeNAS</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- A customized FreeBSD designed to be used as a network file server "
@@ -2382,12 +2234,12 @@ msgstr ""
"iSCSI,還有以 FreeBSD Jail 為基礎的套件系統。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2308
+#: book.translate.xml:2258
msgid "<primary>GhostBSD</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2307
+#: book.translate.xml:2257
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.ghostbsd.org/\">GhostBSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - A desktop oriented distribution of FreeBSD bundled with the Gnome "
@@ -2397,12 +2249,12 @@ msgstr ""
"> - 採用 Gnome 桌面環境的 FreeBSD 發行版。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2316
+#: book.translate.xml:2266
msgid "<primary>mfsBSD</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2315
+#: book.translate.xml:2265
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://mfsbsd.vx.sk/\">mfsBSD</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - A "
"toolkit for building a FreeBSD system image that runs entirely from memory."
@@ -2411,12 +2263,12 @@ msgstr ""
"來建置可完全從記憶體執行 FreeBSD 系統映像檔工具。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2324
+#: book.translate.xml:2274
msgid "<primary>NAS4Free</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2323
+#: book.translate.xml:2273
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.nas4free.org/\">NAS4Free</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - A file server distribution based on FreeBSD with a PHP powered web "
@@ -2426,12 +2278,12 @@ msgstr ""
"> - 以 FreeBSD 及 PHP 驅動網頁介面為基礎的檔案伺服器。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2332
+#: book.translate.xml:2282
msgid "<primary>OPNsense</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2331
+#: book.translate.xml:2281
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.opnsense.org/\">OPNSense</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
"> - OPNsense is an open source, easy-to-use and easy-to-build FreeBSD based "
@@ -2446,12 +2298,12 @@ msgstr ""
"功能集,同時擁有開放和安全的來源。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2344
+#: book.translate.xml:2294
msgid "<primary>TrueOS</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>TrueOS</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2343
+#: book.translate.xml:2293
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"https://www.trueos.org\">TrueOS</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"A customized version of FreeBSD geared towards desktop users with graphical "
@@ -2463,12 +2315,12 @@ msgstr ""
"能給所有使用者,專門設計來緩解使用者在 Windows 與 OS X 間的過渡。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2354
+#: book.translate.xml:2304
msgid "<primary>pfSense</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2353
+#: book.translate.xml:2303
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pfsense.org/\">pfSense</link> <_:indexterm-1/> "
"- A firewall distribution based on FreeBSD with a huge array of features and "
@@ -2478,12 +2330,12 @@ msgstr ""
"- 以 FreeBSD 為基礎的防火牆發行版,支援巨型陣列及大規模 IPv6。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2363
+#: book.translate.xml:2313
msgid "<primary>ZRouter</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2362
+#: book.translate.xml:2312
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"http://zrouter.org/\">ZRouter</link> <_:indexterm-1/> - "
"An open source alternative firmware for embedded devices based on FreeBSD. "
@@ -2494,150 +2346,22 @@ msgstr ""
"用韌體。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2371
-msgid ""
-"FreeBSD is also used to power some of the biggest sites on the Internet, "
-"including:"
-msgstr "FreeBSD 也同時被用來驅動一些網際網路上的大型網站,包括:"
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2377
-msgid "<primary>Yahoo!</primary>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2376
-msgid ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.yahoo.com/\">Yahoo!</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2384
-msgid "<primary>Yandex</primary>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2383
-msgid ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.yandex.ru/\">Yandex</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2391
-msgid "<primary>Rambler</primary>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2390
-msgid ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.rambler.ru/\">Rambler</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2398
-msgid "<primary>Sina</primary>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2397
-msgid "<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sina.com/\">Sina</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2406
-msgid "<primary>Pair Networks</primary>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2404
-msgid ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.pair.com/\">Pair Networks</link> <_:"
-"indexterm-1/>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2414
-msgid "<primary>Sony Japan</primary>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2412
-msgid ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.sony.co.jp/\">Sony Japan</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
-">"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2421
-msgid "<primary>Netcraft</primary>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2420
-msgid ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.netcraft.com/\">Netcraft</link> <_:indexterm-1/"
-">"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2427
-msgid ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"https://signup.netflix.com/openconnect\">Netflix</link> "
-"<_:indexterm-1/>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2435
-msgid "<primary>NetEase</primary>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2434
-msgid ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.163.com/\">NetEase</link> <_:indexterm-1/>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2442
-msgid "<primary>Weathernews</primary>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2441
-msgid ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.weathernews.com/\">Weathernews</link> <_:"
-"indexterm-1/>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2450
-msgid "<primary>TELEHOUSE America</primary>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2448
-msgid ""
-"<link xlink:href=\"http://www.telehouse.com/\">TELEHOUSE America</link> <_:"
-"indexterm-1/>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2457
+#: book.translate.xml:2321
+#, fuzzy
msgid ""
-"and many more. Wikipedia also maintains a <link xlink:href=\"http://en."
-"wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_products_based_on_FreeBSD\">list of products "
-"based on FreeBSD</link>."
+"Wikipedia also maintains a <link xlink:href=\"https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
+"List_of_products_based_on_FreeBSD\">list of products based on FreeBSD</link>."
msgstr ""
"還有許多的應用。維基百科也維護了一份 <link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia."
"org/wiki/List_of_products_based_on_FreeBSD\">以 FreeBSD 為基礎的產品</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2463
+#: book.translate.xml:2328
msgid "About the FreeBSD Project"
msgstr "關於 FreeBSD 計劃"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2465
+#: book.translate.xml:2330
msgid ""
"The following section provides some background information on the project, "
"including a brief history, project goals, and the development model of the "
@@ -2645,37 +2369,37 @@ msgid ""
msgstr "接下來講的是 FreeBSD 計劃的背景,包含歷史、計劃目標以及開發模式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2470
+#: book.translate.xml:2335
msgid "A Brief History of FreeBSD"
msgstr "FreeBSD 歷史簡介"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2472
+#: book.translate.xml:2337
msgid "<primary>386BSD Patchkit</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2473
+#: book.translate.xml:2338
msgid "<primary>Hubbard, Jordan</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2474
+#: book.translate.xml:2339
msgid "<primary>Williams, Nate</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2475
+#: book.translate.xml:2340
msgid "<primary>Grimes, Rod</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2476
+#: book.translate.xml:2341
msgid "<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>history</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2481
+#: book.translate.xml:2346
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD Project had its genesis in the early part of 1993, partially as "
"an outgrowth of the Unofficial 386BSDPatchkit by the patchkit's last 3 "
@@ -2685,12 +2409,12 @@ msgstr ""
"劃的最後三個協調人 Nate Williams,Rod Grimes 和 Jordan Hubbard。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2486 book.translate.xml:2526
+#: book.translate.xml:2351 book.translate.xml:2391
msgid "<primary>386BSD</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2487
+#: book.translate.xml:2352
msgid ""
"The original goal was to produce an intermediate snapshot of 386BSD in order "
"to fix a number of problems with it that the patchkit mechanism just was not "
@@ -2702,12 +2426,12 @@ msgstr ""
"386BSD Interim 便是這個原因。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2493
+#: book.translate.xml:2358
msgid "<primary>Jolitz, Bill</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2494
+#: book.translate.xml:2359
msgid ""
"386BSD was Bill Jolitz's operating system, which had been up to that point "
"suffering rather severely from almost a year's worth of neglect. As the "
@@ -2723,17 +2447,17 @@ msgstr ""
"出未來的打算,所以該計劃便突然面臨中止。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2504
+#: book.translate.xml:2369
msgid "<primary>Greenman, David</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2505
+#: book.translate.xml:2370
msgid "<primary>Walnut Creek CDROM</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2507
+#: book.translate.xml:2372
msgid ""
"The trio thought that the goal remained worthwhile, even without Bill's "
"support, and so they adopted the name \"FreeBSD\" coined by David Greenman. "
@@ -2758,27 +2482,27 @@ msgstr ""
"模。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2523
+#: book.translate.xml:2388
msgid "<primary>4.3BSD-Lite</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2524 book.translate.xml:2539
+#: book.translate.xml:2389 book.translate.xml:2404
msgid "<primary>Net/2</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2525 book.translate.xml:2538
+#: book.translate.xml:2390 book.translate.xml:2403
msgid "<primary>U.C. Berkeley</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2527 book.translate.xml:8913
+#: book.translate.xml:2392 book.translate.xml:8793
msgid "<primary>Free Software Foundation</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2529
+#: book.translate.xml:2394
msgid ""
"The first CD-ROM (and general net-wide) distribution was FreeBSD 1.0, "
"released in December of 1993. This was based on the 4.3BSD-Lite "
@@ -2793,17 +2517,17 @@ msgstr ""
"還算成功,我們又接著於 1994 年 5 月發行了相當成功的 FreeBSD 1.1。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2537
+#: book.translate.xml:2402
msgid "<primary>Novell</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2540
+#: book.translate.xml:2405
msgid "<primary>AT&amp;T</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2541
+#: book.translate.xml:2406
msgid ""
"Around this time, some rather unexpected storm clouds formed on the horizon "
"as Novell and U.C. Berkeley settled their long-running lawsuit over the "
@@ -2828,7 +2552,7 @@ msgstr ""
"最後一次發行,也就是 FreeBSD 1.1.5.1。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2558
+#: book.translate.xml:2423
msgid ""
"FreeBSD then set about the arduous task of literally re-inventing itself "
"from a completely new and rather incomplete set of 4.4BSD-Lite bits. The "
@@ -2850,7 +2574,7 @@ msgstr ""
"之於 1995 年 6 月又發行了更容易安裝,更好的 FreeBSD 2.0.5。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2572
+#: book.translate.xml:2437
msgid ""
"Since that time, FreeBSD has made a series of releases each time improving "
"the stability, speed, and feature set of the previous version."
@@ -2859,7 +2583,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的發佈版本。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2576
+#: book.translate.xml:2441
msgid ""
"For now, long-term development projects continue to take place in the 10.X-"
"CURRENT (trunk) branch, and snapshot releases of 10.X are continually made "
@@ -2871,24 +2595,24 @@ msgstr ""
"snapshots/\">快照伺服器</link> 取得。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2584
+#: book.translate.xml:2449
msgid "FreeBSD Project Goals"
msgstr "FreeBSD 計劃目標"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2587
+#: book.translate.xml:2452
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Jordan</firstname> <surname>Hubbard</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2597
+#: book.translate.xml:2462
msgid "<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>goals</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>FreeBSD 計劃</primary> <secondary>目標</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2601
+#: book.translate.xml:2466
msgid ""
"The goals of the FreeBSD Project are to provide software that may be used "
"for any purpose and without strings attached. Many of us have a significant "
@@ -2908,22 +2632,22 @@ msgstr ""
"是我們所倡導的一個目標。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2613
+#: book.translate.xml:2478
msgid "<primary>GNU General Public License (GPL)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>GNU 通用公共授權條款 (GPL)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2616
+#: book.translate.xml:2481
msgid "<primary>GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL)</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>GNU 較寬鬆通用公共授權條款 (LGPL)</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2619
+#: book.translate.xml:2484
msgid "<primary>BSD Copyright</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>BSD 版權</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2620
+#: book.translate.xml:2485
msgid ""
"That code in our source tree which falls under the GNU General Public "
"License (GPL) or Library General Public License (LGPL) comes with slightly "
@@ -2939,25 +2663,25 @@ msgstr ""
"果可以選擇的話, 我們會比較喜歡使用限制相對更寬鬆的 BSD 版權來發佈軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2632
+#: book.translate.xml:2497
msgid "The FreeBSD Development Model"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開發模式"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2635
+#: book.translate.xml:2500
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Satoshi</firstname> <surname>Asami</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2645
+#: book.translate.xml:2510
msgid ""
"<primary>FreeBSD Project</primary> <secondary>development model</secondary>"
msgstr "<primary>FreeBSD 專案</primary> <secondary>開發模式</secondary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2650
+#: book.translate.xml:2515
msgid ""
"The development of FreeBSD is a very open and flexible process, being "
"literally built from the contributions of thousands of people around the "
@@ -2984,7 +2708,7 @@ msgstr ""
"link> 對那些希望了解我們進度的人也是相當有用的。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2663
+#: book.translate.xml:2528
msgid ""
"Useful things to know about the FreeBSD Project and its development process, "
"whether working independently or in close cooperation:"
@@ -2993,43 +2717,43 @@ msgstr ""
"錯的︰"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2669
+#: book.translate.xml:2534
msgid "The SVN repositories<anchor xml:id=\"development-cvs-repository\"/>"
msgstr "SVN 檔案庫<anchor xml:id=\"development-cvs-repository\"/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2673
+#: book.translate.xml:2538
msgid "<primary>CVS</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2677
+#: book.translate.xml:2542
msgid "<primary>CVS Repository</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>CVS 檔案庫</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2681
+#: book.translate.xml:2546
msgid "<primary>Concurrent Versions System</primary> <see>CVS</see>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2686 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:2551 book.translate.xml:45362 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "<primary>Subversion</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2690
+#: book.translate.xml:2555
msgid "<primary>Subversion Repository</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2694
+#: book.translate.xml:2559
msgid "<primary>SVN</primary> <see>Subversion</see>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2672
+#: book.translate.xml:2537
msgid ""
"<_:indexterm-1/> <_:indexterm-2/> <_:indexterm-3/> <_:indexterm-4/> <_:"
"indexterm-5/> <_:indexterm-6/> For several years, the central source tree "
@@ -3062,17 +2786,17 @@ msgstr ""
"\"ports-using\">使用 Port 套件集</link> 了解如何取得 FreeBSD Port 套件集。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2721
+#: book.translate.xml:2586
msgid "The committers list<anchor xml:id=\"development-committers\"/>"
msgstr "提交者名單<anchor xml:id=\"development-committers\"/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2725
+#: book.translate.xml:2590
msgid "<primary>committers</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>提交者</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2724
+#: book.translate.xml:2589
msgid ""
"The <firstterm>committers</firstterm> <_:indexterm-1/> are the people who "
"have <emphasis>write</emphasis> access to the Subversion tree, and are "
@@ -3093,17 +2817,18 @@ msgstr ""
"誤 (Bug)。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2741
+#: book.translate.xml:2606
msgid "The FreeBSD core team<anchor xml:id=\"development-core\"/>"
msgstr "FreeBSD 核心團隊<anchor xml:id=\"development-core\"/>"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2745
+#: book.translate.xml:2610
msgid "<primary>core team</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>核心團隊</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2744
+#: book.translate.xml:2609
+#, fuzzy
msgid ""
"The <firstterm>FreeBSD core team</firstterm> <_:indexterm-1/> would be "
"equivalent to the board of directors if the FreeBSD Project were a company. "
@@ -3112,7 +2837,7 @@ msgid ""
"and responsible developers to join our group of committers is one of the "
"functions of the core team, as is the recruitment of new core team members "
"as others move on. The current core team was elected from a pool of "
-"committer candidates in July 2014. Elections are held every 2 years."
+"committer candidates in July 2018. Elections are held every 2 years."
msgstr ""
"如果把 FreeBSD 看成是一家公司的話, <firstterm>FreeBSD 核心團隊 (FreeBSD "
"core team)</firstterm><_:indexterm-1/> 就相當於董事會。 核心團隊的主要職責在"
@@ -3121,7 +2846,7 @@ msgstr ""
"2014 年 7 月從提交者候選人之中選出來的,這個選舉每兩年會舉辦一次。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2760
+#: book.translate.xml:2625
msgid ""
"Like most developers, most members of the core team are also volunteers when "
"it comes to FreeBSD development and do not benefit from the project "
@@ -3138,12 +2863,12 @@ msgstr ""
"而選擇投入 FreeBSD 開發的熱血有為者才對!"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2775
+#: book.translate.xml:2640
msgid "Outside contributors"
msgstr "非官方貢獻者"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2778
+#: book.translate.xml:2643
msgid ""
"Last, but definitely not least, the largest group of developers are the "
"users themselves who provide feedback and bug fixes to us on an almost "
@@ -3161,12 +2886,12 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"eresources\"/> 以瞭解各式不同的 FreeBSD 郵遞論壇。"
#. (itstool) path: para/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2789
+#: book.translate.xml:2654
msgid "<primary>contributors</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>貢獻者</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2787
+#: book.translate.xml:2652
msgid ""
"<citetitle><link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/"
"contributors/article.html\">The FreeBSD Contributors List</link></citetitle> "
@@ -3179,7 +2904,7 @@ msgstr ""
"貢獻 FreeBSD 一些回饋呢?"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2794
+#: book.translate.xml:2659
msgid ""
"Providing code is not the only way of contributing to the project; for a "
"more complete list of things that need doing, please refer to the <link "
@@ -3189,7 +2914,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/index.html\">FreeBSD 計畫網站</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2802
+#: book.translate.xml:2667
msgid ""
"In summary, our development model is organized as a loose set of concentric "
"circles. The centralized model is designed for the convenience of the "
@@ -3206,7 +2931,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用 — 而這個開發模式對我們要完成這個目標來說運作的非常好。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2812
+#: book.translate.xml:2677
msgid ""
"All we ask of those who would join us as FreeBSD developers is some of the "
"same dedication its current people have to its continued success!"
@@ -3215,12 +2940,12 @@ msgstr ""
"保繼續成功!"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2818
+#: book.translate.xml:2683
msgid "Third Party Programs"
msgstr "第三方程式"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2820
+#: book.translate.xml:2685
msgid ""
"In addition to the base distributions, FreeBSD offers a ported software "
"collection with thousands of commonly sought-after programs. At the time of "
@@ -3248,22 +2973,20 @@ msgstr ""
"更多有關套件與 Port 的資訊可於 <xref linkend=\"ports\"/> 取得。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2841
+#: book.translate.xml:2706
msgid "Additional Documentation"
msgstr "其他文件"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2843
+#: book.translate.xml:2708
+#, fuzzy
msgid ""
-"All recent FreeBSD versions provide an option in the installer (either "
-"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
-"manvolnum></citerefentry> or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bsdinstall</"
-"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>) to install additional "
-"documentation under <filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd</filename> during "
-"the initial system setup. Documentation may also be installed at any later "
-"time using packages as described in <xref linkend=\"doc-ports-install-package"
-"\"/>. You may view the locally installed manuals with any HTML capable "
-"browser using the following URLs:"
+"All supported FreeBSD versions provide an option in the installer to install "
+"additional documentation under <filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd</"
+"filename> during the initial system setup. Documentation may also be "
+"installed at any later time using packages as described in <xref linkend="
+"\"doc-ports-install-package\"/>. You may view the locally installed manuals "
+"with any HTML capable browser using the following URLs:"
msgstr ""
"所有最近的 FreeBSD 版本在安裝程式 (不是 "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysinstall</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
@@ -3275,12 +2998,12 @@ msgstr ""
"已安裝在本機的操作手冊:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2855
+#: book.translate.xml:2720
msgid "The FreeBSD Handbook"
msgstr "FreeBSD 使用手冊"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2858
+#: book.translate.xml:2723
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"file://localhost/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/handbook/"
"index.html\"><filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/handbook/index.html</"
@@ -3288,12 +3011,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:2863
+#: book.translate.xml:2728
msgid "The FreeBSD FAQ"
msgstr "FreeBSD 常見問答集"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2866
+#: book.translate.xml:2731
msgid ""
"<link xlink:href=\"file://localhost/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/faq/index."
"html\"><filename>/usr/local/share/doc/freebsd/faq/index.html</filename></"
@@ -3301,7 +3024,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2871
+#: book.translate.xml:2736
msgid ""
"You can also view the master (and most frequently updated) copies at <uri "
"xlink:href=\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/\">https://www.FreeBSD.org/</uri>."
@@ -3310,50 +3033,101 @@ msgstr ""
"\"https://www.FreeBSD.org/\">https://www.FreeBSD.org/</uri>。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:2887
+#: book.translate.xml:2752
msgid "Installing FreeBSD"
msgstr "安裝 FreeBSD"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2915
+#: book.translate.xml:2780
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Gavin</firstname> <surname>Atkinson</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Updated for bsdinstall by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2924
+#: book.translate.xml:2789
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Warren</firstname> <surname>Block</surname> </"
"personname>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:2933
+#: book.translate.xml:2798
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Allan</firstname> <surname>Jude</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Updated for root-on-ZFS by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:2947
+#: book.translate.xml:2812
msgid "<primary>installation</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>安裝</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2949
+#: book.translate.xml:2814
msgid ""
-"Beginning with FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE, FreeBSD provides an easy to use, text-"
-"based installation program named <application>bsdinstall</application>. This "
-"chapter describes how to install FreeBSD using <application>bsdinstall</"
-"application>."
+"There are several different ways of getting FreeBSD to run, depending on the "
+"environment. Those are:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2819
+msgid ""
+"Virtual Machine images, to download and import on a virtual environment of "
+"choice. These can be downloaded from the <link xlink:href=\"https://www."
+"freebsd.org/where.html\">Download FreeBSD</link> page. There are images for "
+"KVM (<quote>qcow2</quote>), VMWare (<quote>vmdk</quote>), Hyper-V "
+"(<quote>vhd</quote>), and raw device images that are universally supported. "
+"These are not installation images, but rather the preconfigured "
+"(<quote>already installed</quote>) instances, ready to run and perform post-"
+"installation tasks."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2832
+msgid ""
+"Virtual Machine images available at Amazon's <link xlink:href=\"https://aws."
+"amazon.com/mp/solutions/freebsd/\">AWS Marketplace</link>, <link xlink:href="
+"\"https://azuremarketplace.microsoft.com/en-us/marketplace/apps?"
+"search=freebsd&amp;page=1\">Microsoft Azure Marketplace</link>, and <link "
+"xlink:href=\"https://console.cloud.google.com/launcher/details/freebsd-cloud/"
+"freebsd-11\">Google Cloud Platform</link>, to run on their respective "
+"hosting services. For more information on deploying FreeBSD on Azure please "
+"consult the relevant chapter in the <link xlink:href=\"https://docs."
+"microsoft.com/en-us/azure/virtual-machines/linux/freebsd-intro-on-azure"
+"\">Azure Documentation</link>."
msgstr ""
-"自從 FreeBSD 9.0-RELEASE 開始,FreeBSD 提供一個易用,文字介面的安裝程式 "
-"<application>bsdinstall</application>。 本章描述如何用 "
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2842
+msgid ""
+"SD card images, for embedded systems such as Raspberry Pi or BeagleBone "
+"Black. These can be downloaded from the <link xlink:href=\"https://www."
+"freebsd.org/where.html\">Download FreeBSD</link> page. These files must be "
+"uncompressed and written as a raw image to an SD card, from which the board "
+"will then boot."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2851
+msgid ""
+"Installation images, to install FreeBSD on a hard drive for the usual "
+"desktop, laptop, or server systems."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
+#: book.translate.xml:2857
+#, fuzzy
+msgid ""
+"The rest of this chapter describes the fourth case, explaining how to "
+"install FreeBSD using the text-based installation program named "
+"<application>bsdinstall</application>."
+msgstr ""
+"<xref linkend=\"bsdinstall\"/> 增加的內容涵蓋使用新安裝工具 "
"<application>bsdinstall</application> 來安裝 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2955
+#: book.translate.xml:2862
msgid ""
"In general, the installation instructions in this chapter are written for "
"the <trademark>i386</trademark> and <acronym>AMD64</acronym> architectures. "
@@ -3368,7 +3142,7 @@ msgstr ""
"著來做。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2964
+#: book.translate.xml:2871
msgid ""
"Users who prefer to install FreeBSD using a graphical installer may be "
"interested in <application>pc-sysinstall</application>, the installer used "
@@ -3384,22 +3158,22 @@ msgstr ""
"\">https://www.trueos.org/handbook/trueos.html</link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2976
+#: book.translate.xml:2883
msgid "The minimum hardware requirements and FreeBSD supported architectures."
msgstr "最低的硬體需求和 FreeBSD 支援的架構。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2981
+#: book.translate.xml:2888
msgid "How to create the FreeBSD installation media."
msgstr "如何建立 FreeBSD 的安裝媒體。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2985
+#: book.translate.xml:2892
msgid "How to start <application>bsdinstall</application>."
msgstr "如何開始執行 <application>bsdinstall</application>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2990
+#: book.translate.xml:2897
msgid ""
"The questions <application>bsdinstall</application> will ask, what they "
"mean, and how to answer them."
