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-rw-r--r--website/data/security/errata.toml16
-rw-r--r--website/data/zh-tw/news/news.toml86
-rw-r--r--website/static/gifs/gnome/gnome41-1.pngbin0 -> 384040 bytes
-rw-r--r--website/static/gifs/gnome/gnome42-0.pngbin0 -> 671011 bytes
-rw-r--r--website/static/security/advisories/FreeBSD-EN-22:16.kqueue.asc127
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424 files changed, 304826 insertions, 5686 deletions
diff --git a/.cirrus.yml b/.cirrus.yml
index e828d58f33..a924297df0 100644
--- a/.cirrus.yml
+++ b/.cirrus.yml
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
freebsd_instance:
- image_family: freebsd-13-0-snap
+ image_family: freebsd-13-1-snap
env:
CIRRUS_CLONE_DEPTH: 1
diff --git a/documentation/config/_default/config.toml b/documentation/config/_default/config.toml
index 087c0f5576..770088c989 100644
--- a/documentation/config/_default/config.toml
+++ b/documentation/config/_default/config.toml
@@ -37,6 +37,7 @@ enableGitInfo = true
env-beastie = true
isOnline = true
skip-front-matter = true
+ sectanchors = true
[outputs]
home = [ "HTML" ]
diff --git a/documentation/content/el/books/faq/_index.adoc b/documentation/content/el/books/faq/_index.adoc
index eedac8c88f..bd000063ee 100644
--- a/documentation/content/el/books/faq/_index.adoc
+++ b/documentation/content/el/books/faq/_index.adoc
@@ -1660,7 +1660,7 @@ First, always make sure that you have a completely up-to-date Ports Collection.
However, if you are up-to-date, perhaps you are seeing another problem. `make index` has a known bug in dealing with incomplete copies of the Ports Collection. It assumes that you have a local copy of every single port that every other port that you have a local copy of depends on. To explain, if you have a copy of [.filename]#foo/bar# on your disk, and [.filename]#foo/bar# depends on [.filename]#baz/quux#, then you must also have a copy of [.filename]#baz/quux# on your disk, and the ports [.filename]#baz/quux# depends on, and so on. Otherwise, `make index` has insufficient information to create its dependency tree.
-This is particularly a problem for FreeBSD users who utilize man:cvsup[1] to track the Ports Collection but choose not to install certain categories by specifying them in [.filename]#refuse#. In theory, one should be able to refuse categories, but in practice there are too many ports that depend on ports in other categories. Until someone comes up with a solution for this problem, the general rule is is that if you want to build [.filename]#INDEX#, you must have a complete copy of the Ports Collection.
+This is particularly a problem for FreeBSD users who utilize man:cvsup[1] to track the Ports Collection but choose not to install certain categories by specifying them in [.filename]#refuse#. In theory, one should be able to refuse categories, but in practice there are too many ports that depend on ports in other categories. Until someone comes up with a solution for this problem, the general rule is that if you want to build [.filename]#INDEX#, you must have a complete copy of the Ports Collection.
There are rare cases where [.filename]#INDEX# will not build due to odd cases involving `WITH__*_` or `WITHOUT__*_` variables being set in [.filename]#make.conf#. If you suspect that this is the case, please try to make [.filename]#INDEX# with those Makevars turned off before reporting it to {freebsd-ports}.
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/articles/_index.po b/documentation/content/en/articles/_index.po
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..42a0aa133d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/documentation/content/en/articles/_index.po
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+# SOME DESCRIPTIVE TITLE
+# Copyright (C) YEAR The FreeBSD Project
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the FreeBSD Documentation package.
+# FIRST AUTHOR <EMAIL@ADDRESS>, YEAR.
+#
+#, fuzzy
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: FreeBSD Documentation VERSION\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2022-01-08 11:34-0300\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: YEAR-MO-DA HO:MI+ZONE\n"
+"Last-Translator: FULL NAME <EMAIL@ADDRESS>\n"
+"Language-Team: LANGUAGE <LL@li.org>\n"
+"Language: \n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+
+#. type: Title =
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/_index.adoc:1
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/_index.adoc:6
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Articles"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/_index.adoc:8
+msgid "{{< list-articles-directories >}}"
+msgstr ""
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.po b/documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.po
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..54a98693aa
--- /dev/null
+++ b/documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.po
@@ -0,0 +1,780 @@
+# SOME DESCRIPTIVE TITLE
+# Copyright (C) YEAR The FreeBSD Project
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the FreeBSD Documentation package.
+# FIRST AUTHOR <EMAIL@ADDRESS>, YEAR.
+#
+#, fuzzy
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: FreeBSD Documentation VERSION\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2022-02-01 09:21-0300\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: YEAR-MO-DA HO:MI+ZONE\n"
+"Last-Translator: FULL NAME <EMAIL@ADDRESS>\n"
+"Language-Team: LANGUAGE <LL@li.org>\n"
+"Language: \n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+
+#. type: Title =
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:1
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:11
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Why you should use a BSD style license for your Open Source Project"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:43
+msgid "'''"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:47
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Introduction"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:52
+msgid ""
+"This document makes a case for using a BSD style license for software and "
+"data; specifically it recommends using a BSD style license in place of the "
+"GPL. It can also be read as a BSD versus GPL Open Source License "
+"introduction and summary."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:54
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Very Brief Open Source History"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:60
+msgid ""
+"Long before the term \"Open Source\" was used, software was developed by "
+"loose associations of programmers and freely exchanged. Starting in the "
+"early 1950's, organizations such as http://www.share.org[SHARE] and http://"
+"www.decus.org[DECUS] developed much of the software that computer hardware "
+"companies bundled with their hardware offerings. At that time computer "
+"companies were in the hardware business; anything that reduced software cost "
+"and made more programs available made the hardware companies more "
+"competitive."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:67
+msgid ""
+"This model changed in the 1960's. In 1965 ADR developed the first licensed "
+"software product independent of a hardware company. ADR was competing "
+"against a free IBM package originally developed by IBM customers. ADR "
+"patented their software in 1968. To stop sharing of their program, they "
+"provided it under an equipment lease in which payment was spread over the "
+"lifetime of the product. ADR thus retained ownership and could control "
+"resale and reuse."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:70
+msgid ""
+"In 1969 the US Department of Justice charged IBM with destroying businesses "
+"by bundling free software with IBM hardware. As a result of this suit, IBM "
+"unbundled its software; that is, software became independent products "
+"separate from hardware."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:75
+msgid ""
+"In 1968 Informatics introduced the first commercial killer-app and rapidly "
+"established the concept of the software product, the software company, and "
+"very high rates of return. Informatics developed the perpetual license "
+"which is now standard throughout the computer industry, wherein ownership is "
+"never transferred to the customer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:77
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Unix from a BSD Licensing Perspective"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:83
+msgid ""
+"AT&T, who owned the original Unix implementation, was a publicly regulated "
+"monopoly tied up in anti-trust court; it was legally unable to sell a "
+"product into the software market. It was, however, able to provide it to "
+"academic institutions for the price of media."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:89
+msgid ""
+"Universities rapidly adopted Unix after an OS conference publicized its "
+"availability. It was extremely helpful that Unix ran on the PDP-11, a very "
+"affordable 16-bit computer, and was coded in a high-level language that was "
+"demonstrably good for systems programming. The DEC PDP-11 had, in effect, "
+"an open hardware interface designed to make it easy for customers to write "
+"their own OS, which was common. As DEC founder Ken Olsen famously "
+"proclaimed, \"software comes from heaven when you have good hardware\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:95
+msgid ""
+"Unix author Ken Thompson returned to his alma mater, University of "
+"California Berkeley (UCB), in 1975 and taught the kernel line-by-line. This "
+"ultimately resulted in an evolving system known as BSD (Berkeley Standard "
+"Distribution). UCB converted Unix to 32-bits, added virtual memory, and "
+"implemented the version of the TCP/IP stack upon which the Internet was "
+"essentially built. UCB made BSD available for the cost of media, under what "
+"became known as \"the BSD license\". A customer purchased Unix from AT&T "
+"and then ordered a BSD tape from UCB."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:99
+msgid ""
+"In the mid-1980s a government anti-trust case against AT&T ended with the "
+"break-up of AT&T. AT&T still owned Unix and was now able to sell it. AT&T "
+"embarked on an aggressive licensing effort and most commercial Unixes of the "
+"day became AT&T-derived."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:105
+msgid ""
+"In the early 1990's AT&T sued UCB over license violations related to BSD. "
+"UCB discovered that AT&T had incorporated, without acknowledgment or "
+"payment, many improvements due to BSD into AT&T's products, and a lengthy "
+"court case, primarily between AT&T and UCB, ensued. During this period some "
+"UCB programmers embarked on a project to rewrite any AT&T code associated "
+"with BSD. This project resulted in a system called BSD 4.4-lite (lite "
+"because it was not a complete system; it lacked 6 key AT&T files)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:109
+msgid ""
+"A lengthy series of articles published slightly later in Dr. Dobbs magazine "
+"described a BSD-derived 386 PC version of Unix, with BSD-licensed "
+"replacement files for the 6 missing 4.4 lite files. This system, named "
+"386BSD, was due to ex-UCB programmer William Jolitz. It became the original "
+"basis of all the PC BSDs in use today."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:112
+msgid ""
+"In the mid 1990s, Novell purchased AT&T's Unix rights and a (then secret) "
+"agreement was reached to terminate the lawsuit. UCB soon terminated its "
+"support for BSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:114
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "The Current State of FreeBSD and BSD Licenses"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:120
+msgid ""
+"The so-called http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.php[new BSD "
+"license] applied to FreeBSD within the last few years is effectively a "
+"statement that you can do anything with the program or its source, but you "
