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authorRuey-Cherng Yu <rcyu@FreeBSD.org>2017-11-06 15:59:24 +0000
committerRuey-Cherng Yu <rcyu@FreeBSD.org>2017-11-06 15:59:24 +0000
commit7bfc4f45b5df1ebe3c2830466f990e607f21e063 (patch)
tree45e0fa49866867085fc02bdfc757137ed9303539 /zh_TW.UTF-8
parented2bf6cccbb517256efbfae7da6118bc95db049b (diff)
downloaddoc-7bfc4f45b5df1ebe3c2830466f990e607f21e063.tar.gz
doc-7bfc4f45b5df1ebe3c2830466f990e607f21e063.zip
- Traditional Chinese translation of FAQ Chapter 1 with PO translation.
- Move some useful old translation strings to PO transltion.
Notes
Notes: svn path=/head/; revision=51182
Diffstat (limited to 'zh_TW.UTF-8')
-rw-r--r--zh_TW.UTF-8/books/faq/book.xml17110
-rw-r--r--zh_TW.UTF-8/books/faq/zh_TW.po7553
2 files changed, 14176 insertions, 10487 deletions
diff --git a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/faq/book.xml b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/faq/book.xml
index 331d6f5653..505ff6977d 100644
--- a/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/faq/book.xml
+++ b/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/faq/book.xml
@@ -1,11876 +1,8012 @@
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
-<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V4.5-Based Extension//EN"
- "../../../share/xml/freebsd45.dtd" [
+<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook XML V5.0-Based Extension//EN" "http://www.FreeBSD.org/XML/share/xml/freebsd50.dtd" [
<!ENTITY bibliography SYSTEM "../../../share/xml/bibliography.xml">
+<!ENTITY rel.numbranch "3">
+<!-- number of branches that follow in this list --><!ENTITY rel.head "<emphasis xmlns='http://docbook.org/ns/docbook'>12-CURRENT</emphasis>">
+<!ENTITY rel.head.relx "12.<replaceable xmlns='http://docbook.org/ns/docbook'>X</replaceable>">
+<!ENTITY rel.head.releng "<symbol xmlns='http://docbook.org/ns/docbook'>head/</symbol>">
+<!ENTITY rel.relx "11.<replaceable xmlns='http://docbook.org/ns/docbook'>X</replaceable>">
+<!ENTITY rel.stable "<emphasis xmlns='http://docbook.org/ns/docbook'>11-STABLE</emphasis>">
+<!ENTITY rel.releng "<symbol xmlns='http://docbook.org/ns/docbook'>stable/11/</symbol>">
+<!ENTITY rel.relengdate "April 2016">
+<!ENTITY rel2.relx "10.<replaceable xmlns='http://docbook.org/ns/docbook'>X</replaceable>">
+<!ENTITY rel2.stable "<emphasis xmlns='http://docbook.org/ns/docbook'>10-STABLE</emphasis>">
+<!ENTITY rel2.releng "<symbol xmlns='http://docbook.org/ns/docbook'>stable/10/</symbol>">
+<!ENTITY rel2.relengdate "August 2015">
]>
-
-<!-- The FreeBSD Traditional Chinese Documentation Project -->
-<!-- Original Revision: 1.772 -->
-
-<book lang='zh_tw'>
- <bookinfo>
- <title>FreeBSD 5.X、6.X 常見問答集</title>
-
- <corpauthor>FreeBSD 文件計畫</corpauthor>
-
- <copyright>
- <year>1995</year>
- <year>1996</year>
- <year>1997</year>
- <year>1998</year>
- <year>1999</year>
- <year>2000</year>
- <year>2001</year>
- <year>2002</year>
- <year>2003</year>
- <year>2004</year>
- <year>2005</year>
- <year>2006</year>
- <year>2007</year>
- <year>2008</year>
- <holder>FreeBSD 文件計畫</holder>
- </copyright>
-
- &legalnotice;
-
- <legalnotice id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
- &tm-attrib.freebsd;
- &tm-attrib.3com;
- &tm-attrib.adobe;
- &tm-attrib.creative;
- &tm-attrib.cvsup;
- &tm-attrib.ibm;
- &tm-attrib.ieee;
- &tm-attrib.intel;
- &tm-attrib.iomega;
- &tm-attrib.linux;
- &tm-attrib.microsoft;
- &tm-attrib.mips;
- &tm-attrib.netscape;
- &tm-attrib.opengroup;
- &tm-attrib.oracle;
- &tm-attrib.sgi;
- &tm-attrib.sparc;
- &tm-attrib.sun;
- &tm-attrib.usrobotics;
- &tm-attrib.xfree86;
- &tm-attrib.general;
+<book xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xmlns:its="http://www.w3.org/2005/11/its" version="5.0" xml:lang="zh_TW">
+ <info>
+ <title>FreeBSD 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and 11.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 常見問答集</title>
+
+ <author><orgname>FreeBSD 文件計畫</orgname></author>
+
+ <copyright><year>1995</year> <year>1996</year> <year>1997</year> <year>1998</year> <year>1999</year> <year>2000</year> <year>2001</year> <year>2002</year> <year>2003</year> <year>2004</year> <year>2005</year> <year>2006</year> <year>2007</year> <year>2008</year> <year>2009</year> <year>2010</year> <year>2011</year> <year>2012</year> <year>2013</year> <year>2014</year> <year>2015</year> <year>2016</year> <year>2017</year> <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder></copyright>
+
+
+<legalnotice xml:id="legalnotice">
+ <title>版權所有</title>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Redistribution and use in source (XML DocBook) and 'compiled'
+ forms (XML, HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
+ modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
+ met:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Redistributions of source code (XML DocBook) must retain the
+ above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
+ disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
+ converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must
+ reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and
+ the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other
+ materials provided with the distribution.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <important>
+ <para xml:lang="en">THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION
+ PROJECT "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING,
+ BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND
+ FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL
+ THE FREEBSD DOCUMENTATION PROJECT BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
+ INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING,
+ BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS
+ OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
+ ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR
+ TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE
+ USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH
+ DAMAGE.</para>
+ </important>
+</legalnotice>
+
+
+ <legalnotice xml:id="trademarks" role="trademarks">
+ <para>FreeBSD 是 FreeBSD基金會的註冊商標。</para>
+ <para>Adobe, Acrobat, Acrobat Reader, 以及 PostScript 是 Adobe Systems Incorporated 在美國和/或其他國家的商標或註冊商標。</para>
+ <para>IBM, AIX, OS/2, PowerPC, PS/2, S/390, 和 ThinkPad 是 國際商用機器公司在美國和其他國家的註冊商標或商標。</para>
+ <para>IEEE, POSIX, 和 802 是 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. 在美國的註冊商標。</para>
+ <para>Intel, Celeron, Centrino, Core, EtherExpress, i386, i486, Itanium, Pentium, 和 Xeon 是 Intel Corporation 及其分支機構在美國和其他國家的商標或註冊商標。</para>
+ <para>Linux 是 Linus Torvalds 的註冊商標。</para>
+ <para>Microsoft, IntelliMouse, MS-DOS, Outlook, Windows, Windows Media, 和 Windows NT 是 Microsoft Corporation 在美國和/或其他國家的商標或註冊商標。</para>
+ <para>NetBSD 是 NetBSD基金會的註冊商標。</para>
+ <para>Motif, OSF/1, and UNIX are registered trademarks and IT DialTone and The Open Group 是 The Open Group 在美國和其他國家的商標。</para>
+ <para>Silicon Graphics, SGI, 和 OpenGL 是 Silicon Graphics, Inc. 在美國和/或其他國家的註冊商標。</para>
+ <para>Sun, Sun Microsystems, Java, Java Virtual Machine, JDK, JRE, JSP, JVM, Netra, OpenJDK, Solaris, StarOffice, SunOS and VirtualBox 是 Sun Microsystems, Inc. 在美國和其他國家的註冊商標。</para>
+ <para>許多製造商和經銷商使用一些稱為商標的圖案或文字設計來彰顯自己的產品。 本文中出現的眾多商標,以及 FreeBSD Project 本身廣所人知的商標,後面將以<quote>™</quote> 或 <quote>®</quote> 符號來標註。</para>
</legalnotice>
<releaseinfo>$FreeBSD$</releaseinfo>
<abstract>
- <para>這份文件是 FreeBSD 5.X 及 6.X 的常見問答集。
- 除非有特別加註,否則這些項目都適用於 FreeBSD 5.0 及以後的版本。
- (如果條目內容中有 &lt;XXX&gt; 則是尚未完成中譯的部份。)
- 如果您對協助本文件/翻譯計畫的進行有興趣的話,請寄 e-mail 到
- &a.doc;。此外,隨時可從 <ulink
- url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/index.html">
- FreeBSD 網站</ulink> 拿到這份文件的最新版本。
- 也可以利用 HTTP 來下載一份龐大的 <ulink url="book.html">HTML</ulink>
- 文件,或是經由 <ulink url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/">
- FreeBSD FTP 站</ulink> 下載純文字、&postscript;、或 PDF 版本的檔案。
- 您也可以在這裡使用 <ulink
- url="&url.base;/search/search.html">搜尋資料</ulink> 的功能。</para>
- </abstract>
- </bookinfo>
-
- <chapter id="introduction">
- <chapterinfo>
- <author>
- <firstname>Ying-Chieh</firstname>
- <surname>Liao</surname>
- <affiliation>
- <address><email>ijliao@FreeBSD.org</email></address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </chapterinfo>
-
- <title>前言、一般問題</title>
-
- <para>歡迎使用 FreeBSD 4.X-6.X FAQ!</para>
+ <para>這份文件是 FreeBSD 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 和 11.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 常見問答集 ( <acronym>(FAQ)</acronym> )。我們盡可能地讓這份 <acronym>FAQ</acronym> 提供有用的資訊 ; 如果您有任何改善建議,請寄到 <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-doc">FreeBSD 文件計畫郵件論壇</link>。</para>
- <para>跟其他 Usenet 上的 FAQ 一樣,這份文件涵蓋了有關 FreeBSD
- 這套作業系統最常被問到的問題 (當然包括了回答!)。
- 雖然說我們本來的目的是為了減少網路頻寬的浪費,
- 以及避免同樣的問題一再出現,但事實上 FAQ
- 已被公認為是值得閱讀的文件資源。</para>
+ <para>The latest version of this document is always available from the <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/index.html">FreeBSD website</link>. </para>
+ </abstract>
+ </info>
- <para>我們已經儘可能地使這份 FAQ 更豐富了。如果您對如何改善、
- 進步方面有任何建議,請隨時寄電子郵件給 &a.doc;。</para>
+ <chapter xml:id="introduction">
+ <title>前言</title>
<qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="what-is-FreeBSD">
- <para>什麼是 FreeBSD?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>簡單地來說,FreeBSD 是一套可以在 Alpha/AXP, AMD64 及
- &intel; EM64T, &i386; IA-64, PC-98, &ultrasparc; 上執行的
- UN*X-like 作業系統,它是根據 U.C. Berkeley 所開發出來的
- <quote>4.4BSD-Lite</quote>,並加上了許多 <quote>4.4BSD-Lite2</quote>
- 的增強功能。它同時也間接使用了 U.C. Berkeley 所開發出來並由
- William Jolitz 移植到 i386 的 <quote>Net/2</quote>,也就是
- <quote>386BSD</quote>,
- 不過現在 386BSD 的程式碼只剩下極少數還留存在 FreeBSD 中。
- 您可以在 <ulink url="&url.base;/index.html">FreeBSD 首頁
- </ulink> 找到 FreeBSD 以及它可以幫您做些什麼的相關資訊。</para>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 已被廣泛地被世界各地的公司行號、ISP、研究人員、
- 電腦專家、學生,以及家庭用戶所使用,用在工作、教育以及娛樂上。</para>
-
- <para>如果想看關於 FreeBSD 更深入的資料,請看
- <ulink url="&url.books.handbook;/index.html">FreeBSD 使用手冊
- </ulink>。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="FreeBSD-goals">
- <para>發展 FreeBSD 的目的是什麼?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 計畫的目的是提供可以任意使用且沒有限制的軟體。
- 我們在程式碼 (以及計晝本身) 上付出了大量心血,
- 當然不會介意來點金錢上的回饋,不過我們絕對不會如此堅持。
- 我們相信我們首要的<quote>任務</quote>
- 就是提供程式碼給每一個使用者,
- 不管他們打算用來幹嘛;這麼一來,
- 這些程式碼才能被用在最多地方,也才能發揮它們最大的效益。
- 我們相信這就是自由軟體最基本的目標之一,
- 而且我們會盡全力去支持它。</para>
-
- <para>在我們 source tree 中有部份的程式碼是採用所謂的 <ulink
- url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/COPYING">GPL</ulink> 或是
- <ulink url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/COPYING.LIB">LGPL
- </ulink> 版權宣告,
- 雖然這些版權宣告是用來保障而非限制使用者的權利,
- 畢竟是不那麼自由了些。
- 由於這些 GPL 的軟體在商業使用上會引起非常複雜的版權問題,
- 因此只要有機會,我們會盡量以採用比較寬鬆的
- <ulink url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">
- FreeBSD 版權</ulink>的軟體來取代這些 GPL 版權宣告的軟體。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="bsd-license-restrictions">
- <para>FreeBSD 版權有任何限制嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>有的。但是這並不是限制你怎麼去使用這些程式碼,而是你怎麼看待
- FreeBSD 這個計畫。如果你有版權焦慮症的話,請閱讀<ulink
- url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">
- 版權本文</ulink>。簡單地來說,這份版權的重點可以條列如下。</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>請勿宣稱是您寫了這個程式。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>如果它出問題了,不要控告我們。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="replace-current-OS">
- <para>FreeBSD 可以取代我現在在用的作業系統嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>對大部份的人來說是這樣沒錯,
- 但事實上這問題並沒有這麼好回答。</para>
-
- <para>大部份的人並不是真正在使用一個作業系統。
- 他們使用的是應用程式;而那些應用程式才是真正用到作業系統的東西。
- FreeBSD 是設計用來提供一個強韌且功能完整的作業環境給應用程式來執行。
- 它支援了多種瀏覽器,辦公室套件軟體,電子郵件閱讀軟體,繪圖程式,
- 程式設計環境,網路伺服器軟體,以及幾乎所有你想要的東西。
- 大部份的程式都可以靠 <ulink
- url="http://www.freebsd.org/ports/">Ports Collection</ulink>
- 來管理。</para>
-
- <para>但是如果你想要使用的應用程式只能在某個特定的作業系統上面執行
- 的話,你就不能輕易地把它換掉,或者指望在 FreeBSD 上有很相似的應用
- 程式才有機會。如果你想要的是一個強健的辦公室或是網路伺服器,或是
- 一部穩定的工作站,或是想在不被中斷的環境下工作的話,FreeBSD 無疑
- 是您的最佳選擇。世界各地有很多使用者,包括初學或資深的 &unix; 管理
- 人員都選用 FreeBSD 當他們唯一的桌上作業系統。</para>
-
- <para>如果你是從其他的 &unix; 環境轉換到 FreeBSD 的話,
- 基本上是大同小異的。但是如果你之前用的是圖形界面的作業系統,
- 例如說是 &windows; 或是比較古老的 &macos; 的話,
- 可能就要多花一點時間來學習怎麼用 &unix; 的方式來做。
- 你可以從這份 FAQ 和 <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/index.html">
- FreeBSD 使用手冊</ulink> 來入門。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="why-called-FreeBSD">
- <para>為什麼要叫做 FreeBSD?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="what-is-FreeBSD">
+ <para>什麼是 FreeBSD?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>您可以免費使用它,即使是用於商業用途。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <answer>
+ <para>FreeBSD 是一個使用於桌機、筆電、伺服器與嵌入式系統平台的現代作業系統,支援多種<link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/platforms/">平台</link>。</para>
- <listitem>
- <para>整個 FreeBSD 作業系統完整的原始程式都可以免費取得,而且不
- 管是在使用,散佈或是整合進其他程式等各方面也只受到最小的限
- 制 (不論是否用於商業用途)。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <para>它是根據 U.C. Berkeley 所開發出來的 <quote>4.4BSD-Lite</quote> ,並加上了許多 <quote>4.4BSD-Lite2</quote> 的增強功能。它同時也間接使用了 U.C. Berkeley 所開發出來並由 William Jolitz 移植到 <trademark>i386</trademark> 的 <quote>Net/2</quote>,也就是 <quote>386BSD</quote>,不過現在 386BSD 的程式碼只剩下極少數還留 存在 FreeBSD 中。</para>
- <listitem>
- <para>任何人都可以自由地把他對系統的改良或錯誤修正的程式碼加入
- source tree 之中 (當然要符合幾個先決條件)。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
+ <para>FreeBSD 已被廣泛地被世界各地的公司行號、ISP、研究人員、電腦 專家、學生,以及家庭用戶所使用,用在工作、教育以及娛樂上。</para>
- <para>特別值得注意的是這裡的 <quote>free</quote> 出現了兩次,而且它們
- 的意思是不一樣的:一種代表 <quote>免費</quote>,另一種代表
- <quote>自由</quote>。您可以拿 FreeBSD 去做任何您想要做的事,除了一些
- <emphasis>例外</emphasis>,例如您宣稱 FreeBSD 是您寫的。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para>如果想看關於 FreeBSD 更深入的資料,請看 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/index.html">FreeBSD 使用手冊</link>。</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="differences-to-other-bsds">
- <para>FreeBSD 及 NetBSD, OpenBSD 以及其他
- open source BSD 作業系統之間有何不同之處呢?</para>
+ <question xml:id="FreeBSD-goals">
+ <para>發展 FreeBSD 計畫的目的是什麼?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>James Howard 在 <ulink url="http://www.daemonnews.org/">
- DaemonNews</ulink> 上面寫了 <ulink
- url="http://ezine.daemonnews.org/200104/bsd_family.html">
- The BSD Family Tree</ulink> 的文件,裡面說明了這些歷史淵源及這些
- *BSD 家族計畫之間的差異。</para>
+ <para>FreeBSD 計畫的目的是提供可以任意使用且沒有限制的穩定快速與一般用途的作業系統。</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="latest-version">
- <para>最新版的 FreeBSD 是那一版?</para>
- </question>
-
-<!--
- This answer is a hack to deal with the fact that for now there are
- multiple "latest" versions of FreeBSD.
- 這個有點難以回答,事實上 FreeBSD 有許多種類的『最新版』。
--->
+ <question xml:id="bsd-license-restrictions">
+ <para>FreeBSD 版權有任何限制嗎?</para>
+ </question>
<answer>
- <para>就 FreeBSD 目前的發展而言,有兩個主要發展分支:
- 由 <emphasis>5-STABLE</emphasis> 所發行(release)的 5.X 系列、
- 由 <emphasis>6-STABLE</emphasis> 所發行(release)的 6.X
- 系列這兩個分支。</para>
-
- <para>在 5.3 release 之前,4.X 系列仍屬
- <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> 分支。
- 自從 5.3 開始,5.X 系列開始規劃新的
- <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> 分支發展重點,
- 而 4.X 將只著重在重大問題上(比如:漏洞修補、安全維護)
- 以及所謂的 &quot;extended support&quot;
- ,不再會有新的突破性發展。另一方面,5-STABLE
- 分支雖然仍將繼續發行,但是由於它只是 “legacy” 過渡期分支,
- 所以大多數主力都已轉移到 6-STABLE 繼續開發。</para>
-
-<!-- note: the entity definitions are out of date -->
- <para>於 &rel.current.date; 所發行的 <ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel.current;-RELEASE">&rel.current;</ulink>
- 版是目前最新的 <emphasis>6-STABLE</emphasis> 分支;
- 而於 &rel2.current.date; 所發行的 <ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel2.current;-RELEASE/">&rel2.current;</ulink>
- 版則是目前最新的 <emphasis>5-STABLE</emphasis> 分支。</para>
-
- <para>簡單地來說,<emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> 的主要訴求對象是對於
- 穩定性及低變異性的需求遠勝過對最新 <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis>
- snapshot 中特別新功能的需求,例如 ISP 或公司行號的使用者。這兩個
- branch 都有可能會產生 release 版,但只有當你能接受
- <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> 遠比 <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>
- 容易更動這一點,才應該用 <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis>。</para>
-
- <para>Release 版<link linkend="release-freq">每幾個月</link>才會發
- 行一次。雖然如此,有很多人和 FreeBSD 原始碼同步更新(詳見
- <link linkend="current">&os.current;</link> 和 <link
- linkend="stable">&os.stable;</link> 的相關問題),但因為原始碼
- 是一直不斷地在變動的,所以如果要這麼做的話得要花上更多的精
- 力。</para>
-
- <para>其他更多相關 FreeBSD 發行情報,可由 FreeBSD 網站上的 <ulink
- url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releng/index.html">
- Release Engineering</ulink> 得知。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="current">
- <para>什麼是 &os.current;?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para><ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/cutting-edge.html#CURRENT">
- &os.current;</ulink> 指的是正在發展中的作業系統版本,
- 它終將在適當的時機成為 &os.stable; 分支。
- 它實在是只適合給系統發展者以及有毅力的業餘愛好者使用。
- 如果想要得到有關如何使用 -CURRENT 的深入資訊,請參考 <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/index.html">使用手冊</ulink> 的 <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/cutting-edge.html#CURRENT">相關部份
- </ulink>。</para>
-
- <para>如果您對作業系統本身並不是很熟悉,或是您沒辦法分辨您遇到的問
- 題是真的發生了問題亦或是暫時性的小狀況,那麼您就不應該使用
- &os.current;。這個分支的程式碼有時候變動得很快,而且可能會因此
- 而使您有好幾天的時間無法更新您的系統。我們假設使用
- &os.current; 的使用者都有能力去分析他們所遇到的問題並且只回報
- 真正的問題而非<quote>小狀況</quote>。如果您在 -CURRENT mailing
- list 中提到類似<quote>make world 造成一些有關 groups 的錯
- 誤</quote>之類的問題的話,也許會被其他人輕視。</para>
-
- <para>我們每天都會根據目前 -CURRENT 和 -STABLE 的狀況對這兩個分支各
- 發行一個 <ulink url="&url.base;/snapshots/">snapshot
- </ulink> 版。有的時候甚至還會發行可供取得的版本。發表這些 snapshot
- 的目的在於:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>測試最新版的安裝程式。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>提供一個簡單的方法給那些喜歡使用 -CURRENT 或是 -STABLE,
- 但是沒有時間和頻寬去每天昇級的使用者。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>為了替我們發展中的程式保留一個固定的參考點,以防止我們未
- 來造成不幸。(雖然一般而言 CVS 可以防止類似這種的可怕事件 :)
- </para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>為了確保所有需要測試的新功能都可以得到最多的測試。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>我們不對 -CURRENT snapshot 做任何形式的<quote>品質保
- 證</quote>。如果你想要的是一個穩定且經過充分測試過的系統的話,
- 最好選擇使用完整 release 的版本,或是使用 -STABLE snapshots。</para>
-
- <para>您可以直接從 <ulink
- url="&url.base;/snapshots/">
- snapshots</ulink> 處取得 -CURRENT 的
- snapshot release。</para>
-
- <para>對每個有在活動的分支而言,平均每天都會產生一次 snapshots。
- </para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="stable">
- <para>什麼是 &os.stable;?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>回溯到 FreeBSD 2.0.5 剛發表的時候,我們決定把 FreeBSD 的發展
- 分成兩支。一支叫做 <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/current-stable.html#STABLE">-STABLE
- </ulink>,我們只對它做錯誤修正及小幅度的修改 (這是給 ISP
- 和商業公司等,對實驗中功能不感興趣的單位所使用的)。
- 另外一支叫做 <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/current-stable.html#CURRENT">-CURRENT
- </ulink>,從 2.0 版發行以後,就不斷地朝著 6.2-RELEASE
- (含後續的版本)前進著。</para>
-
- <para>6-STABLE 分支是從 6.0-RELEASE 開始 (5-STABLE 分支算是
- 5.3-RELEASE 之後才開始的),然後原本的 &os.current;
- 就會成為 7-CURRENT。</para>
-
-
- <para>2.2-STABLE 這個分支隨著 2.2.8 的發表而功成身退。3-STABLE 這個
- 分支則是結束在 3.5.1 發表之後,它也是 3.X 的最後一次發表。之後除了
- 安全漏洞的後續修正之外,這些分支就幾乎沒有再更動過。 而
- 5-STABLE 分支的支援將仍持續一段時間,
- 但主要焦點僅在於安全方面的漏洞、臭蟲及其他嚴重問題的修補。</para>
-
- <para>6-STABLE 是目前正在發展中的 -STABLE 分支。 6-STABLE
- 的最新的一次發表是在 &rel.current.date; 發行的
- &rel.current;-RELEASE。</para>
-
- <para>7-CURRENT 這個分支是 &os; 的 -CURRENT 分支,
- 仍然不斷地在發展當中。 如果想要知道更多關於這個分支的資訊的話,
- 請參考 <link
- linkend="current">什麼是 &os;-CURRENT?</link>。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="naming">
- <para>FreeBSD 版本命名原則是什麼呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>您可能會看到以下幾種 FreeBSD 的版本名稱:</para>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>1) 4.4.2-RELEASE、4.4-BETA:最前面的數字 A.B.C 裡,
- A 表示主要的作業系統版本(Major),
- B 表示次要的作業系統版本(Minor),
- C 表示些微修正版本(Patch)。 後面的英文表示是否為正式版,
- 通常是測試版(ALPHA、BETA、GAMMA)、正式版(RELEASE)。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>2) 6.0-STABLE、7.0-CURRENT:
- 通常 FreeBSD 會有一個以發展新功能為主的版本,稱為 -CURRENT
- ,目前 CURRENT 版本是 7.0; FreeBSD
- 也會有一個以維護穩定性及系統安全為主的版本,稱為 -STABLE,
- 目前 STABLE 的版本是 6.0。 雖然如此,並不代表 -STABLE
- 就沒有新功能,也不代表 _CURRENT 就不穩定不安全,
- 這兩個版本是相輔相成的,而且終有一天 7.0-CURRENT
- 會變成 7.0-STABLE,而開始 8.0-CURRENT 的發展。 不過一般來說,
- 由於 -CURRENT 系統開發的速度相當快,跟 -STABLE
- 相比較不穩定,而且最好是有相當經驗的使用者才來使用。
- 如果是商業環境或是伺服器站台,最好還是跑 -STABLE 與
- -RELEASE 比較好。 由於 -STABLE 與 -CURRENT
- 都是一直在開發維護中的版本,
- 因此沒有一個特定的數字版本可以稱呼,
- 因此通常我們會以編譯日期來代表是哪個時候的 -STABLE 或 -CURRENT
- ,例如「4.4-STABLE、編譯日期 2001/10/08」。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem><para>
-3) 5.0-011025-SNAP、4.2-010816-RELENG:
- SNAP 與 RELENG 並不是正式發行的版本,其中 3.0-970625-SNAP 表示是
- 在 2001 年 10 月 25 日發行的 5.0 測試版(SNAPshot),通常是指 CURRENT
- 的版本。而 4.2-010816-RELENG 表示是在 2001 年 8 月 16 日發行的
- 4.2 非正式的穩定版,通常是指 STABLE 的版本。
- 通常 FreeBSD 核心小組會不定時釋出 SNAP 以供測試,然後有一天 SNAP
- 會變成 ALPHA->BETA->GAMMA,再來是 RELEASE,而後可能會有不定時的
- RELENG 以供測試使用,但是 RELENG 的穩定性通常又比前期的 RELEASE
- 來的好。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
-<para>
-您要是習慣微軟的術語,這樣說好了,SNAP 是開發期間的內部流出版,
-那個日期(011025)就是Build Number,而 ALPHA 與 BETA 是搶鮮版,
-RELEASE(RELENG 勉強也算)是正式版,這樣應該了解了吧。
-</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="release-freq">
- <para>每次新的 FreeBSD 將於什麼時候推出?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>一般而言,&a.re; 平均每四個月發行一次 release,每次新版本的發表時程都會事先公告,
- 相關的開發人員就會知道,什麼時候該先把手邊的計劃完成並且測試過,
- 此外,這些更動都已經完整地測試過,且不會影響系統穩定度。
- 雖然,等這些好東西進入 -STABLE 的時間令人等得有些不耐煩,
- 但是大多數的使用者都認為這種謹慎的態度是 FreeBSD 最好的優點之一。</para>
-
- <para>有關發行情報的更多細節部分(包括 release 的行程表、進度),都可在 FreeBSD 網站上的
- <ulink url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releng/index.html">發行情報</ulink> 上面獲得。</para>
-
- <para>為了滿足那些需要 (或想要) 新鮮刺激感的使用者,
- 上面(-CURRENT的部分)已經提到我們每天都會發行 snapshots 版可供使用。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="responsible">
- <para>誰負責 FreeBSD 的發展?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>如果是一些有關 FreeBSD 計畫的關鍵性決定,像是整個計畫的走向
- 或是決定誰可以改 source tree 裡的程式碼這類的事,是由一個由 9 個
- 人所組成的 <ulink
- url="&url.articles.contributors;/article.html#STAFF-CORE">core
- team</ulink> 來決定。而有另一群超過 300 個人的 <ulink
- url="&url.articles.contributors;/article.html#STAFF-COMMITTERS">
- commiters</ulink> 有權利可以直接修改 FreeBSD 的 source tree。
- </para>
-
- <para>無論如何,大多數的改變都會事前在 <link linkend="mailing">
- mailing lists</link> 先討論過,而且不分角色,每個人都可以參與討論。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="where-get">
- <para>我要如何取得 FreeBSD?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>每個 FreeBSD 的重要版本都可以經由匿名 ftp 從 <ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">FreeBSD FTP 站</ulink>取得:</para>
+ <para>有的。但是這並不是限制你怎麼去使用這些程式碼,而是你怎麼看待 FreeBSD 這個計畫。可以在此閱讀 <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html"> 版權本文</link>,簡單來說總結如下:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>如果需要 6-STABLE 的最新版,也就是 &rel.current;-RELEASE,請到 <ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel.current;-RELEASE/">&rel.current;-RELEASE </ulink>這個目錄</para>
+ <para>請勿宣稱是您寫了這個程式。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para><ulink url="ftp://current.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">7-CURRENT Snapshot</ulink>
- 通常也是每天都會做一份,這是從 <link linkend="current">-CURRENT</link> 分支做出來的,
- 主要是為了提供給那些熱心的測試者和開發人員。</para>
+ <para>如果它出問題了,不要控告我們。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>如果需要 5-STABLE 的最新版,也就是 &rel2.current;-RELEASE,請到 <ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel2.current;-RELEASE/">&rel2.current;-RELEASE </ulink>這個目錄</para>
+ <para>不要移除和修改版權</para>
</listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink
- url="ftp://current.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/snapshots/">5.X、6X snapshots</ulink>
- 通常每天都會做一份。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
+ <para>我們許多人在這個計畫投入很多心血,並不會介意獲得一些財務上的報酬,但是我們並沒有堅持一定要有。我們相信我們首要的<quote>任務</quote>是將程式碼提供給所有使用者,無論他們有任何的目的,這麼一來,這些程式碼才能被用在最多地方,也才能發揮它們最大的利益。我們相信這就是自由軟體最基本的目標之一,而且我們會盡全力去支持它。</para>
- <para>FreeBSD 的 CD、DVD,還有其他取得方式可以在 <ulink url="&url.books.handbook;/mirrors.html">使用手冊</ulink> 中找到解答。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para>在我們 source tree 中有部份的程式碼是採用所謂的<link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/COPYING">GNU General Public License (GPL)</link> 或 <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/COPYING.LIB">GNU Library General Public License (LGPL)</link>版權宣告,雖然這些版權宣告是用來保障而非限制使用者的權 利,畢竟是不那麼自由了些。由於這些 GPL 的軟體在商業使用上會引起 非常複雜的版權問題,因此只要有機會,我們會盡量以採用比較鬆的 <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">FreeBSD 版權</link> 的軟體來取代這些 GPL 版權宣告的軟體。</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="access-pr">
- <para>我要如何去查詢、提交問題回報(Problem Report,簡稱PR)資料庫呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>所有使用者的變更要求都可以經由網頁介面的
- <ulink url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/query-pr-summary.cgi?query">
- PR查詢介面</ulink> 來察看 (或是回報) 我們的錯誤回報資料庫。</para>
+ <question xml:id="replace-current-OS">
+ <para>FreeBSD 可以取代我現在在用的作業系統嗎?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>也可以使用 &man.send-pr.1; 這個指令透過電子郵件來回報問題、要求變更。
- 或者是經由 <ulink url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/send-pr.html">網頁介面的 PR</ulink> 來送出問題回報。</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para>對大部份的人來說是這樣沒錯,但事實上這問題並沒有這麼好回答。</para>
- <para>然而,在您回報問題之前,請先閱讀 <ulink
- url="&url.articles.problem-reports;/article.html">如何撰寫
- FreeBSD 的問題回報單</ulink>,這是一篇告訴你怎樣才能寫出一篇真正有用的
- 問題回報單。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <para>大部份的人並不是真正在使用一個作業系統。他們使用的是應用程式 ;而那些應用程式才是真正用到作業系統的東西。FreeBSD 是設計用來提供一個強韌且功能完整的作業環境給應用程式來執行。它支援了多種瀏覽器,辦公室套件軟體,電子郵件閱讀軟體,繪圖程式,程式設計環境,網路伺服器軟體,以及幾乎所有你想要的東西。大部份的程式都可以靠 <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/">Ports Collection</link> 來管理。</para>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="other-info-sources">
- <para>還有其他有關 FreeBSD 的資訊嗎?</para>
- </question>
+ <para>但是如果你想要使用的應用程式只能在某個特定的作業系統上面執行 的話,你就不能輕易地把它換掉,或者指望在 FreeBSD 上有很相似的應用程式才有機會。如果你想要的是一個強健的辦公室或是網路伺服器,或是一部穩定的工作站,FreeBSD 無疑是您的最佳選擇。世界各地有很多使用者,包括初學或資深的 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 管理人員都選用 FreeBSD 當他們唯一的桌上作業系統。</para>
- <answer>
- <para>詳見 <ulink
- url="http://www.FreeBSD.org">FreeBSD</ulink> 網站上的 <ulink
- url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/docs.html">文件</ulink> 列表。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para>如果你是從其他的 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>-like 環境轉換到 FreeBSD 的話會很熟悉。 <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 或是 <trademark class="registered">Mac OS</trademark> 的使用者可能會對 <link xlink:href="https://www.trueos.org">TrueOS</link> 有興趣,他是基於 FreeBSD 的一個桌面環境發行版,非<trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 使用者可能就要多花一點時間來學習怎麼用 <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> 的 方法來做事。你可以從這份 <acronym>FAQ</acronym> 和 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/index.html">FreeBSD 使用手冊</link> 來入門。</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
- </qandaset>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="support">
- <chapterinfo>
- <author>
- <firstname>Chin-San</firstname>
- <surname>Huang</surname>
- <affiliation>
- <address><email>chinsan.tw@gmail.com</email></address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </chapterinfo>
-
- <title>文件與技術支援</title>
- <qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="books">
- <para>關於 FreeBSD 有哪些好書可以推薦閱讀的嗎?</para>
+ <question xml:id="why-called-FreeBSD">
+ <para>為什麼要叫做 FreeBSD?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 文件計畫已陸續發表了相當廣泛範圍的文件,可在 <ulink
- url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/docs.html"></ulink> 取得。另外,
- FreeBSD 本身的 manual(一般通稱的man)、doc也如同套件軟體一樣,可以輕鬆地裝在您系統上。
- </para>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>您可以免費使用它,即使是用於商業用途。</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>整個 FreeBSD 作業系統完整的原始程式都可以免費取得,而且不管是在使用,散佈或是整合進其他程式等各方面也只受到最小的限制 (不論是否用於商業用途)。</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>任何人都可以自由地把他對系統的改良或錯誤修正的程式碼加入 source tree 之中 (當然要符合幾個先決條件)。</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
- <para>此外,也建議參閱本份 FAQ 最後所列的參考書目表(Bibliography)與 FreeBSD 使用手冊。
- </para>
+ <para>特別值得注意的是這裡的 “free” 出現了兩次,而且它們 的意思是不一樣的:一種代表 “免費”,另一種代表 “自由”。您可以拿 FreeBSD 去做任何您想要做的事,除了一些例外,例如您宣稱 FreeBSD 是您寫的。</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="doc-formats">
- <para>這些文件有其他格式的嗎?像是:純文字(ASCII)或 &postscript; 之類的格式?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>有的。這些文件都分別以不同格式儲存以及壓縮處理,放在
- FTP 上面,可以從各 FreeBSD FTP 站的 <ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/">/pub/FreeBSD/doc/</ulink>
- 目錄內找到你要的。</para>
-
- <para>文件的分類方面主要是一些不同性質所組成:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>文件名稱,比如:<literal>faq(常見問答集)</literal>或是
- <literal>handbook(FreeBSD 使用手冊)</literal>等等。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>各國翻譯的的文件:這主要是由 locale 名稱來決定的
- (不清楚的話,可參考您的 FreeBSD 作業系統上的 <filename>/usr/share/locale</filename>)
- 目前文件總共有下列幾種語言(及編碼)有翻譯:</para>
-
- <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>Locale 名稱</entry>
-
- <entry>說明(所代表的語系、編碼)</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry><literal>en_US.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>
-
- <entry>美式英文(US English)</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry><literal>de_DE.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>
+ <question xml:id="differences-to-other-bsds">
+ <para>FreeBSD 及 NetBSD, OpenBSD 以及其他 open source BSD 作業系統之間有何不同之處呢?</para>
+ </question>
- <entry>德文(German)</entry>
- </row>
+ <answer>
+ <para>James Howard 寫了一篇關於不同計畫的差異和歷史淵源的好文章叫 <link xlink:href="http://www.freebsdworld.gr/freebsd/bsd-family-tree.html">The BSD Family Tree</link> 可以回答這個問題。雖然有些資訊有點過時,但是關於歷史淵源的部份仍是相當正確的。</para>
- <row>
- <entry><literal>es_ES.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>
+ <para>時至今日,大部分的 BSD 家族仍是共用修補和程式碼的。這些 BSD 家族有著共同的祖先。</para>
- <entry>西班牙文(Spanish)</entry>
- </row>
+ <para> FreeBSD 的設計目的如 <xref linkend="FreeBSD-goals"/> 所述。其他 BSD 家族的設計目的如下所述:</para>
- <row>
- <entry><literal>fr_FR.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>OpenBSD 目標在作業系統的安全性。OpenBSD團隊寫的 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ssh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> 和 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> 都移植到了 FreeBSD。</para>
+ </listitem>
- <entry>法文(French)</entry>
- </row>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>NetBSD 目標在易於移植到其他的硬體平台。</para>
+ </listitem>
- <row>
- <entry><literal>it_IT.ISO8859-15</literal></entry>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>DragonFly BSD 是 FreeBSD 4.8 的一個分支,發展出許多有趣的特色,包括 HAMMER 檔案系統和支援 <quote>vkernels</quote> 使用者模式。</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <entry>義大利文(Italian)</entry>
- </row>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="latest-version">
+ <para>最新版的 FreeBSD 是那一版?</para>
+ </question>
- <row>
- <entry><literal>ja_JP.eucJP</literal></entry>
+ <answer>
+ <para>在 FreeBSD 開發的任何時間點,都有多個平行的分支。11.<replaceable>X</replaceable> releases 是從 <emphasis>11-STABLE</emphasis> 分支而來,而 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> releases 是從 <emphasis>10-STABLE</emphasis> 分支而來。</para>
- <entry>日文(Japanese,編碼方式:EUC)</entry>
- </row>
+ <para>在 9.0 之前,10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 系列仍屬 <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>分支。 然而從12.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 發行開始,10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> 將只著重在重大問題上(比如:漏洞修補、安全維護)以及所謂的 <quote>extended support</quote> 。</para>
- <row>
- <entry><literal>ru_RU.KOI8-R</literal></entry>
+ <para>於 2017年七月所發行的 <link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/i386/11.1-RELEASE/">11.1</link> 是目前最新的 <emphasis>11-STABLE</emphasis> 分支。 於 2017年十月所發行的 <link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/10.4-RELEASE/">10.4</link>是目前最新的 <emphasis>10-STABLE</emphasis> 分支。</para>
- <entry>俄文(Russian,編碼方式:KOI8-R)</entry>
- </row>
+ <para>Releases 版 <link linkend="release-freq">每幾個月</link> 才會發行一次。 雖然如此,有很多人和 FreeBSD 原始碼同步更新 (詳見 <link linkend="current">FreeBSD-CURRENT</link> 和 <link linkend="stable">FreeBSD-STABLE</link>的相關問題) ,但因為原始碼是一直不斷地在變動的,所以如果要這麼做的話得要花上更多的精力。</para>
- <row>
- <entry><literal>zh_CN.GB2312</literal></entry>
-
- <entry>簡體中文(Simplified Chinese,編碼方式:GB2312)</entry>
- </row>
+ <para>其他更多相關 FreeBSD 發行情報,可由 FreeBSD 網站上的 <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/releng/index.html#release-build">Release Engineering 頁面</link> 和 <citerefentry><refentrytitle>release</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>得知。</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <row>
- <entry><literal>zh_TW.UTF-8</literal></entry>
-
- <entry>正體中文(Traditional Chinese,編碼方式:UTF-8)</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
-
- <note>
- <para>上列的各國翻譯語系文件中,並非所有文件都有翻譯。</para>
- </note>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>文件的格式:每份文件都以各種不同格式儲存,每種格式都各有好壞,
- 有些格式適合線上閱讀,而有些則適合列印出美觀的文件。
- 我們都提供這些不同格式的文件,來確保無論是螢幕上、列印紙本,每個人都可以正常地閱讀內容,
- 目前可供使用的格式如下:</para>
-
- <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>格式</entry>
-
- <entry>說明</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry><literal>html-split</literal></entry>
-
- <entry>章節模式</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry><literal>html</literal></entry>
-
- <entry>完整模式</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry><literal>pdb</literal></entry>
-
- <entry>Palm Pilot 資料格式,使用
- <ulink url="http://www.iSilo.com/">iSilo</ulink>
- 程式來閱讀</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry><literal>pdf</literal></entry>
-
- <entry>Adobe's PDF 格式</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry><literal>ps</literal></entry>
-
- <entry>&postscript; 格式</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry><literal>rtf</literal></entry>
-
- <entry>Microsoft's RTF格式<footnote>
- <para>當使用 MS Word 來開啟 RTF 格式的話,頁數顯示並不會自動更新。
- (在開啟文件後,要按 <keycombo
- action="simul"><keycap>CTRL</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo>,
- <keycombo
- action="simul"><keycap>CTRL</keycap><keycap>END</keycap></keycombo>,
- <keycap>F9</keycap>,這樣子才會更新頁數的顯示。)</para>
- </footnote>
- </entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry><literal>txt</literal></entry>
-
- <entry>純文字(ASCII)</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>文件的壓縮、打包方式:目前有三種方式:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>當採用
- <literal>章節模式(html-split)</literal>,章節模式所產生的各檔案會先使用
- &man.tar.1; 來壓縮。檔名結尾有 <filename>.tar</filename> 的檔案就是 tar 格式。
- 接著,會再以下列方式再壓縮。
- </para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>其他格式的檔案都會是單一檔案,檔名通常會是:
- <filename>book.<replaceable>格式</replaceable></filename>
- (舉例: <filename>book.pdb</filename>,
- <filename>book.html</filename> 等等..後面通常加上『.格式』).</para>
- <para>而這些檔案會分別以兩種壓縮型態進行壓縮,而存成兩種壓縮型態。</para>
-
- <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>格式</entry>
-
- <entry>說明</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry><literal>zip</literal></entry>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="current">
+ <para>什麼是 <emphasis>FreeBSD-CURRENT</emphasis>?</para>
+ </question>
- <entry>Zip 格式,若要在 FreeBSD 上解壓 zip 檔,則必須先安裝
- <filename role="package">chinese/unzip</filename> 或
- <filename role="package">archivers/unzip</filename>。
- </entry>
- </row>
+ <answer>
+ <para><link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/current-stable.html#current">FreeBSD-CURRENT</link> 指的是正在發展中的作業系統版本,它終將在適當的時機成為 FreeBSD-STABLE 分支。它實在是只適合給系統發展者以及有毅力的業餘愛好者使用 。如果想要得到有關如何使用<emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis>的深入資訊,請參考<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/index.html">使用手冊</link>的<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/current-stable.html#current">相關部份</link>。</para>
- <row>
- <entry><literal>bz2</literal></entry>
+ <para>如果您對 FreeBSD 本身並不是很熟悉那麼您就不應該使用FreeBSD-CURRENT。 這個分支的程式碼有時候變動得很快,而且可能會因此 而使您有好幾天的時間無法更新您的系統。我們假設使用 FreeBSD-CURRENT 的使用者都有能力去分析他們所遇到的問題,除錯,並且回報問題。</para>
- <entry>BZip2 格式,雖然不如 zip 格式的廣泛使用,但是好處在於可壓縮成更小的檔案。
- 要解壓 bz2 格式的話,需先安裝 <filename role="package">archivers/bzip2
- </filename>。</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
+ <para>我們每天都會根據目前 <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> 和 <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> 的狀況對這兩個分支各發行一個 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/snapshots/">snapshot</link> 版。發表這些 snapshot 的目的在於:</para>
- <para>所以像是 Handbook 的 &postscript; 版格式,會以 BZip2 格式壓縮,
- 存放在 <filename>handbook/</filename> 目錄內,
- 檔名就是<filename>book.ps.bz2</filename>。</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>選擇想要下載的文件格式與壓縮型態之後,則要決定是否以 FreeBSD <emphasis>套件(package)</emphasis>
- 型態來下載。</para>
-
- <para>下載、安裝『package』的好處在於:可以透過一般 FreeBSD
- 套件管理方式來進行管理,比如 &man.pkg.add.1; 及
- &man.pkg.delete.1;。</para>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>測試最新版的安裝程式。</para>
+ </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>提供一個簡單的方法給那些喜歡使用 <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> 或是 <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> 但是沒有時間和頻寬去每天昇級的使用者。</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para>若決定好要下載、安裝『package』的話,必須要確認所要下載的檔名。
- 文件計畫的套件(package)通常是放在是 <filename>packages</filename> 的目錄內,
- 每個文件計畫的套件檔名通常是:
- <filename><replaceable>文件名稱</replaceable>.<replaceable>語系</replaceable>.<replaceable>編碼</replaceable>.<replaceable>格式</replaceable>.tgz</filename>
- 。</para>
-
- <para>舉個例子,英文版的 FAQ (格式選擇 PDF)在 package 就叫做
- <filename>faq.en_US.ISO8859-1.pdf.tgz</filename>。</para>
-
- <para>再舉個例子,中文版的 FAQ (格式選擇 PDF)在 package 就叫做
- <filename>faq.zh_TW.UTF-8.pdf.tgz</filename>。</para>
-
- <para>知道這點之後,就可以用下面指令來安裝中文版 FAQ 套件:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg_add ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/packages/faq.zh_TW.UTF-8.pdf.tgz</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>完成之後,可以用 &man.pkg.info.1; 來找出檔案裝在哪邊:</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>為了替我們發展中的程式保留一個固定的參考點,以防止我們未來不幸搞砸了。(雖然一般而言 Subversion 可以防止類似這種的可怕事件)</para>
+ </listitem>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg_info -f faq.zh_TW.UTF-8.pdf</userinput>
-Information for faq.zh_TW.UTF-8.pdf:
+ <listitem>
+ <para>為了確保所有需要測試的新功能或修正都可以得到最多的測試。</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
-Packing list:
- Package name: faq.zh_TW.UTF-8.pdf
- CWD to /usr/share/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/faq
-File: book.pdf
- CWD to .
-File: +COMMENT (ignored)
-File: +DESC (ignored)</screen>
+ <para>我們不對 <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> snapshot 做任何目的的 <quote>品質保證</quote> 。如果你想要的是一個穩定且經過充分測試過的系統的話, 最好選擇使用完整 releases.</para>
- <para>如同您所看到的 <filename>book.pdf</filename> 會被安裝到
- <filename>/usr/share/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/faq</filename> 內。</para>
+ <para>您可以直接從 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/snapshots/">snapshot</link> 取得 -CURRENT 的 snapshot release。</para>
- <para>若不想用 package 方式安裝,那麼就需手動下載、解壓縮、複製到你想要擺放的位置去。</para>
+ <para>對每個有在活動的分支而言,都會定期產生一次 snapshots。</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <para>舉例,章節模式(split HTML)版的英文 FAQ (壓縮為 &man.bzip2.1;)會放在
- <filename>doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/book.html-split.tar.bz2</filename>
- 要下載、解壓的話,則要打:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>fetch ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/book.html-split.tar.bz2</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>bzip2 -d book.html-split.tar.bz2</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>tar xvf book.html-split.tar</userinput></screen>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="stable">
+ <para>什麼是 <emphasis>FreeBSD-STABLE</emphasis> ?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>這時你會看到一堆 <filename>.html</filename> 的檔案,
- 主要的目錄檔為 <filename>index.html</filename>
- 內含主目錄及連結到其他文件。(若有需要的話,也可以複製或搬移這些檔案到同一目錄下)</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <answer>
+ <para>回溯到 FreeBSD 2.0.5 剛發表的時候,我們決定把 FreeBSD 的發展 分成兩支。一支叫做 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/current-stable.html#stable">-STABLE</link>,另一支叫 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/current-stable.html#current">-CURRENT</link>。主要發行版是由<emphasis>FreeBSD-STABLE</emphasis> 這個開發分支而來。他的變動較慢,而且一般來說假設他們都已經先在FreeBSD-CURRENT測試過了。然而在任何時候,FreeBSD-STABLE的原始碼仍有可能不一定適合一般用途,因為他可能包含在 FreeBSD-CURRENT 沒有發現到的錯誤。沒有能力和資源的使用者應該改使用 FreeBSD 正式發行版。<emphasis>FreeBSD-CURRENT</emphasis> 從2.0開始就是另一個分支,一直到11.1-RELEASE和之後的版本都還是。更多關於開發分支的資訊請見 <quote><link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/release-proc.html#rel-branch">FreeBSD Release Engineering: Creating the Release Branch</link></quote> ,分支的開發狀態和接下來的發行計畫時間表可以在 <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/releng">Release Engineering 資訊</link> 找到。</para>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="mailing">
- <para>哪裡有關於 FreeBSD 的郵遞論壇(mailing lists)呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <para>11.1-STABLE 是目前正在發展中的 <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> 分支。最新的 11.1-STABLE 是在 2017年七月發行的 11.1-RELEASE。</para>
- <answer>
- <para>這個問題,可以從 FreeBSD 使用手冊上面的 <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/eresources.html#ERESOURCES-MAIL">郵遞論壇(mailing-lists)</ulink>
- 部分獲得答案。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="newsgroups">
- <para>有哪些可以使用的 FreeBSD 新聞群組(news groups)呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>這答案可以從 FreeBSD 使用手冊上面的 <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/eresources-news.html">新聞群組(newsgroups)</ulink>
- 部分獲得答案。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para><emphasis>12-CURRENT</emphasis> 這個分支是 FreeBSD 的 <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> 分支,仍然不斷地在發展當中。 如果想要知道更多關於這個分支的資訊的話,請參考 <link linkend="current">什麼是 FreeBSD-CURRENT?</link> 。</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="man">
- <para>在文件中常看到類似 "pf(4)"、"pfctl(8)" 等這些字樣代表什麼意思呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>這表示 man 的章節,系統上一般有八個章節:</para>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>1->generl commands</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>2->system calls and error numbers </para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>3->C libraries</para>
- </listitem>
+ <question xml:id="release-freq">
+ <para>每次新的 FreeBSD 將於什麼時候推出?</para>
+ </question>
- <listitem>
- <para>4->devices and device drivers</para>
- </listitem>
+ <answer>
+ <para>一般而言,Release Engineering Team <email>re@FreeBSD.org</email> 約每18個月發行一次主要發行版本,約平均每8個月發行一次次要發行版本。每次新版本的發表時程都會事先公告, 相關的開發人員就會知道,什麼時候該先把手邊的計劃完成並且測試過, 此外,這些更動都已經完整地測試過,確保新功能不會影響系統的穩定度。 雖然,等這些好東西進入<emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> 的時間令人等得有些不耐煩, 但是大多數的使用者都認為這種謹慎的態度是 FreeBSD 最好的優點之一。</para>
- <listitem>
- <para>5->file formats</para>
- </listitem>
+ <para>有關發行情報的更多細節部分(包括 release 的行程表、進度),都可在 FreeBSD 網站上的 <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/releng/index.html">發行情報</link> 上面獲得。</para>
- <listitem>
- <para>6->games</para>
- </listitem>
+ <para>為了滿足那些需要 (或想要) 新鮮刺激感的使用者, 上面已經提到我們每周都會發行 snapshots 版可供使用。</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <listitem>
- <para>7->miscellaneous information pages</para>
- </listitem>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="responsible">
+ <para>誰負責 FreeBSD 的發展?</para>
+ </question>
- <listitem>
- <para>8->system maintenance and operation commands</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
+ <answer>
+ <para>如果是一些有關 FreeBSD 計畫的關鍵性決定,像是整個計畫的走向 或是決定誰可以改 source tree 裡的程式碼這類的事,是由一個由 9 個 人所組成的 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/administration.html#t-core">core team</link> 來決定。而有另一群超過 350 個人的 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/article.html#staff-committers">committers</link> 有權利可以直接修改 FreeBSD 的 source tree。</para>
- <para>比如:pf(4) 就是指 <command>man 4 pf</command>。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para>無論如何,大多數的改變都會事前在 <link linkend="mailing">郵件論壇</link>先討論過,而且不分角色,每個人都可以參與討論。</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="irc">
- <para>有哪些 FreeBSD IRC (Internet Relay Chat)頻道呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>有的,大部分的 IRC 主機都有 FreeBSD 聊天頻道:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink url="http://www.efnet.org/index.php">EFNet</ulink> 的
- <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> 頻道是個 FreeBSD 論壇,
- 但可不適合那些想不勞而獲或者搬救兵用的。
- 這裡是聊天用的頻道,話題範圍甚至涉及『性、運動、核武』等,
- 請注意:我們已經警告過你了!本頻道可經由
- <hostid>irc.chat.org</hostid> 進入。</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink url="http://www.efnet.org/index.php">EFNet</ulink> 的
- <literal>#FreeBSDhelp</literal> 頻道乃是給 FreeBSD
- 使用者之間交流的,來這裡提問會比 <literal>#FreeBSD</literal>
- 好一些,當然請不要一股腦隨便亂問。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink url="http://www.dal.net/">DALNET</ulink> 的
- <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> 頻道,可由
- <hostid>irc.dal.net</hostid>(位於美國)及
- <hostid>irc.eu.dal.net</hostid>(位於歐洲)進入。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink url="http://www.dal.net/">DALNET</ulink> 的
- <literal>#FreeBSDHelp</literal> 頻道,可由
- <hostid>irc.dal.net</hostid>(位於美國)及
- <hostid>irc.eu.dal.net</hostid>(位於歐洲)進入。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink url="http://www.undernet.org/">UNDERNET</ulink> 的
- <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> 頻道,可由
- <hostid>us.undernet.org</hostid>(位於美國)及
- <hostid>eu.undernet.org</hostid>(位於歐洲)進入。
- 由於這是個輔助新手用的頻道,
- 請記得閱讀別人向你提及的連結或檔案。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="where-get">
+ <para>我要如何取得 FreeBSD?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para>每個 FreeBSD 的重要版本都可以經由匿名 FTP 從 <link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/"> FreeBSD FTP 站</link> 取得:</para>
+ <itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para><ulink url="http://www.rusnet.org.ru/">RUSNET</ulink> 的
- <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> 頻道是俄語國家的 &os; 使用者頻道。
- 這裡同時也是一般交流的討論好去處。</para>
+ <para>最新版 <emphasis>11-STABLE</emphasis> , 也就是 11.1-RELEASE 請到 <link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/i386/11.1-RELEASE/">11.1-RELEASE 這個目錄</link>。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para><ulink
- url="http://freenode.net/irc_servers.shtml">freebsd-gnome
- </ulink> 的 <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> 頻道,可由
- <hostid>irc.freenode.net</hostid> 進入,
- 這是 Gnome 的 &os; 使用者頻道。</para>
+ <para><link linkend="current">-CURRENT</link> 和 <link linkend="stable">-STABLE</link> 分支的<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/snapshots/">Snapshot</link>版本通常每個月會做一次, 主要是為了提供給那些熱心的測試者和開發人員。</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para><ulink url="http://freenode.net/irc_servers.shtml">freenode</ulink>
- 的 <literal>#bsdchat</literal> 頻道,可由
- <hostid>irc.freenode.net</hostid> 進入,
- 這是台灣的 &os; 使用者頻道。(UTF-8 編碼)</para>
+ <para>最新版 <emphasis>10-STABLE</emphasis> , 也就是10.4-RELEASE 請到 <link xlink:href="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/10.4-RELEASE/">10.4-RELEASE 這個目錄</link>。</para>
</listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
+ </itemizedlist>
- <para>上述每個頻道都不一樣,風格迥異而各具特色,且並沒有相連,
- 因此,你得多方嘗試才能找到適合自己的頻道。
- 而有些地方與所有的 IRC 文化類似,就是請注意自己言行是否恰當,
- 另外可能跟頻道內一些年輕/老一輩的會有些代溝需要適應,
- 總之請多保持禮貌。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para>FreeBSD 的 CD、DVD,還有其他取得方式可以在 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/zh_TW.UTF-8/books/handbook/mirrors.html">the Handbook</link> 中找到解答。</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="training">
- <para>可以從哪邊獲得 FreeBSD 的教育課程訓練及技術支援呢?</para>
+ <question xml:id="access-pr">
+ <para>我要如何去查詢、提交問題回報(Problem Report,簡稱PR)資料庫呢?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>DaemonNews 有專門提供 FreeBSD 的教育課程訓練及技術支援。
- 詳情請到 <ulink url="http://www.bsdmall.com/">BSD Mall</ulink>
- 察看,謝謝。</para>
-
- <para>FreeBSD Mall 有提供 BSD 技術支援付費服務,
- 詳情請到 <ulink
- url="http://www.freebsdmall.com/">FreeBSD Mall</ulink> 察看,謝謝。</para>
+ <para>所有使用者的變更要求都可以經由網頁版的 PR <link xlink:href="https://bugs.FreeBSD.org/search/">查詢</link> 界面來察看。</para>
+ <para>可以使用瀏覽器經由<link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/support/bugreports.html">網頁版的 PR 界面</link> 來傳送問題回報</para>
- <para>其他任何有提供教育課程訓練及技術支援的組織、單位,若也想列表於此的話,
- 請與 &a.doc; 聯絡,謝謝。</para>
+ <para>然而,在您回報問題之前,請先閱讀 <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/problem-reports/article.html">如何撰寫 FreeBSD 的問題回報單</link>,這是一篇告訴你怎樣才能寫出一篇真正有用的問題回報單。</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
</qandaset>
</chapter>
- <chapter
- id="install">
- <chapterinfo>
- <author>
- <firstname>Nik</firstname>
- <surname>Clayton</surname>
- <affiliation>
- <address><email>nik@FreeBSD.org</email></address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </chapterinfo>
-
- <title>安裝</title>
+ <chapter xml:id="support">
+ <title>文件與技術支援</title>
<qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="floppy-download">
- <para>若要用軟碟片開機來安裝 FreeBSD 的話,要下載哪些檔案呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>&os; 4.X 的話,需要兩個 image 檔:
- <filename>floppies/kernel.flp</filename> 及
- <filename>floppies/mfsroot.flp</filename>。image 檔必須用工具像是
- <command>fdimage</command> 或 &man.dd.1; 來傳送到磁片上。
- 若是在 &os; 5.3 (及之後版本)有重新規劃開機片架構,所以要抓的是
- <filename>floppies/boot.flp</filename> 以及 <filename>floppies/kern<replaceable>X</replaceable></filename>
- 檔案(目前 X 為 1 跟 2 兩個,加上 <filename>floppies/boot.flp</filename>,總共是 3 個檔案)。</para>
-
- <para>若想自己下載 distributions 的話(比如以 &ms-dos; 檔案系統格式安裝),
- 以下是建議要抓的 distributions :</para>
-
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>base/ (4.X 版本則為 bin/)</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>manpages/</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>compat*/</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>doc/</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>src/ssys.*</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
-
- <para>完整安裝步驟以及大部分的安裝問題,請參閱 FreeBSD 使用手冊的
- <ulink url="&url.books.handbook;/install.html">安裝 FreeBSD</ulink> 章節</para>
+ <question xml:id="books">
+ <para>名稱</para>
+ </question>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The project produces a wide range of documentation,
+ available online from this link: <uri xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/docs.html">https://www.FreeBSD.org/docs.html</uri>.