@@ -3408,29 +3182,29 @@ msgstr ""
"回答。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2995
+#: book.translate.xml:2902
msgid "How to troubleshoot a failed installation."
msgstr "安裝失敗時如何做故障排除。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:2999
+#: book.translate.xml:2906
msgid ""
"How to access a live version of FreeBSD before committing to an installation."
msgstr "如何在正式安裝前使用 live 版本的 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3004 book.translate.xml:10729 book.translate.xml:14061
-#: book.translate.xml:18151 book.translate.xml:19413 book.translate.xml:23837
-#: book.translate.xml:29536 book.translate.xml:31283 book.translate.xml:32035
-#: book.translate.xml:35807 book.translate.xml:41767 book.translate.xml:41972
-#: book.translate.xml:43677 book.translate.xml:44700 book.translate.xml:46272
-#: book.translate.xml:46631 book.translate.xml:48842 book.translate.xml:50548
-#: book.translate.xml:58197 book.translate.xml:61848
+#: book.translate.xml:2911 book.translate.xml:10612 book.translate.xml:13841
+#: book.translate.xml:17932 book.translate.xml:19194 book.translate.xml:23611
+#: book.translate.xml:29302 book.translate.xml:31049 book.translate.xml:31801
+#: book.translate.xml:35456 book.translate.xml:41412 book.translate.xml:41601
+#: book.translate.xml:43314 book.translate.xml:44337 book.translate.xml:45997
+#: book.translate.xml:46730 book.translate.xml:48932 book.translate.xml:50638
+#: book.translate.xml:57058 book.translate.xml:60709
msgid "Before reading this chapter, you should:"
msgstr "在開始閱讀這章之前,您需要︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3008
+#: book.translate.xml:2915
msgid ""
"Read the supported hardware list that shipped with the version of FreeBSD to "
"be installed and verify that the system's hardware is supported."
@@ -3438,12 +3212,12 @@ msgstr ""
"閱讀即將安裝的 FreeBSD 版本所附帶的硬體支援清單,並核對系統的硬體是否有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3016
+#: book.translate.xml:2923
msgid "Minimum Hardware Requirements"
msgstr "最低硬體需求"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3018
+#: book.translate.xml:2925
msgid ""
"The hardware requirements to install FreeBSD vary by architecture. Hardware "
"architectures and devices supported by a FreeBSD release are listed on the "
@@ -3459,7 +3233,7 @@ msgstr ""
"也有建議如何正確的選擇在不同架構使用的映像檔。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3025
+#: book.translate.xml:2932
msgid ""
"A FreeBSD installation requires a minimum of 96 MB of <acronym>RAM</acronym> "
"and 1.5 GB of free hard drive space. However, such small amounts of memory "
@@ -3472,17 +3246,17 @@ msgstr ""
"途的桌面系統會需要更多的資源,2-4 GB RAM 與至少 8 GB 的硬碟空間是不錯的起點。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3033
+#: book.translate.xml:2940
msgid "These are the processor requirements for each architecture:"
msgstr "每一種架構的處理器需求概述如下:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3038
+#: book.translate.xml:2945
msgid "amd64"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3040
+#: book.translate.xml:2947
msgid ""
"This is the most common desktop and laptop processor type, used in most "
"modern systems. <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> calls it "
@@ -3494,7 +3268,7 @@ msgstr ""
"製造商則稱該類型為 <acronym>x86-64</acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3045
+#: book.translate.xml:2952
msgid ""
"Examples of amd64 compatible processors include: <trademark>AMD Athlon</"
"trademark>64, <trademark>AMD Opteron</trademark>, multi-core <trademark "
@@ -3509,17 +3283,17 @@ msgstr ""
"器。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3053
+#: book.translate.xml:2960
msgid "i386"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3055
+#: book.translate.xml:2962
msgid "Older desktops and laptops often use this 32-bit, x86 architecture."
msgstr "舊型的桌面電腦與筆記型電腦常使用此 32-bit, x86 架構。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3058
+#: book.translate.xml:2965
msgid ""
"Almost all i386-compatible processors with a floating point unit are "
"supported. All <trademark class=\"registered\">Intel</trademark> processors "
@@ -3529,7 +3303,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"registered\">Intel</trademark> 486 或是更高階的處理器也有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3062
+#: book.translate.xml:2969
msgid ""
"FreeBSD will take advantage of Physical Address Extensions (<acronym>PAE</"
"acronym>) support on <acronym>CPU</acronym>s with this feature. A kernel "
@@ -3547,12 +3321,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3074
+#: book.translate.xml:2981
msgid "ia64"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3076
+#: book.translate.xml:2983
msgid ""
"Currently supported processors are the <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Itanium</trademark> and the <trademark class=\"registered\">Itanium</"
@@ -3570,49 +3344,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>SMP</acronym>) 的設定都有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3086
-msgid "pc98"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3088
-msgid ""
-"NEC PC-9801/9821 series with almost all i386-compatible processors, "
-"including 80486, <trademark class=\"registered\">Pentium</trademark>, "
-"<trademark class=\"registered\">Pentium</trademark> Pro, and <trademark "
-"class=\"registered\">Pentium</trademark> II, are all supported. All i386-"
-"compatible processors by AMD, Cyrix, IBM, and IDT are also supported. EPSON "
-"PC-386/486/586 series, which are compatible with NEC PC-9801 series, are "
-"supported. The NEC FC-9801/9821 and NEC SV-98 series should be supported."
-msgstr ""
-"NEC PC-9801/9821 系列幾乎所有 i386 相容處理器包括 80486、<trademark class="
-"\"registered\">Pentium</trademark>、 <trademark class=\"registered"
-"\">Pentium</trademark> Pro 和 <trademark class=\"registered\">Pentium</"
-"trademark> II 都有支援。 所有 AMD, Cyrix, IBM, 及 IDT 的i386 相容處理器都有支"
-"援。 相容 NEC PC-9801 的 EPSON PC-386/486/586 系列都有支援。 NEC "
-"FC-9801/9821 及 NEC SV-98 系列也有支援。"
-
-#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3097
-msgid ""
-"High-resolution mode is not supported. NEC PC-98XA/XL/RL/XL^2, and NEC PC-"
-"H98 series are supported in normal (PC-9801 compatible) mode only. The "
-"<acronym>SMP</acronym>-related features of FreeBSD are not supported. The "
-"New Extend Standard Architecture (<acronym>NESA</acronym>) bus used in the "
-"PC-H98, SV-H98, and FC-H98 series, is not supported."
-msgstr ""
-"不支援高解析度模式。NEC PC-98XA/XL/RL/XL^2 和 NEC PC-H98 系列只支援正常 "
-"(PC-9801 相容) 模式。 FreeBSD 對稱多處理器 <acronym>SMP</acronym> 相關功能並"
-"不支援。 PC-H98, SV-H98 和FC-H98 新延伸標準架構 (<acronym>NESA</acronym>) 匯"
-"流排不支援。"
-
-#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3108
+#: book.translate.xml:2993
msgid "powerpc"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3110
+#: book.translate.xml:2995
msgid ""
"All New World <acronym>ROM</acronym> <trademark class=\"registered\">Apple</"
"trademark> <trademark class=\"registered\">Mac</trademark> systems with "
@@ -3625,17 +3362,17 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>CPU</acronym> 的機器都有支援。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3115
+#: book.translate.xml:3000
msgid "A 32-bit kernel can only use the first 2 GB of <acronym>RAM</acronym>."
msgstr "32 位元的核心只能使用前 2 GB 的 <acronym>RAM</acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:3121
+#: book.translate.xml:3006
msgid "sparc64"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3123
+#: book.translate.xml:3008
msgid ""
"Systems supported by FreeBSD/sparc64 are listed at the <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/platforms/sparc.html\">FreeBSD/sparc64 Project</link>."
@@ -3644,7 +3381,7 @@ msgstr ""
"platforms/sparc.html\">FreeBSD/sparc64 計劃</link>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3127
+#: book.translate.xml:3012
msgid ""
"<acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on all systems with more than 1 "
"processor. A dedicated disk is required as it is not possible to share a "
@@ -3654,12 +3391,12 @@ msgstr ""
"因為此時無法和其他作業系統共用磁碟。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3137
+#: book.translate.xml:3022
msgid "Pre-Installation Tasks"
msgstr "安裝前準備工作"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3139
+#: book.translate.xml:3024
msgid ""
"Once it has been determined that the system meets the minimum hardware "
"requirements for installing FreeBSD, the installation file should be "
@@ -3671,12 +3408,12 @@ msgstr ""
"體。 做這些之前,先檢查以下核對清單的項目是否準備好了:"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3148
+#: book.translate.xml:3033
msgid "Back Up Important Data"
msgstr "備份重要資料"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3150
+#: book.translate.xml:3035
msgid ""
"Before installing any operating system, <emphasis>always</emphasis> backup "
"all important data first. Do not store the backup on the system being "
@@ -3693,12 +3430,12 @@ msgstr ""
"面的資料都會遺失。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3162
+#: book.translate.xml:3047
msgid "Decide Where to Install FreeBSD"
msgstr "決定 FreeBSD 安裝在哪裡"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3164
+#: book.translate.xml:3049
msgid ""
"If FreeBSD will be the only operating system installed, this step can be "
"skipped. But if FreeBSD will share the disk with another operating system, "
@@ -3709,7 +3446,7 @@ msgstr ""
"是哪個分割區 (Partition)。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3169
+#: book.translate.xml:3054
msgid ""
"In the i386 and amd64 architectures, disks can be divided into multiple "
"partitions using one of two partitioning schemes. A traditional "
@@ -3735,7 +3472,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個分割區,不再需要使用邏輯分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3187
+#: book.translate.xml:3072
msgid ""
"Some older operating systems, like <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</"
"trademark> XP, are not compatible with the <acronym>GPT</acronym> partition "
@@ -3747,7 +3484,7 @@ msgstr ""
"這類作業系統共用一個磁碟,則需要用 <acronym>MBR</acronym> 分割表格式。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3194
+#: book.translate.xml:3079
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD boot loader requires either a primary or <acronym>GPT</acronym> "
"partition. If all of the primary or <acronym>GPT</acronym> partitions are "
@@ -3761,7 +3498,7 @@ msgstr ""
"工具來縮小現有的分割區,並使用釋放出來的空間建立新分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3202
+#: book.translate.xml:3087
msgid ""
"A variety of free and commercial partition resizing tools are listed at "
"<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
@@ -3782,7 +3519,7 @@ msgstr ""
"GParted 同時也被許多 Linux Live <acronym>CD</acronym> 發行版所收錄。"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3212
+#: book.translate.xml:3097
msgid ""
"When used properly, disk shrinking utilities can safely create space for "
"creating a new partition. Since the possibility of selecting the wrong "
@@ -3794,7 +3531,7 @@ msgstr ""
"料,並確認備份的完整性。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3219
+#: book.translate.xml:3104
msgid ""
"Disk partitions containing different operating systems make it possible to "
"install multiple operating systems on one computer. An alternative is to use "
@@ -3807,12 +3544,12 @@ msgstr ""
"執行而不需要改變任何磁碟分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3228
+#: book.translate.xml:3113
msgid "Collect Network Information"
msgstr "收集網路資訊"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3230
+#: book.translate.xml:3115
msgid ""
"Some FreeBSD installation methods require a network connection in order to "
"download the installation files. After any installation, the installer will "
@@ -3822,7 +3559,7 @@ msgstr ""
"入設定系統網路的介面。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3235
+#: book.translate.xml:3120
msgid ""
"If the network has a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server, it can be used to "
"provide automatic network configuration. If <acronym>DHCP</acronym> is not "
@@ -3834,52 +3571,53 @@ msgstr ""
"商 (Internet Service Provider, ISP) 取得以的網路資訊供系統使用:"
#. (itstool) path: orderedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3243
+#: book.translate.xml:3128
msgid "Required Network Information"
msgstr "需要的網路資訊"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:3246 book.translate.xml:53602
+#: book.translate.xml:3131 book.translate.xml:53692
msgid "<acronym>IP</acronym> address"
msgstr "<acronym>IP</acronym> 位址"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3250
+#: book.translate.xml:3135
msgid "Subnet mask"
msgstr "子網路遮罩"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3254
+#: book.translate.xml:3139
msgid "<acronym>IP</acronym> address of default gateway"
msgstr "預設通訊閘 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3259
+#: book.translate.xml:3144
msgid "Domain name of the network"
msgstr "網路的網域名稱"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3263
+#: book.translate.xml:3148
msgid ""
"<acronym>IP</acronym> addresses of the network's <acronym>DNS</acronym> "
"servers"
msgstr "網路 <acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器 <acronym>IP</acronym> 位址"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3270
+#: book.translate.xml:3155
msgid "Check for FreeBSD Errata"
msgstr "檢查 FreeBSD 勘誤表"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3272
+#: book.translate.xml:3157
+#, fuzzy
msgid ""
"Although the FreeBSD Project strives to ensure that each release of FreeBSD "
"is as stable as possible, bugs occasionally creep into the process. On very "
"rare occasions those bugs affect the installation process. As these problems "
"are discovered and fixed, they are noted in the FreeBSD Errata (<link xlink:"
-"href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/11.1R/errata.html\">https://www.freebsd."
-"org/releases/11.1R/errata.html</link>) on the FreeBSD web site. Check the "
+"href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/12.0R/errata.html\">https://www.freebsd."
+"org/releases/12.0R/errata.html</link>) on the FreeBSD web site. Check the "
"errata before installing to make sure that there are no problems that might "
"affect the installation."
msgstr ""
@@ -3891,7 +3629,7 @@ msgstr ""
"裝的問題。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3282
+#: book.translate.xml:3167
msgid ""
"Information and errata for all the releases can be found on the release "
"information section of the FreeBSD web site (<link xlink:href="
@@ -3903,12 +3641,12 @@ msgstr ""
"index.html</link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3289
+#: book.translate.xml:3174
msgid "Prepare the Installation Media"
msgstr "準備安裝的媒體"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3291
+#: book.translate.xml:3176
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD installer is not an application that can be run from within "
"another operating system. Instead, download a FreeBSD installation file, "
@@ -3922,7 +3660,7 @@ msgstr ""
"媒體來安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3298
+#: book.translate.xml:3183
msgid ""
"FreeBSD installation files are available at <link xlink:href="
"\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/where.html#download\">www.freebsd.org/where."
@@ -3941,7 +3679,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>DVD</acronym> 來開機。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3307
+#: book.translate.xml:3192
msgid ""
"Installation files are available in several formats. The formats vary "
"depending on computer architecture and media type."
@@ -3949,7 +3687,7 @@ msgstr "安裝檔有許多種可用的格式,格式會依據電腦架構及媒
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
#. (itstool) id: book.translate.xml#bsdinstall-installation-media-uefi
-#: book.translate.xml:3311
+#: book.translate.xml:3196
msgid ""
"Additional installation files are included for computers that boot with "
"<acronym>UEFI</acronym> (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface). The names "
@@ -3960,12 +3698,12 @@ msgstr ""
"filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3317
+#: book.translate.xml:3202
msgid "File types:"
msgstr "檔案類型:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3321
+#: book.translate.xml:3206
msgid ""
"<literal>-bootonly.iso</literal>: This is the smallest installation file as "
"it only contains the installer. A working Internet connection is required "
@@ -3978,7 +3716,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>CD</acronym> 燒錄應用程式燒錄到 <acronym>CD</acronym> 使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3331
+#: book.translate.xml:3216
msgid ""
"<literal>-disc1.iso</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed to "
"install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It should be burned "
@@ -3989,7 +3727,7 @@ msgstr ""
"到 <acronym>CD</acronym> 使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3339
+#: book.translate.xml:3224
msgid ""
"<literal>-dvd1.iso</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed to "
"install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It also contains a "
@@ -4004,7 +3742,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>DVD</acronym> 燒錄應用程式燒錄到 <acronym>DVD</acronym> 使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3350
+#: book.translate.xml:3235
msgid ""
"<literal>-memstick.img</literal>: This file contains all of the files needed "
"to install FreeBSD, its source, and the Ports Collection. It should be "
@@ -4015,7 +3753,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 隨身碟使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3358
+#: book.translate.xml:3243
msgid ""
"<literal>-mini-memstick.img</literal>: Like <literal>-bootonly.iso</"
"literal>, does not include installation files, but downloads them as needed. "
@@ -4029,7 +3767,7 @@ msgstr ""
"碟。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3367
+#: book.translate.xml:3252
msgid ""
"After downloading the image file, download <filename>CHECKSUM.SHA256</"
"filename> from the same directory. Calculate a <firstterm>checksum</"
@@ -4046,7 +3784,7 @@ msgstr ""
"程式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3375
+#: book.translate.xml:3260
msgid ""
"Compare the calculated checksum with the one shown in <filename>CHECKSUM."
"SHA256</filename>. The checksums must match exactly. If the checksums do not "
@@ -4056,12 +3794,12 @@ msgstr ""
"應該要完全相符,若校驗碼不相符,則代表該映像檔是損壞的,必須再下載一次。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3381
+#: book.translate.xml:3266
msgid "Writing an Image File to <acronym>USB</acronym>"
msgstr "寫入映象檔到 <acronym>USB</acronym>"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3383
+#: book.translate.xml:3268
msgid ""
"The <filename>*.img</filename> file is an <emphasis>image</emphasis> of the "
"complete contents of a memory stick. It <emphasis>cannot</emphasis> be "
@@ -4075,7 +3813,7 @@ msgstr ""
"隨身碟,本節會介紹其中兩種。"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3392
+#: book.translate.xml:3277
msgid ""
"Before proceeding, back up any important data on the <acronym>USB</acronym> "
"stick. This procedure will erase the existing data on the stick."
@@ -4084,12 +3822,12 @@ msgstr ""
"身碟上既有的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3398
+#: book.translate.xml:3283
msgid "Using <command>dd</command> to Write the Image"
msgstr "使用 <command>dd</command> 來寫入映像檔"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3402
+#: book.translate.xml:3287
msgid ""
"This example uses <filename>/dev/da0</filename> as the target device where "
"the image will be written. Be <emphasis>very careful</emphasis> that the "
@@ -4101,7 +3839,7 @@ msgstr ""
"毀所有在指定目標裝置上已存在的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3410
+#: book.translate.xml:3295
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> command-line utility is available on BSD, <trademark class="
@@ -4122,13 +3860,13 @@ msgstr ""
"到第一個 <acronym>USB</acronym> 裝置。"
#. (itstool) path: step/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:3421
+#: book.translate.xml:3306
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dd if=<replaceable>FreeBSD-10.2-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img</replaceable> of=/dev/<replaceable>da0</replaceable> bs=1M conv=sync</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3423
+#: book.translate.xml:3308
msgid ""
"If this command fails, verify that the <acronym>USB</acronym> stick is not "
"mounted and that the device name is for the disk, not a partition. Some "
@@ -4148,13 +3886,13 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: procedure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3434
+#: book.translate.xml:3319
msgid ""
"Using <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> to Write the Image"
msgstr "使用 <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</trademark> 來寫入映象檔"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3437
+#: book.translate.xml:3322
msgid ""
"Be sure to give the correct drive letter as the existing data on the "
"specified drive will be overwritten and destroyed."
@@ -4162,7 +3900,7 @@ msgstr ""
"務必確認指定的磁碟機代號正確,因在指定磁碟機上的既有資料將會被覆蓋與摧毀。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3443
+#: book.translate.xml:3328
msgid ""
"Obtaining <application>Image Writer for <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Windows</trademark></application>"
@@ -4171,7 +3909,7 @@ msgstr ""
"trademark> 版</application>"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3446
+#: book.translate.xml:3331
msgid ""
"<application>Image Writer for <trademark class=\"registered\">Windows</"
"trademark></application> is a free application that can correctly write an "
@@ -4186,12 +3924,12 @@ msgstr ""
"個資料夾。"
#. (itstool) path: step/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3454
+#: book.translate.xml:3339
msgid "Writing the Image with Image Writer"
msgstr "用 Image Writer 寫入映象檔"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3456
+#: book.translate.xml:3341
msgid ""
"Double-click the <application>Win32DiskImager</application> icon to start "
"the program. Verify that the drive letter shown under "
@@ -4210,24 +3948,24 @@ msgstr ""
"入隨身碟。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3471
+#: book.translate.xml:3356
msgid "You are now ready to start installing FreeBSD."
msgstr "您現在可以開始安裝 FreeBSD 。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3477
+#: book.translate.xml:3362
msgid "Starting the Installation"
msgstr "開始安裝"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3480
+#: book.translate.xml:3365
msgid ""
"By default, the installation will not make any changes to the disk(s) before "
"the following message:"
msgstr "預設安裝程序在下列訊息顯示之前不會對磁碟做任何更動:"
#. (itstool) path: important/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:3483
+#: book.translate.xml:3368
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Your changes will now be written to disk. If you\n"
@@ -4237,7 +3975,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3488
+#: book.translate.xml:3373
msgid ""
"The install can be exited at any time prior to this warning. If there is a "
"concern that something is incorrectly configured, just turn the computer off "
@@ -4247,7 +3985,7 @@ msgstr ""
"腦,將不會對系統磁碟做任何更改。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3495
+#: book.translate.xml:3380
msgid ""
"This section describes how to boot the system from the installation media "
"which was prepared using the instructions in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
@@ -4264,12 +4002,12 @@ msgstr ""
"會有所不同。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3506
+#: book.translate.xml:3391
msgid "Booting on <trademark>i386</trademark> and amd64"
msgstr "在 <trademark>i386</trademark> 及 amd64 開機"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3508
+#: book.translate.xml:3393
msgid ""
"These architectures provide a <acronym>BIOS</acronym> menu for selecting the "
"boot device. Depending upon the installation media being used, select the "
@@ -4287,14 +4025,14 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>Escape</keycap> 其中之一。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3519
+#: book.translate.xml:3404
msgid ""
"If the computer loads the existing operating system instead of the FreeBSD "
"installer, then either:"
msgstr "若電腦仍載入了現有的作業系統,而不是 FreeBSD 安裝程式,原因可能為:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3524
+#: book.translate.xml:3409
msgid ""
"The installation media was not inserted early enough in the boot process. "
"Leave the media inserted and try restarting the computer."
@@ -4303,7 +4041,7 @@ msgstr ""
"電腦。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3530
+#: book.translate.xml:3415
msgid ""
"The <acronym>BIOS</acronym> changes were incorrect or not saved. Double-"
"check that the right boot device is selected as the first boot device."
@@ -4312,7 +4050,7 @@ msgstr ""
"確的裝置。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3536
+#: book.translate.xml:3421
msgid ""
"This system is too old to support booting from the chosen media. In this "
"case, the <application>Plop Boot Manager</application> (<link xlink:href="
@@ -4324,12 +4062,12 @@ msgstr ""
"plop.at/en/bootmanagers.html\"/>) 來從選擇的開機媒體開機。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3546
+#: book.translate.xml:3431
msgid "Booting on <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</trademark>"
msgstr "在 <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</trademark> 開機"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3548
+#: book.translate.xml:3433
msgid ""
"On most machines, holding <keycap>C</keycap> on the keyboard during boot "
"will boot from the <acronym>CD</acronym>. Otherwise, hold <keycombo action="
@@ -4348,18 +4086,18 @@ msgstr ""
"prompt> 提示時,輸入"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:3564
+#: book.translate.xml:3449
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput>boot cd:,\\ppc\\loader cd:0</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3568
+#: book.translate.xml:3453
msgid "Booting on <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark>"
msgstr "在 <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark> 開機"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3570
+#: book.translate.xml:3455
msgid ""
"Most <trademark class=\"registered\">SPARC64</trademark> systems are set up "
"to boot automatically from disk. To install FreeBSD from a <acronym>CD</"
@@ -4370,7 +4108,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3574
+#: book.translate.xml:3459
msgid ""
"To do this, reboot the system and wait until the boot message appears. The "
"message depends on the model, but should look something like this:"
@@ -4379,7 +4117,7 @@ msgstr ""
"機型而有所不同,但大致結果會如:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:3578
+#: book.translate.xml:3463
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Sun Blade 100 (UltraSPARC-IIe), Keyboard Present\n"
@@ -4389,7 +4127,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3583
+#: book.translate.xml:3468
msgid ""
"If the system proceeds to boot from disk at this point, press <keycombo "
"action=\"simul\"><keycap>L1</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo> or "
@@ -4412,7 +4150,7 @@ msgstr ""
"prompt>,其中的數字代表啟動的 <acronym>CPU</acronym> 數。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3595
+#: book.translate.xml:3480
msgid ""
"At this point, place the <acronym>CD</acronym> into the drive and type "
"<command>boot cdrom</command> from the <acronym>PROM</acronym> prompt."