+"do not have any warranty and none of the authors has any liability "
+"(basically, you cannot sue anybody). This new BSD license is intended to "
+"encourage product commercialization. Any BSD code can be sold or included "
+"in proprietary products without any restrictions on the availability of your "
+"code or your future behavior."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:123
+msgid ""
+"Do not confuse the new BSD license with \"public domain\". While an item in "
+"the public domain is also free for all to use, it has no owner."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:125
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "The origins of the GPL"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:129
+msgid ""
+"While the future of Unix had been so muddled in the late 1980s and early "
+"1990s, the GPL, another development with important licensing considerations, "
+"reached fruition."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:138
+msgid ""
+"Richard Stallman, the developer of Emacs, was a member of the staff at MIT "
+"when his lab switched from home-grown to proprietary systems. Stallman "
+"became upset when he found that he could not legally add minor improvements "
+"to the system. (Many of Stallman's co-workers had left to form two "
+"companies based on software developed at MIT and licensed by MIT; there "
+"appears to have been disagreement over access to the source code for this "
+"software). Stallman devised an alternative to the commercial software "
+"license and called it the GPL, or \"GNU Public License\". He also started a "
+"non-profit foundation, the http://www.fsf.org[Free Software Foundation] "
+"(FSF), which intended to develop an entire operating system, including all "
+"associated software, that would not be subject to proprietary licensing. "
+"This system was called GNU, for \"GNU is Not Unix\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:143
+msgid ""
+"The GPL was designed to be the antithesis of the standard proprietary "
+"license. To this end, any modifications that were made to a GPL program "
+"were required to be given back to the GPL community (by requiring that the "
+"source of the program be available to the user) and any program that used or "
+"linked to GPL code was required to be under the GPL. The GPL was intended "
+"to keep software from becoming proprietary. As the last paragraph of the "
+"GPL states:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:145
+msgid ""
+"\"This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program "
+"into proprietary programs.\"<<one>>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:147
+msgid ""
+"The http://www.opensource.org/licenses/gpl-license.php[GPL] is a complex "
+"license so here are some rules of thumb when using the GPL:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:149
+msgid ""
+"you can charge as much as you want for distributing, supporting, or "
+"documenting the software, but you cannot sell the software itself."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:150
+msgid ""
+"the rule-of-thumb states that if GPL source is required for a program to "
+"compile, the program must be under the GPL. Linking statically to a GPL "
+"library requires a program to be under the GPL."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:151
+msgid ""
+"the GPL requires that any patents associated with GPLed software must be "
+"licensed for everyone's free use."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:152
+msgid ""
+"simply aggregating software together, as when multiple programs are put on "
+"one disk, does not count as including GPLed programs in non-GPLed programs."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:153
+msgid ""
+"output of a program does not count as a derivative work. This enables the "
+"gcc compiler to be used in commercial environments without legal problems."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:154
+msgid ""
+"since the Linux kernel is under the GPL, any code statically linked with the "
+"Linux kernel must be GPLed. This requirement can be circumvented by "
+"dynamically linking loadable kernel modules. This permits companies to "
+"distribute binary drivers, but often has the disadvantage that they will "
+"only work for particular versions of the Linux kernel."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:157
+msgid ""
+"Due in part to its complexity, in many parts of the world today the "
+"legalities of the GPL are being ignored in regard to Linux and related "
+"software. The long-term ramifications of this are unclear."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:159
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "The origins of Linux and the LGPL"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:164
+msgid ""
+"While the commercial Unix wars raged, the Linux kernel was developed as a PC "
+"Unix clone. Linus Torvalds credits the existence of the GNU C compiler and "
+"the associated GNU tools for the existence of Linux. He put the Linux "
+"kernel under the GPL."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:173
+msgid ""
+"Remember that the GPL requires anything that statically links to any code "
+"under the GPL also be placed under the GPL. The source for this code must "
+"thus be made available to the user of the program. Dynamic linking, "
+"however, is not considered a violation of the GPL. Pressure to put "
+"proprietary applications on Linux became overwhelming. Such applications "
+"often must link with system libraries. This resulted in a modified version "
+"of the GPL called the http://www.opensource.org/licenses/lgpl-license."
+"php[LGPL] (\"Library\", since renamed to \"Lesser\", GPL). The LGPL allows "
+"proprietary code to be linked to the GNU C library, glibc. You do not have "
+"to release the source code which has been dynamically linked to an LGPLed "
+"library."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:177
+msgid ""
+"If you statically link an application with glibc, such as is often required "
+"in embedded systems, you cannot keep your application proprietary, that is, "
+"the source must be released. Both the GPL and LGPL require any "
+"modifications to the code directly under the license to be released."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:179
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Open Source licenses and the Orphaning Problem"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:184
+msgid ""
+"One of the serious problems associated with proprietary software is known as "
+"\"orphaning\". This occurs when a single business failure or change in a "
+"product strategy causes a huge pyramid of dependent systems and companies to "
+"fail for reasons beyond their control. Decades of experience have shown "
+"that the momentary size or success of a software supplier is no guarantee "
+"that their software will remain available, as current market conditions and "
+"strategies can change rapidly."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:186
+msgid ""
+"The GPL attempts to prevent orphaning by severing the link to proprietary "
+"intellectual property."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:191
+msgid ""
+"A BSD license gives a small company the equivalent of software-in-escrow "
+"without any legal complications or costs. If a BSD-licensed program becomes "
+"orphaned, a company can simply take over, in a proprietary manner, the "
+"program on which they are dependent. An even better situation occurs when a "
+"BSD code-base is maintained by a small informal consortium, since the "
+"development process is not dependent on the survival of a single company or "
+"product line. The survivability of the development team when they are "
+"mentally in the zone is much more important than simple physical "
+"availability of the source code."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:193
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "What a license cannot do"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:197
+msgid ""
+"No license can guarantee future software availability. Although a copyright "
+"holder can traditionally change the terms of a copyright at anytime, the "
+"presumption in the BSD community is that such an attempt simply causes the "
+"source to fork."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:203
+msgid ""
+"The GPL explicitly disallows revoking the license. It has occurred, "
+"however, that a company (Mattel) purchased a GPL copyright (cphack), revoked "
+"the entire copyright, went to court, and prevailed <<two>>. That is, they "
+"legally revoked the entire distribution and all derivative works based on "
+"the copyright. Whether this could happen with a larger and more dispersed "
+"distribution is an open question; there is also some confusion regarding "
+"whether the software was really under the GPL."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:208
+msgid ""
+"In another example, Red Hat purchased Cygnus, an engineering company that "
+"had taken over development of the FSF compiler tools. Cygnus was able to do "
+"so because they had developed a business model in which they sold support "
+"for GNU software. This enabled them to employ some 50 engineers and drive "
+"the direction of the programs by contributing the preponderance of "
+"modifications. As Donald Rosenberg states \"projects using licenses like "
+"the GPL...live under constant threat of having someone take over the project "
+"by producing a better version of the code and doing it faster than the "
+"original owners.\" <<three>>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:210
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "GPL Advantages and Disadvantages"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:214
+msgid ""
+"A common reason to use the GPL is when modifying or extending the gcc "
+"compiler. This is particularly apt when working with one-off specialty CPUs "
+"in environments where all software costs are likely to be considered "
+"overhead, with minimal expectations that others will use the resulting "
+"compiler."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:217
+msgid ""
+"The GPL is also attractive to small companies selling CDs in an environment "
+"where \"buy-low, sell-high\" may still give the end-user a very inexpensive "
+"product. It is also attractive to companies that expect to survive by "
+"providing various forms of technical support, including documentation, for "
+"the GPLed intellectual property world."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:220
+msgid ""
+"A less publicized and unintended use of the GPL is that it is very favorable "
+"to large companies that want to undercut software companies. In other "
+"words, the GPL is well suited for use as a marketing weapon, potentially "
+"reducing overall economic benefit and contributing to monopolistic behavior."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:223
+msgid ""
+"The GPL can present a real problem for those wishing to commercialize and "
+"profit from software. For example, the GPL adds to the difficulty a "
+"graduate student will have in directly forming a company to commercialize "
+"his research results, or the difficulty a student will have in joining a "
+"company on the assumption that a promising research project will be "
+"commercialized."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:228
+msgid ""
+"For those who must work with statically-linked implementations of multiple "
+"software standards, the GPL is often a poor license, because it precludes "
+"using proprietary implementations of the standards. The GPL thus minimizes "
+"the number of programs that can be built using a GPLed standard. The GPL "
+"was intended to not provide a mechanism to develop a standard on which one "
+"engineers proprietary products. (This does not apply to Linux applications "
+"because they do not statically link, rather they use a trap-based API.)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:232
+msgid ""