+ In addition, <link linkend="bibliography">the Bibliography</link> at the
+ end of this <acronym>FAQ</acronym>, and <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bibliography.html">the
+ one in the Handbook</link> reference other recommended
+ books.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="floppy-image-too-large">
- <para>若磁片裝不下 image 檔的話,該怎麼辦呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>一張 3.5 英吋(1.44MB) 的磁碟片是可以裝上 1474560 bytes 的資料
- ,而開機片的 image 檔案大小實際上也是 1474560 bytes。</para>
-
- <para>在製作開機片時,常見錯誤有:</para>
+ <question xml:id="doc-formats">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Is the documentation available in other formats, such
+ as plain text (ASCII), or <trademark class="registered">PostScript</trademark>?</para>
+ </question>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>使用 <acronym>FTP</acronym> 來下載檔案時,
- 未選擇 <emphasis>binary</emphasis> 傳輸模式來下載。</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yes. The documentation is available in a number of
+ different formats and compression schemes on the FreeBSD FTP
+ site, in the <link xlink:href="https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/">/pub/FreeBSD/doc/</link>
+ directory.</para>
+ <para>文件以幾種不同的方式分類。包括:</para>
- <para>有些 FTP client端程式,是預設將傳輸模式設定為
- <emphasis>ascii</emphasis> 模式,而且會修改接收到的檔案行尾字串為 client 端的作業系統方式
- ,比如 newline(&unix;格式) 到了作業系統為 &windows; 的 client 端會被改為 CR-LF(&ms-dos;格式),
- 這會使得 image 檔本身遭到修改而無法正常使用。因此,如果下載的 image
- 檔案大小若與 FTP 主機上面的檔案『<emphasis>不一致</emphasis>』
- 的話,請重新使用 binary 傳輸模式下載即可。</para>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>文件名稱,例如:<literal>faq</literal> (常見問答集)或是 <literal>handbook</literal> (FreeBSD 使用手冊)等等。</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para>FTP 指令: 進入 FTP 之後,打 <emphasis>binary</emphasis>
- 指令,即可切換到 binary 傳輸模式,然後再下載相關 image 檔案。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The document's language and encoding. These are
+ based on the locale names found under
+ <filename>/usr/share/locale</filename> on a FreeBSD
+ system. The current languages and encodings
+ are as follows:</para>
+
+ <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
+ <tgroup cols="2">
+ <thead>
+ <row>
+ <entry>Locale 名稱</entry>
- <listitem>
- <para>直接用 &ms-dos; 的 <command>copy</command> 指令(或類似
- 的 GUI 程式、或是視窗上直接複製)來複製開機用的 image 檔到磁片上。
- </para>
+ <entry>說明</entry>
+ </row>
+ </thead>
- <para>不可以用像是 <command>copy</command> 這類程式直接將 image
- 檔複製到磁片上,因為 image 檔本身包含了完整的磁軌資料,所以不能單純用複製方式,
- 而必須使用低階工具程式(像是 <command>fdimage</command> 或 <command>rawrite</command>),
- 以 <quote>raw</quote> 方式傳送到磁片上。(這部分可參閱 FreeBSD 使用手冊上的 <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/install.html">安裝 FreeBSD</ulink>)</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <tbody>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>en_US.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="install-instructions-location">
- <para>可以在哪邊找到安裝 FreeBSD 的解說步驟呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <entry>英文 (美國)</entry>
+ </row>
- <answer>
- <para>安裝步驟的解說,請參閱 FreeBSD 使用手冊上的
- <ulink url="&url.books.handbook;/install.html">安裝 FreeBSD</ulink> 章節部分。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>bn_BD.ISO10646-1</literal></entry>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="need-to-run">
- <para>要跑 FreeBSD 需要什麼的配備呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <entry>孟加拉文 (孟加拉)</entry>
+ </row>
- <answer>
- <para>&os; 4.X 之前的版本,硬體需求為 386 或更高級的 PC
- ,記憶體(RAM)至少要 5 MB 或更多,硬碟空間至少要 60 MB 或更多。
- 不過,&os; 『系統安裝程式』的記憶體(RAM)需求為至少 16 MB。</para>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>da_DK.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>
- <para>從 &os; 5.X 起,硬體需求為 486 或更高級的 PC
- ,記憶體(RAM)至少要 24 MB 或更多,硬碟空間至少要 150 MB 或更多。
- </para>
+ <entry>丹麥文 (丹麥)</entry>
+ </row>
- <para>&os; 的所有版本都可以只用低階的 MDA 規格顯示卡,不過...要跑 X11R6 視窗的話,
- 還是至少用 VGA 或更好規格的顯示卡來用吧。</para>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>de_DE.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>
- <para>這部分也可參閱 <xref linkend="hardware"/>。</para>
+ <entry>德文 (德國)</entry>
+ </row>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>el_GR.ISO8859-7</literal></entry>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="four-meg-ram-install">
- <para>我電腦 RAM 只有 4MB 而已,可以裝 FreeBSD 嗎?</para>
- </question>
+ <entry>希臘文 (希臘)</entry>
+ </row>
- <answer>
- <para>安裝 &os; 4.X 的記憶體需求為至少 5 MB ,而
- 安裝 &os; 5.X (含之後版本) 則是至少要 8 MB 。</para>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>es_ES.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>
- <para>在 5.X 之前的所有 &os; 版本,都可以只用 4 MB 的記憶體來
- <emphasis>『運作』</emphasis>,不過,前面那節我們說過了『系統安裝程式』的話,
- 則無法只用 4 MB 的記憶體來執行。因此,你可以先在『系統安裝程式』這步驟之前,
- 先將記憶體加到 16 MB 以上,安裝完 FreeBSD 之後,就可以把多餘的記憶體拿下來。
- 或者是,先把要安裝的硬碟拿到有足夠記憶體的機器上先裝好,
- 然後再把硬碟放回原機器。</para>
+ <entry>西班牙文 (西班牙)</entry>
+ </row>
- <para>此外,只用 4 MB 的記憶體來運作的話,必須要自製 kernel(拿掉不必要的以及犧牲一些東西)。
- 也有人成功只用 2 MB 的記憶體以 &os; 開機(雖然這樣的系統幾乎等於廢了..)</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>fr_FR.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="custom-boot-floppy">
- <para>要怎樣才能自行打造專用的開機、安裝磁片呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <entry>法文 (法國)</entry>
+ </row>
- <answer>
- <para>目前,還沒有辦法<emphasis>『只』</emphasis>自製專用的開機、安裝磁片。
- 必須透過自行打造完整作業系統的 release(發行),這樣裡面才會包括自己的開機、安裝磁片。</para>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>hu_HU.ISO8859-2</literal></entry>
- <para>若想自行打造、發行(release)一個完整的作業系統,請參閱這篇
- <ulink url="&url.articles.releng;/article.html">Release Engineering</ulink> 文章。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <entry>匈牙利文 (匈牙利)</entry>
+ </row>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="windows-coexist">
- <para>&windows; 可以與 FreeBSD 共存於電腦上嗎?</para>
- </question>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>it_IT.ISO8859-15</literal></entry>
- <answer>
- <para>先裝 &windows; 再裝 FreeBSD。
- 那麼 FreeBSD 多重開機管理員(boot manager)就會出現選單讓你選擇要以 &windows; 或
- FreeBSD 來開機。不過,若你是先裝 FreeBSD 再裝 &windows; 的話,
- 那麼 &windows; 將會不問先宰,把 FreeBSD 的多重開機管理員(boot manager)蓋掉,
- 當你遇上這種情況時,請參考下一節說明。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <entry>義大利文 (義大利)</entry>
+ </row>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="win95-damaged-boot-manager">
- <para>嗚.. &windows; 把我的多重開機管理員(boot manager)拿掉了!要怎麼救回來呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>ja_JP.eucJP</literal></entry>
- <answer>
- <para>可以用以下三種方式之一,來救回你的 FreeBSD 多重開機管理員(boot manager):</para>
+ <entry>日文 (日本, EUC encoding)</entry>
+ </row>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>可以從各 FreeBSD FTP 站的 <ulink url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/">/pub/FreeBSD/tools/</ulink>
- 找到 <filename>bootinst.exe</filename> 及 <filename>boot.bin</filename> 這兩個檔,
- 以 binary 傳輸模式下載後,複製到磁片上,再用 DOS 開機片開機,
- 接著打類似下面的指令:</para>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>mn_MN.UTF-8</literal></entry>
- <screen><prompt>&gt;</prompt> <userinput>bootinst.exe boot.bin</userinput></screen>
+ <entry>蒙古文 (蒙古, UTF-8 encoding)</entry>
+ </row>
- <para>這樣,多重開機管理員(boot manager)就會重裝完畢了。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>nl_NL.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>
- <listitem>
- <para>用 FreeBSD 開機片開機,然後選單那邊選 Custom installation(自訂安裝),
- 再選 Partition,接著選擇你要裝多重開機管理員(boot manager)的硬碟(通常是第一顆),
- 然後會出現 partition editor 的畫面,這時請不要做任何修改,直接按 W 儲存,
- 這時程式就會問是否要確定 Write ,最後出現 Boot Manager 選擇畫面,
- 記得要選 <quote>Boot Manager</quote> ,這樣就會重新將多重開機管理員(boot manager)
- 安裝到硬碟上。現在,就大功告成可以離開安裝選單並重開機了。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <entry>荷蘭文 (荷蘭)</entry>
+ </row>
- <listitem>
- <para>用 FreeBSD 開機片或是開機光碟開機,然後選單那邊選 <quote>Fixit</quote>
- ,或是以 Fixit 開機片或是光碟安裝的第二片(選擇 <quote>live</quote> filesystem
- 選項)然後就會進入 fixit shell 了,接著打下列指令:</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>Fixit#</prompt> <userinput>fdisk -B -b /boot/boot0 <replaceable>bootdevice</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <para>請將上面的 <replaceable>bootdevice</replaceable> 修改為您實際的開機硬碟代號
- 比如 <devicename>ad0</devicename> (第一顆 IDE 硬碟)
- ,或是<devicename>ad4</devicename> (first IDE disk on
- auxiliary controller), <devicename>da0</devicename> (第一顆
- SCSI 硬碟)等等。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="boot-on-thinkpad">
- <para>IBM Thinkpad A系列、T系列或 X系列的筆記型電腦裝完 FreeBSD 之後重開機,就當了,該怎麼辦呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>(本問題主要是發生在 2000 ~ 2001 四月間時)這些 IBM 機器上的 BIOS 早期版本有個臭蟲(bug)會把
- FreeBSD 分割區誤認為是 FAT 格式分割區,然後當 BIOS 試著偵測 FreeBSD 分割區時,就會當了。</para>
-
- <para>根據 IBM 方面的說法<footnote><para>一封來自 Keith
- Frechette 的 e-mail <email>kfrechet@us.ibm.com</email>。</para></footnote>
- ,以下型號/BIOS版本的機種,已經都有修正:</para>
-
- <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>型號</entry>
- <entry>BIOS 版本</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry>T20</entry>
- <entry>IYET49WW(含之後)</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>T21</entry>
- <entry>KZET22WW(含之後)</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>A20p</entry>
- <entry>IVET62WW(含之後)</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>A20m</entry>
- <entry>IWET54WW(含之後)</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>A21p</entry>
- <entry>KYET27WW(含之後)</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>A21m</entry>
- <entry>KXET24WW(含之後)</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>A21e</entry>
- <entry>KUET30WW</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
-
- <para>這些後期的 IBM BIOS 修訂版大多已經修正此一臭蟲。Jacques Vidrine 寫給 &a.mobile; 的
- <ulink url="http://docs.FreeBSD.org/cgi/mid.cgi?20010427133759.A71732">這封信
- </ulink> 上面說明了若你新的 IBM 筆記型電腦無法順利以 FreeBSD 開機的解法步驟
- (假設可以升級或降級 BIOS 版本的話)。</para>
-
- <para>如果機器用的是較古早版本的 BIOS,而且不適合更新 BIOS 的話,那麼以下我們會介紹暫時解法,
- 教你如何修改 FreeBSD 分割區所使用的 ID ,並安裝相關修補程式。</para>
-
- <para>First, you will need to restore the machine to a state where
- it can get through its self-test screen. Doing this requires
- powering up the machine without letting it find a FreeBSD
- partition on its primary disk. One way is to remove the hard disk
- and temporarily move it to an older ThinkPad (such as a ThinkPad
- 600) or a desktop PC with an appropriate conversion cable. Once
- it is there, you can delete the FreeBSD partition and move the hard
- disk back. The ThinkPad should now be in a bootable state
- again.</para>
-
- <para>With the machine functional again, you can use the workaround
- procedure described here to get a working FreeBSD
- installation.</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>從 <ulink url="http://people.FreeBSD.org/~bmah/ThinkPad/"></ulink>
- 來下載 <filename>boot1</filename> 及 <filename>boot2</filename> 這兩個檔。
- 把這兩個檔案放在磁片、光碟或其他硬碟上。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>以一般安裝 FreeBSD 裝到 ThinkPad 上,記得
- <emphasis>『不要用』</emphasis> <literal>Dangerously
- Dedicated</literal> 模式。 此外,<emphasis>『不要』</emphasis>
- 在完成安裝之後就重開機。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>進入 shell:(按 <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>ALT</keycap><keycap>F4</keycap></keycombo>)
- 切換到<quote>Emergency Holographic Shell</quote> 或是選單上面選擇
- <quote>fixit</quote> shell。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>用 &man.fdisk.8; 把 FreeBSD 分割區 ID 由 <literal>165</literal> 改為
- <literal>166</literal>(OpenBSD所使用的ID)。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>把剛剛提的 <filename>boot1</filename> 跟
- <filename>boot2</filename> 這兩個檔案放到目前的硬碟檔案系統上。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>以 &man.disklabel.8; 把 <filename>boot1</filename> 及
- <filename>boot2</filename> 存到你的 FreeBSD slice 上面。</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel -B -b boot1 -s boot2 ad0s<replaceable>n</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <para><replaceable>「n」</replaceable> 是你裝 FreeBSD 的 slice,
- 請將 <replaceable>「n」</replaceable> 改為符合你系統現況的 slice。</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>重開機,在 boot prompt 會看到有 <literal>OpenBSD</literal> 的選項,
- 選它,這樣就會以 FreeBSD 開機。</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
-
- <para>另外,至於如何讓 OpenBSD 及 FreeBSD 並存在同一台 IBM ThinkPad 上...
- 這個問題就交給各位看倌們去嘗試了 :p</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="install-bad-blocks">
- <para>有壞軌的硬碟可以拿來裝 FreeBSD 嘛?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>(如果很堅持的話)也是可以,不過這想法顯然不太明智。:(</para>
-
- <para>如果在一般較新的 IDE 硬碟上看到有壞軌,很有可能代表:這顆硬碟即將掛點了。
- (因為目前所有較新的 IDE 硬碟,內部都有自動 remapping 壞軌的能力。
- 如果看到有壞軌,則表示它內部自動 remapping 功能失效,無法處理壞軌,
- 也就是說這顆硬碟已經是嚴重損壞程度了。)我們建議買顆新硬碟比較乾脆些唷。</para>
-
- <para>如果是 SCSI 硬碟有壞軌的話,請試著參考這個
- <link linkend="awre">解法</link>。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="boot-floppy-strangeness">
- <para>用安裝磁片開機時,卻有些怪現象發生!這是什麼情況呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>若看到一些怪異現象,像是開機片開機開到一半就當了,磁碟機完全沒任何動作、
- 或是不斷反覆重開機,請先檢查以下幾個線索:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>請確定是否為全新、沒有磁軌錯誤的磁片?
- (最好使用新買的,而非雜誌、書本附贈的,甚至還放在床底下三年了...=_="")</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>請確定是否有用 binary(或image)傳輸模式來下載 image 檔?
- (不用覺得不好意思,即使是我們也曾意外以 ASCII 傳輸模式來下載 binary 檔案!)</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>若你是 &windows; 95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP/2003 來下載、製作開機磁片的話,
- 請確定是否有在 DOS 模式使用 <command>fdimage</command> 或
- <command>rawrite</command> 這兩個工具程式?剛講的這些作業系統,
- 都會影響程式去直接寫入硬體,像是製作開機片之類的動作。
- 有時候,在 GUI 介面上的 DOS shell 也可能會發生這樣的問題。
- </para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
-
- <para>此外,直接透過 &netscape; 瀏覽器下載 image 檔的話,也有類似現象。
- 所以,如果可以的話,請改用其他可以調整設定的 FTP client端程式來進行下載。
- (當然,要記得調 binary 傳輸模式)</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="no-install-cdrom">
- <para>用光碟開機片來安裝,但光碟開機後,安裝程式說找不到光碟...這是怎麼了?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>通常問題在於光碟機設定錯誤。目前很多電腦的出廠標準配備都有光碟機,並且
- 會預先設定為 IDE 通道上面 Secondary 的 Slave 設備,而 Secondary 上面的
- 卻沒有 Master 設備。以 ATAPI 的規格而言,這是錯誤的設定,然而 &windows; 的作法
- 是不理會這些規格上的設定問題,而且開機時 BIOS 偵測也會略過這點。
- 這也就是為什麼 BIOS 可以看到光碟,並且可用光碟開機,但 FreeBSD
- 無法正常抓到光碟以順利進行安裝。</para>
-
- <para>解法:重新設定系統,讓光碟成為它所連接那條 IDE 通道的 Master,
- 或者只有一條 IDE 通道的話,那就讓光碟機成為 Slave
- ,當然該 IDE 通道上至少要有 Master 設備。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="install-PLIP">
- <para>我可以用 PLIP(Parallel Line IP)方式來安裝 FreeBSD 到筆記型電腦上嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>可以,用一條普通的 Laplink 線就可以囉。若有這方面需求的話,請參閱 FreeBSD 使用手冊中的
- <ulink url="&url.books.handbook;/network-plip.html">PLIP
- 章節</ulink> 的細部設定</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>no_NO.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="geometry">
- <para>該用哪一種硬碟設定參數(geometry)呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <note>
- <para>這裡的『硬碟設定參數(geometry)』,指的是硬碟上的
- 「cylinders」、「heads」、「sectors/track」 這三個設定參數。
- 接下來的文章內,為了方便介紹,將簡稱為『C/H/S』。
- 這些設定參數是讓 PC 上的 BIOS 能順利地正常判別硬碟,
- 與硬碟本身讀寫的重要因素。</para>
- </note>
+ <entry>Norwegian (Norway)</entry>
+ </row>
- <para>對剛接手的系統管理者新手而言,這些設定參數常造成一些困擾。
- 首先,SCSI 硬碟上的 <emphasis>physical</emphasis> geometry
- 跟 FreeBSD 上的 disk blocks 是完全無關的。事實上,
- 就硬碟上磁區密度的變化而言,並沒有所謂『physical geometry』這種東西。
- 硬碟製造商所說的『physical geometry』通常是指:
- 硬碟上所使用最小空間來存放資料的設定參數(geometry)。
- 以 IDE 硬碟而言,FreeBSD 用以存取硬碟設定的方式是 C/H/S ,
- 然而,目前市面上的硬碟早就在內部運作時,就自動轉換為 block 方式
- 了。</para>
-
- <para>真正關鍵的地方,其實是在於 『<emphasis>logical</emphasis>
- geometry』— 這是 BIOS 偵測硬碟時所得到的設定,並且用來決定硬碟存取方式。
- 由於 FreeBSD 是採用 BIOS 的偵測設定值,所以如何來讓 BIOS 偵測到的設定值保持正確,
- 是十分重要。尤其是同一顆硬碟上有多個作業系統的情況,
- 它們都必須採用一致的硬碟設定參數(geometry),
- 否則就會有開機進不去作業系統的嚴重問題了。</para>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>pl_PL.ISO8859-2</literal></entry>
- <para>以 SCSI 硬碟而言,硬碟設定參數(geometry)是由 SCSI 卡上的
- extended translation(通常指的是有標示 <quote>support &gt;1GB</quote>(支援 1GB 以上容量,或類似名詞)
- 支援與否來作決定。
- 如果不支援,那麼就會採用 <replaceable>N</replaceable> cylinders、
- 64 heads、 32 sectors/track 作為硬碟設定參數(geometry),這裡講的『<replaceable>N</replaceable>』
- 是指硬碟的容量(單位:MB)。舉個例子來說,一顆 2GB 硬碟應該是
- 2048 cylinders、64 heads、32 sectors/track。</para>
-
- <para>如果該 SCSI 有支援使用 extended translation 的話,
- (通常這個方式在 &ms-dos; 使用上有某些限制),並且硬碟容量大於 1GB,
- 那麼硬碟設定參數(geometry)就會使用像是:
- M cylinders、255 heads、每磁軌 63 sectors(請注意:不是『64』哦),
- 這裡講的『<literal>M</literal>』是指硬碟的容量(單位:MB)再除以
- 7.844238 所得出的數值喔!所以,這個例子的話,同樣是 2GB 硬碟應該是
- 261 cylinders、255 heads、每磁軌 63 sectors。</para>
-
- <para>若對上面講的不瞭解,或是 FreeBSD 在安裝時所偵測到的硬碟設定參數(geometry)
- 有問題的話,最簡單的解法通常是在硬碟上建立一塊小小的 DOS 分割區(partition)。
- 這樣一來,就可以偵測到正確的硬碟設定參數了,而且,
- 如果不想繼續留著那小塊 DOS 分割區的話,可以隨時用 partition editor
- 來拿掉它。或者把它留著當作網路卡驅動程式使用,或隨你高興怎麼用它。</para>
-
- <para>此外呢,有個免費好用的工具程式叫做『<filename>pfdisk.exe</filename>』,
- 這個程式放在各 FreeBSD FTP 站或光碟的 <filename>tools</filename> 目錄下,
- 它可以用來找出硬碟上其他作業系統所使用的硬碟設定參數,
- 然後就可以在 partition editor 內輸入剛剛找到的那些設定參數就可以了。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="disk-divide-restrictions">
- <para>分割磁碟機時有任何限制嗎﹖</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>有,你必須確認你的 root 分割區是在 1024 cylinders 之內,讓
- BIOS 可以從其中啟動核心。(注意:這是 PC 的 BIOS 功能限制,而不
- 是 FreeBSD 的)</para>
+ <entry>波蘭文 (波蘭)</entry>
+ </row>
- <para>以 SCSI 硬碟而言,通常是把 <literal>root</literal> (<filename>/</filename>)
- 分割區放到硬碟最前面的 1024MB (如果有支援 extended translation 的話,
- 那麼是最前面的 4096MB — 這點請參考上一小節)。而 IDE 硬碟的話,相對應的則是 504MB。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>pt_BR.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="disk-manager">
- <para>可以使用哪些磁碟管理程式(disk managers)呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <entry>葡萄牙文 (巴西)</entry>
+ </row>
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 可以用 Ontrack Disk Manager 並且運作正常,
- 至於其他的 disk manager 則不在正式支援之列。</para>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>ru_RU.KOI8-R</literal></entry>
- <para>若整顆硬碟只裝 FreeBSD ,那麼就不用再裝 disk manager 了。
- 只要把硬碟設定為 BIOS 所能抓到的最大空間,那麼 FreeBSD 就可算出實際上可使用的空間了。
- 如果,正在使用的是古早 MFM 控制卡的舊式硬碟,
- 那麼就需要在 FreeBSD內作 cylinders 相關設定了。</para>
+ <entry>俄文 (俄羅斯, KOI8-R encoding)</entry>
+ </row>
- <para>如果想在磁碟上使用 FreeBSD 和另外的作業系統,也可以不裝 disk manager,
- 只要確定 FreeBSD 的啟動分割區跟其他作業系統的 slice 都位於開始的 1024 cylinders
- 內就可以了。如果你相當地高明的話,一個 20MB 的啟動分割區應該就夠用了。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>sr_YU.ISO8859-2</literal></entry>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="missing-os">
- <para>FreeBSD 安裝完畢後重開機,但是電腦卻說 <errorname>Missing Operating
- System</errorname>這是怎麼了?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>通常原因出在 FreeBSD 及 DOS 或其他作業系統在硬碟的 <link
- linkend="geometry">設定參數(geometry)</link>上的規劃有相衝。解法是重裝,但是請照
- 上述的相關章節步驟來做。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <entry>賽爾維亞文 (賽爾維亞)</entry>
+ </row>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="stop-at-boot-manager">
- <para>為什麼機器上多重開機管理員(boot manager)出現了 <prompt>F?</prompt> 這個選單畫面,
- 但卻不會自動跳過而繼續開機呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>tr_TR.ISO8859-9</literal></entry>
- <answer>
- <para>這個症狀是本文上面所提的另外一個問題了,原因在於 BIOS 上跟 FreeBSD
- 上面兩邊的硬碟的 <link linkend="geometry">設定參數(geometry)</link> 並不一致。
- 若你硬碟或 BIOS 支援 cylinder translation
- (通常會被標為 <quote>support &gt;1GB(支援 1 GB以上容量)</quote>的話,
- 試試看更改相關設定,並重裝 FreeBSD。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <entry>土耳其文 (土耳其)</entry>
+ </row>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="need-complete-sources">
- <para>安裝 FreeBSD 時,需要安裝完整的 sources 嗎?</para>
- </question>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>zh_CN.UTF-8</literal></entry>
- <answer>
- <para>一般來說,這是用不著的。然而,我們強烈建議您的 source 至少要裝
- <literal>base</literal>(包含了本文中所提的一些檔案)、以及
- <literal>sys</literal> (kernel 的 source 檔)。
- 雖然,作業系統本身運是不需要裝 source 檔,但是 &man.config.8; 這個 kernel設定程式則需要 src 。
- 若沒裝 kernel 的 source 檔,仍然可以用其他地方透過 NFS 掛載的唯讀檔案系統,
- 來編譯程式。
- 但由於 kernel-source 本身的限制,我們建議不要直接 mount 在 <filename>/usr/src</filename>,
- 最好是用 symbolic link(參閱 &man.ln.1;) 將掛載的路徑,設定連結到<filename>/usr/src</filename>
- 目錄。</para>
+ <entry>簡體中文 (中國, UTF-8 encoding)</entry>
+ </row>
- <para>在機器上直接裝有 source 並且瞭解相關編譯過程,這樣子日後升級
- FreeBSD 會來得方便多。</para>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>zh_TW.UTF-8</literal></entry>
- <para>若忘了裝相關 source 的話,可以事後用 <command>sysinstalll</command>
- (&os; 5.2 之前版本則是 <command>/stand/sysinstall</command>) 來補裝,選單:Configure → Distributions → src。
- </para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <entry>正體中文 (台灣, UTF-8 encoding)</entry>
+ </row>
+ </tbody>
+ </tgroup>
+ </informaltable>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="need-kernel">
- <para>需要重新 build kernel 嗎?</para>
- </question>
+ <note>
+ <para>上列的各國翻譯語系文件中,並非所有文件都有翻譯。</para>
+ </note>
+ </listitem>
- <answer>
- <para>在很久很久以前,原本重新 build kernel 在 FreeBSD 安裝過程中,
- 是絕對必需的步驟之一。但目前早就不用這麼麻煩了,
- 目前主要常見的版本都使用更友善的 kernel 設定指令。
- &os; 4.X(含之前版本),在 FreeBSD 啟動提示號(boot:)時,使用 <option>"-c"</option> flag
- 就會進入設定畫面,來對 kernel 作常見的 ISA 卡細節設定。
- 而 &os; 5.X(含之後版本)的話,則是以更具彈性的 "hints" 設定方式。</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The document's format. We produce the
+ documentation in a number of different output formats.
+ Each format has its own advantages and disadvantages.
+ Some formats are better suited for online reading,
+ while others are meant to be aesthetically pleasing
+ when printed on paper. Having the documentation
+ available in any of these formats ensures that our
+ readers will be able to read the parts they are
+ interested in, either on their monitor, or on paper
+ after printing the documents. The currently available
+ formats are:</para>
+
+ <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
+ <tgroup cols="2">
+ <thead>
+ <row>
+ <entry>格式</entry>
- <para>如果想更節省 RAM 的使用、縮短開機流程,那麼建議:新的 kernel 設定檔只要包含你需要的驅動程式,
- 然後重新編譯、安裝 kernel 並重開機。然而呢,這點對大多數的系統來說,
- 這不一定是必要的。</para>
+ <entry>說明</entry>
+ </row>
+ </thead>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <tbody>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>html-split</literal></entry>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="password-encryption">
- <para>密碼編碼該採用 DES、Blowfish 或 MD5 的哪一種?該怎麼設定呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <entry>章節模式</entry>
+ </row>
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 預設的密碼編碼方式是採 <emphasis>MD5</emphasis>。
- 就密碼編碼方式而言,MD5 方式一般被視為比傳統 &unix; 的 <emphasis>DES</emphasis> 方式較為安全。
- 然而,若有需要在使用舊環境(較不安全的密碼編碼方式的),DES 密碼編碼方式一樣可以使用。
- (若使用 sysinstall 時有選擇 <quote>crypto</quote> 套件,或是從 source 內編譯安裝)
- 有裝 crypto 的話,crypto libraries 也支援更安全的 Blowfish 編碼方式。</para>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>html</literal></entry>
- <para>密碼編碼的方式是由 <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename> 內的
- <quote>passwd_format</quote> 欄位來決定的。該欄設定值,(若有裝 crypto 的話)可以是
- <quote>des</quote> 或 <quote>blf</quote> 或是原本的 <quote>md5</quote>。
- 詳情請參閱 &man.login.conf.5; 說明。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <entry>完整模式</entry>
+ </row>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="boot-floppy-hangs">
- <para>為什麼開機磁片開到一半,就出現
- <literal>Probing Devices...</literal> 的畫面訊息,然後就停住了?</para>
- </question>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>pdf</literal></entry>
- <answer>
+ <entry> Adobe's PDF 格式</entry>
+ </row>
- <para>若機器上有裝 IDE 介面的 Iomega &iomegazip; 或是 &jaz; 的話,
- 因為這些設備可能跟開機片有相衝,請先拿掉這些設備再重試。
- 當整個作業系統裝好後,就可以把這些設備接回去使用了。
- 希望這點在日後 release 的 FreeBSD 可以獲得徹底解決。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>ps</literal></entry>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="panic-on-install-reboot">
- <para>系統裝完並重開機後,為什麼卻出現 <errorname>panic: can't mount root</errorname>?</para>
- </question>
+ <entry><trademark class="registered">PostScript</trademark></entry>
+ </row>
- <answer>
- <para>這個錯誤是因為啟動磁區跟 kernel 兩者對磁碟裝置的認知不相同。
- 通常這問題會發生在有兩顆 IDE 硬碟的系統,比如:硬碟 Jumper 設定為 Master、
- 或是兩條 IDE 排線各只連接一顆硬碟,但是裝 FreeBSD 那顆開機硬碟,
- 卻接在 Secondary IDE 排線上。
- 如此一來,在開機時當 kernel 指定第二個 IDE 控制器的第一個磁碟機 ad2,
- 啟動磁區卻認為系統是裝在 ad0(BIOS偵測的第二顆硬碟)!
- 偵測完裝置後,kernel 試著把啟動磁區所認為的開機硬碟(ad0) mount
- 起來,事實上應該是 ad2 才對,所以就會出現上面的錯誤訊息了。</para>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>rtf</literal></entry>
- <para>解法如下,請選擇其中一種方式就好:</para>
+ <entry><trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> 的 RTF 格式</entry>
+ </row>
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>重開機並在出現『<literal>Booting kernel in 10 seconds; hit [Enter] to interrupt</literal>』
- 提示的時候,按下 <keycap>Enter</keycap>鍵。
- 這樣子就會進入 boot loader 畫面:</para>
+ <row>
+ <entry><literal>txt</literal></entry>
- <para>請輸入
- <literal>
- set
- root_disk_unit="<replaceable>disk_number</replaceable>"
- </literal> 這裡的『<replaceable>disk_number</replaceable>』請依據情況換成相關代號:
- 若 FreeBSD 硬碟是設定裝在 Primary IDE 接線的 Master,就設為 0 ;
- 若是 Primary IDE 接線的 Slave,就設為 1;
- 若是 Secondary IDE 接線的 Master,就設為 2;
- 若是 Secondary IDE 接線的 Slave,就設為 3。</para>
+ <entry> 純文字</entry>
+ </row>
+ </tbody>
+ </tgroup>
+ </informaltable>
+
+ <note>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Page numbers are not automatically updated when
+ loading Rich Text Format into Word. Press <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo>,
+ <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>End</keycap></keycombo>,
+ <keycap>F9</keycap> after loading the document, to
+ update the page numbers.</para>
+ </note>
+ </listitem>
- <para>接著請再輸入 <literal>boot</literal>,然後系統應該就可以正常開機了。</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>壓縮和打包方式</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Where the format is
+ <literal>html-split</literal>, the files are
+ bundled up using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tar</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The resulting
+ <filename>.tar</filename> file is then compressed
+ using the compression schemes detailed in the next
+ point.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para>若要每次開機都自動設定,而不必每次都打一次,那麼就在 <filename>/boot/loader.conf.local</filename>
- 檔案內加上 <literal>root_disk_unit="<replaceable>disk_number</replaceable>"</literal>
- 這行
- (當然,『<replaceable>disk_number</replaceable>』要改成相關代號)</para>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">All the other formats generate one file. For
+ example,
+ <filename>article.pdf</filename>,
+ <filename>book.html</filename>, and so on.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">These files are then compressed using either
+ the <literal>zip</literal> or
+ <literal>bz2</literal> compression schemes.
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tar</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> can be used to uncompress these
+ files.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">So the <trademark class="registered">PostScript</trademark> version of the Handbook,
+ compressed using <literal>bzip2</literal> will be
+ stored in a file called
+ <filename>book.ps.bz2</filename> in the
+ <filename>handbook/</filename> directory.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>把 FreeBSD 硬碟改接到 Primary IDE 接線上,如此一來就可順利使用。</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">After choosing the format and compression mechanism,
+ download the
+ compressed files, uncompress them, and then copy
+ the appropriate documents into place.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For example, the split HTML version of the
+ <acronym>FAQ</acronym>, compressed using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>bzip2</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>,
+ can be found in
+ <filename>doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/book.html-split.tar.bz2</filename>
+ To download and uncompress that file, type:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>fetch https://download.freebsd.org/ftp/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/book.html-split.tar.bz2</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>tar xvf book.html-split.tar.bz2</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the file is compressed,
+ <application>tar</application> will automatically
+ detect the appropriate format and decompress it correctly,
+ resulting in a collection of
+ <filename>.html</filename> files. The main one is called
+ <filename>index.html</filename>, which will contain the
+ table of contents, introductory material, and links to the
+ other parts of the document.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="memory-limits">
- <para>記憶體最大限制為多少?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>一般 &i386; 機器上最多可支援到 4 GB(gigabytes)。
- 而自 &os; 4.9 及 5.1 可以開始使用 &man.pae.4; 來支援更多的記憶體。
- 有關這點,需要在 kernel 設定檔內加入下列內容並重新編譯 kernel,才能使用 PAE。</para>
-
- <programlisting>options PAE</programlisting>
+ <question xml:id="mailing">
+ <para>哪裡有關於 FreeBSD 的郵遞論壇(mailing lists)呢? 有哪些可以使用的 FreeBSD 新聞群組(news groups)呢?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>&os; 在 pc98 機器上最多則只支援 4 GB ,而且不能使用 PAE。
- 在 Alpha 機器上,記憶體限制方面要視所使用的型號支援程度而定,這點請參閱
- 所使用的 Alpha 硬體規格表。至於其他架構的 &os; 理論上最多可使用的記憶體,有較多的限制。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Refer to the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources.html#eresources-mail">Handbook
+ entry on mailing-lists</link> and the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/eresources-news.html">Handbook
+ entry on newsgroups</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ffs-limits">
- <para>檔案系統最大限制為多少?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>就檔案系統方面,理論上的限制是最多到 8TB(2G blocks),
- 或是使用內定 8K block 大小時,限制是 16TB。
- 實際上,目前軟體使用上限制只能用到 1 TB,
- 然而如果是有另行改造過檔案系統,那麼達到 4TB 的目標是可行的
- (也有人成功過)。</para>
-
- <para>單一檔案的大小方面,假如 block 以 4K 作規劃的話,
- 則最大是趨近 1G blocks(4TB)。</para>
-
- <table>
- <title>檔案大小的最大限制</title>
-
- <tgroup cols="3">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>檔案系統 block 大小</entry>
-
- <entry>works</entry>
-
- <entry>should work</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry>4K</entry>
-
- <entry>4T-1</entry>
-
- <entry>&gt;4T</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>8K</entry>
-
- <entry>&gt;32G</entry>
-
- <entry>32T-1</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>16K</entry>
-
- <entry>&gt;128G</entry>
-
- <entry>32T-1</entry>
- </row>
-
- <row>
- <entry>32K</entry>
-
- <entry>&gt;512G</entry>
-
- <entry>64T-1</entry>
- </row>
+ <question xml:id="irc">
+ <para>有 FreeBSD IRC (Internet Relay Chat)頻道嗎?</para>
+ </question>
- <row>
- <entry>64K</entry>
+ <answer>
+ <para>有的,大部分的 IRC 主機都有 FreeBSD 聊天頻道:</para>
- <entry>&gt;2048G</entry>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Channel <literal>#FreeBSDhelp</literal> on <link xlink:href="http://www.efnet.org/index.php">EFNet</link>
+ is a channel dedicated to helping FreeBSD users.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <entry>128T-1</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </table>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Channel <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> on <link xlink:href="http://freenode.net/">Freenode</link> is
+ a general help channel with many users at any time.
+ The conversations have been known to run off-topic for
+ a while, but priority is given to users with FreeBSD
+ questions. Other users can help with
+ the basics, referring to the Handbook whenever
+ possible and providing links for learning more about
+ a particular topic. This is primarily an English
+ speaking channel, though it does have users from all
+ over the world. Non-native English speakers should
+ try to ask the question in English first and then
+ relocate to <literal>##freebsd-lang</literal> as
+ appropriate.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para>When the fs block size is 4K, triple indirect blocks work
- and everything should be limited by the maximum fs block number
- that can be represented using triple indirect blocks (approx.
- 1K^3 + 1K^2 + 1K), but everything is limited by a (wrong) limit
- of 1G-1 on fs block numbers. The limit on fs block numbers
- should be 2G-1. There are some bugs for fs block numbers near
- 2G-1, but such block numbers are unreachable when the fs block
- size is 4K.</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Channel <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> on <link xlink:href="http://www.dal.net/">DALNET</link> is
+ available at <systemitem>irc.dal.net</systemitem> in
+ the US and <systemitem>irc.eu.dal.net</systemitem> in
+ Europe.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para>block 大小如果是 8K 或更大,檔案系統 block 數目會被限制在 2G-1
- ,但實際上應該說限制是 1G-1 才對,因為採用 2G-1 block 的檔案系統會導致一些問題。
- </para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Channel <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> on <link xlink:href="http://www.undernet.org/">UNDERNET</link>
+ is available at
+ <systemitem>us.undernet.org</systemitem> in the US and
+ <systemitem>eu.undernet.org</systemitem> in Europe.
+ Since it is a help channel, be prepared to read the
+ documents you are referred to.</para>
+ </listitem>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Channel <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> on <link xlink:href="http://www.rusnet.org.ru/">RUSNET</link>
+ is a Russian language channel dedicated to
+ helping FreeBSD users. This is also good place for
+ non-technical discussions.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="archsw-readin-failed-error">
- <para>為何在啟動新的 kernel 時,看到
- <errorname>archsw.readin.failed</errorname> 錯誤訊息?</para>
- </question>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Channel <literal>#bsdchat</literal> on <link xlink:href="http://freenode.net/">Freenode</link> is
+ a Traditional Chinese (UTF-8 encoding) language
+ channel dedicated to helping FreeBSD users.
+ This is also good place for non-technical
+ discussions.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
- <answer>
- <para>原因出在你的 world 以及 kernel 並不同步,舉例:kernel 用 4.11,
- 而 world 卻是 4.8,這樣是會有問題的。
- 請再次確認,是否有以 <command>make buildworld</command> 及
- <command>make buildkernel</command> 來正常更新 kernel。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The FreeBSD wiki has a <link xlink:href="http://wiki.freebsd.org/IrcChannels">good
+ list</link> of IRC channels.</para>
- <para>在啟動 loader 之前,會看到 "|" 這個符號在轉動,這時可以按任何鍵中斷,
- 然後再指定要載入哪個 kernel 來開機。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Each of these channels are distinct and are not
+ connected to each other. Since their chat styles differ,
+ try each to find one suited to your
+ chat style.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="security-profiles">
- <para><quote>security profiles</quote> 是指什麼?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>A <quote>security profile</quote> is a set of configuration
- options that attempts to achieve the desired ratio of security
- to convenience by enabling and disabling certain programs and
- other settings. For full details, see the <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/install-post.html#SECURITYPROFILE">Security
- Profile</ulink> section of the Handbook's <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/install-post.html">post-install
- chapter</ulink>.</para>
- </answer>
+ <question xml:id="forums">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Are there any web based forums to discuss FreeBSD?</para>
+ </question>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The official FreeBSD forums are located at <link xlink:href="https://forums.FreeBSD.org/">https://forums.FreeBSD.org/</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="boot-acpi">
- <para>在開機時,選擇使用 ACPI 則在安裝過程就掛了,該怎麼辦?</para>
+ <question xml:id="training">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Where can I get commercial FreeBSD training and
+ support?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>試試看關閉 ACPI support。 當在載入 bootloader時,按下空白鍵。
- 系統會顯示 <screen>OK</screen> 這時輸入
- <screen><userinput>unset acpi_load</userinput></screen> 接著打
- <screen><userinput>boot</userinput></screen>
- 以繼續開機,這樣子應該就可以了。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><link xlink:href="http://www.ixsystems.com">iXsystems,
+ Inc.</link>, parent company of the <link xlink:href="http://www.freebsdmall.com/">FreeBSD
+ Mall</link>, provides commercial FreeBSD and TrueOS
+ software <link xlink:href="http://www.ixsystems.com/support">support</link>,
+ in addition to FreeBSD development and tuning
+ solutions.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">BSD Certification Group, Inc. provides system
+ administration certifications for DragonFly BSD,
+ FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD. Refer to <link xlink:href="http://www.BSDCertification.org">their
+ site</link> for more information.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Any other organizations providing training and support
+ should contact the Project to be listed here.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
-
</qandaset>
</chapter>
- <chapter
- id="hardware">
- <title>硬體支援方面</title>
+ <chapter xml:id="install">
+ <info>
+ <title>安裝</title>
- <sect1 id="compatibility-general">
- <title>一般問題</title>
+ <author xml:lang="en">
+ <personname>
+ <firstname>Nik</firstname>
+ <surname>Clayton</surname>
+ </personname>
+ <affiliation>
+ <address xml:lang="en">
+ <email>nik@FreeBSD.org</email>
+ </address>
+ </affiliation>
+ </author>
+ </info>
<qandaset>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="which-hardware-to-get">
- <para>我想組裝自己的 FreeBSD 機器,有哪些型號、品牌、規格是支援程度最好的呢?</para>
- </question>
- <answer>
- <para>有關這點,在 FreeBSD 討論區上時常有人討論。雖然硬體汰換速度很快,
- 可能隨時有新規格、新產品出現,然而這些都在我們意料之中,
- 我們 <emphasis>仍然</emphasis> 強烈建議:在詢問有關最新規格硬體的支援問題之前,
- 請先參閱 &os;
- <ulink url="&rel.current.hardware;">&rel.current;</ulink>
- 或
- <ulink url="&rel2.current.hardware;">&rel2.current;</ulink>的支援硬體列表,
- 或是搜尋<ulink url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/search/#mailinglists">討論區的舊文章</ulink>,
- 也許,上週才剛恰巧有人討論過你所要問的硬體。</para>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="which-architecture">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Which platform should I download? I have a 64
+ bit capable <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> CPU,
+ but I only see <literal>amd64</literal>.</para>
+ </question>
- <para>如果要找有關筆記型電腦方面,請到 FreeBSD-mobile 筆記型電腦討論區。
- 不然,就到 FreeBSD-questions 討論區,或是特定硬體規格(比如 pc98, Alpha)的專屬討論區吧。
- </para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">amd64 is the term FreeBSD uses for 64-bit
+ compatible x86 architectures (also known as "x86-64" or
+ "x64"). Most modern computers should use amd64.
+ Older hardware should use i386. When installing
+ on a non-x86-compatible architecture, select the
+ platform which best matches the hardware.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
- </qandaset>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 id="compatibility-processors">
- <title>硬體架構及 CPU</title>
-
- <qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="architectures">
- <para>FreeBSD 有支援 x86 之外的硬體架構平台嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
-
- <para>有的,FreeBSD 目前可以在 Intel x86 and DEC
- (現在的 HP-Compaq) Alpha 架構上面運作。自 FreeBSD 5.0 之後的版本,則
- 可支援 AMD64 及 Intel EM64T, IA-64 以及 &sparc64; 架構。
- 未來平台支援上還會有 &mips; 及
- &powerpc;,細節請分別參閱 &a.mips; 或 &a.ppc;。
- 一般而言,新的硬體架構平台方面,都是到 &a.platforms; 討論。</para>
+ <question xml:id="floppy-download">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Which file do I download to get FreeBSD?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>若你機器不是以上架構或是比較奇特的,而想立刻試試看 BSD 的魔力,
- 我們建議你可以考慮使用 <ulink
- url="http://www.netbsd.org/">NetBSD</ulink> 或 <ulink
- url="http://www.openbsd.org/">OpenBSD</ulink>。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">On the <link xlink:href="https://www.freebsd.org/where.html">Getting
+ FreeBSD</link> page, select <literal>[iso]</literal> next
+ to the architecture that matches the hardware.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Any of the following can be used:</para>
+
+ <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
+ <tgroup cols="2">
+ <thead>
+ <row>
+ <entry>檔案</entry>
+ <entry>描述</entry>
+ </row>
+ </thead>
+
+ <tbody>
+ <row>
+ <entry><filename>disc1.iso</filename></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">Contains enough to install FreeBSD and
+ a minimal set of packages.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry><filename>dvd1.iso</filename></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">Similar to <filename>disc1.iso</filename>
+ but with additional packages.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry><filename>memstick.img</filename></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">A bootable image sufficient for writing to a
+ USB stick.</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry><filename>bootonly.iso</filename></entry>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">A minimal image that requires network access
+ during installation to completely install
+ FreeBSD.</entry>
+ </row>
+ </tbody>
+ </tgroup>
+ </informaltable>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Full instructions on this procedure and a little bit
+ more about installation issues in general can be found in
+ the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bsdinstall.html">Handbook
+ entry on installing FreeBSD</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="smp-support">
- <para>FreeBSD 支援 CPU 對稱多工處理(SMP, Symmetric Multiprocessing)嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>有的。 SMP 在 &os; 5.2 預設的 kernel(<emphasis>GENERIC</emphasis>)已有啟動。
- </para>
-
- <para>在 &os; 5.3 要 release 時,SMP相關設定也是預設就有啟動。
- 然而,在一些較新型的機器(像是 emt64)上卻又有些問題,
- 所以還是決定在相關問題、安全議題未獲解決前,先關閉 SMP 的相關啟動。
- 這點,正是 &os; 5.4 所優先考慮的方向。</para>
+ <question xml:id="floppy-image-too-large">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What do I do if the install image does not
+ boot?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>&os; 4.X 的話,預設的 kernel 並沒有啟動 SMP,
- 因此,必須要把 options SMP 加入 kernel 設定檔並重新編譯才能啟動。
- 至於還有哪些相關設定要放入 kernel 設定檔,請參閱<filename>/sys/i386/conf/LINT</filename>。
- </para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This can be caused by not downloading the image in
+ <emphasis>binary</emphasis> mode when using
+ <acronym>FTP</acronym>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Some FTP clients default their transfer mode to
+ <emphasis>ascii</emphasis> and attempt to change any
+ end-of-line characters received to match the
+ conventions used by the client's system. This will
+ almost invariably corrupt the boot image. Check the
+ SHA-256 checksum of the downloaded boot image: if it
+ is not <emphasis>exactly</emphasis> that on the
+ server, then the download process is suspect.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When using a command line FTP client, type
+ <emphasis>binary</emphasis> at the FTP command prompt
+ after getting connected to the server and before
+ starting the download of the image.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
- </qandaset>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 id="compatibility-drives">
- <title>硬碟、磁帶機以及光碟、DVD、燒錄機</title>
-
- <qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="supported-hard-drives">
- <para>FreeBSD 可支援哪些種類的硬碟呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="install-instructions-location">
+ <para>可以在哪邊找到安裝 FreeBSD 的解說步驟呢?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 都支援 EIDE 及 SCSI 介面的硬碟(以及 SCSI 卡,請看下一節說明)
- 以及 <quote>Western Digital</quote> 介面的硬碟 (MFM、 RLL、
- ESDI,當然包含 IDE),不過有一些少數的 ESDI 晶片組的(型號:WD1002/3/6/7)
- 可能無法正常運作。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Installation instructions
+ can be found at <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/bsdinstall.html">Handbook
+ entry on installing FreeBSD</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="supported-scsi-controllers">
- <para>支援哪些 SCSI 卡、設備呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="need-to-run">
+ <para>要跑 FreeBSD 至少需要什麼樣的配備呢?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>請參閱 &os; 的硬體支援表(
- <ulink url="&rel.current.hardware;">&rel.current;</ulink> 或
- <ulink url="&rel2.current.hardware;">&rel2.current;</ulink>)</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD requires a 486 or better PC,
+ 64 MB or more of RAM, and at least 1.1 GB of hard
+ disk space.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="tape-support">
- <para>支援哪些磁帶機呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 支援 SCSI 及 QIC-36 (QIC-02 介面) 規格的磁帶機。
- 同時包含了 8-mm (也就是 Exabyte) 及 DAT 磁帶機。</para>
+ <question xml:id="custom-boot-floppy">
+ <para>要怎樣才能自行打造專用的安裝磁片呢?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>有些早期版本的 8-mm 磁帶機並不是完全相容於 SCSI-2 規格,
- 所以可能在 FreeBSD 上表現不是很好。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Customized FreeBSD installation media can be created by
+ building a custom release. Follow the instructions in the
+ <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/article.html">Release
+ Engineering</link> article.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="tape-changer-support">
- <para>FreeBSD 支援磁帶自動換帶機嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 可以用 &man.ch.4; 上面所列的機種,搭配 &man.chio.1; 指令,
- 來使用 SCSI 種類的自動換帶機,細節部分請參閱 &man.chio.1; 說明。</para>
+ <question xml:id="windows-coexist">
+ <para><trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 可以與 FreeBSD 共存嗎?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>If you are not using <application>AMANDA</application>
- or some other product that already understands changers,
- remember that they only know how to move a tape from one
- point to another, so you need to keep track of which slot a
- tape is in, and which slot the tape currently in the drive
- needs to go back to.</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> is installed first, then yes. FreeBSD's
+ boot manager will then manage to boot <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> and FreeBSD.
+ If <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> is installed afterwards, it will
+ overwrite the boot manager. If that
+ happens, see the next section.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="supported-cdrom-drives">
- <para>FreeBSD 可支援哪些種類的光碟機呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>只要是有支援的 SCSI 卡上所接的任一 SCSI 光碟機都有支援。</para>
-
- <para>此外,也支援下列的光碟機:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Mitsumi LU002 (8bit), LU005 (16bit) 及 FX001D
- (16bit 2x Speed)</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Sony CDU 31/33A</para>
- </listitem>
+ <question xml:id="bootmanager-restore">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Another operating system destroyed my Boot Manager.
+ How do I get it back?</para>
+ </question>
- <listitem>
- <para>Sound Blaster 非 SCSI 介面的光碟機</para>
- </listitem>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This depends upon the boot manager.
+ The FreeBSD boot selection menu can be reinstalled using
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot0cfg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For example, to restore the boot menu
+ onto the disk <replaceable>ada0</replaceable>:</para>
- <listitem>
- <para>Matsushita/Panasonic 光碟機</para>
- </listitem>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>boot0cfg -B ada0</userinput></screen>
- <listitem>
- <para>相容 ATAPI 規格的 IDE CDROMs</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The non-interactive MBR bootloader can be installed
+ using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gpart</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>:</para>
- <para>相對於 SCSI 機種而言,其他非 SCSI 的光碟機都是比較慢,
- 此外,有些 ATAPI 種類的光碟機可能無法順利運作</para>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart bootcode -b /boot/mbr ada0</userinput></screen>
- <para>Daemon News 以及 FreeBSD Mall 所發行的正式 FreeBSD 光碟以及燒錄用的影像檔(ISO),
- 都可以直接用於開機光碟使用。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For more complex situations, including GPT disks, see
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gpart</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="supported-cdrw-drives">
- <para>FreeBSD 支援哪些光碟燒錄機的驅動程式呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="no-install-cdrom">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I booted from a CD, but the install program
+ says no CD-ROM is found. Where did it go?</para>
+ </question>
<answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 支援任何相容 ATAPI 標準的 IDE CD-R 或 CD-RW 光碟燒錄機,
- 細節請參閱 &man.burncd.8; 說明。</para>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 也支援任何 SCSI CD-R 或 CD-RW 光碟燒錄機。
- 請用 port 或 packag 機制來安裝、使用 <command>cdrecord</command> ,
- 並確定您的 kernel 內有將 <devicename>pass</devicename>設備一併編譯在內。
- (預設的 kernel.GENERIC 都會有 device pass 這段)</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The usual cause of this problem is a mis-configured
+ CD-ROM drive. Many PCs now ship with the CD-ROM as the
+ slave device on the secondary IDE controller, with no
+ master device on that controller. This is illegal
+ according to the ATAPI specification, but <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> plays
+ fast and loose with the specification, and the BIOS
+ ignores it when booting. This is why the BIOS was able to
+ see the CD-ROM to boot from it, but why FreeBSD cannot see it
+ to complete the install.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Reconfigure the system so that the CD-ROM is either
+ the master device on the IDE controller it is attached to,
+ or make sure that it is the slave on an IDE controller
+ that also has a master device.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="zip-support">
- <para>FreeBSD 支援 Iomega &iomegazip; 嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 支援外接式的 SCSI 及 ATAPI(IDE) 介面的 Iomega &iomegazip;。
- 不過 SCSI ZIP 只能被設為 SCSI ID 5 或是 6 才可以運作,但如果
- SCSI 卡上的 BIOS 支援它,你甚至可以用它來開機。
- 我們不曉得哪一塊卡可以把卡的 ID 設在除了 0 或 1 以外的地方而開機成功,
- 因此,如果想改 SCSI ID 的話,請務必參閱該型號的說明手冊。</para>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 同時也支援 Parallel Port Zip磁碟機。請檢查 kernel
- 設定檔是否有:
- <devicename>scbus0</devicename>、
- <devicename>da0</devicename>、
- <devicename>ppbus0</devicename>,以及
- <devicename>vp0</devicename> 這些驅動程式 (預設的 GENERIC kernel
- 除了 <devicename>vp0</devicename> 沒包進去,其他三者都會有)。
- 加了這幾個驅動程式之後,Parallel Port Zip 就會成為
- <devicename>/dev/da0s4</devicename>。</para>
-
- <para>這時,就可以用像是 <command>mount /dev/da0s4 /mnt</command> 或
- (DOS 檔案系統)<command>mount_msdos /dev/da0s4 /mnt</command>
- 之類的指令來掛載、讀寫。</para>
+ <question xml:id="need-complete-sources">
+ <para>我需要安裝完整的原始碼嗎?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>也可以參閱下面有關<link linkend="media-change">隨身磁片
- </link>部分,以及<link
- linkend="removable-drives">抽取碟、隨身碟的『格式化』討論</link>
- 的部分</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">In general, no. There is nothing in the base system
+ which requires the presence of the source to operate.
+ Some ports, like <package>sysutils/lsof</package>, will
+ not build unless the source is installed. In particular,
+ if the port builds a kernel module or directly operates on
+ kernel structures, the source must be installed.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="jaz-zip-removable-support">
- <para>FreeBSD 有支援 &jaz;、EZ 及其他類似的隨身磁片嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>可以啊,除了 IDE 的 EZ drive 外,其他的應該都是 SCSI 介面,
- 所以在 FreeBSD 上都會以 SCSI 硬碟來處理。</para>
-
- <para>當然,你必須確定在開機時,這些設備的電源是打開的,
- 以便讓 FreeBSD 可以偵測到。</para>
+ <question xml:id="need-kernel">
+ <para>需要重新 build kernel 嗎?</para>
+ </question>
- <para><anchor id="media-change"/>如果在磁碟運中狀態中,要更換磁片的話,
- 記得先看一下 &man.mount.8;、&man.umount.8;、
- 以及(SCSI的話)&man.camcontrol.8; 或 &man.atacontrol.8; 還有 FAQ 後面有關
- <link linkend="removable-drives">使用抽取碟、隨身碟的討論
- </link>。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Usually not. The supplied <literal>GENERIC</literal>
+ kernel contains the drivers an ordinary computer will
+ need. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>freebsd-update</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, the FreeBSD binary upgrade
+ tool, cannot upgrade custom kernels, another reason to
+ stick with the <literal>GENERIC</literal> kernel when
+ possible. For computers with very limited RAM, such as
+ embedded systems, it may be worthwhile to build a smaller
+ custom kernel containing just the required drivers.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
- </qandaset>
-
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 id="compatibility-kbd-mice">
- <title>鍵盤、滑鼠</title>
-
- <qandaset>
-
<qandaentry>
- <question id="usbkbd">
- <para>FreeBSD 有支援 USB 鍵盤嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD (尤其是有支援 USB keyboards。 Enable USB support in
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>.</para>
-
- <para>若有開 USB 鍵盤支援而且同時接上 AT 跟 USB 鍵盤的話,那麼 AT 鍵盤會變成
- <devicename>/dev/kbd0</devicename>,而 USB 鍵盤則是
- <devicename>/dev/kbd1</devicename>。如果只接 USB 鍵盤,那麼它就是
- <devicename>/dev/ukbd0</devicename> 囉。</para>
-
- <para>如果想在 console 上使用 USB 鍵盤的話,那麼必須設定 console 指定用 USB 鍵盤。
- 可以在系統開機程序時,加上下列指令:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kbdcontrol -k /dev/kbd1 &lt; /dev/ttyv0 &gt; /dev/null</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>注意:若只有 USB 鍵盤的話,也就是 <devicename>/dev/ukbd0</devicename>,
- 那麼請改用下列指令:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kbdcontrol -k /dev/ukbd0 &lt; /dev/ttyv0 &gt; /dev/null</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>建議:可以把上述指令放入 <filename>/etc/rc.i386</filename> 。</para>
-
- <para>設定成功之後,USB 鍵盤不用作任何特別設定,就可以在 X 視窗環境上正常運作囉。</para>
-
- <para>USB 鍵盤的熱插拔(Hot-plugging and unplugging)在 &os; 可能還無法完全正常運作,
- 建議:在系統開機前就先接上鍵盤,直到關機為止,以避免不必要的困擾。</para>
+ <question xml:id="password-encryption">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Should I use DES, Blowfish, or MD5 passwords and how
+ do I specify which form my users receive?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>相關細節請參閱 &man.ukbd.4; 的說明。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD 9 and later use
+ <emphasis>SHA512</emphasis> by
+ default. DES
+ passwords are still available for backwards compatibility
+ with legacy operating systems which still
+ use the less secure password format. FreeBSD also supports
+ the Blowfish and MD5 password formats. Which
+ password format to use for new passwords is controlled by
+ the <literal>passwd_format</literal> login capability in
+ <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename>, which takes values
+ of <literal>des</literal>, <literal>blf</literal> (if
+ these are available) or <literal>md5</literal>. See the
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>login.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for more information about
+ login capabilities.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="busmouse">
- <para>古早的 bus 滑鼠,要怎麼設定呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 支援一些廠商(像是:Microsoft、Logitech、ATI)所做的 bus 及 InPort bus 介面的滑鼠。
- 然而,預設的 kernel(GENERIC)已經不內含它們的驅動程式。
- 因此,要加入下列到 kernel 設定檔並重新編譯、安裝,才能啟用:</para>
-
- <programlisting>device mse0 at isa? port 0x23c irq5</programlisting>
+ <question xml:id="ffs-limits">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What are the limits for FFS file systems?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>Bus 滑鼠通常要搭配專用的介面卡才能使用。
- 這些卡可以設定 port address 及 IRQ 值,這些細節請參閱你的滑鼠說明手冊及
- &man.mse.4; 說明。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For FFS file systems, the largest file system is
+ practically limited by the amount of memory required to
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsck</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> the file system. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsck</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> requires one
+ bit per fragment, which with the default fragment size of
+ 4 KB equates to 32 MB of memory per TB of disk.