@@ -4421,19 +4159,19 @@ msgstr ""
"畫面輸入 <command>boot cdrom</command>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3601
+#: book.translate.xml:3486
msgid "FreeBSD Boot Menu"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開機選單"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3603
+#: book.translate.xml:3488
msgid ""
"Once the system boots from the installation media, a menu similar to the "
"following will be displayed:"
msgstr "從安裝媒體開機之後,會顯示如下的選單:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3607
+#: book.translate.xml:3492
msgid "FreeBSD Boot Loader Menu"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開機載入程式選單"
@@ -4442,14 +4180,14 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 開機載入程式選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3611
+#: book.translate.xml:3496
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3616
+#: book.translate.xml:3501
msgid ""
"By default, the menu will wait ten seconds for user input before booting "
"into the FreeBSD installer or, if FreeBSD is already installed, before "
@@ -4463,7 +4201,7 @@ msgstr ""
"以下選項可選。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3626
+#: book.translate.xml:3511
msgid ""
"<literal>Boot Multi User</literal>: This will continue the FreeBSD boot "
"process. If the boot timer has been paused, press <keycap>1</keycap>, upper- "
@@ -4474,7 +4212,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>B</keycap> 或 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 鍵。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3634
+#: book.translate.xml:3519
msgid ""
"<literal>Boot Single User</literal>: This mode can be used to fix an "
"existing FreeBSD installation as described in <xref linkend=\"boot-singleuser"
@@ -4486,7 +4224,7 @@ msgstr ""
"keycap>、大寫或小寫 <keycap>S</keycap> 進入這個模式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3642
+#: book.translate.xml:3527
msgid ""
"<literal>Escape to loader prompt</literal>: This will boot the system into a "
"repair prompt that contains a limited number of low-level commands. This "
@@ -4499,12 +4237,12 @@ msgstr ""
"入這個提示。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3651
+#: book.translate.xml:3536
msgid "<literal>Reboot</literal>: Reboots the system."
msgstr "重新開機 (<literal>Reboot</literal>):重新開啟系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3655
+#: book.translate.xml:3540
msgid ""
"<literal>Configure Boot Options</literal>: Opens the menu shown in, and "
"described under, <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-boot-options-menu\"/>."
@@ -4513,7 +4251,7 @@ msgstr ""
"說明於 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-boot-options-menu\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3661
+#: book.translate.xml:3546
msgid "FreeBSD Boot Options Menu"
msgstr "FreeBSD 開機選項選單"
@@ -4522,13 +4260,13 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 開機選項選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3665
+#: book.translate.xml:3550
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-boot-options-menu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3670
+#: book.translate.xml:3555
msgid ""
"The boot options menu is divided into two sections. The first section can be "
"used to either return to the main boot menu or to reset any toggled options "
@@ -4538,7 +4276,7 @@ msgstr ""
"回預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3675
+#: book.translate.xml:3560
msgid ""
"The next section is used to toggle the available options to <literal>On</"
"literal> or <literal>Off</literal> by pressing the option's highlighted "
@@ -4551,7 +4289,7 @@ msgstr ""
"到選項被修改。有數個選項可以在這個選單做切換:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3684
+#: book.translate.xml:3569
msgid ""
"<literal>ACPI Support</literal>: If the system hangs during boot, try "
"toggling this option to <literal>Off</literal>."
@@ -4560,7 +4298,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個選項為關 (<literal>Off</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3690
+#: book.translate.xml:3575
msgid ""
"<literal>Safe Mode</literal>: If the system still hangs during boot even "
"with <literal>ACPI Support</literal> set to <literal>Off</literal>, try "
@@ -4571,7 +4309,7 @@ msgstr ""
"將此選項設為開 (<literal>On</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3697
+#: book.translate.xml:3582
msgid ""
"<literal>Single User</literal>: Toggle this option to <literal>On</literal> "
"to fix an existing FreeBSD installation as described in <xref linkend=\"boot-"
@@ -4583,7 +4321,7 @@ msgstr ""
"述,問題修正後,將其設回關 (<literal>Off</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3705
+#: book.translate.xml:3590
msgid ""
"<literal>Verbose</literal>: Toggle this option to <literal>On</literal> to "
"see more detailed messages during the boot process. This can be useful when "
@@ -4593,7 +4331,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 來查看開機程序中更詳細的訊息,這在診斷硬體問題時非常有用。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3712
+#: book.translate.xml:3597
msgid ""
"After making the needed selections, press <keycap>1</keycap> or "
"<keycap>Backspace</keycap> to return to the main boot menu, then press "
@@ -4608,7 +4346,7 @@ msgstr ""
"選單如 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-choose-mode\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3721
+#: book.translate.xml:3606
msgid "Welcome Menu"
msgstr "歡迎選單"
@@ -4617,13 +4355,13 @@ msgstr "歡迎選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3725
+#: book.translate.xml:3610
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-choose-mode' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3730
+#: book.translate.xml:3615
msgid ""
"Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to select the default of "
"<guibutton>[ Install ]</guibutton> to enter the installer. The rest of this "
@@ -4643,7 +4381,7 @@ msgstr ""
"本的詳細說明於 <xref linkend=\"using-live-cd\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3743
+#: book.translate.xml:3628
msgid ""
"To review the boot messages, including the hardware device probe, press the "
"upper- or lower-case <keycap>S</keycap> and then <keycap>Enter</keycap> to "
@@ -4657,12 +4395,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>exit</command> 返回歡迎選單。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3756
+#: book.translate.xml:3641
msgid "Using <application>bsdinstall</application>"
msgstr "使用 <application>bsdinstall</application>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3758
+#: book.translate.xml:3643
msgid ""
"This section shows the order of the <application>bsdinstall</application> "
"menus and the type of information that will be asked before the system is "
@@ -4677,12 +4415,12 @@ msgstr ""
"選項然後進入下一個畫面。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3767
+#: book.translate.xml:3652
msgid "Selecting the Keymap Menu"
msgstr "選擇鍵盤對應表選單"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3769
+#: book.translate.xml:3654
msgid ""
"Depending on the system console being used, <application>bsdinstall</"
"application> may initially display the menu shown in <xref linkend="
@@ -4692,7 +4430,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的選單會如 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-keymap-select-default\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3774
+#: book.translate.xml:3659
msgid "Keymap Selection"
msgstr "鍵盤對應表選擇"
@@ -4701,14 +4439,14 @@ msgstr "鍵盤對應表選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3778
+#: book.translate.xml:3663
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-select-default' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3783
+#: book.translate.xml:3668
msgid ""
"To configure the keyboard layout, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> with "
"<guibutton>[ YES ]</guibutton> selected, which will display the menu shown "
@@ -4722,7 +4460,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>Enter</keycap> 跳過這個選單畫面。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3792
+#: book.translate.xml:3677
msgid "Selecting Keyboard Menu"
msgstr "選擇鍵盤選單"
@@ -4731,13 +4469,13 @@ msgstr "選擇鍵盤選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3796
+#: book.translate.xml:3681
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-keymap' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3801
+#: book.translate.xml:3686
msgid ""
"When configuring the keyboard layout, use the up and down arrows to select "
"the keymap that most closely represents the mapping of the keyboard attached "
@@ -4747,7 +4485,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Keymap),然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 儲存選項。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3807
+#: book.translate.xml:3692
msgid ""
"Pressing <keycap>Esc</keycap> will exit this menu and use the default "
"keymap. If the choice of keymap is not clear, <guimenuitem>United States of "
@@ -4758,7 +4496,7 @@ msgstr ""
"guimenuitem> 是也是保險的選項。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3813
+#: book.translate.xml:3698
msgid ""
"In FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE and later, this menu has been enhanced. The full "
"selection of keymaps is shown, with the default preselected. In addition, "
@@ -4770,7 +4508,7 @@ msgstr ""
"對話框讓使用者測試鍵盤對應表來確認。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3820
+#: book.translate.xml:3705
msgid "Enhanced Keymap Menu"
msgstr "改進後的鍵盤對應表選單"
@@ -4779,19 +4517,19 @@ msgstr "改進後的鍵盤對應表選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3824
+#: book.translate.xml:3709
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-10' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3832 book.translate.xml:3839
+#: book.translate.xml:3717 book.translate.xml:3724
msgid "Setting the Hostname"
msgstr "設定主機名稱"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3834
+#: book.translate.xml:3719
msgid ""
"The next <application>bsdinstall</application> menu is used to set the "
"hostname for the newly installed system."
@@ -4804,13 +4542,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3843
+#: book.translate.xml:3728
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-hostname' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3848
+#: book.translate.xml:3733
msgid ""
"Type in a hostname that is unique for the network. It should be a fully-"
"qualified hostname, such as <systemitem class=\"fqdomainname\">machine3."
@@ -4821,12 +4559,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3853 book.translate.xml:3859
+#: book.translate.xml:3738 book.translate.xml:3744
msgid "Selecting Components to Install"
msgstr "選擇要安裝的元件"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3855
+#: book.translate.xml:3740
msgid ""
"Next, <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt to select optional "
"components to install."
@@ -4838,13 +4576,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3863
+#: book.translate.xml:3748
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-components' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3868
+#: book.translate.xml:3753
msgid ""
"Deciding which components to install will depend largely on the intended use "
"of the system and the amount of disk space available. The FreeBSD kernel and "
@@ -4857,7 +4595,7 @@ msgstr ""
"必須安裝的部份。依據系統的架構,部份元件可能不會顯示:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3877
+#: book.translate.xml:3762
msgid ""
"<literal>doc</literal> - Additional documentation, mostly of historical "
"interest, to install into <filename>/usr/share/doc</filename>. The "
@@ -4871,7 +4609,7 @@ msgstr ""
"操作。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3885
+#: book.translate.xml:3770
msgid ""
"<literal>games</literal> - Several traditional <acronym>BSD</acronym> games, "
"including <application>fortune</application>, <application>rot13</"
@@ -4882,7 +4620,7 @@ msgstr ""
"他。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3892
+#: book.translate.xml:3777
msgid ""
"<literal>lib32</literal> - Compatibility libraries for running 32-bit "
"applications on a 64-bit version of FreeBSD."
@@ -4891,7 +4629,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用的相容性程式庫。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3898
+#: book.translate.xml:3783
msgid ""
"<literal>ports</literal> - The FreeBSD Ports Collection is a collection of "
"files which automates the downloading, compiling and installation of third-"
@@ -4902,7 +4640,7 @@ msgstr ""
"方軟體套件的集合,<xref linkend=\"ports\"/> 中會討論到如何使用 Port 套件集。"
#. (itstool) path: warning/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3905
+#: book.translate.xml:3790
msgid ""
"The installation program does not check for adequate disk space. Select this "
"option only if sufficient hard disk space is available. The FreeBSD Ports "
@@ -4912,7 +4650,7 @@ msgstr ""
"磁碟空間,只有在有足夠的磁碟空間時才選擇這個選項。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3914
+#: book.translate.xml:3799
msgid ""
"<literal>src</literal> - The complete FreeBSD source code for both the "
"kernel and the userland. Although not required for the majority of "
@@ -4929,12 +4667,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3927 book.translate.xml:3938
+#: book.translate.xml:3812 book.translate.xml:3823
msgid "Installing from the Network"
msgstr "從網路安裝"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3929
+#: book.translate.xml:3814
msgid ""
"The menu shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-netinstall-notify\"/> only "
"appears when installing from a <filename>-bootonly.iso</filename> "
@@ -4953,13 +4691,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3942
+#: book.translate.xml:3827
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-files' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3947
+#: book.translate.xml:3832
msgid ""
"To configure the network connection, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> and follow "
"the instructions in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-config-network-dev\"/>. Once "
@@ -4974,7 +4712,7 @@ msgstr ""
"載的速度會比較快,這會減少安裝的時間。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3956
+#: book.translate.xml:3841
msgid "Choosing a Mirror"
msgstr "選擇鏡像站"
@@ -4983,26 +4721,26 @@ msgstr "選擇鏡像站"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3960
+#: book.translate.xml:3845
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-mirrorselect' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3965
+#: book.translate.xml:3850
msgid ""
"Installation will then continue as if the installation files were located on "
"the local installation media."
msgstr "若在本機的安裝媒體中找到安裝檔案,安裝程序便會繼續。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3971
+#: book.translate.xml:3856
msgid "Allocating Disk Space"
msgstr "配置磁碟空間"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3973
+#: book.translate.xml:3858
msgid ""
"The next menu is used to determine the method for allocating disk space. The "
"options available in the menu depend upon the version of FreeBSD being "
@@ -5012,7 +4750,7 @@ msgstr ""
"本而有所不同。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3978
+#: book.translate.xml:3863
msgid "Partitioning Choices on FreeBSD 9.x"
msgstr "FreeBSD 9.x 的磁碟分割選項"
@@ -5021,14 +4759,14 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 9.x 的磁碟分割選項"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3982
+#: book.translate.xml:3867
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-manual' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:3988
+#: book.translate.xml:3873
msgid "Partitioning Choices on FreeBSD 10.x and Higher"
msgstr "FreeBSD 10.x 或更新版本的磁碟分割選項"
@@ -5037,13 +4775,13 @@ msgstr "FreeBSD 10.x 或更新版本的磁碟分割選項"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:3992
+#: book.translate.xml:3877
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:3997
+#: book.translate.xml:3882
msgid ""
"<literal>Guided</literal> partitioning automatically sets up the disk "
"partitions, <literal>Manual</literal> partitioning allows advanced users to "
@@ -5071,7 +4809,7 @@ msgstr ""
"firstterm>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4008
+#: book.translate.xml:3893
msgid ""
"This section describes what to consider when laying out the disk partitions. "
"It then demonstrates how to use the different partitioning methods."
@@ -5079,32 +4817,32 @@ msgstr ""
"本節會介紹在配置磁碟分割時需要考量那些事情,並且會示範各種磁碟分割的方式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4013
+#: book.translate.xml:3898
msgid "Designing the Partition Layout"
msgstr "規劃分割區配置"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:4015
+#: book.translate.xml:3900
msgid "<primary>partition layout</primary>"
msgstr "<primary>分割區配置</primary>"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:4016
+#: book.translate.xml:3901
msgid "<primary><filename>/etc</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:4019
+#: book.translate.xml:3904
msgid "<primary><filename>/var</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:4022
+#: book.translate.xml:3907
msgid "<primary><filename>/usr</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4026
+#: book.translate.xml:3911
msgid ""
"When laying out file systems, remember that hard drives transfer data faster "
"from the outer tracks to the inner. Thus, smaller and heavier-accessed file "
@@ -5120,7 +4858,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>/var</filename> 然後 <filename>/usr</filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4036
+#: book.translate.xml:3921
msgid ""
"The size of the <filename>/var</filename> partition reflects the intended "
"machine's usage. This partition is used to hold mailboxes, log files, and "
@@ -5135,7 +4873,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>/var</filename> 需要超過 1 GB 的可用磁碟空間。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4046
+#: book.translate.xml:3931
msgid ""
"Sometimes, a lot of disk space is required in <filename>/var/tmp</filename>. "
"When new software is installed, the packaging tools extract a temporary copy "
@@ -5152,7 +4890,7 @@ msgstr ""
"application> 或 <application>LibreOffice</application> 會很困難。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4057
+#: book.translate.xml:3942
msgid ""
"The <filename>/usr</filename> partition holds many of the files which "
"support the system, including the FreeBSD Ports Collection and system source "
@@ -5162,7 +4900,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Port 套件集以及系統原始碼,這個分割區建議至少要有 2 GB 的空間。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4062
+#: book.translate.xml:3947
msgid ""
"When selecting partition sizes, keep the space requirements in mind. Running "
"out of space in one partition while barely using another can be a hassle."
@@ -5171,17 +4909,17 @@ msgstr ""
"區時會很麻煩。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:4066
+#: book.translate.xml:3951
msgid "<primary>swap sizing</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:4069
+#: book.translate.xml:3954
msgid "<primary>swap partition</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4073
+#: book.translate.xml:3958
msgid ""
"As a rule of thumb, the swap partition should be about double the size of "
"physical memory (<acronym>RAM</acronym>). Systems with minimal <acronym>RAM</"
@@ -5195,7 +4933,7 @@ msgstr ""
"往後增加更多記憶體時可能會產生問題。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4081
+#: book.translate.xml:3966
msgid ""
"On larger systems with multiple <acronym>SCSI</acronym> disks or multiple "
"<acronym>IDE</acronym> disks operating on different controllers, it is "
@@ -5215,7 +4953,7 @@ msgstr ""
"換空間,這也會讓要從失控的程式恢復運作更容易,而不需強制重新啟動系統。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4094
+#: book.translate.xml:3979
msgid ""
"By properly partitioning a system, fragmentation introduced in the smaller "
"write heavy partitions will not bleed over into the mostly read partitions. "
@@ -5233,12 +4971,12 @@ msgstr ""
"顯著。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4107
+#: book.translate.xml:3992
msgid "Guided Partitioning"
msgstr "引導式磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4109
+#: book.translate.xml:3994
msgid ""
"When this method is selected, a menu will display the available disk(s). If "
"multiple disks are connected, choose the one where FreeBSD is to be "
@@ -5248,7 +4986,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個來安裝 FreeBSD。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4114
+#: book.translate.xml:3999
msgid "Selecting from Multiple Disks"
msgstr "自多個磁碟選擇"
@@ -5257,13 +4995,13 @@ msgstr "自多個磁碟選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4118
+#: book.translate.xml:4003
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-disk' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4123
+#: book.translate.xml:4008
msgid ""
"Once the disk is selected, the next menu prompts to install to either the "
"entire disk or to create a partition using free space. If "
@@ -5278,7 +5016,7 @@ msgstr ""
"未使用的空間來建立分割區配置。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4133
+#: book.translate.xml:4018
msgid "Selecting Entire Disk or Partition"
msgstr "選擇完整磁碟或分割區"
@@ -5287,13 +5025,13 @@ msgstr "選擇完整磁碟或分割區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4137
+#: book.translate.xml:4022
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-entire-part' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4142
+#: book.translate.xml:4027
msgid ""
"After the partition layout has been created, review it to ensure it meets "
"the needs of the installation. Selecting <guibutton>[ Revert ]</guibutton> "
@@ -5310,7 +5048,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<guibutton>[ Finish ]</guibutton> 繼續安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4153
+#: book.translate.xml:4038
msgid "Review Created Partitions"
msgstr "確認已建立的分割區"
@@ -5319,23 +5057,23 @@ msgstr "確認已建立的分割區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4157
+#: book.translate.xml:4042
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-review' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4164
+#: book.translate.xml:4049
msgid "Manual Partitioning"
msgstr "手動磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4166
+#: book.translate.xml:4051
msgid "Selecting this method opens the partition editor:"
msgstr "選擇這個方法會開啟分割區編輯程式:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4169 book.translate.xml:4184 book.translate.xml:4255
+#: book.translate.xml:4054 book.translate.xml:4069 book.translate.xml:4140
msgid "Manually Create Partitions"
msgstr "手動建立分割區"
@@ -5344,14 +5082,14 @@ msgstr "手動建立分割區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4173
+#: book.translate.xml:4058
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-create' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4178
+#: book.translate.xml:4063
msgid ""
"Highlight the installation drive (<filename>ada0</filename> in this example) "
"and select <guibutton>[ Create ]</guibutton> to display a menu of available "
@@ -5366,14 +5104,14 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4188
+#: book.translate.xml:4073
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4193
+#: book.translate.xml:4078
msgid ""
"<acronym>GPT</acronym> is usually the most appropriate choice for amd64 "
"computers. Older computers that are not compatible with <acronym>GPT</"
@@ -5385,34 +5123,33 @@ msgstr ""
"那些較罕見或較舊的電腦上。"
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4200
+#: book.translate.xml:4085
msgid "Partitioning Schemes"
msgstr "磁碟分割表格式"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4205
+#: book.translate.xml:4090
msgid "Abbreviation"
msgstr "縮寫"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4206 book.translate.xml:7164 book.translate.xml:8507
-#: book.translate.xml:11935 book.translate.xml:23160 book.translate.xml:23339
-#: book.translate.xml:27449 book.translate.xml:31437 book.translate.xml:43712
-#: book.translate.xml:45797 book.translate.xml:52944 book.translate.xml:53451
-#: book.translate.xml:54210 book.translate.xml:54251 book.translate.xml:55577
-#: book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:4091 book.translate.xml:7049 book.translate.xml:8387
+#: book.translate.xml:11851 book.translate.xml:22934 book.translate.xml:23113
+#: book.translate.xml:27223 book.translate.xml:31203 book.translate.xml:43349
+#: book.translate.xml:45522 book.translate.xml:53034 book.translate.xml:53541
+#: book.translate.xml:54300 book.translate.xml:54341 book.translate.xml:65140
msgid "Description"
msgstr "說明"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/glossterm
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/acronym
-#: book.translate.xml:4212 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:4097 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "APM"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4213
+#: book.translate.xml:4098
msgid ""
"Apple Partition Map, used by <trademark class=\"registered\">PowerPC</"
"trademark>."
@@ -5423,12 +5160,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/glossterm
#. (itstool) path: glossentry/acronym
-#: book.translate.xml:4217 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:4102 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid "BSD"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4218
+#: book.translate.xml:4103
msgid ""
"<acronym>BSD</acronym> label without an <acronym>MBR</acronym>, sometimes "
"called <firstterm>dangerously dedicated mode</firstterm> as non-"
@@ -5439,12 +5176,12 @@ msgstr ""
"(Dangerously dedicated mode)</firstterm>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4226
+#: book.translate.xml:4111
msgid "GPT"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4227
+#: book.translate.xml:4112
msgid ""
"GUID Partition Table (<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
"GUID_Partition_Table\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table</"
@@ -5455,12 +5192,12 @@ msgstr ""
"link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4231
+#: book.translate.xml:4116
msgid "MBR"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4232
+#: book.translate.xml:4117
msgid ""
"Master Boot Record (<link xlink:href=\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
"Master_boot_record\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record</link>)."
@@ -5470,12 +5207,12 @@ msgstr ""
"link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4236
+#: book.translate.xml:4121
msgid "PC98"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4237
+#: book.translate.xml:4122
msgid ""
"<acronym>MBR</acronym> variant used by NEC PC-98 computers (<link xlink:href="
"\"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801\">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801</"
@@ -5486,17 +5223,17 @@ msgstr ""
"link>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4242
+#: book.translate.xml:4127
msgid "VTOC8"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4243
+#: book.translate.xml:4128
msgid "Volume Table Of Contents used by Sun SPARC64 and UltraSPARC computers."
msgstr "Volume Table Of Contents,用於 Sun SPARC64 及 UltraSPARC 電腦。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4250
+#: book.translate.xml:4135
msgid ""
"After the partitioning scheme has been selected and created, select "
"<guibutton>[ Create ]</guibutton> again to create the partitions."
@@ -5509,26 +5246,26 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4259
+#: book.translate.xml:4144
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-addpart' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4264
+#: book.translate.xml:4149
msgid ""
"A standard FreeBSD <acronym>GPT</acronym> installation uses at least three "
"partitions:"
msgstr "標準的 FreeBSD <acronym>GPT</acronym> 安裝會使用至少三種分割區:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4269
+#: book.translate.xml:4154
msgid "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal> - Holds the FreeBSD boot code."
msgstr "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal> - 儲存 FreeBSD 開機程式 (Boot code)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4274
+#: book.translate.xml:4159
msgid ""
"<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal> - A FreeBSD <acronym>UFS</acronym> file "
"system."
@@ -5536,12 +5273,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal> - FreeBSD 的 <acronym>UFS</acronym> 檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4279
+#: book.translate.xml:4164
msgid "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal> - FreeBSD swap space."
msgstr "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal> - FreeBSD 交換空間。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4284
+#: book.translate.xml:4169
msgid ""
"Another partition type worth noting is <literal>freebsd-zfs</literal>, used "
"for partitions that will contain a FreeBSD <acronym>ZFS</acronym> file "
@@ -5556,7 +5293,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 取得可用的 <acronym>GPT</acronym> 分割區類型說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4290
+#: book.translate.xml:4175
msgid ""
"Multiple file system partitions can be created and some people prefer a "
"traditional layout with separate partitions for <filename>/</filename>, "
@@ -5570,7 +5307,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"bsdinstall-part-manual-splitfs\"/> 的範例。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4297
+#: book.translate.xml:4182
msgid ""
"The <literal>Size</literal> may be entered with common abbreviations: "
"<emphasis>K</emphasis> for kilobytes, <emphasis>M</emphasis> for megabytes, "
@@ -5581,7 +5318,7 @@ msgstr ""
"表 GB。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4303
+#: book.translate.xml:4188
msgid ""
"Proper sector alignment provides the best performance, and making partition "
"sizes even multiples of 4K bytes helps to ensure alignment on drives with "
@@ -5598,7 +5335,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Boot code) 的限制,不可大於 512K。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4314
+#: book.translate.xml:4199
msgid ""
"A <literal>Mountpoint</literal> is needed if the partition will contain a "
"file system. If only a single <acronym>UFS</acronym> partition will be "
@@ -5609,7 +5346,7 @@ msgstr ""
"filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4319
+#: book.translate.xml:4204
msgid ""
"The <literal>Label</literal> is a name by which the partition will be known. "
"Drive names or numbers can change if the drive is connected to a different "
@@ -5629,7 +5366,7 @@ msgstr ""
"且標籤會在 <filename>/dev/</filename> 中有各自的目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4332
+#: book.translate.xml:4217
msgid ""
"Use a unique label on every partition to avoid conflicts from identical "
"labels. A few letters from the computer's name, use, or location can be "
@@ -5643,12 +5380,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>UFS</acronym> 根目錄分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4342
+#: book.translate.xml:4227
msgid "Creating Traditional Split File System Partitions"
msgstr "建立傳統分割的檔案系統分割區"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4345
+#: book.translate.xml:4230
msgid ""
"For a traditional partition layout where the <filename>/</filename>, "
"<filename>/var</filename>, <filename>/tmp</filename>, and <filename>/usr</"
@@ -5669,7 +5406,7 @@ msgstr ""
"說明使用其他獨一無二的標籤。"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4358
+#: book.translate.xml:4243
msgid ""
"By default, FreeBSD's <filename>gptboot</filename> expects the first "
"<acronym>UFS</acronym> partition to be the <filename>/</filename> partition."