+"The GPL attempts to make programmers contribute to an evolving suite of "
+"programs, then to compete in the distribution and support of this suite. "
+"This situation is unrealistic for many required core system standards, which "
+"may be applied in widely varying environments which require commercial "
+"customization or integration with legacy standards under existing (non-GPL) "
+"licenses. Real-time systems are often statically linked, so the GPL and "
+"LGPL are definitely considered potential problems by many embedded systems "
+"companies."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:235
+msgid ""
+"The GPL is an attempt to keep efforts, regardless of demand, at the research "
+"and development stages. This maximizes the benefits to researchers and "
+"developers, at an unknown cost to those who would benefit from wider "
+"distribution."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:239
+msgid ""
+"The GPL was designed to keep research results from transitioning to "
+"proprietary products. This step is often assumed to be the last step in the "
+"traditional technology transfer pipeline and it is usually difficult enough "
+"under the best of circumstances; the GPL was intended to make it impossible."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:241
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "BSD Advantages"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:244
+msgid ""
+"A BSD style license is a good choice for long duration research or other "
+"projects that need a development environment that:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:246
+msgid "has near zero cost"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:247
+msgid "will evolve over a long period of time"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:248
+msgid ""
+"permits anyone to retain the option of commercializing final results with "
+"minimal legal issues."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:250
+msgid ""
+"This final consideration may often be the dominant one, as it was when the "
+"Apache project decided upon its license:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:254
+msgid ""
+"\"This type of license is ideal for promoting the use of a reference body of "
+"code that implements a protocol for common service. This is another reason "
+"why we choose it for the Apache group - many of us wanted to see HTTP "
+"survive and become a true multiparty standard, and would not have minded in "
+"the slightest if Microsoft or Netscape choose to incorporate our HTTP engine "
+"or any other component of our code into their products, if it helped further "
+"the goal of keeping HTTP common... All this means that, strategically "
+"speaking, the project needs to maintain sufficient momentum, and that "
+"participants realize greater value by contributing their code to the "
+"project, even code that would have had value if kept proprietary.\""
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:258
+msgid ""
+"Developers tend to find the BSD license attractive as it keeps legal issues "
+"out of the way and lets them do whatever they want with the code. In "
+"contrast, those who expect primarily to use a system rather than program it, "
+"or expect others to evolve the code, or who do not expect to make a living "
+"from their work associated with the system (such as government employees), "
+"find the GPL attractive, because it forces code developed by others to be "
+"given to them and keeps their employer from retaining copyright and thus "
+"potentially \"burying\" or orphaning the software. If you want to force "
+"your competitors to help you, the GPL is attractive."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:265
+msgid ""
+"A BSD license is not simply a gift. The question \"why should we help our "
+"competitors or let them steal our work?\" comes up often in relation to a "
+"BSD license. Under a BSD license, if one company came to dominate a product "
+"niche that others considered strategic, the other companies can, with "
+"minimal effort, form a mini-consortium aimed at reestablishing parity by "
+"contributing to a competitive BSD variant that increases market competition "
+"and fairness. This permits each company to believe that it will be able to "
+"profit from some advantage it can provide, while also contributing to "
+"economic flexibility and efficiency. The more rapidly and easily the "
+"cooperating members can do this, the more successful they will be. A BSD "
+"license is essentially a minimally complicated license that enables such "
+"behavior."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:268
+msgid ""
+"A key effect of the GPL, making a complete and competitive Open Source "
+"system widely available at cost of media, is a reasonable goal. A BSD style "
+"license, in conjunction with ad-hoc-consortiums of individuals, can achieve "
+"this goal without destroying the economic assumptions built around the "
+"deployment-end of the technology transfer pipeline."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:270
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Specific Recommendations for using a BSD license"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:275
+msgid ""
+"The BSD license is preferable for transferring research results in a way "
+"that will widely be deployed and most benefit an economy. As such, research "
+"funding agencies, such as the NSF, ONR and DARPA, should encourage in the "
+"earliest phases of funded research projects, the adoption of BSD style "
+"licenses for software, data, results, and open hardware. They should also "
+"encourage formation of standards based around implemented Open Source "
+"systems and ongoing Open Source projects."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:277
+msgid ""
+"Government policy should minimize the costs and difficulties in moving from "
+"research to deployment. When possible, grants should require results to be "
+"available under a commercialization friendly BSD style license."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:278
+msgid ""
+"In many cases, the long-term results of a BSD style license more accurately "
+"reflect the goals proclaimed in the research charter of universities than "
+"what occurs when results are copyrighted or patented and subject to "
+"proprietary university licensing. Anecdotal evidence exists that "
+"universities are financially better rewarded in the long run by releasing "
+"research results and then appealing to donations from commercially "
+"successful alumni."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:279
+msgid ""
+"Companies have long recognized that the creation of de facto standards is a "
+"key marketing technique. The BSD license serves this role well, if a company "
+"really has a unique advantage in evolving the system. The license is legally "
+"attractive to the widest audience while the company's expertise ensures "
+"their control. There are times when the GPL may be the appropriate vehicle "
+"for an attempt to create such a standard, especially when attempting to "
+"undermine or co-opt others. The GPL, however, penalizes the evolution of "
+"that standard, because it promotes a suite rather than a commercially "
+"applicable standard. Use of such a suite constantly raises commercialization "
+"and legal issues. It may not be possible to mix standards when some are "
+"under the GPL and others are not. A true technical standard should not "
+"mandate exclusion of other standards for non-technical reasons."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:280
+msgid ""
+"Companies interested in promoting an evolving standard, which can become the "
+"core of other companies' commercial products, should be wary of the GPL. "
+"Regardless of the license used, the resulting software will usually devolve "
+"to whoever actually makes the majority of the engineering changes and most "
+"understands the state of the system. The GPL simply adds more legal friction "
+"to the result."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:281
+msgid ""
+"Large companies, in which Open Source code is developed, should be aware "
+"that programmers appreciate Open Source because it leaves the software "
+"available to the employee when they change employers. Some companies "
+"encourage this behavior as an employment perk, especially when the software "
+"involved is not directly strategic. It is, in effect, a front-loaded "
+"retirement benefit with potential lost opportunity costs but no direct "
+"costs. Encouraging employees to work for peer acclaim outside the company is "
+"a cheap portable benefit a company can sometimes provide with near zero "
+"downside."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:282
+msgid ""
+"Small companies with software projects vulnerable to orphaning should "
+"attempt to use the BSD license when possible. Companies of all sizes should "
+"consider forming such Open Source projects when it is to their mutual "
+"advantage to maintain the minimal legal and organization overheads "
+"associated with a true BSD-style Open Source project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:283
+msgid ""
+"Non-profits should participate in Open Source projects when possible. To "
+"minimize software engineering problems, such as mixing code under different "
+"licenses, BSD-style licenses should be encouraged. Being leery of the GPL "
+"should particularly be the case with non-profits that interact with the "
+"developing world. In some locales where application of law becomes a costly "
+"exercise, the simplicity of the new BSD license, as compared to the GPL, may "
+"be of considerable advantage."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:285
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Conclusion"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:290
+msgid ""
+"In contrast to the GPL, which is designed to prevent the proprietary "
+"commercialization of Open Source code, the BSD license places minimal "
+"restrictions on future behavior. This allows BSD code to remain Open Source "
+"or become integrated into commercial solutions, as a project's or company's "
+"needs change. In other words, the BSD license does not become a legal time-"
+"bomb at any point in the development process."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:292
+msgid ""
+"In addition, since the BSD license does not come with the legal complexity "
+"of the GPL or LGPL licenses, it allows developers and companies to spend "
+"their time creating and promoting good code rather than worrying if that "
+"code violates licensing."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:295
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Bibliographical References"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:298
+msgid "[[[one,1]]] http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:300
+msgid ""
+"[[[two,2]]] http://archives.cnn.com/2000/TECH/computing/03/28/cyberpatrol."
+"mirrors/"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:302
+msgid ""
+"[[[three,3]]] Open Source: the Unauthorized White Papers, Donald K. "
+"Rosenberg, IDG Books, 2000. Quotes are from page 114, \"Effects of the GNU "
+"GPL\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:304
+msgid ""
+"[[[four,4]]] In the \"What License to Use?\" section of http://www.oreilly."
+"com/catalog/opensources/book/brian.html"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/bsdl-gpl/_index.adoc:305
+msgid ""
+"This whitepaper is a condensation of an original work available at http://"
+"alumni.cse.ucsc.edu/~brucem/open_source_license.htm"
+msgstr ""
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.po b/documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.po
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..f7405dcdc2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.po
@@ -0,0 +1,1102 @@
+# SOME DESCRIPTIVE TITLE
+# Copyright (C) YEAR The FreeBSD Project
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the FreeBSD Documentation package.
+# FIRST AUTHOR <EMAIL@ADDRESS>, YEAR.