+ This does mean that on architectures which limit userland
+ processes to 2 GB (e.g., <trademark>i386</trademark>), the maximum
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsck</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>'able filesystem is ~60 TB.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">If there was not a <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsck</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> memory limit the
+ maximum filesystem size would be 2 ^ 64 (blocks)
+ * 32 KB =&gt; 16 Exa * 32 KB =&gt; 512
+ ZettaBytes.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The maximum size of a single FFS file is approximately
+ 2 PB with the default block size of 32 KB. Each
+ 32 KB block can point to 4096 blocks. With triple
+ indirect blocks, the calculation is 32 KB * 12 +
+ 32 KB * 4096 + 32 KB * 4096^2 + 32 KB *
+ 4096^3. Increasing the block size to 64 KB will
+ increase the max file size by a factor of 16.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ps2mouse">
- <para>PS/2 (<quote>mouse port</quote> 或
- <quote>keyboard</quote>)的滑鼠要怎麼設定才好呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>PS/2 滑鼠都有支援,所需要用到的驅動程式 <devicename>psm</devicename>
- 在預設的 kernel(GENERIC)已有內含了。</para>
-
- <para>若你自訂的 kernel 內漏了 psm 的話,那麼就再把下列內容加到 kernel
- 設定檔並重新編譯、安裝:</para>
-
- <programlisting>device psm0 at atkbdc? irq 12</programlisting>
-
- <para>當開機時 kernel 有正確偵測到 <devicename>psm0</devicename>
- ,請務必確認在 <filename>/dev</filename> 內有
- <devicename>psm0</devicename> 。
- 如果沒有的話,那麼就用 <username>root</username> 來打下列指令來建立吧:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev; sh MAKEDEV psm0</userinput></screen>
+ <question xml:id="archsw-readin-failed-error">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why do I get an error message, <errorname>readin
+ failed</errorname> after compiling and booting a new
+ kernel?</para>
+ </question>
- <note>
- <para>如果是 &os; 5.0-RELEASE(含之後版本)的話,因為採用 &man.devfs.5; 機制的因素,
- 所以會自動在 <filename>/dev</filename> 下建立相關設備的節點,因此就可以略過上面這一步。</para>
- </note>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The world and kernel are out of sync. This
+ is not supported. Be sure to use <command>make
+ buildworld</command> and <command>make
+ buildkernel</command> to update the kernel.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Boot the system by specifying the kernel directly at
+ the second stage, pressing any key when the
+ <literal>|</literal> shows up before loader is
+ started.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="moused">
- <para>如果不用 X Window 環境的話,也可以用滑鼠嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>若使用 console 的預設驅動程式(也就是 &man.syscons.4;),
- 那麼就可以在文字介面的 console 上面用滑鼠來剪貼文字了。
- 那麼要啟動 &man.moused.8; 並開啟游標顯示,
- 請打下列指令:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>moused -p /dev/<replaceable>xxxx</replaceable> -t <replaceable>yyyy</replaceable></userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>vidcontrol -m on</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>其中『<replaceable>xxxx</replaceable>』是滑鼠的設備名稱,而
- 『<replaceable>yyyy</replaceable>』則是滑鼠所使用的 protocol 種類。
- 目前的 moused 可以自動偵測(除了舊式的 serial
- 滑鼠之外)大多數滑鼠所使用的 protocol 種類,而不用刻意去指定。
- 『protocol 種類』設定用
- <literal>auto</literal> 就會自動偵測了。若自動偵測失敗的話,請參閱 &man.moused.8;
- 裡面的 type 那段說明。</para>
-
- <para>如果用的是 PS/2 滑鼠,只要把
- <literal>moused_enable="YES"</literal> 加到
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> ,這樣每次開機就會自動啟動了。
- 此外,如果要在所有 virtual terminals 上也能使用滑鼠,
- 而不限定只有 console 的話,那麼請再把
- <literal>allscreens_flags="-m on"</literal> 加到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 裡面即可。</para>
+ <question xml:id="general-configuration-tool">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Is there a tool to perform post-installation
+ configuration tasks?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>moused 在執行中的時候,如果要使用滑鼠相關功能,都必須透過 moused
- 或其他程式像是 X 視窗來進行。請參閱 FAQ 中有關<link
- linkend="x-and-moused">『為什麼不能在 X 視窗裡使用滑鼠?』</link>以瞭解相關細節。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yes. <application>bsdconfig</application> provides a
+ nice interface to configure FreeBSD post-installation.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
+ </qandaset>
+ </chapter>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="text-mode-cut-paste">
- <para>在文字模式的 console 環境要怎麼用滑鼠來剪貼文字呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>當執行 moused 後,(參閱<link linkend="moused">前一節</link>)
- 按住左鍵,接著移動滑鼠來選擇一個區域之後放開,這樣就完成『複製』。
- 要『貼上』的話,按滑鼠中鍵就可以了。
- 要『延伸選取區』的話,按滑鼠右鍵</para>
-
+ <chapter xml:id="hardware">
+ <title>硬體相容性</title>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="compatibility-general">
+ <title>一般問題</title>
+
+ <qandaset>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="which-hardware-to-get">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I want to get a piece of hardware for my FreeBSD
+ system. Which model/brand/type is best?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This is discussed continually on the FreeBSD mailing
+ lists but is to be expected since hardware changes so
+ quickly. Read through the Hardware Notes
+ for FreeBSD <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/11.1R/hardware.html">11.1</link>
+ or <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/10.4R/hardware.html">10.4</link>
+ and search the mailing list <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/search/#mailinglists">archives</link>
+ before asking about the latest and greatest hardware.
+ Chances are a discussion about that type of hardware
+ took place just last week.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Before purchasing a laptop, check the archives for
+ <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-mobile">FreeBSD laptop computer mailing list</link> and <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-questions">FreeBSD general questions mailing list</link>, or possibly a specific
+ mailing list for a particular hardware type.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="memory-upper-limitation">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What are the limits for memory? Does FreeBSD support
+ more than 4 GB of memory
+ (RAM)? More than 16 GB? More than
+ 48 GB?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD as an operating system generally supports
+ as much physical memory (RAM) as the platform it is
+ running on does. Keep in mind that different platforms
+ have different limits for memory; for example <trademark>i386</trademark>
+ without <acronym>PAE</acronym> supports at most
+ 4 GB of memory (and usually less than that because
+ of PCI address space) and <trademark>i386</trademark> with PAE supports at
+ most 64 GB memory. As of FreeBSD 10, AMD64
+ platforms support up to 4 TB of physical
+ memory.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="memory-i386-over-4gb">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does FreeBSD report less than 4 GB memory when
+ installed on an <trademark>i386</trademark> machine?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The total address space on <trademark>i386</trademark> machines is
+ 32-bit, meaning that at most 4 GB of memory is
+ addressable (can be accessed). Furthermore, some
+ addresses in this range are reserved by hardware for
+ different purposes, for example for using and
+ controlling PCI devices, for accessing video memory, and
+ so on. Therefore, the total amount of memory usable by
+ the operating system for its kernel and applications is
+ limited to significantly less than 4 GB. Usually,
+ 3.2 GB to 3.7 GB is the maximum usable
+ physical memory in this configuration.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To access more than 3.2 GB to 3.7 GB of
+ installed memory (meaning up to 4 GB but also more
+ than 4 GB), a special tweak called
+ <acronym>PAE</acronym> must be used. PAE stands for
+ Physical Address Extension and is a way for 32-bit x86
+ CPUs to address more than 4 GB of memory. It
+ remaps the memory that would otherwise be overlaid by
+ address reservations for hardware devices above the
+ 4 GB range and uses it as additional physical
+ memory (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pae</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>). Using PAE has some drawbacks;
+ this mode of memory access is a little bit slower than
+ the normal (without PAE) mode and loadable modules (see
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>kld</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>) are not supported. This means all drivers
+ must be compiled into the kernel.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The most common way to enable PAE is to build a new
+ kernel with the special ready-provided kernel
+ configuration file called <filename>PAE</filename>,
+ which is already configured to build a safe kernel.
+ Note that some entries in this kernel configuration file
+ are too conservative and some drivers marked as unready
+ to be used with PAE are actually usable. A rule of
+ thumb is that if the driver is usable on 64-bit
+ architectures (like AMD64), it is also usable with PAE.
+ When creating a custom kernel configuration
+ file, PAE can be enabled by adding the following
+ line:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">options PAE</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">PAE is not much used nowadays because most new x86
+ hardware also supports running in 64-bit mode, known as
+ AMD64 or <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> 64. It has a much larger address
+ space and does not need such tweaks. FreeBSD supports
+ AMD64 and it is recommended that this version of FreeBSD be
+ used instead of the <trademark>i386</trademark> version if 4 GB or more
+ memory is required.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+ </qandaset>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="compatibility-processors">
+ <title xml:lang="en">Architectures and Processors</title>
+
+ <qandaset>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="architectures">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Does FreeBSD support architectures other than the
+ x86?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yes. FreeBSD divides support into multiple tiers.
+ Tier 1 architectures, such as i386 or amd64; are fully
+ supported. Tiers 2 and 3 are supported on a
+ best-effort basis. A full explanation of the tier
+ system is available in the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/committers-guide/archs.html">Committer's
+ Guide.</link></para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">A complete list of supported architectures can be
+ found on the <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/platforms/">platforms
+ page.</link></para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="smp-support">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Does FreeBSD support Symmetric Multiprocessing
+ (SMP)?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD supports symmetric multi-processor (SMP) on all
+ non-embedded platforms (e.g, i386, amd64,
+ etc.). SMP is also supported in arm and MIPS kernels,
+ although some CPUs may not support this. FreeBSD's SMP
+ implementation uses fine-grained locking, and
+ performance scales nearly linearly with number of
+ CPUs.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en"><citerefentry><refentrytitle>smp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> has more details.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="microcode">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is microcode?
+ How do I install <trademark class="registered">Intel</trademark> CPU microcode updates?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Microcode is a method of programmatically
+ implementing hardware level instructions. This allows
+ for CPU bugs to be fixed without replacing the on board
+ chip.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Install <package>sysutils/devcpu-data</package>,
+ then add:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">microcode_update_enable="YES"</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename></para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+ </qandaset>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="compatibility-drives">
+ <title xml:lang="en">Hard Drives, Tape Drives, and CD and DVD Drives</title>
+
+ <qandaset>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="supported-hard-drives">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What kind of hard drives does FreeBSD support?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD supports EIDE, SATA, SCSI, and SAS drives (with
+ a compatible controller; see the next section), and all
+ drives using the original <quote>Western Digital</quote>
+ interface (MFM, RLL, ESDI, and of course IDE). A few
+ ESDI controllers that use proprietary interfaces may not
+ work: stick to WD1002/3/6/7 interfaces and
+ clones.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="supported-scsi-controllers">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Which SCSI or SAS controllers are supported?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">See the complete list in the Hardware Notes for FreeBSD
+ <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/11.1R/hardware.html">11.1</link>
+ or <link xlink:href="https://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/10.4R/hardware.html">10.4</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="tape-support">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What types of tape drives are supported?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD supports all standard SCSI tape
+ interfaces.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="tape-changer-support">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Does FreeBSD support tape changers?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD supports SCSI changers using the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ch</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+ device and the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chio</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> command. The details of how
+ to control the changer can be found in
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chio</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">While
+ <application>AMANDA</application> and some other
+ products already understands changers, other
+ applications only know how to move a tape from one point
+ to another. In this case, keep track of which slot a
+ tape is in and which slot the tape currently in the
+ drive needs to go back to.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="supported-cdrom-drives">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Which CD-ROM and CD-RW drives are supported by
+ FreeBSD?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Any SCSI drive connected to a supported controller
+ is supported. Most ATAPI compatible IDE CD-ROMs are
+ supported.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD supports any ATAPI-compatible IDE CD-R or CD-RW
+ drive.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD also supports any SCSI CD-R or CD-RW drives.
+ Install the <package>sysutils/cdrtools</package> port or
+ package, then use <command>cdrecord</command>.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+ </qandaset>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="compatibility-kbd-mice">
+ <title xml:lang="en">Keyboards and Mice</title>
+
+ <qandaset>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="moused">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Is it possible to use a mouse outside the
+ X Window system?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The default console driver,
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syscons</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, provides the ability to use a mouse
+ pointer in text consoles to cut &amp; paste text. Run
+ the mouse daemon, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>moused</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and turn on the mouse
+ pointer in the virtual console:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>moused -p /dev/xxxx -t yyyy</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>vidcontrol -m on</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Where <replaceable>xxxx</replaceable> is the mouse
+ device name and <replaceable>yyyy</replaceable> is a
+ protocol type for the mouse. The mouse daemon can
+ automatically determine the protocol type of most mice,
+ except old serial mice. Specify the
+ <literal>auto</literal> protocol to invoke automatic
+ detection. If automatic detection does not work, see
+ the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>moused</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for a list of supported
+ protocol types.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For a PS/2 mouse, add
+ <literal>moused_enable="YES"</literal> to
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> to start the mouse
+ daemon at boot time. Additionally, to
+ use the mouse daemon on all virtual terminals instead of
+ just the console, add <literal>allscreens_flags="-m
+ on"</literal> to
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When the mouse daemon is running, access to the
+ mouse must be coordinated between the mouse daemon and
+ other programs such as X Windows. Refer to the
+ <acronym>FAQ</acronym>
+ <link linkend="x-and-moused">Why does my mouse not work
+ with X?</link> for more details on this issue.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="text-mode-cut-paste">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I cut and paste text with a mouse in the text
+ console?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">It is not possible to remove data using the mouse.
+ However, it is possible to copy and paste. Once the
+ mouse daemon is running as described in the <link linkend="moused">previous question</link>, hold down
+ button 1 (left button) and move the mouse to select a
+ region of text. Then, press button 2 (middle button) to
+ paste it at the text cursor. Pressing button 3 (right
+ button) will <quote>extend</quote> the selected region
+ of text.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the mouse does not have a middle button, it is
+ possible to emulate one or remap buttons using mouse
+ daemon options. See the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>moused</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for
+ details.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="mouse-wheel-buttons">
+ <para xml:lang="en">My mouse has a fancy wheel and buttons. Can I use
+ them in FreeBSD?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The answer is, unfortunately, <quote>It
+ depends</quote>. These mice with additional features
+ require specialized driver in most cases. Unless the
+ mouse device driver or the user program has specific
+ support for the mouse, it will act just like a standard
+ two, or three button mouse.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For the possible usage of wheels in the X Window
+ environment, refer to <link linkend="x-and-wheel">that section</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="keyboard-delete-key">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I use my delete key in <command>sh</command>
+ and <command>csh</command>?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For the <application>Bourne Shell</application>, add
+ the following lines to <filename>~/.shrc</filename>.
+ See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>editrc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">bind ^? ed-delete-next-char # for console
+bind ^[[3~ ed-delete-next-char # for xterm</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For the <application>C Shell</application>, add the
+ following lines to <filename>~/.cshrc</filename>.
+ See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>csh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">bindkey ^? delete-char # for console
+bindkey ^[[3~ delete-char # for xterm</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For more information, see <link xlink:href="http://www.ibb.net/~anne/keyboard.html">this
+ page</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+ </qandaset>
+ </sect1>
+
+ <sect1 xml:id="compatibility-other">
+ <title xml:lang="en">Other Hardware</title>
+
+ <qandaset>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="es1370-silent-pcm">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Workarounds for no sound from my <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pcm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> sound
+ card?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Some sound cards set their output volume to 0 at
+ every boot. Run the following command every time the
+ machine boots:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mixer pcm 100 vol 100 cd 100</userinput></screen>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="power-management-support">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Does FreeBSD support power management on my
+ laptop?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD supports the <acronym>ACPI</acronym> features
+ found in modern hardware. Further information can be
+ found in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>acpi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+ </qandaset>
+ </sect1>
+ </chapter>
- <para>如果你的滑鼠沒有中鍵,你可以用模擬的方式,或是重新定義滑鼠按鍵的方式,
- 來達成「延伸」的功能。詳情請參閱 &man.moused.8; 說明。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <chapter xml:id="troubleshoot">
+ <title xml:lang="en">Troubleshooting</title>
+ <qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="mouse-wheel-buttons">
- <para>我滑鼠上面的滾輪、滾輪按鈕,可以在 console 上使用嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>這個答案嘛...,很不幸地,在大多數的情況下不行。
- 這些有滾輪的滑鼠需要用特殊驅動程式才行,
- 除非,滑鼠驅動程式或使用者自己的應用程式有支援,
- 不然,這些滑鼠只能夠當成是普通的兩鍵或三鍵的滑鼠來用而已。
- </para>
+ <question xml:id="pae">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why is FreeBSD finding the wrong amount of memory on
+ <trademark>i386</trademark> hardware?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>如果要在 X 視窗環境上使用滾輪的話,請參閱
- <link linkend="x-and-wheel"> X 視窗上的滾輪使用
- </link>說明。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The most likely reason is the difference between
+ physical memory addresses and virtual addresses.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The convention for most PC hardware is to use the
+ memory area between 3.5 GB and 4 GB for a
+ special purpose (usually for PCI). This address space is
+ used to access PCI hardware. As a result real, physical
+ memory cannot be accessed by that address space.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">What happens to the memory that should appear in that
+ location is hardware dependent. Unfortunately,
+ some hardware does nothing and the ability to use that
+ last 500 MB of RAM is entirely lost.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Luckily, most hardware remaps the memory to a higher
+ location so that it can still be used. However, this can
+ cause some confusion when watching the boot
+ messages.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">On a 32-bit version of FreeBSD, the memory appears lost,
+ since it will be remapped above 4 GB, which a 32-bit
+ kernel is unable to access. In this case, the solution is
+ to build a PAE enabled kernel. See the entry on memory
+ limits for more information.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">On a 64-bit version of FreeBSD, or when running a
+ PAE-enabled kernel, FreeBSD will correctly detect and remap
+ the memory so it is usable. During boot, however, it may
+ seem as if FreeBSD is detecting more memory than the system
+ really has, due to the described remapping. This is
+ normal and the available memory will be corrected as the
+ boot process completes.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="laptop-mouse-trackball">
- <para>要怎麼在筆記型電腦上使用滑鼠、軌跡球、觸控板呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="signal11">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why do my programs occasionally die with
+ <errorname>Signal 11</errorname> errors?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>請參閱<link linkend="ps2mouse">前面的 PS/2 滑鼠的問答
- </link>。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Signal 11 errors are caused when a process has
+ attempted to access memory which the operating system has
+ not granted it access to. If something like this is
+ happening at seemingly random intervals,
+ start investigating the cause.</para>
- </qandaset>
+ <para xml:lang="en">These problems can usually be attributed to
+ either:</para>
- </sect1>
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the problem is occurring only in a specific
+ custom application, it is
+ probably a bug in the code.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <sect1 id="compatibility-networking">
- <title>網路跟 serial 設備</title>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If it is a problem with part of the base FreeBSD
+ system, it may also be buggy code, but more often than
+ not these problems are found and fixed long before us
+ general <acronym>FAQ</acronym> readers get to use
+ these bits of code (that is what -CURRENT is
+ for).</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
- <qandaset>
+ <para xml:lang="en">It is probably
+ not a FreeBSD bug if the
+ problem occurs compiling a program, but the activity
+ that the compiler is carrying out changes each
+ time.</para>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="network-cards">
- <para>FreeBSD 支援哪些網路卡呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For example, if <command>make
+ buildworld</command> fails while trying
+ to compile <filename>ls.c</filename> into
+ <filename>ls.o</filename> and, when run again, it fails
+ in the same place, this is a broken build. Try
+ updating source and try again. If the compile fails
+ elsewhere, it is almost certainly due to hardware.</para>
- <answer>
- <para>請參考 &os; 各版本的硬體支援列表。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <para xml:lang="en">In the first case, use a debugger such as
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gdb</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to find the point in the program which is
+ attempting to access a bogus address and fix
+ it.</para>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="internal-plugnplay-modem">
- <para>為什麼 FreeBSD 找不到 PnP(隨插隨用,Plug &amp; Play)規格的 modem?</para>
- </question>
+ <para xml:lang="en">In the second case, verify which piece of
+ hardware is at fault.</para>
- <answer>
- <para>原因在於:需要把 modem 的 PnP ID 加到 serial 驅動程式的 PnP ID 表,作法如下:</para>
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>首先,在 kernel 設定檔內加入 <literal>controller pnp0</literal>,
- 並重新編譯、安裝 kernel,最後重開機就會啟動 PnP 支援。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Common causes of this include:</para>
- <listitem>
- <para>然後,kernel 會把偵測到所有設備上的 PnP ID 都列出。
- 這時,修改 <filename>/usr/src/sys/isa/sio.c</filename>(大約第752行左右的地方),
- 可以搜尋 <literal>SUP1310</literal> 當關鍵字(位於 <literal>sio_ids[]</literal> 表內),
- 請將剛才 kernel 顯示的 modem 的 PnP ID 複製到相關位置。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The hard disks might be overheating: Check that
+ the fans are still working, as the disk and
+ other hardware might be overheating.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>這時,再重新編譯、安裝 kernel,最後重開機應該就會正確偵測到 modem 了。</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The processor running is overheating: This might
+ be because the processor has been overclocked, or the
+ fan on the processor might have died. In either case,
+ ensure that the hardware is running at
+ what it is specified to run at, at least while trying
+ to solve this problem. If it is not, clock it back
+ to the default settings.)</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Regarding overclocking, it is far
+ cheaper to have a slow system than a fried system that
+ needs replacing! Also the community is not
+ sympathetic to problems on overclocked systems.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para>此外,也可以在開機時以 <literal>pnp</literal> 指令來手動設定 PnP 設備,
- 來讓 kernel 得以正確偵測,舉例:</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Dodgy memory: if multiple memory
+ SIMMS/DIMMS are installed, pull them all out and try
+ running the machine with each SIMM or DIMM
+ individually to narrow the problem down to either the
+ problematic DIMM/SIMM or perhaps even a
+ combination.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <programlisting>pnp 1 0 enable os irq0 3 drq0 0 port0 0x2f8</programlisting>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Over-optimistic motherboard settings: the BIOS
+ settings, and some motherboard jumpers, provide
+ options to set various timings. The defaults
+ are often sufficient, but sometimes setting the wait
+ states on RAM too low, or setting the <quote>RAM
+ Speed: Turbo</quote> option
+ will cause strange behavior. A possible idea is to
+ set to BIOS defaults, after noting
+ the current settings first.</para>
+ </listitem>
- </answer>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Unclean or insufficient power to the motherboard.
+ Remove any unused I/O boards, hard disks, or
+ CD-ROMs,
+ or disconnect the power cable from them, to see if
+ the power supply can manage a smaller load. Or try
+ another power supply, preferably one with a little
+ more power. For instance, if the current power supply
+ is rated at 250 Watts, try one rated at
+ 300 Watts.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Read the section on
+ <link linkend="signal11">Signal 11</link> for a further
+ explanation and a discussion on how memory testing
+ software or hardware can still pass faulty memory. There
+ is an extensive <acronym>FAQ</acronym> on this at <link xlink:href="http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/">the SIG11
+ problem <acronym>FAQ</acronym></link>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Finally, if none of this has helped, it is possibly
+ a bug in FreeBSD.
+ Follow <link linkend="access-pr">these instructions</link>
+ to send a problem report.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="support-winmodem">
- <para>FreeBSD 支援像是 Winmodems 之類的軟體 modem 嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 可以安裝額外的軟體來支援軟體 modem。
- 像是 <filename role="package">comms/ltmdm</filename> 可支援常見的 Lucent LT 晶片,
- <filename role="package">comms/mwavem</filename> 則可支援 IBM Thinkpad 600 及 700
- 筆記型電腦上面的 modem。</para>
+ <question xml:id="trap-12-panic">
+ <para xml:lang="en">My system crashes with either <errorname>Fatal trap
+ 12: page fault in kernel mode</errorname>, or
+ <errorname>panic:</errorname>, and spits out a bunch of
+ information. What should I do?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>然而,並不能用軟體 modem 來安裝 FreeBSD,
- 因為:這類軟體必須在作業系統安裝完畢之後,才能安裝。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The FreeBSD developers are interested in these
+ errors, but need more information than just the error
+ message. Copy the full crash message. Then consult the
+ <acronym>FAQ</acronym> section on <link linkend="kernel-panic-troubleshooting">kernel
+ panics</link>, build a debugging kernel, and get a
+ backtrace. This might sound difficult, but does not
+ require any programming skills. Just follow the
+ instructions.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="support-broadcom">
- <para>有 Broadcom 43xx 無線網卡的原生驅動程式(Native driver)嗎?</para>
+ <question xml:id="proc-table-full">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is the meaning of the error <errorname>maxproc
+ limit exceeded by uid %i, please see tuning(7) and
+ login.conf(5)</errorname>?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>沒有,而且也不太可能會有。</para>
-
- <para>Broadcom 拒絕公開有關無線網卡晶片的驅動程式相關說明,
- 主因大概是他們用軟體來控制無線傳輸方式。
- 事實上,因為要能通過美國聯邦電信委員會(FCC)檢磁安規的話,
- 必須確保產品不能讓使用者不能隨意更動相關設定,比如:電磁波頻率、相關模組參數、輸出電源等。
- 但是,如果我們不知道如何去控制晶片的話,那麼撰寫驅動程式之路恐怕不太可行。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The FreeBSD kernel will only allow a certain number of
+ processes to exist at one time. The number is based on
+ the <varname>kern.maxusers</varname> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+ variable. <varname>kern.maxusers</varname> also affects
+ various other in-kernel limits, such as network buffers.
+ If the machine is heavily loaded,
+ increase <varname>kern.maxusers</varname>. This will
+ increase these other system limits in addition to the
+ maximum number of processes.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To adjust the <varname>kern.maxusers</varname> value,
+ see the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/configtuning-kernel-limits.html#kern-maxfiles">File/Process
+ Limits</link> section of the Handbook. While that
+ section refers to open files, the same limits apply to
+ processes.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the machine is lightly loaded but running a very
+ large number of processes, adjust the
+ <varname>kern.maxproc</varname> tunable by defining it in
+ <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>. The tunable will
+ not get adjusted until the system is rebooted. For more
+ information about tuning tunables, see
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. If these processes are being run by
+ a single user, adjust
+ <varname>kern.maxprocperuid</varname> to be one less than
+ the new <varname>kern.maxproc</varname> value. It must
+ be at least one less because one system program,
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, must always be running.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="multiport-serial-support">
- <para>FreeBSD 支援哪些 multi-port serial卡呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>請參閱使用手冊上的 <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/install.html#INSTALL-MISC">安裝篇—其他硬體
- </ulink> 列表。</para>
-
- <para>雖然有些卡是沒牌的(尤其是有標明:相容 AST 規格)但也可以正常使用。</para>
+ <question xml:id="remote-fullscreen">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why do full screen applications on remote machines
+ misbehave?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>至於卡的設定方面,請參閱 &man.sio.4; 的說明。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The remote machine may be setting the terminal type to
+ something other than <literal>xterm</literal> which is
+ required by the FreeBSD console. Alternatively the kernel
+ may have the wrong values for the width and height of the
+ terminal.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Check the value of the <envar>TERM</envar>
+ environment variable is <literal>xterm</literal>. If the
+ remote machine does not support that try
+ <literal>vt100</literal>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Run <command>stty -a</command> to check what the
+ kernel thinks the terminal dimensions are. If they are
+ incorrect, they can be changed by running
+ <command>stty rows <replaceable>RR</replaceable> cols
+ <replaceable>CC</replaceable></command>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Alternatively, if the client machine has
+ <package>x11/xterm</package> installed, then running
+ <command>resize</command> will query the terminal for the
+ correct dimensions and set them.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="serial-console-prompt">
- <para>在 serial console 上要如何才會出現 boot: 提示呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>kernel 設定檔加入
- <literal>options COMCONSOLE</literal></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>建立 /boot.config 檔,並且該檔裡面內容只填上 <option>-P</option></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>把鍵盤從機器上拔掉</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
+ <question xml:id="connection-delay">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does it take so long to connect to my computer via
+ <command>ssh</command> or
+ <command>telnet</command>?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>細節請看
- <filename>/usr/src/sys/i386/boot/biosboot/README.serial</filename>
- </para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The symptom: there is a long delay between the time
+ the TCP connection is established and the time when the
+ client software asks for a password (or, in
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>telnet</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>'s case, when a login prompt
+ appears).</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The problem: more likely than not, the delay is caused
+ by the server software trying to resolve the client's IP
+ address into a hostname. Many servers, including the
+ <application>Telnet</application> and
+ <application>SSH</application> servers that come with
+ FreeBSD, do this to store the hostname in a log file for
+ future reference by the administrator.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The remedy: if the problem occurs whenever connecting
+ the client computer to any server, the problem
+ is with the client. If the problem only occurs
+ when someone connects to the server computer, the
+ problem is with the server.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the problem is with the client, the only remedy is
+ to fix the DNS so the server can resolve it. If this is
+ on a local network, consider it a server problem and keep
+ reading. If this is on the Internet,
+ contact your ISP.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the problem is with the server on a
+ local network, configure the server
+ to resolve address-to-hostname queries for the local
+ address range. See <citerefentry><refentrytitle>hosts</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+ for more information. If this is on the
+ Internet, the problem may be that the local server's
+ resolver is not functioning correctly. To check, try to
+ look up another host such as
+ <systemitem>www.yahoo.com</systemitem>. If it does not
+ work, that is the problem.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Following a fresh install of FreeBSD, it is also possible
+ that domain and name server information is missing from
+ <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename>. This will often
+ cause a delay in <application>SSH</application>, as the
+ option <literal>UseDNS</literal> is set to
+ <literal>yes</literal> by default in
+ <filename>/etc/ssh/sshd_config</filename>. If this is
+ causing the problem, either fill in the
+ missing information in
+ <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> or set
+ <literal>UseDNS</literal> to <literal>no</literal> in
+ <filename>sshd_config</filename> as a temporary
+ workaround.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
- </qandaset>
-
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 id="compatibility-sound">
- <title>音效卡</title>
-
- <qandaset>
-
<qandaentry>
- <question id="sound-card-support">
- <para>FreeBSD 支援哪些音效卡?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>&os; 支援各種音效卡,包括了 &soundblaster;、
- &soundblaster; Pro、&soundblaster; 16、Pro Audio Spectrum 16、
- AdLib、及 Gravis UltraSound sound cards (細節請參閱
- <ulink url="&url.base;/releases/">&os; 發行情報</ulink>
- 以及 &man.snd.4; 的說明)。
- 此外,對 MPU-401 及 MIDI 相容規格的也有一定程度的支援,而
- &microsoft; Sound System 規格也有支援。</para>
+ <question xml:id="file-table-full">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does <errorname>file: table is full</errorname>
+ show up repeatedly in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dmesg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>?</para>
+ </question>
- <note>
- <para>驅動程式僅適用於『音效』部分! 除了 &soundblaster; 之外,
- 目前音效驅動程式並不支援這些音效卡上的光碟機, SCSI設備或搖桿。
- &soundblaster; 的 SCSI 介面及某些非 SCSI 的光碟機是有支援,但無法用來開機。
- </para>
- </note>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This error message indicates that the number of
+ available file descriptors have been exhausted on the
+ system. Refer to the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/configtuning-kernel-limits.html#kern-maxfiles">kern.maxfiles</link>
+ section of the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/configtuning-kernel-limits.html">Tuning
+ Kernel Limits</link> section of the Handbook for a
+ discussion and solution.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="es1370-silent-pcm">
- <para>&man.pcm.4; 所支援的音效卡沒有聲音,有什麼暫時解決方式嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>因為有些像是 es1370 晶片的音效卡會在每次開機時把音量調為零。
- 暫時解法是在每次開機時執行下面指令,或是加到 /etc/rc.local 內:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mixer pcm 100 vol 100 cd 100</userinput></screen>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="computer-clock-skew">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does the clock on my computer keep incorrect
+ time?</para>
+ </question>
- </qandaset>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The computer has two or more clocks, and FreeBSD has
+ chosen to use the wrong one.</para>
- </sect1>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Run <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dmesg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and check for lines that contain
+ <literal>Timecounter</literal>. The one with the highest
+ quality value that FreeBSD chose.</para>
- <sect1 id="compatibility-other">
- <title>其他怪異問題(ACPI、重開機後掛了..等)</title>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dmesg | grep Timecounter</userinput>
+Timecounter "i8254" frequency 1193182 Hz quality 0
+Timecounter "ACPI-fast" frequency 3579545 Hz quality 1000
+Timecounter "TSC" frequency 2998570050 Hz quality 800
+Timecounters tick every 1.000 msec</screen>
- <qandaset>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Confirm this by checking the
+ <varname>kern.timecounter.hardware</varname>
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="other-device-support">
- <para>FreeBSD 還支援其他哪些硬體呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl kern.timecounter.hardware</userinput>
+kern.timecounter.hardware: ACPI-fast</screen>
- <answer>
- <para>請參閱使用手冊上的 <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/install.html#INSTALL-MISC">安裝篇—其他硬體</ulink>
- 。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">It may be a broken ACPI timer. The simplest solution
+ is to disable the ACPI timer in
+ <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">debug.acpi.disabled="timer"</programlisting>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="power-management-support">
- <para>FreeBSD 支援筆記型電腦的省電管理功能嗎?</para>
- </question>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Or the BIOS may modify the TSC clock—perhaps to
+ change the speed of the processor when running from
+ batteries, or going into a power saving mode, but FreeBSD is
+ unaware of these adjustments, and appears to gain or lose
+ time.</para>
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 4.X(含之後版本)在某些機種上都有支援 <acronym>APM</acronym>。
- 細節請參閱 &man.apm.4; 的說明。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">In this example, the <literal>i8254</literal> clock is
+ also available, and can be selected by writing its name to
+ the <varname>kern.timecounter.hardware</varname>
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
- <para>FreeBSD 5.X(含之後版本)支援在目前大部分機種上都有的
- <acronym>ACPI</acronym> 功能。
- 細節請參閱 &man.acpi.4; 的說明。若機器上同時都有 <acronym>APM</acronym>
- 及 <acronym>ACPI</acronym> 功能的話,我們建議你可以兩者都試試看,
- 看看哪一種比較符合你的需求。</para>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl kern.timecounter.hardware=i8254</userinput>
+kern.timecounter.hardware: TSC -&gt; i8254</screen>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The computer should now start keeping more accurate
+ time.</para>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="disable-acpi">
- <para>該如何關閉 ACPI?</para>
- </question>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To have this change automatically run at boot time,
+ add the following line to
+ <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>:</para>
- <answer>
- <para>把 <screen>hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"</screen>
- 這段加到 <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename> 即可。</para>
- </answer>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">kern.timecounter.hardware=i8254</programlisting>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="micron-hang-boot">
- <para>Micron 電腦總是在 &os; 啟動時就掛掉,該怎麼辦呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>有些 Micron 主機板上的 BIOS 在 PCI 方面會有問題,
- 這會導致 PCI 設備會被 BIOS 偵測為不正確設定,而進入 FreeBSD 就掛掉。</para>
+ <question xml:id="indefinite-wait-buffer">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What does the error <errorname>swap_pager: indefinite
+ wait buffer:</errorname> mean?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>暫時解決方式:關閉 BIOS 內 <quote>Plug and Play Operating System</quote>
- 的設定。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This means that a process is trying to page memory to
+ disk, and the page attempt has hung trying to access the
+ disk for more than 20 seconds. It might be caused by bad
+ blocks on the disk drive, disk wiring, cables, or any
+ other disk I/O-related hardware. If the drive itself is
+ bad, disk errors will appear in
+ <filename>/var/log/messages</filename> and in the output
+ of <command>dmesg</command>. Otherwise, check the cables
+ and connections.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="micron-3comnic-failure">
- <para>&tm.3com; PCI 介面網路卡無法在 Micron 電腦上使用,該怎麼辦?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>這問題跟前面的問題因素一樣,總之,就是關閉 BIOS 中有關 OS PnP 的設定。</para>
-
- <para>暫時解決方式:關閉 BIOS 內 <quote>Plug and Play Operating System</quote>
- 的設定。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="lock-order-reversal">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is a <errorname>lock order
+ reversal</errorname>?</para>
+ </question>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="asusk7v-boot-failure">
- <para>主機板是用華碩(ASUS) K7V,可是用開機片開到一半就當了,怎麼辦呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The FreeBSD kernel uses a number of resource locks to
+ arbitrate contention for certain resources. When multiple
+ kernel threads try to obtain multiple resource locks,
+ there's always the potential for a deadlock, where two
+ threads have each obtained one of the locks and blocks
+ forever waiting for the other thread to release one of the
+ other locks. This sort of locking problem can be avoided
+ if all threads obtain the locks in the same order.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">A run-time lock diagnostic system called
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>witness</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, enabled in FreeBSD-CURRENT and disabled by
+ default for stable branches and releases, detects the
+ potential for deadlocks due to locking errors, including
+ errors caused by obtaining multiple resource locks with a
+ different order from different parts of the kernel. The
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>witness</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> framework tries to detect this problem as
+ it happens, and reports it by printing a message to the
+ system console about a <errorname>lock order
+ reversal</errorname> (often referred to also as
+ <acronym>LOR</acronym>).</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">It is possible to get false positives, as
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>witness</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> is conservative. A true positive report
+ <emphasis>does not</emphasis> mean that a system is
+ dead-locked; instead it should be understood as a warning
+ that a deadlock could have happened here.</para>
- <answer>
- <para>進入 BIOS 設定,並關閉 <quote>boot virus protection</quote> 設定即可。</para>
- </answer>
+ <note>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Problematic <acronym>LOR</acronym>s tend to get
+ fixed quickly, so check the <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-current">FreeBSD-CURRENT mailing list</link> before posting
+ to it.</para>
+ </note>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="newcard-does-not-work">
- <para>PCMCIA 卡無法使用,並出現錯誤訊息
- <quote>cbb0: unsupported card type detected.</quote>
- 該怎麼辦?</para>
+ <question xml:id="called-with-non-sleepable-locks-held">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What does <errorname>Called ... with the following
+ non-sleepable locks held</errorname> mean?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>可以試試看改用舊的方式,請先修改 kernel 設定檔,拿掉下面這幾行:
- <programlisting>device cbb
-device pccard
-device cardbus</programlisting>
- 然後加上:
- <programlisting>device pcic
-device card 1</programlisting>
- 最後請參閱 Handbook 中
- <ulink url="&url.books.handbook;/kernelconfig.html">調整 FreeBSD Kernel</ulink>
- 章節,以重新編譯、安裝新的 kernel。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This means that a function that may sleep was called
+ while a mutex (or other unsleepable) lock was held.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The reason this is an error is because mutexes are not
+ intended to be held for long periods of time; they are
+ supposed to only be held to maintain short periods of
+ synchronization. This programming contract allows device
+ drivers to use mutexes to synchronize with the rest of the
+ kernel during interrupts. Interrupts (under FreeBSD) may not
+ sleep. Hence it is imperative that no subsystem in the
+ kernel block for an extended period while holding a
+ mutex.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To catch such errors, assertions may be added to the
+ kernel that interact with the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>witness</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> subsystem to
+ emit a warning or fatal error (depending on the system
+ configuration) when a potentially blocking call is made
+ while holding a mutex.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">In summary, such warnings are non-fatal, however with
+ unfortunate timing they could cause undesirable effects
+ ranging from a minor blip in the system's responsiveness
+ to a complete system lockup.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For additional information about locking in FreeBSD see
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>locking</refentrytitle><manvolnum>9</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="dell-poweredge-failure">
- <para>為什麼 &dell; &poweredge; 2850 裝完 FreeBSD 之後,重開機接著鍵盤就掛了?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>(本題由 cdsheen 提供)嚐試在 &dell; &poweredge; 2850 上面安裝 &os; 6.0,
- 不過安裝完成、並重新開機之後,發現 console 的鍵盤不能動了,
- 同樣的情況似乎也存在於 &os; 5.3 及 &os; 5.4,
- 經過一番搜尋,發覺是因為這台機器上面有一個 <quote>Dell Remote Access Controller (DRAC)</quote>,
- 這個裝置會被系統辨識成一個 USB Keyboard,所以導致開完機之後,正常的 PS/2 鍵盤反而不能動了!</para>
-
- <para>暫時解決方式如下:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>先以 Single User Mode 進入系統</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>在命令列模式下,先執行下列命令:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>fsck -y <filename>/</filename></userinput></screen>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount -u <filename>/</filename></userinput></screen>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>然後編輯 <filename>/etc/devd.conf</filename>,把對於 USB Keyboard 的支援暫時拿掉,
- 也就是把下面幾行開頭加上 #</para>
- <programlisting>
-# When a USB keyboard arrives, attach it as the console keyboard.
-#attach 100 {
-# device-name "ukbd0";
-# action "kbdcontrol -k /dev/ukbd0 &lt; /dev/console &amp;&amp; /etc/rc.d/syscons restart";
-#};
-#detach 100 {
-# device-name "ukbd0";
-# action "kbdcontrol -k /dev/kbd0 &lt; /dev/console";
-#};
-</programlisting>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>然後輸入 <command>exit</command>離開 Single User Mode 之後,
- 就可以順利進入系統、而且鍵盤也可以正常運作,下次開機也不會有問題!</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
+ <question xml:id="touch-not-found">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does
+ <buildtarget xml:lang="en">buildworld</buildtarget>/<buildtarget xml:lang="en">installworld</buildtarget>
+ die with the message <errorname>touch: not
+ found</errorname>?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>另外,&dell; 的 DRAC/BMC 看起來有蠻多不錯的遠端存取功能,有興趣的人可以玩玩看...</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This error does not mean that the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>touch</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+ utility is missing. The error is instead probably due to
+ the dates of the files being set sometime in the future.
+ If the CMOS clock is set to local time, run
+ <command>adjkerntz -i</command> to adjust
+ the kernel clock when booting into single-user
+ mode.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
</qandaset>
-
- </sect1>
-
</chapter>
- <chapter id="troubleshoot">
- <chapterinfo>
- <author>
- <firstname>William</firstname>
- <surname>Liao</surname>
- <affiliation>
- <address><email>chliao@tpts4.seed.net.tw</email></address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </chapterinfo>
-
- <title>常見問題解決</title>
+ <chapter xml:id="applications">
+ <title xml:lang="en">User Applications</title>
<qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="pae">
- <para>為什麼 &os; 抓到錯誤的記憶體容量?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>抓到錯誤的記憶體容量是因為物理位址跟虛擬位址兩者是不同的。</para>
-
- <para>The convention for most PC hardware is to use the memory area
- between 3.5G and 4G for a special purpose (usually for PCI). This
- address space is used to access PCI hardware. As a result real,
- physical memory can not appear in that address space.</para>
-
- <para>What happens to the memory that should appear in that location
- is dependent on your hardware. Unfortunately, some hardware does
- nothing and the ability to use that last 500M of RAM is entirely
- lost.</para>
-
- <para>Luckily, most hardware remaps the memory to a higher location
- so that it can still be used. However, this can cause some
- confusion if you watch the boot messages.</para>
-
- <para>On a 32 bit version of &os;, the memory appears lost, since it
- will be remapped above 4G, which a 32 bit kernel is unable to
- access. In this case, the solution is to build a PAE enabled
- kernel. See <link linkend="memory-limits">this FAQ entry</link>
- for more information.</para>
-
- <para>On a 64 bit version of &os;, or when running a PAE-enabled
- kernel, &os; will correctly detect and remap the memory so it is
- usable. During boot, however, it may seem as if &os; is detecting
- more memory than the system really has. This is normal and the
- available memory will be corrected as the boot process
- completes.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="awre">
- <para>硬碟有壞軌時該怎麼辦?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>若是 SCSI 硬碟的話,那麼磁碟機應該有能力自動作 re-mapping
- 的動作。然而,因為一些未知的因素,在出廠時,很多硬碟的這項
- 功能是關閉的...</para>
-
- <para>要將其重新開啟,您需要編輯裝置的第一個 page 模式
- (first device page mode),在 FreeBSD 上可以用下面的指令辦到
- (以 <username>root</username>身分執行)</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>scsi -f /dev/rsd0c -m 1 -e -P 3</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>然後將 AWRE 和 ARRE 的數值從 0 變成 1:-</para>
-
- <programlisting>AWRE(Auto Write Reallocation Enbld): 1
-ARRE(Auto Read Reallocation Enbld): 1</programlisting>
-
- <para>以下這段是由 Ted Mittelstaedt
- <email>tedm@toybox.placo.com</email>所提供:</para>
-
- <para>若為 IDE 硬碟,任何的壞軌通常都是麻煩的預兆。目前所有較新的
- IDE 硬碟,內部都有自動 remapping 壞軌的能力。目前所有 IDE 硬碟
- 製造商,都提供了更久的保證,而且會幫您更換出現壞軌的硬碟。</para>
-
- <para>如果您仍想要修復產生壞軌的 IDE 硬碟,您仍可以試著去下載 IDE
- 硬碟製造商所提供的檢測程式,並用它來檢查您的硬碟。有時這些軟體可
- 以強迫重新檢查硬碟的壞軌,並將它們標示出來。</para>
-
- <para>對 ESDI,RLL 及 MFM 的硬碟來說,通常壞軌是正常現象,也不是什
- 麼麻煩的前兆。在 PC 上,磁碟控制卡和 BIOS 負責標示壞軌的任務。這
- 對一些使用 BIOS來存取磁碟的作業環境(如 DOS)是沒有問題的。然而,
- FreeBSD 的磁碟驅動程式並不經過 BIOS 來存取磁碟,所以,有個 bad144
- 的機制用來取代這項功能。bad144 只能用在 wd 這個磁碟驅動程式上(這
- 個代表了 FreeBSD 4.0 並不支援它),它也無法用在 SCSI 硬碟上。
- bad144的工作方法是將所有找到的壞軌資料存到一個特別的檔案裏。</para>
-
- <para>使用 bad144 的警告 - 存著壞軌資料的特別檔案是放在硬碟的最後
- 一軌上。因為這個檔案儲存的壞軌資料中,有可能有些資料是指向硬碟最
- 前端所發生的壞軌情形,就是可能儲存 /kernel 這個檔的地方,所以它
- 一定要能被開機程式所讀取,而開機程式是透過 BIOS 來讀取 kernel
- 檔。這表示了使用 bad144 的硬碟絕不能擁有超過 1024 個 cylinder,
- 16 個 head 及 63 個 sector。而這使得欲使用 bad144 的硬碟的大小不
- 能大於 500 MB。</para>
-
- <para>要使用 bad144 很簡單,只要在開始安裝時,在 FreeBSD fdisk 畫面
- 把<quote>Bad Block</quote> 掃瞄設為 ON 即可。在 FreeBSD 2.2.7 以
- 後都可以使用此方法。但這個硬碟的 cylinder 一定要在 1024 以下。使
- 用前,我們建議這個硬碟要至少先使用四個小時,以便熱膨脹與磁軌偏移
- 達一般狀態。</para>
-
- <para>如果這個硬碟擁有超過 1024 個 cylinder(像大容量的 ESDI 硬碟)
- ,ESDI 控制卡利用一個特別的轉換模式使它能在 DOS 下工作。而如果您
- 在 fdisk 裏的 <quote>set geometry</quote> 中輸入
- <quote>轉換過</quote> 的 geometry,wd 這個驅動程式能了解這些轉換
- 模式。您也絕對不能使用 dangerously dedicated 模式來建立 FreeBSD
- 的分割區,因為它會忽略 geometry 這個參數。此外,就算 fdisk 使用
- 您所輸入的 geometry 參數,它依然會去讀取這硬碟的真正資料,而會嘗
- 試去建立一個過大的 FreeBSD 分割區。如果磁碟的 geometry 已經被
- <quote>轉換</quote> 過了,那麼 這個分割區 <quote>必須</quote>
- 以手動輸入 block 數目的方法來建立。</para>
-
- <para>一個快速的小技巧是利用 ESDI 控制卡來設定大容量的 ESDI 硬碟,
- 用 DOS 開機片開機,再將它 format 為 DOS 的分割區。然後重開機進入
- FreeBSD 安裝程序,在 fdisk 畫面,把DOS 分割區的 blocksize 和
- block number 抄下來。然後重新設定 geometry 使其跟 DOS 使用的一樣。
- 刪除 DOS 分割區,然後使用您剛剛抄下的 blocksize 來建立一個
- <quote>cooperative</quote> FreeBSD 分割區。然後設定這個分割區為可
- 開機,再打開壞軌掃瞄。在真正的安裝過程中,bad144 會在任何檔案系統
- 被建立前先被執行。(您可以按 Alt-F2 來監看這一切)如果在建立壞軌資
- 料檔時發生了問題,您會需要設定一個較大的磁碟 geometry - 這表示您
- 需要重開機,然後全部再重新開始(包括重新分割以及在 DOS 下重新
- format)。</para>
-
- <para>如果 remapping 的功能已經啟動了,而您依然一直看到壞軌產生,
- 那麼考慮換一台硬碟吧。壞軌的情形只會隨時間增加而更為嚴重。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="hpnetserver-scsi-failure">
- <para>為什麼 FreeBSD 抓不到 HP Netserver 的 SCSI 控制卡?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>基本上這個是一個已知的問題。在 HP Netserver 機器上的 on-board
- EISA 介面 SCSI 控制卡占據了定址為第 11 的 EISA 槽,因此所有的
- <quote>真實</quote> EISA 槽都在它之前。可是,在 EISA 定址空間
- &gt;= 10 時,會與指定給 PCI 用的定址空間相衝突,且 FreeBSD 的
- auto-configuration 無法正確的處理這個情形。</para>
-
- <para>因此,現在你能做的最好事情就是在 kernel 裏設定
- <literal>EISA_SLOTS</literal> 這個選項為 12 ,然後當作沒有這個
- 問題 :)。請依照 <ulink url="../../handbook/kernelconfig.html">
- Handbook 中有關 kernel 的設定</ulink> 裏所說的方法來設定與編譯
- 您的 kernel。</para>
-
- <para>當然,在安裝 FreeBSD 到這種機器上時,這是一個雞生蛋蛋生雞的
- 問題。為了解決這個問題,在 <emphasis>UserConfig</emphasis> 中有
- 一個特別的方法,安裝時不要進入 <quote>visual</quote> 介面,相反
- 的,在命令列模式中,鍵入</para>
-
- <programlisting>eisa 12
-quit</programlisting>
-
- <para>然後就如以往一樣安裝您的系統。不過我們建議您編譯與安裝一個
- 屬於自己的 kernel,但</para>
-
- <para>希望在未來的版本中能對這個問題有一個好的解決方法。</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>您無法在 HP Netserver 上使用
- <literal>dangerously dedicated</literal> 磁碟模式。您可以參考
- <link linkend="dedicate">這份註解</link> 以獲得更多資訊。</para>
- </note>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ed1-timeout">
- <para>一直看到類似
- <errorname>ed1: timeout</errorname> 的訊息。它們是什麼意思呢?
- </para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>這個通常是由於中斷衝突(interrupt conflict)所造成的
- (例如:兩塊卡使用到了相同的 IRQ)。 FreeBSD 在 2.0.5 版以前都容許這個情形,
- 就算有 IRQ 衝突情形,網路卡也應該仍可正常運作。然而,在 2.0.5 版及其以後,
- 已不再容許有 IRQ 衝突的情形了。請於開機時使用 -c 這個選項,
- 然後更改 ed0/de0/..等的設定,使其和您網路卡本身的設定一致。</para>
-
- <para>如果您是使用您網路卡上的 BNC 接頭,您或許也會因不良的終端電阻設定,
- 而發生裝置(device) timeout 的情形。要檢查是否有這種情形,
- 您可以在網路卡上直接接上終端電阻(不要接網路線),
- 然後,看看這個錯誤訊息是不是就消失了。</para>
-
- <para>有些 NE2000 的相容卡,如果它的 UTP 埠沒有接網路線,
- 或是該網路線並沒被使用的話,也會出現這個錯誤訊息。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="bad-3c509">
- <para>&tm.3com; 3C509 網路卡莫名其妙罷工?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>這塊卡有個不好的地方在於它常常會遺失本身的設定資料。請使用該
- 卡的 DOS 工具 <command>3c5x9.exe</command> 來更新卡上設定。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="printer-slow">
- <para>平行埠印表速度破天荒的慢,該怎麼辦?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>如果唯一的問題就是速度很慢的話,試著改變您的 <ulink
- url="../handbook/printing-intro-setup.html#PRINTING-PARALLEL-PORT-MODE">
- 印表機連接埠設定</ulink> 這個在手冊中的
- <ulink url="../handbook/printing-intro-setup.html">印表機設定
- </ulink> 這個章節有加以討論。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="signal11">
- <para>程式有時會因 <errorname>Signal 11</errorname> 錯誤而停止?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Signal 11 這個錯誤是因為你的 process 嘗試要存取一塊記憶體,
- 而你的作業系統並不允許它做這個動作而發生的。如果這種情形常常不
- 定時發生,那麼你應該要開始看看是不是哪裡出問題了。</para>
-
- <para>這些問題可能是與下列情形有關:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>如果這個問題只在某一個您自己寫的某個特定程式發生,那
- 麼很有可能是您的程式碼有問題。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>如果這個問題是在 FreeBSD 的某些系統檔案發生,有可能是
- 因為程式有問題,但通常在我們這群讀 FAQ 的使用者去跑這些有
- 問題的程式碼前,它們早就就已經被解決了(這是 -current 在做
- 的事)。</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
-
- <para>尤其如果你在編譯一個程式,但是每次編譯器跑出來的結果都不一樣
- 的話,這是一個無解的問題,而<emphasis>不是</emphasis> FreeBSD 臭蟲。</para>
-
- <para>舉例來說,假設您正在跑 <quote>make buildworld</quote>,
- 而 compiler 在將 <filename>ls.c</filename> 編譯成
- <filename>ls.o</filename> 時發生錯誤,這時請再跑一次
- <quote>make buildworld</quote>,如果 compiler 依然在同樣的地方發
- 生問題,那麼就是程式碼有問題--請更新原始碼然後再試試看。而如果
- compiler 是在其他的地方發生錯誤,那麼幾乎可以確定是硬體的問題了。
- </para>
-
- <para>您這時應該做什麼:</para>
-
- <para>如果是第一種情形,可以使用一些 debugger,如:gdb,來找出程式
- 是在那兒會去嘗試存取錯誤的記憶體位址,然後再修正它。</para>
-
- <para>如果是第二種情形,就需要檢查看看是不是硬體的問題了。</para>
-
- <para>一些造成硬體不穩的原因包括:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>可能是硬碟過熱:請檢查機殼內的風扇是否運作正常,因為您
- 的硬碟(或者還有其他的硬體裝置)過熱了。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>處理器過熱:這個有可能是因為超頻,或者是處理器的風扇掛了。
- 不論是哪種原因,您都需要將所有的元件回復到它們原先設定的工作狀
- 態,這樣才能解決這個問題。舉個例子來說:將處理器調回原先的工作
- 頻率。</para>
-
- <para>如果您還是堅持要超頻的話,請謹記,與其燒壞而需要換新的一台
- 主機,不如將速度調慢一點!除此之外,不管你覺得它安不安全,一般
- 人對於您因為超頻而發生的問題,是不會有什麼同情心的。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>不穩定的記憶體:如果主機上有安裝數根 SIMM/DIMM 記憶體,
- 試著把它們全拆下來,然後一根一根插上去做測試,藉此縮小範圍,
- 以便找出有問題的某根記憶體或是某種記憶體組合。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>最佳化過頭的主機板設定:在 BIOS 裏或是有些主機板的 jumper
- 上,有時可以更改一些 timing,但在大多數的情形裏,使用預設值就
- 已經足夠了。況且有時候把 RAM 的 wait states 設太小,或是在
- BIOS 裏,把 <quote>RAM Speed: Turbo</quote> 這個或是其他類似
- 的選項打開都有可能會造成一些不正常的現象。一個解決的方法是把
- BIOS 設回預設值,不過在這之前記得先記下目前的設定!</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>供給主機板的電力不乾淨或是不足。試著把系統內沒有用到的
- I/O 卡.硬碟或是 CDROM 暫時拆掉或是拔掉電源線,看看你的電源
- 供應器是不是能夠在小一點的負荷下正常工作。不然就是換上另一
- 個新的電源供應器,最好是瓦數高一點的(打個比方來說,如果原
- 先的電源供應器是 250 瓦的,那麼就換上 300 瓦的試試)。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- </orderedlist>
-
- <para>請順便參閱 SIG11 FAQ(連結在下面),雖然它是站在 Linux 的角
- 度寫的,可是裡面對這些問題有許多很棒的解說。它裡面也有討論為什麼
- 有問題的記憶體能通過軟體或硬體的測試的原因。</para>
-
- <para>最後,如果上面這些原因都排除了,那麼有可能是遇到了 FreeBSD
- 裏的一隻臭蟲,請參閱指示做一個問題回報。</para>
-
- <para>這兒有一個更詳細的 FAQ - <ulink
- url="http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/">
- the SIG11 problem FAQ</ulink></para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="trap-12-panic">
- <para>當機時出現:<errorname>Fatal trap 12: page fault in kernel mode</errorname>
- ,或是 <errorname>panic:</errorname> 以及一堆錯誤訊息,該怎麼辦?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 的開發者對於這些錯誤訊息相當的有興趣,但是他們需要
- 更詳細的一些細節。請把您的當機的訊息全部複製下來,接著查閱 FAQ
- 裏 <link linkend="kernel-panic-troubleshooting">kernel
- panics</link> 這節,依說明編譯一個含除錯碼的 kernel,以取得函式
- 呼叫順序(backtrace)。這個聽起來很難,但實際上並不需要任何程式
- 設計的能力,您只需要依照指示做即可。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="screen-loses-sync">
- <para>為什麼當我開機時,螢幕變黑,且不停閃動?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>這個問題,已知是由 ATI Mach 64 顯示卡所引起的。因為這塊卡
- 使用到 <literal>2e8</literal> 這個位址,而這與第四個序列埠
- (serial port)所使用的位址相同。而在 &man.sio.4; 這個驅動
- 程式裏,不知道是 bug 或是功能(feature),就算您沒有第四個序
- 列埠,或是已經將 sio3(第四個序列埠)取消了,它
- <emphasis>依然</emphasis>會去嘗試驅動它。</para>
-
- <para>直到這個問題被解決以前,您可以使用這個方法:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>在看到開機提示時輸入 <option>-c</option>
- (這會讓 kernel 進入設定模式)。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>取消 <devicename>sio0</devicename> ,
- <devicename>sio1</devicename> ,
- <devicename>sio2</devicename> 和
- <devicename>sio3</devicename>(全部)。
- 這可以讓 sio 驅動程式不動作 -&gt; 於是問題解決。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>輸入 exit 以繼續啟動程序。</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
-
- <para>如果您想要使用您的序列埠,您需要修改
- <filename>/usr/src/sys/i386/isa/sio.c</filename>,在該檔中找出
- <literal>0x2e8</literal> 這個字串,移除這個字串及它前面的逗號
- (保留後面的),然後重新編譯一個新的 kernel。</para>
-
- <para>就算使用了上面這些方法,X Window 仍然有可能無法順利執行。
- 如果發生了這種情形,請確定你用的 XFree86 的版本是最新的 XFree86
- 3.3.3 或是其後的版本。它們有內建支援 Mach 64 這張卡,甚至為了這
- 些卡還附有一個特別的 X Server</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="reallybigram">
- <para>為什麼我的系統裝有 128 MB 的 RAM,而 FreeBSD 只用了其中的
- 64MB?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>因為 FreeBSD 是使用呼叫 BIOS 來取得記憶體大小的方法,因此它
- 只能偵測到 16 bits 位元長度的 KByte 大小(65535 KBytes = 64MB)
- (或者更少..。有些 BIOS 將最高記憶體大小限為只有 16MB)
- 如果您擁有 64MB 以上的 RAM,FreeBSD 會嘗試去偵測出它,但是有可能
- 會失敗。</para>
-
- <para>要解決這個問題,您需要使用下面所提的 kernel 設定選項。雖然有
- 方法可以從 BIOS 中取得記憶體的完整資訊,但是目前我們在開機區中並
- 沒有多餘的空間來做這件事。當某天開機區空間不足的情形獲得解決時,
- 我們將會使用 BIOS 的延伸功能來取得記憶體的完整資訊...但現在我們
- 將它放在 kernel 設定選項中。</para>
-
- <para><literal>options "MAXMEM=<replaceable>n</replaceable>"</literal></para>
-
- <para><replaceable>n</replaceable> 是指您的記憶體大小,以 KB
- 為單位。以一台有 128MB RAM 的機器來說,您可使用
- <literal>131072</literal>這個數字。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="kmem-map-too-small">
- <para>機器上的 RAM 有 1GB 以上,可是為何卻收到 <quote>kmem_map too small</quote>
- 的 panic 錯誤訊息?