@@ -5678,113 +5415,113 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 分割區為 <filename>/</filename> 分割區。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4366
+#: book.translate.xml:4251
msgid "Partition Type"
msgstr "分割區類型"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4367
+#: book.translate.xml:4252
msgid "Size"
msgstr "大小"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4368
+#: book.translate.xml:4253
msgid "Mountpoint"
msgstr "掛載點"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4369
+#: book.translate.xml:4254
msgid "Label"
msgstr "標籤"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4375
+#: book.translate.xml:4260
msgid "<literal>freebsd-boot</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4376
+#: book.translate.xml:4261
msgid "<literal>512K</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4380 book.translate.xml:4394 book.translate.xml:4401
-#: book.translate.xml:4408
+#: book.translate.xml:4265 book.translate.xml:4279 book.translate.xml:4286
+#: book.translate.xml:4293
msgid "<literal>freebsd-ufs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4381 book.translate.xml:4395
+#: book.translate.xml:4266 book.translate.xml:4280
msgid "<literal>2G</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4382 book.translate.xml:7169
+#: book.translate.xml:4267 book.translate.xml:7054
msgid "<filename>/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4383
+#: book.translate.xml:4268
msgid "<literal>exrootfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4387
+#: book.translate.xml:4272
msgid "<literal>freebsd-swap</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4388
+#: book.translate.xml:4273
msgid "<literal>4G</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4390
+#: book.translate.xml:4275
msgid "<literal>exswap</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4396
+#: book.translate.xml:4281
msgid "<filename>/var</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4397
+#: book.translate.xml:4282
msgid "<literal>exvarfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4402
+#: book.translate.xml:4287
msgid "<literal>1G</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4403
+#: book.translate.xml:4288
msgid "<filename>/tmp</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4404
+#: book.translate.xml:4289
msgid "<literal>extmpfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4409
+#: book.translate.xml:4294
msgid "accept the default (remainder of the disk)"
msgstr "接受預設值 (依磁碟提示)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4411
+#: book.translate.xml:4296
msgid "<filename>/usr</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:4412
+#: book.translate.xml:4297
msgid "<literal>exusrfs</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4419
+#: book.translate.xml:4304
msgid ""
"After the custom partitions have been created, select <guibutton>[ Finish ]</"
"guibutton> to continue with the installation."
@@ -5792,12 +5529,12 @@ msgstr ""
"自訂的分割區建立完後,選擇 <guibutton>[ Finish ]</guibutton> 繼續安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4425
+#: book.translate.xml:4310
msgid "Root-on-ZFS Automatic Partitioning"
msgstr "Root-on-ZFS 自動磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4427
+#: book.translate.xml:4312
msgid ""
"Support for automatic creation of root-on-ZFS installations was added in "
"FreeBSD 10.0-RELEASE. This partitioning mode only works with whole disks and "
@@ -5826,7 +5563,7 @@ msgstr ""
"存池使用。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4446
+#: book.translate.xml:4331
msgid ""
"The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu offers a number of "
"options to control the creation of the pool."
@@ -5834,7 +5571,7 @@ msgstr ""
"主要 <acronym>ZFS</acronym> 設定選單提供了數個設定選項來控制儲存池的建立。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4451
+#: book.translate.xml:4336
msgid "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> Partitioning Menu"
msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 磁碟分割選單"
@@ -5843,13 +5580,13 @@ msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 磁碟分割選單"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4455
+#: book.translate.xml:4340
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-menu' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4460
+#: book.translate.xml:4345
msgid ""
"Select <keycap>T</keycap> to configure the <literal>Pool Type</literal> and "
"the disk(s) that will constitute the pool. The automatic <acronym>ZFS</"
@@ -5874,7 +5611,7 @@ msgstr ""
"時,每種配置最佳的磁碟數。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4477
+#: book.translate.xml:4362
msgid "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> Pool Type"
msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池類型"
@@ -5883,13 +5620,13 @@ msgstr "<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池類型"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4481
+#: book.translate.xml:4366
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_type' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4486
+#: book.translate.xml:4371
msgid ""
"Once a <literal>Pool Type</literal> has been selected, a list of available "
"disks is displayed, and the user is prompted to select one or more disks to "
@@ -5904,7 +5641,7 @@ msgstr ""
"返回磁碟清單或取消 (<guibutton>&lt;Cancel&gt;</guibutton>) 來更改儲存池類型。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4496
+#: book.translate.xml:4381
msgid "Disk Selection"
msgstr "磁碟選擇"
@@ -5913,13 +5650,13 @@ msgstr "磁碟選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4500
+#: book.translate.xml:4385
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_select' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4506
+#: book.translate.xml:4391
msgid "Invalid Selection"
msgstr "無效的選擇"
@@ -5928,13 +5665,13 @@ msgstr "無效的選擇"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4510
+#: book.translate.xml:4395
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_invalid' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4515
+#: book.translate.xml:4400
msgid ""
"If one or more disks are missing from the list, or if disks were attached "
"after the installer was started, select <guibutton>- Rescan Devices</"
@@ -5949,7 +5686,7 @@ msgstr ""
"磁碟,包含磁碟中的分割表以及各種其他資訊如裝置型號與序號 (若有的話)。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4526
+#: book.translate.xml:4411
msgid "Analyzing a Disk"
msgstr "分析磁碟"
@@ -5958,13 +5695,13 @@ msgstr "分析磁碟"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4530
+#: book.translate.xml:4415
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_info' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4535
+#: book.translate.xml:4420
msgid ""
"The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu also allows the user to "
"enter a pool name, disable forcing 4k sectors, enable or disable encryption, "
@@ -5979,7 +5716,7 @@ msgstr ""
"單上方的安裝 (<guibutton>&gt;&gt;&gt; Install</guibutton>) 選項。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4545
+#: book.translate.xml:4430
msgid ""
"If <acronym>GELI</acronym> disk encryption was enabled, the installer will "
"prompt twice for the passphrase to be used to encrypt the disks."
@@ -5988,7 +5725,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4550
+#: book.translate.xml:4435
msgid "Disk Encryption Password"
msgstr "磁碟加密密碼"
@@ -5997,13 +5734,13 @@ msgstr "磁碟加密密碼"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4554
+#: book.translate.xml:4439
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-geli_password' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4559
+#: book.translate.xml:4444
msgid ""
"The installer then offers a last chance to cancel before the contents of the "
"selected drives are destroyed to create the <acronym>ZFS</acronym> pool."
@@ -6012,7 +5749,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>ZFS</acronym> 儲存池的磁碟機。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4564
+#: book.translate.xml:4449
msgid "Last Chance"
msgstr "最後修改"
@@ -6021,23 +5758,23 @@ msgstr "最後修改"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4568
+#: book.translate.xml:4453
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-warning' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4573
+#: book.translate.xml:4458
msgid "The installation then proceeds normally."
msgstr "然後安裝程序會正常繼續。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4578
+#: book.translate.xml:4463
msgid "Shell Mode Partitioning"
msgstr "Shell 模式磁碟分割"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4580
+#: book.translate.xml:4465
msgid ""
"When creating advanced installations, the <application>bsdinstall</"
"application> partitioning menus may not provide the level of flexibility "
@@ -6056,12 +5793,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<application>bsdinstall</application> 繼續安裝程序。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4595
+#: book.translate.xml:4480
msgid "Committing to the Installation"
msgstr "確認安裝"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4597
+#: book.translate.xml:4482
msgid ""
"Once the disks are configured, the next menu provides the last chance to "
"make changes before the selected hard drive(s) are formatted. If changes "
@@ -6075,7 +5812,7 @@ msgstr ""
"何變更。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4607
+#: book.translate.xml:4492
msgid "Final Confirmation"
msgstr "最後確認"
@@ -6084,14 +5821,14 @@ msgstr "最後確認"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4611
+#: book.translate.xml:4496
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-confirmation' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4616
+#: book.translate.xml:4501
msgid ""
"To instead start the actual installation, select <guibutton>[ Commit ]</"
"guibutton> and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>."
@@ -6100,7 +5837,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4620
+#: book.translate.xml:4505
msgid ""
"Installation time will vary depending on the distributions chosen, "
"installation media, and speed of the computer. A series of messages will "
@@ -6110,7 +5847,7 @@ msgstr ""
"訊息會告知目前的進度。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4624
+#: book.translate.xml:4509
msgid ""
"First, the installer formats the selected disk(s) and initializes the "
"partitions. Next, in the case of a bootonly media, it downloads the selected "
@@ -6120,7 +5857,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Boot only) 的媒體則會開始下載選擇的元件:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4629
+#: book.translate.xml:4514
msgid "Fetching Distribution Files"
msgstr "取得發行版檔案"
@@ -6129,13 +5866,13 @@ msgstr "取得發行版檔案"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4633
+#: book.translate.xml:4518
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-fetching' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4638
+#: book.translate.xml:4523
msgid ""
"Next, the integrity of the distribution files is verified to ensure they "
"have not been corrupted during download or misread from the installation "
@@ -6145,7 +5882,7 @@ msgstr ""
"取錯誤造成的損壞:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4643
+#: book.translate.xml:4528
msgid "Verifying Distribution Files"
msgstr "檢驗發行版檔案"
@@ -6154,19 +5891,19 @@ msgstr "檢驗發行版檔案"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4647
+#: book.translate.xml:4532
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-verifying' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4652
+#: book.translate.xml:4537
msgid "Finally, the verified distribution files are extracted to the disk:"
msgstr "最後,檢驗過的發行版檔案會被取出儲存至磁碟:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4656
+#: book.translate.xml:4541
msgid "Extracting Distribution Files"
msgstr "解開發行版檔案"
@@ -6175,14 +5912,14 @@ msgstr "解開發行版檔案"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4660
+#: book.translate.xml:4545
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-extracting' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4665
+#: book.translate.xml:4550
msgid ""
"Once all requested distribution files have been extracted, "
"<application>bsdinstall</application> displays the first post-installation "
@@ -6193,12 +5930,12 @@ msgstr ""
"次安裝後設定畫面,可用的安裝後設定選項會在下一節說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4673
+#: book.translate.xml:4558
msgid "Post-Installation"
msgstr "安裝後注意事項"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4675
+#: book.translate.xml:4560
msgid ""
"Once FreeBSD is installed, <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt "
"to configure several options before booting into the newly installed system. "
@@ -6208,7 +5945,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的系統之前提示設定數個選項,本節將介紹這些設定選項。"
#. (itstool) path: tip/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4681
+#: book.translate.xml:4566
msgid ""
"Once the system has booted, <command>bsdconfig</command> provides a menu-"
"driven method for configuring the system using these and additional options."
@@ -6218,12 +5955,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4688 book.translate.xml:4699
+#: book.translate.xml:4573 book.translate.xml:4584
msgid "Setting the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> Password"
msgstr "設定 <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> 密碼"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4692
+#: book.translate.xml:4577
msgid ""
"First, the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> password must be "
"set. While entering the password, the characters being typed are not "
@@ -6239,25 +5976,25 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4703
+#: book.translate.xml:4588
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-post-root-passwd' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4710
+#: book.translate.xml:4595
msgid "Configuring Network Interfaces"
msgstr "設定網路介面卡"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4712
+#: book.translate.xml:4597
msgid ""
"Next, a list of the network interfaces found on the computer is shown. "
"Select the interface to configure."
msgstr "接著,會顯示在電腦上找到的網路介面卡清單。請選擇要設定的介面卡。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4716
+#: book.translate.xml:4601
msgid ""
"The network configuration menus will be skipped if the network was "
"previously configured as part of a <emphasis>bootonly</emphasis> "
@@ -6267,7 +6004,7 @@ msgstr ""
"網路設定選單。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4722
+#: book.translate.xml:4607
msgid "Choose a Network Interface"
msgstr "選擇網路介面卡"
@@ -6276,7 +6013,7 @@ msgstr "選擇網路介面卡"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4726
+#: book.translate.xml:4611
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface' "
@@ -6284,7 +6021,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4731
+#: book.translate.xml:4616
msgid ""
"If an Ethernet interface is selected, the installer will skip ahead to the "
"menu shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-configure-net-ipv4\"/>. If a "
@@ -6296,7 +6033,7 @@ msgstr ""
"描無線存取點 (Wireless Access Point):"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4737
+#: book.translate.xml:4622
msgid "Scanning for Wireless Access Points"
msgstr "掃描無線網路存取點"
@@ -6305,14 +6042,14 @@ msgstr "掃描無線網路存取點"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4741
+#: book.translate.xml:4626
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-scan' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4746
+#: book.translate.xml:4631
msgid ""
"Wireless networks are identified by a Service Set Identifier (<acronym>SSID</"
"acronym>), a short, unique name given to each network. <acronym>SSIDs</"
@@ -6331,7 +6068,7 @@ msgstr ""
"題,或者嘗試將電腦移至更靠近存取點的位置,然後再掃描一次。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4758
+#: book.translate.xml:4643
msgid "Choosing a Wireless Network"
msgstr "選擇無線網路"
@@ -6340,7 +6077,7 @@ msgstr "選擇無線網路"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4762
+#: book.translate.xml:4647
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-accesspoints' "
@@ -6348,7 +6085,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4767
+#: book.translate.xml:4652
msgid ""
"Next, enter the encryption information for connecting to the selected "
"wireless network. <acronym>WPA2</acronym> encryption is strongly recommended "
@@ -6363,7 +6100,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<acronym>PSK</acronym>)。考量安全性,輸入到輸入框的字元會以星號顯示。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4777
+#: book.translate.xml:4662
msgid "WPA2 Setup"
msgstr "WPA2 設定"
@@ -6372,7 +6109,7 @@ msgstr "WPA2 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4781
+#: book.translate.xml:4666
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-wpa2setup' "
@@ -6380,7 +6117,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4786
+#: book.translate.xml:4671
msgid ""
"Next, choose whether or not an <acronym>IPv4</acronym> address should be "
"configured on the Ethernet or wireless interface:"
@@ -6389,7 +6126,7 @@ msgstr ""
"址:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4791
+#: book.translate.xml:4676
msgid "Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> Networking"
msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> 網路"
@@ -6398,7 +6135,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> 網路"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4795
+#: book.translate.xml:4680
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4' "
@@ -6406,7 +6143,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4800
+#: book.translate.xml:4685
msgid ""
"There are two methods of <acronym>IPv4</acronym> configuration. "
"<acronym>DHCP</acronym> will automatically configure the network interface "
@@ -6419,7 +6156,7 @@ msgstr ""
"手動輸入位址的資訊來做靜態設定。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4808
+#: book.translate.xml:4693
msgid ""
"Do not enter random network information as it will not work. If a "
"<acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available, obtain the information "
@@ -6431,7 +6168,7 @@ msgstr ""
"列於 <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-collect-network-information\"/> 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4815
+#: book.translate.xml:4700
msgid ""
"If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is available, select <guibutton>[ Yes ]</"
"guibutton> in the next menu to automatically configure the network "
@@ -6444,7 +6181,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 伺服器並且取得系統的位址資訊時,安裝程式會出現一分鐘左右的停頓。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4823
+#: book.translate.xml:4708
msgid "Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym> Configuration"
msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 設定"
@@ -6453,7 +6190,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym> 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4828
+#: book.translate.xml:4713
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-dhcp' "
@@ -6461,7 +6198,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4833
+#: book.translate.xml:4718
msgid ""
"If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available, select "
"<guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> and input the following addressing information "
@@ -6471,7 +6208,7 @@ msgstr ""
"guibutton> 然後在這個選單中輸入以下位址資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4838
+#: book.translate.xml:4723
msgid "<acronym>IPv4</acronym> Static Configuration"
msgstr "<acronym>IPv4</acronym> 靜態位置設定"
@@ -6480,7 +6217,7 @@ msgstr "<acronym>IPv4</acronym> 靜態位置設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4842
+#: book.translate.xml:4727
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-static' "
@@ -6488,7 +6225,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4849
+#: book.translate.xml:4734
msgid ""
"<literal>IP Address</literal> - The <acronym>IPv4</acronym> address assigned "
"to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use by "
@@ -6498,12 +6235,12 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 位址。位址必須獨一無二且不可已被其他在區域網路上的設備使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4856
+#: book.translate.xml:4741
msgid "<literal>Subnet Mask</literal> - The subnet mask for the network."
msgstr "子網路遮罩 (<literal>Subnet Mask</literal>) - 網路的子網路遮罩。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4861
+#: book.translate.xml:4746
msgid ""
"<literal>Default Router</literal> - The <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the "
"network's default gateway."
@@ -6512,7 +6249,7 @@ msgstr ""
"在網段的預設通訊閘。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4867
+#: book.translate.xml:4752
msgid ""
"The next screen will ask if the interface should be configured for "
"<acronym>IPv6</acronym>. If <acronym>IPv6</acronym> is available and "
@@ -6522,7 +6259,7 @@ msgstr ""
"要使用 <acronym>IPv6</acronym>,請選擇 <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4873
+#: book.translate.xml:4758
msgid "Choose IPv6 Networking"
msgstr "選擇 IPv6 網路"
@@ -6531,7 +6268,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 IPv6 網路"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4877
+#: book.translate.xml:4762
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6' "
@@ -6539,7 +6276,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4882
+#: book.translate.xml:4767
msgid ""
"<acronym>IPv6</acronym> also has two methods of configuration. StateLess "
"Address AutoConfiguration (<acronym>SLAAC</acronym>) will automatically "
@@ -6555,7 +6292,7 @@ msgstr ""
"則需要手動輸入網路資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4890
+#: book.translate.xml:4775
msgid ""
"If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is available, select "
"<guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> in the next menu to automatically configure "
@@ -6567,7 +6304,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的位址資訊時,安裝程式會出現一分鐘左右的停頓。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4897
+#: book.translate.xml:4782
msgid "Choose IPv6 SLAAC Configuration"
msgstr "選擇 IPv6 SLAAC 設定"
@@ -6576,7 +6313,7 @@ msgstr "選擇 IPv6 SLAAC 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4901
+#: book.translate.xml:4786
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-slaac' "
@@ -6584,7 +6321,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4906
+#: book.translate.xml:4791
msgid ""
"If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is not available, select "
"<guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> and input the following addressing information "
@@ -6594,7 +6331,7 @@ msgstr ""
"guibutton> 然後在這個選單中輸入以下位址資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4911
+#: book.translate.xml:4796
msgid "IPv6 Static Configuration"
msgstr "IPv6 靜態位置設定"
@@ -6603,7 +6340,7 @@ msgstr "IPv6 靜態位置設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4915
+#: book.translate.xml:4800
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6-static' "
@@ -6611,7 +6348,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4922
+#: book.translate.xml:4807
msgid ""
"<literal>IPv6 Address</literal> - The <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address "
"assigned to this computer. The address must be unique and not already in use "
@@ -6622,7 +6359,7 @@ msgstr ""
"備使用。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4929
+#: book.translate.xml:4814
msgid ""
"<literal>Default Router</literal> - The <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address of "
"the network's default gateway."
@@ -6631,7 +6368,7 @@ msgstr ""
"所在網段的預設通訊閘。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4935
+#: book.translate.xml:4820
msgid ""
"The last network configuration menu is used to configure the Domain Name "
"System (<acronym>DNS</acronym>) resolver, which converts hostnames to and "
@@ -6654,7 +6391,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<acronym>DNS</acronym> 伺服器。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4949
+#: book.translate.xml:4834
msgid "DNS Configuration"
msgstr "DNS 設定"
@@ -6663,7 +6400,7 @@ msgstr "DNS 設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4953
+#: book.translate.xml:4838
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-ipv4-dns' "
@@ -6671,12 +6408,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4960
+#: book.translate.xml:4845
msgid "Setting the Time Zone"
msgstr "設定時區"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4962
+#: book.translate.xml:4847
msgid ""
"The next menu asks if the system clock uses <acronym>UTC</acronym> or local "
"time. When in doubt, select <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> to choose the more "
@@ -6686,7 +6423,7 @@ msgstr ""
"問時可選擇 <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton>使用更常用的當地時間。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4968
+#: book.translate.xml:4853
msgid "Select Local or UTC Clock"
msgstr "選擇本地或 UTC 時鐘"
@@ -6695,14 +6432,14 @@ msgstr "選擇本地或 UTC 時鐘"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4972
+#: book.translate.xml:4857
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-set-clock-local-utc' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4977
+#: book.translate.xml:4862
msgid ""
"The next series of menus are used to determine the correct local time by "
"selecting the geographic region, country, and time zone. Setting the time "
@@ -6715,7 +6452,7 @@ msgstr ""
"能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4984
+#: book.translate.xml:4869
msgid ""
"The example shown here is for a machine located in the Eastern time zone of "
"the United States. The selections will vary according to the geographical "
@@ -6723,7 +6460,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr "此處以位於美國東部時區的機器為例,選擇會依據地理位置不同改變。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:4989
+#: book.translate.xml:4874
msgid "Select a Region"
msgstr "選擇區域"
@@ -6732,20 +6469,20 @@ msgstr "選擇區域"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:4993
+#: book.translate.xml:4878
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-region' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:4998
+#: book.translate.xml:4883
msgid ""
"The appropriate region is selected using the arrow keys and then pressing "
"<keycap>Enter</keycap>."
msgstr "使用方向鍵選擇適當的區域然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5002
+#: book.translate.xml:4887
msgid "Select a Country"
msgstr "選擇城市"
@@ -6754,20 +6491,20 @@ msgstr "選擇城市"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5006
+#: book.translate.xml:4891
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-country' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5011
+#: book.translate.xml:4896
msgid ""
"Select the appropriate country using the arrow keys and press <keycap>Enter</"
"keycap>."
msgstr "使用方向鍵選擇適當的城市然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5015
+#: book.translate.xml:4900
msgid "Select a Time Zone"
msgstr "選擇時區"
@@ -6776,20 +6513,20 @@ msgstr "選擇時區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5019
+#: book.translate.xml:4904
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-zone' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5024
+#: book.translate.xml:4909
msgid ""
"The appropriate time zone is selected using the arrow keys and pressing "
"<keycap>Enter</keycap>."
msgstr "使用方向鍵選擇適當的時區然後按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5028
+#: book.translate.xml:4913
msgid "Confirm Time Zone"
msgstr "確認時區"
@@ -6798,13 +6535,13 @@ msgstr "確認時區"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5032
+#: book.translate.xml:4917
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-confirm' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5037
+#: book.translate.xml:4922
msgid ""
"Confirm the abbreviation for the time zone is correct. If it is, press "
"<keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue with the post-installation configuration."
@@ -6812,12 +6549,12 @@ msgstr ""
"確認時區的縮寫是否正確,若正確,按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap> 繼續安裝後設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5043
+#: book.translate.xml:4928
msgid "Enabling Services"
msgstr "開啟服務"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5045
+#: book.translate.xml:4930
msgid ""
"The next menu is used to configure which system services will be started "
"whenever the system boots. All of these services are optional. Only start "
@@ -6827,7 +6564,7 @@ msgstr ""
"開啟系統運作真正需要的服務。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5051
+#: book.translate.xml:4936
msgid "Selecting Additional Services to Enable"
msgstr "選擇要開啟的其他服務"
@@ -6836,18 +6573,18 @@ msgstr "選擇要開啟的其他服務"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5055
+#: book.translate.xml:4940
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-services' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5060
+#: book.translate.xml:4945
msgid "Here is a summary of the services which can be enabled in this menu:"
msgstr "這是可以在這個選單開啟的服務摘要:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5065
+#: book.translate.xml:4950
msgid ""
"<literal>sshd</literal> - The Secure Shell (<acronym>SSH</acronym>) daemon "
"is used to remotely access a system over an encrypted connection. Only "
@@ -6857,7 +6594,7 @@ msgstr ""
"端透過加密的連線存取系統,只有在系統允許遠端登入時開啟這個服務。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5073
+#: book.translate.xml:4958
msgid ""
"<literal>moused</literal> - Enable this service if the mouse will be used "
"from the command-line system console."