+#
+#, fuzzy
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: FreeBSD Documentation VERSION\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2022-02-01 09:21-0300\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: YEAR-MO-DA HO:MI+ZONE\n"
+"Last-Translator: FULL NAME <EMAIL@ADDRESS>\n"
+"Language-Team: LANGUAGE <LL@li.org>\n"
+"Language: \n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+
+#. type: YAML Front Matter: description
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:1
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "How FreeBSD can help you build a better product"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:1
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:13
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Building Products with FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:46
+msgid "Abstract"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:50
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD project is a worldwide, volunteer based, and collaborative "
+"project, which develops a portable and high-quality operating system. The "
+"FreeBSD project distributes the source code for its product under a liberal "
+"license, with the intention of encouraging the use of its code. "
+"Collaborating with the FreeBSD project can help organizations reduce their "
+"time to market, reduce engineering costs and improve their product quality."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:54
+msgid ""
+"This article examines the issues in using FreeBSD code in appliances and "
+"software products. It highlights the characteristics of FreeBSD that make "
+"it an excellent substrate for product development. The article concludes by "
+"suggesting a few \"best practices\" for organizations collaborating with the "
+"FreeBSD project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:56
+msgid "'''"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:60
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Introduction"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:66
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD today is well-known as a high-performance server operating system. "
+"It is deployed on millions of web servers and internet-facing hosts "
+"worldwide. FreeBSD code also forms an integral part of many products, "
+"ranging from appliances such as network routers, firewalls, and storage "
+"devices, to personal computers. Portions of FreeBSD have also been used in "
+"commercial shrink-wrapped software (see <<freebsd-intro>>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:68
+msgid ""
+"In this article we look at the link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/[FreeBSD "
+"project] as a software engineering resource-as a collection of building "
+"blocks and processes which you can use to build products."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:71
+msgid ""
+"While FreeBSD's source is distributed freely to the public, to fully enjoy "
+"the benefits of the project's work, organizations need to _collaborate_ with "
+"the project. In subsequent sections of this article we discuss effective "
+"means of collaboration with the project and the pitfalls that need to be "
+"avoided while doing so."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:74
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"*Caveat Reader.* The author believes that the characteristics of the FreeBSD Project listed in this article were substantially true at the time the article was conceived and written (2005).\n"
+"However, the reader should keep in mind that the practices and processes used by open-source communities can change over time, and that the information in this article should therefore be taken as indicative rather than normative.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:75
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Target Audience"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:78
+msgid ""
+"This document would be of interest to the following broad groups of people:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:80
+msgid ""
+"Decision makers in product companies looking at ways to improve their "
+"product quality, reduce their time to market and lower engineering costs in "
+"the long term."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:81
+msgid ""
+"Technology consultants looking for best-practices in leveraging \"open-source"
+"\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:82
+msgid ""
+"Industry observers interested in understanding the dynamics of open-source "
+"projects."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:83
+msgid ""
+"Software developers seeking to use FreeBSD and looking for ways to "
+"contribute back."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:84
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Article Goals"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:87
+msgid "After reading this article you should have:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:89
+msgid ""
+"An understanding of the goals of the FreeBSD Project and its organizational "
+"structure."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:90
+msgid ""
+"An understanding of its development model and release engineering processes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:91
+msgid ""
+"An understanding of how conventional corporate software development "
+"processes differ from that used in the FreeBSD project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:92
+msgid ""
+"Awareness of the communication channels used by the project and the level of "
+"transparency you can expect."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:93
+msgid ""
+"Awareness of optimal ways of working with the project-how best to reduce "
+"engineering costs, improve time to market, manage security vulnerabilities, "
+"and preserve future compatibility with your product as the FreeBSD project "
+"evolves."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:94
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Article Structure"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:97
+msgid "The rest of the article is structured as follows:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:99
+msgid ""
+"<<freebsd-intro>> introduces the FreeBSD project, explores its "
+"organizational structure, key technologies and release engineering processes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:100
+msgid ""
+"<<freebsd-collaboration>> describes ways to collaborate with the FreeBSD "
+"project. It examines common pitfalls encountered by corporates working with "
+"voluntary projects like FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:101
+msgid "<<conclusion>> concludes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:103
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "FreeBSD as a set of building blocks"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:106
+msgid "FreeBSD makes an excellent foundation on which to build products:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:108
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD source code is distributed under a liberal BSD license facilitating "
+"its adoption in commercial products <<Mon2005>> with minimum hassle."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:109
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD project has excellent engineering practices that can be "
+"leveraged."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:110
+msgid ""
+"The project offers exceptional transparency into its workings, allowing "
+"organizations using its code to plan effectively for the future."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:111
+msgid ""
+"The culture of the FreeBSD project, carried over from the Computer Science "
+"Research Group at The University of California, Berkeley <<McKu1999-1>>, "
+"fosters high-quality work. Some features in FreeBSD define the state of the "
+"art."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:114
+msgid ""
+"<<GoldGab2005>> examines the business reasons for using open-source in "
+"greater detail. For organizations, the benefits of using FreeBSD components "
+"in their products include a shorter time to market, lower development costs "
+"and lower development risks."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:115
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Building with FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:118
+msgid "Here are a few ways organizations have used FreeBSD:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:120
+msgid "As an upstream source for tested code for libraries and utilities."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:122
+msgid ""
+"By being \"downstream\" of the project, organizations leverage the new "
+"features, bug fixes and testing that the upstream code receives."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:123
+msgid ""
+"As an embedded OS (for example, for an OEM router and firewall device). In "
+"this model, organizations use a customized FreeBSD kernel and application "
+"program set along with a proprietary management layer for their device. OEMs "
+"benefit from new hardware support being added by the FreeBSD project "
+"upstream, and from the testing that the base system receives."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:125
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD ships with a self-hosting development environment that allows easy "
+"creation of such configurations."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:126
+msgid ""
+"As a Unix compatible environment for the management functions of high-end "
+"storage and networking devices, running on a separate processor \"blade\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:130
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD provides the tools for creating dedicated OS and application program "
+"images. Its implementation of a BSD unix API is mature and tested. FreeBSD "
+"can also provide a stable cross-development environment for the other "
+"components of the high-end device."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:131
+msgid ""
+"As a vehicle to get widespread testing and support from a worldwide team of "
+"developers for non-critical \"intellectual property\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:135
+msgid ""
+"In this model, organizations contribute useful infrastructural frameworks to "
+"the FreeBSD project (for example, see man:netgraph[3]). The widespread "
+"exposure that the code gets helps to quickly identify performance issues and "
+"bugs. The involvement of top-notch developers also leads to useful "
+"extensions to the infrastructure that the contributing organization also "
+"benefits from."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:136
+msgid ""
+"As a development environment supporting cross-development for embedded OSes "
+"like http://www.rtems.com/[RTEMS] and http://ecos.sourceware.org/[eCOS]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:138
+msgid ""
+"There are many full-fledged development environments in the {numports}-"
+"strong collection of applications ported and packaged with FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:139
+msgid ""
+"As a way to support a Unix-like API in an otherwise proprietary OS, "
+"increasing its palatability for application developers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:143
+msgid ""
+"Here parts of FreeBSD's kernel and application programs are \"ported\" to "
+"run alongside other tasks in the proprietary OS. The availability of a "
+"stable and well tested Unix(TM) API implementation can reduce the effort "
+"needed to port popular applications to the proprietary OS. As FreeBSD ships "
+"with high-quality documentation for its internals and has effective "
+"vulnerability management and release engineering processes, the costs of "
+"keeping up-to-date are kept low."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:145
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Technologies"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:149
+msgid ""
+"There are a large number of technologies supported by the FreeBSD project. "
+"A selection of these are listed below:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:151
+msgid ""
+"A complete system that can cross-host itself for link:https://www.FreeBSD."