- </para>
+ <question xml:id="user-apps">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Where are all the user applications?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>通常 FreeBSD 會依據機器狀況來自動調整 kernel 相關參數設定,比如:
- 根據機器所裝的 RAM 大小來決定同時可開啟的檔案數量多寡。
- 然而,在 1GB RAM(含以上) 的機器上,這個『自動調整』的機制可能有時會高估:
- 比方說..開機時,kernel 會先配置各種不同用途的表格及其他架構放到記憶體上,
- 然後,當整個作業系統都開始運作之後,kernel 就會開始不夠空間來做記憶體配置的動態調整,
- 於是就 panic 掛了。</para>
-
- <para>解法是:把 <option>VM_KMEM_SIZE_MAX</option> 加到 kernel 設定檔內,
- 並重新編譯 kernel,比如:</para>
-
- <para><literal><option>options VM_KMEM_SIZE_MAX=419430400</option></literal></para>
-
- <para>
- 這樣會設定 400&nbsp;MB 來給 kernel 使用,而且採用 400&nbsp;MB 的話,
- 目前在 6GB RAM 的機器上都可被有效運用。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Refer to <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/ports/index.html">the ports
+ page</link> for info on software packages ported to
+ FreeBSD. The list currently tops 24,000 and is
+ growing daily, so come back to check often or subscribe to
+ the <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-announce">FreeBSD announcements mailing list</link> for periodic updates on new
+ entries.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Most ports should work on all supported versions of
+ FreeBSD. Those that do not are specifically marked as such.
+ Each time a FreeBSD release is made, a snapshot of the ports
+ tree at the time of release in also included in the
+ <filename>ports/</filename> directory.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD supports compressed binary packages to easily
+ install and uninstall ports. Use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pkg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry> to control
+ the installation of packages.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="panic-kmemmap-too-small">
- <para>機器上 RAM 不到 1GB ,但仍會出現
- <errorname>kmem_map too small!</errorname> 的 panic 錯誤訊息
- </para>
+ <question xml:id="how-do-download-ports-tree">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I download the Ports tree? Should I be using
+ SVN?</para>
</question>
- <answer>
- <para>之所以 panic 的原因在於系統用光了給 network buffer 用途的 virtual memory
- (尤其是 mbuf clusters)。解法是增加給 mbuf clusters 用的 virtual memory
- 數量,這步驟請參閱 FreeBSD 使用手冊的
- <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/configtuning-kernel-limits.html#NMBCLUSTERS">網路限制篇</ulink>
- 。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
-<!--
-以下為舊版 faq 內容
- <para>這個 panic 的原因是表示系統用光了給網路緩衝區的所有的虛
- 擬記憶體(特別是 mbuf clusters)。您可以增加給 mbuf clusters
- 的 VM 的數量,只要加入:</para>
-
- <para><literal>options "NMBCLUSTERS=<replaceable>n</replaceable>"</literal></para>
-
- <para>在您的 kernel 設定檔中,<replaceable>n</replaceable>
- 是一個在 512-4096 間的數字,依您想提供多少同時的 TCP 連接數目
- 多寡而定。我會建議試試 2048 - 這數字應該可以完全避免這個 panic
- 了。您可以執行: <command>netstat -m</command>
- (see &man.netstat.1;)來監看有多少 mbuf clusters 在系統上正被
- 配置/使用。NMBCLUSTERS 的數值內定為 <literal>512 + MAXUSERS * 16
- </literal>。</para>
--->
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="proc-table-full">
- <para>為什麼我一直看到 <errorname>/kernel: proc: table
- is full</errorname> 這個錯誤訊息?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD kernel 只允許一定數量的 process 在同一時間裡同
- 時運作。而這個數目是根據 kernel 設定檔裡面的
- <literal>MAXUSERS</literal> 值來決定的。<literal>MAXUSERS</literal>
- 這個值也會影響其他的 kernel 內定值,比如說 network buffer
- (請參閱<link linkend="panic-kmemmap-too-small">這個</link>之前討
- 論過的問題)。如果機器負荷(load)很重,您可能需要增加
- <literal>MAXUSERS</literal> 這個值。這麼作會一併提高系統的其他內
- 定值,包括最大可擁有的 process 數等。</para>
-
- <para>若要調整 <literal>MAXUSERS</literal>,請參閱 FreeBSD 使用手冊中的 <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/configtuning-kernel-limits.html#KERN-MAXFILES">
- 檔案/Process的限制</ulink> 章節。
- (雖然該處指的是『檔案的開啟數量限制』,但也適用於 process部分。)</para>
-
- <para>在 FreeBSD 4.4 之後,<literal>MAXUSERS</literal> 已經變成可
- 以靠著更改 <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> 裏的
- <varname>kern.maxusers</varname> 這個值而調整的變數了。而在之前
- 的 FreeBSD 版本中,這個值只能在 kernel 設定檔裏調整。</para>
-
- <para>如果機器負荷並不重,而您只是需要同時跑很多很多 process,
- 那麼也可以直接用 sysctl 調整 <varname>kern.maxproc</varname> 值。
- 假如這些 process 都是屬於某個使用者的,那麼您還需要另
- 外調整 <varname>kern.maxprocperuid</varname> 這個值,使它比新
- 的 <varname>kern.maxproc</varname> 這個值少 1 (一定要少 1 ,
- 因為 &man.init.8; 這個系統程式絕對要保持在運作狀態)。</para>
-
- <para>如果想在每次開機都要更改 sysctl 的值,而且您的 FreeBSD 是
- 最近的版本的話,請在 <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename> 這
- 個檔中設定,而如果是舊的版本,可以在
- <filename>/etc/rc.local</filename> 中作設定。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="cmap-busy-panic">
- <para>為什麼用新 kernel 開機時,出現 <errorname>CMAP
- busy</errorname> 這個錯誤訊息?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>用來偵測 <filename>/var/db/kvm_*.db</filename> 過時檔案的機制偶爾會發生問題,而使用到了一個不協調
- (mismatch)的檔案有時就會導致 panic。</para>
-
- <para>如果發生了這個問題,請重新開機,進入 single 使用者模式,然後執行:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>rm /var/db/kvm_*.db</userinput></screen>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="brkadrint-illegal-host-access">
- <para>請問這個訊息:<errorname>ahc0: brkadrint, Illegal Host Access at seqaddr 0x0</errorname>
- 是什麼意思?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>這是一個和 Ultrastor SCSI 控制卡有關的衝突(conflict)。</para>
-
- <para>在開機時,進入 kernel 設定選單取消
- <devicename>uha0</devicename>,它是造成這個問題的原因。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="aci0-illegal-cable">
- <para>開機時,看到這個錯誤訊息 <errorname>ahc0: illegal cable configuration</errorname>。
- 我的排線確定有接對。 是出了什麼問題呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>您的主機板可能不支援自動終端電阻設定。請進到 SCSI 的 BIOS
- 裡面手動指定正確的終端電阻順序,而不要使用自動設定。
- AIC7XXX 的驅動程式並無法知道有沒有這些排線偵測(以及自動終端電阻設定)的電路(external logic)
- 存在。如果 EEPROM 裡面的設定是 "automatic termination" 時,它只會單純假定這些電路當然是存在的。
- 若缺少了這個電路,驅動程式在設定終端電阻時就常常出問題。
- 而這種問題將導致 SCSI 匯流排的可靠性降低。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="mail-loopback">
- <para>為什麼 Sendmail 一直出現
- <quote><errorname>mail loops back to myself</errorname></quote>
- 這個錯誤訊息?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>這個問題在 sendmail 的 FAQ 中是這樣回答的:-</para>
-
-<literallayout> * 我一直收到有關 "Local configuration error" 的信件,例如:
-
- 553 relay.domain.net config error: mail loops back to myself
- 554 &lt;user@domain.net&gt;... Local configuration error
-
- 我要如何解決這個問題?
-
- 您利用 MX 設定,讓要寄到某 domain(如: domain.net)的信件,
- 寄到您所指定的機器(在這個例子中為 relay.domain.net),但是這
- 部機器並未被設定接受 domain.net 的信件。請把 domain.net 加到
- /etc/sendmail.cw 中(如果您有使用 FEATURE(use_cw_file)) 或是
- 在 sendmail.cf 中加入 "Cw domain.net"
- </literallayout>
-
- <para>最新版本的 <ulink url="ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/mail/sendmail-faq">sendmail
- FAQ</ulink> 現在已不再隨著 sendmail <quote>出貨</quote>。
- 它目前是被定期的發表在 <ulink
- url="news:comp.mail.sendmail">comp.mail.sendmail</ulink>,
- <ulink url="news:comp.mail.misc">comp.mail.misc</ulink>,<ulink
- url="news:comp.mail.smail">comp.mail.smail</ulink>,<ulink
- url="news:comp.answers">comp.answers</ulink>,和 <ulink
- url="news:news.answers">news.answers</ulink>. 您也可以寄一封
- Email 到 <email>mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu</email>,然後在信件內文
- 中寫上
- <literal>send usenet/news.answers/mail/sendmail-faq</literal>
- 以取得這份 FAQ 文件。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="remote-fullscreen">
- <para>為什麼執行遠端機器(remote machine)的全螢幕的軟體時,
- 有不正常的情形?</para>
- </question>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Any of the methods listed here work:</para>
- <answer>
- <para>或許遠端機器並非將您的終端機模式設為 FreeBSD console 所用的
- <literal>cons25</literal>,而是設為其它模式。</para>
-
- <para>這兒有幾個解決這個問題的方法:</para>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>在 logging 進遠端機器後,更改您的 shell 變數 TERM 為
- <literal>ansi</literal> 或是 <literal>sco</literal>
- ﹙如果遠端機器支援這些模式的話)。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>使用支援 VT100 的模擬軟體,如 FreeBSD console 下的
- <application>screen</application> 軟體。
- <application>screen</application> 提供您在一個 terminal
- 裏同時跑好幾個 session 的能力,而且它本身也是一個相當好
- 的軟體。每個 <application>screen</application> 都像是一個
- VT100 的終端機,所以遠端機器的 TERM 變數應該設為
- <literal>vt100</literal>。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>在遠端機器的終端機資料庫(terminal database)中加入
- <literal>cons25</literal> 的資料。加入的方法視遠端機器的
- 作業系統不同而有所差異。請參閱遠端機器給系統管理員的說明
- 書,應該會有所幫助。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>啟動 FreeBSD 的 X 伺服器,然後使用一些 X Window 下的
- 終端機模擬器來登入遠端機器,例如 <command>xterm</command>
- 或 <command>rxvt</command>。而遠端機器的 TERM 變數應該要
- 設為 <literal>xterm</literal> 或 <literal>vt100</literal>。
- </para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="calcru-negative">
- <para>為什麼我的機器一直顯示
- <errorname>calcru: negative time...</errorname>?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>跟中斷(interrupt)有關的不同硬體 與/或 軟體的搭配都有可能造成
- 這個問題。這有可能是 bug 或是某個裝置本身的問題。在平行埠上使用
- 大的 MTU 來作 TCP/IP 傳輸可以重現這個問題。若是圖形加速卡造成這個
- 問題的話,您應該先檢查卡的中斷設定。</para>
-
- <para>這個問題的邊際效應是會造成有些 process 出現
- <quote>SIGXCPU exceeded cpu time limit</quote> 的訊息,而不正常
- 停止。</para>
-
- <para>若是 FreeBSD 3.0 或是 1998 年 11 月 29 日以後其他版本,萬一
- 這個問題一直無法以其他方法解決,就只能設定 sysctl 變數:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl -w kern.timecounter.method=1</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>這樣會對效能有些影響,但是若考慮到這個問題帶來的後果,這樣做
- 是值得的。如果這個問題還是存在的話,讓 sysctl 那個值依然設為 1,
- 然後增加 kernel 設定檔中 <literal>NTIMECOUNTER</literal> 這個選
- 項的數值。如果您將 <literal>NTIMECOUNTER</literal> 增加到 20 依
- 然無法解決這個問題,那麼您機器上的中斷已經多到無法讓計數器維持在
- 可靠的狀態了。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="pcm0-not-found">
- <para>出現 <errorname>pcm0 not found</errorname> 這個訊息,或者是
- 我的音效卡變成了 <devicename>pcm1</devicename>,但在 kernel 設定
- 檔裏我是設 <literal>device pcm0</literal> 啊。這是怎麼回事呢?
- </para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>如果您在 FreeBSD 3.x 上使用 PCI 音效卡就會發生這種問題。
- 因為<devicename>pcm0</devicename> 這個 device 是內定保留給 ISA
- 的音效卡的,所以如果您有一張 PCI 的音效卡,您就會遇到這個問題,
- 而您的卡會變成 <devicename>pcm1</devicename>。</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>如果您只把 kernel 設定檔中的設定改成
- <literal>device pcm1</literal> 是無法除去這個警告訊息的,
- 這樣會造成 <devicename>pcm1</devicename> 被保留給 ISA 音效卡,
- 而 PCI 音效卡則會變成 <devicename>pcm2</devicename>
- (外加 <errorname>pcm1 not found</errorname> 的警告訊息)。
- </para>
- </note>
-
- <para>如果您有一張 PCI 的音效卡,您需要 make
- <devicename>snd1</devicename> 這個 device,而不是
- <devicename>snd0</devicename>:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>./MAKEDEV snd1</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>這個問題在 FreeBSD 4.x 上並不會發生,因為很多人投下了許多心
- 力讓它更<emphasis>PnP 導向</emphasis>,而且
- <devicename>pcm0</devicename> 這個 device 也不再是只保留給 ISA
- 的音效卡了。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="pnp-not-found">
- <para>為什麼在更新到 FreeBSD 4.X 後會抓不到我的 PnP 卡
- (或者是抓成 <literal>unknown</literal>)?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 4.X 現在已經更 <emphasis>PnP 導向</emphasis>了,
- 而邊際效應就是會發生有些在 FreeBSD 3.X 可以用的 PnP 裝置
- (如音效卡或是內插式數據機)變成無法使用。</para>
-
- <para>這個原因可以用一封由 Peter Wemm 發到 freebsd-questions
- 這個 mailing list 上的信來解釋,它原本是解釋為什麼有一個內
- 插式數據機,在系統升級到 FreeBSD 4.x 後,就沒法被抓到了
- (在 <literal>[]</literal> 裏的是另外加的註解,讓內容更易懂)。
- </para>
-
- <blockquote>
- <para>The PNP bios preconfigured it [the modem] and left it
- laying around in port space,so [in 3.x] the old-style ISA
- probes <quote>found</quote> it there.</para>
-
- <para>Under 4.0,the ISA code is much more PnP-centric. It was
- possible [in 3.x] for an ISA probe to find a
- <quote>stray</quote> device and then for the PNP device id to
- match and then fail due to resource conflicts. So,it
- disables the programmable cards first so this double probing
- cannot happen. It also means that it needs to know the PnP
- id's for supported PnP hardware. Making this more user
- tweakable is on the TODO list.</para>
- </blockquote>
-
- <para>如果要讓裝置能再度運作,我們需要找出它的 PnP id,然後再將它
- 加入一份在偵測 ISA 裝置時會使用的表中。可以執行 &man.pnpinfo.8;
- 來偵測這個裝置,舉例來說,下面是 &man.pnpinfo.8; 抓到的一個內插
- 式數據機的資料:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pnpinfo</userinput>
-Checking for Plug-n-Play devices...
-
-Card assigned CSN #1
-Vendor ID PMC2430 (0x3024a341),Serial Number 0xffffffff
-PnP Version 1.0,Vendor Version 0
-Device Description: Pace 56 Voice Internal Plug & Play Modem
-
-Logical Device ID: PMC2430 0x3024a341 #0
- Device supports I/O Range Check
-TAG Start DF
- I/O Range 0x3f8 .. 0x3f8,alignment 0x8,len 0x8
- [16-bit addr]
- IRQ: 4 - only one type (true/edge)</screen>
-
- <para>[more TAG lines elided]</para>
-
- <screen>TAG End DF
-End Tag
-
-Successfully got 31 resources,1 logical fdevs
--- card select # 0x0001
-
-CSN PMC2430 (0x3024a341),Serial Number 0xffffffff
-
-Logical device #0
-IO: 0x03e8 0x03e8 0x03e8 0x03e8 0x03e8 0x03e8 0x03e8 0x03e8
-IRQ 5 0
-DMA 4 0
-IO range check 0x00 activate 0x01</screen>
-
- <para>您所需要的資訊是一開始看到的 <quote>Vendor ID</quote>
- 這一行。括號中的十六位元碼(這個例子中是 0x3024a341)就是
- PnP id,而在這之前的字串(PMC2430)則是一個獨一無二的 ASCII id。
- 而這些資料需要被加到 <filename>/usr/src/sys/isa/sio.c</filename>
- 這個檔案裏。</para>
-
- <para>為了防止任何東西出錯,您應該要先備份目前的
- <filename>sio.c</filename>。而且您要 submit PR 時也需要這個
- 原始檔案來做出 patch(您應該會將它 submit PR 吧..:)..)。
- 接著就編輯 <filename>sio.c</filename> 找尋下面這行</para>
-
- <programlisting>static struct isa_pnp_id sio_ids[] = {</programlisting>
-
- <para>接著往下捲動,找個正確的位置來插入您的裝置資訊。您看到的就
- 下面這個樣子,它們是照右邊註解裡面的 ASCII 這個 Vender ID 做排
- 序的,或是 &man.pnpinfo.8; 所找到的一部分
- <emphasis>裝置描述</emphasis>:</para>
-
- <programlisting>{0x0f804f3f,NULL}, /* OZO800f - Zoom 2812 (56k Modem) */
-{0x39804f3f,NULL}, /* OZO8039 - Zoom 56k flex */
-{0x3024a341,NULL}, /* PMC2430 - Pace 56 Voice Internal Modem */
-{0x1000eb49,NULL}, /* ROK0010 - Rockwell ? */
-{0x5002734a,NULL}, /* RSS0250 - 5614Jx3(G) Internal Modem */</programlisting>
-
- <para>把您這個裝置的十六進位的 Vender ID 加到正確的地方,存檔,
- 然後重新編一個 kernel,再重開機。之後這個裝置應該就會像在
- FreeBSD 3.X 下,被偵測為 <literal>sio</literal> 裝置了。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="nlist-failed">
- <para>為什麼我常常在跑一些程式(例如 <command>top</command> 或
- <command>systat</command>)的時候出現
- <errorname>nlist failed</errorname> 這個錯誤訊息?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>這個問題是因為您跑的程式需要一個特別的 kernel symbol,可是
- 不知道什麼原因而找不到﹔而會發生這個問題可能是因為下面兩個原因:
- </para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>您的 kernel 和 userland 的檔案版本並不一致(例如說,您
- 編了一個新的 kernel,但是並沒有執行對應的
- <maketarget>installworld</maketarget>,或是其他類似情形),
- 因此 symbol table 的內容就和應用程式編譯時的不太一樣了。如
- 果是這種情形,請執行完整的升級步驟(請參閱
- <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename> 以得知正確的流
- 程)。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>您沒有用 <command>/boot/loader</command> 來載入您的
- kernel,而是直接由 boot2 開機(請參閱 &man.boot.8;)。
- 雖然說跳過 <command>/boot/loader</command> 並沒有什麼錯,
- 但是它在 kernel symbols 跟應用程式的溝通方面佔了很重的份量。
- </para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="connection-delay">
- <para>為什麼我用 <command>ssh</command> 或 <command>telnet</command>
- 連到我的電腦時,會等待很長的一段時間才能連上?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>症狀:TCP 連線建立之後和詢問密碼之前(如果是在說 &man.telnet.1;
- 的話,則是 login 提示符號跳出來之前),要等待很長的一段時
- 間。</para>
-
- <para>問題所在:這種延遲情形常常是因為伺服軟體(server software)
- 嘗試要將客戶端(client)的 IP 位址轉換成主機名稱。因為很多伺服
- 軟體,包括 FreeBSD 內建的 Telnet 和 SSH,為了將主機名稱寫入紀
- 錄檔中以供管理者作參考,而會做這項動作。</para>
-
- <para>解決方法:如果這個問題在您連接不同的伺服器時都會發生,那麼
- 問題是在您客戶端這一方﹔同樣的,如果別人只有在連到您的伺服器上
- 才會發生這個情形,那麼問題就是在伺服器這邊了。</para>
-
- <para>如果是客戶端這方有問題,唯一的方法就是將 DNS 伺服器修好,
- 這樣對方伺服器才能正確的轉換名稱。如果問題是在內部區域網路發
- 生的,這應該是伺服器有問題,請詳細檢查一下﹔相反的,如果是您
- 在上 Internet 時發生的,那麼您需要跟您的 ISP 聯絡,請他們解決
- 這個問題。</para>
-
- <para>如果是伺服器這邊的問題,而且是發生在內部區域網路,那麼您需
- 要設定這個伺服器,使它能正確將內部網路的 IP 位址轉換為主機名稱。
- 請參閱 &man.hosts.5; 和 &man.named.8; 的說明以獲得更多資訊。如
- 果是在 Internet 上的伺服器發生這個問題,那麼有可能是您伺服器的
- 轉換功能出問題。您可以試試查詢另一個主機名稱,比如:
- <hostid>www.yahoo.com</hostid>。如果查不到,那麼可以確定是您這
- 邊出問題了。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="stray-irq">
- <para><errorname>stray IRQ</errorname> 這個錯誤訊息是什麼意思?</para>
- </question>
- <answer>
- <para>Stray IRQs 是硬體 IRQ 有點小問題的現象,大多是因為硬體本身
- 在發出中斷需求後,又取消了它自己的中斷要求。</para>
- <para>有三個方法可以應付這個問題:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>不理會這個警告。反正一個 irq 出現五次警告後系統就不會
- 再顯示了。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Use portsnap for most use cases. Refer to <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports-using.html">Using
+ the Ports Collection</link> for instructions on how to
+ use this tool.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>把 <function>isa_strayintr()</function> 裏的值,由 5
- 改成 0,這樣所有的警告訊息都不會出現。</para>
- </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>安裝使用 irq 7 的平行埠硬體設備,以及它的 PPP 驅動程式
- (這個大部分系統都有做),接著安裝 ide 硬碟或是其他會使用
- irq 15 的硬體設備以及它的驅動程式。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Use SVN if custom patches to the
+ ports tree are needed. Refer to <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/svn.html">Using
+ Subversion</link> for details.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="file-table-full">
- <para>為什麼 <errorname>file: table is full</errorname> 這個訊息
- 一直在 dmesg 裏重複出現?</para>
- </question>
- <answer>
- <para>這個錯誤訊息代表了您系統的 file descriptors 已經使用光了。
- 請參閱手冊內 <ulink url="../handbook/configtuning-kernel-limits.html">
- Tuning Kernel Limits</ulink> 裡面的 <ulink
- url="../handbook/configtuning-kernel-limits.html#KERN-MAXFILES">
- kern.maxfiles</ulink> 這個章節,裡面有一些討論及解決方法。</para>
- </answer>
+ <question xml:id="java">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Does FreeBSD support <trademark>Java</trademark>?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yes. Refer to <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/java/index.html">https://www.FreeBSD.org/java/</link>
+ for more information.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="laptop-clock-skew">
- <para>為什麼我筆記型電腦上的時鐘一直顯示錯誤的時間?</para>
+ <question xml:id="ports-4x">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why can I not build this port on my
+ 10.<replaceable>X</replaceable> -, or
+ 11.<replaceable>X</replaceable> -STABLE machine?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>您的筆記型電腦裡有兩個以上的時鐘,而 FreeBSD 選到了錯的
- 那個。</para>
-
- <para>執行 &man.dmesg.8;,檢查一下有 <literal>Timecounter</literal>
- 字串的那幾行。最後一行是 FreeBSD 選用的,通常是
- <literal>TSC</literal>。</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dmesg | grep Timecounter</userinput>
-Timecounter "i8254" frequency 1193182 Hz
-Timecounter "TSC" frequency 595573479 Hz</screen>
-
- <para>您可以執行 &man.sysctl.3; 看一下
- <varname>kern.timecounter.hardware</varname> 這個值做確認。</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl kern.timecounter.hardware</userinput>
-kern.timecounter.hardware: TSC</screen>
-
- <para>BIOS 可能在一些情形下會更改 TSC 的時脈&mdash;有時候是因為
- 在使用電池工作時會更改處理器的速度,另外也有可能是進入了省電模
- 式,可是 FreeBSD 並不會察覺到這些調整,而會發生時間增加或是減
- 少的情形。</para>
-
- <para>在上面的例子當中,我們看到還有 <literal>i8254</literal>
- 這個時鐘可以選擇,執行 &man.sysctl.3; 用手動的方式將這個值寫入
- <varname>kern.timecounter.hardware</varname> 中。</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl -w kern.timecounter.hardware=i8254</userinput>
-kern.timecounter.hardware: TSC -&gt; i8254</screen>
-
- <para>這樣您的筆記型電腦應該就可以保持正確的時間了。</para>
-
- <para>如果要讓這個更改的動作再每次開機時自動執行,在
- <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename> 裏加入下面這行。</para>
-
- <programlisting>kern.timecounter.hardware=i8254</programlisting>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the installed FreeBSD version lags
+ significantly behind <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> or
+ <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>, update the
+ Ports Collection using the instructions in <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports-using.html">Using
+ the Ports Collection</link>. If the system is
+ up-to-date, someone might have committed a change to the
+ port which works for <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> but
+ which broke the port for <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>.
+ <link xlink:href="https://bugs.FreeBSD.org/submit/">Submit</link>
+ a bug report, since the Ports Collection is supposed to
+ work
+ for both the <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> and
+ <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> branches.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="null-null">
- <para>為什麼我的筆記型電腦無法正確的偵測到 PC card ?</para>
+ <question xml:id="make-index">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I just tried to build <filename>INDEX</filename> using
+ <command>make index</command>, and it failed. Why?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>這個問題常常發生在灌了多個作業系統的筆記型電腦上。有些非
- BSD 的作業系統會讓 PC card 的硬體裝置處在一個不一致的狀態下
- (inconsistent state)。使得 <command>pccardd</command> 在偵
- 測這片卡時,無法抓到正確的型號,而是
- <errorname>"(null)""(null)"</errorname>。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">First, make sure that the Ports Collection is
+ up-to-date. Errors that affect building
+ <filename>INDEX</filename> from an up-to-date copy of the
+ Ports Collection are high-visibility and are thus almost
+ always fixed immediately.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">There are rare cases where <filename>INDEX</filename>
+ will not build due to odd cases involving
+ <varname>WITH_<replaceable>*</replaceable></varname> or
+ <varname>WITHOUT_<replaceable>*</replaceable></varname>
+ variables being set in <filename>make.conf</filename>. If
+ you suspect that this is the case, try to make
+ <filename>INDEX</filename> with those make variables
+ turned off before reporting it to <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-ports">FreeBSD ports mailing list</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <para>您需要移除 PC card 插槽的電源以重置這個硬體裝置。一個方法是
- 將您的筆記型電腦關機(不是休眠模式,也不是待命模式﹔要完全的關
- 機)。等個幾秒鐘再重開機。這樣您的 PC card 應該就正常了。</para>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="ports-update">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I updated the sources, now how do I update my
+ installed ports?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>有時有些筆記型電腦雖然看起來已經關機了,但實際上並沒有。
- 如果您發現上面那個方法沒有用,請關機,移除電池,等個幾秒鐘,
- 把電池裝上去然後重開機。</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD does not include a port upgrading tool, but it
+ does have some tools to make the upgrade process somewhat
+ easier. Additional tools are available to simplify
+ port handling and are described the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports-using.html">Upgrading
+ Ports</link> section in the FreeBSD Handbook.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="boot-read-error">
- <para>為什麼在 BIOS 畫面之後,FreeBSD 的 boot loader 顯示
- <errorname>Read error</errorname> 然後就停止不動了?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="ports-major-upgrade">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Do I need to recompile every port each time I perform
+ a major version update?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>這是因為FreeBSD 的 boot loader 無法正確的找出硬碟的
- geometry。這樣的話,就需要在用 fdisk 分割或是修改 FreeBSD
- 的 slice 時,手動將正確的值輸入進去了。</para>
- <para>正確的硬碟 geometry 值在 BIOS 裡面可以查的到。注意該硬碟的
- cylinders,heads 以及 sectors 這些數值。</para>
- <para>在執行 &man.sysinstall.8;的 fdisk 時,按下 <keycap>G</keycap>
- 以便手動設定硬碟的 geometry。</para>
- <para>這時會有一個對話框跳出來,詢問您有關 cylinders,heads 以及
- sectors 這些東西的值。請將剛剛在 BIOS 查到的數字,以 / 作分隔輸
- 入進去。</para>
- <para>舉例來說,如果是 5000 cylinders,250 sectors 和 60 sectors
- 就輸入 <userinput>5000/250/60</userinput></para>
- <para>輸入完後請按 enter 鍵確認,最後按下 <keycap>W</keycap> 鍵把
- 新的分割區表寫入硬碟當中。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yes! While a recent system will run with
+ software compiled under an older release,
+ things will randomly crash and fail to work once
+ other ports are installed or updated.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When the system is upgraded, various shared libraries,
+ loadable modules, and other parts of the system will be
+ replaced with newer versions. Applications linked against
+ the older versions may fail to start or, in other cases,
+ fail to function properly.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For more information, see <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/updating-upgrading-freebsdupdate.html#freebsdupdate-upgrade">the
+ section on upgrades</link> in the FreeBSD Handbook.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="bootmanager-restore">
- <para>另一個作業系統摧毀了我的 Boot Manager。我要怎麼樣才能把它還
- 原回來?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="ports-minor-upgrade">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Do I need to recompile every port each time I perform
+ a minor version update?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>執行 &man.sysinstall.8; 接著選 Configure,然後選 Fdisk。
- 再來用<keycap>空白</keycap>鍵選擇原先 Boot Manager 所在的硬碟。
- 按下 <keycap>W</keycap> 鍵來作寫入的動作。這時會跳出一個提示
- 訊息,詢問您要安裝哪一個 boot loader。請選擇 Boot Manager,
- 這樣就可以將它還原了。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">In general, no. FreeBSD developers do their utmost to
+ guarantee binary compatibility across all releases with
+ the same major version number. Any exceptions will be
+ documented in the Release Notes, and advice given there
+ should be followed.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="indefinite-wait-buffer">
- <para>這個錯誤訊息:<errorname>swap_pager: indefinite
- wait buffer:</errorname> 是什麼意思呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="minimal-sh">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why is <command>/bin/sh</command> so minimal? Why
+ does FreeBSD not use <command>bash</command> or another
+ shell?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>這個訊息是說有一個執行程序正在嘗試將分頁記憶體(page memory)
- 寫入硬碟中,而這個動作嘗試了 20 秒鐘仍然無法成功。這個有可能是因為
- 硬碟有壞軌、電路或排線有問題、以及其他跟硬碟讀出寫入有關的硬體設備。
- 如果真的是硬碟壞軌的問題,您應該會在
- <filename>/var/log/messages</filename>這個檔案中,或是在執行
- <command>dmesg</command>這個指令後,看到有關磁碟錯誤的訊息。
- 如果沒有,那麼請檢查您的排線還有接頭連接是否良好。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Many people need to write shell scripts which will be
+ portable across many systems. That is why <trademark class="registered">POSIX</trademark>
+ specifies the shell and utility commands in great detail.
+ Most scripts are written in Bourne shell (<citerefentry><refentrytitle>sh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>), and
+ because several important programming interfaces
+ (<citerefentry><refentrytitle>make</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>system</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>popen</refentrytitle><manvolnum>3</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and
+ analogues in higher-level scripting languages like Perl
+ and Tcl) are specified to use the Bourne shell to
+ interpret commands. Because the Bourne shell is so often
+ and widely used, it is important for it to be quick to
+ start, be deterministic in its behavior, and have a small
+ memory footprint.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The existing implementation is our best effort at
+ meeting as many of these requirements simultaneously as we
+ can. To keep <command>/bin/sh</command> small, we have
+ not provided many of the convenience features that other
+ shells have. That is why other more featureful shells
+ like <command>bash</command>, <command>scsh</command>,
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tcsh</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, and <command>zsh</command> are available.
+ Compare the memory utilization of
+ these shells by looking at the <quote>VSZ</quote> and
+ <quote>RSS</quote> columns in a <command>ps -u</command>
+ listing.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="touch-not-found">
- <para>為何在 buildworld/installworld 時,會趴在
- <errorname>touch: not found</errorname> 的錯誤訊息?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="midi-sound-files">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I create audio CDs from my MIDI files?</para>
+ </question>
<answer>
- <para>這錯誤訊息並不是指 &man.touch.1; 程式不見了,事實上可能是該檔檔案時間被設為未來的時間。
- 若機器上的 CMOS-clock 時鐘設定為當地時間
- (非格林威治時間,比如台灣時間為 GMT +08:00 ,也就是 CST 中原標準時間),
- 那麼請在開機時,先選 single user 模式進入,然後打
- <command>adjkerntz&nbsp;-i</command>
- 來調整 kernel clock 與機器上的 CMOS-clock 來同步。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To create audio CDs from MIDI files, first install
+ <package>audio/timidity++</package> from ports then
+ install manually the GUS patches set by Eric A. Welsh,
+ available at <uri xlink:href="http://alleg.sourceforge.net/digmid.html">http://alleg.sourceforge.net/digmid.html</uri>.
+ After <application>TiMidity++</application> has been
+ installed properly, MIDI files may be converted to WAV
+ files with the following command line:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>timidity -Ow -s 44100 -o /tmp/juke/01.wav 01.mid</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The WAV files can then be converted to other formats
+ or burned onto audio CDs, as described in the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/creating-cds.html">FreeBSD
+ Handbook</link>.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
</qandaset>
</chapter>
- <chapter id="commercial">
- <chapterinfo>
- <author>
- <firstname>Vanilla</firstname>
- <surname>Shu</surname>
- <affiliation>
- <address><email>vanilla@FreeBSD.org</email></address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </chapterinfo>
-
- <title>商業軟體</title>
-
- <note>
- <para>這一節的內容還是相當少,不過我們當然希望各個公司能為它加點內容 :)
- FreeBSD 組織和列在這裡的任何一家公司都沒有金錢上的利害關係,列出來純粹只是對大眾公開介紹(同時也認為在 FreeBSD
- 上的商機若興旺,會對 FreeBSD 可長可久有極正面的效益)。我們鼓勵商業軟體的廠商把他們的產品包括在下面的名單中,在
- <ulink url="../../../../commercial/index.html">Vendors page</ulink> 可以看到更長的列表。</para>
- </note>
+ <chapter xml:id="kernelconfig">
+ <title xml:lang="en">Kernel Configuration</title>
<qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="officesuite">
- <para>在哪邊找到給 FreeBSD 用的 Office 套件呢?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="make-kernel">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I would like to customize my kernel. Is it
+ difficult?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para><ulink
- url="http://www.openoffice.org">OpenOffice</ulink> 這套 open-source 性質的 office
- 可以在 FreeBSD 上正常運用自如,而 &linux; 版的
- <ulink
- url="http://www.sun.com/staroffice/">StarOffice</ulink>,
- 這套 closed-source 的 OpenOffice 加值版,也可以在 FreeBSD 上正常使用。</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Not at all! Check out the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig.html">kernel
+ config section of the Handbook</link>.</para>
- <para>FreeBSD 上還有許多編排軟體、試算表(Spreadsheet)以及繪圖軟體都可用 Ports
- Collection 來安裝喔。</para>
- </answer>
+ <note>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The new <filename>kernel</filename> will be
+ installed to the <filename>/boot/kernel</filename>
+ directory along with its modules, while the old kernel
+ and its modules will be moved to the
+ <filename>/boot/kernel.old</filename> directory. If
+ a mistake is made in the
+ configuration, simply boot the previous version of the
+ kernel.</para>
+ </note>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="motif">
- <para>在哪邊可找到給 FreeBSD 用的 Motif?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Open Group 釋出了 Motif 2.1.30 的原始碼,可以透過
- <literal>open-motif</literal> package 安裝,或是由 ports 自行
- 編譯。相關的資訊,請參考 handbook 中的 <ulink
- url="../handbook/ports.html">ports</ulink> 章節。
+ <question xml:id="why-kernel-big">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why is my kernel so big?</para>
+ </question>
- <note>
- <para>Open Motif 只能在同樣也是 <ulink
- url="http://www.opensource.org/">open source</ulink>
- 的作業系統或計劃中使用。</para>
- </note>
- </para>
-
- <para>另外,也是有商業版本的 Motif 存在。也許這種版本的 Motif
- 不是免費的,但是絕對允許用在 closed-source 的環境下。
- <link linkend="apps2go">Apps2go</link> 提供了最便宜的 FreeBSD
- (包括 i386 跟 alpha)版本的 ELF Motif 2.1.20 套件。
- <anchor id="apps2go"/></para>
-
- <para>目前提供兩種不同環境的版本, <quote>發展用版本</quote> 及
- <quote>runtime 版本</quote> 。這兩種套件都包括:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>OSF/Motif manager, xmbind, panner, wsm.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Development kit with uil, mrm, xm, xmcxx, include
- and Imake files.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Static and dynamic ELF libraries (for use with
- FreeBSD 3.0 and above).</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Demonstration applets.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>因為 <emphasis>Apps2go</emphasis> 也有提供 NetBSD 和 OpenBSD
- 的版本,所以在訂購時請特別指定是要 FreeBSD 版本的 Motif!
- 他們目前只提供以 FTP 的方式取得這份套件。</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>更多資訊</term>
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink url="http://www.apps2go.com/">
- Apps2go WWW page</ulink></para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>或</term>
- <listitem>
- <para>
- <email>sales@apps2go.com</email> 或
- <email>support@apps2go.com</email>
- </para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>或</term>
- <listitem>
- <para>phone (817) 431 8775 or +1 817 431-8775</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <para>也可以聯絡 <link linkend="xig">Xi Graphics</link>,他們提供了一個
- FreeBSD a.out 格式的 Motif 2.0 套件。</para>
-
- <para>在這套件中包括了:</para>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>OSF/Motif manager, xmbind, panner, wsm.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Development kit with uil, mrm, xm, xmcxx, include
- and Imake files.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Static and dynamic libraries (for use with FreeBSD
- 2.2.8 and earlier).</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Demonstration applets.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Preformatted man pages.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>在你跟他們訂購 Motif 時,請一定註明你要的是 FreeBSD 的版本!
- 因為 <emphasis>Xi Graphics</emphasis> 也同時提供了 BSDI 跟 Linux
- 版本的 Motif。目前發行的版本是放在四塊磁片中,將來他們會將所有的
- 東西都放到光碟裡,就像他們所發行的 CDE 一樣。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="cde">
- <para>在哪邊可找到給 FreeBSD 用的 CDE?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para><link linkend="xig">Xi Graphics</link> 以前有賣 FreeBSD 用的
- CDE,不過現已停止發售了。</para>
-
- <para>就許多方面而言,<ulink url="http://www.kde.org/">KDE</ulink> 這個 open
- source 的桌面環境與 CDE 相當類似。此外,你可能會喜歡使用 <ulink
- url="http://www.xfce.org/">xfce</ulink>。KDE 及 xfce 都可由 <ulink url="&url.base;/ports/index.html">ports
- 機制</ulink>來安裝。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="commercial-xserver">
- <para>有沒有要錢,但是高效率的 X servers?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>有, <ulink url="http://www.xig.com/">Xi Graphics</ulink>
- 有提供給 FreeBSD(或其他 Intel 平台上)用的 X 視窗加速產品。</para>
-
-
- <para>Xi Graphics 所提供的高效能 X Server 有非常簡單的設定方式,
- 並且支援了目前市面上當紅的各大廠牌的顯示卡。它只給你 Binary 檔案,
- 是用磁片的方式發行,FreeBSD 跟 Linux 版本都相同。Xi Graphics 同時
- 也提供了專門給筆記型電腦用的高效能 X Server。<anchor id="xig"/></para>
-
- <para>5.0 版有提供免費的相容 <quote>demo</quote> 版本</para>
-
- <para>Xi Graphics 也有在賣 FreeBSD 用的 Motif 跟 CDE(往上面看看)。
- </para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>更多的資訊</term>
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink url="http://www.xig.com/">
- Xi Graphics WWW page</ulink></para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>或</term>
- <listitem>
- <para><email>sales@xig.com</email>
- 或 <email>support@xig.com</email>
- </para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><literal>GENERIC</literal> kernels shipped with FreeBSD
+ are compiled in <emphasis>debug mode</emphasis>.
+ Kernels built in debug mode contain debug data in
+ separate files that are used for debugging.
+ FreeBSD releases prior to 11.0 store these debug files in
+ the same directory as the kernel itself,
+ <filename>/boot/kernel/</filename>.
+ In FreeBSD 11.0 and later the debug files are stored in
+ <filename>/usr/lib/debug/boot/kernel/</filename>.
+ Note that there will be little or no performance loss from
+ running a debug kernel, and it is useful to keep one
+ around in case of a system panic.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When running low on disk space, there
+ are different options to reduce the size of
+ <filename>/boot/kernel/</filename> and
+ <filename>/usr/lib/debug/</filename>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To not install the symbol files,
+ make sure the following line exists in
+ <filename>/etc/src.conf</filename>:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">WITHOUT_KERNEL_SYMBOLS=yes</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For more information see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>src.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">If you want to avoid building debug files altogether,
+ make sure that both of the following are true:</para>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>或</term>
- <listitem>
- <para>phone (800) 946 7433 or +1 303 298-7478.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This line does not exist in the kernel
+ configuration file:</para>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="database-systems">
- <para>在 FreeBSD 上有任何的資料庫嗎?</para>
- </question>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">makeoptions DEBUG=-g</programlisting>
+ </listitem>
- <answer>
- <para>有! 請看 FreeBSD 網站上 <ulink
- url="../../../../commercial/software_bycat.html#CATEGORY_DATABASE">
- 商業軟體公司 </ulink> 這一部份。</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Do not run <citerefentry><refentrytitle>config</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> with
+ <option>-g</option>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
- <para>還有請參考 ports 中 <ulink
- url="../../../../ports/databases.html">
- Databases</ulink> 相關的收集。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Either of the above settings will cause the kernel to
+ be built in debug mode.</para>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="oracle-support">
- <para>可以在 FreeBSD 上執行 Oracle 嗎?</para>
- </question>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To build and install only the specified modules, list
+ them in
+ <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>:</para>
- <answer>
- <para>可以,下面這個網頁會說明如何在 FreeBSD 上執行 Linux
- 版的 Oracle:</para>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">MODULES_OVERRIDE= <replaceable>accf_http ipfw</replaceable></programlisting>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink
- url="http://www.scc.nl/~marcel/howto-oracle.html">
- http://www.scc.nl/~marcel/howto-oracle.html</ulink></para>
- </listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Replace <emphasis>accf_httpd ipfw</emphasis> with a
+ list of needed modules. Only the listed modules will be
+ built. This reduces the size of the kernel
+ directory and decreases the amount of time needed to
+ build the kernel. For more information, read
+ <filename>/usr/share/examples/etc/make.conf</filename>.</para>
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink
- url="http://www.lf.net/lf/pi/oracle/install-linux-oracle-on-freebsd">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Unneeded devices can be removed from the kernel
+ to further reduce the size. See <xref linkend="make-kernel"/> for more information.</para>
- http://www.lf.net/lf/pi/oracle/install-linux-oracle-on-freebsd</ulink></para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To put any of these options into effect, follow the
+ instructions to <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig-building.html">build
+ and install</link> the new kernel.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For reference, the FreeBSD 11 amd64 kernel
+ (<filename>/boot/kernel/kernel</filename>) is
+ approximately 25 MB.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
- </qandaset>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="applications">
- <chapterinfo>
- <author>
- <firstname>Kang-min</firstname>
- <surname>Liu</surname>
- <affiliation>
- <address><email>gugod@gugod.org</email></address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </chapterinfo>
-
- <title>一般應用程式</title>
- <qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="user-apps">
- <para>嗯..我要在哪找到我要的程式呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>請看看 <ulink url="../../../../ports/index.html">ports
- 目錄</ulink> 吧。這邊有份已經 port 到 FreeBSD 的軟體列表。
- 目前有超過 &os.numports; 個軟體已經被port 到 FreeBSD 上,並且每天
- 都在增加中。所以有空就多看看這份列表,不然你也可以訂閱
- <literal>freebsd-announce</literal> <link linkend="mailing">
- 這份 mailing list</link>,會有人將每個星期最新的軟體列表貼在上面。</para>
-
- <para>大部份的 ports 應該都可以在 4.X、5.X 跟 6.X 的系統上使用。
- 每次當 FreeBSD release 新版時,都會有一份 ports tree 被放在這一個
- release cd 裡面的 <filename>ports/</filename> 目錄裡。</para>
-
- <para>我們也支援一種叫 <quote>package</quote> 的概念,基本上
- 就是 gzip 壓縮、可用來發行的 binary 檔案,但是裡面藏了一
- 些相當有用的資訊,可以給各種自訂安裝來使用。使用者不必知
- 道某個 package 裡究竟有包括哪些檔案,就可`以很方便地重複將
- 它安裝/反安裝。</para>
-
- <para>你可以執行 <filename>sysinstall</filename>(&os; 5.2 之前版本則是 <command>/stand/sysinstall</command>) 後,
- 在 post-configuration 選單下選擇 package 這個安裝選項;或
- 是對某個有興趣的 package 檔案執行 &man.pkg.add.1;
- 把它裝起來。Package 檔案通常以 <filename>.tgz</filename> 或 <filename>.tbz</filename>
- 為副檔名,手上有 FreeBSD CDROM 的人可以在 <filename>packages/All</filename> 這個目錄下找到這類檔案。
- 對不同的 FreeBSD 版本,也可以從下列位址由網路上取得:</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>給 4.X-RELEASE/4-STABLE 用的</term>
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-4-stable/">
- ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-4-stable/</ulink></para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>給 5.X-RELEASE/5-STABLE 用的</term>
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-5-stable/">
- ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-5-stable</ulink></para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
+ <question xml:id="generic-kernel-build-failure">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does every kernel I try to build fail to compile,
+ even <filename>GENERIC</filename>?</para>
+ </question>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>給 6.X-RELEASE/6-STABLE 用的</term>
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-6-stable/">
- ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-6-stable</ulink></para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">There are a number of possible causes for this
+ problem:</para>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>給 7-CURRENT 用的</term>
- <listitem>
- <para><ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7-current/">
- ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-7-current</ulink></para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The source
+ tree is different from the one used to build the
+ currently running system. When attempting an upgrade,
+ read <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename>, paying
+ particular attention to the <quote>COMMON
+ ITEMS</quote> section at the end.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para>或是離你最近的 mirror 站。</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <command>make
+ buildkernel</command> command did not complete
+ successfully. The <command>make
+ buildkernel</command> target relies on files
+ generated by the <command>make buildworld</command>
+ target to complete its job correctly.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para>要注意的是,因為新的 port 一直在增加中,所以並不是所有 port
- 都有相對應的 package。最好定時檢查<ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp.FreeBSD.org</ulink>
- ,看看有哪些 package 可以用。</para>
- </answer>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Even when building <link linkend="stable">FreeBSD-STABLE</link>, it is possible
+ that the source tree was fetched at a time when it was
+ either being modified or it was broken.
+ Only releases are guaranteed to be
+ buildable, although <link linkend="stable">FreeBSD-STABLE</link> builds fine the
+ majority of the time. Try re-fetching the source tree
+ and see if the problem goes away. Try using a
+ different mirror in case the previous one is having
+ problems.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="configure-inn">
- <para>該怎麼設定 INN(Internet News) 來當 news server?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>以 package 或 port 方式來裝好 <filename
- role="package">news/inn</filename> 之後,<ulink
- url="http://www.visi.com/~barr/INN.html">Dave
- Barr's INN Page</ulink> 是個非常好的 INN 入門處,你可以在那邊找到 INN 的 FAQ。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="scheduler-in-use">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Which scheduler is in use on a
+ running system?</para>
+ </question>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="java">
- <para>FreeBSD 有支援 &java; 嗎?</para>
- </question>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The name of the scheduler currently being used is
+ directly available as the value of the
+ <varname>kern.sched.name</varname> sysctl:</para>
- <answer>
- <para>有啊,請看 <ulink
- url="&url.base;/java/index.html">
- http://www.FreeBSD.org/java/</ulink></para>
- </answer>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> sysctl <replaceable>kern.sched.name</replaceable>
+kern.sched.name: ULE</screen>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="missing-libcso30">
- <para>我可以在哪邊找到 libc.so.3.0?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="scheduler-kern-quantum">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is <varname>kern.sched.quantum</varname>?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>你可能在一台 2.1.x 的機器上,跑著給 2.2/3.x/4.0 的軟體。
- 請再往上面一個章節看,正確的取得給你機器用的 port/package。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><varname>kern.sched.quantum</varname> is the maximum
+ number of ticks a process can run without being preempted
+ in the 4BSD scheduler.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
+ </qandaset>
+ </chapter>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="missing-libcso40">
- <para>為何我得到了這個訊息 ?<errorname>Error: can't find
- libc.so.4.0</errorname>?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>你不小心抓了給 4.X 及 5.X 系統用的 package,並且嘗試著
- 去裝在你的 2.X 或 3.X 的系統上面。請下載正確版本的 package。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <chapter xml:id="disks">
+ <title xml:lang="en">Disks, File Systems, and Boot Loaders</title>
+ <qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="emul">
- <para> ghostscript 在我的 386/486SX 上有點問題呢!</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>你沒有浮點運算器,對吧?你必須在你的 kernel 中加入數學
- 運算模擬器,你可以跟著下面的步驟做,並在更改過你的 kernel 設定
- 檔後,重新編譯過一次。</para>
-
- <programlisting>options GPL_MATH_EMULATE</programlisting>
+ <question xml:id="adding-disks">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How can I add my new hard disk to my FreeBSD
+ system?</para>
+ </question>
- <note>
- <para>當你加入上一行的同時,你必須將
- <literal>MATH_EMULATE</literal> 移除掉。</para>
- </note>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">See the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks-adding.html">Adding
+ Disks</link> section in the FreeBSD Handbook.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="sco-socksys">
- <para>為什麼當我執行 SCO/iBCS2 的程式時,它在
- <errorname>socksys</errorname> 這個地方出了問題?
- (FreeBSD 3.0 以及更早的版本才有此問題。)</para></question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>你必須先修改 <filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename> (或是
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>, 請讀 &man.rc.conf.5;)
- 這檔案最後一個章節,將下面所講到的變數設成
- <literal>YES</literal>:</para>
-
- <programlisting># Set to YES if you want ibcs2 (SCO) emulation
- loaded at startup ibcs2=NO</programlisting>
+ <question xml:id="new-huge-disk">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I move my system over to my huge new
+ disk?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>這會在開機時將 ibcs2 這一個 kernel 模組載入。</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The best way is to reinstall the operating system on
+ the new disk, then move the user data over. This is
+ highly recommended when tracking
+ <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> for more than one release or
+ when updating a release instead of installing a new one.
+ Install booteasy on both disks with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot0cfg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and
+ dual boot until you are happy with the new configuration.
+ Skip the next paragraph to find out how to move the data
+ after doing this.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Alternatively, partition and label the new disk with
+ either <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sade</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gpart</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. If the disks are
+ MBR-formatted, booteasy can be installed on both disks
+ with <citerefentry><refentrytitle>boot0cfg</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> so that the computer can dual boot
+ to the old or new system after the copying is done.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Once the new disk set up,
+ the data cannot just be copied. Instead, use tools that
+ understand device files and system flags, such as
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Although it is recommended
+ to move the data while in single-user mode, it
+ is not required.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When the disks are formatted with
+ <acronym>UFS</acronym>, never use anything but
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>restore</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to move the root file
+ system. These commands should also be used when moving a
+ single partition to another empty partition. The sequence
+ of steps to use <command>dump</command> to move the data
+ from one <acronym>UFS</acronym> partitions to a new
+ partition is:</para>
+
+ <procedure>
+ <step>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><command>newfs</command> the new partition.</para>
+ </step>
- <para>你還要將你的 /compat/ibcs2/dev 改成下面這樣:</para>
+ <step>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><command>mount</command> it on a temporary mount
+ point.</para>
+ </step>
- <screen>lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 9 Oct 15 22:20 X0R@ -&gt; /dev/null
-lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 7 Oct 15 22:20 nfsd@ -&gt; socksys
--rw-rw-r-- 1 root wheel 0 Oct 28 12:02 null
-lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 9 Oct 15 22:20 socksys@ -&gt; /dev/null
-crw-rw-rw- 1 root wheel 41, 1 Oct 15 22:14 spx</screen>
+ <step>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><command>cd</command> to that directory.</para>
+ </step>
- <para>你只需要將 socksys 轉向到 <devicename>/dev/null</devicename>
- (請讀 &man.null.4;) 去騙過 open &amp; close 的動作。在 -current
- 裡面的 ibcs2 相關程式碼將會處理其餘的部份,這種作法比以前的方式
- 乾淨太多了。假如你想要使用 <devicename>spx</devicename> 方面的
- 程式,在你的 kernel 設定檔裡面 加上<literal>SPX_HACK</literal>。</para>
- </answer>
+ <step>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><command>dump</command> the old partition, piping
+ output to the new one.</para>
+ </step>
+ </procedure>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For example, to move
+ <filename>/dev/ada1s1a</filename> with
+ <filename>/mnt</filename> as the temporary mount point,
+ type:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/ada1s1a</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /dev/ada1s1a /mnt</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore rf -</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Rearranging partitions with
+ <command>dump</command> takes a bit more work. To merge a
+ partition like <filename>/var</filename> into its parent,
+ create the new partition large enough for both, move the
+ parent partition as described above, then move the child
+ partition into the empty directory that the first move
+ created:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/ada1s1a</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /dev/ada1s1a /mnt</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore rf -</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd var</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dump 0af - /var | restore rf -</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To split a directory from its parent, say putting
+ <filename>/var</filename> on its own partition when it was
+ not before, create both partitions, then mount the child
+ partition on the appropriate directory in the temporary
+ mount point, then move the old single partition:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/ada1s1a</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/ada1s1d</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /dev/ada1s1a /mnt</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mkdir /mnt/var</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /dev/ada1s1d /mnt/var</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore rf -</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cpio</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pax</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> utilities are also
+ available for moving user data. These are known to lose
+ file flag information, so use them with caution.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ms-frontpage">
- <para>我該使用那個版本的 Microsoft FrontPage?</para>
+ <question xml:id="safe-softupdates">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Which partitions can safely use Soft Updates? I have
+ heard that Soft Updates on <filename>/</filename> can
+ cause problems. What about Journaled Soft Updates?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>Use the Port, Luke!在 ports tree 中已經有一個包含 FrontPage
- 的 Apache 版本了。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ports-3x">
- <para>為什麼我無法在 3.X-STABLE 機器上順利編好這個 port?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>如果你的 FreeBSD 版本相較 -CURRENT 或 -STABLE 之下是很古
- 早的話,或許你會需要一個升級 ports 的工具,在
- <ulink url="../../../../ports/index.html">
- http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/</ulink>。如果你以將其更新卻仍無用,
- 那麼一定是某人更動之後造成 -CURRENT 才能用,-STABLE 無法用的情況。
- 由於 ports 內所收集的軟體在 -CURRENT 或是 -STABLE 上都要能用,
- 所以請儘速送出關於此問題的蟲報告;請使用 &man.send-pr.1; 這個指
- 令來送蟲報告。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Short answer: Soft Updates can usually be safely used
+ on all partitions.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Long answer: Soft Updates has two characteristics
+ that may be undesirable on certain partitions. First, a
+ Soft Updates partition has a small chance of losing data
+ during a system crash. The partition will not be
+ corrupted as the data will simply be lost. Second, Soft
+ Updates can cause temporary space shortages.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When using Soft Updates, the kernel can take up to
+ thirty seconds to write changes to the physical disk.
+ When a large file is deleted the file still resides on
+ disk until the kernel actually performs the deletion.
+ This can cause a very simple race condition. Suppose
+ one large file is deleted and another large file is
+ immediately created. The first large file is not yet
+ actually removed from the physical disk, so the disk might
+ not have enough room for the second large file. This will
+ produce an error that the partition does not have enough
+ space, even though a large chunk of space has just been
+ released. A few seconds later, the file creation works as
+ expected.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">If a system should crash after the kernel accepts a
+ chunk of data for writing to disk, but before that data is
+ actually written out, data could be lost. This risk is
+ extremely small, but generally manageable.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">These issues affect all partitions using Soft Updates.
+ So, what does this mean for the root partition?</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Vital information on the root partition changes very
+ rarely. If the system crashed during the thirty-second
+ window after such a change is made, it is possible that
+ data could be lost. This risk is negligible for most
+ applications, but be aware that it exists. If
+ the system cannot tolerate this much risk, do not use
+ Soft Updates on the root file system!</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en"><filename>/</filename> is traditionally one of the
+ smallest partitions. If
+ <filename>/tmp</filename> is on
+ <filename>/</filename>, there may be intermittent
+ space problems. Symlinking <filename>/tmp</filename> to
+ <filename>/var/tmp</filename> will solve this
+ problem.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Finally, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dump</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> does not work in live mode (-L)
+ on a filesystem, with Journaled Soft Updates
+ (<acronym>SU+J</acronym>).</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="find-ldso">
- <para>那裡可以找得到 ld.so?</para>
+ <question xml:id="mount-foreign-fs">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Can I mount other foreign file systems under
+ FreeBSD?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>有些 a.out 格式的應用程式會需要 a.out 格式的函式庫,
- Netscape Navigator 就是一個例子。不過用 ELF 函式庫編起來
- 的 FreeBSD 預設並不會安裝舊的 a.out 函式庫,所以您可能會得
- 到類似找不到 <filename>/usr/libexec/ld.so</filename> 的抱怨訊
- 息。如果說您的系統有這安裝 a.out 函式庫的必要,這些函式庫
- (compat22) 也能夠利用 &man.sysinstall.8; 來安裝。或者利用
- FreeBSD 原始碼來安裝:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD supports a variety of other file systems.</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/src/lib/compat/compat22</userinput>&prompt.root; <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term xml:lang="en">UFS</term>
- <para>如果你希望每次 <command>make world</command> 時會自動更新
- compat22 函式庫,那麼修改 <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>,
- 加入 <varname>COMPAT22=YES</varname>。這些相容於古老版本的函式庫
- 已經沒什麼在更新了,所以一般說來是不需要這樣的。</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">UFS CD-ROMs can be mounted directly on FreeBSD.