@@ -6866,7 +6603,7 @@ msgstr ""
"務。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5079
+#: book.translate.xml:4964
msgid ""
"<literal>ntpd</literal> - The Network Time Protocol (<acronym>NTP</acronym>) "
"daemon for automatic clock synchronization. Enable this service if there is "
@@ -6879,7 +6616,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 伺服器時,可開啟此服務。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5087
+#: book.translate.xml:4972
msgid ""
"<literal>powerd</literal> - System power control utility for power control "
"and energy saving."
@@ -6887,12 +6624,12 @@ msgstr "<literal>powerd</literal> - 系統電源控制工具用來做電源控
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5094 book.translate.xml:5102
+#: book.translate.xml:4979 book.translate.xml:4987
msgid "Enabling Crash Dumps"
msgstr "開啟當機資訊 (Crash Dump)"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5096
+#: book.translate.xml:4981
msgid ""
"The next menu is used to configure whether or not crash dumps should be "
"enabled. Enabling crash dumps can be useful in debugging issues with the "
@@ -6906,18 +6643,18 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5106
+#: book.translate.xml:4991
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-crashdump' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5113
+#: book.translate.xml:4998
msgid "Add Users"
msgstr "新增使用者"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5115
+#: book.translate.xml:5000
msgid ""
"The next menu prompts to create at least one user account. It is recommended "
"to login to the system using a user account rather than as <systemitem class="
@@ -6932,12 +6669,12 @@ msgstr ""
"使用一般使用者登入較保險且安全。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5122
+#: book.translate.xml:5007
msgid "Select <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> to add new users."
msgstr "選擇 <guibutton>[ Yes ]</guibutton> 來新增新使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5126
+#: book.translate.xml:5011
msgid "Add User Accounts"
msgstr "新增使用者帳號"
@@ -6946,13 +6683,13 @@ msgstr "新增使用者帳號"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5130
+#: book.translate.xml:5015
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser1' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5135
+#: book.translate.xml:5020
msgid ""
"Follow the prompts and input the requested information for the user account. "
"The example shown in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-add-user2\"/> creates the "
@@ -6963,7 +6700,7 @@ msgstr ""
"號。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5139
+#: book.translate.xml:5024
msgid "Enter User Information"
msgstr "輸入使用者資訊"
@@ -6972,18 +6709,18 @@ msgstr "輸入使用者資訊"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5143
+#: book.translate.xml:5028
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser2' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5148
+#: book.translate.xml:5033
msgid "Here is a summary of the information to input:"
msgstr "這裡是要輸入的資訊摘要:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5152
+#: book.translate.xml:5037
msgid ""
"<literal>Username</literal> - The name the user will enter to log in. A "
"common convention is to use the first letter of the first name combined with "
@@ -6995,7 +6732,7 @@ msgstr ""
"區分大小寫且不應含有任何空白字元。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5161
+#: book.translate.xml:5046
msgid ""
"<literal>Full name</literal> - The user's full name. This can contain spaces "
"and is used as a description for the user account."
@@ -7004,7 +6741,7 @@ msgstr ""
"用來描述該使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5167
+#: book.translate.xml:5052
msgid ""
"<literal>Uid</literal> - User <acronym>ID</acronym>. Typically, this is left "
"blank so the system will assign a value."
@@ -7013,7 +6750,7 @@ msgstr ""
"統會自動分配一個值。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5173
+#: book.translate.xml:5058
msgid ""
"<literal>Login group</literal> - The user's group. Typically this is left "
"blank to accept the default."
@@ -7022,7 +6759,7 @@ msgstr ""
"來使用預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5178
+#: book.translate.xml:5063
msgid ""
"<literal>Invite <replaceable>user</replaceable> into other groups?</literal> "
"- Additional groups to which the user will be added as a member. If the user "
@@ -7033,12 +6770,12 @@ msgstr ""
"需要管理權限,則在此輸入 <literal>wheel</literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5186
+#: book.translate.xml:5071
msgid "<literal>Login class</literal> - Typically left blank for the default."
msgstr "登入類別 (<literal>Login class</literal>) - 通常會留空來使用預設值。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5191
+#: book.translate.xml:5076
msgid ""
"<literal>Shell</literal> - Type in one of the listed values to set the "
"interactive shell for the user. Refer to <xref linkend=\"shells\"/> for more "
@@ -7048,7 +6785,7 @@ msgstr ""
"參考 <xref linkend=\"shells\"/> 取得更多有關 Shell 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5198
+#: book.translate.xml:5083
msgid ""
"<literal>Home directory</literal> - The user's home directory. The default "
"is usually correct."
@@ -7057,7 +6794,7 @@ msgstr ""
"問題的。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5203
+#: book.translate.xml:5088
msgid ""
"<literal>Home directory permissions</literal> - Permissions on the user's "
"home directory. The default is usually correct."
@@ -7066,7 +6803,7 @@ msgstr ""
"限,預設值通常是沒有問題的。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5209
+#: book.translate.xml:5094
msgid ""
"<literal>Use password-based authentication?</literal> - Typically "
"<literal>yes</literal> so that the user is prompted to input their password "
@@ -7076,7 +6813,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) - 通常為是 (<literal>yes</literal>),使用者才可於登入時輸入密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5215
+#: book.translate.xml:5100
msgid ""
"<literal>Use an empty password?</literal> - Typically <literal>no</literal> "
"as it is insecure to have a blank password."
@@ -7085,7 +6822,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<literal>no</literal>),因為使用空白密碼並不安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5221
+#: book.translate.xml:5106
msgid ""
"<literal>Use a random password?</literal> - Typically <literal>no</literal> "
"so that the user can set their own password in the next prompt."
@@ -7094,7 +6831,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<literal>no</literal>),這樣使用者接下來才可設定自己的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5227
+#: book.translate.xml:5112
msgid ""
"<literal>Enter password</literal> - The password for this user. Characters "
"typed will not show on the screen."
@@ -7103,7 +6840,7 @@ msgstr ""
"會顯示在畫面上。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5233
+#: book.translate.xml:5118
msgid ""
"<literal>Enter password again</literal> - The password must be typed again "
"for verification."
@@ -7112,7 +6849,7 @@ msgstr ""
"認無誤。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5238
+#: book.translate.xml:5123
msgid ""
"<literal>Lock out the account after creation?</literal> - Typically "
"<literal>no</literal> so that the user can login."
@@ -7121,7 +6858,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) - 通常為否 (<literal>no</literal>),這樣使用者才可以登入。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5244
+#: book.translate.xml:5129
msgid ""
"After entering everything, a summary is shown for review. If a mistake was "
"made, enter <literal>no</literal> and try again. If everything is correct, "
@@ -7132,7 +6869,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 以後便會建立新使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5250
+#: book.translate.xml:5135
msgid "Exit User and Group Management"
msgstr "離開使用者與群組管理"
@@ -7141,13 +6878,13 @@ msgstr "離開使用者與群組管理"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5254
+#: book.translate.xml:5139
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser3' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5259
+#: book.translate.xml:5144
msgid ""
"If there are more users to add, answer the <literal>Add another user?</"
"literal> question with <literal>yes</literal>. Enter <literal>no</literal> "
@@ -7158,7 +6895,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 來完成加入使用者然後繼續安裝。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5264
+#: book.translate.xml:5149
msgid ""
"For more information on adding users and user management, see <xref linkend="
"\"users-synopsis\"/>."
@@ -7168,12 +6905,12 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5269 book.translate.xml:5275
+#: book.translate.xml:5154 book.translate.xml:5160
msgid "Final Configuration"
msgstr "最後設定"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5271
+#: book.translate.xml:5156
msgid ""
"After everything has been installed and configured, a final chance is "
"provided to modify settings."
@@ -7184,21 +6921,21 @@ msgstr "在所有東西安裝並設定完之後,會提供最後一次修改設
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5279
+#: book.translate.xml:5164
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-finalconfiguration' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5284
+#: book.translate.xml:5169
msgid ""
"Use this menu to make any changes or do any additional configuration before "
"completing the installation."
msgstr "使用這個選單在完成安裝前做任何更改或做任何額外的設定。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5289
+#: book.translate.xml:5174
msgid ""
"<literal>Add User</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"addusers\"/>."
@@ -7207,7 +6944,7 @@ msgstr ""
"addusers\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5293
+#: book.translate.xml:5178
msgid ""
"<literal>Root Password</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"post-root\"/>."
@@ -7216,7 +6953,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"bsdinstall-post-root\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5297
+#: book.translate.xml:5182
msgid ""
"<literal>Hostname</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"hostname\"/>."
@@ -7225,7 +6962,7 @@ msgstr ""
"hostname\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5301
+#: book.translate.xml:5186
msgid ""
"<literal>Network</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-config-"
"network-dev\"/>."
@@ -7234,7 +6971,7 @@ msgstr ""
"network-dev\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5305
+#: book.translate.xml:5190
msgid ""
"<literal>Services</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-sysconf"
"\"/>."
@@ -7243,7 +6980,7 @@ msgstr ""
"sysconf\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5309
+#: book.translate.xml:5194
msgid ""
"<literal>Time Zone</literal> - Described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"timezone\"/>."
@@ -7252,13 +6989,13 @@ msgstr ""
"timezone\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5313
+#: book.translate.xml:5198
msgid ""
"<literal>Handbook</literal> - Download and install the FreeBSD Handbook."
msgstr "使用手冊 (<literal>Handbook</literal>) - 下載並安裝 FreeBSD 使用手冊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5318
+#: book.translate.xml:5203
msgid ""
"After any final configuration is complete, select <guibutton>Exit</"
"guibutton>."
@@ -7266,7 +7003,7 @@ msgstr "完成最後的設定之後,選擇 <guibutton>Exit</guibutton>。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5322 book.translate.xml:11521
+#: book.translate.xml:5207 book.translate.xml:11437
msgid "Manual Configuration"
msgstr "手動設定"
@@ -7275,7 +7012,7 @@ msgstr "手動設定"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5326
+#: book.translate.xml:5211
msgctxt "_"
msgid ""
"external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-modification-shell' "
@@ -7283,7 +7020,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5331
+#: book.translate.xml:5216
msgid ""
"<application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt if there are any "
"additional configuration that needs to be done before rebooting into the new "
@@ -7296,7 +7033,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的 Shell 或 <guibutton>[ No ]</guibutton> 繼續最後的安裝步驟。"
#. (itstool) path: figure/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5340
+#: book.translate.xml:5225
msgid "Complete the Installation"
msgstr "完成安裝"
@@ -7305,13 +7042,13 @@ msgstr "完成安裝"
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:5344
+#: book.translate.xml:5229
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='bsdinstall/bsdinstall-mainexit' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5349
+#: book.translate.xml:5234
msgid ""
"If further configuration or special setup is needed, select "
"<guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton> to boot the install media into Live "
@@ -7321,7 +7058,7 @@ msgstr ""
"進入安裝媒體的 Live <acronym>CD</acronym> 模式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5354
+#: book.translate.xml:5239
msgid ""
"If the installation is complete, select <guibutton>[ Reboot ]</guibutton> to "
"reboot the computer and start the new FreeBSD system. Do not forget to "
@@ -7332,7 +7069,7 @@ msgstr ""
"式。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5360
+#: book.translate.xml:5245
msgid ""
"As FreeBSD boots, informational messages are displayed. After the system "
"finishes booting, a login prompt is displayed. At the <prompt>login:</"
@@ -7347,7 +7084,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"users-superuser\"/> 來取得當需要管理權限時如何成為超級使用者的說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5369
+#: book.translate.xml:5254
msgid ""
"The messages that appeared during boot can be reviewed by pressing "
"<keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> to turn on the scroll-back buffer. The "
@@ -7366,7 +7103,7 @@ msgstr ""
"列。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5381
+#: book.translate.xml:5266
msgid ""
"If <application>sshd</application> was enabled in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-"
"config-serv\"/>, the first boot may be a bit slower as the system will "
@@ -7380,7 +7117,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(Fingerprint),如這個範例:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5387
+#: book.translate.xml:5272
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.\n"
@@ -7421,7 +7158,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5423
+#: book.translate.xml:5308
msgid ""
"Refer to <xref linkend=\"openssh\"/> for more information about fingerprints "
"and <acronym>SSH</acronym>."
@@ -7430,7 +7167,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym> 的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5426
+#: book.translate.xml:5311
msgid ""
"FreeBSD does not install a graphical environment by default. Refer to <xref "
"linkend=\"x11\"/> for more information about installing and configuring a "
@@ -7440,7 +7177,7 @@ msgstr ""
"與設定圖型化視窗管理程式的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5430
+#: book.translate.xml:5315
msgid ""
"Proper shutdown of a FreeBSD computer helps protect data and hardware from "
"damage. <emphasis>Do not turn off the power before the system has been "
@@ -7461,27 +7198,27 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5443 book.translate.xml:12473 book.translate.xml:15236
-#: book.translate.xml:20407 book.translate.xml:35691 book.translate.xml:36461
-#: book.translate.xml:47953 book.translate.xml:51199 book.translate.xml:62294
-#: book.translate.xml:63954 book.translate.xml:64677
+#: book.translate.xml:5328 book.translate.xml:12392 book.translate.xml:15017
+#: book.translate.xml:20188 book.translate.xml:35340 book.translate.xml:36110
+#: book.translate.xml:48043 book.translate.xml:51289 book.translate.xml:61155
+#: book.translate.xml:62815 book.translate.xml:63538
msgid "Troubleshooting"
msgstr "疑難排解"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5445
+#: book.translate.xml:5330
msgid "<primary>installation</primary> <secondary>troubleshooting</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5449
+#: book.translate.xml:5334
msgid ""
"This section covers basic installation troubleshooting, such as common "
"problems people have reported."
msgstr "本節涵蓋基礎的安裝疑難排解,例如一些已有人回報的常見問題。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5453
+#: book.translate.xml:5338
msgid ""
"Check the Hardware Notes (<link xlink:href=\"@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/releases/"
"index.html\">https://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>) document "
@@ -7505,7 +7242,7 @@ msgstr ""
"訴 FreeBSD 到那找到這些裝置。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5467
+#: book.translate.xml:5352
msgid ""
"Some installation problems can be avoided or alleviated by updating the "
"firmware on various hardware components, most notably the motherboard. "
@@ -7518,7 +7255,7 @@ msgstr ""
"得升級程式與升級資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5474
+#: book.translate.xml:5359
msgid ""
"Manufacturers generally advise against upgrading the motherboard "
"<acronym>BIOS</acronym> unless there is a good reason for doing so, like a "
@@ -7528,7 +7265,7 @@ msgstr ""
"製造商通常會建議若沒有特殊原因盡量避免升級主機板 <acronym>BIOS</acronym>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5482
+#: book.translate.xml:5367
msgid ""
"If the system hangs while probing hardware during boot, or it behaves "
"strangely during install, <acronym>ACPI</acronym> may be the culprit. "
@@ -7548,13 +7285,13 @@ msgstr ""
"disabled</literal> Hint 來關閉 <acronym>ACPI</acronym>:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5494
+#: book.translate.xml:5379
#, no-wrap
msgid "<userinput>set hint.acpi.0.disabled=\"1\"</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5496
+#: book.translate.xml:5381
msgid ""
"This is reset each time the system is booted, so it is necessary to add "
"<literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled=\"1\"</literal> to the file <filename>/boot/"
@@ -7566,12 +7303,12 @@ msgstr ""
"機載入程式的資訊可於 <xref linkend=\"boot-synopsis\"/> 取得。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5503
+#: book.translate.xml:5388
msgid "Using the Live <acronym>CD</acronym>"
msgstr "使用 Live <acronym>CD</acronym>"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5505
+#: book.translate.xml:5390
msgid ""
"The welcome menu of <application>bsdinstall</application>, shown in <xref "
"linkend=\"bsdinstall-choose-mode\"/>, provides a <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</"
@@ -7585,14 +7322,14 @@ msgstr ""
"測試一部份功能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5512
+#: book.translate.xml:5397
msgid ""
"The following points should be noted before using the "
"<guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton>:"
msgstr "在使用 <guibutton>[ Live CD ]</guibutton> 之前必須注意以下幾點事項:"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5517
+#: book.translate.xml:5402
msgid ""
"To gain access to the system, authentication is required. The username is "
"<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> and the password is blank."
@@ -7601,25 +7338,25 @@ msgstr ""
"\">root</systemitem> 而密碼則是空白。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5523
+#: book.translate.xml:5408
msgid ""
"As the system runs directly from the installation media, performance will be "
"significantly slower than that of a system installed on a hard disk."
msgstr "系統是直接從安裝媒體上執行,比起安裝到硬碟的系統,效能可能較差。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5529
+#: book.translate.xml:5414
msgid ""
"This option only provides a command prompt and not a graphical interface."
msgstr "這個選項只提供指令提示,不會有圖型化介面。"
#. (itstool) path: chapter/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5554
+#: book.translate.xml:5439
msgid "FreeBSD Basics"
msgstr "FreeBSD 基礎"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5559
+#: book.translate.xml:5444
msgid ""
"This chapter covers the basic commands and functionality of the FreeBSD "
"operating system. Much of this material is relevant for any <trademark class="
@@ -7632,17 +7369,17 @@ msgstr ""
"細的讀完這章。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5568
+#: book.translate.xml:5453
msgid "How to use and configure virtual consoles."
msgstr "如何使用 FreeBSD 的虛擬 Console。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5572
+#: book.translate.xml:5457
msgid "How to create and manage users and groups on FreeBSD."
msgstr "如何在 FreeBSD 建立與管理使用者與群組。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5577
+#: book.translate.xml:5462
msgid ""
"How <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> file permissions and "
"FreeBSD file flags work."
@@ -7651,68 +7388,68 @@ msgstr ""
"記的運作方式。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5582
+#: book.translate.xml:5467
msgid "The default FreeBSD file system layout."
msgstr "預設的 FreeBSD 檔案系統配置。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5586
+#: book.translate.xml:5471
msgid "The FreeBSD disk organization."
msgstr "FreeBSD 的磁碟組織。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5590
+#: book.translate.xml:5475
msgid "How to mount and unmount file systems."
msgstr "如何掛載 (Mount)、卸載 (Umount) 檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5594
+#: book.translate.xml:5479
msgid "What processes, daemons, and signals are."
msgstr "什麼是程序、Daemon 以及信號 (Signal)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5598
+#: book.translate.xml:5483
msgid "What a shell is, and how to change the default login environment."
msgstr "什麼是 Shell,以及如何變更您預設的登入環境。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5603
+#: book.translate.xml:5488
msgid "How to use basic text editors."
msgstr "如何使用基本的文字編輯器。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5607
+#: book.translate.xml:5492
msgid "What devices and device nodes are."
msgstr "什麼是裝置 (Device) 和裝置節點 (Device node)。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5611
+#: book.translate.xml:5496
msgid "How to read manual pages for more information."
msgstr "如何閱讀操作手冊以獲得更多的資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5617
+#: book.translate.xml:5502
msgid "Virtual Consoles and Terminals"
msgstr "虛擬 Console 與終端機"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5619
+#: book.translate.xml:5504
msgid "<primary>virtual consoles</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5622 book.translate.xml:47235
+#: book.translate.xml:5507 book.translate.xml:47334
msgid "<primary>terminals</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5625 book.translate.xml:23389
+#: book.translate.xml:5510 book.translate.xml:23163
msgid "<primary>console</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5629
+#: book.translate.xml:5514
msgid ""
"Unless FreeBSD has been configured to automatically start a graphical "
"environment during startup, the system will boot into a command line login "
@@ -7722,7 +7459,7 @@ msgstr ""
"是這樣的東西:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5634
+#: book.translate.xml:5519
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"FreeBSD/amd64 (pc3.example.org) (ttyv0)\n"
@@ -7731,7 +7468,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5638
+#: book.translate.xml:5523
msgid ""
"The first line contains some information about the system. The "
"<literal>amd64</literal> indicates that the system in this example is "
@@ -7745,7 +7482,7 @@ msgstr ""
"quote>。第二行則是登人的提示訊息。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5646
+#: book.translate.xml:5531
msgid ""
"Since FreeBSD is a multiuser system, it needs some way to distinguish "
"between different users. This is accomplished by requiring every user to log "
@@ -7759,7 +7496,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<quote>password</quote>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5653
+#: book.translate.xml:5538
msgid ""
"To log into the system console, type the username that was configured during "
"system installation, as described in <xref linkend=\"bsdinstall-addusers\"/"
@@ -7773,7 +7510,7 @@ msgstr ""
"示</emphasis>在畫面上。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5661
+#: book.translate.xml:5546
msgid ""
"Once the correct password is input, the message of the day (<acronym>MOTD</"
"acronym>) will be displayed followed by a command prompt. Depending upon the "
@@ -7789,12 +7526,12 @@ msgstr ""
"Console 且已經準備好可以下指令。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5671
+#: book.translate.xml:5556
msgid "Virtual Consoles"
msgstr "虛擬 Console"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5673
+#: book.translate.xml:5558
msgid ""
"While the system console can be used to interact with the system, a user "
"working from the command line at the keyboard of a FreeBSD system will "
@@ -7808,7 +7545,7 @@ msgstr ""
"這些訊些會在使用者作業的過程中不斷出現,讓使用者難以專心作業。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5682
+#: book.translate.xml:5567
msgid ""
"By default, FreeBSD is configured to provide several virtual consoles for "
"inputting commands. Each virtual console has its own login prompt and shell "
@@ -7821,7 +7558,7 @@ msgstr ""
"於圖型化環境中可以同時開啟多個視窗的功能。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5689
+#: book.translate.xml:5574
msgid ""
"The key combinations <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></"
"keycombo> through <keycombo><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F8</keycap></"
@@ -7843,7 +7580,7 @@ msgstr ""
"(<filename>ttyv2</filename>),以此類推。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5705
+#: book.translate.xml:5590
msgid ""
"When switching from one console to the next, FreeBSD manages the screen "
"output. The result is an illusion of having multiple virtual screens and "
@@ -7856,7 +7593,7 @@ msgstr ""
"Console 上執行的程式並不會因為使用者切到別的 Console 而停止執行。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5712
+#: book.translate.xml:5597
msgid ""
"Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kbdcontrol</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, "
@@ -7878,7 +7615,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 來取得更多有關 FreeBSD Console 及鍵盤驅動程式的技術說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5717
+#: book.translate.xml:5602
msgid ""
"In FreeBSD, the number of available virtual consoles is configured in this "
"section of <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:"
@@ -7887,7 +7624,7 @@ msgstr ""
"列章節:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:5721
+#: book.translate.xml:5606
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"# name getty type status comments\n"
@@ -7905,7 +7642,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5735
+#: book.translate.xml:5620
msgid ""
"To disable a virtual console, put a comment symbol (<literal>#</literal>) at "
"the beginning of the line representing that virtual console. For example, to "
@@ -7927,7 +7664,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個虛擬 Console (<filename>ttyv8</filename>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5749
+#: book.translate.xml:5634
msgid ""
"For a detailed description of every column in this file and the available "
"options for the virtual consoles, refer to "
@@ -7938,12 +7675,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> 說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5755
+#: book.translate.xml:5640
msgid "Single User Mode"
msgstr "單使用者模式"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5757
+#: book.translate.xml:5642
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD boot menu provides an option labelled as <quote>Boot Single "
"User</quote>. If this option is selected, the system will boot into a "
@@ -7968,7 +7705,7 @@ msgstr ""
"鍵盤的人員。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5773
+#: book.translate.xml:5658
msgid ""
"The settings which control single user mode are found in this section of "
"<filename>/etc/ttys</filename>:"
@@ -7977,7 +7714,7 @@ msgstr ""
"到:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:5776
+#: book.translate.xml:5661
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"# name getty type status comments\n"
@@ -7988,7 +7725,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5782
+#: book.translate.xml:5667
msgid ""
"By default, the status is set to <literal>secure</literal>. This assumes "
"that who has physical access to the keyboard is either not important or it "
@@ -8007,7 +7744,7 @@ msgstr ""
"碼。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5794
+#: book.translate.xml:5679
msgid ""
"<emphasis>Be careful when changing this setting to <literal>insecure</"
"literal></emphasis>! If the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> "
@@ -8020,12 +7757,12 @@ msgstr ""
"有其他辦法可以登入單使用者模式,只是對不熟 FreeBSD 開機程序的人可就麻煩了。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5804
+#: book.translate.xml:5689
msgid "Changing Console Video Modes"
msgstr "更改 Console 影像模式"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5806
+#: book.translate.xml:5691
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD console default video mode may be adjusted to 1024x768, "
"1280x1024, or any other size supported by the graphics chip and monitor. To "
@@ -8036,13 +7773,13 @@ msgstr ""
"組:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5811
+#: book.translate.xml:5696
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>kldload vesa</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5813
+#: book.translate.xml:5698
msgid ""
"To determine which video modes are supported by the hardware, use "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>vidcontrol</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
@@ -8054,13 +7791,13 @@ msgstr ""
"清單可輸入以下指令:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5817
+#: book.translate.xml:5702
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>vidcontrol -i mode</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5819
+#: book.translate.xml:5704
msgid ""
"The output of this command lists the video modes that are supported by the "
"hardware. To select a new video mode, specify the mode using "
@@ -8074,13 +7811,13 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:5824
+#: book.translate.xml:5709
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>vidcontrol MODE_279</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5826
+#: book.translate.xml:5711
msgid ""
"If the new video mode is acceptable, it can be permanently set on boot by "
"adding it to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:"
@@ -8089,18 +7826,18 @@ msgstr ""
"次重開機後會自動生效:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:5830
+#: book.translate.xml:5715
#, no-wrap
msgid "allscreens_flags=\"MODE_279\""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5847
+#: book.translate.xml:5732
msgid "Users and Basic Account Management"
msgstr "使用者與基礎帳號管理"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5849
+#: book.translate.xml:5734
msgid ""
"FreeBSD allows multiple users to use the computer at the same time. While "
"only one user can sit in front of the screen and use the keyboard at any one "
@@ -8112,39 +7849,39 @@ msgstr ""
"用者應有自己的帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5855
+#: book.translate.xml:5740
msgid "This chapter describes:"
msgstr "本章介紹︰"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5859
+#: book.translate.xml:5744
msgid "The different types of user accounts on a FreeBSD system."
msgstr "FreeBSD 系統中各種類型的使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5864
+#: book.translate.xml:5749
msgid "How to add, remove, and modify user accounts."
msgstr "如何加入、移除與修改使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5868
+#: book.translate.xml:5753
msgid ""
"How to set limits to control the resources that users and groups are allowed "
"to access."
msgstr "如何設定用來控制使用者與群組允許存取的資源的限制。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5874
+#: book.translate.xml:5759
msgid "How to create groups and add users as members of a group."
msgstr "如何建立群組與加入使用者作為群組成員。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5880
+#: book.translate.xml:5765
msgid "Account Types"
msgstr "帳號類型"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5882
+#: book.translate.xml:5767
msgid ""
"Since all access to the FreeBSD system is achieved using accounts and all "
"processes are run by users, user and account management is important."