+"org/platforms/[many architectures:]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:152
+msgid ""
+"A modular symmetric multiprocessing capable kernel, with loadable kernel "
+"modules and a flexible and easy to use configuration system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:153
+msgid ""
+"Support for emulation of Linux(TM) and SVR4 binaries at near machine speeds. "
+"Support for binary Windows(TM) (NDIS) network drivers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:154
+msgid ""
+"Libraries for many programming tasks: archivers, FTP and HTTP support, "
+"thread support, in addition to a full POSIX(TM) like programming environment."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:155
+msgid ""
+"Security features: Mandatory Access Control (man:mac[9]), jails (man:"
+"jail[2]), ACLs, and in-kernel cryptographic device support."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:156
+msgid ""
+"Networking features: firewall-ing, QoS management, high-performance TCP/IP "
+"networking with support for many extensions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:158
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD's in-kernel Netgraph (man:netgraph[4]) framework allows kernel "
+"networking modules to be connected together in flexible ways."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:159
+msgid ""
+"Support for storage technologies: Fibre Channel, SCSI, software and hardware "
+"RAID, ATA and SATA."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:161
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD supports a number of filesystems, and its native UFS2 filesystem "
+"supports soft updates, snapshots and very large filesystem sizes (16TB per "
+"filesystem) <<McKu1999>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:163
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD's in-kernel GEOM (man:geom[4]) framework allows kernel storage "
+"modules to be composed in flexible ways."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:164
+msgid ""
+"Over {numports} ported applications, both commercial and open-source, "
+"managed via the FreeBSD ports collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:165
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Organizational Structure"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:168
+msgid "FreeBSD's organizational structure is non-hierarchical."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:170
+msgid ""
+"There are essentially two kinds of contributors to FreeBSD, general users of "
+"FreeBSD, and developers with write access (known as _committers_ in the "
+"jargon) to the source base."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:174
+msgid ""
+"There are many thousands of contributors in the first group; the vast "
+"majority of contributions to FreeBSD come from individuals in this group. "
+"Commit rights (write access) to the repository are granted to individuals "
+"who contribute consistently to the project. Commit rights come with "
+"additional responsibilities, and new committers are assigned mentors to help "
+"them learn the ropes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:175
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "FreeBSD Organization"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Target for macro image
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:176
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "freebsd-organization.png"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:179
+msgid ""
+"Conflict resolution is performed by a nine member \"Core Team\" that is "
+"elected from the group of committers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:183
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD does not have \"corporate\" committers. Individual committers are "
+"required to take responsibility for the changes they introduce to the code. "
+"The extref:{committers-guide}[FreeBSD Committer's guide] <<ComGuide>> "
+"documents the rules and responsibilities for committers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:185
+msgid "FreeBSD's project model is examined in detail in <<Nik2005>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:186
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "FreeBSD Release Engineering Processes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:190
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD's release engineering processes play a major role in ensuring that "
+"its released versions are of a high quality. At any point of time, "
+"FreeBSD's volunteers support multiple code lines (<<fig-freebsd-branches, "
+"FreeBSD Release Branches>>):"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:192
+msgid ""
+"New features and disruptive code enters on the development branch, also "
+"known as the _-CURRENT_ branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:193
+msgid ""
+"_-STABLE_ branches are code lines that are branched from HEAD at regular "
+"intervals. Only tested code is allowed onto a -STABLE branch. New features "
+"are allowed once they have been tested and stabilized in the -CURRENT branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:194
+msgid ""
+"_-RELEASE_ branches are maintained by the FreeBSD security team. Only bug "
+"fixes for critical issues are permitted onto -RELEASE branches."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:196
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "FreeBSD Release Branches"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Target for macro image
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:197
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "freebsd-branches.png"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:200
+msgid ""
+"Code lines are kept alive for as long as there is user and developer "
+"interest in them."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:203
+msgid ""
+"Machine architectures are grouped into \"tiers\"; _Tier 1_ architectures are "
+"fully supported by the project's release engineering and security teams, "
+"_Tier 2_ architectures are supported on a best effort basis, and "
+"experimental architectures comprise _Tier 3_. The list of extref:"
+"{committers-guide}[supported architectures, archs] is part of the FreeBSD "
+"documentation collection."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:206
+msgid ""
+"The release engineering team publishes a link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/releng/"
+"[road map] for future releases of FreeBSD on the project's web site. The "
+"dates laid down in the road map are not deadlines; FreeBSD is released when "
+"its code and documentation are ready."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:208
+msgid "FreeBSD's release engineering processes are described in <<RelEngDoc>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:210
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Collaborating with FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:213
+msgid ""
+"Open-source projects like FreeBSD offer finished code of a very high quality."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:218
+msgid ""
+"While access to quality source code can reduce the cost of initial "
+"development, in the long-term the costs of managing change begin to "
+"dominate. As computing environments change over the years and new security "
+"vulnerabilities are discovered, your product too needs to change and adapt. "
+"Using open-source code is best viewed not as a one-off activity, but as an "
+"__ongoing process__. The best projects to collaborate with are the ones "
+"that are __live__; i.e., with an active community, clear goals and a "
+"transparent working style."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:220
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD has an active developer community around it. At the time of writing "
+"there are many thousands of contributors from every populated continent in "
+"the world and over 300 individuals with write access to the project's source "
+"repositories."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:221
+msgid "The goals of the FreeBSD project are <<Hub1994>>:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:223
+msgid ""
+"To develop a high-quality operating system for popular computer hardware, "
+"and,"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:224
+msgid "To make our work available to all under a liberal license."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:226
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD enjoys an open and transparent working culture. Nearly all "
+"discussion in the project happens by email, on link:https://lists.freebsd."
+"org/[public mailing lists] that are also archived for posterity. The "
+"project's policies are link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/internal/policies/"
+"[documented] and maintained under revision control. Participation in the "
+"project is open to all."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:228
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Understanding FreeBSD culture"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:231
+msgid ""
+"To be able to work effectively with the FreeBSD project, you need to "
+"understand the project's culture."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:234
+msgid ""
+"Volunteer driven projects operate under different rules than for-profit "
+"corporates. A common mistake that companies make when venturing into the "
+"open-source world is that of underplaying these differences."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:236
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "*Motivation.* Most contributions to FreeBSD are done voluntarily without monetary rewards entering the picture. The factors that motivate individuals are complex, ranging from altruism, to an interest in solving the kinds of problems that FreeBSD attempts to solve. In this environment, \"elegance is never optional\"<<Nor1993>>.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:238
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "*The Long Term View.* FreeBSD traces its roots back nearly twenty years to the work of the Computer Science Research Group at the University of California Berkeley.footnote:[FreeBSD's source repository contains a history of the project since its inception, and there are CDROMs available that contain earlier code from the CSRG.] A number of the original CSRG developers remain associated with the project.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:240
+msgid ""
+"The project values long-term perspectives <<Nor2001>>. A frequent acronym "
+"encountered in the project is DTRT, which stands for \"Do The Right Thing\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:243
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"*Development Processes.* Computer programs are tools for communication: at one level programmers communicate their intentions using a precise notation to a tool (a compiler) that translates their instructions to executable code.\n"
+"At another level, the same notation is used for communication of intent between two programmers.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:247
+msgid ""
+"Formal specifications and design documents are seldom used in the project. "
+"Clear and well-written code and well-written change logs (<<fig-change-log, "
+"A sample change log entry>>) are used in their place. FreeBSD development "
+"happens by \"rough consensus and running code\"<<Carp1996>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:253
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"r151864 | bde | 2005-10-29 09:34:50 -0700 (Sat, 29 Oct 2005) | 13 lines\n"
+"Changed paths:\n"
+" M /head/lib/msun/src/e_rem_pio2f.c\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:263
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Use double precision to simplify and optimize arg reduction for small\n"
+"and medium size args too: instead of conditionally subtracting a float\n"
+"17+24, 17+17+24 or 17+17+17+24 bit approximation to pi/2, always\n"
+"subtract a double 33+53 bit one. The float version is now closer to\n"
+"the double version than to old versions of itself -- it uses the same\n"
+"33+53 bit approximation as the simplest cases in the double version,\n"
+"and where the float version had to switch to the slow general case at\n"
+"|x| == 2^7*pi/2, it now switches at |x| == 2^19*pi/2 the same as the\n"
+"double version.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:266
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"This speeds up arg reduction by a factor of 2 for |x| between 3*pi/4 and\n"
+"2^7*pi/4, and by a factor of 7 for |x| between 2^7*pi/4 and 2^19*pi/4.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:267
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "A sample change log entry [[fig-change-log]]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:270
+msgid ""
+"Communication between programmers is enhanced by the use of a common coding "
+"standard man:style[9]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:273
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"*Communication Channels.* FreeBSD's contributors are spread across the world.\n"
+"Email (and to a lesser extent, IRC) is the preferred means of communication in the project.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:274
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Best Practices for collaborating with the FreeBSD project"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:277
+msgid ""
+"We now look at a few best practices for making the best use of FreeBSD in "
+"product development."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Labeled list
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:278
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Plan for the long term"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:281
+msgid ""
+"Setup processes that help in tracking the development of FreeBSD. For "
+"example:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:283
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "*Track FreeBSD source code.* The project makes it easy to mirror its SVN repository using extref:{committers-guide}[svnsync, svn-advanced-use-setting-up-svnsync]. Having the complete history of the source is useful when debugging complex problems and offers valuable insight into the intentions of the original developers. Use a capable source control system that allows you to easily merge changes between the upstream FreeBSD code base and your own in-house code.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:287
+msgid ""
+"<<fig-svn-blame, An annotated source listing generated using `svn blame`>> "
+"shows a portion of an annotated listing of the file referenced by the change "
+"log in <<fig-change-log, A sample change log entry>>. The ancestry of each "
+"line of the source is clearly visible. Annotated listings showing the "
+"history of every file that is part of FreeBSD are https://svnweb.freebsd.org/"
+"[available on the web]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:291
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "#REV #WHO #DATE #TEXT\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:305
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"176410 bde 2008-02-19 07:42:46 -0800 (Tue, 19 Feb 2008) #include <sys/cdefs.h>\n"
+"176410 bde 2008-02-19 07:42:46 -0800 (Tue, 19 Feb 2008) __FBSDID(\"$FreeBSD$\");\n"
+" 2116 jkh 1994-08-19 02:40:01 -0700 (Fri, 19 Aug 1994) \n"
+" 2116 jkh 1994-08-19 02:40:01 -0700 (Fri, 19 Aug 1994) /* __ieee754_rem_pio2f(x,y)\n"
+" 8870 rgrimes 1995-05-29 22:51:47 -0700 (Mon, 29 May 1995) *\n"
+"176552 bde 2008-02-25 05:33:20 -0800 (Mon, 25 Feb 2008) * return the remainder of x rem pi/2 in *y\n"
+"176552 bde 2008-02-25 05:33:20 -0800 (Mon, 25 Feb 2008) * use double precision for everything except passing x\n"
+"152535 bde 2005-11-16 18:20:04 -0800 (Wed, 16 Nov 2005) * use __kernel_rem_pio2() for large x\n"
+" 2116 jkh 1994-08-19 02:40:01 -0700 (Fri, 19 Aug 1994) */\n"
+" 2116 jkh 1994-08-19 02:40:01 -0700 (Fri, 19 Aug 1994) \n"
+"176465 bde 2008-02-22 07:55:14 -0800 (Fri, 22 Feb 2008) #include <float.h>\n"
+"176465 bde 2008-02-22 07:55:14 -0800 (Fri, 22 Feb 2008) \n"
+" 2116 jkh 1994-08-19 02:40:01 -0700 (Fri, 19 Aug 1994) #include \"math.h\"\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:306
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "An annotated source listing generated using `svn blame` [[fig-svn-blame]]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:309
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "*Use a gatekeeper.* Appoint a _gatekeeper_ to monitor FreeBSD development, to keep an eye out for changes that could potentially impact your products.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:312
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"*Report bugs upstream.* If you notice bug in the FreeBSD code that you are using, file a https://www.FreeBSD.org/support/bugreports/[bug report].\n"
+"This step helps ensure that you do not have to fix the bug the next time you take a code drop from upstream.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Labeled list
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:312
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Leverage FreeBSD's release engineering efforts"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:315
+msgid ""
+"Use code from a -STABLE development branch of FreeBSD. These development "
+"branches are formally supported by FreeBSD's release engineering and "
+"security teams and comprise of tested code."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Labeled list
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:316
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Donate code to reduce costs"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:320
+msgid ""
+"A major proportion of the costs associated with developing products is that "
+"of doing maintenance. By donating non-critical code to the project, you "
+"benefit by having your code see much wider exposure than it would otherwise "
+"get. This in turn leads to more bugs and security vulnerabilities being "
+"flushed out and performance anomalies being identified and fixed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Labeled list
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:321
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Get support effectively"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:326
+msgid ""
+"For products with tight deadlines, it is recommended that you hire or enter "
+"into a consulting agreement with a developer or firm with FreeBSD "
+"experience. The {freebsd-jobs} is a useful communication channel to find "
+"talent. The FreeBSD project maintains a link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/"
+"commercial/consult_bycat/[gallery of consultants and consulting firms] "
+"undertaking FreeBSD work. The http://www.bsdcertification.org/[BSD "
+"Certification Group] offers certification for all the major BSD derived OSes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:329
+msgid ""
+"For less critical needs, you can ask for help on the link:https://lists."