+ Mounting disk partitions from Digital UNIX and other
+ systems that support UFS may be more complex,
+ depending on the details of the disk partitioning
+ for the operating system in question.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
- <para>同時也請您看一下 3.1-RELEASE 和 3.2-RELEASE 的勘誤表(ERRATA)。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term xml:lang="en">ext2/ext3</term>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ports-update">
- <para>我更新了系統原始碼,現在我要怎樣升級某個已經安裝上
- 的 ports ?</para>
- </question>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD supports <literal>ext2fs</literal> and
+ <literal>ext3fs</literal> partitions. See
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ext2fs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> for more information.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 本身並沒有自動升級 ports 的工具,但有一些可以讓升級
- 簡化一些的小程式。你也可以自己裝上額外的工具來處理。</para>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term xml:lang="en">NTFS</term>
- <para>&man.pkg.version.1; 指令可以自動產生用來達到自動升級到
- ports tree 最新版本的 script。</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FUSE based NTFS support is available as a port
+ (<package>sysutils/fusefs-ntfs</package>). For more
+ information see <link xlink:href="http://www.tuxera.com/community/ntfs-3g-manual/"><application>ntfs-3g</application></link>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg_version <option>-c</option> > <replaceable>/tmp/myscript</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term xml:lang="en">FAT</term>
- <para><emphasis>一定要</emphasis>在手動修改一下產生出來的 script。
- 目前的 &man.pkg.version.1; 在 script 最前面加入 &man.exit.1; 強
- 迫你去修改它。</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD includes a read-write FAT driver. For more
+ information, see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount_msdosfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
- <para>你應將執行 script 所產生的輸出記錄下來,因為裡面會有記載某些
- 尚未升級但已經更新的 ports。不過你不一定要去升級它們。通常是因為
- 有某個共用的函式庫已經改變版本號了,才要去重編一次那些使用到該函
- 式庫的 ports。</para>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term xml:lang="en">ZFS</term>
- <para>如果你的硬碟空間很夠,那麼可以用 <command>portupgrade</command>
- 這個工具來做全自動處裡。<command>portupgrade</command> 裡面也有
- 一些小程式來簡化 package 升級,它在
- <filename role="package">sysutils/portupgrade</filename>。
- 這個工具是用 Ruby 這個語言寫的,所以並不適合加入到 FreeBSD 的原
- 始碼中,不過並不會因此讓某些人不用它。</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD includes a port of <trademark>Sun</trademark>'s ZFS driver. The
+ current recommendation is to use it only on
+ amd64 platforms with sufficient memory. For
+ more information, see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>zfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
- <para>如果你的系統一直都處於開機狀態,可利用 &man.periodic.8; 系統,
- 每個星期產生一張需要升級的清單。只要在
- <filename>/etc/periodic.conf</filename> 加入
- <literal>weekly_status_pkg_enable="YES"</literal> 就可以了。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD includes the Network File System
+ <acronym>NFS</acronym> and the FreeBSD Ports Collection
+ provides several FUSE applications to support many other
+ file systems.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="minima-sh">
- <para>為什麼 <command>/bin/sh</command>這麼的小?為什麼 FreeBSD
- 不改用 <command>bash</command> 或者是其他比較強悍的 shell?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>因為 POSIX 說,該要有這麼樣的一個 shell 在才行。</para>
-
- <para>比較繁瑣的答案:許多人需要寫可以跨很多平台的 shell script 。
- 這也是為何 POSIX 將 shell 以及工具命稱都定義的非常詳細的緣故。
- 大部份的 script 都適用於 Bourne shell,又因為有幾個重要的
- 寫程式所用到的程式或者函式 (&man.make.1; , &man.system.3;,
- &man.popen.3;, 還有在 Perl 或者 Tcl 裡面呼叫系統程式的地方)
- 都指定用 Bourne shell 。那麼因為 Bourne Shell 如此的廣泛常用,
- 那麼它的執行效率便很重要,快速是它決定性的要點之一,還要不佔太多
- 記憶體。</para>
+ <question xml:id="mount-dos">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I mount a secondary DOS partition?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>目前的 <command>/bin/sh</command> 已是我們嘔心瀝血之作,它已
- 經盡量地符合標準規定。為了讓它非常小,我們拿掉了一些其他 shell
- 有的方便功能。這也是為什麼 ports 裡面還有很多強悍的 shell ,像是
- bash, scsh, tcsh 以及 zsh 。 (你可以自己比較一下這些 shell 執行
- 時所佔的記憶體大小,去看看 <command>ps -u</command> 列出來的
- <quote>VSZ</quote> 和 <quote>RSS</quote> 這兩個欄位就知道了。)
- </para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The secondary DOS partitions are found after
+ <emphasis>all</emphasis> the primary partitions. For
+ example, if <literal>E</literal> is the
+ second DOS partition on the second SCSI drive, there will
+ be a device file for <quote>slice 5</quote> in
+ <filename>/dev</filename>. To mount it:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -t msdosfs /dev/da1s5 /dos/e</userinput></screen>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="netscape-slow-startup">
- <para>為什麼 Netscape 和 Opera 要花好久的時間才能啟動?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="crypto-file-system">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Is there a cryptographic file system for FreeBSD?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>通常是因為你的 DNS 沒有設定好。 Netscape 跟 Opera 在啟動的時候
- 都會去檢查一下 DNS。直到 DNS 有回應,或者是斷定網路目前是斷線之後,
- 它們才會顯示畫面出來。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yes, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>gbde</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>geli</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
+ See the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks-encrypting.html">Encrypting
+ Disk Partitions</link> section of the FreeBSD
+ Handbook.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
- </qandaset>
- </chapter>
-
-
- <chapter id="kernelconfig">
- <chapterinfo>
- <author>
- <firstname>Kang-min</firstname>
- <surname>Liu</surname>
- <affiliation>
- <address><email>gugod@gugod.org</email></address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </chapterinfo>
- <title>kernel 設定</title>
-
- <qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="make-kernel">
- <para>我想自訂 kernel,這會很困難嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>不會!請查閱 <ulink url="../../handbook/kernelconfig.html">
- 使用手冊中的 kernel 設定一節</ulink>。</para>
+ <question xml:id="grub-loader">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I boot FreeBSD and <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> using
+ <application>GRUB</application>?</para>
+ </question>
- <note>
- <para>我會建議你在你讓核心能正常工作後,做一個
- <filename>kernel.YYMMDD</filename> 日期形式的備份,同時也備份
- <filename>/module</filename>這個目錄至
- <filename>/modules.YYMMDD</filename>。這樣下次如果你很不幸的玩
- 壞了設定,至少可以不需要使用最原始的
- <filename>kernel.GENERIC</filename>。如你正從一個 GENERIC
- kernel 裡面不支援的控制器裡啟動時,這就顯得特別重要。</para>
- </note>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To boot FreeBSD using <application>GRUB</application>,
+ add the following to either
+ <filename>/boot/grub/menu.lst</filename> or
+ <filename>/boot/grub/grub.conf</filename>, depending upon
+ which is used by the <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> distribution.</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">title FreeBSD 9.1
+ root <replaceable>(hd0,a)</replaceable>
+ kernel /boot/loader</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Where <replaceable>hd0,a</replaceable> points to the
+ root partition on the first disk. To specify
+ the slice number, use something like this
+ <replaceable>(hd0,2,a)</replaceable>. By default, if the
+ slice number is omitted, <application>GRUB</application>
+ searches the first slice
+ which has the <literal>a</literal> partition.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="missing-hw-float">
- <para>我的核心因為 <literal>_hw_float</literal>遺失而編譯失敗。
- 該怎麼修正呢?</para>
+ <question xml:id="booteasy-loader">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I boot FreeBSD and <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> using
+ <application>BootEasy?</application></para>
</question>
- <answer>
- <para>讓我猜看看,你把 <devicename>npx0</devicename>
- (詳見 &man.npx.4;) 從你的 kernel 設定檔移除了,因為你沒有數學運算器,
- 對嗎?錯了!:-) 這個 <devicename>npx0</devicename>是
- <emphasis>必須要有的</emphasis>。就算你沒有數學運算器,你還是
- <emphasis>必須</emphasis> 引入 <devicename>npx0</devicename> 裝置。
- </para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="why-kernel-big">
- <para>為什麼造出來的 kernel 這麼大 (10MB 以上) ?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>這很有可能是因為,你把 kernel 編成 <emphasis>偵錯模式</emphasis>
- 了。偵錯模式之下的 kernel 裡面會存著偵錯用的許多符號,因此會大幅
- 增加 kernel 的大小。如果說你的 FreeBSD 是 3.0 以後的版本,這對於
- 效能來說影響並不大,幾乎是沒有。而在系統會因某些原因 panic 時,
- 有個偵錯模式的 kernel 在也挺有用的。</para>
-
- <para>不過呢,如果你的磁碟空間很小,或者你就是不想用偵錯模式的
- kernel 的話,請確認以下事情:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>kernel 設定檔裡面沒有這一行:</para>
-
- <programlisting>makeoptions DEBUGS=-g </programlisting>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>執行 &man.config.8; 時沒有加上 <option>-g</option>
- 這個選項。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>以上兩件事情都會讓你編出一個偵錯模式的 kernel。但只要避免之,
- 就可以編出一個正常的 kernel,而你也會注意到,kernel 明顯的變小了;
- 大部份的 kernel 都差不多在 1.5MB 到 2MB 之間。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="multiport-serial-interrupts">
- <para>為何出現了 multi-port serial code 的中斷衝突?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>當我編譯一個 multi-port serial code 的核心時,它告訴我只有
- 第一個被偵測到,其他的則因中斷衝突而跳過了,我該怎麼修正它?</para>
-
- <para>這個問題是因為 FreeBSD 使用內建程式碼避免因為硬體或軟體衝突
- 導致 kernel 過於肥大或無用。要修正這種情形的方法是除了一個 port
- 外把其他所有的 IRQ 設定都做保留。這裡有一個範例:</para>
-
- <programlisting>#
-# Multiport high-speed serial line - 16550 UARTS
-#
-device sio2 at isa? port 0x2a0 tty irq 5 flags 0x501 vector siointr
-device sio3 at isa? port 0x2a8 tty flags 0x501 vector siointr
-device sio4 at isa? port 0x2b0 tty flags 0x501 vector siointr
-device sio5 at isa? port 0x2b8 tty flags 0x501 vector siointr</programlisting>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="generic-kernel-build-failure">
- <para>為什麼我一個 kernel 都編不起來?甚至 GENERIC 也不行?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>這有很多種可能的原因:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>你沒有用新的 <command>make buildkernel</command> 與
- <command>make installkernel</command> 這兩個方法來編,而正好
- 你的系統原始碼的版本和正在執行的系統核心版本不一樣 (像是,
- 在跑 4.0-RELEASE 的系統上嘗試著編 4.3-RELEASE)。如果說你要升
- 級系統的話,請務必去看看 <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename>
- 這個檔案,特別注意最後面的 <quote>COMMON ITEMS</quote>
- 這個小節。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>你已經用上 <command>make buildkernel</command> 以及
- <command>make installkernel</command> 了,但是在
- <command>make buildworld</command> 時失敗了。可惜的是,
- <command>make buildkernel</command> 要成功,需要依賴
- <command>make buildworld</command> 後造出來的一些檔案。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>就算是你在編 <link linkend="stable">&os.stable;</link>,
- 還是有可能你抓到了正在修改中,或著因為某些緣故而根本還沒改好
- 的原始碼;雖然說 <link linkend="stable">&os.stable;</link>
- 大部份的時候都是可以編的,但只有 RELEASE 才是保證可以編的。碰
- 到這個問題時,再次更新原始碼並且再試試看。也有可能是放原始碼的
- 伺服器出現某些問題,所以更新原始碼時也試試從不同伺服器來更新看
- 看。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Install LILO at the start of the <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> boot
+ partition instead of in the Master Boot Record. You can
+ then boot LILO from
+ <application>BootEasy</application>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">This is recommended when running <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> and <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark>
+ as it makes it simpler to get <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> booting again if
+ <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> is reinstalled.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
- </qandaset>
- </chapter>
-
- <chapter id="disks">
- <title>硬碟、檔案系統、Boot Loader</title>
- <qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="new-huge-disk">
- <para>我要怎麼把我的系統搬到新硬碟上面去?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>理想的方式是先在新硬碟上重裝好作業系統,然後把使用者相關程式、資料搬過去就好。
- This is highly
- recommended if you have been tracking -STABLE for more
- than one release, or have updated a release instead of
- installing a new one. You can install booteasy on both
- disks with &man.boot0cfg.8;, and dual boot them until
- you are happy with the new configuration. Skip the
- next paragraph to find out how to move the data after
- doing this.</para>
-
- <para>Should you decide not to do a fresh install, you
- need to partition and label the new disk with either
- <filename>sysinstall</filename>(&os; 5.2 之前版本則是 <command>/stand/sysinstall</command>), or &man.fdisk.8;
- and &man.disklabel.8;. You should also install booteasy
- on both disks with &man.boot0cfg.8;, so that you can
- dual boot to the old or new system after the copying
- is done.</para>
-
- <para>Now you have the new disk set up, and are ready
- to move the data. Unfortunately, you cannot just blindly
- copy the data. Things like device files (in
- <filename>/dev</filename>), flags, and links tend to
- screw that up. You need to use tools that understand
- these things, which means &man.dump.8;.
- Although it is suggested that you move the data in single user
- mode, it is not required.</para>
-
- <para>You should never use anything but &man.dump.8; and
- &man.restore.8; to move the root filesystem. The
- &man.tar.1; command may work - then again, it may not.
- You should also use &man.dump.8; and &man.restore.8;
- if you are moving a single partition to another empty
- partition. The sequence of steps to use dump to move
- a partitions data to a new partition is:</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>newfs the new partition.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>mount it on a temporary mount point.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>cd to that directory.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>dump the old partition, piping output to the
- new one.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
-
- <para>For example, if you are going to move root to
- <devicename>/dev/ad1s1a</devicename>, with
- <filename>/mnt</filename> as the temporary mount point,
- it is:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs /dev/ad1s1a</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/ad1s1a /mnt</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore xf -</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Rearranging your partitions with dump takes a bit more
- work. To merge a partition like <filename>/var</filename>
- into its parent, create the new partition large enough
- for both, move the parent partition as described above,
- then move the child partition into the empty directory
- that the first move created:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs /dev/ad1s1a</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/ad1s1a /mnt</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore xf -</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>cd var</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>dump 0af - /var | restore xf -</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>To split a directory from its parent, say putting
- <filename>/var</filename> on its own partition when it was not
- before, create both partitions, then mount the child partition
- on the appropriate directory in the temporary mount point, then
- move the old single partition:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs /dev/ad1s1a</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs /dev/ad1s1d</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/ad1s1a /mnt</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>mkdir /mnt/var</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/ad1s1d /mnt/var</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore xf -</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>You might prefer &man.cpio.1;, &man.pax.1;,
- &man.tar.1; to &man.dump.8; for user data. At the time of
- this writing, these are known to lose file flag information,
- so use them with caution.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="dangerously-dedicated">
- <para>Will a <quote>dangerously dedicated</quote> disk endanger
- my health?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
-
- <para><anchor id="dedicate"/>The installation procedure allows
- you to chose two different methods in partitioning your
- hard disk(s). The default way makes it compatible with other
- operating systems on the same machine, by using fdisk table
- entries (called <quote>slices</quote> in FreeBSD), with a
- FreeBSD slice that employs partitions of its own. Optionally,
- one can chose to install a boot-selector to switch between the
- possible operating systems on the disk(s). The alternative uses
- the entire disk for FreeBSD, and makes no attempt to be
- compatible with other operating systems.</para>
-
- <para>So why it is called <quote>dangerous</quote>? A disk
- in this mode does not contain what normal PC utilities
- would consider a valid fdisk table. Depending on how well
- they have been designed, they might complain at you once
- they are getting in contact with such a disk, or even
- worse, they might damage the BSD bootstrap without even
- asking or notifying you. In addition, the
- <quote>dangerously dedicated</quote> disk's layout is
- known to confuse many BIOSes, including those from AWARD
- (e.g. as found in HP Netserver and Micronics systems as
- well as many others) and Symbios/NCR (for the popular
- 53C8xx range of SCSI controllers). This is not a complete
- list, there are more. Symptoms of this confusion include
- the <errorname>read error</errorname> message printed by
- the FreeBSD bootstrap when it cannot find itself, as well
- as system lockups when booting.</para>
-
- <para>Why have this mode at all then? It only saves a few kbytes
- of disk space, and it can cause real problems for a new
- installation. <quote>Dangerously dedicated</quote> mode's
- origins lie in a desire to avoid one of the most common
- problems plaguing new FreeBSD installers - matching the BIOS
- <quote>geometry</quote> numbers for a disk to the disk
- itself.</para>
-
- <para><quote>Geometry</quote> is an outdated concept, but one
- still at the heart of the PC's BIOS and its interaction with
- disks. When the FreeBSD installer creates slices, it has to
- record the location of these slices on the disk in a fashion
- that corresponds with the way the BIOS expects to find them. If
- it gets it wrong, you will not be able to boot.</para>
-
- <para><quote>Dangerously dedicated</quote> mode tries to work
- around this by making the problem simpler. In some cases, it
- gets it right. But it is meant to be used as a last-ditch
- alternative - there are better ways to solve the problem 99
- times out of 100.</para>
-
- <para>So, how do you avoid the need for <quote>DD</quote> mode
- when you are installing? Start by making a note of the geometry
- that your BIOS claims to be using for your disks. You can
- arrange to have the kernel print this as it boots by specifying
- <option>-v</option> at the <literal>boot:</literal> prompt, or
- using <command>boot -v</command> in the loader. Just before the
- installer starts, the kernel will print a list of BIOS
- geometries. Do not panic - wait for the installer to start and
- then use scrollback to read the numbers. Typically the BIOS
- disk units will be in the same order that FreeBSD lists your
- disks, first IDE, then SCSI.</para>
-
- <para>When you are slicing up your disk, check that the disk
- geometry displayed in the FDISK screen is correct (ie. it
- matches the BIOS numbers); if it is wrong, use the
- <keycap>g</keycap> key to fix it. You may have to do this if
- there is absolutely nothing on the disk, or if the disk has been
- moved from another system. Note that this is only an issue with
- the disk that you are going to boot from; FreeBSD will sort
- itself out just fine with any other disks you may have.</para>
-
- <para>Once you have got the BIOS and FreeBSD agreeing about the
- geometry of the disk, your problems are almost guaranteed to be
- over, and with no need for <quote>DD</quote> mode at all. If,
- however, you are still greeted with the dreaded <errorname>read
- error</errorname> message when you try to boot, it is time to cross
- your fingers and go for it - there is nothing left to
- lose.</para>
-
- <para>To return a <quote>dangerously dedicated</quote> disk
- for normal PC use, there are basically two options. The first
- is, you write enough NULL bytes over the MBR to make any
- subsequent installation believe this to be a blank disk. You
- can do this for example with</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rda0 count=15</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Alternatively, the undocumented DOS
- <quote>feature</quote></para>
-
- <screen><prompt>C:\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>fdisk /mbr</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>will to install a new master boot record as well, thus
- clobbering the BSD bootstrap.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="safe-softupdates">
- <para>Which partitions can safely use Soft Updates? I have
- heard that Soft Updates on <filename>/</filename> can cause
- problems.</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Short answer: you can usually use Soft Updates safely
- on all partitions.</para>
-
- <para>Long answer: There used to be some concern over using
- Soft Updates on the root partition. Soft Updates has two
- characteristics that caused this. First, a Soft Updates
- partition has a small chance of losing data during a
- system crash. (The partition will not be corrupted; the
- data will simply be lost.) Also, Soft Updates can cause
- temporary space shortages.</para>
-
- <para>When using Soft Updates, the kernel can take up to
- thirty seconds to actually write changes to the physical
- disk. If you delete a large file, the file still resides
- on disk until the kernel actually performs the deletion.
- This can cause a very simple race condition. Suppose you
- delete one large file and immediately create another large
- file. The first large file is not yet actually removed
- from the physical disk, so the disk might not have enough
- room for the second large file. You get an error that the
- partition does not have enough space, although you know
- perfectly well that you just released a large chunk of
- space! When you try again mere seconds later, the file
- creation works as you expect. This has left more than one
- user scratching his head and doubting his sanity, the
- FreeBSD filesystem, or both.</para>
-
- <para>If a system should crash after the kernel accepts a
- chunk of data for writing to disk, but before that data is
- actually written out, data could be lost or corrupted.
- This risk is extremely small, but generally manageable.
- Use of IDE write caching greatly increases this risk; it
- is strongly recommended that you disable IDE write caching
- when using Soft Updates.</para>
-
- <para>These issues affect all partitions using Soft Updates.
- So, what does this mean for the root partition?</para>
-
- <para>Vital information on the root partition changes very
- rarely. Files such as <filename>/kernel</filename> and
- the contents of <filename>/etc</filename> only change
- during system maintenance, or when users change their
- passwords. If the system crashed during the
- thirty-second window after such a change is made, it is
- possible that data could be lost. This risk is negligible
- for most applications, but you should be aware that it
- exists. If your system cannot tolerate this much risk,
- do not use Soft Updates on the root filesystem!</para>
-
- <para><filename>/</filename> is traditionally one of the
- smallest partitions. By default, FreeBSD puts the
- <filename>/tmp</filename> directory on
- <filename>/</filename>. If you have a busy
- <filename>/tmp</filename>, you might see intermittent
- space problems. Symlinking <filename>/tmp</filename> to
- <filename>/var/tmp</filename> will solve this
- problem.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="inappropriate-ccd">
- <para>What is inappropriate about my ccd?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>The symptom of this is:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ccdconfig -C</userinput>
-ccdconfig: ioctl (CCDIOCSET): /dev/ccd0c: Inappropriate file type or format</screen>
-
- <para>This usually happens when you are trying to concatenate
- the <literal>c</literal> partitions, which default to type
- <literal>unused</literal>. The ccd driver requires the
- underlying partition type to be FS_BSDFFS. Edit the disklabel
- of the disks you are trying to concatenate and change the types
- of partitions to <literal>4.2BSD</literal>.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ccd-disklabel">
- <para>Why can I not edit the disklabel on my ccd?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>The symptom of this is:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel ccd0</userinput>
-(it prints something sensible here, so let us try to edit it)
-&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel -e ccd0</userinput>
-(edit, save, quit)
-disklabel: ioctl DIOCWDINFO: No disk label on disk;
-use "disklabel -r" to install initial label</screen>
-
- <para>This is because the disklabel returned by ccd is actually
- a <quote>fake</quote> one that is not really on the disk.
- You can solve this problem by writing it back explicitly,
- as in:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel ccd0 &gt; /tmp/disklabel.tmp</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel -Rr ccd0 /tmp/disklabel.tmp</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel -e ccd0</userinput>
-(this will work now)</screen>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="mount-foreign-fs">
- <para>Can I mount other foreign filesystems under FreeBSD?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD supports a variety of other
- filesystems.</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Digital UNIX</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>UFS CDROMs can be mounted directly on FreeBSD.
- Mounting disk partitions from Digital UNIX and other
- systems that support UFS may be more complex, depending
- on the details of the disk partitioning for the operating
- system in question.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>&linux;</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>FreeBSD supports <literal>ext2fs</literal>
- partitions. See &man.mount.ext2fs.8; for more
- information.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>&windowsnt;</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>FreeBSD includes a read-only NTFS driver. For
- more information, see &man.mount.ntfs.8;.
- </para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>FAT</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>FreeBSD includes a read-write FAT driver. For
- more information, see &man.mount.msdosfs.8;.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
+ <question xml:id="changing-bootprompt">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I change the boot prompt from
+ <literal>???</literal> to something more
+ meaningful?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>FreeBSD also supports network filesystems such as NFS
- (see &man.mount.nfs.8;), NetWare (see &man.mount.nwfs.8;),
- and Microsoft-style SMB filesystems (see
- &man.mount.smbfs.8;).</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This cannot be accomplished with the standard boot
+ manager without rewriting it. There are a number of other
+ boot managers in the <filename>sysutils</filename>
+ category of the Ports Collection.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="mount-dos">
- <para>How do I mount a secondary DOS partition?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="removable-drives">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I use a new removable drive?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the drive already has a file system on it,
+ use a command like this:</para>
- <para>The secondary DOS partitions are found after ALL the
- primary partitions. For example, if you have an
- <quote>E</quote> partition as the second DOS partition on
- the second SCSI drive, you need to create the special files
- for <quote>slice 5</quote> in <filename>/dev</filename>,
- then mount <devicename>/dev/da1s5</devicename>:</para>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -t msdosfs /dev/da0s1 /mnt</userinput></screen>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>sh MAKEDEV da1s5</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>mount -t msdos /dev/da1s5 /dos/e</userinput></screen>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the drive will only be used with FreeBSD systems,
+ partition it with <acronym>UFS</acronym> or
+ <acronym>ZFS</acronym>. This will provide long filename
+ support, improvement in performance, and stability. If
+ the drive will be used by other operating systems, a more
+ portable choice, such as msdosfs, is better.</para>
- <note>
- <para>You can omit this step if you are running FreeBSD
- 5.0-RELEASE or newer with &man.devfs.5;
- enabled.</para>
- </note>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="crypto-filesystem">
- <para>&os; 有檔案加密系統嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
-
- <para>有啊! FreeBSD 5.0 起內建 &man.gbde.8;,而 FreeBSD 6.0
- 又加上 &man.geli.8;。 而較早期的版本,請多利用 <filename
- role="package">security/cfs</filename> port,謝謝。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="nt-bootloader">
- <para>How can I use the &windowsnt; loader to boot FreeBSD?</para>
- </question>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/da0 count=2</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart create -s GPT /dev/da0</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>gpart add -t freebsd-ufs /dev/da0</userinput></screen>
- <answer>
- <para>The general idea is that you copy the first sector of your
- native root FreeBSD partition into a file in the DOS/&windowsnt;
- partition. Assuming you name that file something like
- <filename>c:\bootsect.bsd</filename> (inspired by
- <filename>c:\bootsect.dos</filename>), you can then edit the
- <filename>c:\boot.ini</filename> file to come up with something
- like this:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Finally, create a new file system:</para>
- <programlisting>[boot loader]
-timeout=30
-default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS
-[operating systems]
-multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS="Windows NT"
-C:\BOOTSECT.BSD="FreeBSD"
-C:\="DOS"</programlisting>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>newfs /dev/da0p1</userinput></screen>
- <para>If FreeBSD is installed on the same disk as the &windowsnt; boot
- partition simply copy <filename>/boot/boot1</filename> to
- <filename>C:\BOOTSECT.BSD</filename>. However, if FreeBSD is
- installed on a different disk <filename>/boot/boot1</filename>
- will not work, <filename>/boot/boot0</filename> is needed.</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">and mount it:</para>
- <para><filename>/boot/boot0</filename> needs to be installed
- using sysinstall(&os; 5.2 之前版本則是 <command>/stand/sysinstall</command>) by selecting the FreeBSD boot manager on
- the screen which asks if you wish to use a boot
- manager. This is because <filename>/boot/boot0</filename>
- has the partition table area filled with NULL characters
- but sysinstall copies the partition table before copying
- <filename>/boot/boot0</filename> to the MBR.</para>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount /dev/da0s1 /mnt</userinput></screen>
- <warning>
- <para><emphasis>Do not simply copy <filename>/boot/boot0</filename>
- instead of <filename>/boot/boot1</filename>; you will
- overwrite your partition table and render your computer
- un-bootable!</emphasis></para>
- </warning>
+ <para xml:lang="en">It is a good idea to add a line to
+ <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fstab</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>) so you
+ can just type <command>mount /mnt</command> in the
+ future:</para>
- <para>When the FreeBSD boot manager runs it records the last
- OS booted by setting the active flag on the partition table
- entry for that OS and then writes the whole 512-bytes of itself
- back to the MBR so if you just copy
- <filename>/boot/boot0</filename> to
- <filename>C:\BOOTSECT.BSD</filename> then it writes an empty
- partition table, with the active flag set on one entry, to the
- MBR.</para>
- </answer>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">/dev/da0p1 /mnt ufs rw,noauto 0 0</programlisting>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="lilo-bootloader">
- <para>How do I boot FreeBSD and &linux; from LILO?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>If you have FreeBSD and &linux; on the same disk, just follow
- LILO's installation instructions for booting a non-&linux;
- operating system. Very briefly, these are:</para>
-
- <para>Boot &linux;, and add the following lines to
- <filename>/etc/lilo.conf</filename>:</para>
-
- <programlisting>other=/dev/hda2
- table=/dev/hda
- label=FreeBSD</programlisting>
-
- <para>(the above assumes that your FreeBSD slice is known to
- &linux; as <devicename>/dev/hda2</devicename>; tailor to
- suit your setup). Then, run <command>lilo</command> as
- <username>root</username> and you should be done.</para>
-
- <para>If FreeBSD resides on another disk, you need to add
- <literal>loader=/boot/chain.b</literal> to the LILO entry.
- For example:</para>
-
- <programlisting>other=/dev/dab4
- table=/dev/dab
- loader=/boot/chain.b
- label=FreeBSD</programlisting>
-
- <para>In some cases you may need to specify the BIOS drive number
- to the FreeBSD boot loader to successfully boot off the second
- disk. For example, if your FreeBSD SCSI disk is probed by BIOS
- as BIOS disk 1, at the FreeBSD boot loader prompt you need to
- specify:</para>
+ <question xml:id="mount-cd-superblock">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why do I get <errorname>Incorrect super
+ block</errorname> when mounting a CD?</para>
+ </question>
- <screen>Boot: <userinput>1:da(0,a)/kernel</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>You can configure
- &man.boot.8;
- to automatically do this for you at boot time.</para>
-
- <para>The <ulink
- url="http://sunsite.unc.edu/LDP/HOWTO/mini/Linux+FreeBSD.html">
- &linux;+FreeBSD mini-HOWTO</ulink> is a good reference for
- FreeBSD and &linux; interoperability issues.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The type of device to mount must be specified. This
+ is described in the Handbook section on <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/creating-cds.html#mounting-cd">Using
+ Data CDs</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="booteasy-loader">
- <para>How do I boot FreeBSD and &linux; using BootEasy?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Install LILO at the start of your &linux; boot partition
- instead of in the Master Boot Record. You can then boot LILO
- from BootEasy.</para>
+ <question xml:id="cdrom-not-configured">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why do I get <errorname>Device not
+ configured</errorname> when mounting a CD?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>If you are running &windows; 95 and &linux; this is recommended
- anyway, to make it simpler to get &linux; booting again if you
- should need to reinstall &windows; 95 (which is a Jealous
- Operating System, and will bear no other Operating Systems in
- the Master Boot Record).</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This generally means that there is no CD in the
+ drive, or the drive is not visible on the bus.
+ Refer to the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/creating-cds.html#mounting-cd">Using
+ Data CDs</link> section of the Handbook for a detailed
+ discussion of this issue.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="changing-bootprompt">
- <para>How do I change the boot prompt from <literal>???</literal> to
- something more meaningful?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="cdrom-unicode-filenames">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why do all non-English characters in filenames show up
+ as <quote>?</quote> on my CDs when mounted in FreeBSD?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>You can not do that with the standard boot manager without
- rewriting it. There are a number of other boot managers
- in the <filename>sysutils</filename> ports category that
- provide this functionality.</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The CD probably uses the <quote>Joliet</quote>
+ extension for storing information about files and
+ directories. This is discussed in the Handbook section on
+ <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/creating-cds.html#mounting-cd">Using
+ Data CD-ROMs</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="removable-drives">
- <para>I have a new removable drive, how do I use it?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
-
- <para>Whether it is a removable drive like a &iomegazip; or an EZ drive
- (or even a floppy, if you want to use it that way), or a new
- hard disk, once it is installed and recognized by the system,
- and you have your cartridge/floppy/whatever slotted in, things
- are pretty much the same for all devices.</para>
-
- <para>(this section is based on <ulink
- url="http://www.vmunix.com/mark/FreeBSD/ZIP-FAQ.html">
- Mark Mayo's ZIP FAQ</ulink>)</para>
+ <question xml:id="burncd-isofs">
+ <para xml:lang="en">A CD burned under FreeBSD cannot be read
+ under any other operating system. Why?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>If it is a ZIP drive or a floppy, you have already got a DOS
- filesystem on it, you can use a command like this:</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This means a raw file was burned to the CD, rather
+ than creating an ISO 9660 file system. Take a look
+ at the Handbook section on <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/creating-cds.html#mounting-cd">Using
+ Data <acronym>CD</acronym>s</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount -t msdos /dev/fd0c /floppy</userinput></screen>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="copy-cd">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How can I create an image of a data CD?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>if it is a floppy, or this:</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This is discussed in the Handbook section on <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/creating-cds.html#mkisofs">Writing
+ Data to an <acronym>ISO</acronym> File System</link>.
+ For more on working with CD-ROMs, see the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/creating-cds.html">Creating
+ CDs Section</link> in the Storage chapter in the
+ Handbook.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount -t msdos /dev/da2s4 /zip</userinput></screen>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="mount-audio-CD">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why can I not <command>mount</command> an audio
+ CD?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>for a ZIP disk with the factory configuration.</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Trying to mount an audio CD will produce an error
+ like <errorname>cd9660: /dev/cd0: Invalid
+ argument</errorname>. This is because
+ <command>mount</command> only works on file systems.
+ Audio CDs do not have file systems; they just have data.
+ Instead, use a program that reads audio CDs, such as the
+ <package>audio/xmcd</package> package or port.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <para>For other disks, see how they are laid out using
- &man.fdisk.8; or
- &man.sysinstall.8;.</para>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="multi-session-CD">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I <command>mount</command> a multi-session
+ CD?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>The rest of the examples will be for a ZIP drive on da2,
- the third SCSI disk.</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">By default, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will attempt to mount the
+ last data track (session) of a CD. To
+ load an earlier session, use the
+ <option>-s</option> command line argument. Refer to
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount_cd9660</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> for specific examples.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <para>Unless it is a floppy, or a removable you plan on sharing
- with other people, it is probably a better idea to stick a BSD
- filesystem on it. You will get long filename support, at least a
- 2X improvement in performance, and a lot more stability. First,
- you need to redo the DOS-level partitions/filesystems. You can
- either use &man.fdisk.8; or
- <filename>sysinstall</filename>(&os; 5.2 之前版本則是 <command>/stand/sysinstall</command>), or for a small drive
- that you do not want to bother with multiple operating system
- support on, just blow away the whole FAT partition table
- (slices) and just use the BSD partitioning:</para>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="user-floppymount">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I let ordinary users mount CD-ROMs, DVDs,
+ USB drives, and other removable media?</para>
+ </question>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rda2 count=2</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel -Brw da2 auto</userinput></screen>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">As <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> set
+ the sysctl variable <varname>vfs.usermount</varname> to
+ <literal>1</literal>.</para>
- <para>You can use disklabel or
- <filename>sysinstall</filename> to create multiple BSD
- partitions. You will certainly want to do this if you are adding
- swap space on a fixed disk, but it is probably irrelevant on a
- removable drive like a ZIP.</para>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl vfs.usermount=1</userinput></screen>
- <para>Finally, create a new filesystem, this one is on our ZIP
- drive using the whole disk:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To make this persist across reboots, add the line
+ <literal>vfs.usermount=1</literal> to
+ <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename> so that it is reset
+ at system boot time.</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs /dev/rda2c</userinput></screen>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Users can only mount devices they have read
+ permissions to. To allow users to mount a device
+ permissions must be set in
+ <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename>.</para>
- <para>and mount it:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For example, to allow users to mount the first USB
+ drive add:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/da2c /zip</userinput></screen>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en"># Allow all users to mount a USB drive.
+ own /dev/da0 root:operator
+ perm /dev/da0 0666</programlisting>
- <para>and it is probably a good idea to add a line like this
- to <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> (see &man.fstab.5;) so
- you can just type <command>mount /zip</command> in the
- future:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">All users can now mount devices they could read onto a
+ directory that they own:</para>
- <programlisting>/dev/da2c /zip ffs rw,noauto 0 0</programlisting>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>mkdir ~/my-mount-point</userinput>
+<prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>mount -t msdosfs /dev/da0 ~/my-mount-point</userinput></screen>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="mount-cd-superblock">
- <para>Why do I get <errorname>Incorrect super block</errorname> when
- mounting a CDROM?</para>
- </question>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Unmounting the device is simple:</para>
- <answer>
- <para>You have to tell &man.mount.8; the type of the device
- that you want to mount. This is described in the <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/creating-cds.html"> Handbook section on
- optical media</ulink>, specifically the section <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/creating-cds.html#MOUNTING-CD">Using Data
- CDs</ulink>.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>umount ~/my-mount-point</userinput></screen>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="cdrom-not-configured">
- <para>Why do I get <errorname>Device not
- configured</errorname> when mounting a CDROM?</para>
- </question>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Enabling <varname>vfs.usermount</varname>, however,
+ has negative security implications. A better way to
+ access <trademark class="registered">MS-DOS</trademark> formatted media is to use the
+ <package>emulators/mtools</package> package in the Ports
+ Collection.</para>
- <answer>
- <para>This generally means that there is no CDROM in the
- CDROM drive, or the drive is not visible on the
- bus. Please see the <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/creating-cds.html#MOUNTING-CD">Using Data
- CDs</ulink> section of the Handbook for a detailed
- discussion of this issue.</para>
- </answer>
+ <note>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The device name used in the previous examples must
+ be changed according to the configuration.</para>
+ </note>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="cdrom-unicode-filenames">
- <para>Why do all non-English characters in filenames show up as
- <quote>?</quote> on my CDs when mounted in FreeBSD?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="du-vs-df">
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <command>du</command> and <command>df</command>
+ commands show different amounts of disk space available.
+ What is going on?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>Your CDROM probably uses the <quote>Joliet</quote>
- extension for storing information about files and
- directories. This is discussed in the Handbook chapter on
- <ulink url="&url.books.handbook;/creating-cds.html">creating and
- using CDROMs</ulink>, specifically the section on <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/creating-cds.html#MOUNTING-CD">Using Data
- CDROMs</ulink>.</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This is due to how these commands actually work.
+ <command>du</command> goes through the directory tree,
+ measures how large each file is, and presents the totals.
+ <command>df</command> just asks the file system how much
+ space it has left. They seem to be the same thing, but a
+ file without a directory entry will affect
+ <command>df</command> but not
+ <command>du</command>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When a program is using a file, and the file is
+ deleted, the file is not really removed from the file
+ system until the program stops using it. The file is
+ immediately deleted from the directory listing, however.
+ As an example, consider a file large enough
+ to affect the output of
+ <command>du</command> and <command>df</command>. A
+ file being viewed with <command>more</command> can be
+ deleted wihout causing an error.
+ The entry is
+ removed from the directory so no other program or user can
+ access it. However, <command>du</command> shows that it
+ is gone as it has walked the directory tree and the
+ file is not listed. <command>df</command> shows that it
+ is still there, as the file system knows that
+ <command>more</command> is still using that space. Once
+ the <command>more</command> session ends,
+ <command>du</command> and <command>df</command> will
+ agree.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">This situation is common on web servers. Many people
+ set up a FreeBSD web server and forget to rotate the log
+ files. The access log fills up <filename>/var</filename>.
+ The new administrator deletes the file, but the system
+ still complains that the partition is full. Stopping and
+ restarting the web server program would free the file,
+ allowing the system to release the disk space. To prevent
+ this from happening, set up <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newsyslog</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Note that Soft Updates can delay the freeing of disk
+ space and it can take up to 30 seconds for the
+ change to be visible.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="burncd-isofs">
- <para>I burned a CD under FreeBSD and now I can not read it
- under any other operating system. Why?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="add-swap-space">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How can I add more swap space?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>You most likely burned a raw file to your CD, rather
- than creating an ISO 9660 filesystem. Take a look at the
- <ulink url="&url.books.handbook;/creating-cds.html">Handbook
- chapter on creating CDROMs</ulink>, particularly the
- section on <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/creating-cds.html#RAWDATA-CD">burning raw
- data CDs</ulink>.</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This section <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/adding-swap-space.html">of the Handbook</link>
+ describes how to do this.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="copy-cd">
- <para>How can I create an image of a data CD?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="manufacturer-disk-size">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does FreeBSD see my disk as smaller than the
+ manufacturer says it is?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>This is discussed in the Handbook section on <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/creating-cds.html#IMAGING-CD">duplicating
- data CDs</ulink>. For more on working with CDROMs, see the
- <ulink url="&url.books.handbook;/creating-cds.html">Creating CDs
- Section</ulink> in the Storage chapter in the
- Handbook.</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Disk manufacturers calculate gigabytes as a billion
+ bytes each, whereas FreeBSD calculates them as
+ 1,073,741,824 bytes each. This explains why, for
+ example, FreeBSD's boot messages will report a disk that
+ supposedly has 80 GB as holding
+ 76,319 MB.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Also note that FreeBSD will (by default) <link linkend="disk-more-than-full">reserve</link> 8% of the
+ disk space.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="mount-audio-CD">
- <para>Why can I not <command>mount</command> an audio
- CD?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="disk-more-than-full">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How is it possible for a partition to be more than
+ 100% full?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>If you try to mount an audio CD, you will get an error
- like <errorname>cd9660: /dev/acd0c: Invalid
- argument</errorname>. This is because
- <command>mount</command> only works on filesystems. Audio
- CDs do not have filesystems; they just have data. You
- need a program that reads audio CDs, such as the
- <filename role="package">audio/xmcd</filename> port.</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">A portion of each UFS partition (8%, by default) is
+ reserved for use by the operating system and the
+ <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user.
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>df</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> does not count that space when calculating the
+ <literal>Capacity</literal> column, so it can exceed 100%.
+ Notice that the <literal>Blocks</literal>
+ column is always greater than the sum of the
+ <literal>Used</literal> and <literal>Avail</literal>
+ columns, usually by a factor of 8%.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For more details, look up <option>-m</option> in
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tunefs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="multi-session-CD">
- <para>How do I <command>mount</command> a multi-session CD?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="slow-boot-memtest">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does FreeBSD pause for a long time at boot when the
+ system has large amounts of ram?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>By default, &man.mount.8; will attempt to mount the
- last data track (session) of a CD. If you would like to
- load an earlier session, you must use the
- <option>-s</option> command line argument. Please see
- &man.mount.cd9660.8; for specific examples.</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FreeBSD 10.1 and earlier executes a memory test early
+ in the boot process.
+ When the system has a small amount of memory, the test
+ takes a few seconds. Computers with tens or hundreds of
+ gigabytes of memory can take several minutes to complete
+ the test. The memory test can be disabled by adding
+ <literal>hw.memtest.tests=0</literal> to
+ <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For more details, see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>loader.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
+ </qandaset>
+ </chapter>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="user-floppymount">
- <para>How do I let ordinary users mount floppies, CDROMs and
- other removable media?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Ordinary users can be permitted to mount devices. Here is
- how:</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>As <username>root</username> set the sysctl variable
- <varname>vfs.usermount</varname> to
- <literal>1</literal>.</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl -w vfs.usermount=1</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>As <username>root</username> assign the appropriate
- permissions to the block device associated with the
- removable media.</para>
-
- <para>For example, to allow users to mount the first floppy
- drive, use:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>chmod 666 /dev/fd0</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>To allow users in the group
- <groupname>operator</groupname> to mount the CDROM drive,
- use:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>chgrp operator /dev/acd0c</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>chmod 640 /dev/acd0c</userinput></screen>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>If you are running &os; 5.X or later, you will need to alter
- <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename> to make these changes
- permanent across reboots.</para>
-
- <para>As <username>root</username>, add the necessary lines to
- <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename>. For example, to allow
- users to mount the first floppy drive add:</para>
-
- <programlisting># Allow all users to mount the floppy disk.
-own /dev/fd0 root:operator
-perm /dev/fd0 0666</programlisting>
-
- <para>To allow users in the group <groupname>operator</groupname>
- to mount the CD-ROM drive add:</para>
-
- <programlisting># Allow members of the group operator to mount CD-ROMs.
-own /dev/acd0 root:operator
-perm /dev/acd0 0660</programlisting>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>Finally, add the line
- <literal><varname>vfs.usermount</varname>=1</literal>
- to the file <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename> so
- that it is reset at system boot time.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
-
- <para>All users can now mount the floppy
- <devicename>/dev/fd0</devicename> onto a directory that they
- own:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mkdir ~/my-mount-point</userinput>
-&prompt.user; <userinput>mount -t msdos /dev/fd0 ~/my-mount-point</userinput></screen>
+ <chapter xml:id="all-about-zfs">
+ <title xml:lang="en">ZFS</title>
+
+ <qandaset>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="how-much-ram-for-zfs">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is the minimum amount of RAM one should have to
+ run ZFS?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">A minimum of 4GB of RAM is required for comfortable
+ usage, but individual workloads can vary widely.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="what-is-zil">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is the ZIL and when does it get used?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>ZIL</acronym> (<acronym>ZFS</acronym>
+ intent log) is a write log used to implement posix write
+ commitment semantics across crashes. Normally writes
+ are bundled up into transaction groups and written to
+ disk when filled (<quote>Transaction Group
+ Commit</quote>). However syscalls like <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fsync</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+ require a commitment that the data is written to stable
+ storage before returning. The ZIL is needed for writes
+ that have been acknowledged as written but which are not
+ yet on disk as part of a transaction. The transaction
+ groups are timestamped. In the event of a crash the
+ last valid timestamp is found and missing data is merged
+ in from the ZIL.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="need-ssd-for-zil">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Do I need a SSD for ZIL?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">By default, ZFS stores the ZIL in the pool with all
+ the data. If an application has a heavy write load,
+ storing the ZIL in a separate device that has very fast
+ synchronous, sequential write performance can improve
+ overall system. For other workloads, a SSD is unlikely
+ to make much of an improvement.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="what-is-l2arc">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is the L2ARC?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <acronym>L2ARC</acronym> is a read cache stored
+ on a fast device such as an <acronym>SSD</acronym>.
+ This cache is not persistent across reboots. Note that
+ RAM is used as the first layer of cache and the L2ARC is
+ only needed if there is insufficient RAM.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">L2ARC needs space in the ARC to index it. So,
+ perversely, a working set that fits perfectly in the
+ ARC will not fit perfectly any more if a L2ARC is used
+ because part of the ARC is holding the L2ARC index,
+ pushing part of the working set into the L2ARC which is
+ slower than RAM.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="should-enable-dedup">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Is enabling deduplication advisable?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Generally speaking, no.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Deduplication takes up a significant amount of RAM
+ and may slow down read and write disk access times.
+ Unless one is storing data that is very heavily
+ duplicated, such as virtual machine images or user
+ backups, it is possible that deduplication will do more
+ harm than good. Another consideration is the inability
+ to revert deduplication status. If data is written when
+ deduplication is enabled, disabling dedup will not cause
+ those blocks which were deduplicated to be replicated
+ until they are next modified.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Deduplication can also lead to some unexpected
+ situations. In particular, deleting files may become
+ much slower.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="zpool-fully-full">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I cannot delete or create files on my ZFS pool.
+ How can I fix this?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This could happen because the pool is 100% full.
+ ZFS requires space on the disk to write transaction
+ metadata. To restore the pool to a usable state,
+ truncate the file to delete:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>truncate -s 0 unimportant-file</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">File truncation works because a new transaction is
+ not started, new spare blocks are created
+ instead.</para>
- <para>Users in group <groupname>operator</groupname> can now
- mount the CDROM <devicename>/dev/acd0c</devicename> onto a
- directory that they own:</para>
+ <note>
+ <para xml:lang="en">On systems with additional ZFS dataset tuning,
+ such as deduplication, the space may not be
+ immediately available</para>
+ </note>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mkdir ~/my-mount-point</userinput>
-&prompt.user; <userinput>mount -t cd9660 /dev/acd0c ~/my-mount-point</userinput></screen>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="zfs-ssd-trim">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Does ZFS support TRIM for Solid State Drives?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>Unmounting the device is simple:</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">ZFS TRIM support was added to FreeBSD 10-CURRENT
+ with revision r<revnumber>240868</revnumber>. ZFS TRIM
+ support was added to all FreeBSD-STABLE branches in
+ r<revnumber>252162</revnumber> and
+ r<revnumber>251419</revnumber>, respectively.</para>
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>umount ~/my-mount-point</userinput></screen>
+ <para xml:lang="en">ZFS TRIM is enabled by default, and can be turned
+ off by adding this line to
+ <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>:</para>
- <para>Enabling <varname>vfs.usermount</varname>, however,
- has negative security implications. A better way to
- access &ms-dos; formatted media is to use the
- <filename role="package">emulators/mtools</filename>
- package in the ports collection.</para>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">vfs.zfs.trim_disable=1</programlisting>
- <note>
- <para>The device name used in the previous examples must be
- changed according to your configuration.</para>
- </note>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="du-vs-df">
- <para>The <command>du</command> and <command>df</command>
- commands show different amounts of disk space available.
- What is going on?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>You need to understand what <command>du</command> and
- <command>df</command> really do. <command>du</command>
- goes through the directory tree, measures how large each
- file is, and presents the totals. <command>df</command>
- just asks the filesystem how much space it has left. They
- seem to be the same thing, but a file without a directory
- entry will affect <command>df</command> but not
- <command>du</command>.</para>
-
- <para>When a program is using a file, and you delete the
- file, the file is not really removed from the filesystem
- until the program stops using it. The file is immediately
- deleted from the directory listing, however. You can see
- this easily enough with a program such as
- <command>more</command>. Assume you have a file large
- enough that its presence affects the output of
- <command>du</command> and <command>df</command>. (Since
- disks can be so large today, this might be a
- <emphasis>very</emphasis> large file!) If you delete this
- file while using <command>more</command> on it,
- <command>more</command> does not immediately choke and
- complain that it cannot view the file. The entry is
- simply removed from the directory so no other program or
- user can access it. <command>du</command> shows that it
- is gone &mdash; it has walked the directory tree and the file
- is not listed. <command>df</command> shows that it is
- still there, as the filesystem knows that
- <command>more</command> is still using that space. Once
- you end the <command>more</command> session,
- <command>du</command> and <command>df</command> will
- agree.</para>
-
- <para>Note that Soft Updates can delay the freeing of disk
- space; you might need to wait up to 30 seconds for the
- change to be visible!</para>
-
- <para>This situation is common on web servers. Many people
- set up a FreeBSD web server and forget to rotate the log
- files. The access log fills up <filename>/var</filename>.
- The new administrator deletes the file, but the system
- still complains that the partition is full. Stopping and
- restarting the web server program would free the file,
- allowing the system to release the disk space. To prevent
- this from happening, set up &man.newsyslog.8;.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="add-swap-space">
- <para>How can I add more swap space?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>In the <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/config-tuning.html">Configuration and
- Tuning</ulink> section of the Handbook, you will find a
- <ulink
- url="&url.books.handbook;/adding-swap-space.html">section</ulink>
- describing how to do this.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="manufacturer-disk-size">
- <para>Why does &os; see my disk as smaller than the
- manufacturer says it is?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Disk manufacturers calculate gigabytes as a billion bytes
- each, whereas &os; calculates them as 1,073,741,824 bytes
- each. This explains why, for example, &os;'s boot messages
- will report a disk that supposedly has 80GB as holding
- 76319MB.</para>
- <para>Also note that &os; will (by default)
- <link linkend="disk-more-than-full">reserve</link> 8% of the disk
- space.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="disk-more-than-full">
- <para>How is it possible for a partition to be more than 100%
- full?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>A portion of each UFS partition (8%, by default) is
- reserved for use by the operating system and the
- <username>root</username> user.
- &man.df.1; does not count that space when
- calculating the <literal>Capacity</literal> column, so it can
- exceed 100%. Also, you will notice that the
- <literal>Blocks</literal> column is always greater than the
- sum of the <literal>Used</literal> and
- <literal>Avail</literal> columns, usually by a factor of
- 8%.</para>
-
- <para>For more details, look up the <option>-m</option> option
- in &man.tunefs.8;.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
- </qandaset>
+ <note>
+ <para xml:lang="en">ZFS TRIM may not work with all configurations,
+ such as a ZFS filesystem on a GELI-backed
+ device.</para>
+ </note>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+ </qandaset>
</chapter>
-
- <chapter id="admin">
- <chapterinfo>
- <author>
- <firstname>Wei-Hon</firstname>
- <surname>Chen</surname>
- <affiliation>
- <address><email>plasmaball@pchome.com.tw</email></address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </chapterinfo>
-
- <title>系統管理</title>
+ <chapter xml:id="admin">
+ <title xml:lang="en">System Administration</title>
<qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="startup-config-files">
- <para>系統起始設定檔在哪?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
-
- <para>從 2.0.5R 到 2.2.1R,主要的設定檔是
- <filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename>。所有的選項都被指定在這個檔,
- 而其他像 <filename>/etc/rc</filename> (參見 &man.rc.8;)
- 和 <filename>/etc/netstart</filename> 只是引用它。</para>
-
- <para>觀察 <filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename> 這個檔並修正其值以
- 適合你的系統。這個檔用註解填滿以表示何處該放置什麼設定。</para>
-
- <para>在 post-2.2.1 以後及 3.0,<filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename>
- 亦更名為一個更容易描述的檔名叫 &man.rc.conf.5; ,並且語法簡化了些。
- <filename>/etc/netstart</filename> 亦更名為
- <filename>/etc/rc.network</filename> 因此所有的檔案都可以用
- <command>cp /usr/src/etc/rc* /etc</command> 來拷貝。</para>
-
- <para>在 3.1 以及,<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 被移到
- <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename>。
- <emphasis>千萬不要編輯這個檔!</emphasis> 如果
- <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> 內有想要更動的項目,
- 你應該將那一行的內容拷貝到 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>,
- 然後再修改它。</para>
-
- <para>例如 FreeBSD 3.1 及以後的版本內,有一個 DNS 伺服器 named,
- 而你想要啟動它。你所需要作的事就是:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>echo named_enable="YES" &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>想要在 FreeBSD 3.1 及以後的版本中,啟動本地端服務的話,將
- shell script 置於 <filename>/usr/local/etc/rc.d</filename> 目錄
- 下。這些 shell script 應該設定成可執行,並且檔名以 .sh 結束。
- 在 FreeBSD 3.0 及更早的版本中,你應該直接編輯
- <filename>/etc/rc.local</filename> 檔。</para>
-
- <para><filename>/etc/rc.serial</filename>用來初始化序列埠
- (像是鎖定埠的特性等)。</para>
+ <question xml:id="startup-config-files">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Where are the system start-up configuration
+ files?</para>
+ </question>
- <para><filename>/etc/rc.i386</filename> 是 Intel 專用設定,
- 像是 iBCS2 模擬或是 PC 系統主控台設定。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The primary configuration file is
+ <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> which is
+ described in <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>. System startup scripts
+ such as <filename>/etc/rc</filename> and
+ <filename>/etc/rc.d</filename>, which are described in
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, include this file. <emphasis>Do not edit this
+ file!</emphasis> Instead, to edit an entry in
+ <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename>, copy the line
+ into <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and change it
+ there.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For example, if to start <citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, the
+ included DNS server:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>echo 'named_enable="YES"' &gt;&gt; /etc/rc.conf</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To start up local services, place shell scripts in the
+ <filename>/usr/local/etc/rc.d</filename> directory. These
+ shell scripts should be set executable, the default file
+ mode is <literal>555</literal>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="adding-users">
- <para>該如何簡單地新增帳號?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="adding-users">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I add a user easily?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>使用 &man.adduser.8; 指令。如果需要更複雜的使用方式,
- 請用 &man.pw.8; 這個指令。</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>adduser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command, or the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+ command for more complicated situations.</para>
- <para>要再次移除使用者,使用 &man.rmuser.8; 指令。還有,
- &man.pw.8; 也可以使用。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To remove the user, use the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rmuser</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command or,
+ if necessary, <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="root-not-found-cron-errors">
- <para>在改完 crontab 檔案後,為什麼老是收到這樣的訊息:
- <errorname>root: not found</errorname>?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>通常都是因為編輯了系統的 crontab
- (<filename>/etc/crontab</filename>) 然後就用 &man.crontab.1;
- 去安裝它:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>crontab /etc/crontab</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>這樣作是不對的。系統的 crontab 和 &man.crontab.1;
- 所更新的使用者的 crontab 格式並不一樣 (&man.crontab.5;
- 說明文件針對差異處有詳細的說明)。</para>
-
- <para>如果你已經用這種方法,額外多出的 crontab 只就是
- <filename>/etc/crontab</filename> 的拷貝,只是格式是錯誤的。
- 可用以下的命令刪除:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>crontab -r</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>下次你編輯 <filename>/etc/crontab</filename> 檔案的時候,
- 你不用作任何動作去通知 &man.cron.8; ,它自動會去偵測是否有更動。
- </para>
-
- <para>如果你想要每天、每週、或是每月固定執行某些動作一次,也許加個
- shell script 在 <filename>/usr/local/etc/periodic</filename>
- 目錄下會更好,系統的 cron 會固定執行 &man.periodic.8; 命令,
- 它可將你的程式和其它的系統週期性工作一起執行。</para>
+ <question xml:id="root-not-found-cron-errors">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why do I keep getting messages like <errorname>root:
+ not found</errorname> after editing
+ <filename>/etc/crontab</filename>?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>這個錯誤的真正原因,是因為系統的 crontab 有一個額外的欄位,
- 說明該命令要以什麼使用者身份執行。在 FreeBSD 的預設系統 crontab
- 中,所有的項目都是 <username>root</username>。 當這個 crontab
- 被當作是 <username>root</username> 的使用者 crontab (它和系統的
- crontab 是 <emphasis>不</emphasis> 一樣的),&man.cron.8; 會以為
- <literal>root</literal> 字串是欲執行的命令的第一個字,但是實際上
- 並沒有這樣的命令存在。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This is normally caused by editing the system crontab.
+ This is not the correct way to do things as the system
+ crontab has a different format to the per-user crontabs.
+ The system
+ crontab has an extra field, specifying which user to run
+ the command as. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>cron</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> assumes this user is the
+ first word of the command to execute. Since no such
+ command exists, this error message is displayed.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To delete the extra, incorrect crontab:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>crontab -r</userinput></screen>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="su-wheel-group">
- <para>為什麼我想要用 su 成為 <username>root</username> 時,會得到
- <errorname>you are not in the correct group to su root</errorname>
- 的錯誤訊息?</para>
+ <question xml:id="su-wheel-group">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why do I get the error, <errorname>you are not in the
+ correct group to su root</errorname> when I try to
+ <command>su</command> to <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>這是一個安全特性。想要利用 su 成為 <username>root</username>
- (或其它有 superuser 權限的帳號),你一定要在
- <groupname>wheel</groupname> 群組內。如果沒有這個特性的話,
- 任何人只要在系統裡有帳號,並且恰巧知道 <username>root</username>
- 的密碼,就可以取得 superuser 等級的權限以存取系統。有了這個特性,
- 這樣的情況就不會發生;如果使用者不在 <groupname>wheel</groupname>
- 群組內的話,&man.su.1; 會讓他們連試著鍵入密碼的機會都沒有。</para>
-
- <para>要讓某人可以利用 su 成為 <username>root</username> 的話,
- 只要把他們放入 <groupname>wheel</groupname> 群組內即可。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This is a security feature. In order to
+ <command>su</command> to
+ <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, or any
+ other account with superuser privileges, the user account
+ must be a member of the
+ <systemitem class="groupname">wheel</systemitem> group.