@@ -8153,24 +7890,24 @@ msgstr ""
"者來執行,因此使用者帳號管理非常重要。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5886
+#: book.translate.xml:5771
msgid ""
"There are three main types of accounts: system accounts, user accounts, and "
"the superuser account."
msgstr "有三種主要類型的帳號:系統帳號、使用者帳號以及超級使用者帳號。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5890
+#: book.translate.xml:5775
msgid "System Accounts"
msgstr "系統帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5892
+#: book.translate.xml:5777
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>system</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5897
+#: book.translate.xml:5782
msgid ""
"System accounts are used to run services such as DNS, mail, and web servers. "
"The reason for this is security; if all services ran as the superuser, they "
@@ -8180,21 +7917,21 @@ msgstr ""
"若所有的服務均以超級使用者來執行,那麼這些服務的運作將不會受到限制。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5902
+#: book.translate.xml:5787
msgid ""
"<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username"
"\">daemon</systemitem></secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5906
+#: book.translate.xml:5791
msgid ""
"<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username"
"\">operator</systemitem></secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5911
+#: book.translate.xml:5796
msgid ""
"Examples of system accounts are <systemitem class=\"username\">daemon</"
"systemitem>, <systemitem class=\"username\">operator</systemitem>, "
@@ -8208,14 +7945,14 @@ msgstr ""
"systemitem>, and <systemitem class=\"username\">www</systemitem>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5918
+#: book.translate.xml:5803
msgid ""
"<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary><systemitem class=\"username"
"\">nobody</systemitem></secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5923
+#: book.translate.xml:5808
msgid ""
"<systemitem class=\"username\">nobody</systemitem> is the generic "
"unprivileged system account. However, the more services that use <systemitem "
@@ -8229,17 +7966,17 @@ msgstr ""
"限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:5932
+#: book.translate.xml:5817
msgid "User Accounts"
msgstr "使用者帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:5934
+#: book.translate.xml:5819
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>user</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5939
+#: book.translate.xml:5824
msgid ""
"User accounts are assigned to real people and are used to log in and use the "
"system. Every person accessing the system should have a unique user account. "
@@ -8251,7 +7988,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5945
+#: book.translate.xml:5830
msgid ""
"Each user can set up their own environment to accommodate their use of the "
"system, by configuring their default shell, editor, key bindings, and "
@@ -8261,19 +7998,19 @@ msgstr ""
"編輯器、組合鍵 (Key Binding) 及語言設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5950
+#: book.translate.xml:5835
msgid ""
"Every user account on a FreeBSD system has certain information associated "
"with it:"
msgstr "每個在 FreeBSD 系統的使用者帳號都會有一些相關的資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5955
+#: book.translate.xml:5840
msgid "User name"
msgstr "使用者名稱 (User name)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5958
+#: book.translate.xml:5843
msgid ""
"The user name is typed at the <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt. Each user must "
"have a unique user name. There are a number of rules for creating valid user "
@@ -8289,22 +8026,22 @@ msgstr ""
"元以向下相容應用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5970
+#: book.translate.xml:5855
msgid "Password"
msgstr "密碼 (Password)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5973
+#: book.translate.xml:5858
msgid "Each account has an associated password."
msgstr "每個帳號都會有密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5978
+#: book.translate.xml:5863
msgid "User ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>)"
msgstr "使用者 ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5981
+#: book.translate.xml:5866
msgid ""
"The User ID (<acronym>UID</acronym>) is a number used to uniquely identify "
"the user to the FreeBSD system. Commands that allow a user name to be "
@@ -8318,12 +8055,12 @@ msgstr ""
"體的相容性問題。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:5992
+#: book.translate.xml:5877
msgid "Group ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>)"
msgstr "群組 ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:5995
+#: book.translate.xml:5880
msgid ""
"The Group ID (<acronym>GID</acronym>) is a number used to uniquely identify "
"the primary group that the user belongs to. Groups are a mechanism for "
@@ -8340,12 +8077,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的 GID 可能會讓部份軟體無法運作。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6009
+#: book.translate.xml:5894
msgid "Login class"
msgstr "登入類別 (Login class)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6012
+#: book.translate.xml:5897
msgid ""
"Login classes are an extension to the group mechanism that provide "
"additional flexibility when tailoring the system to different users. Login "
@@ -8355,12 +8092,12 @@ msgstr ""
"的彈性。在 <xref linkend=\"users-limiting\"/> 有對登入類別更進一步的討論。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6021
+#: book.translate.xml:5906
msgid "Password change time"
msgstr "密碼更改時間 (Password change time)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6024
+#: book.translate.xml:5909
msgid ""
"By default, passwords do not expire. However, password expiration can be "
"enabled on a per-user basis, forcing some or all users to change their "
@@ -8370,12 +8107,12 @@ msgstr ""
"或所有使用者在某段期間過後更改他們的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6033
+#: book.translate.xml:5918
msgid "Account expiration time"
msgstr "帳號到期時間 (Account expiration time)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6036
+#: book.translate.xml:5921
msgid ""
"By default, FreeBSD does not expire accounts. When creating accounts that "
"need a limited lifespan, such as student accounts in a school, specify the "
@@ -8390,12 +8127,12 @@ msgstr ""
"期日期過後,便無法使用該帳號登入到系統,儘管該帳號的目錄及檔案仍存在。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6047
+#: book.translate.xml:5932
msgid "User's full name"
msgstr "使用者的全名 (User's full name)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6050
+#: book.translate.xml:5935
msgid ""
"The user name uniquely identifies the account to FreeBSD, but does not "
"necessarily reflect the user's real name. Similar to a comment, this "
@@ -8406,12 +8143,12 @@ msgstr ""
"名。類似註解,這個資訊可以含有空白、大寫字元並可超過 8 個字母的長度。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6059
+#: book.translate.xml:5944
msgid "Home directory"
msgstr "家目錄 (Home directory)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6062
+#: book.translate.xml:5947
msgid ""
"The home directory is the full path to a directory on the system. This is "
"the user's starting directory when the user logs in. A common convention is "
@@ -8426,12 +8163,12 @@ msgstr ""
"filename>。每位使用者可以儲存他們的個人檔案及子目錄於他們自己的家目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:6073
+#: book.translate.xml:5958
msgid "User shell"
msgstr "使用者 Shell (User shell)"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6076
+#: book.translate.xml:5961
msgid ""
"The shell provides the user's default environment for interacting with the "
"system. There are many different kinds of shells and experienced users will "
@@ -8441,17 +8178,17 @@ msgstr ""
"用者會有自己偏好的選擇,可儲存在自己的帳號設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6087
+#: book.translate.xml:5972
msgid "The Superuser Account"
msgstr "超級使用者帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6089
+#: book.translate.xml:5974
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>superuser (root)</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6094
+#: book.translate.xml:5979
msgid ""
"The superuser account, usually called <systemitem class=\"username\">root</"
"systemitem>, is used to manage the system with no limitations on privileges. "
@@ -8463,7 +8200,7 @@ msgstr ""
"如:寄信與收信、系統的一般探索或程式設計。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6101
+#: book.translate.xml:5986
msgid ""
"The superuser, unlike other user accounts, can operate without limits, and "
"misuse of the superuser account may result in spectacular disasters. User "
@@ -8476,7 +8213,7 @@ msgstr ""
"登入一般使用者帳號,只有在指令需要額外權限時切換為超級使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6109
+#: book.translate.xml:5994
msgid ""
"Always double and triple-check any commands issued as the superuser, since "
"an extra space or missing character can mean irreparable data loss."
@@ -8485,7 +8222,7 @@ msgstr ""
"著無法挽回的資料遺失。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6113
+#: book.translate.xml:5998
msgid ""
"There are several ways to gain superuser privilege. While one can log in as "
"<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem>, this is highly discouraged."
@@ -8494,7 +8231,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"username\">root</systemitem>,但強烈不建議這樣做。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6118
+#: book.translate.xml:6003
msgid ""
"Instead, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> to become the superuser. If <literal>-</literal> "
@@ -8512,7 +8249,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6128
+#: book.translate.xml:6013
msgid ""
"In this example, the user only becomes superuser in order to run "
"<command>make install</command> as this step requires superuser privilege. "
@@ -8524,12 +8261,12 @@ msgstr ""
"<command>exit</command> 離開超級使用者帳號並返回他的使用者帳號權限。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6136
+#: book.translate.xml:6021
msgid "Install a Program As the Superuser"
msgstr "以超級使用者的身份安裝程式"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6138
+#: book.translate.xml:6023
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>configure</userinput>\n"
@@ -8542,7 +8279,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6147
+#: book.translate.xml:6032
msgid ""
"The built-in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>su</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> framework works well for single systems or small "
@@ -8557,17 +8294,17 @@ msgstr ""
"體提供了活動記錄且允許管理者設定那個使用者可以用超級使用者執行那個指令。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6158
+#: book.translate.xml:6043
msgid "Managing Accounts"
msgstr "管理帳號"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6160
+#: book.translate.xml:6045
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>modifying</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6165
+#: book.translate.xml:6050
msgid ""
"FreeBSD provides a variety of different commands to manage user accounts. "
"The most common commands are summarized in <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-"
@@ -8579,110 +8316,110 @@ msgstr ""
"的操作手冊來取得更多詳細的資訊與用法範例。"
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6172
+#: book.translate.xml:6057
msgid "Utilities for Managing User Accounts"
msgstr "管理使用者帳號的工具"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6180 book.translate.xml:58528 book.translate.xml:62060
+#: book.translate.xml:6065 book.translate.xml:57389 book.translate.xml:60921
msgid "Command"
msgstr "指令"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6181 book.translate.xml:17152 book.translate.xml:17306
+#: book.translate.xml:6066 book.translate.xml:16933 book.translate.xml:17087
msgid "Summary"
msgstr "摘要"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6186
+#: book.translate.xml:6071
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6187
+#: book.translate.xml:6072
msgid "The recommended command-line application for adding new users."
msgstr "建議用來新增新使用者的指令列應用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6192
+#: book.translate.xml:6077
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6193
+#: book.translate.xml:6078
msgid "The recommended command-line application for removing users."
msgstr "建議用來移除使用者的指令列應用程式。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6198
+#: book.translate.xml:6083
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6199
+#: book.translate.xml:6084
msgid "A flexible tool for changing user database information."
msgstr "用來更改使用者資料庫資訊的工具。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6204
+#: book.translate.xml:6089
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6205
+#: book.translate.xml:6090
msgid "The command-line tool to change user passwords."
msgstr "用來更改使用者密碼的指令列工具。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6210
+#: book.translate.xml:6095
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6211
+#: book.translate.xml:6096
msgid ""
"A powerful and flexible tool for modifying all aspects of user accounts."
msgstr "用來修改使用者帳號各方面資訊強大且靈活的工具。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6219
+#: book.translate.xml:6104
msgid "<command>adduser</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6221
+#: book.translate.xml:6106
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>adding</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect4/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6225 book.translate.xml:43897
+#: book.translate.xml:6110 book.translate.xml:43534
msgid "<primary><command>adduser</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6228
+#: book.translate.xml:6113
msgid "<primary><filename>/usr/share/skel</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6231
+#: book.translate.xml:6116
msgid "<primary>skeleton directory</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6235
+#: book.translate.xml:6120
msgid ""
"The recommended program for adding new users is "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
@@ -8701,7 +8438,7 @@ msgstr ""
"具必須使用超級使用者執行。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6245
+#: book.translate.xml:6130
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> utility is interactive and walks through the steps "
@@ -8724,12 +8461,12 @@ msgstr ""
"離開。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6257
+#: book.translate.xml:6142
msgid "Adding a User on FreeBSD"
msgstr "在 FreeBSD 新增使用者"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6259
+#: book.translate.xml:6144
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>adduser</userinput>\n"
@@ -8765,29 +8502,29 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6292
+#: book.translate.xml:6177
msgid ""
"Since the password is not echoed when typed, be careful to not mistype the "
"password when creating the user account."
msgstr "由於密碼在輸入時並不會顯示,在建立使用者帳號時要小心密碼不要輸入錯誤。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6299
+#: book.translate.xml:6184
msgid "<command>rmuser</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6301
+#: book.translate.xml:6186
msgid "<primary><command>rmuser</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6304
+#: book.translate.xml:6189
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>removing</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6309
+#: book.translate.xml:6194
msgid ""
"To completely remove a user from the system, run "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -8798,7 +8535,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。這個指令會執行以下步驟:"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6315
+#: book.translate.xml:6200
msgid ""
"Removes the user's <citerefentry><refentrytitle>crontab</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> entry, if one exists."
@@ -8807,7 +8544,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 項目,若項目存在。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6320
+#: book.translate.xml:6205
msgid ""
"Removes any <citerefentry><refentrytitle>at</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> jobs belonging to the user."
@@ -8816,30 +8553,30 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 工作。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6325
+#: book.translate.xml:6210
msgid "Kills all processes owned by the user."
msgstr "中止所有該使用者擁有的程序。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6329
+#: book.translate.xml:6214
msgid "Removes the user from the system's local password file."
msgstr "自系統本地密碼檔移除該使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6334
+#: book.translate.xml:6219
msgid ""
"Optionally removes the user's home directory, if it is owned by the user."
msgstr "選擇性移除該使用者的家目錄,若使用者擁有該目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6339
+#: book.translate.xml:6224
msgid ""
"Removes the incoming mail files belonging to the user from <filename>/var/"
"mail</filename>."
msgstr "自 <filename>/var/mail</filename> 移除屬於該使用者的收件郵件檔。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6344
+#: book.translate.xml:6229
msgid ""
"Removes all files owned by the user from temporary file storage areas such "
"as <filename>/tmp</filename>."
@@ -8847,7 +8584,7 @@ msgstr ""
"自暫存檔儲存區域 (如 <filename>/tmp</filename>) 移除所有使用者擁有的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: step/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6350
+#: book.translate.xml:6235
msgid ""
"Finally, removes the username from all groups to which it belongs in "
"<filename>/etc/group</filename>. If a group becomes empty and the group name "
@@ -8861,7 +8598,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 替每位使用者建立獨一無二的群組。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6359
+#: book.translate.xml:6244
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> cannot be used to remove superuser accounts since that is "
@@ -8871,18 +8608,18 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 無法用來移除超級使用者帳號,因為這幾乎代表著大規模破壞。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6363
+#: book.translate.xml:6248
msgid ""
"By default, an interactive mode is used, as shown in the following example."
msgstr "預設會使用互動式模式,如下範例所示。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6367
+#: book.translate.xml:6252
msgid "<command>rmuser</command> Interactive Account Removal"
msgstr "<command>rmuser</command> 互動式帳號移除"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6370
+#: book.translate.xml:6255
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>rmuser jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -8895,17 +8632,17 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6381
+#: book.translate.xml:6266
msgid "<command>chpass</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6383
+#: book.translate.xml:6268
msgid "<primary><command>chpass</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6387
+#: book.translate.xml:6272
msgid ""
"Any user can use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to change their "
@@ -8919,7 +8656,7 @@ msgstr ""
"者的其他帳號資訊。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6392
+#: book.translate.xml:6277
msgid ""
"When passed no options, aside from an optional username, "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -8932,7 +8669,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的資訊到使用者資料庫。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6398
+#: book.translate.xml:6283
msgid ""
"This utility will prompt for the user's password when exiting the editor, "
"unless the utility is run as the superuser."