+"freebsd.org/[project mailing lists]. A useful guide to follow when asking "
+"for help is given in <<Ray2004>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Labeled list
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:329
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Publicize your involvement"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:331
+msgid ""
+"You are not required to publicize your use of FreeBSD, but doing so helps "
+"both your effort as well as that of the project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:335
+msgid ""
+"Letting the FreeBSD community know that your company uses FreeBSD helps "
+"improve your chances of attracting high quality talent. A large roster of "
+"support for FreeBSD also means more mind share for it among developers. "
+"This in turn yields a healthier foundation for your future."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Labeled list
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:335
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Support FreeBSD developers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:341
+msgid ""
+"Sometimes the most direct way to get a desired feature into FreeBSD is to "
+"support a developer who is already looking at a related problem. Help can "
+"range from hardware donations to direct financial assistance. In some "
+"countries, donations to the FreeBSD project enjoy tax benefits. The project "
+"has a dedicated link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/donations/[donations liaison] "
+"to assist donors. The project also maintains a web page where developers "
+"link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/donations/wantlist/[list their needs]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:343
+msgid ""
+"As a policy the FreeBSD project extref:{contributors}[acknowledges] all "
+"contributions received on its web site."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:345
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Conclusion"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:349
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD project's goals are to create and give away the source code for "
+"a high-quality operating system. By working with the FreeBSD project you "
+"can reduce development costs and improve your time to market in a number of "
+"product development scenarios."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:353
+msgid ""
+"We examined the characteristics of the FreeBSD project that make it an "
+"excellent choice for being part of an organization's product strategy. We "
+"then looked at the prevailing culture of the project and examined effective "
+"ways of interacting with its developers. The article concluded with a list "
+"of best-practices that could help organizations collaborating with the "
+"project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:357
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Bibliography"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:360
+msgid ""
+"[[Carp1996]] [Carp1996] http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1958.txt[The "
+"Architectural Principles of the Internet] B. Carpenter. The Internet "
+"Architecture Board.The Internet Architecture Board. Copyright(R) 1996."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:362
+msgid ""
+"[[ComGuide]] [ComGuide] extref:{committers-guide}[Committer's Guide] The "
+"FreeBSD Project. Copyright(R) 2005."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:364
+msgid ""
+"[[GoldGab2005]] [GoldGab2005] http://dreamsongs.com/IHE/IHE.html[Innovation "
+"Happens Elsewhere: Open Source as Business Strategy] Ron Goldman. Richard "
+"Gabriel. Copyright(R) 2005. Morgan-Kaufmann."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:366
+msgid ""
+"[[Hub1994]] [Hub1994] extref:{contributing}[Contributing to the FreeBSD "
+"Project] Jordan Hubbard. Copyright(R) 1994-2005. The FreeBSD Project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:368
+msgid ""
+"[[McKu1999]] [McKu1999] http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/"
+"proceedings/usenix99/mckusick.html[Soft Updates: A Technique for Eliminating "
+"Most Synchronous Writes in the Fast Filesystem] Kirk McKusick. Gregory "
+"Ganger. Copyright(R) 1999."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:370
+msgid ""
+"[[McKu1999-1]] [McKu1999-1] http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/opensources/book/"
+"kirkmck.html[Twenty Years of Berkeley Unix: From AT&T-Owned to Freely "
+"Redistributable] Marshall Kirk McKusick. http://www.oreilly.com/catalog/"
+"opensources/book/toc.html[Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source "
+"Revolution] O'Reilly Inc.. Copyright(R) 1993."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:372
+msgid ""
+"[[Mon2005]] [Mon2005] extref:{bsdl-gpl}[Why you should use a BSD style "
+"license for your Open Source Project] Bruce Montague. The FreeBSD Project. "
+"Copyright(R) 2005."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:374
+msgid ""
+"[[Nik2005]] [Nik2005] extref:{dev-model}[A project model for the FreeBSD "
+"Project] Niklas Saers. Copyright(R) 2005. The FreeBSD Project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:376
+msgid ""
+"[[Nor1993]] [Nor1993] http://www.norvig.com/luv-slides.ps[Tutorial on Good "
+"Lisp Programming Style] Peter Norvig. Kent Pitman. Copyright(R) 1993."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:378
+msgid ""
+"[[Nor2001]] [Nor2001] http://www.norvig.com/21-days.html[Teach Yourself "
+"Programming in Ten Years] Peter Norvig. Copyright(R) 2001."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:380
+msgid ""
+"[[Ray2004]] [Ray2004] http://www.catb.org/~esr/faqs/smart-questions.html[How "
+"to ask questions the smart way] Eric Steven Raymond. Copyright(R) 2004."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/building-products/_index.adoc:381
+msgid ""
+"[[RelEngDoc]] [RelEngDoc] extref:{releng}[FreeBSD Release Engineering] "
+"Murray Stokely. Copyright(R) 2001. The FreeBSD Project."
+msgstr ""
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc b/documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc
index 51e6de4d17..216afb4458 100644
--- a/documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc
+++ b/documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@ Useful links:
Cryptographic keys conforming to the OpenPGP (__Pretty Good Privacy__) standard are used by the FreeBSD project to authenticate committers.
Messages carrying important information like public SSH keys can be signed with the OpenPGP key to prove that they are really from the committer.
-See http://www.nostarch.com/pgp_ml.htm[PGP & GPG: Email for the Practical Paranoid by Michael Lucas] and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pretty_Good_Privacy[] for more information.
+See https://nostarch.com/releases/pgp_release.pdf[PGP & GPG: Email for the Practical Paranoid by Michael Lucas] and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pretty_Good_Privacy[] for more information.
[[pgpkeys-creating]]
=== Creating a Key
@@ -2475,7 +2475,7 @@ Those who have been given commit rights to the FreeBSD repositories must follow
[[commit-steps]]
[.procedure]
====
-*Procedure 1. Steps for New Committers*
+*Steps for New Committers*
. Add an Author Entity
+
@@ -2651,8 +2651,8 @@ freebsd yourusername:yourpassword
[example]
====
-To direct a local Exim instance that all mail from `_example_@FreeBSD.org`
- is forwarded to FreeBSD.org servers, add this to Exim [.filename]#configuration#:
+To direct a local Exim instance to forward all mail from `_example_@FreeBSD.org`
+ to FreeBSD.org servers, add this to Exim [.filename]#configuration#:
[.programlisting]
....
@@ -3889,7 +3889,7 @@ To do this, you will need to:
. If you want to be really thorough, now might be a good time to run man:portlint[1].
======
+
-. Check that the ``PKGORIGIN``s are correct. The ports system uses each port's `CATEGORIES` entry to create its `PKGORIGIN`, which is used to connect installed packages to the port directory they were built from. If this entry is wrong, common port tools like man:pkg_version[1] and man:portupgrade[1] fail.
+. Check that the ``PKGORIGIN``s are correct. The ports system uses each port's `CATEGORIES` entry to create its `PKGORIGIN`, which is used to connect installed packages to the port directory they were built from. If this entry is wrong, common port tools like man:pkg-version[8] and man:portupgrade[1] fail.
+
To do this, use the [.filename]#chkorigin.sh# tool: `env PORTSDIR=/path/to/ports sh -e /path/to/ports/Tools/scripts/chkorigin.sh`. This will check every port in the ports tree, even those not connected to the build, so you can run it directly after the move operation. Hint: do not forget to look at the ``PKGORIGIN``s of any slave ports of the ports you just moved!
. On your own local system, test the proposed changes: first, comment out the SUBDIR entries in the old ports' categories' [.filename]##Makefile##s; then enable building the new category in [.filename]#ports/Makefile#. Run make checksubdirs in the affected category directories to check the SUBDIR entries. Next, in the [.filename]#ports/# directory, run make index. This can take over 40 minutes on even modern systems; however, it is a necessary step to prevent problems for other people.