+ If this feature were not there, anybody with an
+ account on a system who also found out <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>'s password would be
+ able to gain superuser level access to the system.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To allow someone to <command>su</command> to
+ <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, put
+ them in the <systemitem class="groupname">wheel</systemitem> group using
+ <command>pw</command>:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>pw groupmod wheel -m lisa</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The above example will add user <systemitem class="username">lisa</systemitem> to the group
+ <systemitem class="groupname">wheel</systemitem>.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="rcconf-readonly">
- <para>我在 <filename>rc.conf</filename> 還是某個起動檔案裡犯了錯誤,
- 因為檔案系統變成唯讀的,我無法去編輯它。我該怎麼辦?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>當電腦問你 shell 完整路徑名時,只要按 <literal>ENTER
- </literal>,然後執行 <command>mount /</command> 以讀寫模式
- 重新掛載根檔案系統。你也許需要執行 <command>mount -a -t ufs
- </command>,將你慣用的文字編輯器所在的檔案系統掛載上來。如果
- 你慣用的文字編輯器在網路檔案系統上的話,你必須先手動將網路設定
- 起來,以便將網路檔案系統掛載上來,或是使用本地端檔案系統上的
- 編輯器,例如 &man.ed.1;。</para>
-
- <para>如果你想要使用像 &man.vi.1; 或是 &man.emacs.1; 等的全螢幕
- 文字編輯器的話,你也需要執行
- <command>export TERM=cons25 </command>,以便讓這些編輯器能夠從
- &man.termcap.5; 資料庫裡讀取正確的資料。</para>
+ <question xml:id="rcconf-readonly">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I made a mistake in <filename>rc.conf</filename>, or
+ another startup file, and now I cannot edit it because the
+ file system is read-only. What should I do?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>當你已經完成了這些步驟後,你可以照你平常修改文法錯誤的方式
- 去編輯 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 檔案。在核心 (kernel)
- 啟動時所顯示的錯誤訊息,能夠告訴你檔案中哪一行有錯誤。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Restart the system using <userinput>boot
+ -s</userinput> at the loader prompt to enter single-user
+ mode. When prompted for a shell pathname, press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> and run <command>mount
+ -urw /</command> to re-mount the root file system in
+ read/write mode. You may also need to run <command>mount
+ -a -t ufs</command> to mount the file system where your
+ favorite editor is defined. If that editor is on
+ a network file system, either configure
+ the network manually before mounting the network file
+ systems, or use an editor which resides on a local file
+ system, such as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ed</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">In order to use a full screen editor such as
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>vi</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> or <citerefentry vendor="ports"><refentrytitle>emacs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>, run
+ <command>export TERM=xterm</command>
+ so that these editors can load the correct data from the
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>termcap</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> database.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">After performing these steps, edit
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> to
+ fix the syntax error. The error message displayed
+ immediately after the kernel boot messages should indicate
+ the number of the line in the file which is at
+ fault.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="printer-setup">
- <para>為什麼我沒辦法設定我的印表機?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>請參考一下 Handbook 中,有關列印的部份。它應該能夠解決
- 你大部份的問題。請參考 <ulink url="../handbook/printing.html">
- Handbook 中的列印部份</ulink>。</para>
+ <question xml:id="printer-setup">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why am I having trouble setting up my printer?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>有些印表機需要主機支援的驅動程式 (host-based driver) 才能
- 執行任何列印功能。FreeBSD 本身並不支援這些所謂的
- <quote>WinPrinters</quote>。 如果你的印表機無法在 DOS 或
- Windows NT 4.0 下執行,那它大概就是一台 WinPrinter。你唯一能使用
- 這樣的印表機的希望,就是試試 <filename role="package">
- print/pnm2ppa</filename> 支不支援它了。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">See the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/printing.html">Handbook
+ entry on printing</link> for troubleshooting
+ tips.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="keyboard-mappings">
- <para>我要怎麼樣修正我的系統所使用的鍵盤對映 (keyboard mapping)?
- </para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="keyboard-mappings">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How can I correct the keyboard mappings for my
+ system?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>請參考 Handbook 中的 <ulink
- url="../handbook/using-localization.html">using localization
- </ulink> 章節,尤其是 <ulink
- url="../handbook/using-localization.html#SETTING-CONSOLE">console
- setup</ulink> 章節。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Refer to the Handbook section on <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/using-localization.html">using
+ localization</link>, specifically the section on <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/using-localization.html#setting-console">console
+ setup</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="pnp-resources">
- <para>為什麼我在系統啟動時,得到 <errorname>unknown: &lt;PNP0303&gt;
- can't assign resources</errorname> 的訊息?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="user-quotas">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why can I not get user quotas to work properly?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>以下是從 &os.current; 通信論壇的一篇文章中節錄出來的。</para>
+ <answer>
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">It is possible that the kernel is not configured
+ to use quotas. In this case,
+ add the following line to the kernel configuration
+ file and recompile the kernel:</para>
- <blockquote>
- <attribution>&a.wollman;, 2001 年四月 24 日</attribution>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">options QUOTA</programlisting>
- <para><quote>無法指派資源 (can't assign resources)</quote> 訊息表示
- 那些裝置是傳統的 ISA 裝置,而核心中已經編入不認得 PNP 的驅動程
- 式。這些裝置包括鍵盤控制器,可程式化岔斷控制晶片,還有幾個標準
- 設備。資源無法指派給這些裝置,是因為早已有驅動程式使用那些位址
- 了。</para>
- </blockquote>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Refer to the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/quotas.html">Handbook
+ entry on quotas</link> for full details.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="user-quotas">
- <para>為什麼 user quotas 無法正常運作?</para>
- </question>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Do not turn on quotas on
+ <filename>/</filename>.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <answer>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Put the quota file on the file system that the
+ quotas are to be enforced on:</para>
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>可能你 kernel 設定未加入 quotas 支援(預設是無)。如果是這樣子的話,
- 那麼請把下面這行加到 kernel 設定檔內並重新編譯、安裝:</para>
- <programlisting>options QUOTA</programlisting>
+ <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
+ <tgroup cols="2">
+ <thead>
+ <row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">File System</entry>
- <para>細節部分,請參閱 Handbook 內的 <ulink url="&url.books.handbook;/quotas.html">
- quotas</ulink> 章節。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">Quota file</entry>
+ </row>
+ </thead>
- <listitem>
- <para>請不要直接在 <filename>/</filename> 打開 quotas </para>
- </listitem>
+ <tbody>
+ <row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/usr</filename></entry>
- <listitem>
- <para>把 quotas 檔放在它必須強迫置入的檔案系統內,舉例:</para>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/usr/admin/quotas</filename></entry>
+ </row>
- <informaltable frame="none">
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>檔案系統</entry>
- <entry>Quota 檔</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
+ <row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/home</filename></entry>
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry><filename>/usr</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>/usr/admin/quotas</filename></entry>
- </row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en"><filename>/home/admin/quotas</filename></entry>
+ </row>
- <row>
- <entry><filename>/home</filename></entry>
- <entry><filename>/home/admin/quotas</filename></entry>
- </row>
+ <row>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">…</entry>
- <row>
- <entry>&hellip;</entry>
- <entry>&hellip;</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </informaltable>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </answer>
+ <entry xml:lang="en">…</entry>
+ </row>
+ </tbody>
+ </tgroup>
+ </informaltable>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="sysv-ipc">
- <para>FreeBSD 支援 System V IPC 格式指令集?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>是的,FreeBSD 支援 System V-style IPC。這包括共享記憶體,
- 訊息跟信號。你需要在你的 kernel 設定檔內加入下列幾行以啟動它們。</para>
+ <question xml:id="sysv-ipc">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Does FreeBSD support System V IPC primitives?</para>
+ </question>
- <programlisting>options SYSVSHM # enable shared memory
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yes, FreeBSD supports System V-style IPC, including
+ shared memory, messages and semaphores, in the
+ <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel. With a custom
+ kernel, support may be loaded with the
+ <filename>sysvshm.ko</filename>,
+ <filename>sysvsem.ko</filename> and
+ <filename>sysvmsg.ko</filename> kernel modules, or
+ enabled in the custom kernel by adding the following lines
+ to the kernel configuration file:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">options SYSVSHM # enable shared memory
options SYSVSEM # enable for semaphores
options SYSVMSG # enable for messaging</programlisting>
- <note>
- <para>在 FreeBSD 3.2 以及之後的版本,這些選項已經是
- <emphasis>GENERIC</emphasis> 核心的一部份,也就是說它們已
- 經編進了你的系統中。</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>重新編譯並安裝。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="uucpmail">
- <para>我該如何讓 sendmail 透過 UUCP 來遞送郵件?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>跟隨 FreeBSD 套裝而來的 sendmail 設定是適合那些直接連上網際網路
- 的站台。想透過 UUCP 交換郵件的站台必須另外安裝 sendmail 的設定檔案。
- </para>
-
- <para>手動修改 <filename>/etc/sendmail.cf</filename> 是絕對必要的。
- 第 8 版的 sendmail 提供一個全新的入口以透過一些像 &man.m4.1;
- 的處理就能產生設定檔,這事實上是一個高層概念等級的技巧性設定。
- 你應該可以在 <filename>/usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail/cf</filename>
- 以下裡使用它:</para>
-
- <para>假如你不是用 full sources 方式安裝系統,那麼 sendmail
- 設定項目可能已經分散成好幾個來源分布檔在等著你,假設你已經
- mount 光碟機,做以下動作:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /cdrom/src</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>cat scontrib.?? | tar xzf - -C /usr/src contrib/sendmail</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>別驚慌,這只有數十萬個位元組的大小。在 <filename>cf</filename>
- 目錄裡的 <filename>README</filename> 可以提供一個 m4 設定法的基
- 本介紹。</para>
-
- <para>以 UUCP 遞送來說,建議你最好使用 <literal>mailertable</literal>
- 特點。建構一個資料庫讓 sendmail 可以使用它自己的路徑決策。</para>
-
- <para>首先,你必須建立自己的 <filename>.mc</filename> 檔。
- <filename>/usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail/cf/cf</filename> 目錄是這些
- 檔案的家。查看一下,已經有好幾個範例檔,假設你已經命名自己的檔叫
- <filename>foo.mc</filename>,你要做的只是把它轉換成一個有效的
- <filename>sendmail.cf</filename>:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail/cf/cf</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>make foo.cf</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>cp foo.cf /etc/mail/sendmail.cf</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>一個典型的 <filename>.mc</filename> 檔看起來可能像這樣:</para>
-
- <programlisting>VERSIONID(`<replaceable>Your version number</replaceable>')
-OSTYPE(bsd4.4)
-
-FEATURE(accept_unresolvable_domains)
-FEATURE(nocanonify)
-FEATURE(mailertable, `hash -o /etc/mail/mailertable')
-
-define(`UUCP_RELAY', <replaceable>your.uucp.relay</replaceable>)
-define(`UUCP_MAX_SIZE', 200000)
-define(`confDONT_PROBE_INTERFACES')
-
-MAILER(local)
-MAILER(smtp)
-MAILER(uucp)
-
-Cw <replaceable>your.alias.host.name</replaceable>
-Cw <replaceable>youruucpnodename.UUCP</replaceable></programlisting>
-
- <para><literal>accept_unresolvable_domains</literal>,
- <literal>nocanonify</literal>, 和
- <literal>confDONT_PROBE_INTERFACES</literal> 特性將避免任何在
- 遞送郵件時會用到 DNS 的機會。<literal>UUCP_RELAY</literal>
- 項目的出現理由很奇怪,就不要問為何了。簡單的放入一個網際網路
- 上可以處理 .UUCP 虛擬網域位址的主機名稱;通常,你只需要在這
- 裡填入你 ISP 的信件回覆處 (mail replay)。</para>
-
- <para>你已經做到這裡了,你還需要這個叫
- <filename>/etc/mail/mailertable</filename>。如果你只有一個用
- 來傳遞所有郵件的對外通道的話,以下的檔案就足夠了:</para>
-
- <programlisting>#
-# makemap hash /etc/mail/mailertable.db &lt; /etc/mail/mailertable
- uucp-dom:<replaceable>your.uucp.relay</replaceable></programlisting>
-
- <para>另一個更複雜的例子看起來像這樣:</para>
-
- <programlisting>#
-# makemap hash /etc/mail/mailertable.db &lt; /etc/mail/mailertable
-#
-horus.interface-business.de uucp-dom:horus
-interface-business.de uucp-dom:if-bus
-interface-business.de uucp-dom:if-bus
-heep.sax.de smtp8:%1
-horus.UUCP uucp-dom:horus
-if-bus.UUCP uucp-dom:if-bus
- uucp-dom:</programlisting>
-
-
- <para>如你所見,這是某個真實檔案裡的一部份。首三行處理網域定址信件
- 不應該被送出到內定路徑,而由某些 UUCP 鄰居(UUCP neighbor)取代
- 的特殊情形,這是為了 <quote>縮短</quote>遞送的路徑。下一行處理到
- 本地乙太網路網域的信件讓它可以使用 SMTP 來遞送。最後,UUCP 鄰居提到
- .UUCP 虛擬網域的記載,允許一個 <literal><replaceable>uucp-neighbor
- </replaceable>!<replaceable>recipient</replaceable></literal> 推翻
- 內定規則。最後一行則以一個單獨的句點做結束,以 UUCP 遞送到提供當
- 你全世界性郵件閘門的UUCP 鄰居。所有在 <literal>uucp-dom:</literal>
- 關鍵字裡的節點名稱必須都是有效的 UUCP 鄰居,你可以用
- <literal>uuname</literal> 命令去確認。
- </para>
-
- <para>提醒你這個檔案在使用前必須被轉換成 DBM 資料庫檔案,最好在
- mailertable 最上面用註解寫出命令列來完成這個工作。當你每次更換你
- 的 mailertable 後你總是需要執行這個命令。</para>
-
- <para>最後提示:如果你不確定某些特定的信件路徑可用,記得把
- <option>-bt</option> 選項加到 sendmail。這會將 sendmail 啟動在
- <emphasis>address test mode</emphasis>;只要按下
- <literal>0</literal>,接著輸入你希望測試的信件路徑位址。
- 最後一行告訴你使用內部的信件代理程式,代理程式的會通知目的主機,
- 以及(可能轉換的)位址。要離開此模式請按 Control-D。</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>sendmail -bt</userinput>
-ADDRESS TEST MODE (ruleset 3 NOT automatically invoked)
-Enter &lt;ruleset&gt; &lt;address&gt;
-<prompt>&gt;</prompt> <userinput>3,0 foo@example.com</userinput>
-canonify input: foo @ example . com
-..
-parse returns: $# uucp-dom $@ <replaceable>your.uucp.relay</replaceable> $: foo &lt; @ example . com . &gt;
-<prompt>&gt;</prompt> <userinput>^D</userinput></screen>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ispmail">
- <para>當我用撥接連上網路時該怎麼設定信件遞送?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>如果你已經有一個固定的 IP 數字,你不需要調整任何內定值。設好
- 你要指定的網路名稱,其他的 sendmail 都會幫你做完。</para>
-
- <para>如果你拿到的是動態配置的 IP 數字而使用撥接 ppp 連接到網際網
- 路,你可能已經在你的 ISP 信件主機上有一個信箱。假設你的 ISP 網域
- 是 <hostid role="domainname">example.net</hostid>,你的使用者名
- 稱是 <username>user</username>。亦假設你稱自己的主機名稱是
- <hostid role="fqdn">bsd.home</hostid> 而你的 ISP 告訴你可以使用
- <hostid role="fqdn">relay.example.net</hostid> 當作信件回覆處。
- </para>
-
- <para>為了從你的信箱接收信件,你將需要安裝取信程式以便從信箱取回信件。
- <application>Fetchmail</application> 是一個不錯的選擇,因為它支
- 援許多不同的通訊協定,通常你的 ISP 會提供 POP3。如果你選擇使用
- user-ppp,你可以在連線到網路成功後自動抓取你的信件,只要在
- <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename>裡面設定以下這項:</para>
-
- <programlisting>MYADDR:
- !bg su user -c fetchmail</programlisting>
-
- <para>假使你正使用 <application>sendmail</application> (如下所示)
- 傳送信件到非本地帳號,置入以下命令:</para>
-
- <programlisting> !bg su user -c "sendmail -q"</programlisting>
-
- <para>在上面那項命令之後。這會強迫 <application>sendmail</application>
- 在連接上網路後馬上開始處理 mailqueue。</para>
-
- <para>我假設你在 <hostid role="fqdn">bsd.home</hostid> 機器上有一個
- <username>user</username> 的帳號。在 <hostid
- role="fqdn">bsd.home</hostid> 機器上 <username>user</username>
- 的家目錄裡建立一個 <filename>.fetchmailrc</filename> 的檔案:</para>
-
- <programlisting>poll example.net protocol pop3 fetchall pass MySecret</programlisting>
-
- <para>無須贅言,這個檔除了 <username>user</username> 外不應該被任
- 何人讀取,因為它包含 <literal>MySecret</literal> 這個密碼。</para>
-
- <para>為了在寄信時有正確的抬頭 <literal>from:</literal>,你必須告訴
- <application>sendmail</application> 使用
- <literal>user@example.net</literal> 而非
- <literal>user@bsd.home</literal>。你可能會希望告訴
- <application>sendmail</application> 從
- <hostid role="fqdn">relay.example.net</hostid> 送出所有信件,
- 加快信件傳送。</para>
-
- <para>以下的 <filename>.mc</filename> 檔應能滿足你的要求:</para>
-
- <programlisting>VERSIONID(`bsd.home.mc version 1.0')
-OSTYPE(bsd4.4)dnl
-FEATURE(nouucp)dnl
-MAILER(local)dnl
-MAILER(smtp)dnl
-Cwlocalhost
-Cwbsd.home
-MASQUERADE_AS(`example.net')dnl
-FEATURE(allmasquerade)dnl
-FEATURE(masquerade_envelope)dnl
-FEATURE(nocanonify)dnl
-FEATURE(nodns)dnl
-define(`SMART_HOST', `relay.example.net')
-Dmbsd.home
-define(`confDOMAIN_NAME',`bsd.home')dnl
-define(`confDELIVERY_MODE',`deferred')dnl</programlisting>
-
- <para>如何轉換這個 <filename>.mc</filename> 檔案到
- <filename>sendmail.cf</filename> 檔的詳細細節,請參考上一節。
- 另外,在更新 <filename>sendmail.cf</filename> 以後不要忘記重新啟動
- <application>sendmail</application>。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Recompile and install the kernel.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="sendmail-alternative">
- <para>除了 Sendmail 外,還有哪些郵件伺服器可以使用呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para><ulink url="http://www.sendmail.org/">Sendmail</ulink>
- 是 FreeBSD 預設使用的郵件伺服器,但是你還是可以很容易地以其它
- 郵件伺服器 (例如,從 port 安裝的郵件伺服器) 取代之。</para>
-
- <para>port 裡有很多可供選擇的郵件伺服器,像
- <filename role="package">mail/exim</filename>、
- <filename role="package">mail/postfix</filename>、
- <filename role="package">mail/qmail</filename>、
- <filename role="package">mail/zmailer</filename> 等,
- 就是幾個很受歡迎的選擇。</para>
+ <question xml:id="sendmail-alternative">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What other mail-server software can I use instead of
+ <application>Sendmail</application>?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>多樣選擇是好事,而且大家有許多郵件伺服器可以使用也被認為是
- 好事;所以請避免在通信論壇裡問像 <quote>Sendmail 有比 Qmail
- 好嗎?</quote> 這樣的問題。如果你真的很想問的話,請先到通信論壇
- archive 裡找一下。每一個郵件伺服器的優點與缺點,以前大概就已經
- 討論好幾次了。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <link xlink:href="http://www.sendmail.org/"><application>Sendmail</application></link>
+ server is the default mail-server software for FreeBSD, but
+ it can be replaced with another
+ MTA installed from the Ports Collection. Available ports
+ include <package>mail/exim</package>,
+ <package>mail/postfix</package>, and
+ <package>mail/qmail</package>. Search the mailing lists
+ for discussions regarding the advantages and disadvantages
+ of the available MTAs.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="forgot-root-pw">
- <para>我忘了 <username>root</username> 密碼了!怎麼辦?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="forgot-root-pw">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I have forgotten the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> password! What do I
+ do?</para>
+ </question>
<answer>
- <para>不要驚慌!只要重新啟動系統,在看到 Boot: 時輸入
- <userinput>boot -s</userinput> 即可進入單使用者模式
- (在 3.2-RELEASE 之前的版本請改用 <userinput>-s</userinput>)。
- 在問要使用哪個 shell 時,按下 ENTER。你會看到一個 &prompt.root;
- 的提示號,輸入 <command>mount -u /</command> 以重新掛上(mount)
- 你的根檔案系統可供讀/寫。執行 <command>passwd root</command>
- 以更換 <username>root</username> 密碼,然後執行 &man.exit.1;
- 繼續啟動程序。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Do not panic! Restart the system, type
+ <userinput>boot -s</userinput> at the
+ <literal>Boot:</literal> prompt to enter single-user mode.
+ At the question about the shell to use, hit
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> which will display a
+ <prompt>#</prompt> prompt. Enter <command>mount
+ -urw /</command> to remount the root file system
+ read/write, then run <command>mount -a</command> to
+ remount all the file systems. Run <command>passwd
+ root</command> to change the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> password then run
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>exit</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to continue booting.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If you are still prompted to give the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> password when
+ entering the single-user mode, it means that the console
+ has been marked as <literal>insecure</literal> in
+ <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>. In this case, it will
+ be required to boot from a FreeBSD installation disk,
+ choose the <guimenuitem>Live CD</guimenuitem> or
+ <guimenuitem>Shell</guimenuitem> at the beginning of the
+ install process and issue the commands mentioned above.
+ Mount the specific partition in this
+ case and then chroot to it. For example, replace
+ <command>mount -urw /</command> with
+ <command>mount /dev/ada0p1 /mnt; chroot /mnt</command>
+ for a system on
+ <replaceable>ada0p1</replaceable>.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <note>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the root partition cannot be mounted from
+ single-user mode, it is possible that the partitions are
+ encrypted and it is impossible to mount them without the
+ access keys. For more information see the section
+ about encrypted disks in the FreeBSD <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/disks-encrypting.html">Handbook</link>.</para>
+ </note>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="CAD-reboot">
- <para>我該怎麼讓 Control-Alt-Delete 不會重新啟動系統?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="CAD-reboot">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I keep <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Control</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>Delete</keycap></keycombo>
+ from rebooting the system?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>如果你是使用 FreeBSD 2.2.7-RELEASE 或之後版本的
- syscons(系統內定的主控台驅動程式),把下列這行放到 kernel 設定檔內,
- 然後重做一個新的核心:</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">When using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syscons</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, the default console
+ driver, build and install a new kernel with this line in
+ the configuration file:</para>
- <programlisting>options SC_DISABLE_REBOOT</programlisting>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">options SC_DISABLE_REBOOT</programlisting>
- <para>若是使用 FreeBSD 2.2.5-RELEASE 或之後版本的 PCVT 主控台驅動
- 程式,則以下列選項代替:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This can also be done by setting the following
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> which does not require a reboot or kernel
+ recompile:</para>
- <programlisting>options PCVT_CTRL_ALT_DEL</programlisting>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl hw.syscons.kbd_reboot=0</userinput></screen>
- <para>其他更早期的 FreeBSD 版本,請修改你正在使用的主控台鍵盤對應,
- 並將所有 <literal>boot</literal> 關鍵字以 <literal>nop</literal>
- 取代。內定的鍵盤對應是在
- <filename>/usr/share/syscons/keymaps/us.iso.kbd</filename>。
- 你可能需要明白的吩咐 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 去讀取
- 這個鍵盤對應以確保更動生效。當然如果你正在用適合你國籍的鍵盤對應,
- 你應該編輯那一個。</para>
- </answer>
+ <note>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The above two methods are exclusive: The
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> does not exist if the kernel is compiled
+ with <literal>SC_DISABLE_REBOOT</literal>.</para>
+ </note>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="dos-to-unix-txt">
- <para>我該怎麼把 DOS 文字檔案重新格式化成 UNIX 的?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="dos-to-unix-txt">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I reformat DOS text files to <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark>
+ ones?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Use this <citerefentry><refentrytitle>perl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> command:</para>
- <answer>
- <para>只要使用這個 perl 命令:</para>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>perl -i.bak -npe 's/\r\n/\n/g' file(s)</userinput></screen>
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>perl -i.bak -npe 's/\r\n/\n/g' file ...</userinput></screen>
+ <para xml:lang="en">where <replaceable>file(s)</replaceable> is one or
+ more files to process. The modification is done in-place,
+ with the original file stored with a
+ <filename>.bak</filename> extension.</para>
- <para>file 就是要處理的檔案。這個修改是在內部完成,原始的檔案會儲存成
- 副檔名為 .bak 的檔案。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Alternatively, use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tr</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>:</para>
- <para>或者你可以使用 &man.tr.1; 這個命令:</para>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>tr -d '\r' &lt; dos-text-file &gt; unix-file</userinput></screen>
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>tr -d '\r' &lt; <replaceable>dos-text-file</replaceable> &gt; <replaceable>unix-file</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><replaceable>dos-text-file</replaceable> is the file
+ containing DOS text while
+ <replaceable>unix-file</replaceable> will contain the
+ converted output. This can be quite a bit faster than
+ using <command>perl</command>.</para>
- <para><replaceable>dos-text-file</replaceable> 是包含 DOS 文字的
- 檔案,而 <replaceable>unix-text-file</replaceable> 則是包含轉換
- 的輸出結果。這比使用 perl 還要快上一點點。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yet another way to reformat DOS text files is to use
+ the <package>converters/dosunix</package> port from the
+ Ports Collection. Consult its documentation about the
+ details.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="kill-by-name">
- <para>我該怎麼用名稱砍掉 process?</para>
- </question><answer>
+ <question xml:id="reread-rc">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I re-read <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and
+ re-start <filename>/etc/rc</filename> without a
+ reboot?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>使用 &man.killall.1; 。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Go into single-user mode and then back to multi-user
+ mode:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>shutdown now</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>return</userinput>
+<prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>exit</userinput></screen>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="root-acl">
- <para>為何在 su 一直說我不在 <username>root</username> 的 ACL 裡?
- </para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="release-candidate">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I tried to update my system to the latest
+ <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>, but got
+ <emphasis>-BETA<replaceable>x</replaceable></emphasis>,
+ <emphasis>-RC</emphasis> or
+ <emphasis>-PRERELEASE</emphasis>! What is going
+ on?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>這個錯誤是因為 Kerberos 分散認證系統。這個問題並不是很嚴重
- 但是令人厭煩。你可以用 -K 選項去執行 su,或是像下個問題所描述的
- 移除 Kerberos。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Short answer: it is just a name.
+ <emphasis>RC</emphasis> stands for <quote>Release
+ Candidate</quote>. It signifies that a release is
+ imminent. In FreeBSD, <emphasis>-PRERELEASE</emphasis> is
+ typically synonymous with the code freeze before a
+ release. (For some releases, the
+ <emphasis>-BETA</emphasis> label was used in the same way
+ as <emphasis>-PRERELEASE</emphasis>.)</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Long answer: FreeBSD derives its releases from one of two
+ places. Major, dot-zero, releases, such as 9.0-RELEASE
+ are branched from the head of the development stream,
+ commonly referred to as <link linkend="current">-CURRENT</link>. Minor releases, such
+ as 6.3-RELEASE or 5.2-RELEASE, have been snapshots of the
+ active <link linkend="stable">-STABLE</link> branch.
+ Starting with 4.3-RELEASE, each release also now has its
+ own branch which can be tracked by people requiring an
+ extremely conservative rate of development (typically only
+ security advisories).</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When a release is about to be made, the branch from
+ which it will be derived from has to undergo a certain
+ process. Part of this process is a code freeze. When a
+ code freeze is initiated, the name of the branch is
+ changed to reflect that it is about to become a release.
+ For example, if the branch used to be called 6.2-STABLE,
+ its name will be changed to 6.3-PRERELEASE to signify the
+ code freeze and signify that extra pre-release testing
+ should be happening. Bug fixes can still be committed to
+ be part of the release. When the source code is in shape
+ for the release the name will be changed to 6.3-RC to
+ signify that a release is about to be made from it. Once
+ in the RC stage, only the most critical bugs found can be
+ fixed. Once the release (6.3-RELEASE in this example) and
+ release branch have been made, the branch will be renamed
+ to 6.3-STABLE.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For more information on version numbers and the
+ various Subversion branches, refer to the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/releng/article.html">Release
+ Engineering</link> article.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="uninstall-kerberos">
- <para>我該怎麼移除 Kerberos?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="kernel-chflag-failure">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I tried to install a new kernel, and the
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>chflags</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> failed. How do I get around this?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>要從系統裡移除 Kerberos,重裝你正在執行的 release 版本的
- bin distribution。如果你有 CDROM,你可以 mount cd(假設在 /cdrom)
- 並執行:</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Short answer: the security level is
+ greater than 0. Reboot directly to single-user mode to
+ install the kernel.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Long answer: FreeBSD disallows changing system flags at
+ security levels greater than 0. To check the current
+ security level:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl kern.securelevel</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The security level cannot be lowered in multi-user
+ mode, so boot to single-user mode to install the kernel,
+ or change the security level in
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> then reboot. See the
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for details on
+ <literal>securelevel</literal>, and see
+ <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> and the
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for more information on
+ <filename>rc.conf</filename>.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /cdrom/bin</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>./install.sh</userinput></screen>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="kernel-securelevel-time">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I cannot change the time on my system by more than one
+ second! How do I get around this?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>或者你也可以將 <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> 裡的
- "MAKE_KERBEROS" 選項全都拿掉,然後再 build world.</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Short answer: the system is at a security level
+ greater than 1. Reboot directly to single-user mode to
+ change the date.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Long answer: FreeBSD disallows changing the time by more
+ that one second at security levels greater than 1. To
+ check the security level:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl kern.securelevel</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The security level cannot be lowered in multi-user
+ mode. Either boot to single-user mode to change the date
+ or change the security level in
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and reboot. See the
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for details on
+ <literal>securelevel</literal>, and see
+ <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> and the
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page for more information on
+ <filename>rc.conf</filename>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="add-pty">
- <para>我該怎麼增加系統的虛擬終端機?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="statd-mem-leak">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why is <command>rpc.statd</command> using 256 MB
+ of memory?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>如果你有許多 telnet,ssh,X 或是 screen 使用者,你或許會用完
- 虛擬終端機,這能教你怎麼加更多:</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">No, there is no memory leak, and it is not using
+ 256 MB of memory. For convenience,
+ <command>rpc.statd</command> maps an obscene amount of
+ memory into its address space. There is nothing terribly
+ wrong with this from a technical standpoint; it just
+ throws off things like <citerefentry><refentrytitle>top</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ps</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en"><citerefentry><refentrytitle>rpc.statd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> maps its status file (resident on
+ <filename>/var</filename>) into its address space; to save
+ worrying about remapping it later when it needs to grow,
+ it maps it with a generous size. This is very evident
+ from the source code, where one can see that the length
+ argument to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mmap</refentrytitle><manvolnum>2</manvolnum></citerefentry> is <literal>0x10000000</literal>,
+ or one sixteenth of the address space on an IA32, or
+ exactly 256 MB.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>建立並安裝一個新的 kernel 並且把這一行</para>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="unsetting-schg">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why can I not unset the <literal>schg</literal> file
+ flag?</para>
+ </question>
- <programlisting>pseudo-device pty 256</programlisting>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The system is running a securelevel greater than 0.
+ Lower the securelevel and try again. For
+ more information, see <link linkend="securelevel">the <acronym>FAQ</acronym>
+ entry on securelevel</link> and the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual
+ page.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <para>加入到設定檔裡。</para>
- </step>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="vnlru">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is <literal>vnlru</literal>?</para>
+ </question>
- <step>
- <para>執行這個命令:</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><literal>vnlru</literal> flushes and frees vnodes when
+ the system hits the <varname>kern.maxvnodes</varname>
+ limit. This kernel thread sits mostly idle, and only
+ activates when there is a huge amount of RAM and users are
+ accessing tens of thousands of tiny files.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>sh MAKEDEV pty{1,2,3,4,5,6,7}</userinput></screen>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="top-memory-states">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What do the various memory states displayed by
+ <command>top</command> mean?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>會造出 256 個虛擬終端機的裝置節點。</para>
+ <!-- Provided by John Dyson via Usenet -->
+ <answer>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><literal>Active</literal>: pages recently
+ statistically used.</para>
+ </listitem>
- </step>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><literal>Inactive</literal>: pages recently
+ statistically unused.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <step>
- <para>編輯 <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> 並加入符合 256
- 個終端機的行數。它們應該符合已經存在單項的格式,舉例來說,
- 它們看起來像:</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><literal>Cache</literal>: (most often) pages that
+ have percolated from inactive to a status where they
+ maintain their data, but can often be immediately
+ reused (either with their old association, or reused
+ with a new association). There can be certain
+ immediate transitions from <literal>active</literal>
+ to <literal>cache</literal> state if the page is known
+ to be clean (unmodified), but that transition is a
+ matter of policy, depending upon the algorithm choice
+ of the VM system maintainer.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <programlisting>ttyqc none network</programlisting>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><literal>Free</literal>: pages without data
+ content, and can be immediately used in certain
+ circumstances where cache pages might be ineligible.
+ Free pages can be reused at interrupt or process
+ state.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para>字母設計的順序是
- <literal>tty[pqrsPQRS][0-9a-v]</literal>,使用正規表示式。
- </para>
- </step>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><literal>Wired</literal>: pages that are fixed
+ into memory, usually for kernel purposes, but also
+ sometimes for special use in processes.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
- <step>
- <para>用新的 kernel 重新啟動電腦就可以了。</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Pages are most often written to disk (sort of a VM
+ sync) when they are in the inactive state, but active
+ pages can also be synced. This depends upon the CPU
+ tracking of the modified bit being available, and in
+ certain situations there can be an advantage for a block
+ of VM pages to be synced, whether they are active or
+ inactive. In most common cases, it is best to think of
+ the inactive queue to be a queue of relatively unused
+ pages that might or might not be in the process of being
+ written to disk. Cached pages are already synced, not
+ mapped, but available for immediate process use with their
+ old association or with a new association. Free pages are
+ available at interrupt level, but cached or free pages can
+ be used at process state for reuse. Cache pages are not
+ adequately locked to be available at interrupt
+ level.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">There are some other flags (e.g., busy flag or busy
+ count) that might modify some of the described
+ rules.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="create-snd0">
- <para>/dev/snd0 這個裝置做不出來!</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>並沒 <devicename>snd</devicename> 這個裝置的存在。這個名字
- 是用來當作各個組成 FreeBSD 聲音驅動程式組,諸如
- <devicename>mixer</devicename>,
- <devicename>sequencer</devicename>,以及
- <devicename>dsp</devicename> 的簡稱。</para>
-
- <para>可以用以下的命令作出這些裝置:</para>
+ <question xml:id="free-memory-amount">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How much free memory is available?</para>
+ </question>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>sh MAKEDEV snd0</userinput></screen>
- </answer>
+ <!-- Provided by John Dyson via Usenet -->
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">There are a couple of kinds of <quote>free
+ memory</quote>. One kind is the amount of memory
+ immediately available without paging anything else out.
+ That is approximately the size of cache queue + size of
+ free queue (with a derating factor, depending upon system
+ tuning). Another kind of <quote>free memory</quote> is
+ the total amount of <acronym>VM</acronym> space. That can
+ be complex, but is dependent upon the amount of swap space
+ and memory. Other kinds of <quote>free memory</quote>
+ descriptions are also possible, but it is relatively
+ useless to define these, but rather it is important to
+ make sure that the paging rate is kept low, and to avoid
+ running out of swap space.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="reread-rc">
- <para>可以不用開機,重新讀取 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>、
- 再次啟動 <filename>/etc/rc</filename> 嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>先進入單人使用者模式,然後再回到多使用者模式。</para>
-
- <para>在主控台執行:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>shutdown now</userinput>
-(Note: without -r or -h)
+ <question xml:id="var-empty">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is <filename>/var/empty</filename>?</para>
+ </question>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>return</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>exit</userinput></screen>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><filename>/var/empty</filename> is a directory that
+ the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sshd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> program uses when performing privilege
+ separation. The <filename>/var/empty</filename>
+ directory is empty, owned by <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> and has the
+ <literal>schg</literal> flag set. This directory should
+ not be deleted.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="release-candidate">
- <para>我想要把我的系統昇級到最新的 -STABLE,但是得到的是 -RC 或
- -PRERELEASE!怎麼了?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>簡單地說:那只是名字而已。RC 的意思是 <quote>Release Candiate,
- 發行候選版本</quote>,它表示新版本快要發行了。在 FreeBSD 中,
- -PRERELEASE 通常是發行前的程式碼凍結的代名詞。(有些發行版本中,
- -BETA 標籤跟 -PRERELEASE 是相同意思的。)</para>
-
- <para>詳細地說:FreeBSD 從兩個地方分支出它的發行版本。主版號、
- 點零、release (例如 3.0-RELEASE 及 4.0-RELEASE) 的,是從發展過程
- 開始時分支出來的,通常稱為 <link linkend="current">-CURRENT
- </link>。有副版號的版本 (例如 3.1-RELEASE 或 4.2-RELEASE),是
- 活躍的 <link linkend="stable">-STABLE</link> 分支中的發行版本
- 快照。從 4.3-RELEASE 開始,每一個發行版本有它自己的分支,可為
- 偏好極度保守的發展速度 (通常只會作安全方面的更新) 的人所用。</para>
+ <question xml:id="newsyslog-expectations">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I just changed
+ <filename>/etc/newsyslog.conf</filename>. How can I check
+ if it does what I expect?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>準備要製作發行版本時,其所在的分支會經過一定的程序。有一個是
- 程式碼凍結。當程式碼凍結開始時,分支名稱會更名,以反映它快要成為
- 一個發行版本了。舉個例子,如果原來的分支叫 4.5-STABLE,它的名字
- 會變成 4.6-PRERELEASE 以表示程式碼已凍結,並且額外的發行前測試
- 將要開始了。臭蟲更正仍可回報,以成為發行版本的一部份。當程式碼
- 有了可成為發行版本的雛形時,它的名字就會變成 4.6-RC,以表示發行
- 版本快好了。進入 RC 階段後,只有找到的最有影響的臭蟲才會被修正。
- 當發行版本 (本例中為 4.6-RELEASE) 產生後,發行版本會有自己的分支,
- 原分支會被更名為 4.6-STABLE。</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To see what <citerefentry><refentrytitle>newsyslog</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> will do, use the
+ following:</para>
- <para>想要得知更多有關版本號碼與各 CVS 分支的資訊,請參考
- <ulink url="../../articles/releng/article.html">Release
- Engineering</ulink> 一文。</para>
- </answer>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>newsyslog -nrvv</userinput></screen>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="kernel-chflag-failure">
- <para>我試著要安裝一個新的核心,但是無法 chflags。我該怎麼解決?
- </para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="timezone">
+ <para xml:lang="en">My time is wrong, how can I change the
+ timezone?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>簡單地說:你的 securelevel 可能大於零。直接重新開機到
- 單人模式,再安裝核心。</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>tzsetup</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
+ </qandaset>
+ </chapter>
- <para>詳細地說:FreeBSD 在 securelevel 大於零情況下,不允許
- 變更系統旗標 (system flags)。你可以用這個指令檢查你的
- securelevel:</para>
+ <chapter xml:id="x">
+ <title xml:lang="en">The X Window System and Virtual Consoles</title>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl kern.securelevel</userinput></screen>
+ <qandaset>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="whatis-X">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is the X Window System?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>你沒有辦法降低 securelevel;你必須啟動系統到單人模式以
- 安裝核心,或是修改 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 內的
- securelevel 再重新開機。請參考 &man.init.8; 說明文件,以取得
- 更多有關 securelevel 的資訊,還有 <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf
- </filename> 和 &man.rc.conf.5; 說明文件,以取得更多有關 rc.conf
- 的資訊。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The X Window System (commonly <literal>X11</literal>)
+ is the most widely available windowing system capable of
+ running on <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> or <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> like systems, including
+ FreeBSD. <link xlink:href="http://www.x.org/wiki/">The X.Org
+ Foundation</link> administers the <link xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X_Window_System_core_protocol">X
+ protocol standards</link>, with the current reference
+ implementation, version 11 release 7.7, so
+ references are often shortened to
+ <literal>X11</literal>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Many implementations are available for different
+ architectures and operating systems. An implementation of
+ the server-side code is properly known as an <literal>X
+ server</literal>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="kernel-securelevel-time">
- <para>在我的系統上,我無法變更時間超過一秒以上的範圍!
- 我該怎麼辦?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>簡單地講:你系統的 securelevel 也許大於 1。直接重新開機至
- 單人模式,然後再修改時間。</para>
-
- <para>詳細地說:在 securelevel 大於 1 的情況下,FreeBSD 不允許時間
- 變動大於一秒。你可以用以下的命令來檢查目前的 securelevel:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl kern.securelevel</userinput></screen>
+ <question xml:id="running-X">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I want to run Xorg, how do I go about it?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>你無法降低 securelevel;你必須啟動電腦至單人模式下以修改時間,
- 或是修改 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 再重新開機。請參考
- &man.init.8; 說明文件,以取得更多有關 securelevel 的資訊,還有
- <filename>/etc/defaults/rc.conf</filename> 和 &man.rc.conf.5;
- 說明文件,以取得更多有關 rc.conf 的資訊。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To install Xorg do one of the following:</para>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="statd-mem-leak">
- <para>為什麼 <command>rpc.statd</command> 用了 256 megabytes
- 的記憶體?</para>
- </question>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Use the <package>x11/xorg</package>
+ meta-port, which builds and installs every Xorg
+ component.</para>
- <answer>
- <para>不,那不是 memory leak,而且它也不是真的用了 256 Mbyte
- 的記憶體。它只是喜歡 (意思就是總會這樣作) 將一狗票的記憶體
- 映謝到它自己的位址空間,以方便作事。就技術而言,這樣並沒有
- 什麼不對;這樣只是會讓 &man.top.1; 和 &man.ps.1; 嚇一大跳而已。
- </para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Use <package>x11/xorg-minimal</package>, which builds
+ and installs only the necessary Xorg components.</para>
- <para>&man.rpc.statd.8; 會將它的狀態檔案 (位於 <filename>/var
- </filename>) 映射至它的位址空間裡;為了防止需要的時候再增大所
- 導致的重新映射,它一次會使用相當大的大小。從程式碼來看的話就
- 更明顯了,可以看到 &man.mmap.2; 的長度參數為 <literal>0x10000000
- </literal>,它是 IA32 架構上的十六分之一的定址空間,也就是
- 256MB。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Install Xorg from FreeBSD packages:</para>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="unsetting-schg">
- <para>為什麼我沒辦法取消 <literal>schg</literal> 檔案旗標?</para>
- </question>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><userinput><prompt>#</prompt> pkg install xorg</userinput></screen>
- <answer>
- <para>你正在一個提高了 securelevel (也就是大於 0) 的系統運作。
- 降低 securelevel 再試試看。請參考 <link linkend="securelevel">
- FAQ 中對 securelevel 的說明</link> 和 &man.init.8; 說明文件。
- </para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">After the installation of Xorg, follow the
+ instructions from the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x-config.html">X11
+ Configuration</link> section of the FreeBSD
+ Handbook.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ssh-shosts">
- <para>為什麼近來的新版 FreeBSD 預設無法利用 <filename>.shosts
- </filename> 完成 SSH 認證?</para>
+ <question xml:id="running-X-securelevels">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I <emphasis>tried</emphasis> to run X, but I get a
+ <errorname>No devices detected.</errorname> error when I
+ type <command>startx</command>. What do I do now?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>為什麼近來新版 FreeBSD <filename>.shosts</filename> 認證預設
- 為取消的原因,是因為 &man.ssh.1; 預設不安裝為 suid 成 <username>
- root</username>。要 <quote>修正</quote> 這點,你可以作下列的
- 任何一件事:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>要一勞永逸解決,請將 <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename>
- 裡的 <makevar>ENABLE_SUID_SSH</makevar> 設成 <literal>true
- </literal>,然後再重新 build ssh (或是執行 <command>make
- world</command>)。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>只作一時的修正的話,可以 <username>root</username> 身份
- 執行 <command>chmod 4755 /usr/bin/ssh</command> 將
- <filename>/usr/bin/ssh</filename> 設成 <literal>4555
- </literal>。然後將 <makevar>ENABLE_SUID_SSH= true</makevar>
- 加入 <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> 裡,這樣下次
- <command>make world</command> 執行就會生效了。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The system is probably running at a raised
+ <literal>securelevel</literal>. It is not possible to
+ start X at a raised <literal>securelevel</literal> because
+ X requires write access to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>io</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>. For more
+ information, see at the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual page.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">There are two solutions to the problem: set the
+ <literal>securelevel</literal> back down to zero or run
+ <citerefentry vendor="xfree86"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> (or an alternative display manager) at boot
+ time before the <literal>securelevel</literal> is
+ raised.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">See <xref linkend="xdm-boot"/> for more information
+ about running <citerefentry vendor="xfree86"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> at boot time.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="vnlru">
- <para>什麼是 <literal>vnlru</literal>?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>當系統達到上限 <varname>kern.maxvnodes</varname> 時,
- <literal>vnlru</literal> 會清除並釋放 vnode。這個核心
- 執行緒大部份的時間都沒事作,只有當你有很大的記憶體,而且
- 正在存取上萬個小檔案時,才會被啟動。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
- </qandaset>
- </chapter>
+ <question xml:id="x-and-moused">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does my mouse not work with X?</para>
+ </question>
- <chapter id="x">
- <chapterinfo>
- <author>
- <firstname>Wei-Hon</firstname>
- <surname>Chen</surname>
- <affiliation>
- <address><email>plasmaball@pchome.com.tw</email></address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </chapterinfo>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">When using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syscons</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, the default console
+ driver, FreeBSD can be configured to support a mouse pointer
+ on each virtual screen. To avoid conflicting with X,
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>syscons</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> supports a virtual device called
+ <filename>/dev/sysmouse</filename>. All mouse events
+ received from the real mouse device are written to the
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysmouse</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> device via <citerefentry><refentrytitle>moused</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. To use the
+ mouse on one or more virtual consoles,
+ <emphasis>and</emphasis> use X, see <xref linkend="moused" remap="another section"/> and set up
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>moused</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Then edit <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename> and
+ make sure the following lines exist:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">Section "InputDevice"
+ Option "Protocol" "SysMouse"
+ Option "Device" "/dev/sysmouse"
+.....</programlisting>
- <title>X Window System 及 Virtual Consoles</title>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Starting with Xorg version 7.4, the
+ <literal>InputDevice</literal> sections in
+ <filename>xorg.conf</filename> are ignored in favor of
+ autodetected devices. To restore the old behavior, add
+ the following line to the <literal>ServerLayout</literal>
+ or <literal>ServerFlags</literal> section:</para>
- <qandaset>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="running-X">
- <para>我想要執行 X ,我該怎麼做?</para>
- </question>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">Option "AutoAddDevices" "false"</programlisting>
- <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Some people prefer to use
+ <filename>/dev/mouse</filename> under X. To make this
+ work, <filename>/dev/mouse</filename> should be linked
+ to <filename>/dev/sysmouse</filename> (see
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sysmouse</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>) by adding the following line to
+ <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename> (see
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>devfs.conf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>):</para>
- <para>最簡單的方法就是在安裝系統的時候一併安裝。</para>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">link sysmouse mouse</programlisting>
- <para>然後看看 &man.xorgconfig.1; 的文件,這個程式可以
- 幫您設定 &xorg; 相關設定,使它能夠正確運用您的顯示卡、滑鼠等週邊。此外,還可以用 &man.xorgcfg.1;
- 的圖形介面來做相關設定。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This link can be created by restarting <citerefentry vendor="current"><refentrytitle>devfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+ with the following command (as <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>):</para>
- <para>您或許也想試試看 Xaccel server。詳情請看 <link linkend="xig">Xi Graphics</link>
- 這一段。</para>
- </answer>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>service devfs restart</userinput></screen>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="running-X-securelevels">
- <para>我 <emphasis>試著</emphasis> 要執行 X, 但是當我鍵入
- <command>startx</command> 時,得到
- <errorname>KDENABIO failed (Operation not permitted)</errorname>
- 錯誤。我該怎麼辦?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>你的系統一定提高了 securelevel,對不對?在一個提高了
- securelevel 的系統上,是絕對無法起動 X 的。想知道為什麼,
- 請參考 &man.init.8; 說明文件。</para>
-
- <para>所以這個問題變成:你還能怎麼辦。基本上你有兩種選擇:
- 將你的 securelevel 設回零 (通常在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf
- </filename> 裡面設定),或是在啟動時執行 &man.xdm.1; (在
- securelevel 被昇高前)。</para>
-
- <para>請參考 <xref linkend="xdm-boot"/> 以取得更多有關啟動時
- 執行 &man.xdm.1; 的資訊。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="x-and-moused">
- <para>為什麼我不能在 X 裡使用滑鼠?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>如果您用的是 syscons (內定的 console 驅動程式) 的話,您可以
- 經由設定 FreeBSD 來讓它支援在每個 virtual console 使用滑鼠。為了
- 避免和 X 產生衝突,syscons 使用了一個叫做
- <devicename>/dev/sysmouse</devicename> 的虛擬裝置。所有滑鼠產生的
- event 都會利用 moused 來寫到 sysmouse 這個裝置。如果您希望在一個
- 或以上的 virtual console 上使用滑鼠,<emphasis>並且</emphasis>
- 能夠使用 X 的話,請參考
- <xref linkend="moused" remap="another section"/> 並且設定好
- moused。</para>
-
- <para>然後編輯 <filename>/etc/XF86Config</filename> 這個檔案,
- 並且確認你有以下這幾行的設定。</para>
-
- <programlisting>Section Pointer
-Protocol "SysMouse"
-Device "/dev/sysmouse"
-....</programlisting>
-
- <para>以上的例子,適用於 XFree86 3.3.2 及其後的版本。用於更早的
- 版本的,其 <emphasis>Protocol</emphasis> 應為
- <emphasis>MouseSystems</emphasis>。</para>
-
- <para>有些人比較喜歡在設定 X 的時候用
- <devicename>/dev/mouse</devicename> 這個裝置。如果您要讓它能夠
- 正常工作的話,您就必須把 <devicename>/dev/mouse</devicename>
- 連結到 <devicename>/dev/sysmouse</devicename> (請參考
- &man.sysmouse.4;):</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>rm -f mouse</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>ln -s sysmouse mouse</userinput></screen>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="x-and-wheel">
- <para>滑鼠的滾輪,能在 X 裡面使用嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>可以。不過需要設定 X client 端程式。 請參考 <ulink
- url="http://www.inria.fr/koala/colas/mouse-wheel-scroll/">
- Colas Nahaboo 的網頁
- (http://www.inria.fr/koala/colas/mouse-wheel-scroll/)
- </ulink>.</para>
-
- <para>如果你要使用 <application>imwheel</application> 程式,
- 只要跟著下列步驟作即可。</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>轉換滾輪 event
-Translate the Wheel Events</para>
-
- <para><application>imwheel</application> 程式的運作原理,
- 是將滑鼠的第四鍵與第五鍵轉換成按鍵 event。因為如此,所以
- 你必須讓滑鼠驅動程式將滑輪事件轉換成第四鍵與第五鍵 event。
- 有兩種方法可以達到目的,一是讓 &man.moused.8; 作轉換,二是
- 讓 X 本身去作 event 轉換。</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>使用 &man.moused.8; 來轉換滾輪 Event</para>
-
- <para>要讓 &man.moused.8; 來作 event 轉換,只要在
- 執行 &man.moused.8; 的命令列中加上 <option>-z 4</option>
- 即可。舉個例子,如果你一般都是以
- <command>moused -p /dev/psm0</command> 來起動
- &man.moused.8; 的話,只要改成 <command>moused -p
- /dev/psm0 -z 4</command> 即可。如果你是在開機過程中利用
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 來起動 &man.moused.8;,
- 你可以在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 中將
- <varname>moused_flags</varname> 上加 <option>-z 4
- </option> 即可。</para>
-
- <para>你現在需要讓 X 知道你的滑鼠有五個按鍵,只要在
- <filename>/etc/XF86Config</filename> 中的
- <quote>Pointer</quote> 區塊中加上
- <literal>Buttons 5</literal> 這一行即可。例如,
- 你可能在 <filename>/etc/XF86Config</filename> 中有
- 以下的 <quote>Pointer</quote> 區塊:</para>
-
- <example>
-
- <title>在 XFree86 3.3.x 系列的 XF86Config 設定檔的
- <quote>Pointer</quote> 區塊中,以 moused 作轉換
- 的滾輪鼠的設定範例</title>
-
- <programlisting>Section "Pointer"
- Protocol "SysMouse"
- Device "/dev/sysmouse"
- Buttons 5
-EndSection</programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <example>
- <title>在 XFree86 4.x 系列的 XF86Config 設定檔的
- <quote>InputDevice</quote> 區塊中,以 X Server 作轉換
- 的滾輪鼠的設定範例</title>
+ <question xml:id="x-and-wheel">
+ <para xml:lang="en">My mouse has a fancy wheel. Can I use it in X?</para>
+ </question>
- <programlisting>Section "InputDevice"
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yes, if X is configured for a 5 button mouse. To
+ do this, add the lines <literal>Buttons 5</literal>
+ and <literal>ZAxisMapping 4 5</literal> to the
+ <quote>InputDevice</quote> section of
+ <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>, as seen in this
+ example:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Mouse1"
Driver "mouse"
Option "Protocol" "auto"
Option "Device" "/dev/sysmouse"
Option "Buttons" "5"
-EndSection</programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <example>
- <title>在 <quote>.emacs</quote> 中,設定滾輪鼠的原生
- 頁面滾動支援範例</title>
- <programlisting>;; wheel mouse
-(global-set-key [mouse-4] 'scroll-down)
-(global-set-key [mouse-5] 'scroll-up)</programlisting>
- </example>
-
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>利用你的 X Server 來作滾輪 Event 轉換</para>
-
- <para>如果你沒有執行 &man.moused.8;,或是你不想利用
- &man.moused.8; 去作滾輪 event 轉換,你可以改用
- X server 來作這樣的 event 轉換。你得在 <filename>
- /etc/XF86Config</filename> 檔案中作幾個更動。第一,
- 你要為你的滑鼠選擇適當的通訊協定。大多數的滾輪鼠都
- 使用 <quote>IntelliMouse</quote> 協定,不過 XFree86
- 也支援其它的通訊協定,例如羅技的 MouseMan+ 滑鼠所用的
- <quote>MouseManPlusPS/2</quote>。當你選好之後,只要
- 加進一行 <quote>Pointer</quote> 區塊的 <varname>
- Protocol</varname> 變數即可。</para>
-
- <para>第二,你要告訴 X server 將捲動事件重新對映至滑鼠的
- 第四和第五鍵。這可以利用 <varname>ZAxisMapping</varname>
- 選項辦到。</para>
-
- <para>舉個例子,如果你沒有使用 &man.moused.8;,而你有一個
- IntelliMouse 安裝在 PS/2 滑鼠埠的話,你可以在
- <filename>/etc/XF86Config</filename> 裡使用以下的設定。
- </para>
-
- <example>
- <title>在 XF86Config 設定檔的 <quote>Pointer</quote>
- 區塊中,以 X Server 作轉換的滾輪鼠的設定範例</title>
-
- <programlisting>Section "Pointer"
- Protocol "IntelliMouse"
- Device "/dev/psm0"
- ZAxisMapping 4 5
-EndSection</programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <example>
- <title>在 XFree86 4.x 系列的 XF86Config 設定檔的
- <quote>InputDevice</quote> 區塊中,以 X Server 作轉換
- 的滾輪鼠的設定範例</title>
-
- <programlisting>Section "InputDevice"
- Identifier "Mouse1"
- Driver "mouse"
- Option "Protocol" "auto"
- Option "Device" "/dev/psm0"
Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"
EndSection</programlisting>
- </example>
- <example>
- <title>在 <quote>.emacs</quote> 中,設定滾輪鼠的原生
- 頁面滾動支援範例</title>
- <programlisting>;; wheel mouse
+ <para xml:lang="en">To use the mouse in
+ <application>Emacs</application>, also add the following
+ lines to<filename>~/.emacs</filename>:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">;; wheel mouse
(global-set-key [mouse-4] 'scroll-down)
(global-set-key [mouse-5] 'scroll-up)</programlisting>
- </example>
-
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>安裝 <application>imwheel</application></para>
-
- <para>接下來,從 Ports 裡安裝 <application>imwheel
- </application>。在 x11 類別裡可以找到它,它可以將
- 滾輪 event 對映到鍵盤 event。舉個例子,它可以在你
- 將滾輪往前推時,送出一個 <keycap>Page Up</keycap>
- 到你的應用程式去。<application>Imwheel</application>
- 利用一個設定檔,以便對應滾輪 event 至鍵盤 event,這樣
- 它就可以在不同的應用程式中,送出不同的鍵盤按鍵。預設的
- <application>imwheel</application> 設定檔是在
- <filename>/usr/X11R6/etc/imwheelrc</filename>,如果你想
- 編輯自訂的設定檔的話,可以將它複製到
- <filename>~/.imwheelrc</filename>,然後依你的需要修改它。
- 設定檔的格式在 &man.imwheel.1; 裡面有詳細的說明。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>設定 <application>Emacs</application> 與
- <application>Imwheel</application> 協同工作
- (<emphasis>選擇性</emphasis>)</para>
-
- <para>如果你使用 <application>emacs</application> 或是
- <application>Xemacs</application> 的話,那你需要在你的
- <filename>~/.emacs</filename> 檔案裡加上一小段設定。
- <application>emacs</application> 請加上這一段:</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><application>Imwheel</application> 的
- <application>Emacs</application> 設定</title>
-
- <programlisting>;;; For imwheel
-(setq imwheel-scroll-interval 3)
-(defun imwheel-scroll-down-some-lines ()
- (interactive)
- (scroll-down imwheel-scroll-interval))
-(defun imwheel-scroll-up-some-lines ()
- (interactive)
- (scroll-up imwheel-scroll-interval))
-(global-set-key [?\M-\C-\)] 'imwheel-scroll-up-some-lines)
-(global-set-key [?\M-\C-\(] 'imwheel-scroll-down-some-lines)
-;;; end imwheel section</programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para><application>Xemacs</application> 則在
- <filename>~/.emacs</filename> 檔裡加上這一段:</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><application>Imwheel</application> 的
- <application>Xemacs</application> 設定</title>
-
- <programlisting>;;; For imwheel
-(setq imwheel-scroll-interval 3)
-(defun imwheel-scroll-down-some-lines ()
- (interactive)
- (scroll-down imwheel-scroll-interval))
-(defun imwheel-scroll-up-some-lines ()
- (interactive)
- (scroll-up imwheel-scroll-interval))
-(define-key global-map [(control meta \))] 'imwheel-scroll-up-some-lines)
-(define-key global-map [(control meta \()] 'imwheel-scroll-down-some-lines)
-;;; end imwheel section</programlisting>
- </example>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>執行 <application>Imwheel</application></para>
-
- <para>安裝之後,你可以直接在 xterm 裡鍵入 <command>imwheel
- </command> 命令以起動它。它會以背景執行,並且馬上發揮效用。
- 如果你確定要直接使用 <application>imwheel</application>,
- 只要把它加進你自己的 <filename>.xinitrc</filename> 或
- <filename>.xsession</filename> 內檔案即可。你可以不管
- <application>imwheel</application> 所送出來有關 PID 檔案
- 警告。那些警告只對 Linux 版的 <application>imwheel
- </application> 有效而已。</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="window-menu-weird">
- <para>為什麼 X Window 的選單和對話框不能正常運作?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>把 Num Lock 關掉試試。</para>
-
- <para>如果您的 Num Lock 在開機時的預設值是開著的話,您必須把下列
- 這行放到 <filename>XF86Config</filename> 設定檔中的
- <literal>Keyboard</literal> 部份。</para>
-
- <programlisting># Let the server do the NumLock processing. This should only be
-# required when using pre-R6 clients
- ServerNumLock</programlisting>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="virtual-console">
- <para>什麼是 virtual console?我要怎麼做才能用多一點?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>簡單來說,virtual console 就是可以讓您不必做太多複雜的設定
- 如使用網路或執行 X ,而在同一臺機器上同時做好幾件事的方法。</para>
-
- <para>當啟動系統並顯示完所有開機訊息之後,您就會在螢幕上看到一個
- login 的提示符號。在這個時候您就可以輸入您的 login name 以及
- password ,然後就可以在第一個 virtual console 上開始工作了
- (或者開始玩!) 。</para>
-
- <para>在某些情況下,您可能會想要作其他的工作,例如說是看看您正在
- 執行的程式的說明文件,或是當您在 FTP 傳輸的等待時間中看看您的
- 郵件。您只需要按 Alt-F2 (按住 Alt 鍵不放,並按下 F2 鍵) ,然後
- 您就會在第二個 <quote>virtual console</quote> 上看到一個 login
- 提示符號!當您想要回到原來的工作時,請按 Alt-F1。</para>
-
- <para>FreeBSD 在安裝時的預設值是使用三個 virtual console
- (3.3-RELEASE 後為八個),您可以用 Alt-F1,Alt-F2,以及 Alt-F3
- 在它們之間做切換。</para>
-
- <para>如果您想要多一點 virtual console 的話,您只需要編輯
- <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> 這個檔 (請參考 &man.ttys.5;),
- 在 <quote>Virtual terminals</quote> 這個註解後面加入
- <devicename>ttyv4</devicename> 到 <devicename>ttyvc</devicename>
- 的欄位:</para>
-
- <programlisting># Edit the existing entry for ttyv3 in /etc/ttys and change
-# "off" to "on".