@@ -8940,7 +8677,7 @@ msgstr ""
"離開編輯器時,此工具會提示使用者輸入密碼,除非使用超級使用者執行此工具。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6403
+#: book.translate.xml:6288
msgid ""
"In <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-chpass-su\"/>, the superuser has typed "
"<command>chpass jru</command> and is now viewing the fields that can be "
@@ -8955,12 +8692,12 @@ msgstr ""
"個欄位供編輯,如 <xref linkend=\"users-modifying-chpass-ru\"/> 所示。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6412
+#: book.translate.xml:6297
msgid "Using <command>chpass</command> as Superuser"
msgstr "以超級使用者的身份使用 <command>chpass</command>"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6415
+#: book.translate.xml:6300
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"#Changing user database information for jru.\n"
@@ -8981,12 +8718,12 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6433
+#: book.translate.xml:6318
msgid "Using <command>chpass</command> as Regular User"
msgstr "以一般使用者的身份使用 <command>chpass</command>"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6436
+#: book.translate.xml:6321
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"#Changing user database information for jru.\n"
@@ -8999,7 +8736,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6446
+#: book.translate.xml:6331
msgid ""
"The commands <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chfn</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chsh</"
@@ -9027,22 +8764,22 @@ msgstr ""
"linkend=\"network-servers\"/> 中有說明。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6456
+#: book.translate.xml:6341
msgid "<command>passwd</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6458
+#: book.translate.xml:6343
msgid "<primary><command>passwd</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6461
+#: book.translate.xml:6346
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>changing password</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6466
+#: book.translate.xml:6351
msgid ""
"Any user can easily change their password using "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -9055,12 +8792,12 @@ msgstr ""
"意外或未授權的變更,這個指令在設定新密碼之前會提示使用者輸入原來的密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6472
+#: book.translate.xml:6357
msgid "Changing Your Password"
msgstr "更改您的密碼"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6474
+#: book.translate.xml:6359
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>passwd</userinput>\n"
@@ -9073,7 +8810,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6483
+#: book.translate.xml:6368
msgid ""
"The superuser can change any user's password by specifying the username when "
"running <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
@@ -9087,12 +8824,12 @@ msgstr ""
"用者目前的密碼,這可在使用者忘記原來的密碼時更改密碼。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6491
+#: book.translate.xml:6376
msgid "Changing Another User's Password as the Superuser"
msgstr "以超級使用者的身份更改其他使用者的密碼"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6494
+#: book.translate.xml:6379
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>passwd jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -9104,7 +8841,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6503
+#: book.translate.xml:6388
msgid ""
"As with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chpass</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>yppasswd</"
@@ -9119,18 +8856,18 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>,因此 <acronym>NIS</acronym> 在兩個指令上皆可運作。"
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6510
+#: book.translate.xml:6395
msgid "<command>pw</command>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/indexterm
#. (itstool) path: sect4/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6512 book.translate.xml:43920
+#: book.translate.xml:6397 book.translate.xml:43557
msgid "<primary><command>pw</command></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect3/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6516
+#: book.translate.xml:6401
msgid ""
"The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> utility can create, remove, modify, and display users and "
@@ -9148,27 +8885,27 @@ msgstr ""
"本節的指令要複雜許多。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6527
+#: book.translate.xml:6412
msgid "Managing Groups"
msgstr "管理群組"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6529
+#: book.translate.xml:6414
msgid "<primary>groups</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6532
+#: book.translate.xml:6417
msgid "<primary><filename>/etc/groups</filename></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6535
+#: book.translate.xml:6420
msgid "<primary>accounts</primary> <secondary>groups</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6540
+#: book.translate.xml:6425
msgid ""
"A group is a list of users. A group is identified by its group name and "
"<acronym>GID</acronym>. In FreeBSD, the kernel uses the <acronym>UID</"
@@ -9182,7 +8919,7 @@ msgstr ""
"單中的第一個群組。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6547
+#: book.translate.xml:6432
msgid ""
"The group name to <acronym>GID</acronym> mapping is listed in <filename>/etc/"
"group</filename>. This is a plain text file with four colon-delimited "
@@ -9200,7 +8937,7 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6555
+#: book.translate.xml:6440
msgid ""
"The superuser can modify <filename>/etc/group</filename> using a text "
"editor. Alternatively, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
@@ -9214,7 +8951,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\"groupname\">teamtwo</systemitem> 的群組然後確認該群組已新增:"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6562
+#: book.translate.xml:6447
msgid ""
"Adding a Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -9223,7 +8960,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 新增群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6564
+#: book.translate.xml:6449
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupadd teamtwo</userinput>\n"
@@ -9232,7 +8969,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6569
+#: book.translate.xml:6454
msgid ""
"In this example, <literal>1100</literal> is the <acronym>GID</acronym> of "
"<systemitem class=\"groupname\">teamtwo</systemitem>. Right now, <systemitem "
@@ -9247,7 +8984,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\">teamtwo</systemitem> 的成員。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6578
+#: book.translate.xml:6463
msgid ""
"Adding User Accounts to a New Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -9256,7 +8993,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 加入使用者帳號到新的群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6581
+#: book.translate.xml:6466
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod teamtwo -M jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -9265,7 +9002,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6586
+#: book.translate.xml:6471
msgid ""
"The argument to <option>-M</option> is a comma-delimited list of users to be "
"added to a new (empty) group or to replace the members of an existing group. "
@@ -9292,7 +9029,7 @@ msgstr ""
"filename> 且不會嘗試自 <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> 讀取其他的資料。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6600
+#: book.translate.xml:6485
msgid ""
"Adding a New Member to a Group Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>"
@@ -9301,7 +9038,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 加入新成員到群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6602
+#: book.translate.xml:6487
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod teamtwo -m db</userinput>\n"
@@ -9310,7 +9047,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6607
+#: book.translate.xml:6492
msgid ""
"In this example, the argument to <option>-m</option> is a comma-delimited "
"list of users who are to be added to the group. Unlike the previous example, "
@@ -9322,7 +9059,7 @@ msgstr ""
"者。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6614
+#: book.translate.xml:6499
msgid ""
"Using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>id</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> to Determine Group Membership"
@@ -9331,7 +9068,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 來查看所屬群組"
#. (itstool) path: example/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6616
+#: book.translate.xml:6501
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>id jru</userinput>\n"
@@ -9339,7 +9076,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6620
+#: book.translate.xml:6505
msgid ""
"In this example, <systemitem class=\"username\">jru</systemitem> is a member "
"of the groups <systemitem class=\"groupname\">jru</systemitem> and "
@@ -9350,7 +9087,7 @@ msgstr ""
"\">teamtwo</systemitem> 的成員。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6625
+#: book.translate.xml:6510
msgid ""
"For more information about this command and the format of <filename>/etc/"
"group</filename>, refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</"
@@ -9364,17 +9101,17 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6632
+#: book.translate.xml:6517
msgid "Permissions"
msgstr "權限"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6634
+#: book.translate.xml:6519
msgid "<primary>UNIX</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6638
+#: book.translate.xml:6523
msgid ""
"In FreeBSD, every file and directory has an associated set of permissions "
"and several utilities are available for viewing and modifying these "
@@ -9388,7 +9125,7 @@ msgstr ""
"無法不正確的存取供作業系統或其他使用者擁有的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6646
+#: book.translate.xml:6531
msgid ""
"This section discusses the traditional <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</"
"trademark> permissions used in FreeBSD. For finer grained file system access "
@@ -9399,7 +9136,7 @@ msgstr ""
">。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6650
+#: book.translate.xml:6535
msgid ""
"In <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark>, basic permissions are "
"assigned using three types of access: read, write, and execute. These access "
@@ -9423,7 +9160,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 以及 <literal>x</literal> 開啟的值為 <literal>1</literal>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6665
+#: book.translate.xml:6550
msgid ""
"Table 4.1 summarizes the possible numeric and alphabetic possibilities. When "
"reading the <quote>Directory Listing</quote> column, a <literal>-</literal> "
@@ -9433,183 +9170,183 @@ msgstr ""
"位時,<literal>-</literal> 用來代表該權限設為關閉。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6670
+#: book.translate.xml:6555
msgid "<primary>permissions</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6673
+#: book.translate.xml:6558
msgid "<primary>file permissions</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6678
+#: book.translate.xml:6563
msgid "<trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> Permissions"
msgstr "<trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</trademark> 權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6683
+#: book.translate.xml:6568
msgid "Value"
msgstr "數值"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6684
+#: book.translate.xml:6569
msgid "Permission"
msgstr "權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6685
+#: book.translate.xml:6570
msgid "Directory Listing"
msgstr "目錄清單標示"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6691
+#: book.translate.xml:6576
msgid "0"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6692
+#: book.translate.xml:6577
msgid "No read, no write, no execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 不可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6693
+#: book.translate.xml:6578
msgid "<literal>---</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6697 book.translate.xml:46933 book.translate.xml:46955
-#: book.translate.xml:47045
+#: book.translate.xml:6582 book.translate.xml:47032 book.translate.xml:47054
+#: book.translate.xml:47144
msgid "1"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6698
+#: book.translate.xml:6583
msgid "No read, no write, execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 不可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6699
+#: book.translate.xml:6584
msgid "<literal>--x</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6703 book.translate.xml:46825 book.translate.xml:46835
-#: book.translate.xml:46907 book.translate.xml:46917 book.translate.xml:46997
-#: book.translate.xml:46999
+#: book.translate.xml:6588 book.translate.xml:46924 book.translate.xml:46934
+#: book.translate.xml:47006 book.translate.xml:47016 book.translate.xml:47096
+#: book.translate.xml:47098
msgid "2"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6704
+#: book.translate.xml:6589
msgid "No read, write, no execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6705
+#: book.translate.xml:6590
msgid "<literal>-w-</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6709 book.translate.xml:46827 book.translate.xml:46833
-#: book.translate.xml:46909 book.translate.xml:46915 book.translate.xml:47005
-#: book.translate.xml:47007
+#: book.translate.xml:6594 book.translate.xml:46926 book.translate.xml:46932
+#: book.translate.xml:47008 book.translate.xml:47014 book.translate.xml:47104
+#: book.translate.xml:47106
msgid "3"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6710
+#: book.translate.xml:6595
msgid "No read, write, execute"
msgstr "不可讀取, 可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6711
+#: book.translate.xml:6596
msgid "<literal>-wx</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6715 book.translate.xml:46841 book.translate.xml:46851
-#: book.translate.xml:46923 book.translate.xml:46931 book.translate.xml:46949
-#: book.translate.xml:46957 book.translate.xml:47013 book.translate.xml:47021
-#: book.translate.xml:47063
+#: book.translate.xml:6600 book.translate.xml:46940 book.translate.xml:46950
+#: book.translate.xml:47022 book.translate.xml:47030 book.translate.xml:47048
+#: book.translate.xml:47056 book.translate.xml:47112 book.translate.xml:47120
+#: book.translate.xml:47162
msgid "4"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6716
+#: book.translate.xml:6601
msgid "Read, no write, no execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 不可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6717
+#: book.translate.xml:6602
msgid "<literal>r--</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6721 book.translate.xml:46843 book.translate.xml:46849
-#: book.translate.xml:46939 book.translate.xml:46941 book.translate.xml:47029
-#: book.translate.xml:47055
+#: book.translate.xml:6606 book.translate.xml:46942 book.translate.xml:46948
+#: book.translate.xml:47038 book.translate.xml:47040 book.translate.xml:47128
+#: book.translate.xml:47154
msgid "5"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6722
+#: book.translate.xml:6607
msgid "Read, no write, execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 不可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6723
+#: book.translate.xml:6608
msgid "<literal>r-x</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6727 book.translate.xml:46859 book.translate.xml:46873
-#: book.translate.xml:46925 book.translate.xml:46947 book.translate.xml:47015
-#: book.translate.xml:47037
+#: book.translate.xml:6612 book.translate.xml:46958 book.translate.xml:46972
+#: book.translate.xml:47024 book.translate.xml:47046 book.translate.xml:47114
+#: book.translate.xml:47136
msgid "6"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6728
+#: book.translate.xml:6613
msgid "Read, write, no execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 可寫入, 不可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6729
+#: book.translate.xml:6614
msgid "<literal>rw-</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6733 book.translate.xml:46817 book.translate.xml:46819
-#: book.translate.xml:46963 book.translate.xml:46973 book.translate.xml:47031
-#: book.translate.xml:47053
+#: book.translate.xml:6618 book.translate.xml:46916 book.translate.xml:46918
+#: book.translate.xml:47062 book.translate.xml:47072 book.translate.xml:47130
+#: book.translate.xml:47152
msgid "7"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6734
+#: book.translate.xml:6619
msgid "Read, write, execute"
msgstr "可讀取, 可寫入, 可執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6735
+#: book.translate.xml:6620
msgid "<literal>rwx</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6741
+#: book.translate.xml:6626
msgid ""
"<primary><citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry></primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6744
+#: book.translate.xml:6629
msgid "<primary>directories</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6748
+#: book.translate.xml:6633
msgid ""
"Use the <option>-l</option> argument to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to view a long "
@@ -9623,7 +9360,7 @@ msgstr ""
"一個目錄底下執行 <command>ls -l</command>,會顯示如下的結果:"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6754
+#: book.translate.xml:6639
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>ls -l</userinput>\n"
@@ -9634,7 +9371,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6760
+#: book.translate.xml:6645
msgid ""
"The first (leftmost) character in the first column indicates whether this "
"file is a regular file, a directory, a special character device, a socket, "
@@ -9661,7 +9398,7 @@ msgstr ""
"案的三種權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6777
+#: book.translate.xml:6662
msgid ""
"How does the system control permissions on devices? FreeBSD treats most "
"hardware devices as a file that programs can open, read, and write data to. "
@@ -9672,7 +9409,7 @@ msgstr ""
"</filename> 目錄中。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6782
+#: book.translate.xml:6667
msgid ""
"Directories are also treated as files. They have read, write, and execute "
"permissions. The executable bit for a directory has a slightly different "
@@ -9688,7 +9425,7 @@ msgstr ""
"代表能夠存取在此目錄之中的已知檔名的檔案,但仍會受限於檔案本身所設定的權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6791
+#: book.translate.xml:6676
msgid ""
"In order to perform a directory listing, the read permission must be set on "
"the directory. In order to delete a file that one knows the name of, it is "
@@ -9699,7 +9436,7 @@ msgstr ""
"案所在目錄的寫入 <emphasis>以及</emphasis> 執行的權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6797
+#: book.translate.xml:6682
msgid ""
"There are more permission bits, but they are primarily used in special "
"circumstances such as setuid binaries and sticky directories. For more "
@@ -9713,27 +9450,27 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6804
+#: book.translate.xml:6689
msgid "Symbolic Permissions"
msgstr "權限符號"
#. (itstool) path: authorgroup/author
-#: book.translate.xml:6807 book.translate.xml:6942 book.translate.xml:6993
-#: book.translate.xml:19433 book.translate.xml:19540 book.translate.xml:19718
-#: book.translate.xml:20837 book.translate.xml:21363 book.translate.xml:23612
-#: book.translate.xml:34174 book.translate.xml:65535
+#: book.translate.xml:6692 book.translate.xml:6827 book.translate.xml:6878
+#: book.translate.xml:19214 book.translate.xml:19321 book.translate.xml:19499
+#: book.translate.xml:20618 book.translate.xml:21137 book.translate.xml:23386
+#: book.translate.xml:33823 book.translate.xml:65535
msgid ""
"<personname> <firstname>Tom</firstname> <surname>Rhodes</surname> </"
"personname> <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:6817
+#: book.translate.xml:6702
msgid "<primary>permissions</primary> <secondary>symbolic</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6822
+#: book.translate.xml:6707
msgid ""
"Symbolic permissions use characters instead of octal values to assign "
"permissions to files or directories. Symbolic permissions use the syntax of "
@@ -9743,159 +9480,159 @@ msgstr ""
"符號表示的格式依序為 (某人)(動作)(權限),可使用的符號如下:"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6832 book.translate.xml:23338
+#: book.translate.xml:6717 book.translate.xml:23112
msgid "Option"
msgstr "項目"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6833
+#: book.translate.xml:6718
msgid "Letter"
msgstr "字母"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6834
+#: book.translate.xml:6719
msgid "Represents"
msgstr "代表意義"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6840 book.translate.xml:6846 book.translate.xml:6852
-#: book.translate.xml:6858
+#: book.translate.xml:6725 book.translate.xml:6731 book.translate.xml:6737
+#: book.translate.xml:6743
msgid "(who)"
msgstr "(某人)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6841
+#: book.translate.xml:6726
msgid "u"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6842
+#: book.translate.xml:6727
msgid "User"
msgstr "使用者"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6847
+#: book.translate.xml:6732
msgid "g"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6848
+#: book.translate.xml:6733
msgid "Group owner"
msgstr "群組所有者"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6853
+#: book.translate.xml:6738
msgid "o"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6854
+#: book.translate.xml:6739
msgid "Other"
msgstr "其他"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6859
+#: book.translate.xml:6744
msgid "a"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6860
+#: book.translate.xml:6745
msgid "All (<quote>world</quote>)"
msgstr "全部 (<quote>world</quote>)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6864 book.translate.xml:6870 book.translate.xml:6876
+#: book.translate.xml:6749 book.translate.xml:6755 book.translate.xml:6761
msgid "(action)"
msgstr "(動作)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6865 book.translate.xml:31608 book.translate.xml:39499
+#: book.translate.xml:6750 book.translate.xml:31374 book.translate.xml:39163
msgid "+"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6866
+#: book.translate.xml:6751
msgid "Adding permissions"
msgstr "\t增加權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6871 book.translate.xml:31613 book.translate.xml:39504
+#: book.translate.xml:6756 book.translate.xml:31379 book.translate.xml:39168
msgid "-"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6872
+#: book.translate.xml:6757
msgid "Removing permissions"
msgstr "移除權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6877
+#: book.translate.xml:6762
msgid "="
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6878
+#: book.translate.xml:6763
msgid "Explicitly set permissions"
msgstr "指定權限"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6882 book.translate.xml:6888 book.translate.xml:6894
-#: book.translate.xml:6900 book.translate.xml:6906
+#: book.translate.xml:6767 book.translate.xml:6773 book.translate.xml:6779
+#: book.translate.xml:6785 book.translate.xml:6791
msgid "(permissions)"
msgstr "(權限)"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6883
+#: book.translate.xml:6768
msgid "r"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6884
+#: book.translate.xml:6769
msgid "Read"
msgstr "讀取"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6889
+#: book.translate.xml:6774
msgid "w"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6890
+#: book.translate.xml:6775
msgid "Write"
msgstr "寫入"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6895
+#: book.translate.xml:6780
msgid "x"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6896
+#: book.translate.xml:6781
msgid "Execute"
msgstr "執行"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6901
+#: book.translate.xml:6786
msgid "t"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6902
+#: book.translate.xml:6787
msgid "Sticky bit"
msgstr "Sticky 位元"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6907
+#: book.translate.xml:6792
msgid "s"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:6908
+#: book.translate.xml:6793
msgid "Set UID or GID"
msgstr "設定 UID 或 GID"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6914
+#: book.translate.xml:6799
msgid ""
"These values are used with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, but with letters "
@@ -9908,13 +9645,13 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>FILE</replaceable>:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6919
+#: book.translate.xml:6804
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod go= FILE</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6921
+#: book.translate.xml:6806
msgid ""
"A comma separated list can be provided when more than one set of changes to "
"a file must be made. For example, the following command removes the group "
@@ -9926,18 +9663,18 @@ msgstr ""
"(<quote>world</quote>) 對該檔有執行權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6928
+#: book.translate.xml:6813
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>chmod go-w,a+x <replaceable>FILE</replaceable></userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6939
+#: book.translate.xml:6824
msgid "FreeBSD File Flags"
msgstr "FreeBSD 檔案旗標"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6952
+#: book.translate.xml:6837
msgid ""
"In addition to file permissions, FreeBSD supports the use of <quote>file "
"flags</quote>. These flags add an additional level of security and control "
@@ -9950,7 +9687,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> 不會意外將檔案修改或移除。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6959
+#: book.translate.xml:6844
msgid ""
"File flags are modified using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chflags</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For example, to "
@@ -9963,13 +9700,13 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>file1</filename>,使用下列指令:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6964
+#: book.translate.xml:6849
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chflags sunlink file1</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6966
+#: book.translate.xml:6851
msgid ""
"To disable the system undeletable flag, put a <quote>no</quote> in front of "
"the <option>sunlink</option>:"
@@ -9978,13 +9715,13 @@ msgstr ""
"<quote>no</quote>,例如:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6970
+#: book.translate.xml:6855
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chflags nosunlink file1</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6972
+#: book.translate.xml:6857
msgid ""
"To view the flags of a file, use <option>-lo</option> with "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -9994,19 +9731,19 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 及參數 <option>-lo</option> 可檢視檔案目前的旗標:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:6975
+#: book.translate.xml:6860
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls -lo file1</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:6977
+#: book.translate.xml:6862
#, no-wrap
msgid "-rw-r--r-- 1 trhodes trhodes sunlnk 0 Mar 1 05:54 file1"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:6979
+#: book.translate.xml:6864
msgid ""
"Several file flags may only be added or removed by the <systemitem class="
"\"username\">root</systemitem> user. In other cases, the file owner may set "
@@ -10022,7 +9759,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> 說明以瞭解相關細節。"
#. (itstool) path: info/title
-#: book.translate.xml:6988
+#: book.translate.xml:6873
msgid ""
"The <literal>setuid</literal>, <literal>setgid</literal>, and "
"<literal>sticky</literal> Permissions"
@@ -10031,7 +9768,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 權限"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7003
+#: book.translate.xml:6888
msgid ""
"Other than the permissions already discussed, there are three other specific "
"settings that all administrators should know about. They are the "
@@ -10043,7 +9780,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>sticky</literal> 權限。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7009
+#: book.translate.xml:6894
msgid ""
"These settings are important for some <trademark class=\"registered\">UNIX</"
"trademark> operations as they provide functionality not normally granted to "
@@ -10055,7 +9792,7 @@ msgstr ""
"說明真實使用者 ID (Real user ID) 與有效使用者 ID (Effective user ID) 的差異。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7014
+#: book.translate.xml:6899
msgid ""
"The real user ID is the <acronym>UID</acronym> who owns or starts the "
"process. The effective <acronym>UID</acronym> is the user ID the process "
@@ -10075,20 +9812,20 @@ msgstr ""
"(<errorname>Permission Denied</errorname>) 的錯誤。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7024
+#: book.translate.xml:6909
msgid ""
"The setuid permission may be set by prefixing a permission set with the "
"number four (4) as shown in the following example:"
msgstr "setuid 權限可以透過在權限集前加上數字 (4) 來設定,如下範例所示:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7028
+#: book.translate.xml:6913
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 4755 suidexample.sh</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7030
+#: book.translate.xml:6915
msgid ""
"The permissions on <filename><replaceable>suidexample.sh</replaceable></"
"filename> now look like the following:"
@@ -10097,13 +9834,13 @@ msgstr ""
"如下所示:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:7034
+#: book.translate.xml:6919
#, no-wrap
msgid "-rwsr-xr-x 1 trhodes trhodes 63 Aug 29 06:36 suidexample.sh"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7036
+#: book.translate.xml:6921
msgid ""
"Note that a <literal>s</literal> is now part of the permission set "
"designated for the file owner, replacing the executable bit. This allows "
@@ -10116,7 +9853,7 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 可正常使用。"
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7042
+#: book.translate.xml:6927
msgid ""
"The <literal>nosuid</literal> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> option will cause such "
@@ -10130,7 +9867,7 @@ msgstr ""
"該選項並非完全可靠。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7049
+#: book.translate.xml:6934
msgid ""
"To view this in real time, open two terminals. On one, type <command>passwd</"
"command> as a normal user. While it waits for a new password, check the "
@@ -10144,12 +9881,12 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 程序的使用者資訊:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7055
+#: book.translate.xml:6940
msgid "In terminal A:"
msgstr "於終端機 A:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7057
+#: book.translate.xml:6942
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"Changing local password for trhodes\n"
@@ -10157,18 +9894,18 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7060
+#: book.translate.xml:6945
msgid "In terminal B:"
msgstr "於終端機 B:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7062
+#: book.translate.xml:6947
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ps aux | grep passwd</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7064
+#: book.translate.xml:6949
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
"trhodes 5232 0.0 0.2 3420 1608 0 R+ 2:10AM 0:00.00 grep passwd\n"
@@ -10176,7 +9913,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7067
+#: book.translate.xml:6952
msgid ""
"Although <citerefentry><refentrytitle>passwd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</"
"manvolnum></citerefentry> is run as a normal user, it is using the effective "
@@ -10188,7 +9925,7 @@ msgstr ""
"acronym>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7071
+#: book.translate.xml:6956
msgid ""
"The <literal>setgid</literal> permission performs the same function as the "
"<literal>setuid</literal> permission; except that it alters the group "
@@ -10201,7 +9938,7 @@ msgstr ""
"使用者。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7078
+#: book.translate.xml:6963
msgid ""
"To set the <literal>setgid</literal> permission on a file, provide "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>chmod</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -10212,26 +9949,26 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 的參數前加上 (2):"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7081
+#: book.translate.xml:6966
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 2755 sgidexample.sh</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7083
+#: book.translate.xml:6968
msgid ""
"In the following listing, notice that the <literal>s</literal> is now in the "
"field designated for the group permission settings:"
msgstr "注意以下清單中,<literal>s</literal> 現在位於指定群組權限設定的欄位:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7087
+#: book.translate.xml:6972
#, no-wrap
msgid "-rwxr-sr-x 1 trhodes trhodes 44 Aug 31 01:49 sgidexample.sh"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: note/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7090
+#: book.translate.xml:6975
msgid ""
"In these examples, even though the shell script in question is an executable "
"file, it will not run with a different <acronym>EUID</acronym> or effective "
@@ -10245,7 +9982,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 系統呼叫 (System call)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7097
+#: book.translate.xml:6982
msgid ""
"The <literal>setuid</literal> and <literal>setgid</literal> permission bits "
"may lower system security, by allowing for elevated permissions. The third "
@@ -10257,7 +9994,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>,可以加強系統的安全性。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7103
+#: book.translate.xml:6988
msgid ""
"When the <literal>sticky bit</literal> is set on a directory, it allows file "
"deletion only by the file owner. This is useful to prevent file deletion in "
@@ -10270,13 +10007,13 @@ msgstr ""
"非常有用。要使用這個權限,可在權限集前加上 (1):"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7110
+#: book.translate.xml:6995
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>chmod 1777 /tmp</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7112
+#: book.translate.xml:6997
msgid ""
"The <literal>sticky bit</literal> permission will display as a <literal>t</"
"literal> at the very end of the permission set:"
@@ -10285,29 +10022,29 @@ msgstr ""
"後:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7116
+#: book.translate.xml:7001
#, no-wrap
msgid "<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ls -al / | grep tmp</userinput>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/screen
-#: book.translate.xml:7118
+#: book.translate.xml:7003
#, no-wrap
msgid "drwxrwxrwt 10 root wheel 512 Aug 31 01:49 tmp"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7124
+#: book.translate.xml:7009
msgid "Directory Structure"
msgstr "目錄結構"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7126
+#: book.translate.xml:7011
msgid "<primary>directory hierarchy</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7130
+#: book.translate.xml:7015
msgid ""
"The FreeBSD directory hierarchy is fundamental to obtaining an overall "
"understanding of the system. The most important directory is root or, "
@@ -10322,7 +10059,7 @@ msgstr ""
"會有開機所會用到必備檔案。 此外,根目錄還有紀錄其他檔案系統的掛載點相關設定。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7139
+#: book.translate.xml:7024
msgid ""
"A mount point is a directory where additional file systems can be grafted "
"onto a parent file system (usually the root file system). This is further "
@@ -10349,7 +10086,7 @@ msgstr ""
"option> 選項。 其中細節說明可參閱 <xref linkend=\"disks-fstab\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7154
+#: book.translate.xml:7039
msgid ""
"A complete description of the file system hierarchy is available in "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>hier</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></"
@@ -10362,45 +10099,45 @@ msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
#. (itstool) path: sect3/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7163 book.translate.xml:11025
+#: book.translate.xml:7048 book.translate.xml:10908
msgid "Directory"
msgstr "目錄"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7170
+#: book.translate.xml:7055
msgid "Root directory of the file system."
msgstr "檔案系統的根目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7174
+#: book.translate.xml:7059
msgid "<filename>/bin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7175
+#: book.translate.xml:7060
msgid ""
"User utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user environments."
msgstr ""
"單使用者 (Single-user)、多使用者 (Multi-user) 兩種模式皆可使用的基本工具 。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7180
+#: book.translate.xml:7065
msgid "<filename>/boot/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7181
+#: book.translate.xml:7066
msgid ""
"Programs and configuration files used during operating system bootstrap."
msgstr "作業系統開機過程會用到的程式、設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7186
+#: book.translate.xml:7071
msgid "<filename>/boot/defaults/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7187
+#: book.translate.xml:7072
msgid ""
"Default boot configuration files. Refer to "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</"
@@ -10410,12 +10147,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7192
+#: book.translate.xml:7077
msgid "<filename>/dev/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7193
+#: book.translate.xml:7078
msgid ""
"Device nodes. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>intro</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> for details."
@@ -10424,22 +10161,22 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7198
+#: book.translate.xml:7083
msgid "<filename>/etc/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7199
+#: book.translate.xml:7084
msgid "System configuration files and scripts."
msgstr "系統設定檔及一些 Script 檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7203
+#: book.translate.xml:7088
msgid "<filename>/etc/defaults/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7204
+#: book.translate.xml:7089
msgid ""
"Default system configuration files. Refer to "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -10449,12 +10186,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7209
+#: book.translate.xml:7094
msgid "<filename>/etc/mail/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7210
+#: book.translate.xml:7095
msgid ""
"Configuration files for mail transport agents such as "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sendmail</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</"
@@ -10464,26 +10201,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> 的相關設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7215
-msgid "<filename>/etc/namedb/</filename>"
-msgstr ""
-
-#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7216
-msgid ""
-"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
-"citerefentry> configuration files."
-msgstr ""
-"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
-"citerefentry> 設定檔。"
-
-#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7220
+#: book.translate.xml:7100
msgid "<filename>/etc/periodic/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7221
+#: book.translate.xml:7101
msgid ""
"Scripts that run daily, weekly, and monthly, via "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>cron</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -10496,12 +10219,12 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7227
+#: book.translate.xml:7107
msgid "<filename>/etc/ppp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7228
+#: book.translate.xml:7108
msgid ""
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
"citerefentry> configuration files."