@@ -3998,7 +3998,7 @@ As of December 12, 2012, Google Analytics was enabled on the FreeBSD Project web
[NOTE]
====
-As of March 3, 2022, Googla Analytics was removed from the FreeBSD Project.
+As of March 3, 2022, Google Analytics was removed from the FreeBSD Project.
====
[[misc]]
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.po b/documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.po
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..74820ee070
--- /dev/null
+++ b/documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.po
@@ -0,0 +1,9307 @@
+# SOME DESCRIPTIVE TITLE
+# Copyright (C) YEAR The FreeBSD Project
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the FreeBSD Documentation package.
+# FIRST AUTHOR <EMAIL@ADDRESS>, YEAR.
+#
+#, fuzzy
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: FreeBSD Documentation VERSION\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2022-08-07 10:21-0300\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: YEAR-MO-DA HO:MI+ZONE\n"
+"Last-Translator: FULL NAME <EMAIL@ADDRESS>\n"
+"Language-Team: LANGUAGE <LL@li.org>\n"
+"Language: \n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+
+#. type: YAML Front Matter: description
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Introductory information for FreeBSD committers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:12
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Committer's Guide"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:45
+msgid "Abstract"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:48
+msgid ""
+"This document provides information for the FreeBSD committer community. All "
+"new committers should read this document before they start, and existing "
+"committers are strongly encouraged to review it from time to time."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:53
+msgid ""
+"Almost all FreeBSD developers have commit rights to one or more "
+"repositories. However, a few developers do not, and some of the information "
+"here applies to them as well. (For instance, some people only have rights "
+"to work with the Problem Report database). Please see <<non-committers>> "
+"for more information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:55
+msgid ""
+"This document may also be of interest to members of the FreeBSD community "
+"who want to learn more about how the project works."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:57
+msgid "'''"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:61
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Administrative Details"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:68
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "_Login Methods_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:70
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "man:ssh[1], protocol 2 only"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:71
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "_Main Shell Host_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:73
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`freefall.FreeBSD.org`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:74
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "_Reference Machines_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:76
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`ref*.FreeBSD.org`, `universe*.freeBSD.org` (see also link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/internal/machines/[FreeBSD Project Hosts])"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:77
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "_SMTP Host_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:79
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`smtp.FreeBSD.org:587` (see also <<smtp-setup>>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:80
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`_src/_` Git Repository"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:82
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`ssh://git@gitrepo.FreeBSD.org/src.git` (see also <<git-getting-started-base-layout>>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:83
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`_doc/_` Git Repository"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:85
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`ssh://git@gitrepo.FreeBSD.org/doc.git` (see also <<git-getting-started-doc-layout>>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:86
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`_ports/_` Git Repository"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:88
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`ssh://git@gitrepo.FreeBSD.org/ports.git` (see also <<git-getting-started-ports-layout>>)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:89
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "_Internal Mailing Lists_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:91
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "developers (technically called all-developers), doc-developers, doc-committers, ports-developers, ports-committers, src-developers, src-committers. (Each project repository has its own -developers and -committers mailing lists. Archives for these lists can be found in the files [.filename]#/local/mail/repository-name-developers-archive# and [.filename]#/local/mail/repository-name-committers-archive# on the `FreeBSD.org` cluster.)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:92
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "_Core Team monthly reports_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:94
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "[.filename]#/home/core/public/monthly-reports# on the `FreeBSD.org` cluster."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:95
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "_Ports Management Team monthly reports_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:97
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "[.filename]#/home/portmgr/public/monthly-reports# on the `FreeBSD.org` cluster."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:98
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "_Noteworthy `src/` Git Branches:_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:99
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`stable/n` (`n`-STABLE), `main` (-CURRENT)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:102
+msgid ""
+"man:ssh[1] is required to connect to the project hosts. For more "
+"information, see <<ssh.guide>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:104
+msgid "Useful links:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:106
+msgid "link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/internal/[FreeBSD Project Internal Pages]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:107
+msgid "link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/internal/machines/[FreeBSD Project Hosts]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:108
+msgid ""
+"link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/administration/[FreeBSD Project Administrative "
+"Groups]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:110
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "OpenPGP Keys for FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:115
+msgid ""
+"Cryptographic keys conforming to the OpenPGP (__Pretty Good Privacy__) "
+"standard are used by the FreeBSD project to authenticate committers. "
+"Messages carrying important information like public SSH keys can be signed "
+"with the OpenPGP key to prove that they are really from the committer. See "
+"https://nostarch.com/releases/pgp_release.pdf[PGP & GPG: Email for the "
+"Practical Paranoid by Michael Lucas] and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
+"Pretty_Good_Privacy[] for more information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:117
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Creating a Key"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:121
+msgid ""
+"Existing keys can be used, but should be checked with [."
+"filename]#documentation/tools/checkkey.sh# first. In this case, make sure "
+"the key has a FreeBSD user ID."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:123
+msgid ""
+"For those who do not yet have an OpenPGP key, or need a new key to meet "
+"FreeBSD security requirements, here we show how to generate one."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:128
+msgid ""
+"Install [.filename]#security/gnupg#. Enter these lines in [.filename]#~/."
+"gnupg/gpg.conf# to set minimum acceptable defaults:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:139
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"fixed-list-mode\n"
+"keyid-format 0xlong\n"
+"personal-digest-preferences SHA512 SHA384 SHA256 SHA224\n"
+"default-preference-list SHA512 SHA384 SHA256 SHA224 AES256 AES192 AES CAST5 BZIP2 ZLIB ZIP Uncompressed\n"
+"verify-options show-uid-validity\n"
+"list-options show-uid-validity\n"
+"sig-notation issuer-fpr@notations.openpgp.fifthhorseman.net=%g\n"
+"cert-digest-algo SHA512\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:141
+msgid "Generate a key:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:148
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% gpg --full-gen-key\n"
+"gpg (GnuPG) 2.1.8; Copyright (C) 2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc.\n"
+"This is free software: you are free to change and redistribute it.\n"
+"There is NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by law.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:169
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Warning: using insecure memory!\n"
+"Please select what kind of key you want:\n"
+" (1) RSA and RSA (default)\n"
+" (2) DSA and Elgamal\n"
+" (3) DSA (sign only)\n"
+" (4) RSA (sign only)\n"
+"Your selection? 1\n"
+"RSA keys may be between 1024 and 4096 bits long.\n"
+"What keysize do you want? (2048) 2048 <.>\n"
+"Requested keysize is 2048 bits\n"
+"Please specify how long the key should be valid.\n"
+"\t 0 = key does not expire\n"
+" <n> = key expires in n days\n"
+" <n>w = key expires in n weeks\n"
+" <n>m = key expires in n months\n"
+" <n>y = key expires in n years\n"
+"Key is valid for? (0) 3y <.>\n"
+"Key expires at Wed Nov 4 17:20:20 2015 MST\n"
+"Is this correct? (y/N) y\n"
+"GnuPG needs to construct a user ID to identify your key.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:175
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Real name: Chucky Daemon <.>\n"
+"Email address: notreal@example.com\n"
+"Comment:\n"
+"You selected this USER-ID:\n"
+"\"Chucky Daemon <notreal@example.com>\"\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:178
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Change (N)ame, (C)omment, (E)mail or (O)kay/(Q)uit? o\n"
+"You need a Passphrase to protect your secret key.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:181
+msgid ""
+"2048-bit keys with a three-year expiration provide adequate protection at "
+"present (2013-12). http://danielpocock.com/rsa-key-sizes-2048-or-4096-bits[] "
+"describes the situation in more detail."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:183
+msgid ""
+"A three year key lifespan is short enough to obsolete keys weakened by "
+"advancing computer power, but long enough to reduce key management problems."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:185
+msgid ""
+"Use your real name here, preferably matching that shown on government-issued "
+"ID to make it easier for others to verify your identity. Text that may help "
+"others identify you can be entered in the `Comment` section."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:189
+msgid ""
+"After the email address is entered, a passphrase is requested. Methods of "
+"creating a secure passphrase are contentious. Rather than suggest a single "
+"way, here are some links to sites that describe various methods: http://"
+"world.std.com/~reinhold/diceware.html[], http://www.iusmentis.com/security/"
+"passphrasefaq/[], http://xkcd.com/936/[], http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/"
+"Passphrase[]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:193
+msgid ""
+"Protect the private key and passphrase. If either the private key or "
+"passphrase may have been compromised or disclosed, immediately notify mailto:"
+"accounts@FreeBSD.org[accounts@FreeBSD.org] and revoke the key."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:195
+msgid ""
+"Committing the new key is shown in <<commit-steps, Steps for New "
+"Committers>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:197
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Kerberos and LDAP web Password for FreeBSD Cluster"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:202
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD cluster requires a Kerberos password to access certain "
+"services. The Kerberos password also serves as the LDAP web password, since "
+"LDAP is proxying to Kerberos in the cluster. Some of the services which "
+"require this include:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:204
+msgid "https://bugs.freebsd.org/bugzilla[Bugzilla]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:205
+msgid "https://ci.freebsd.org[Jenkins]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:207
+msgid ""
+"To create a new Kerberos account in the FreeBSD cluster, or to reset a "
+"Kerberos password for an existing account using a random password generator:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:211
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% ssh kpasswd.freebsd.org\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:216
+msgid "This must be done from a machine outside of the FreeBSD.org cluster."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:219
+msgid ""
+"A Kerberos password can also be set manually by logging into `freefall."