-ttyv3 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 on secure
-ttyv4 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 on secure
-ttyv5 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 on secure
-ttyv6 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 on secure
-ttyv7 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 on secure
-ttyv8 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 on secure
-ttyv9 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 on secure
-ttyva "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 on secure
-ttyvb "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 on secure</programlisting>
-
- <para>您想用幾個就設幾個。您設越多 virtual terminal ,它們就用掉
- 越多系統資源;如果您只有不到 8MB 的記憶體的話,這影響就大了。
- 您可能也會想把 <literal>secure</literal> 換成
- <literal>insecure</literal>。</para>
-
- <important>
- <para>如果您想要執行 X 的話,您 <emphasis>必須</emphasis>
- 為它保留 (或關掉) 至少一個 virtual terminal 。這就是說,如果
- 您想在按十二個 Alt 功能鍵時都有 login 提示符號,而且又在同一
- 部電腦上也想執行 X 的話,那麼這真是太不幸了 - 您只能用十一個。
- </para>
- </important>
-
- <para>取消一個 console 最簡單的方法就是把它關掉。舉例來說,如果
- 您像上面講的一樣設定了全部的 12 個 terminal 並且想要執行 X ,
- 您必需把 virtual terminal 12 從:</para>
-
- <programlisting>ttyvb "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 on secure</programlisting>
-
- <para>設成:</para>
-
- <programlisting>ttyvb "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 off secure</programlisting>
-
- <para>如果您的鍵盤只有 10 個功能鍵的話,您就要改成這樣:</para>
-
-<programlisting>ttyv9 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 off secure
-ttyva "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 off secure
-ttyvb "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" cons25 off secure</programlisting>
-
- <para>(您也可以直接把這幾行砍掉。)</para>
-
- <para>一旦您改了 <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>,下一個步驟就是要
- 確定您有足夠的 virtual terminal 裝置。最簡單的方法就是:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>sh MAKEDEV vty12</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>再過來,想要啟動這些 virtual console 最簡單 (也是最乾淨)
- 的做法就是重開機。然後,如果您不想重開機的話,您可以把 X Window
- 關掉,然後用 <username>root</username> 的身份執行下列指令:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kill -HUP 1</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>當您執行這個命令前,您一定要完全把 X Window 關掉。如果
- 您不這麼做的話,您的系統可能會在您執行 kill 命令後出現當掉或
- 鎖死的情況。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="vty-from-x">
- <para>我要怎麼從 X 切換到 virtual console?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>請用 <keycombo action="simul">
- <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>
- <keycap>Alt</keycap>
- <keycap>F<replaceable>n</replaceable></keycap>
- </keycombo> 以切回至 virtual console。
- <keycombo action="simul">
- <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>
- <keycap>Alt</keycap>
- <keycap>F1</keycap>
- </keycombo> 可以切回至第一個 virtual console。</para>
-
- <para>當你切回至文字 console 後,你就可以使用一般
- <keycombo action="simul">
- <keycap>Alt</keycap>
- <keycap>F<replaceable>n</replaceable></keycap>
- </keycombo> 按鍵組合,在各 console 之間切換。</para>
-
- <para>要回到 X 的話,你必須切回至執行 X 的 virtual console。
- 如果你是從命令列裡起動 X 的話 (例如使用 <command>startx</command>
- 指令),那麼 X 會依附在下一個未使用的 virtual console,而不是它被
- 起動的文字 console。如果你有八個使用中的 virtual terminal,那麼
- X 就會在第九個上執行,你就可以使用
- <keycombo action="simul">
- <keycap>Alt</keycap>
- <keycap>F9</keycap>
- </keycombo> 以返回至 X 中。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="xdm-boot">
- <para>我要怎麼做才能在開機時啟動 XDM?</para>
- </question><answer>
-
- <para>有兩種方法可以啟動 <ulink
- url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=xdm">
- xdm</ulink>。一種方法是從 <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> 來啟動,
- 可以參考 &man.ttys.5; 說明文件中的範例;另一種方法是在
- <filename>rc.local</filename> (請參考 &man.rc.8;) 執行 xdm,或是
- 在 <filename>/usr/local/etc/rc.d</filename> 放一個
- <filename>X.sh</filename>。這兩種方法都是合法的,如果您試某一種
- 方法無效的話,您可以試試另外一種。這兩種方法的結果是一樣的:X
- 會顯示一個圖形化的 login: 提示。</para>
-
- <para>用 ttys 的方法的優點,在於指明了 X 在啟動時到底是用那個 vty,
- 並且將 logout 時重新啟動 X server 的責任丟給 init。 rc.local
- 的方法則是在當啟動 X 出了問題時,可以很輕鬆地把 xdm 殺掉來解決
- 問題。</para>
-
- <para>如果是用 rc.local 的方法,在執行 <command>xdm</command>
- 時您不能加任何參數(也就是跑成 daemon)。必須在 getty 執行後
- 才能啟動 xdm,否則 getty 和 xdm 會互相衝突而鎖住 console。最好的
- 方式是在 script 中加個 sleep,讓它暫停 10 秒鐘左右,接著才執行
- xdm。</para>
-
- <para>如果你是從 <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> 啟動
- <command>xdm</command>,<command>xdm</command> 與 &man.getty.8;
- 仍有機會互相衝突。一個避免它的方法,就是在
- <filename>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xdm/Xservers</filename> 檔案中加入
- <literal>vt</literal> 數字。</para>
-
- <programlisting>:0 local /usr/X11R6/bin/X vt4</programlisting>
-
- <para>上面的例子中,會指示 X server 在 <devicename>/dev/ttyv3
- </devicename> 中執行。請注意數字是差一的。X server 從一開始數
- vty,而 FreeBSD 核心則是從零開始數 vty 的。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="xconsole-failure">
- <para>為什麼當我執行 xconsole 時,發生了
- <errorname>Couldn't open console</errorname> 的錯誤?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>如果你是用 <command>startx</command> 來啟動 <command>startx
- </command> 的話,<devicename>/dev/console</devicename> 的權限並
- <emphasis>不會</emphasis> 改變,結果就是 <command>xterm -C
- </command> 和 <command>xconsole</command> 這類的程式無法
- 正常執行。</para>
-
- <para>這一切的問題,都是因為 console 的權限是採用系統預設值。
- 在一個多使用者的系統裡,我們不希望每個使用者都可以直接寫入系統
- console 。如果使用者是從機器的 VTY 直接 login 的話,那麼
- &man.fbtab.5; 可以解決這類的問題。</para>
-
- <para>簡單地說,請確保 <filename>/etc/fbtab</filename> (請參考
- &man.fbtab.5;) 這個檔案中的這一行沒有被註解掉:</para>
-
- <programlisting>/dev/ttyv0 0600 /dev/console</programlisting>
-
- <para>這一行設定的存在可以確保從 <devicename>/dev/ttyv0</devicename>
- 登入的使用者可以控制 console。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="xfree86-root">
- <para>以前我可以以一般使用者執行 XFree86,為什麼現在它說我一定要
- 以 <username>root</username> 才能執行?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>所有的 X server 都需要以 <username>root</username> 來執行,
- 才能直接存取你的視訊硬體。舊版本的 XFree86 (&lt;= 3.3.6) 會自動
- 將所附的 server 以利用 <username>root</username> 身份執行的方式
- 安裝起來 (setuid 為 <username>root</username>)。由於 X server
- 都是體積龐大又複雜的程式,顯而易見地,這是一個安全上的災難。
- 因為這個原因,新版的 XFree86 就不將這些 server 以 setuid 為
- <username>root</username> 的方式安裝。</para>
-
- <para>很明顯地,我們完全無法接受將 X server 以
- <username>root</username> 的身份執行。起碼就安全上不是個好主意。
- 有兩種方法可以以一般使用者的身份使用 X。第一是利用
- <command>xdm</command> 或是其它的 display manager (例如
- <command>kdm</command>);第二是利用 <command>Xwrapper</command>。
- </para>
-
- <para><command>xdm</command> 是一個處理圖形界面登入的 daemon。
- 它通常在開機時執行起來,而且負責對使用者作身份認證,以及起動
- 使用者的工作環境;它可說是圖形環境下的 &man.getty.8; 與
- &man.login.1; 的對應程式。想得知更多有關 <command>xdm</command>
- 的資訊,請參考 <ulink url="http://www.xfree86.org/support.html">
- XFree86 文件</ulink>,以及其 <link linkend="xdm-boot">FAQ
- 項目</link>。</para>
-
- <para><command>Xwrapper</command> 是 X server 的包裝程式;它可以
- 讓一般使用者可以手動起動 X server 的小工具,而還能維持一定的安全
- 環境。它會檢查傳入的命令列參數,如果沒問題的話,就起動適當的
- X server。如果你因為某種理由而不想執行 display manager 的話,
- 它是為你而設定的。如果你安裝了完整的 ports,你可以在
- <filename>/usr/ports/x11/wrapper</filename> 中找到它。</para>
- </answer>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ps2-x">
- <para>我的 PS/2 滑鼠在 X 中有點不正常?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>您的滑鼠和您的滑鼠驅動程式可能存在有不同步的現象。</para>
+ <question xml:id="x-and-synaptic">
+ <para xml:lang="en">My laptop has a Synaptics touchpad. Can I use it in
+ X?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>在 2.2.5 以及更早的系統裡,從 X 切到 virtual terminal 然後
- 再切回來就可以使它們重新做同步的動作。如果這個問題常常發生的話,
- 您可以在您的 kernel 設定檔中加入下面這個選項然後重新編譯:</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yes, after configuring a few things to make
+ it work.</para>
- <programlisting>options PSM_CHECKSYNC</programlisting>
+ <para xml:lang="en">In order to use the Xorg synaptics driver,
+ first remove <literal>moused_enable</literal> from
+ <filename>rc.conf</filename>.</para>
- <para>如果您沒有建立 kernel 的經驗,請看
- <link linkend="make-kernel">自訂核心</link> 這一節。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To enable synaptics, add the following line to
+ <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:</para>
- <para>加上這個選項以後,滑鼠和滑鼠驅動程式間的同步問題應該就比較
- 不會出現了。如果這個問題仍然存在的話,在移動滑鼠時按按滑鼠按鍵
- 可以使滑鼠和滑鼠驅動程式重新做同步的動作。</para>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">hw.psm.synaptics_support="1"</programlisting>
- <para>該注意的是這個選項並不是對每一個系統都有效,它可能會讓接在
- PS/2 滑鼠位置的 ALPS GlidePoint 裝置失去 <quote>tap</quote>
- 這項功能。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Add the following to
+ <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>:</para>
- <para>在 2.2.6 及其後的版本,同步的確認已經有了較好的解決辦法,
- 而且這些都已經是 PS/2 滑鼠驅動程式的標準了。這個方法也可以在
- GlidePoint 上正常工作。 (因為確認的程式碼已經成為一個標準功能,
- 所以在這些版本中我們不在提供 PSM_CHECKSYNC 的選項了。) 不過在
- 極少數的案例中,這些驅動程式會誤報同步性錯誤,然後您就會看到
- 這樣的核心訊息:</para>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">Section "InputDevice"
+Identifier "Touchpad0"
+Driver "synaptics"
+Option "Protocol" "psm"
+Option "Device" "/dev/psm0"
+EndSection</programlisting>
- <programlisting>psmintr: out of sync (xxxx != yyyy)</programlisting>
+ <para xml:lang="en">And be sure to add the following into the
+ <quote>ServerLayout</quote> section:</para>
- <para>然後您就會發現您的滑鼠不能正常運作了。</para>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">InputDevice "Touchpad0" "SendCoreEvents"</programlisting>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <para>如果您發生了這樣的狀況,您必須藉由把 PS/2 滑鼠驅動程式的 flag
- 設成 0x100 來把同步確認的程式碼給取消掉。然後在開機提示符號時用
- <option>-c</option> 選項來進入 <emphasis>UserConfig</emphasis>:
- </para>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="no-remote-x11">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I use remote X displays?</para>
+ </question>
- <screen>boot: <userinput>-c</userinput></screen>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For security reasons, the default setting is to not
+ allow a machine to remotely open a window.</para>
- <para>然後,在 <emphasis>UserConfig</emphasis> 命令列中鍵入:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To enable this feature, start
+ <application>X</application> with the optional
+ <option>-listen_tcp</option> argument:</para>
- <screen>UserConfig&gt; <userinput>flags psm0 0x100</userinput>
-UserConfig&gt; <userinput>quit</userinput></screen>
- </answer>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>%</prompt> <userinput>startx -listen_tcp</userinput></screen>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ps2-mousesystems">
- <para>我的 PS/2 滑鼠不能透過 MouseSystem 來運作?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>有一些報告指出某些廠牌的 PS/2 滑鼠只能在
- <quote>高解析度</quote> 狀態下才能運作。如果不是的話,滑鼠游標
- 會常常跑到螢幕的左上角去。</para>
-
- <para>非常不幸的,這個問題在 2.0.X 和 2.1.X 下是無解的。在 2.2
- 到 2.2.5 版,您可以對 <filename>/sys/i386/isa/psm.c</filename>
- 使用下列 patch 然後重建您的核心。如果您沒有建立 kernel 的經驗,
- 請看 <link linkend="make-kernel">自訂核心</link> 這節。</para>
-
- <programlisting>@@ -766,6 +766,8 @@
- if (verbose &gt;= 2)
- log(LOG_DEBUG, "psm%d: SET_DEFAULTS return code:%04x\n",
- unit, i);
-+ set_mouse_resolution(sc-&gt;kbdc, PSMD_RES_HIGH);
-+
- #if 0
- set_mouse_scaling(sc-&gt;kbdc); /* 1:1 scaling */
- set_mouse_mode(sc-&gt;kbdc); /* stream mode */</programlisting>
+ <question xml:id="virtual-console">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is a virtual console and how do I make
+ more?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>在 2.2.6 及以後的版本,在 PS/2 滑鼠驅動程式中設定 0x04 的
- flag 會把滑鼠設成高解析度模式。在開機提示符號時用
- <option>-c</option> 選項來進入 <emphasis>UserConfig</emphasis>:
- </para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Virtual consoles provide
+ several simultaneous sessions on the same machine without
+ doing anything complicated like setting up a network or
+ running X.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When the system starts, it will display a login prompt
+ on the monitor after displaying all the boot messages.
+ Type in your login name and password to
+ start working on the first virtual
+ console.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To start another
+ session, perhaps to look at documentation for a program
+ or to read mail while waiting for an
+ FTP transfer to finish,
+ hold down <keycap>Alt</keycap> and press
+ <keycap>F2</keycap>. This will display the login prompt
+ for the second virtual
+ console. To go back to the
+ original session, press <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></keycombo>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The default FreeBSD installation has eight virtual
+ consoles enabled. <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></keycombo>,
+ <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F2</keycap></keycombo>,
+ <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F3</keycap></keycombo>,
+ and so on will switch between these virtual
+ consoles.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To enable more of virtual consoles, edit
+ <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ttys</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>) and add
+ entries for <filename>ttyv8</filename> to
+ <filename>ttyvc</filename>, after the comment on
+ <quote>Virtual terminals</quote>:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en"># Edit the existing entry for ttyv8 in /etc/ttys and change
+# "off" to "on".
+ttyv8 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm on secure
+ttyv9 "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm on secure
+ttyva "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm on secure
+ttyvb "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm on secure</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The more virtual
+ terminals, the more resources that are used. This can be
+ problematic on systems with 8 MB RAM or less.
+ Consider changing <literal>secure</literal> to
+ <literal>insecure</literal>.</para>
+
+ <important>
+ <para xml:lang="en">In order to run an X server, at least one virtual
+ terminal must be left to <literal>off</literal> for it
+ to use. This means that only eleven of the Alt-function
+ keys can be used as virtual consoles so that one is left
+ for the X server.</para>
+ </important>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For example, to run X and eleven virtual consoles, the
+ setting for virtual terminal 12 should be:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">ttyvb "/usr/libexec/getty Pc" xterm off secure</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The easiest way to activate the
+ virtual consoles is to reboot.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <screen>boot: <userinput>-c</userinput></screen>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="vty-from-x">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I access the virtual consoles from X?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>然後,在 <emphasis>UserConfig</emphasis> 的命令列中鍵入:
- </para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Use <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F<replaceable>n</replaceable></keycap></keycombo>
+ to switch back to a virtual console. Press <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F1</keycap></keycombo>
+ to return to the first virtual console.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Once at a text console, use
+ <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F<replaceable>n</replaceable></keycap></keycombo>
+ to move between them.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">To return to the X session, switch to the
+ virtual console running X. If X was started from the
+ command line using <command>startx</command>,
+ the X session will attach to the next unused virtual
+ console, not the text console from which it was invoked.
+ For eight active virtual terminals, X will
+ run on the ninth, so use <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F9</keycap></keycombo>.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <screen>UserConfig&gt; <userinput>flags psm0 0x04</userinput>
-UserConfig&gt; <userinput>quit</userinput></screen>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="xdm-boot">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I start <application>XDM</application> on
+ boot?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>前一節有提到另一個可能導致滑鼠問題的原因。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">There are two schools of thought on how to start
+ <citerefentry vendor="xfree86"><refentrytitle>xdm</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry>. One school starts <command>xdm</command>
+ from <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ttys</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>)
+ using the supplied example, while the other runs
+ <command>xdm</command> from
+ <filename>rc.local</filename> (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>) or from an
+ <filename>X</filename> script in
+ <filename>/usr/local/etc/rc.d</filename>. Both are
+ equally valid, and one may work in situations where the
+ other does not. In both cases the result is the same: X
+ will pop up a graphical login prompt.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ttys</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> method has the advantage of
+ documenting which vty X will start on and passing the
+ responsibility of restarting the X server on logout to
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. The <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> method makes it easy to
+ <command>kill</command> <command>xdm</command> if there is
+ a problem starting the X server.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">If loaded from <citerefentry><refentrytitle>rc</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <command>xdm</command>
+ should be started without any arguments.
+ <command>xdm</command> must start
+ <emphasis>after</emphasis> <citerefentry><refentrytitle>getty</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> runs, or else
+ <command>getty</command> and <command>xdm</command> will
+ conflict, locking out the console. The best way around
+ this is to have the script sleep 10 seconds or so then
+ launch <command>xdm</command>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When starting <command>xdm</command> from
+ <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>, there still is a chance of
+ conflict between <command>xdm</command> and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>getty</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
+ One way to avoid this is to add the <literal>vt</literal>
+ number in
+ <filename>/usr/local/lib/X11/xdm/Xservers</filename>:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">:0 local /usr/local/bin/X vt4</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The above example will direct the X server to run in
+ <filename>/dev/ttyv3</filename>. Note the number is
+ offset by one. The X server counts the vty from one,
+ whereas the FreeBSD kernel numbers the vty from zero.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="imake-tmpl">
- <para>當我建立 X 程式時,<command>imake</command> 說它找不到
- <filename>Imake.tmpl</filename>。它在哪兒?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
+ <question xml:id="xconsole-failure">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why do I get <errorname>Couldn't open
+ console</errorname> when I run
+ <command>xconsole</command>?</para>
+ </question>
- <para><filename>Imake.tmpl</filename> 是 Imake 套件的一部份,Imake
- 是標準的建立 X 程式的工具。 <filename>Imake.tmpl</filename>
- 和其他數個 header file 一樣是建立 X 程式的必要檔案,您可以在
- X prog distribution 中找到它們。您可以用 sysinstall(&os; 5.2 之前版本則是 <command>/stand/sysinstall</command>)
- 來安裝或是直接從 X distribution 中手動安裝。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">When <application>X</application> is started with
+ <command>startx</command>, the permissions on
+ <filename>/dev/console</filename> will
+ <emphasis>not</emphasis> get changed, resulting in things
+ like <command>xterm -C</command> and
+ <command>xconsole</command> not working.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">This is because of the way console permissions are set
+ by default. On a multi-user system, one does not
+ necessarily want just any user to be able to write on the
+ system console. For users who are logging directly onto a
+ machine with a VTY, the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fbtab</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> file exists to solve
+ such problems.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">In a nutshell, make sure an uncommented line of the
+ form is in <filename>/etc/fbtab</filename> (see
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>fbtab</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry>):</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">/dev/ttyv0 0600 /dev/console</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">It will ensure that whomever logs in on
+ <filename>/dev/ttyv0</filename> will own the
+ console.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="xfree86-version">
- <para>我在 build 一個 X 應用程式,它需要 XFree86 3.3.x,但是
- 我已經安裝 XFree86 4.x 了。我該怎麼辦?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>要告訴 port 在編譯程式時,使用 XFree86 4.x 函式庫,你可以
- 在 <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> 裡 (如果你沒有這個檔,
- 請建立它) 加上下面這一行:</para>
+ <question xml:id="ps2-x">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does my PS/2 mouse misbehave under X?</para>
+ </question>
- <programlisting>XFREE86_VERSION= 4</programlisting>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The mouse and the mouse driver may have become out of
+ synchronization. In rare cases, the driver may also
+ erroneously report synchronization errors:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">psmintr: out of sync (xxxx != yyyy)</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">If this happens, disable the synchronization check
+ code by setting the driver flags for the PS/2 mouse driver
+ to <literal>0x100</literal>. This can be easiest achieved
+ by adding <literal>hint.psm.0.flags="0x100"</literal> to
+ <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> and
+ rebooting.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="mouse-button-reverse">
- <para>我要怎麼做才能設定左撇子用的滑鼠?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="mouse-button-reverse">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I reverse the mouse buttons?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>在您的 <filename>.xinitrc</filename> 或是
- <filename>.xsession</filename> 中執行
- <literal>xmodmap -e "pointer = 3 2 1"</literal> 的指令。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Type
+ <command>xmodmap -e "pointer = 3 2 1"</command>. Add this
+ command to <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> or
+ <filename>~/.xsession</filename> to make it happen
+ automatically.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="install-splash">
- <para>要如何安裝 splash 圖形顯示程式?那裡可以找得到呢?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
+ <question xml:id="install-splash">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I install a splash screen and where do I find
+ them?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>就在發行 FreeBSD 3.1 之前,我們加進了在開機時顯示
- <quote>splash</quote> 圖形的新功能。目前用來顯示在螢幕上的檔案
- 必須是 256 色的點矩陣圖形 (<filename>*.BMP</filename>) 或 ZSoft
- PCX(<filename>*.PCX</filename>) 的格式。除此之外,解析度也必須在
- 320x200 以下,才能和標準 VGA 顯示卡搭配使用。如果您編譯 kernel
- 時有加入 VESA 支援,那麼最大解析度可以到 1024x768。注意 VESA 的
- 支援需要加入 <literal>VM86</literal> 這個 kernel 選項。VESA
- 支援實際上可以在編譯 kernel 時加入 <literal>VESA</literal> 選項、
- 或載入 VESA 的 kld module 來達成。</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The detailed answer for this question can be found in
+ the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/boot-splash.html">Boot
+ Time Splash Screens</link> section of the FreeBSD
+ Handbook.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
- <para>您要修改控制 FreeBSD 開機步驟的設定檔,才能使用 splash
- 顯示圖形的功能。設定檔在發行 FreeBSD 3.2 前有些更動,所以現在
- 有兩個方法可以載入 splash 的功能:</para>
+ <qandaentry>
+ <question xml:id="windows-keys">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Can I use the <keycap>Windows</keycap> keys on my
+ keyboard in X?</para>
+ </question>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>FreeBSD 3.1</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yes. Use <citerefentry vendor="xfree86"><refentrytitle>xmodmap</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> to
+ define which functions the keys should perform.</para>
- <para>先選出用來顯示在螢幕上的圖形,3.1 版只支援 Windows
- 的點矩陣格式。選好了您要的圖檔後,將它拷到 <filename>
- /boot/splash.bmp</filename>。接著把下面幾行加入
- <filename>/boot/loader.rc</filename> 中:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Assuming all Windows keyboards are
+ standard, the keycodes for these three keys are the
+ following:</para>
- <programlisting>load kernel
-load -t splash_image_data /boot/splash.bmp
-load splash_bmp
-autoboot</programlisting>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><keycode>115</keycode> —
+ <keycap>Windows</keycap> key, between the left-hand
+ <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> and <keycap>Alt</keycap>
+ keys</para>
+ </listitem>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><keycode>116</keycode> —
+ <keycap>Windows</keycap> key, to the right of
+ <keycap>AltGr</keycap></para>
+ </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>FreeBSD 3.2+</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><keycode>117</keycode> —
+ <keycap>Menu</keycap>, to the left of the right-hand
+ <keycap>Ctrl</keycap></para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
- <para>除了加入對 PCX 檔案的支援外,FreeBSD 3.2 也改進了
- 開機程序的設定方式。如果您願意的話,可以用上述 FreeBSD 3.1
- 的方法,將 <literal>splash_bmp</literal> 換成
- <literal>splash_pcx</literal> 來載入 PCX 檔案即可。
- 如果想用新的設定方式,您的 <filename>/boot/loader.rc
- </filename> 必須包括這幾行:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To have the left <keycap>Windows</keycap> key print a
+ comma, try this.</para>
- <programlisting>include /boot/loader.4th
-start</programlisting>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>xmodmap -e "keycode 115 = comma"</userinput></screen>
- <para>還需要一個包含以下幾行的 <filename>/boot/loader.conf
- </filename>:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To have the <keycap>Windows</keycap> key-mappings
+ enabled automatically every time X is started, either put
+ the <command>xmodmap</command> commands in
+ <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> or, preferably, create
+ a <filename>~/.xmodmaprc</filename> and include the
+ <command>xmodmap</command> options, one per line, then add
+ the following line to
+ <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename>:</para>
- <programlisting>splash_bmp_load="YES"
-bitmap_load="YES"</programlisting>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">xmodmap $HOME/.xmodmaprc</programlisting>
- <para>這是假設您用 <filename>/boot/splash.bmp</filename>
- 來當作 splash 的螢幕顯示。如果想用 PCX 的檔案,把它拷成
- <filename>/boot/splash.pcx</filename>,如上述做出
- <filename>/boot/loader.rc</filename>,再將這幾行加到
- <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> 中:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For example, to map the 3 keys to be
+ <keycap>F13</keycap>, <keycap>F14</keycap>, and
+ <keycap>F15</keycap>, respectively. This would make it
+ easy to map them to useful functions within applications
+ or the window manager.</para>
- <programlisting>splash_pcx_load="YES"
-bitmap_load="YES"
-bitmap_name="/boot/splash.pcx"</programlisting>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To do this, put the following in
+ <filename>~/.xmodmaprc</filename>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">keycode 115 = F13
+keycode 116 = F14
+keycode 117 = F15</programlisting>
- <para>現在就只剩下 splash 用來顯示的圖檔,您可以在
- <ulink url="http://www.baldwin.cx/splash/">http://www.baldwin.cx/splash/</ulink> 找到各種樣品。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For the <package>x11-wm/fvwm2</package> desktop
+ manager, one could map the keys so that
+ <keycap>F13</keycap> iconifies or de-iconifies the
+ window the cursor is in, <keycap>F14</keycap> brings the
+ window the cursor is in to the front or, if it is already
+ at the front, pushes it to the back, and
+ <keycap>F15</keycap> pops up the main Workplace
+ menu even if the cursor is not on the
+ desktop, which is useful when no part of
+ the desktop is visible.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The following entries in
+ <filename>~/.fvwmrc</filename> implement the
+ aforementioned setup:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">Key F13 FTIWS A Iconify
+Key F14 FTIWS A RaiseLower
+Key F15 A A Menu Workplace Nop</programlisting>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="windows-keys">
- <para>我能在 X 裡使用鍵盤上的 <trademark class="registered">Windows
- </trademark> 嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>可以。你所要作的,就是利用 &man.xmodmap.1; 去定義你想使用
- 的功能。</para>
-
- <para>假設所有的 <quote><trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark></quote> 都是標準的,
- 那它們的 keycode 分別為:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>115 - <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 鍵,
- 在左手的 Ctrl 與 Alt 鍵之間</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>116 - <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 鍵,
- 在 Alt-Gr 鍵右邊</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>117 - 選單鍵,右手的 Ctrl 鍵左邊</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>要讓左邊的 <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark>
- 鍵印出一個逗點,試試這個:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>xmodmap -e "keycode 115 = comma"</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>你可能要重跑你的 windows manager,才會有動作。</para>
-
- <para>要讓 <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> 鍵
- 的對映在每次 X 起動時自動設定好,你可以在你的
- <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> 裡加上 <command>xmodmap</command>,
- 或是最好建立一個 <filename>~/.xmodmaprc</filename> 檔案,裡面
- 每一行就是一個 <command>xmodmap</command> 的選項,然後在你的
- <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> 裡加上:</para>
-
+ <question xml:id="x-3d-acceleration">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How can I get 3D hardware acceleration for
+ <trademark class="registered">OpenGL</trademark>?</para>
+ </question>
- <programlisting>xmodmap $HOME/.xmodmaprc</programlisting>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The availability of 3D acceleration depends on the
+ version of Xorg and the type of video
+ chip. For an nVidia chip, use
+ the binary drivers provided for FreeBSD by installing one of
+ the following ports:</para>
- <para>這一行。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The latest versions of nVidia cards are supported
+ by the <package>x11/nvidia-driver</package>
+ port.</para>
- <para>例如,你想要將這三個鍵各對映到 F13、F14 和 F15。這讓你能
- 在你的程式或是 window manager 內將其對應到便利的功能上,等一下
- 我們會示範。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Older drivers are available as
+ <package>x11/nvidia-driver-<replaceable>###</replaceable></package></para>
- <para>把這些放進 <filename>~/.xmodmaprc</filename> 裡:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">nVidia provides detailed information on which
+ card is supported by which driver on their web site: <uri xlink:href="http://www.nvidia.com/object/IO_32667.html">http://www.nvidia.com/object/IO_32667.html</uri>.</para>
- <programlisting>keycode 115 = F13
-keycode 116 = F14
-keycode 117 = F15</programlisting>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For Matrox G200/G400, check the
+ <package>x11-servers/mga_hal</package>
+ port.</para>
- <para>假如你用 <command>fvwm2</command> 的話,你可以作這樣的對映,
- 讓 F13 能夠讓游標所在的視窗縮成小圖示 (或是反過來)。F14 讓游標
- 所在的視窗變成最上層的視窗,或是退到下層去 (如果它已經是最上層
- 了的話)。F15 則將 Workplace (application) 選單叫出來,即使游標
- 不在桌面上。當你沒有可見的桌面區域時,這個功能就相當地方便 (而且
- 按鍵上的圖案和這個功能相吻合)。</para>
-
- <para>以下的 <filename>~/.fvwmrc</filename> 設定可作出前述的功能。
- </para>
-
- <programlisting>Key F13 FTIWS A Iconify
-Key F14 FTIWS A RaiseLower
-Key F15 A A Menu Workplace Nop</programlisting>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="x-3d-acceleration">
- <para>我要怎麼樣才能得到 OpenGL 的 3D 硬體加速功能?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>3D 加速功能的有無,視你所使用的 XFree86 版本與顯示晶片
- 的型號而定。如果你的是 NVIDIA 晶片的話,請去
- <ulink url="http://nvidia.netexplorer.org/">FreeBSD NVIDIA
- Driver Initiative </ulink> 網頁看看,那裡有在 XFree86-4 上使用
- NVIDIA 晶片的 3D 加速功能的討論。XFree86-4 上的其它顯示卡廠牌
- 硬體加速功能的資訊, 包括 Matrox G200/G400, ATI Rage 128/Radeon,
- 3dfx Voodoo 3, 4, 5, 以及 Banshee,可在 <ulink
- url="http://gladstone.uoregon.edu/~eanholt/dri/">XFree86-4
- Direct Rendering on FreeBSD</ulink> 網頁上找到。XFree 3.3 的
- 使用者可以使用 Utah-GLX port,它可以在
- <filename role="package">graphics/utah-glx</filename> 找到。
- 使用它可以在 Matrox Gx00, ATI Rage Pro, SiS 6326, i810,
- Savage, 以及舊的 NVIDIA 上得到有限的 OpenGL 加速。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For ATI Rage 128 and Radeon see
+ <citerefentry vendor="xorg"><refentrytitle>ati</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>, <citerefentry vendor="xorg"><refentrytitle>r128</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> and <citerefentry vendor="xorg"><refentrytitle>radeon</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
</qandaset>
</chapter>
- <chapter id="networking">
- <chapterinfo>
- <author>
- <firstname>Biing Jong</firstname>
- <surname>Lin</surname>
- <affiliation>
- <address><email>bjlin@stic.gov.tw</email></address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </chapterinfo>
-
- <title>Networking</title>
+ <chapter xml:id="networking">
+ <title xml:lang="en">Networking</title>
<qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="diskless-booting">
- <para>我應該到哪邊找有關無磁碟開機
- <quote>diskless booting</quote> 的資料?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="diskless-booting">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Where can I get information on <quote>diskless
+ booting</quote>?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para><quote>Diskless booting</quote> 就是讓 FreeBSD 主機從網路
- 上開機,並且從網路上的 server 上讀取其他必要的檔案,而非由主機
- 的硬碟上取得這些檔案。詳細的資料可以參考 <ulink
- url="../handbook/diskless.html"> FreeBSD 手冊的無磁碟開機篇
- </ulink>。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><quote>Diskless booting</quote> means that the FreeBSD
+ box is booted over a network, and reads the necessary
+ files from a server instead of its hard disk. For full
+ details, see <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-diskless.html">the
+ Handbook entry on diskless booting</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="router">
- <para>FreeBSD 的主機可以當作某個網路上的路由器(router)嗎?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="router">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Can a FreeBSD box be used as a dedicated network
+ router?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>是的。請參考 FreeBSD 手冊的網路進階篇 <ulink
- url="../handbook/routing.html"> advanced
- networking</ulink>,尤其是路由與閘道器 <ulink
- url="../handbook/routing.html#DEDICATED-ROUTER">routing
- and gateways</ulink>的部分。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yes. Refer to the Handbook entry on <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/advanced-networking.html">advanced
+ networking</link>, specifically the section on <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-routing.html">routing
+ and gateways</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="win95-connection">
- <para>我可以透過 FreeBSD 將我的 Win95 機器連上 Internet 嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>基本上,會問這種問題的人在家裡至少有兩台電腦,一台跑 FreeBSD
- 另外一台跑 Win95;這個想法是將 FreeBSD 主機連上 Internet,然後透
- 過這台 FreeBSD 主機,讓跑 Win95 的電腦能夠上網。這個問題算是前一
- 個問題的一個特例</para> <para>... 答案是:可以的!在 FreeBSD 3.x
- 版中,使用者模式(user-mode)的 &man.ppp.8; 包含了
- <option>-nat</option> 選項。如果你在
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 使用<option>-nat</option>選項並
- 設定 <literal>gateway_enable</literal> 為 <emphasis>YES</emphasis>
- ,以這種設定啟動 &man.ppp.8; ,並且正確的設定你的 Windows 主機的
- 話,這個做法應該是可以正常使用的。</para>
-
- <para>關於本主題更詳細的資料可以參考 Steve Sims 所撰寫的 <ulink
- url="../ppp-primer/index.html"> Pedantic PPP Primer</ulink> 一文。
- </para>
+ <question xml:id="win95-connection">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Can I connect my <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> box to the Internet via
+ FreeBSD?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>如果你使用的是核心模式 (kernel-mode) PPP,或者你有區域連線
- (Ethernet connection) 可通達 Internet 的話,你將需要使用
- &man.natd.8;。請查閱 FAQ 中關於 <link linkend="natd">natd</link>
- 的部分。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Typically, people who ask this question have two PCs
+ at home, one with FreeBSD and one with some version of
+ <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> the idea is to use the FreeBSD box to connect to
+ the Internet and then be able to access the Internet from
+ the <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> box through the FreeBSD box. This is really
+ just a special case of the previous question and works
+ perfectly well.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Dialup users must use <option>-nat</option>
+ and set <literal>gateway_enable</literal> to
+ <emphasis>YES</emphasis> in
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>. For more information,
+ refer to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> or the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/userppp.html">Handbook
+ entry on user PPP</link>.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the connection to the Internet is over Ethernet,
+ use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>natd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. A tutorial can be found in the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/firewalls-ipfw.html#network-natd">natd</link>
+ section of the Handbook.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="slip-ppp-support">
- <para>FreeBSD 支援 SLIP 和 PPP 嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>是的。你可以查查 man pages 中關於 &man.slattach.8;,
- &man.sliplogin.8;,&man.ppp.8;,以及 &man.pppd.8; 的部分。
- &man.ppp.8; 及 &man.pppd.8; 提供進出雙向連線的支援,另外
- &man.sliplogin.8; 專門提供進入連線的支援,而 &man.slattach.8;
- 專門提供向外連線的支援。</para>
+ <question xml:id="slip-ppp-support">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Does FreeBSD support PPP?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>如果你需要更進一步的資料的話,請查閱 <ulink
- url="../handbook/ppp-and-slip.html">FreeBSD 手冊中關於 PPP 與 SLIP
- 的說明</ulink>。</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yes. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> provides support for both incoming
+ and outgoing connections.</para>
- <para>如果你只能夠過 <quote>shell account</quote> 連線到 Internet
- 的話,你也許可以試試 <filename role="package">net/slirp</filename>
- 這個套件程式。這個套件程式可以提供你的電腦直接連上某些(限定的)服務
- 連線,如 ftp 及 http 等等。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For more information on how to use this, refer to
+ the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip.html">Handbook
+ chapter on PPP</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="natd">
- <para>FreeBSD 支援 NAT 或 Masquerading 嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>如果你有一個近端的子網路(有一台以上的機器),但是你的
- Internet provider 卻只分配一個 IP number 給你(或者你只分配到一個
- 動態的 IP number),你可以參考 &man.natd.8; 這個程式。 &man.natd.8;
- 讓你可以透過這一個 IP number 讓整個子網路的電腦都能連上 internet。
- </para>
+ <question xml:id="natd">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Does FreeBSD support NAT or Masquerading?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>&man.ppp.8; 這個程式也提供類似的功能,如果你指定
- <option>-nat</option> 選項。alias library (&man.libalias.3;)
- 在這兩個處理方式中都會被使用到。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Yes. For instructions on how to use NAT over a PPP
+ connection, see the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/userppp.html">Handbook
+ entry on PPP</link>. To use NAT over
+ some other sort of network connection, look at the
+ <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/firewalls-ipfw.html#network-natd">natd</link>
+ section of the Handbook.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="parallel-connect">
- <para>我如何將兩台 FreeBSD 主機用平行埠 (parallel line) 透過 PLIP
- 連線?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="ethernet-aliases">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How can I set up Ethernet aliases?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>請參考手冊中關於 <ulink url="../handbook/plip.html">PLIP
- section</ulink> 的部分。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the alias is on the same subnet as an address
+ already configured on the interface, add
+ <literal>netmask 0xffffffff</literal> to this
+ command:</para>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="create-dev-net">
- <para>我沒有辦法建立 <filename>/dev/ed0</filename> 這個 device,
- 為什麼?</para>
- </question>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>ed0</replaceable> alias <replaceable>192.0.2.2 </replaceable>netmask 0xffffffff</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Otherwise, specify the network address and
+ netmask as usual:</para>
- <answer>
- <para>因為不需要!在 Berkeley 網路架構中,只有 kernel 程式碼可以直
- 接存取網路界面卡。請參考 <filename>/etc/rc.network</filename> 這
- 個檔案和 manual pages 取得與其他不同網路程式。更進一步的資訊:如
- 果你覺得你完全搞混了的話,您應該找一本與其他 BSD 相關作業系統網路
- 管理有關書來參考;除了少數顯著的不同外,FreeBSD 的網路管理基本上和
- SunOS 4.0 和 Ultrix 是一樣的。</para>
- </answer>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ifconfig <replaceable>ed0</replaceable> alias <replaceable>172.16.141.5</replaceable> netmask 0xffffff00</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">More information can be found in the FreeBSD <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/configtuning-virtual-hosts.html">Handbook</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ethernet-aliases">
- <para>我如何建立 Ethernet aliases?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="nfs-linux">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why can I not NFS-mount from a <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> box?</para>
+ </question>
<answer>
- <para>如果你的 alias 位址跟你目前網路介面的位址在同一個子網路下的
- 話,加入一個 <literal>netmask 0xffffffff</literal> 在你的
- &man.ifconfig.8; command-line,範例如下:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ifconfig ed0 alias 192.0.2.2 netmask 0xffffffff</userinput></screen>
- <para>不然的話,就如同加入一個新的網路位址一樣輸入你的網路位址與子
- 網路遮罩:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ifconfig ed0 alias 172.16.141.5 netmask 0xffffff00</userinput></screen>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Some versions of the <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark> NFS code only accept
+ mount requests from a privileged port; try to issue the
+ following command:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>mount -o -P linuxbox:/blah /mnt</userinput></screen>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="port-3c503">
- <para>我如何指定我的 3C503 使用其他不同的的 network port?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="exports-errors">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does <command>mountd</command> keep telling me it
+ <errorname>can't change attributes</errorname> and that I
+ have a <errorname>bad exports list</errorname> on my FreeBSD
+ NFS server?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>如果您想使用其他的 port,你必須在 &man.ifconfig.8; 的命令中
- 指定額外的參數。內定的 port 是 <literal>link0</literal>。要使用
- AUI port 代替 BNC port 的話,改用 <literal>link2</literal>。這些
- flags 應該改變ifconfig_* 的變數來指定, 你可以在
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 這個檔案裡面找到 (請參考
- &man.rc.conf.5;)。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The most frequent problem is not understanding the
+ correct format of <filename>/etc/exports</filename>.
+ Review <citerefentry><refentrytitle>exports</refentrytitle><manvolnum>5</manvolnum></citerefentry> and the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-nfs.html">NFS</link>
+ entry in the Handbook, especially the section on <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/network-nfs.html#configuring-nfs">configuring
+ NFS</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="nfs">
- <para>為什麼我在使用 FreeBSD 的 NFS 時出現問題?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>我們用含蓄一點的說法,某些 PC 的網路卡比其他的好,這種狀況在
- 造成 NFS 這種對網路敏感的程式有時會出現問題。</para>
+ <question xml:id="ip-multicast">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I enable IP multicast support?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>參考 <ulink url="../handbook/nfs.html">
- the Handbook entry on NFS</ulink> 以獲得這個主題的更多資訊。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Install the <package>net/mrouted</package> package
+ or port and add
+ <literal>mrouted_enable="YES"</literal> to
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> start this service at
+ boot time.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="nfs-linux">
- <para>為什麼我不能 NFS-mount Linux 的機器?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>某些版本的 Linux NFS 程式碼只接受 privileged port 的
- mount request;試用這行指令看看</para>
+ <question xml:id="fqdn-hosts">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why do I have to use the FQDN for hosts on my
+ site?</para>
+ </question>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount -o -P linuxbox:/blah /mnt</userinput></screen>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">See the answer in the FreeBSD <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mail-trouble.html">Handbook</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="nfs-sun">
- <para>為什麼我不能 NFS-mount Sun 的機器?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="network-permission-denied">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why do I get an error, <errorname>Permission
+ denied</errorname>, for all networking
+ operations?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>跑 SunOS 4.X 的 Sun 工作站只接受來自 privileged port 的
- mount request;試用這行指令看看</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the kernel is compiled with the
+ <literal>IPFIREWALL</literal> option, be aware
+ that the default policy is to deny all packets that are
+ not explicitly allowed.</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount -o -P sunbox:/blah /mnt</userinput></screen>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the firewall is unintentionally misconfigured,
+ restore network operability by
+ typing the following as <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>:</para>
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="exports-errors">
- <para>為什麼 <command>mountd</command> 一直鬼叫說
- <errorname>can't change attributes</errorname> 而且我一直看到
- <errorname>bad exports list</errorname> 這個訊息在我的 FreeBSD NFS
- 伺服器上?</para>
- </question>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>ipfw add 65534 allow all from any to any</userinput></screen>
- <answer>
- <para>這個問題最常發生的原因是在於不了解
- <filename>/etc/exports</filename> 的正確格式。請詳讀
- &man.exports.5; 以及手冊中關於 <ulink
- url="../handbook/nfs.html">NFS</ulink> 的部分,特別是<ulink
- url="../handbook/nfs.html#CONFIGURING-NFS">configuring
- NFS</ulink>這一段。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-nextstep">
- <para>為什麼我在使用 PPP 連線到 NeXTStep 機器時有問題?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
-
- <para>把 TCP extensions 取消,這個設定在
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 裡面(參考 &man.rc.conf.5;) 把
- 以下這個值設成 NO:</para>
-
- <programlisting>tcp_extensions=NO</programlisting>
-
- <para>Xylogic 的 Annex 主機也有相同的問題,您要做相同的修改才能連
- 上這些主機。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ip-multicast">
- <para>我要怎樣才能把 IP multicast support 打開?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 2.0 以後的版本內定都有 支援 Multicast host 操作。如果
- 您想將您的主機設定成 multicast router 的話,您必須重新 compile 您
- 的 kernel,加入 <literal>MROUTING</literal> 的選項,並且執行
- &man.mrouted.8; FreeBSD 2.2 及之後的版本會在開機時執行
- &man.mrouted.8; 如果在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 中
- <literal>mrouted_enable</literal> 設定為 <literal>"YES"</literal>
- </para>
-
- <para>MBONE 的各種工具可以在他們 ports 下所屬叫做 <ulink
- url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/mbone.html">mbone</ulink> 目錄
- 中找到。如果您在找視訊會議的工具如 <command>vic</command> 以及
- <command>vat</command>的話,到那邊找找吧!</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="dec-pci-chipset">
- <para>哪些網路卡是使用 DEC PCI chipset?</para>
- </question><answer>
-
- <para>以下是 Glen Foster <email>gfoster@driver.nsta.org</email>
- 提供的清單:</para>
-
- <table>
- <title>Network cards based on the DEC PCI chipset</title>
-
- <tgroup cols="2">
- <thead>
- <row>
- <entry>Vendor</entry>
- <entry>Model</entry>
- </row>
- </thead>
-
- <tbody>
- <row>
- <entry>ASUS</entry>
- <entry>PCI-L101-TB</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>Accton</entry>
- <entry>ENI1203</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>Cogent</entry>
- <entry>EM960PCI</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>Compex</entry>
- <entry>ENET32-PCI</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>D-Link</entry>
- <entry>DE-530</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>Dayna</entry>
- <entry>DP1203, DP2100</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>DEC</entry>
- <entry>DE435, DE450</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>Danpex</entry>
- <entry>EN-9400P3</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>JCIS</entry>
- <entry>Condor JC1260</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>Linksys</entry>
- <entry>EtherPCI</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>Mylex</entry>
- <entry>LNP101</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>SMC</entry>
- <entry>EtherPower 10/100 (Model 9332)</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>SMC</entry>
- <entry>EtherPower (Model 8432)</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>TopWare</entry>
- <entry>TE-3500P</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>Znyx (2.2.x)</entry>
- <entry>ZX312, ZX314, ZX342, ZX345, ZX346, ZX348</entry>
- </row>
- <row>
- <entry>Znyx (3.x)</entry>
- <entry>ZX345Q, ZX346Q, ZX348Q, ZX412Q, ZX414, ZX442, ZX444,
- ZX474, ZX478, ZX212, ZX214 (10mbps/hd)</entry>
- </row>
- </tbody>
- </tgroup>
- </table>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="fqdn-hosts">
- <para>為什麼要用 FQDN 才能連到其他機器?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>你也許會發現要連的機器其實是在另一個網域。舉個例子,假設你是在
- foo.bar.edu 這個網域中,想要連到在一台叫 <hostid>mumble</hostid>
- 的主機,他在 <hostid role="domainname">example.org</hostid> 網域下,
- 你必須用 Fully-Qualified Domain Name <hostid
- role="fqdn">mumble.example.org</hostid>,而不是只用
- <hostid>mumble</hostid>。</para>
-
- <para>傳統的 BSD BIND resolver 允許用這種方式解出機器的位址,但是
- FreeBSD 內附 <application>bind</application> (see &man.named.8;)
- 版本內定方式,則是除了你所在的網域以外,不支援其他非 FQDN 的縮寫。
- 所以如 <hostid>mumble</hostid> 必須在 <hostid
- role="fqdn">mumble.foo.example.org</hostid>,否則就會從網域的最底
- 層開始找。</para>
-
- <para>這和先前的做法不同,也就是不用
- <hostid role="domainname">mumble.example.org</hostid>,和
- <hostid role="domainname">mumble.edu</hostid> 繼續搜尋。
- 看一下 RFC 1535,裡面有提到為什麼之前的做法不好,甚至算是個安全
- 漏洞。</para>
-
- <para>這裡有個不錯的解法, 你可以加入一行</para>
-
- <programlisting>search foo.example.org example.org</programlisting>
-
- <para>instead of the previous</para>
-
- <programlisting>domain foo.example.org</programlisting>
-
- <para>在你的 <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> 檔案中 (請參考
- &man.resolv.conf.5;)。但是要確定搜尋順序不會違反 RFC 1535 所謂的
- <quote>boundary between local and public administration</quote>。
- </para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="network-permission-denied">
- <para>為什麼我在連線時一直出現
- <errorname>Permission denied</errorname> 的錯誤訊息?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para> 如果在編譯 kernel 時加入 <literal>IPFIREWALL</literal> 選項,
- 請注意 2.1.7R 內定是拒絕所有未經核准的網路封包(但在開發
- 2.1-STABLE 時改掉了)。</para>
-
- <para>I如果不小心弄錯了 firewall 的設定,你可以以
- <username>root</username> 執行以下命令網路功能就會恢復正常:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ipfw add 65534 allow all from any to any</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>也可以在 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 加入
- <literal>firewall_type="open"</literal> 的選項。</para>
-
- <para>如果想知道如何設定 FreeBSD firewall,請參考 <ulink
- url="../handbook/firewalls.html">手冊中相關章節</ulink>。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ipfw-overhead">
- <para>IPFW 會造成多大的網路延遲?</para>
- </question>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Consider setting
+ <literal>firewall_type="open"</literal> in
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>.</para>
- <answer>
- <para>請參考手冊中 <ulink
- url="../handbook/firewalls.html">Firewalls</ulink> 章節,特別是
- <ulink url="../handbook/firewalls.html#IPFW-OVERHEAD">IPFW
- Overhead & Optimization</ulink> 這一段。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">For further information on configuring this
+ firewall, see the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/firewalls-ipfw.html">Handbook
+ chapter</link>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ipfw-fwd">
- <para>為什麼我的 <command>ipfw</command> <quote>fwd</quote>
- redirect 規則將服務轉向其他機器時無法正常運作?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>可能是你除了轉送封包以外還額外想進行位址轉譯
- (network address translation, NAT),<quote>fwd</quote> 規則所進
- 行的動作就如同字面所示;僅轉送封包,它並不會去修改封包中的資料。
- 假設我們有如下的規則:</para>
-
- <screen>01000 fwd <replaceable>10.0.0.1</replaceable> from any to <replaceable>foo 21</replaceable></screen>
-
- <para>當一個通往特定目標位址 <replaceable>foo</replaceable> 的封包
- 送達主機時,根據這條規則,封包將被轉送至
- <replaceable>10.0.0.1</replaceable>,但是它的目標位址卻仍然是
- <replaceable>foo</replaceable>!封包的目標位址並
- <emphasis>沒有</emphasis> 更改為
- <replaceable>10.0.0.1</replaceable>。大部分的主機會將封包丟棄,
- 因為他們並不是這個目標位址。因此,使用 <quote>fwd</quote> 規則
- 時往往不如使用者所預期的那般順利。這種行為是系統特性,而非錯誤。
- </para>
+ <question xml:id="ipfw-fwd">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why is my <command>ipfw</command> <quote>fwd</quote>
+ rule to redirect a service to another machine not
+ working?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>參考 <link linkend="service-redirect">關於服務轉向的常見問
- 答集</link>, &man.natd.8; 手冊,或者是使用 <ulink
- url="../../../../ports/index.html">ports collection</ulink> 中許
- 多服務轉向的工具來正確的完成你想進行的工作。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Possibly because network address translation (NAT) is
+ needed instead of just forwarding packets. A
+ <quote>fwd</quote> rule only forwards packets, it does not
+ actually change the data inside the packet. Consider this
+ rule:</para>
+
+ <screen xml:lang="en">01000 fwd <replaceable>10.0.0.1</replaceable> from any to <replaceable>foo 21</replaceable></screen>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When a packet with a destination address of
+ <replaceable>foo</replaceable> arrives at the machine with
+ this rule, the packet is forwarded to
+ <replaceable>10.0.0.1</replaceable>, but it still has the
+ destination address of <replaceable>foo</replaceable>.
+ The destination address of the packet is
+ not changed to
+ <replaceable>10.0.0.1</replaceable>. Most machines would
+ probably drop a packet that they receive with a
+ destination address that is not their own. Therefore,
+ using a <quote>fwd</quote> rule does not often work the
+ way the user expects. This behavior is a feature and not
+ a bug.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">See the <link linkend="service-redirect"><acronym>FAQ</acronym> about
+ redirecting services</link>, the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>natd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> manual, or
+ one of the several port redirecting utilities in the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/ports/index.html">Ports
+ Collection</link> for a correct way to do this.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="service-redirect">
- <para>要如何把對某台機器的網路服務要求(service request)轉向到另一台?
- </para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>在 ports 目錄的<quote>sysutils</quote>分類中有個叫
- <literal>socket</literal> 的套件,可以幫你轉向 FTP 或其他類似的
- 網路服務。只要把該網路服務的命令改成呼叫 socket 即可,如下所示:
- </para>
-
- <programlisting>ftp stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/local/bin/socket socket <replaceable>ftp.example.com</replaceable> <replaceable>ftp</replaceable></programlisting>
+ <question xml:id="service-redirect">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How can I redirect service requests from one machine
+ to another?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>其中 <replaceable>ftp.example.com</replaceable> 與
- <replaceable>ftp</replaceable> 分別是被轉到的機器和 port 名稱。
- </para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">FTP and other service requests can be redirected with
+ the <package>sysutils/socket</package> package or port.
+ Replace the entry for the service in
+ <filename>/etc/inetd.conf</filename> to call
+ <command>socket</command>, as seen in this example for
+ <application>ftpd</application>:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">ftp stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/local/bin/socket socket <replaceable>ftp.example.com</replaceable> <replaceable>ftp</replaceable></programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">where <replaceable>ftp.example.com</replaceable> and
+ <replaceable>ftp</replaceable> are the host and port to
+ redirect to, respectively.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="bandwidth-mgr-tool">
- <para>那裡可以找到管理頻寬的工具?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="bandwidth-mgr-tool">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Where can I get a bandwidth management tool?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 上有三套頻寬管理工具: &man.dummynet.4; 已經整合進入
- FreeBSD 系統(更詳細的用途, &man.ipfw.4;); <ulink
- url="http://www.csl.sony.co.jp/person/kjc/programs.html">ALTQ</ulink>
- 可以免費使用,<ulink
- url="http://www.etinc.com/">Emerging Technologies</ulink>
- 推出的 Bandwidth Manager 則是商用軟體。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">There are three bandwidth management tools available
+ for FreeBSD. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>dummynet</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry> is integrated into FreeBSD as
+ part of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ipfw</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>. <link xlink:href="http://www.sonycsl.co.jp/person/kjc/programs.html">ALTQ</link>
+ has been integrated into FreeBSD as part of <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>.
+ Bandwidth Manager from <link xlink:href="http://www.etinc.com/">Emerging
+ Technologies</link> is a commercial product.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="bpf-not-configured">
- <para>怎麼會跑出
- <errorname>/dev/bpf0: device not configured</errorname>這個訊息?
- </para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>你執行了一個需要柏克萊封包過濾器 (Berkeley Packet Filter) 的
- 程式 (&man.bpf.4;),但是你在 kernel 中沒有啟動它。把下面這一行加
- 入 kernel 設定檔中,編譯一個新的 kernel:</para>
-
- <programlisting>pseudo-device bpf # Berkeley Packet Filter</programlisting>
-
- <para>在重新開機之後,還要做出 device node,在
- <filename>/dev</filename> 下執行:</para>
+ <question xml:id="bpf-not-configured">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why do I get <errorname>/dev/bpf0: device not
+ configured</errorname>?</para>
+ </question>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sh MAKEDEV bpf0</userinput></screen>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The running application requires the Berkeley
+ Packet Filter (<citerefentry><refentrytitle>bpf</refentrytitle><manvolnum>4</manvolnum></citerefentry>), but it was removed from a
+ custom kernel. Add this to the kernel config file and
+ build a new kernel:</para>
- <para>如果想要更進一步知道如何做出各種 device node,請參閱 <ulink
- url="../handbook/kernelconfig-nodes.html">Handbook 關於週邊節點的說明</ulink>
- 。</para>
- </answer>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">device bpf # Berkeley Packet Filter</programlisting>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="mount-smb-share">
- <para>我要怎樣才能將 Windows 機器中的磁碟掛入系統, 就像 Linux 提供
- 的 smbmount 那樣?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="mount-smb-share">
+ <para xml:lang="en">How do I mount a disk from a <trademark class="registered">Windows</trademark> machine that is
+ on my network, like smbmount in <trademark class="registered">Linux</trademark>?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>使用 <application>SMBFS</application> 工具組。這套工具組中
- 包含了一系列的 kernel 修改還有使用者的工具程式(userland programs)。
- 這些程式和資訊在 ports 收藏中
- <filename role="package">net/smbfs</filename> 下可以找到。在
- 4.5-RELEASE 之後的版本則是系統中內建。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Use the <application>SMBFS</application> toolset. It
+ includes a set of kernel modifications and a set of
+ userland programs. The programs and information are
+ available as <citerefentry><refentrytitle>mount_smbfs</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> in the base
+ system.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="icmp-response-bw-limit">
- <para>我在系統日誌中發現以下訊息:
- <quote>icmp-response bandwidth limit 300/200 pps</quote>,這是
- 蝦米碗糕?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="icmp-response-bw-limit">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What are these messages about: <errorname>Limiting
+ icmp/open port/closed port response</errorname> in my
+ log files?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>這是系統核心告訴你有某些活動引發它送出比它所認為應該送出更
- 多的 ICMP 或 TCP 重置訊息 (RST)。ICMP 回應訊息常常是因為有人嘗
- 試連接未被使用的 UDP 通訊埠。TCP 重置訊息則是有人嘗試連接未開
- 放 TCP 通訊埠造成的結果。以下這些活動可能就是造成這些訊息的原因:
- </para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This kernel message indicates that some activity is
+ provoking it to send a large amount of ICMP or TCP reset
+ (RST) responses. ICMP responses are
+ often generated as a result of attempted connections to
+ unused UDP ports. TCP resets are generated as a result of
+ attempted connections to unopened TCP ports. Among
+ others, these are the kinds of activities which may cause
+ these messages:</para>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>暴力法的服務組絕攻擊(DoS)方式
- (相較於針對特殊弱點使用單一封包的攻擊方式)。</para>
- </listitem>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Brute-force denial of service (DoS) attacks (as
+ opposed to single-packet attacks which exploit a
+ specific vulnerability).</para>
+ </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>大量的通訊埠掃描(相較於僅嘗試少數的常見服務通訊埠)。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Port scans which attempt to connect to a large
+ number of ports (as opposed to only trying a few
+ well-known ports).</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
- <para>出現的數字中第一個代表根據這些流量 kernel 應該送出的封包數,
- 第二個數字則是 kernel 目前限制最大發送數。你可以利用 sysctl 修改
- <varname>net.inet.icmp.icmplim</varname> 變數值來更改最大值。舉
- 例來說,如果希望修改限制為 <literal>300</literal> packets per
- second:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The first number in the message indicates how many
+ packets the kernel would have sent if the limit was not in
+ place, and the second indicates the limit. This limit
+ is controlled using
+ <varname>net.inet.icmp.icmplim</varname>. This example
+ sets the limit to <literal>300</literal>
+ packets per second:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl -w net.inet.icmp.icmplim=300</userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl net.inet.icmp.icmplim=300</userinput></screen>
- <para>如果你不想在系統紀錄中看到這些訊息,但是仍然希望保持回應的限
- 制的話,你可以利用 sysctl 修改
- <varname>net.inet.icmp.icmplim_output</varname> 變數來取消這些訊
- 息:</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To disable these messages
+ without disabling response
+ limiting, use
+ <varname>net.inet.icmp.icmplim_output</varname>
+ to disable the output:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl -w net.inet.icmp.icmplim_output=0</userinput></screen>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl net.inet.icmp.icmplim_output=0</userinput></screen>
- <para>最後,如果你想取消這些限制的話,你可以設定
- <varname>net.inet.icmp.icmplim</varname> (如上例所示) 為
- <literal>0</literal>。基於上述理由,我們不建議你取消這些限制。
- </para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Finally, to disable response limiting completely,
+ set <varname>net.inet.icmp.icmplim</varname> to
+ <literal>0</literal>. Disabling response limiting is
+ discouraged for the reasons listed above.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="unknown-hw-addr-format">
- <para>這個錯誤訊息
- <errorname>arp: unknown hardware address format</errorname>
- 是什麼意思?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="unknown-hw-addr-format">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What are these <errorname>arp: unknown hardware
+ address format</errorname> error messages?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>這代表你的區域網路連線上有一些設備使用 FreeBSD 看不懂的 MAC
- 格式。這通常是代表有人在你的區域網路上進行實驗,最常見的就是
- cable modem 的連線。這訊息無害,而且應該不至於影響到 FreeBSD 主
- 機的效能。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This means that some device on the local Ethernet is
+ using a MAC address in a format that FreeBSD does not
+ recognize. This is probably caused by someone
+ experimenting with an Ethernet card somewhere else on the
+ network. This is most commonly seen on cable modem
+ networks. It is harmless, and should not affect the
+ performance of the FreeBSD system.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="cvsup-missing-libs">
- <para>我剛剛裝好 CVSup 套件,但是在嘗試執行時發生了錯誤,要怎麼辦?