@@ -10510,24 +10233,24 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry> 設定檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7232
+#: book.translate.xml:7112
msgid "<filename>/mnt/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7233
+#: book.translate.xml:7113
msgid ""
"Empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a temporary mount "
"point."
msgstr "系統管理者慣用充當臨時掛載點的空目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7238
+#: book.translate.xml:7118
msgid "<filename>/proc/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7239
+#: book.translate.xml:7119
msgid ""
"Process file system. Refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>procfs</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>, "
@@ -10540,12 +10263,12 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7244
+#: book.translate.xml:7124
msgid "<filename>/rescue/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7245
+#: book.translate.xml:7125
msgid ""
"Statically linked programs for emergency recovery as described in "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>rescue</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></"
@@ -10556,24 +10279,24 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7250
+#: book.translate.xml:7130
msgid "<filename>/root/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7251
+#: book.translate.xml:7131
msgid ""
"Home directory for the <systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> "
"account."
msgstr "<systemitem class=\"username\">root</systemitem> 帳號的家目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7257
+#: book.translate.xml:7137
msgid "<filename>/sbin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7258
+#: book.translate.xml:7138
msgid ""
"System programs and administration utilities fundamental to both single-user "
"and multi-user environments."
@@ -10582,12 +10305,12 @@ msgstr ""
"具 。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7264
+#: book.translate.xml:7144
msgid "<filename>/tmp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7265
+#: book.translate.xml:7145
msgid ""
"Temporary files which are usually <emphasis>not</emphasis> preserved across "
"a system reboot. A memory-based file system is often mounted at <filename>/"
@@ -10606,72 +10329,72 @@ msgstr ""
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7275
+#: book.translate.xml:7155
msgid "<filename>/usr/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7276
+#: book.translate.xml:7156
msgid "The majority of user utilities and applications."
msgstr "主要是使用者所安裝的工具程式、應用程式存放處。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7281
+#: book.translate.xml:7161
msgid "<filename>/usr/bin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7282
+#: book.translate.xml:7162
msgid "Common utilities, programming tools, and applications."
msgstr "常用工具、開發工具、應用軟體。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7287
+#: book.translate.xml:7167
msgid "<filename>/usr/include/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7288
+#: book.translate.xml:7168
msgid "Standard C include files."
msgstr "標準 C include 檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7292
+#: book.translate.xml:7172
msgid "<filename>/usr/lib/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7293
+#: book.translate.xml:7173
msgid "Archive libraries."
msgstr "程式庫存放處。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7298
+#: book.translate.xml:7178
msgid "<filename>/usr/libdata/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7299
+#: book.translate.xml:7179
msgid "Miscellaneous utility data files."
msgstr "其他各式工具的資料檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7303
+#: book.translate.xml:7183
msgid "<filename>/usr/libexec/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7304
+#: book.translate.xml:7184
msgid "System daemons and system utilities executed by other programs."
msgstr "系統 Daemon 及系統工具程式 (透過其他程式來執行)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7309
+#: book.translate.xml:7189
msgid "<filename>/usr/local/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7310
+#: book.translate.xml:7190
msgid ""
"Local executables and libraries. Also used as the default destination for "
"the FreeBSD ports framework. Within <filename>/usr/local</filename>, the "
@@ -10691,64 +10414,64 @@ msgstr ""
"<replaceable>port</replaceable></filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7323
+#: book.translate.xml:7203
msgid "<filename>/usr/obj/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7324
+#: book.translate.xml:7204
msgid ""
"Architecture-specific target tree produced by building the <filename>/usr/"
"src</filename> tree."
msgstr "在編譯 <filename>/usr/src</filename> 目錄時所產生的相關架構目地檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7330
+#: book.translate.xml:7210
msgid "<filename>/usr/ports/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7331
+#: book.translate.xml:7211
msgid "The FreeBSD Ports Collection (optional)."
msgstr "FreeBSD Port 套件集 (選用)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7335
+#: book.translate.xml:7215
msgid "<filename>/usr/sbin/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7336
+#: book.translate.xml:7216
msgid "System daemons and system utilities executed by users."
msgstr "由使用者執行的系統 Daemon 及系統工具。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7341
+#: book.translate.xml:7221
msgid "<filename>/usr/share/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7342
+#: book.translate.xml:7222
msgid "Architecture-independent files."
msgstr "各架構皆共通的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7346
+#: book.translate.xml:7226
msgid "<filename>/usr/src/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7347
+#: book.translate.xml:7227
msgid "BSD and/or local source files."
msgstr "BSD 原始碼 (或自行新增的)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7351
+#: book.translate.xml:7231
msgid "<filename>/var/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7352
+#: book.translate.xml:7232
msgid ""
"Multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files. A memory-based "
"file system is sometimes mounted at <filename>/var</filename>. This can be "
@@ -10767,42 +10490,42 @@ msgstr ""
"citerefentry>)。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7363
+#: book.translate.xml:7243
msgid "<filename>/var/log/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7364
+#: book.translate.xml:7244
msgid "Miscellaneous system log files."
msgstr "各項系統記錄的日誌 (Log) 檔。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7368
+#: book.translate.xml:7248
msgid "<filename>/var/mail/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7369
+#: book.translate.xml:7249
msgid "User mailbox files."
msgstr "各使用者的郵件 (Mailbox) 檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7373
+#: book.translate.xml:7253
msgid "<filename>/var/spool/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7374
+#: book.translate.xml:7254
msgid "Miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling directories."
msgstr "各種印表機、郵件系統的緩衝 (Spool) 目錄。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7379
+#: book.translate.xml:7259
msgid "<filename>/var/tmp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7380
+#: book.translate.xml:7260
msgid ""
"Temporary files which are usually preserved across a system reboot, unless "
"<filename>/var</filename> is a memory-based file system."
@@ -10811,22 +10534,22 @@ msgstr ""
"屬於以記憶體為基礎 (Memory-based) 的檔案系統。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7387
+#: book.translate.xml:7267
msgid "<filename>/var/yp/</filename>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7388
+#: book.translate.xml:7268
msgid "NIS maps."
msgstr "NIS 對應表。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7396
+#: book.translate.xml:7276
msgid "Disk Organization"
msgstr "磁碟組織"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7398
+#: book.translate.xml:7278
msgid ""
"The smallest unit of organization that FreeBSD uses to find files is the "
"filename. Filenames are case-sensitive, which means that <filename>readme."
@@ -10840,7 +10563,7 @@ msgstr ""
"他類型的檔案。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7405
+#: book.translate.xml:7285
msgid ""
"Files are stored in directories. A directory may contain no files, or it may "
"contain many hundreds of files. A directory can also contain other "
@@ -10851,7 +10574,7 @@ msgstr ""
"中也可以包含其他的目錄; 您可以建立階層式的目錄以便資料的管理。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7411
+#: book.translate.xml:7291
msgid ""
"Files and directories are referenced by giving the file or directory name, "
"followed by a forward slash, <literal>/</literal>, followed by any other "
@@ -10876,7 +10599,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<filename>c:\\foo\\bar\\readme.txt</filename> 這種路徑。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7426
+#: book.translate.xml:7306
msgid ""
"Directories and files are stored in a file system. Each file system contains "
"exactly one directory at the very top level, called the <firstterm>root "
@@ -10895,7 +10618,7 @@ msgstr ""
"個磁碟,所有目錄都會成為該磁碟的一部份。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7437
+#: book.translate.xml:7317
msgid ""
"Consider three file systems, called <literal>A</literal>, <literal>B</"
"literal>, and <literal>C</literal>. Each file system has one root directory, "
@@ -10909,7 +10632,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>B2</literal> 及 <literal>C1</literal>, <literal>C2</literal>)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7444
+#: book.translate.xml:7324
msgid ""
"Call <literal>A</literal> the root file system. If "
"<citerefentry><refentrytitle>ls</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></"
@@ -10927,13 +10650,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7452
+#: book.translate.xml:7332
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir1' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7456
+#: book.translate.xml:7336
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -10944,7 +10667,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7464
+#: book.translate.xml:7344
msgid ""
"A file system must be mounted on to a directory in another file system. When "
"mounting file system <literal>B</literal> on to the directory <literal>A1</"
@@ -10961,13 +10684,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7473
+#: book.translate.xml:7353
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir2' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7477
+#: book.translate.xml:7357
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -10982,7 +10705,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7489
+#: book.translate.xml:7369
msgid ""
"Any files that are in the <literal>B1</literal> or <literal>B2</literal> "
"directories can be reached with the path <filename>/A1/B1</filename> or "
@@ -10997,7 +10720,7 @@ msgstr ""
"literal> 被<firstterm>卸載 (Unmount)</firstterm> 後才會再顯現出來。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7498
+#: book.translate.xml:7378
msgid ""
"If <literal>B</literal> had been mounted on <literal>A2</literal> then the "
"diagram would look like this:"
@@ -11009,13 +10732,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7504
+#: book.translate.xml:7384
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir3' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7508
+#: book.translate.xml:7388
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -11030,7 +10753,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7520
+#: book.translate.xml:7400
msgid ""
"and the paths would be <filename>/A2/B1</filename> and <filename>/A2/B2</"
"filename> respectively."
@@ -11038,7 +10761,7 @@ msgstr ""
"上面的路徑分別為 <filename>/A2/B1</filename> 及 <filename>/A2/B2</filename>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7525
+#: book.translate.xml:7405
msgid ""
"File systems can be mounted on top of one another. Continuing the last "
"example, the <literal>C</literal> file system could be mounted on top of the "
@@ -11054,13 +10777,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7533
+#: book.translate.xml:7413
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir4' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7537
+#: book.translate.xml:7417
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -11079,7 +10802,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7553
+#: book.translate.xml:7433
msgid ""
"Or <literal>C</literal> could be mounted directly on to the <literal>A</"
"literal> file system, under the <literal>A1</literal> directory:"
@@ -11092,13 +10815,13 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7559
+#: book.translate.xml:7439
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/example-dir5' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: textobject/literallayout
-#: book.translate.xml:7563
+#: book.translate.xml:7443
#, no-wrap
msgid ""
" /\n"
@@ -11117,7 +10840,7 @@ msgid ""
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7579
+#: book.translate.xml:7459
msgid ""
"It is entirely possible to have one large root file system, and not need to "
"create any others. There are some drawbacks to this approach, and one "
@@ -11127,12 +10850,12 @@ msgstr ""
"處。"
#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7584
+#: book.translate.xml:7464
msgid "Benefits of Multiple File Systems"
msgstr "使用多個檔案系統的好處"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7587
+#: book.translate.xml:7467
msgid ""
"Different file systems can have different <firstterm>mount options</"
"firstterm>. For example, the root file system can be mounted read-only, "
@@ -11151,7 +10874,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<firstterm>guid</firstterm> 位元失效,可讓系統更安全。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7601
+#: book.translate.xml:7481
msgid ""
"FreeBSD automatically optimizes the layout of files on a file system, "
"depending on how the file system is being used. So a file system that "
@@ -11164,7 +10887,7 @@ msgstr ""
"如果您只有單一個大的檔案系統,這部分就沒用了。"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7610
+#: book.translate.xml:7490
msgid ""
"FreeBSD's file systems are robust if power is lost. However, a power loss at "
"a critical point could still damage the structure of the file system. By "
@@ -11176,12 +10899,12 @@ msgstr ""
"以便您在需要的時候將備份資料回存回來。"
#. (itstool) path: itemizedlist/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7620
+#: book.translate.xml:7500
msgid "Benefit of a Single File System"
msgstr "使用單一檔案系統的好處"
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7623
+#: book.translate.xml:7503
msgid ""
"File systems are a fixed size. If you create a file system when you install "
"FreeBSD and give it a specific size, you may later discover that you need to "
@@ -11194,7 +10917,7 @@ msgstr ""
"的大小,然後將備份回存回來。"
#. (itstool) path: important/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7631
+#: book.translate.xml:7511
msgid ""
"FreeBSD features the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>growfs</"
"refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command, which makes "
@@ -11205,7 +10928,7 @@ msgstr ""
"manvolnum></citerefentry> 指令可以突破此限制直接變更檔案系統的大小。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7638
+#: book.translate.xml:7518
msgid ""
"File systems are contained in partitions. This does not have the same "
"meaning as the common usage of the term partition (for example, <trademark "
@@ -11224,7 +10947,7 @@ msgstr ""
"點表示外,也可以使用該檔案系統所在的分區來表示。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7648
+#: book.translate.xml:7528
msgid ""
"FreeBSD also uses disk space for <firstterm>swap space</firstterm> to "
"provide <firstterm>virtual memory</firstterm>. This allows your computer to "
@@ -11239,47 +10962,47 @@ msgstr ""
"移到交換空間,然後在用到的時候移回去 (同時移出部份沒用到的)。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7657
+#: book.translate.xml:7537
msgid "Some partitions have certain conventions associated with them."
msgstr "部份分區有使用的慣例如下:"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7667
+#: book.translate.xml:7547
msgid "Partition"
msgstr "分區"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7668
+#: book.translate.xml:7548
msgid "Convention"
msgstr "慣例"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7674
+#: book.translate.xml:7554
msgid "<literal>a</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7675
+#: book.translate.xml:7555
msgid "Normally contains the root file system."
msgstr "通常內含根檔案系統"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7679
+#: book.translate.xml:7559
msgid "<literal>b</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7680
+#: book.translate.xml:7560
msgid "Normally contains swap space."
msgstr "通常內含交換空間"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7684
+#: book.translate.xml:7564
msgid "<literal>c</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7685
+#: book.translate.xml:7565
msgid ""
"Normally the same size as the enclosing slice. This allows utilities that "
"need to work on the entire slice, such as a bad block scanner, to work on "
@@ -11291,12 +11014,12 @@ msgstr ""
"執行。一般來說不會把檔案系統建立在這個分區。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7693
+#: book.translate.xml:7573
msgid "<literal>d</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7694
+#: book.translate.xml:7574
msgid ""
"Partition <literal>d</literal> used to have a special meaning associated "
"with it, although that is now gone and <literal>d</literal> may work as any "
@@ -11306,7 +11029,7 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>d</literal> 和一般的分區相同。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7703
+#: book.translate.xml:7583
msgid ""
"Disks in FreeBSD are divided into slices, referred to in <trademark class="
"\"registered\">Windows</trademark> as partitions, which are numbered from 1 "
@@ -11318,22 +11041,22 @@ msgstr ""
"再分成數個分區,每個分區內含檔案系統,且會使用字母來標示。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7708
+#: book.translate.xml:7588
msgid "<primary>slices</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7711 book.translate.xml:32078 book.translate.xml:32174
+#: book.translate.xml:7591 book.translate.xml:31844 book.translate.xml:31940
msgid "<primary>partitions</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7714
+#: book.translate.xml:7594
msgid "<primary>dangerously dedicated</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7718
+#: book.translate.xml:7598
msgid ""
"Slice numbers follow the device name, prefixed with an <literal>s</literal>, "
"starting at 1. So <quote>da0<emphasis>s1</emphasis></quote> is the first "
@@ -11352,7 +11075,7 @@ msgstr ""
"檔案系統使用的裝置 (Device) 上均會各別佔據一個切割區。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7728
+#: book.translate.xml:7608
msgid ""
"Slices, <quote>dangerously dedicated</quote> physical drives, and other "
"drives contain <firstterm>partitions</firstterm>, which are represented as "
@@ -11372,7 +11095,7 @@ msgstr ""
"三個切割區的第五個分區。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7741
+#: book.translate.xml:7621
msgid ""
"Finally, each disk on the system is identified. A disk name starts with a "
"code that indicates the type of disk, and then a number, indicating which "
@@ -11384,7 +11107,7 @@ msgstr ""
"始。常見的代碼可以參考 <xref linkend=\"disks-naming\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7747
+#: book.translate.xml:7627
msgid ""
"When referring to a partition, include the disk name, <literal>s</literal>, "
"the slice number, and then the partition letter. Examples are shown in <xref "
@@ -11394,7 +11117,7 @@ msgstr ""
"及分區字母。範例可以參考 <xref linkend=\"basics-disk-slice-part\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7752
+#: book.translate.xml:7632
msgid ""
"<xref linkend=\"basics-concept-disk-model\"/> shows a conceptual model of a "
"disk layout."
@@ -11403,7 +11126,7 @@ msgstr ""
"對您有些幫助。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7755
+#: book.translate.xml:7635
msgid ""
"When installing FreeBSD, configure the disk slices, create partitions within "
"the slice to be used for FreeBSD, create a file system or swap space in each "
@@ -11414,44 +11137,44 @@ msgstr ""
"哪裡。"
#. (itstool) path: table/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7761
+#: book.translate.xml:7641
msgid "Disk Device Names"
msgstr "磁碟裝置名稱"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7769
+#: book.translate.xml:7649
msgid "Drive Type"
msgstr "磁碟機類型"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7770
+#: book.translate.xml:7650
msgid "Drive Device Name"
msgstr "磁碟機裝置稱"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7776
+#: book.translate.xml:7656
msgid "<acronym>SATA</acronym> and <acronym>IDE</acronym> hard drives"
msgstr "<acronym>SATA</acronym> 及 <acronym>IDE</acronym> 硬碟"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7778
+#: book.translate.xml:7658
msgid "<literal>ada</literal> or <literal>ad</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>ada</literal> 或 <literal>ad</literal>"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7783
+#: book.translate.xml:7663
msgid ""
"<acronym>SCSI</acronym> hard drives and <acronym>USB</acronym> storage "
"devices"
msgstr "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> 硬碟與 <acronym>USB</acronym> 儲存裝置"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7785
+#: book.translate.xml:7665
msgid "<literal>da</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7789
+#: book.translate.xml:7669
msgid ""
"<acronym>SATA</acronym> and <acronym>IDE</acronym> <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> "
"drives"
@@ -11460,37 +11183,37 @@ msgstr ""
"光碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7791
+#: book.translate.xml:7671
msgid "<literal>cd</literal> or <literal>acd</literal>"
msgstr "<literal>cd</literal> 或 <literal>acd</literal>"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7796
+#: book.translate.xml:7676
msgid "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> drives"
msgstr "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> 光碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7798
+#: book.translate.xml:7678
msgid "<literal>cd</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7802
+#: book.translate.xml:7682
msgid "Floppy drives"
msgstr "軟碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7803
+#: book.translate.xml:7683
msgid "<literal>fd</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7807
+#: book.translate.xml:7687
msgid "Assorted non-standard <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> drives"
msgstr "各種非標準 <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> 光碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7809
+#: book.translate.xml:7689
msgid ""
"<literal>mcd</literal> for Mitsumi <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> and "
"<literal>scd</literal> for Sony <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> devices"
@@ -11499,32 +11222,32 @@ msgstr ""
"<literal>scd</literal> 代表 Sony <acronym>CD-ROM</acronym> 光碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7815
+#: book.translate.xml:7695
msgid "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> tape drives"
msgstr "<acronym>SCSI</acronym> 磁帶機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7816
+#: book.translate.xml:7696
msgid "<literal>sa</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7820
+#: book.translate.xml:7700
msgid "<acronym>IDE</acronym> tape drives"
msgstr "<acronym>IDE</acronym> 磁帶機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7821
+#: book.translate.xml:7701
msgid "<literal>ast</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7825
+#: book.translate.xml:7705
msgid "RAID drives"
msgstr "RAID 磁碟機"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7826
+#: book.translate.xml:7706
msgid ""
"Examples include <literal>aacd</literal> for <trademark class=\"registered"
"\">Adaptec</trademark> AdvancedRAID, <literal>mlxd</literal> and "
@@ -11543,27 +11266,27 @@ msgstr ""
"trademark> RAID."
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7838
+#: book.translate.xml:7718
msgid "Sample Disk, Slice, and Partition Names"
msgstr "磁碟、切割區及分區命名範例"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7847
+#: book.translate.xml:7727
msgid "Name"
msgstr "名稱"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7848 book.translate.xml:62722
+#: book.translate.xml:7728 book.translate.xml:61583
msgid "Meaning"
msgstr "意義"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7854
+#: book.translate.xml:7734
msgid "<literal>ada0s1a</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7855
+#: book.translate.xml:7735
msgid ""
"The first partition (<literal>a</literal>) on the first slice (<literal>s1</"
"literal>) on the first <acronym>SATA</acronym> disk (<literal>ada0</"
@@ -11573,12 +11296,12 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>)的第一個分區(<literal>a</literal>) 。"
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7862
+#: book.translate.xml:7742
msgid "<literal>da1s2e</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: row/entry
-#: book.translate.xml:7863
+#: book.translate.xml:7743
msgid ""
"The fifth partition (<literal>e</literal>) on the second slice (<literal>s2</"
"literal>) on the second SCSI disk (<literal>da1</literal>)."
@@ -11587,12 +11310,12 @@ msgstr ""
"literal>) 的第五個分區 (<literal>e</literal>) 。"
#. (itstool) path: example/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7873
+#: book.translate.xml:7753
msgid "Conceptual Model of a Disk"
msgstr "磁碟的概念模型"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7875
+#: book.translate.xml:7755
msgid ""
"This diagram shows FreeBSD's view of the first <acronym>SATA</acronym> disk "
"attached to the system. Assume that the disk is 250 GB in size, and contains "
@@ -11611,7 +11334,7 @@ msgstr ""
"裝了 FreeBSD。 本範例中安裝的 FreeBSD 有四個資料分區及一個交換分區。"
#. (itstool) path: example/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7885
+#: book.translate.xml:7765
msgid ""
"The four partitions each hold a file system. Partition <literal>a</literal> "
"is used for the root file system, <literal>d</literal> for <filename>/var/</"
@@ -11631,18 +11354,18 @@ msgstr ""
#. the file changes, the md5 hash will change to let you know you need to
#. update your localized copy. The msgstr is not used at all. Set it to
#. whatever you like once you have updated your copy of the file.
-#: book.translate.xml:7895
+#: book.translate.xml:7775
msgctxt "_"
msgid "external ref='basics/disk-layout' md5='__failed__'"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7902
+#: book.translate.xml:7782
msgid "Mounting and Unmounting File Systems"
msgstr "掛載與卸載檔案系統"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7904
+#: book.translate.xml:7784
msgid ""
"The file system is best visualized as a tree, rooted, as it were, at "
"<filename>/</filename>. <filename>/dev</filename>, <filename>/usr</"
@@ -11655,12 +11378,12 @@ msgstr ""
"些樹枝上面又還有分支,像是 <filename>/usr/local</filename> 等。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7913
+#: book.translate.xml:7793
msgid "<primary>root file system</primary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7917
+#: book.translate.xml:7797
msgid ""
"There are various reasons to house some of these directories on separate "
"file systems. <filename>/var</filename> contains the directories "
@@ -11676,7 +11399,7 @@ msgstr ""
"filename> 中拉出來。"
#. (itstool) path: sect1/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7928
+#: book.translate.xml:7808
msgid ""
"Another common reason to contain certain directory trees on other file "
"systems is if they are to be housed on separate physical disks, or are "
@@ -11688,18 +11411,18 @@ msgstr ""
"\"network-nfs\"/> 或是光碟機。"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/title
-#: book.translate.xml:7935
+#: book.translate.xml:7815
msgid "The <filename>fstab</filename> File"
msgstr "<filename>fstab</filename> 檔"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/indexterm
-#: book.translate.xml:7937
+#: book.translate.xml:7817
msgid ""
"<primary>file systems</primary> <secondary>mounted with fstab</secondary>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: sect2/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7942
+#: book.translate.xml:7822
msgid ""
"During the boot process (<xref linkend=\"boot\"/>), file systems listed in "
"<filename>/etc/fstab</filename> are automatically mounted except for the "
@@ -11711,39 +11434,39 @@ msgstr ""
"<option>noauto</option> 參數)。檔案內容的格式如下:"
#. (itstool) path: sect2/programlisting
-#: book.translate.xml:7948
+#: book.translate.xml:7828
#, no-wrap
msgid "<replaceable>device</replaceable> <replaceable>/mount-point</replaceable> <replaceable>fstype</replaceable> <replaceable>options</replaceable> <replaceable>dumpfreq</replaceable> <replaceable>passno</replaceable>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7952
+#: book.translate.xml:7832
msgid "<literal>device</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7954
+#: book.translate.xml:7834
msgid ""
"An existing device name as explained in <xref linkend=\"disks-naming\"/>."
msgstr "已存在的裝置名稱,詳情請參閱 <xref linkend=\"disks-naming\"/>。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7960
+#: book.translate.xml:7840
msgid "<literal>mount-point</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstool) path: listitem/para
-#: book.translate.xml:7963
+#: book.translate.xml:7843
msgid "An existing directory on which to mount the file system."
msgstr "檔案系統要掛載到的目錄 (該目錄必須存在)。"
#. (itstool) path: varlistentry/term
-#: book.translate.xml:7969
+#: book.translate.xml:7849
msgid "<literal>fstype</literal>"
msgstr ""
#. (itstoo