- </para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>首先,看看錯誤的訊息是否如下:</para>
-
- <programlisting>/usr/libexec/ld-elf.so.1: Shared object "libXaw.so.6" not found</programlisting>
+ <question xml:id="arp-wrong-iface">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why do I keep seeing messages like:
+ <errorname>192.168.0.10 is on
+ fxp1 but got reply from 00:15:17:67:cf:82 on
+ rl0</errorname>, and how do I disable it?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>這種錯誤訊息代表你主機上安裝的
- <filename role="package">net/cvsup</filename> 沒有包含
- <application>XFree86</application> 套件。如果你想要使用
- <application>CVSup</application> 內建的圖形介面
- <acronym>GUI</acronym> 的話,你需要安裝
- <application>XFree86</application>。此外,如果你只想以命令列方
- 式使用 <application>CVSup</application> 的話,你應該先移除之前
- 安裝的套件。並安裝
- <filename role="package">net/cvsup-without-gui</filename> 這套
- 軟體。在 FreeBSD 手冊中 <ulink
- url="http://www.freebsd.org/handbook/cvsup.html">CVSup</ulink>
- 段落中有更詳細的說明。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Because a packet is coming from outside the network
+ unexpectedly. To disable them, set
+ <varname>net.link.ether.inet.log_arp_wrong_iface</varname>
+ to <literal>0</literal>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
</qandaset>
</chapter>
- <chapter id="security">
- <chapterinfo>
- <author>
- <firstname>Biing Jong</firstname>
- <surname>Lin</surname>
- <affiliation>
- <address><email>bjlin@stic.gov.tw</email></address>
- </affiliation>
- </author>
- </chapterinfo>
+ <chapter xml:id="security">
+ <title xml:lang="en">Security</title>
- <title>系統安全篇</title>
<qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="sandbox">
- <para>什麼是 sandbox?</para>
- </question><answer>
+ <question xml:id="sandbox">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is a sandbox?</para>
+ </question>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><quote>Sandbox</quote> is a security term. It can
+ mean two things:</para>
- <para><quote>Sandbox</quote> 是系統安全用的術語,有兩個意義:</para>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">A process which is placed inside a set of virtual
+ walls that are designed to prevent someone who breaks
+ into the process from being able to break into the
+ wider system.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The process is only able to run inside the walls.
+ Since nothing the process does in regards to executing
+ code is supposed to be able to breach the walls, a
+ detailed audit of its code is not needed in order to
+ be able to say certain things about its
+ security.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The walls might be a user ID, for example.
+ This is the definition used in the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>security</refentrytitle><manvolnum>7</manvolnum></citerefentry>
+ and <citerefentry><refentrytitle>named</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> man pages.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Take the <literal>ntalk</literal> service, for
+ example (see <citerefentry><refentrytitle>inetd</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>). This service used to run
+ as user ID <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>. Now it runs as
+ user ID <systemitem class="username">tty</systemitem>. The <systemitem class="username">tty</systemitem> user is a sandbox
+ designed to make it more difficult for someone who has
+ successfully hacked into the system via
+ <literal>ntalk</literal> from being able to hack
+ beyond that user ID.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
-
- <para>放在某些虛擬防護牆裡的執行程序,這些防護牆是用來阻止
- 某些人侵入這道程序,進而出入於更大的系統中。</para>
-
- <para>這道程序可以完全在防護牆裡 <quote>動作</quote>。也就
- 是說,它所執行的任何程式不可能會滲透到牆的外面。所以如果
- 您對它有安全上的顧慮,並不需要特別去監聽它的一舉一動,反
- 正它只能在牆內活動。</para>
-
- <para>舉例來說,可以用 userid 來做這道防護牆,這正是 security
- 和 named 說明文件中的定義。</para>
-
- <para>現在就用 <literal>ntalk</literal> 這個服務作說明(見
- /etc/inetd.conf)。這個服務以前的 userid 是
- <username>root</username>,現在執行時則是用
- <username>tty</username>。<username>tty</username>
- 這個使用者就是一個 sandbox,如果有人能夠順利用 ntalk
- 侵入系統,現在他就算進得來也只能用這個 userid。</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>放在某個模擬機器裡的程式,這比上述來得更嚴密。基本上
- 這表示能侵入該程式的人相信他能再進入所屬的機器,但事實上
- 只會進入模擬出來的機器,無法進一步修改任何真實的資料。</para>
-
- <para>達到這個目的最常用的方法,就是在某個子目錄下做出模擬的
- 環境,然後用 chroot 執行該程式,這樣該程式的根目錄便是這個
- 子目錄,而非系統真正的根目錄。</para>
-
- <para>另一個常見作法是將某個檔案系統 mount 成唯讀,但在它
- 上面另外製造出程式以為可以寫入的檔案系統。這個程式會相信
- 它可以對其他檔案讀寫,但只有它看不到這個唯讀效應 - 系統
- 執行的一般程式都看得到。</para>
-
- <para>我們試圖將這類 sandbox 盡量透明化,讓使用者或侵入者
- 無法看到他是否在某個 sandbox 裡面。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">A process which is placed inside a simulation of
+ the machine. It means that someone who is able to
+ break into the process may believe that he can break
+ into the wider machine but is, in fact, only breaking
+ into a simulation of that machine and not modifying
+ any real data.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">The most common way to accomplish this is to build
+ a simulated environment in a subdirectory and then run
+ the processes in that directory chrooted so that
+ <filename>/</filename> for that process is this
+ directory, not the real <filename>/</filename> of the
+ system).</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Another common use is to mount an underlying file
+ system read-only and then create a file system layer
+ on top of it that gives a process a seemingly
+ writeable view into that file system. The process may
+ believe it is able to write to those files, but only
+ the process sees the effects — other processes
+ in the system do not, necessarily.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">An attempt is made to make this sort of sandbox so
+ transparent that the user (or hacker) does not realize
+ that he is sitting in it.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
- <para>UNIX 實作兩種 sandbox,一個在程式層面,另一個則是由 userid
- 來達成。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> implements two core sandboxes. One is at the
+ process level, and one is at the userid level.</para>
- <para>每個 UNIX 執行程序會用防火牆將它和所有其他程序隔開,某個程序
- 不可以隨意修改其他程序位址的資料。這和 Windows 中,程式可以輕易
- 修改其他位址資料,結果導致當機的情形大不相同。</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Every <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> process is completely firewalled off from
+ every other <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> process. One process cannot modify the
+ address space of another.</para>
- <para>每個 UNIX 程序都屬於某個特定的 userid。如果該 userid 不是
- <username>root</username>,就會將它和其他使用者的程序隔開。
- Userid 同時也用於硬碟資料的存取權上。</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <para xml:lang="en">A <trademark class="registered">UNIX</trademark> process is owned by a particular userid. If
+ the user ID is not the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> user, it serves to
+ firewall the process off from processes owned by other
+ users. The user ID is also used to firewall off
+ on-disk data.</para>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="securelevel">
- <para>什麼是 securelevel?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="securelevel">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is securelevel?</para>
+ </question>
+
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en"><literal>securelevel</literal> is a security
+ mechanism implemented in the kernel. When the securelevel
+ is positive, the kernel restricts certain tasks; not even
+ the superuser (<systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>) is allowed to do
+ them. The securelevel mechanism limits the ability
+ to:</para>
- <answer>
- <para>securelevel 是核心中所實作的一個安全機制。基本上當
- securelevel 是正值時,核心會限制某些工作;即使是 superuser
- (也就是 <username>root</username>) 也無法完成那些工作。在撰寫
- 本文時,securelevel 機制在一般的限制外,還能夠限制以下的功能:
- </para>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Unset certain file flags, such as
+ <literal>schg</literal> (the system immutable
+ flag).</para>
+ </listitem>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>清除某些特定的檔案旗標,例如 <literal>schg</literal>
- (系統唯讀標旗, the system immutable flag)</para>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Write to kernel memory via
+ <filename>/dev/mem</filename> and
+ <filename>/dev/kmem</filename>.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>經由 <devicename>/dev/mem</devicename> 與
- <devicename>/dev/kmem</devicename>, 將資料寫入至核心記憶體中
- </para>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Load kernel modules.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <listitem>
- <para>載入核心模組</para>
- </listitem>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Alter firewall rules.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>更動 &man.ipfirewall.4; 規則。</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
+ <para xml:lang="en">To check the status of the securelevel on a running
+ system:</para>
- <para>想要檢查在某個運作中的系統的 securelevel 狀態,只要執行以下
- 命令即可:</para>
+ <screen xml:lang="en"><prompt>#</prompt> <userinput>sysctl -n kern.securelevel</userinput></screen>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl kern.securelevel</userinput></screen>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The output contains the current value of the
+ securelevel. If it is greater than 0, at
+ least some of the securelevel's protections are
+ enabled.</para>
- <para>輸出的結果會包含一個 &man.sysctl.8; 變數名稱 (在這個例子中,
- 它是 <varname>kern.securelevel</varname>) 以及一個數字。後者即是
- 目前的 securelevel 值。如果它是一個正值 (也就是大於 0),表示至少
- 有一些 securelevel 的保護機制已經開啟了。</para>
-
- <para>你沒有辦法降低一個運作中的系統的 securelevel;如果可以的話,
- 就失去了這個機制的意義了。如果你要作一些需要 securelevel 為
- 非正值才可以的動作的話 (例如 <maketarget>installworld</maketarget>
- 或更動日期),你需要修改 <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> 內的
- securelevel 設定 (找找 <varname>kern_securelevel</varname> 和
- <varname>kern_securelevel_enable</varname> 變數),然後重新開機。
- </para>
-
- <para>想要知道更多有關於 securelevel 與各個不同等級影響的細節,
- 請參考 &man.init.8; 說明文件。</para>
-
- <warning>
- <para>securelevel 可不是萬靈丹;它有許多已知的缺陷,往往造成
- 一種安全的假象。</para>
-
- <para>它一個最大的問題,就是要讓這個功能完全有效的話,在
- securelevel 發揮作用前的啟動過程中,所有使用到的檔案都
- 必須被保護起來。如果一個攻擊者在 securelevel 有效前 (由於
- 有些系統在啟動中所作的事情,無法在較高的 securelevel 中
- 正常運作,所以這會在啟動過程中後期才會運作),能讓他們的程式
- 被執行的話,securelevel 的保護就完全無效了。保護啟動程序
- 中所有的檔案在技術上是可行的,但是如果真的這樣作的話,系統
- 維護將會變成一場夢魘。即使只是修改一個設定檔,也必須將整個
- 系統關閉,至少也得到單人模式。</para>
-
- <para>除了這點,還有許多其它的東西都在通信論壇上討論,尤其是
- freebsd-security。請到 <ulink
- url="../../../../search/index.html">這裡</ulink> 搜尋以前的
- 討論。有些人希望 securelevel 能夠儘快消失,由另一個更優秀的
- 機制取代,不過機會有點渺茫。</para>
-
- <para>風險自行承擔。</para>
- </warning>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The securelevel of a running system cannot be lowered
+ as this would defeat its purpose. If a task requires that
+ the securelevel be non-positive, change the
+ <varname>kern_securelevel</varname> and
+ <varname>kern_securelevel_enable</varname> variables in
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and reboot.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">For more information on securelevel and the specific
+ things all the levels do, consult <citerefentry><refentrytitle>init</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>.</para>
+
+ <warning>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Securelevel is not a silver bullet; it has many
+ known deficiencies. More often than not, it provides a
+ false sense of security.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">One of its biggest problems is that in order for it
+ to be at all effective, all files used in the boot
+ process up until the securelevel is set must be
+ protected. If an attacker can get the system to execute
+ their code prior to the securelevel being set (which
+ happens quite late in the boot process since some things
+ the system must do at start-up cannot be done at an
+ elevated securelevel), its protections are invalidated.
+ While this task of protecting all files used in the boot
+ process is not technically impossible, if it is
+ achieved, system maintenance will become a nightmare
+ since one would have to take the system down, at least
+ to single-user mode, to modify a configuration
+ file.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">This point and others are often discussed on the
+ mailing lists, particularly the <link xlink:href="http://lists.FreeBSD.org/mailman/listinfo/freebsd-security">FreeBSD security mailing list</link>.
+ Search the archives <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/search/index.html">here</link>
+ for an extensive discussion. A more fine-grained
+ mechanism is preferred.</para>
+ </warning>
+ </answer>
+ </qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="extra-named-port">
- <para>BIND (<command>named</command>) 除了在通訊埠 53 以外也在
- 其他高編號通訊埠 (high-numbered port) 聆聽 (Listen)。
- 這是怎麼回事?</para>
+ <question xml:id="extra-named-port">
+ <para xml:lang="en">BIND (<command>named</command>) is listening on some
+ high-numbered ports. What is going on?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>FreeBSD 3.0 後的版本使用一個特殊的 BIND 版本,這個版本會使
- 用隨機的高編號通訊埠來回應外部的查詢。如果你因為要適合防火牆的
- 設定或是單純的想讓自己看來舒服一點而想用 53 通訊埠回應外部查詢,
- 那麼你可以嘗試更改以下檔案相關內容
- <filename>/etc/namedb/named.conf</filename>:</para>
-
- <programlisting>options {
- query-source address * port 53;
-};</programlisting>
-
- <para>你也可以將 <literal>*</literal> 更改為特定 IP address,
- 藉以加強控制條件。</para>
-
- <para>順便恭喜你。能夠讀取你系統上的 &man.sockstat.1; 報告並且注意
- 不正常狀況是一件好事!</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="sendmail-port-587">
- <para>Sendmail 除了在標準的通訊埠 25 外也在通訊埠 587 聆聽!這是怎
- 麼回事?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>較新版本的 Sendmail 支援 mail submission 這項功能,並且使
- 用通訊埠 587。這項功能還沒有被廣泛支援但是支援的數目正在增長
- 中。</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">BIND uses a random high-numbered port for outgoing
+ queries. Recent versions of it choose a new, random UDP
+ port for each query. This may cause problems for some
+ network configurations, especially if a firewall blocks
+ incoming UDP packets on particular ports. To
+ get past that firewall, try the
+ <literal>avoid-v4-udp-ports</literal> and
+ <literal>avoid-v6-udp-ports</literal> options to avoid
+ selecting random port numbers within a blocked
+ range.</para>
+
+ <warning>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If a port number (like 53) is specified via the
+ <literal>query-source</literal> or
+ <literal>query-source-v6</literal> options in
+ <filename>/etc/namedb/named.conf</filename>, randomized
+ port selection will not be used. It is strongly
+ recommended that these options not be used to specify
+ fixed port numbers.</para>
+ </warning>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Congratulations, by the way. It is good practice to
+ read <citerefentry><refentrytitle>sockstat</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> output and notice odd
+ things!</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="toor-account">
- <para>我發現了這個 UID 0 <username>toor</username> 帳號,這是什麼
- 碗糕?我被黑掉了嗎?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>放心。<username>toor</username> 是一個
- <quote>alternative</quote> 管理者帳號 (toor 是 root 的轉向拼法)。
- 以往是跟隨 &man.bash.1; 安裝而建制的,後來則成為系統內定建制的一
- 個帳號。這個帳號將伴隨一個非標準的 shell 測試使用, 讓你不需要去
- 更改到 <username>root</username> 的內建 shell。因為這些其他的 shell
- 並沒有跟隨系統預設值安裝 (舉例來說,某些由 ports 安裝的
- shell package),而被內定安裝在 <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename>
- 目錄下,有可能存在不同的檔案系統中。 倘若 <username>root</username>
- 的 shell 被放在 <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename>,且
- <filename>/usr</filename> (或是其他包含著
- <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename> 這個子目錄的檔案系統)
- 因為某些原因並沒有被正常的 mount 起來的話,<username>root</username>
- 將無法正常的登入系統進行維修 (雖然說你重開機成單人模式就會問你要
- 載入哪個 shell)。</para>
+ <question xml:id="sendmail-port-587">
+ <para xml:lang="en">The <application>Sendmail</application> daemon is
+ listening on port 587 as well as the standard port 25!
+ What is going on?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>有些人使用 <username>toor</username> 帳號進行每日的
- <username>root</username> 維護工作,如此可以使用非標準的
- shell,而 <username>root</username> 可以保留標準 shell,
- 以因應單一使用者模式 (single user mode) 或緊急狀況處理。
- 依照系統內定值,你將無法使用 <username>toor</username> 登入,
- 因為這個帳號尚未更改密碼設定。因此你如果你想啟動這個帳號,你需要
- 使用 <username>root</username> 登入系統並且修改
- <username>toor</username> 的密碼。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Recent versions of <application>Sendmail</application>
+ support a mail submission feature that runs over port 587.
+ This is not yet widely supported, but is growing in
+ popularity.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="suidperl">
- <para>為什麼 <command>suidperl</command> 無法正常運作?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>因為某些安全的考,<command>suidperl</command> 內定的安裝
- 並沒有設定 suid bit。系統管理者可以依照以下命令啟動 suid 設定。
- </para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>chmod u+s /usr/bin/suidperl</userinput></screen>
+ <question xml:id="toor-account">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What is this UID 0 <systemitem class="username">toor</systemitem> account? Have I been
+ compromised?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>如果你想要在由 source 升級時 <command>suidperl</command> 內定
- 啟動 suid 功能的話,編輯 <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> 加入
- <varname>ENABLE_SUIDPERL=true</varname> 然後執行
- <command>make buildworld</command>。</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Do not worry. <systemitem class="username">toor</systemitem> is an
+ <quote>alternative</quote> superuser account, where toor
+ is root spelled backwards. It is intended to be used with
+ a non-standard shell so the default shell for <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> does not need to
+ change. This is important as shells which are not part of
+ the base distribution, but are instead installed from
+ ports or packages, are installed in
+ <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename> which, by default,
+ resides on a different file system. If <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>'s shell is located in
+ <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename> and the
+ file system
+ containing <filename>/usr/local/bin</filename>) is not
+ mounted, <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> will not be able to
+ log in to fix a problem and will have to reboot into
+ single-user mode in order to enter the path to a
+ shell.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Some people use <systemitem class="username">toor</systemitem> for day-to-day
+ <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> tasks with
+ a non-standard shell, leaving <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>, with a standard
+ shell, for single-user mode or emergencies. By default, a
+ user cannot log in using <systemitem class="username">toor</systemitem> as it does not have a
+ password, so log in as <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> and set a password
+ for <systemitem class="username">toor</systemitem> before
+ using it to login.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
</qandaset>
</chapter>
- <chapter id="ppp">
- <title>PPP</title>
+ <chapter xml:id="ppp">
+ <title xml:lang="en">PPP</title>
<qandaset>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="userppp">
- <para>I cannot make &man.ppp.8; work. What am I doing wrong?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>You should first read the
- &man.ppp.8;
- man page and the <ulink
- url="../handbook/ppp-and-slip.html#USERPPP">
- PPP section of the handbook</ulink>. Enable logging with
- the command</para>
-
- <programlisting>set log Phase Chat Connect Carrier lcp ipcp ccp command</programlisting>
-
- <para>This command may be typed at the
- &man.ppp.8; command prompt or it may be
- entered in the <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>
- configuration file (the start of the
- <literal>default</literal> section is the best
- place to put it). Make sure that
- <filename>/etc/syslog.conf</filename> (see &man.syslog.conf.5;) contains the lines</para>
-
- <programlisting>!ppp
-*.* /var/log/ppp.log</programlisting>
+ <question xml:id="userppp">
+ <para xml:lang="en">I cannot make <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> work. What am I doing
+ wrong?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>and that the file <filename>/var/log/ppp.log</filename>
- exists. You can now find out a lot about what is going on
- from the log file. Do not worry if it does not all make sense.
- If you need to get help from someone, it may make sense to
- them.</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">First, read <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> and
+ the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip.html#userppp">PPP
+ section of the Handbook</link>. To assist in
+ troubleshooting, enable logging with the
+ following command:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">set log Phase Chat Connect Carrier lcp ipcp ccp command</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">This command may be typed at the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> command
+ prompt or it may be entered at the start of the
+ <literal>default</literal> section
+ in <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>. Make sure that
+ <filename>/etc/syslog.conf</filename> contains the lines
+ below and the file <filename>/var/log/ppp.log</filename>
+ exists:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">!ppp
+*.* /var/log/ppp.log</programlisting>
- <para>If your version of &man.ppp.8; does not understand the
- <command>set log</command> command, you should download the
- <ulink url="http://people.FreeBSD.org/~brian/">
- latest version</ulink>. It will build on FreeBSD version
- 2.1.5 and higher.</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">A lot about what is going can be learned from the log
+ file. Do not worry if it does not all make sense as
+ it may make sense to someone else.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-hangs">
- <para>Why does &man.ppp.8; hang when I run it?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>This is usually because your hostname will not resolve.
- The best way to fix this is to make sure that
- <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> is consulted by your
- resolver first by editing <filename>/etc/host.conf</filename>
- and putting the <literal>hosts</literal> line first. Then,
- simply put an entry in <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> for
- your local machine. If you have no local network, change your
- <hostid>localhost</hostid> line:</para>
-
- <programlisting>127.0.0.1 foo.bar.com foo localhost</programlisting>
-
- <para>Otherwise, simply add another entry for your host.
- Consult the relevant man pages for more details.</para>
+ <question xml:id="ppp-hangs">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> hang when I run it?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>You should be able to successfully
- <command>ping -c1 `hostname`</command> when you are done.</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This is usually because the hostname will not
+ resolve. The best way to fix this is to make sure that
+ <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> is read first by the
+ by ensuring that the <literal>hosts</literal> line is
+ listed first in <filename>/etc/host.conf</filename>.
+ Then, put an entry in <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> for
+ the local machine. If there is no local network, change
+ the <systemitem>localhost</systemitem> line:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">127.0.0.1 foo.example.com foo localhost</programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Otherwise, add another entry for the host.
+ Consult the relevant manual pages for more details.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When finished, verify that this command is successful:
+ <command>ping -c1 `hostname`</command>.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-nodial-auto">
- <para>Why will &man.ppp.8; not dial in <literal>-auto</literal>
- mode?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="ppp-nodial-auto">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why will <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> not dial in
+ <literal>-auto</literal> mode?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>First, check that you have got a default route. By running
- <command>netstat -rn</command> (see &man.netstat.1;), you should see two entries like this:</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">First, check that a default route exists. This
+ command should display two entries:</para>
- <programlisting>Destination Gateway Flags Refs Use Netif Expire
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">Destination Gateway Flags Refs Use Netif Expire
default 10.0.0.2 UGSc 0 0 tun0
10.0.0.2 10.0.0.1 UH 0 0 tun0</programlisting>
- <para>This is assuming that you have used the addresses from the
- handbook, the man page or from the ppp.conf.sample file.
- If you do not have a default route, it may be because you are
- running an old version of &man.ppp.8;
- that does not understand the word <literal>HISADDR</literal>
- in the ppp.conf file. If your version of
- &man.ppp.8; is from before FreeBSD
- 2.2.5, change the</para>
-
- <programlisting>add 0 0 HISADDR</programlisting>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If
+ a default route is not listed, make sure that the
+ <literal>HISADDR</literal> line has been added to
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>.</para>
- <para>line to one saying</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Another reason for the default route line being
+ missing is that a default
+ route has been added to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>
+ and this line is missing
+ from <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">delete ALL</programlisting>
- <programlisting>add 0 0 10.0.0.2</programlisting>
-
- <para>Another reason for the default route line being missing
- is that you have mistakenly set up a default router in your
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> (see &man.rc.conf.5;) file (this file was called
- <filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename> prior to release 2.2.2),
- and you have omitted the line saying</para>
-
- <programlisting>delete ALL</programlisting>
-
- <para>from <filename>ppp.conf</filename>. If this is the case,
- go back to the <ulink
- url="../handbook/ppp-and-slip.html#USERPPP-FINAL">
- Final system configuration</ulink> section of the
- handbook.</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If this is the case, go back to the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/userppp.html#userppp-final">Final
+ System Configuration</link> section of the
+ Handbook.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="no-route-to-host">
- <para>What does <errorname>No route to host</errorname> mean?</para>
- </question>
+ <question xml:id="no-route-to-host">
+ <para xml:lang="en">What does <errorname>No route to host</errorname>
+ mean?</para>
+ </question>
- <answer>
- <para>This error is usually due to a missing</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This error is usually because the following section
+ is missing in
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename>:</para>
- <programlisting>MYADDR:
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">MYADDR:
delete ALL
add 0 0 HISADDR</programlisting>
- <para>section in your <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename>
- file. This is only necessary if you have a dynamic IP address
- or do not know the address of your gateway. If you are using
- interactive mode, you can type the following after entering
- <literal>packet mode</literal> (packet mode is
- indicated by the capitalized <acronym>PPP</acronym> in the
- prompt):</para>
+ <para xml:lang="en">This is only necessary for a dynamic IP address or
+ when the address of the default gateway is unknown. When
+ using interactive mode, the following can be typed in
+ after entering packet mode. Packet mode
+ is indicated by the capitalized <acronym>PPP</acronym> in
+ the prompt:</para>
- <programlisting>delete ALL
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">delete ALL
add 0 0 HISADDR</programlisting>
- <para>Refer to the <ulink
- url="../handbook/ppp-and-slip.html#USERPPP-DYNAMICIP">
- PPP and Dynamic IP addresses</ulink> section of the handbook
- for further details.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="connection-threeminutedrop">
- <para>Why does my connection drop after about 3 minutes?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>The default PPP timeout is 3 minutes. This can be
- adjusted with the line</para>
-
- <programlisting>set timeout <replaceable>NNN</replaceable></programlisting>
-
- <para>where <replaceable>NNN</replaceable> is the number of
- seconds of inactivity before the connection is closed. If
- <replaceable>NNN</replaceable> is zero, the connection is never
- closed due to a timeout. It is possible to put this command in
- the <filename>ppp.conf</filename> file, or to type it at the
- prompt in interactive mode. It is also possible to adjust it on
- the fly while the line is active by connecting to
- <application>ppp</application>s server socket using
- &man.telnet.1; or &man.pppctl.8;.
- Refer to the
- &man.ppp.8; man
- page for further details.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-drop-heavy-load">
- <para>Why does my connection drop under heavy load?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>If you have Link Quality Reporting (LQR) configured,
- it is possible that too many LQR packets are lost between
- your machine and the peer. Ppp deduces that the line must
- therefore be bad, and disconnects. Prior to FreeBSD version
- 2.2.5, LQR was enabled by default. It is now disabled by
- default. LQR can be disabled with the line</para>
-
- <programlisting>disable lqr</programlisting>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-drop-random">
- <para>Why does my connection drop after a random amount of
- time?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Sometimes, on a noisy phone line or even on a line with
- call waiting enabled, your modem may hang up because it
- thinks (incorrectly) that it lost carrier.</para>
-
- <para>There is a setting on most modems for determining how
- tolerant it should be to temporary losses of carrier. On a
- USR Sportster for example, this is measured by the S10
- register in tenths of a second. To make your modem more
- forgiving, you could add the following send-expect sequence
- to your dial string:</para>
-
- <programlisting>set dial "...... ATS10=10 OK ......"</programlisting>
-
- <para>Refer to your modem manual for details.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-hangs-random">
- <para>Why does my connection hang after a random amount of
- time?</para>
- </question><answer>
-
- <para>Many people experience hung connections with no apparent
- explanation. The first thing to establish is which side of
- the link is hung.</para>
-
- <para>If you are using an external modem, you can simply try
- using &man.ping.8; to see if the
- <acronym>TD</acronym> light is flashing when you transmit data.
- If it flashes (and the <acronym>RD</acronym> light does not),
- the problem is with the remote end. If <acronym>TD</acronym>
- does not flash, the problem is local. With an internal modem,
- you will need to use the <literal>set server</literal> command in
- your <filename>ppp.conf</filename> file. When the hang occurs,
- connect to &man.ppp.8; using &man.pppctl.8;. If your network connection
- suddenly revives (PPP was revived due to the activity on the
- diagnostic socket) or if you cannot connect (assuming the
- <literal>set socket</literal> command succeeded at startup
- time), the problem is local. If you can connect and things are
- still hung, enable local async logging with <literal>set log
- local async</literal> and use &man.ping.8; from
- another window or terminal to make use of the link. The async
- logging will show you the data being transmitted and received
- on the link. If data is going out and not coming back, the
- problem is remote.</para>
-
- <para>Having established whether the problem is local or remote,
- you now have two possibilities:</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-remote-not-responding">
- <para>The remote end is not responding. What can I do?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>There is very little you can do about this. Most ISPs
- will refuse to help if you are not running a Microsoft OS.
- You can <literal>enable lqr</literal> in your
- <filename>ppp.conf</filename> file, allowing &man.ppp.8; to detect
- the remote failure and hang up, but this detection is
- relatively slow and therefore not that useful. You may want to
- avoid telling your ISP that you are running user-PPP...</para>
-
- <para>First, try disabling all local compression by adding the
- following to your configuration:</para>
-
- <programlisting>disable pred1 deflate deflate24 protocomp acfcomp shortseq vj
-deny pred1 deflate deflate24 protocomp acfcomp shortseq vj</programlisting>
-
- <para>Then reconnect to ensure that this makes no difference.
- If things improve or if the problem is solved completely,
- determine which setting makes the difference through trial
- and error. This will provide good ammunition when you contact
- your ISP (although it may make it apparent that you are not
- running a Microsoft product).</para>
-
- <para>Before contacting your ISP, enable async logging locally
- and wait until the connection hangs again. This may use up
- quite a bit of disk space. The last data read from the port
- may be of interest. It is usually ascii data, and may even
- describe the problem
- (<quote>Memory fault, core dumped</quote>?).</para>
-
- <para>If your ISP is helpful, they should be able to enable
- logging on their end, then when the next link drop occurs,
- they may be able to tell you why their side is having a
- problem. Feel free to send the details to &a.brian;, or
- even to ask your ISP to contact me directly.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-hung">
- <para>&man.ppp.8; has hung. What can I do?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Your best bet here is to rebuild &man.ppp.8; by adding
- <literal>CFLAGS+=-g</literal> and <literal>STRIP=</literal>
- to the end of the Makefile, then doing a
- <command>make clean &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; make
- install</command>. When &man.ppp.8; hangs, find the &man.ppp.8; process id
- with <command>ps ajxww | fgrep ppp</command> and run
- <command>gdb ppp <replaceable>PID</replaceable></command>.
- From the gdb prompt, you can then use <command>bt</command>
- to get a stack trace.</para>
-
- <para>Send the results to <email>brian@Awfulhak.org</email>.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-loginok-thennothing">
- <para>Why does nothing happen after the <quote>Login OK!</quote>
- message?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Prior to FreeBSD version 2.2.5, once the link was
- established, &man.ppp.8;
- would wait for the peer to initiate the Line Control Protocol
- (LCP). Many ISPs will not initiate negotiations and expect
- the client to do so. To force
- &man.ppp.8; to initiate the LCP, use the
- following line:</para>
-
- <programlisting>set openmode active</programlisting>
-
- <note>
- <para>It usually does no
- harm if both sides initiate negotiation, so openmode is now
- active by default. However, the next section explains when
- it <emphasis>does</emphasis> do some harm.</para>
- </note>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-same-magic">
- <para>I keep seeing errors about magic being the same. What does
- it mean?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Occasionally, just after connecting, you may see messages
- in the log that say <quote>magic is the same</quote>.
- Sometimes, these messages are harmless, and sometimes one side
- or the other exits. Most PPP implementations cannot survive
- this problem, and even if the link seems to come up, you will see
- repeated configure requests and configure acknowledgments in
- the log file until &man.ppp.8; eventually gives up and closes the
- connection.</para>
-
- <para>This normally happens on server machines with slow disks
- that are spawning a getty on the port, and executing &man.ppp.8; from
- a login script or program after login. I have also heard reports
- of it happening consistently when using slirp. The reason is
- that in the time taken between &man.getty.8; exiting and &man.ppp.8; starting,
- the client-side &man.ppp.8; starts sending Line Control Protocol (LCP)
- packets. Because ECHO is still switched on for the port on
- the server, the client &man.ppp.8; sees these packets
- <quote>reflect</quote> back.</para>
-
- <para>One part of the LCP negotiation is to establish a magic
- number for each side of the link so that
- <quote>reflections</quote> can be detected. The protocol says
- that when the peer tries to negotiate the same magic number, a
- NAK should be sent and a new magic number should be chosen.
- During the period that the server port has ECHO turned on, the
- client &man.ppp.8; sends LCP packets, sees the same magic in the
- reflected packet and NAKs it. It also sees the NAK reflect
- (which also means &man.ppp.8; must change its magic). This produces a
- potentially enormous number of magic number changes, all of
- which are happily piling into the server's tty buffer. As soon
- as &man.ppp.8; starts on the server, it is flooded with magic number
- changes and almost immediately decides it has tried enough to
- negotiate LCP and gives up. Meanwhile, the client, who no
- longer sees the reflections, becomes happy just in time to see
- a hangup from the server.</para>
-
- <para>This can be avoided by allowing the peer to start
- negotiating with the following line in your ppp.conf
- file:</para>
-
- <programlisting>set openmode passive</programlisting>
-
- <para>This tells &man.ppp.8; to wait for the server to initiate LCP
- negotiations. Some servers however may never initiate
- negotiations. If this is the case, you can do something
- like:</para>
-
- <programlisting>set openmode active 3</programlisting>
-
- <para>This tells &man.ppp.8; to be passive for 3 seconds, and then to
- start sending LCP requests. If the peer starts sending
- requests during this period, &man.ppp.8; will immediately respond
- rather than waiting for the full 3 second period.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-lcp-constant">
- <para>LCP negotiations continue until the connection is
- closed. What is wrong?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>There is currently an implementation mis-feature in
- &man.ppp.8; where it does not associate
- LCP, CCP &amp; IPCP responses with their original requests. As
- a result, if one PPP
- implementation is more than 6 seconds slower than the other
- side, the other side will send two additional LCP configuration
- requests. This is fatal.</para>
-
- <para>Consider two implementations,
- <hostid>A</hostid> and
- <hostid>B</hostid>. <hostid>A</hostid> starts
- sending LCP requests immediately after connecting and
- <hostid>B</hostid> takes 7 seconds to start. When
- <hostid>B</hostid> starts, <hostid>A</hostid>
- has sent 3 LCP REQs. We are assuming the line has ECHO switched
- off, otherwise we would see magic number problems as described in
- the previous section. <hostid>B</hostid> sends a
- REQ, then an ACK to the first of
- <hostid>A</hostid>'s REQs. This results in
- <hostid>A</hostid> entering the <acronym>OPENED</acronym>
- state and sending and ACK (the first) back to
- <hostid>B</hostid>. In the meantime,
- <hostid>B</hostid> sends back two more ACKs in response to
- the two additional REQs sent by <hostid>A</hostid>
- before <hostid>B</hostid> started up.
- <hostid>B</hostid> then receives the first ACK from
- <hostid>A</hostid> and enters the
- <acronym>OPENED</acronym> state.
- <hostid>A</hostid> receives the second ACK from
- <hostid>B</hostid> and goes back to the
- <acronym>REQ-SENT</acronym> state, sending another (forth) REQ
- as per the RFC. It then receives the third ACK and enters the
- <acronym>OPENED</acronym> state. In the meantime,
- <hostid>B</hostid> receives the forth REQ from
- <hostid>A</hostid>, resulting in it reverting to the
- <acronym>ACK-SENT</acronym> state and sending
- another (second) REQ and (forth) ACK as per the RFC.
- <hostid>A</hostid> gets the REQ, goes into
- <acronym>REQ-SENT</acronym> and sends another REQ. It
- immediately receives the following ACK and enters
- <acronym>OPENED</acronym>.</para>
-
- <para>This goes on until one side figures out that they are
- getting nowhere and gives up.</para>
-
- <para>The best way to avoid this is to configure one side to be
- <literal>passive</literal> - that is, make one side
- wait for the other to start negotiating. This can be done
- with the</para>
-
- <programlisting>set openmode passive</programlisting>
-
- <para>command. Care should be taken with this option. You
- should also use the</para>
-
- <programlisting>set stopped N</programlisting>
-
- <para>command to limit the amount of time that
- &man.ppp.8; waits for the peer to begin
- negotiations. Alternatively, the</para>
-
- <programlisting>set openmode active N</programlisting>
-
- <para>command (where <replaceable>N</replaceable> is the
- number of seconds to wait before starting negotiations) can be
- used. Check the manual page for details.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-lockups">
- <para>Why does &man.ppp.8; lock up shortly after connection?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Prior to version 2.2.5 of FreeBSD, it was possible that
- your link was disabled shortly after connection due to
- &man.ppp.8; mis-handling Predictor1
- compression negotiation. This would only happen if both sides
- tried to negotiate different Compression Control Protocols
- (CCP). This problem is now corrected, but if you are still
- running an old version of &man.ppp.8;
- the problem can be circumvented with the line</para>
-
- <programlisting>disable pred1</programlisting>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-shell-test-lockup">
- <para>Why does &man.ppp.8; lock up when I shell out to test it?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>When you execute the <command>shell</command> or
- <command>!</command> command, &man.ppp.8; executes a
- shell (or if you have passed any arguments,
- &man.ppp.8; will execute those arguments). Ppp will
- wait for the command to complete before continuing. If you
- attempt to use the PPP link while running the command, the link
- will appear to have frozen. This is because
- &man.ppp.8; is waiting for the command to
- complete.</para>
-
- <para>If you wish to execute commands like this, use the
- <command>!bg</command> command instead. This will execute
- the given command in the background, and &man.ppp.8; can continue to
- service the link.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-nullmodem">
- <para>Why does &man.ppp.8; over a null-modem cable never exit?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>There is no way for &man.ppp.8; to
- automatically determine that a direct connection has been
- dropped. This is due to the lines that are used in a
- null-modem serial cable. When using this sort of connection,
- LQR should always be enabled with the line</para>
-
- <programlisting>enable lqr</programlisting>
-
- <para>LQR is accepted by default if negotiated by the peer.</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Refer to the <link xlink:href="@@URL_RELPREFIX@@/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/userppp.html#userppp-dynamicip">PPP
+ and Dynamic IP addresses</link> section of the Handbook
+ for further details.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-auto-noreasondial">
- <para>Why does &man.ppp.8; dial for no reason in -auto mode?</para>
- </question><answer>
-
- <para>If &man.ppp.8; is dialing
- unexpectedly, you must determine the cause, and set up Dial
- filters (dfilters) to prevent such dialing.</para>
-
- <para>To determine the cause, use the following line:</para>
-
- <programlisting>set log +tcp/ip</programlisting>
-
- <para>This will log all traffic through the connection. The
- next time the line comes up unexpectedly, you will see the
- reason logged with a convenient timestamp next to it.</para>
-
- <para>You can now disable dialing under these circumstances.
- Usually, this sort of problem arises due to DNS lookups. To
- prevent DNS lookups from establishing a connection (this will
- <emphasis>not</emphasis> prevent
- &man.ppp.8; from passing the packets
- through an established connection), use the following:</para>
-
- <programlisting>set dfilter 1 deny udp src eq 53
-set dfilter 2 deny udp dst eq 53
-set dfilter 3 permit 0/0 0/0</programlisting>
-
- <para>This is not always suitable, as it will effectively break
- your demand-dial capabilities - most programs will need a DNS
- lookup before doing any other network related things.</para>
-
- <para>In the DNS case, you should try to determine what is
- actually trying to resolve a host name. A lot of the time,
- &man.sendmail.8; is the culprit. You should make sure that
- you tell sendmail not to do any DNS lookups in its
- configuration file. See the section on
- <link linkend="ispmail">Mail Configuration</link> for details
- on how to create your own configuration file and what should
- go into it. You may also want to add the following line to
- your <filename>.mc</filename> file:</para>
-
- <programlisting>define(`confDELIVERY_MODE', `d')dnl</programlisting>
+ <question xml:id="connection-threeminutedrop">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does my connection drop after about 3
+ minutes?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>This will make sendmail queue everything until the queue
- is run (usually, sendmail is invoked with
- <option>-bd -q30m</option>, telling it to run the queue every
- 30 minutes) or until a <command>sendmail -q</command> is done
- (perhaps from your ppp.linkup file).</para>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">The default PPP timeout is 3 minutes. This can be
+ adjusted with the following line:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">set timeout <replaceable>NNN</replaceable></programlisting>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">where <replaceable>NNN</replaceable> is the number of
+ seconds of inactivity before the connection is closed. If
+ <replaceable>NNN</replaceable> is zero, the connection is
+ never closed due to a timeout. It is possible to put this
+ command in <filename>ppp.conf</filename>, or to type it at
+ the prompt in interactive mode. It is also possible to
+ adjust it on the fly while the line is active by
+ connecting to <application>ppp</application>'s server
+ socket using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>telnet</refentrytitle><manvolnum>1</manvolnum></citerefentry> or <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pppctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. Refer to
+ the <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> man page for further details.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ccp-errors">
- <para>What do these CCP errors mean?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>I keep seeing the following errors in my log file:</para>
-
- <programlisting>CCP: CcpSendConfigReq
-CCP: Received Terminate Ack (1) state = Req-Sent (6)</programlisting>
-
- <para>This is because &man.ppp.8; is trying to negotiate Predictor1
- compression, and the peer does not want to negotiate any
- compression at all. The messages are harmless, but if you
- wish to remove them, you can disable Predictor1 compression
- locally too:</para>
+ <question xml:id="ppp-drop-heavy-load">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does my connection drop under heavy load?</para>
+ </question>
- <programlisting>disable pred1</programlisting>
- </answer>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If Link Quality Reporting (<acronym>LQR</acronym>) is
+ configured, it is possible that too many
+ <acronym>LQR</acronym> packets are lost between the FreeBSD
+ system and the peer. <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> deduces that the line
+ must therefore be bad, and disconnects.
+ <acronym>LQR</acronym> is disabled by default and can be
+ enabled with the following line:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">enable lqr</programlisting>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-lockup-ioerrors">
- <para>Why does &man.ppp.8; lock up during file transfers with IO
- errors?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Under FreeBSD 2.2.2 and before, there was a bug in the
- tun driver that prevents incoming packets of a size larger
- than the tun interface's MTU size. Receipt of a packet
- greater than the MTU size results in an IO error being logged
- via syslogd.</para>
+ <question xml:id="ppp-drop-random">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does my connection drop after a random amount of
+ time?</para>
+ </question>
- <para>The PPP specification says that an MRU of 1500 should
- <emphasis>always</emphasis> be accepted as a minimum,
- despite any LCP negotiations, therefore it is possible that
- should you decrease the MTU to less than 1500, your ISP will
- transmit packets of 1500 regardless, and you will tickle this
- non-feature - locking up your link.</para>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Sometimes, on a noisy phone line or even on a line
+ with call waiting enabled, the modem may hang up because
+ it incorrectly thinks that it lost carrier.</para>
- <para>The problem can be circumvented by never setting an MTU of
- less than 1500 under FreeBSD 2.2.2 or before.</para>
- </answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">There is a setting on most modems for determining how
+ tolerant it should be to temporary losses of carrier.
+ Refer to the modem manual for details.</para>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-connectionspeed">
- <para>Why does &man.ppp.8; not log my connection speed?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
-
- <para>In order to log all lines of your modem
- <quote>conversation</quote>, you must enable the
- following:</para>
-
- <programlisting>set log +connect</programlisting>
-
- <para>This will make &man.ppp.8; log
- everything up until the last requested <quote>expect</quote>
- string.</para>
-
- <para>If you wish to see your connect speed and are using PAP
- or CHAP (and therefore do not have anything to
- <quote>chat</quote> after the CONNECT in the dial script - no
- <literal>set login</literal> script), you must make sure that
- you instruct &man.ppp.8; to <quote>expect</quote> the whole CONNECT
- line, something like this:</para>
+ <question xml:id="ppp-hangs-random">
+ <para xml:lang="en">Why does my connection hang after a random amount of
+ time?</para>
+ </question>
- <programlisting>set dial "ABORT BUSY ABORT NO\\sCARRIER TIMEOUT 4 \
- \"\" ATZ OK-ATZ-OK ATDT\\T TIMEOUT 60 CONNECT \\c \\n"</programlisting>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">Many people experience hung connections with no
+ apparent explanation. The first thing to establish is
+ which side of the link is hung.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">When using an external modem, try
+ using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ping</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to see if the <acronym>TD</acronym>
+ light is flashing when data is transmitted. If it flashes
+ but the <acronym>RD</acronym> light does not, the
+ problem is with the remote end. If <acronym>TD</acronym>
+ does not flash, the problem is local. With an internal
+ modem, use the <literal>set
+ server</literal> command in
+ <filename>ppp.conf</filename>. When the hang occurs,
+ connect to <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> using <citerefentry><refentrytitle>pppctl</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry>. If the
+ network connection suddenly revives due to the activity on
+ the diagnostic socket, or if it will not
+ connect but the <literal>set socket</literal>
+ command succeeded at startup time, the problem is local.
+ If it can connect but things are still hung, enable local
+ logging with <literal>set log local async</literal>
+ and use <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ping</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> from another window or terminal to
+ make use of the link. The async logging will show the
+ data being transmitted and received on the link. If data
+ is going out and not coming back, the problem is
+ remote.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">Having established whether the problem is local or
+ remote, there are now two possibilities:</para>
- <para>Here, we get our CONNECT, send nothing, then expect a
- line-feed, forcing &man.ppp.8; to read
- the whole CONNECT response.</para>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the problem is remote, read on entry <xref linkend="ppp-remote-not-responding"/>.</para>
+ </listitem>
- </answer>
+ <listitem>
+ <para xml:lang="en">If the problem is local, read on entry <xref linkend="ppp-hung"/>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-ignores-backslash">
- <para>Why does &man.ppp.8; ignore the <literal>\</literal> character
- in my chat script?</para>
- </question><answer>
-
- <para>Ppp parses each line in your config files so that it can
- interpret strings such as
- <literal>set phone "123 456 789"</literal> correctly (and
- realize that the number is actually only
- <emphasis>one</emphasis> argument. In order to specify a
- <literal>&quot;</literal> character, you must escape it
- using a backslash (<literal>\</literal>).</para>
-
- <para>When the chat interpreter parses each argument, it
- re-interprets the argument in order to find any special
- escape sequences such as <literal>\P</literal> or
- <literal>\T</literal> (see the man page). As a result of this
- double-parsing, you must remember to use the correct number of
- escapes.</para>
-
- <para>If you wish to actually send a <literal>\</literal>
- character to (say) your modem, you would need something
- like:</para>
-
- <programlisting>set dial "\"\" ATZ OK-ATZ-OK AT\\\\X OK"</programlisting>
-
- <para>resulting in the following sequence:</para>
-
- <programlisting>ATZ
-OK
-AT\X
-OK</programlisting>
-
- <para>or</para>
-
- <programlisting>set phone 1234567
-set dial "\"\" ATZ OK ATDT\\T"</programlisting>
-
- <para>resulting in the following sequence:</para>
+ <question xml:id="ppp-remote-not-responding">
+ <para xml:lang="en">The remote end is not responding. What can I
+ do?</para>
+ </question>
- <programlisting>ATZ
-OK
-ATDT1234567</programlisting>
+ <answer>
+ <para xml:lang="en">There is very little that can be done about this.
+ Many ISPs will refuse to help users not running a
+ <trademark class="registered">Microsoft</trademark> OS. Add <literal>enable lqr</literal> to
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>, allowing
+ <citerefentry><refentrytitle>ppp</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum></citerefentry> to detect the remote failure and hang up.
+ This detection is relatively slow and therefore not that
+ useful.</para>
+
+ <para xml:lang="en">First, try disabling all local compression by adding
+ the following to the configuration:</para>
+
+ <programlisting xml:lang="en">disable pred1 deflate deflate24 protocomp acfcomp shortseq vj
+deny pred1 deflate deflate24 protocomp acfcomp shortseq vj</programlisting>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-segfault-nocore">
- <para>Why does &man.ppp.8; get a seg-fault, but I see no
- <filename>ppp.core</filename> file?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Ppp (or any other program for that matter) should never
- dump core. Because &man.ppp.8; runs with an effective user id of 0,
- the operating system will not write &man.ppp.8;'s core image to disk
- before terminating it. If, however &man.ppp.8;
- is actually terminating due to a
- segmentation violation or some other signal that normally
- causes core to be dumped, <emphasis>and</emphasis>
- you are sure you are using the latest version (see the start of
- this section), then you should do the following:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>tar xfz ppp-*.src.tar.gz</userinput>
-&prompt.user; <userinput>cd ppp*/ppp</userinput>
-&prompt.user; <userinput>echo STRIP= &gt;&gt;Makefile</userinput>
-&prompt.user; <userinput>echo CFLAGS+=-g &gt;&gt;Makefile</userinput>
-&prompt.user; <userinput>make clean all</userinput>
-&prompt.user; <userinput>su</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>make install</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>chmod 555 /usr/sbin/ppp</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>You will now have a debuggable version of &man.ppp.8; installed.
- You will have to be <username>root</username> to run &man.ppp.8; as all of its privileges
- have been revoked. When you start &man.ppp.8;, take a careful note
- of what your current directory was at the time.</para>
-
- <para>Now, if and when &man.ppp.8; receives the segmentation violation,
- it will dump a core file called <filename>ppp.core</filename>. You should then do
- the following:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>su</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>gdb /usr/sbin/ppp ppp.core</userinput>
-<prompt>(gdb)</prompt> <userinput>bt</userinput>
-.....
-<prompt>(gdb)</prompt> <userinput>f 0</userinput>
-....
-<prompt>(gdb)</prompt> <userinput>i args</userinput>
-....
-<prompt>(gdb)</prompt> <userinput>l</userinput>
-.....</screen>
-
- <para>All of this information should be given alongside your
- question, making it possible to diagnose the problem.</para>
-
- <para>If you are familiar with gdb, you may wish to find out some
- other bits and pieces such as what actually caused the dump and
- the addresses &amp; values of the relevant variables.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-autodialprocess-noconnect">
- <para>Why does the process that forces a dial in auto mode never
- connect?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>This was a known problem with
- &man.ppp.8; set up to negotiate a
- dynamic local IP number with the peer in auto mode. It is
- fixed in the latest version - search the man page for
- <literal>iface</literal>.</para>
-
- <para>The problem was that when that initial program calls
- &man.connect.2;, the IP number of the tun interface is assigned
- to the socket endpoint. The kernel creates the first outgoing
- packet and writes it to the tun device.
- &man.ppp.8; then reads the packet and
- establishes a connection. If, as a result of
- &man.ppp.8;'s dynamic IP assignment, the
- interface address is changed, the original socket endpoint will
- be invalid. Any subsequent packets sent to the peer will
- usually be dropped. Even if they are not, any responses will
- not route back to the originating machine as the IP number is
- no longer owned by that machine.</para>
-
- <para>There are several theoretical ways to approach this
- problem. It would be nicest if the peer would re-assign the
- same IP number if possible <literal>:-)</literal>
- The current version of &man.ppp.8; does
- this, but most other implementations do not.</para>
-
- <para>The easiest method from our side would be to never change
- the tun interface IP number, but instead to change all outgoing
- packets so that the source IP number is changed from the
- interface IP to the negotiated IP on the fly. This is
- essentially what the <literal>iface-alias</literal> option in
- the latest version of &man.ppp.8; is
- doing (with the help of
- &man.libalias.3; and &man.ppp.8;'s <option>-nat</option> switch) -
- it is maintaining all previous interface addresses and NATing
- them to the last negotiated address.</para>
-
- <para>Another alternative (and probably the most reliable) would
- be to implement a system call that changes all bound sockets
- from one IP to another. &man.ppp.8; would
- use this call to modify the sockets of all existing programs
- when a new IP number is negotiated. The same system call could
- be used by dhcp clients when they are forced to re-bind() their
- sockets.</para>
-
- <para>Yet another possibility is to allow an interface to be
- brought up without an IP number. Outgoing packets would be
- given an IP number of 255.255.255.255 up until the first
- SIOCAIFADDR ioctl is done. This would result in fully binding
- the socket. It would be up to &man.ppp.8;
- to change the source IP number, but only if it is set to
- 255.255.255.255, and only the IP number and IP checksum would
- need to change. This, however is a bit of a hack as the kernel
- would be sending bad packets to an improperly configured
- interface, on the assumption that some other mechanism is
- capable of fixing things retrospectively.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="ppp-nat-games">
- <para>Why do most games not work with the -nat switch?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>The reason games and the like do not work when libalias
- is in use is that the machine on the outside will try to open a
- connection or send (unsolicited) UDP packets to the machine on
- the inside. The NAT software does not know that it should send
- these packets to the interior machine.</para>
-
- <para>To make things work, make sure that the only thing
- running is the software that you are having problems with, then
- either run tcpdump on the tun interface of the gateway or
- enable &man.ppp.8; tcp/ip logging (<literal>set log +tcp/ip</literal>)
- on the gateway.</para>
-
- <para>When you start the offending software, you should see
- packets passing through the gateway machine. When something
- comes back from the outside, it will be dropped (that is the
- problem). Note the port number of these packets then shut down
- the offending software. Do this a few times to see if the port
- numbers are consistent. If they are, then the following line in
- the relevant section of <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename> will make the
- software functional:</para>
-
- <programlisting>nat port <replaceable>proto</replaceable> <replaceable>internalmachine</replaceable>:<replaceable>port</replaceable> <replaceable>port</replaceable></programlisting>
-
- <para>where <replaceable>proto</replaceable> is either
- <literal>tcp</literal> or <literal>udp</literal>,
- <replaceable>internalmachine</replaceable> is the machine that
- you want the packets to be sent to and
- <replaceable>port</replaceable> is the destination port number
- of the packets.</para>
-
- <para>You will not be able to use the software on other machines
- without changing the above command, and running the software
- on two internal machines at the same time is out of the question
- - after all, the outside world is seeing your entire internal
- network as being just a single machine.</para>
-
- <para>If the port numbers are not consistent, there are three
- more options:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Submit support in
- libalias. Examples of <quote>special cases</quote> can be found
- in <filename>/usr/src/lib/libalias/alias_*.c</filename>
- (<filename>alias_ftp.c</filename> is a good prototype). This
- usually involves reading certain recognised outgoing packets,
- identifying the instruction that tells the outside machine to
- initiate a connection back to the internal machine on a
- specific (random) port and setting up a <quote>route</quote> in
- the alias table so that the subsequent packets know where to
- go.</para>
-
- <para>This is the most difficult solution, but it is the best
- and will make the software work with multiple machines.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Use a proxy. The
- application may support socks5 for example, or (as in the
- <quote>cvsup</quote> case) may have a <quote>passive</quote>
- option that avoids ever requesting that the peer open
- connections back to the local machine.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Redirect everything to
- the internal machine using <literal>nat addr</literal>. This
- is the sledge-hammer approach.</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="useful-port-numbers">
- <para>Has anybody made a list of useful port numbers?</para>
- </question><answer>
-
- <para>Not yet, but this is intended to grow into such a list
- (if any interest is shown). In each example,
- <replaceable>internal</replaceable> should be replaced with
- the IP number of the machine playing the game.</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><application>Asheron's Call</application></para>
-
- <para><literal>nat port udp
- <replaceable>internal</replaceable>
- :65000 65000</literal></para>
-
- <para>Manually change the port number within the game to
- 65000. If you have got a number of machines that you wish
- to play on assign a unique port number for each (i.e.
- 65001, 65002, etc) and add a <literal>nat port</literal>
- line for each one.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><application>Half Life</application></para>
-
- <para><literal>nat port udp
- <replaceable>internal</replaceable>:27005
- 27015</literal></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><application>PCAnywhere 8.0</application></para>
-
- <para><literal>nat port udp
- <replaceable>internal</replaceable>:5632
- 5632</literal></para>
-
- <para><literal>nat port tcp
- <replaceable>internal</replaceable>:5631
- 5631</literal></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><application>Quake</application></para>
-
- <para><literal>nat port udp
- <replaceable>internal</replaceable>:6112
- 6112</literal></para>
-
- <para>Alternatively, you may want to take a look at <ulink
- url="http://www.battle.net/support/proxy/">
- www.battle.net</ulink> for Quake proxy support.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><application>Quake 2</application></para>
-
- <para><literal>nat port udp
- <replaceable>internal</replaceable>:27901
- 27910</literal></para>
- <para><literal>nat port udp
- <replaceable>internal</replaceable>:60021
- 60021</literal></para>
- <para><literal>nat port udp
- <replaceable>internal</replaceable>:60040
- 60040</literal></para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><application>Red Alert</application></para>
-
- <para><literal>nat port udp
- <replaceable>internal</replaceable>:8675
- 8675</literal></para>
-
- <para><literal>nat port udp
- <replaceable>internal</replaceable>:5009
- 5009</literal></para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question id="fcs-errors">
- <para>What are FCS errors?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>FCS stands for <literal>F</literal>rame
- <literal>C</literal>heck
- <literal>S</literal>equence. Each PPP packet
- has a checksum attached to ensure that the data being
- received is the data being sent. If the FCS of an incoming
- packet is incorrect, the packet is dropped and the HDLC FCS
- count is increased. The HDLC error values can be displayed
- using the <literal>show hdlc</literal> command.</para>
-
- <para>If your link is bad (or if your serial driver is dropping
- packets), you will see the occasional FCS error. This is not
- usually worth worrying about although it does slow down the