+"FreeBSD.org` and running:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:223
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% kpasswd\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:229
+msgid ""
+"Unless the Kerberos-authenticated services of the FreeBSD.org cluster have "
+"been used previously, `Client unknown` will be shown. This error means that "
+"the `ssh kpasswd.freebsd.org` method shown above must be used first to "
+"initialize the Kerberos account."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:232
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Commit Bit Types"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:238
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD repository has a number of components which, when combined, "
+"support the basic operating system source, documentation, third party "
+"application ports infrastructure, and various maintained utilities. When "
+"FreeBSD commit bits are allocated, the areas of the tree where the bit may "
+"be used are specified. Generally, the areas associated with a bit reflect "
+"who authorized the allocation of the commit bit. Additional areas of "
+"authority may be added at a later date: when this occurs, the committer "
+"should follow normal commit bit allocation procedures for that area of the "
+"tree, seeking approval from the appropriate entity and possibly getting a "
+"mentor for that area for some period of time."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:244
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "__Committer Type__"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:245
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "__Responsible__"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:247
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "__Tree Components__"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:248
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "src"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:249
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "core@"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:251
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "src/"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:252
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "doc"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:253
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "doceng@"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:255
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "doc/, ports/, src/ documentation"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:256
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "ports"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:257
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "portmgr@"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:258
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "ports/"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:263
+msgid ""
+"Commit bits allocated prior to the development of the notion of areas of "
+"authority may be appropriate for use in many parts of the tree. However, "
+"common sense dictates that a committer who has not previously worked in an "
+"area of the tree seek review prior to committing, seek approval from the "
+"appropriate responsible party, and/or work with a mentor. Since the rules "
+"regarding code maintenance differ by area of the tree, this is as much for "
+"the benefit of the committer working in an area of less familiarity as it is "
+"for others working on the tree."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:265
+msgid ""
+"Committers are encouraged to seek review for their work as part of the "
+"normal development process, regardless of the area of the tree where the "
+"work is occurring."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:266
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Policy for Committer Activity in Other Trees"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:269
+msgid ""
+"All committers may modify [.filename]#src/share/misc/committers-*.dot#, [."
+"filename]#src/usr.bin/calendar/calendars/calendar.freebsd#, and [."
+"filename]#ports/astro/xearth/files#."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:270
+msgid ""
+"doc committers may commit documentation changes to [.filename]#src# files, "
+"such as man pages, READMEs, fortune databases, calendar files, and comment "
+"fixes without approval from a src committer, subject to the normal care and "
+"tending of commits."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:272
+msgid ""
+"Any committer may make changes to any other tree with an \"Approved by\" "
+"from a non-mentored committer with the appropriate bit. Mentored committers "
+"can provide a \"Reviewed by\" but not an \"Approved by\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:273
+msgid ""
+"Committers can acquire an additional bit by the usual process of finding a "
+"mentor who will propose them to core, doceng, or portmgr, as appropriate. "
+"When approved, they will be added to 'access' and the normal mentoring "
+"period will ensue, which will involve a continuing of \"Approved by\" for "
+"some period."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:275
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Documentation Implicit (Blanket) Approval"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:279
+msgid ""
+"Some types of fixes have \"blanket approval\" from the {doceng}, allowing "
+"any committer to fix those categories of problems on any part of the doc "
+"tree. These fixes do not need approval or review from a doc committer if "
+"the author doesn't have a doc commit bit."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:281
+msgid "Blanket approval applies to these types of fixes:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:283
+msgid "Typos"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:284
+msgid "Trivial fixes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:286
+msgid ""
+"Punctuation, URLs, dates, paths and file names with outdated or incorrect "
+"information, and other common mistakes that may confound the readers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:289
+msgid ""
+"Over the years, some implicit approvals were granted in the doc tree. This "
+"list shows the most common cases:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:291
+msgid ""
+"Changes in [.filename]#documentation/content/en/books/porters-handbook/"
+"versions/_index.adoc#"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:293
+msgid ""
+"extref:{porters-handbook}versions/[__FreeBSD_version Values (Porter's "
+"Handbook)], mainly used for src committers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:294
+msgid "Changes in [.filename]#doc/shared/contrib-additional.adoc#"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:296
+msgid ""
+"extref:{contributors}[Additional FreeBSD Contributors, contrib-additional] "
+"maintenance."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:297
+msgid "All link:#commit-steps[Steps for New Committers], doc related"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:298
+msgid "Security advisories; Errata Notices; Releases;"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:300
+msgid "Used by {security-officer} and {re}."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:301
+msgid "Changes in [.filename]#website/content/en/donations/donors.adoc#"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:303
+msgid "Used by {donations}."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:305
+msgid ""
+"Before any commit, a build test is necessary; see the 'Overview' and 'The "
+"FreeBSD Documentation Build Process' sections of the extref:{fdp-primer}"
+"[FreeBSD Documentation Project Primer for New Contributors] for more details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:307
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Git Primer"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:310
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Git basics"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:317
+msgid ""
+"When one searches for \"Git Primer\" a number of good ones come up. Daniel "
+"Miessler's link:https://danielmiessler.com/study/git/[A git primer] and "
+"Willie Willus' link:https://gist.github.com/"
+"williewillus/068e9a8543de3a7ef80adb2938657b6b[Git - Quick Primer] are both "
+"good overviews. The Git book is also complete, but much longer https://git-"
+"scm.com/book/en/v2. There is also this website https://dangitgit.com/ for "
+"common traps and pitfalls of Git, in case you need guidance to fix things "
+"up. Finally, an introduction link:https://eagain.net/articles/git-for-"
+"computer-scientists/[targeted at computer scientists] has proven helpful to "
+"some at explaining the Git world view."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:319
+msgid ""
+"This document will assume that you've read through it and will try not to "
+"belabor the basics (though it will cover them briefly)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:321
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Git Mini Primer"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:324
+msgid ""
+"This primer is less ambitiously scoped than the old Subversion Primer, but "
+"should cover the basics."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:325
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Scope"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:331
+msgid ""
+"If you want to download FreeBSD, compile it from sources, and generally keep "
+"up to date that way, this primer is for you. It covers getting the sources, "
+"updating the sources, bisecting and touches briefly on how to cope with a "
+"few local changes. It covers the basics, and tries to give good pointers to "
+"more in-depth treatment for when the reader finds the basics insufficient. "
+"Other sections of this guide cover more advanced topics related to "
+"contributing to the project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:335
+msgid ""
+"The goal of this section is to highlight those bits of Git needed to track "
+"sources. They assume a basic understanding of Git. There are many primers "
+"for Git on the web, but the https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2[Git Book] "
+"provides one of the better treatments."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:337
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Getting Started For Developers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:340
+msgid ""
+"This section describes the read-write access for committers to push the "
+"commits from developers or contributors."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:341
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Daily use"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:344
+msgid "Clone the repository:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:348
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git clone -o freebsd --config remote.freebsd.fetch='+refs/notes/*:refs/notes/*' https://git.freebsd.org/${repo}.git\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:351
+msgid "Then you should have the official mirrors as your remote:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:357
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git remote -v\n"
+"freebsd https://git.freebsd.org/${repo}.git (fetch)\n"
+"freebsd https://git.freebsd.org/${repo}.git (push)\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:360
+msgid "Configure the FreeBSD committer data:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:363
+msgid ""
+"The commit hook in repo.freebsd.org checks the \"Commit\" field matches the "
+"committer's information in FreeBSD.org. The easiest way to get the "
+"suggested config is by executing `/usr/local/bin/gen-gitconfig.sh` script on "
+"freefall:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:370
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% gen-gitconfig.sh\n"
+"[...]\n"
+"% git config user.name (your name in gecos)\n"
+"% git config user.email (your login)@FreeBSD.org\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:373
+msgid "Set the push URL:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:377
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git remote set-url --push freebsd git@gitrepo.freebsd.org:${repo}.git\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:380
+msgid ""
+"Then you should have separated fetch and push URLs as the most efficient "
+"setup:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:386
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git remote -v\n"
+"freebsd https://git.freebsd.org/${repo}.git (fetch)\n"
+"freebsd git@gitrepo.freebsd.org:${repo}.git (push)\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:389
+msgid ""
+"Again, note that `gitrepo.freebsd.org` will be canonicalized to `repo."
+"freebsd.org` in the future."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:391
+msgid "Install commit message template hook:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:396
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% fetch https://cgit.freebsd.org/src/plain/tools/tools/git/hooks/prepare-commit-msg -o .git/hooks\n"
+"% chmod 755 .git/hooks/prepare-commit-msg\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:399
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "\"admin\" branch"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:402
+msgid ""
+"The `access` and `mentors` files are stored in an orphan branch, `internal/"
+"admin`, in each repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:404
+msgid ""
+"Following example is how to check out the `internal/admin` branch to a local "
+"branch named `admin`:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:410
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git config --add remote.freebsd.fetch '+refs/internal/*:refs/internal/*'\n"
+"% git fetch\n"
+"% git checkout -b admin internal/admin\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:412
+msgid "Alternatively, you can add a worktree for the `admin` branch:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:416
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "git worktree add -b admin ../${repo}-admin internal/admin\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:420
+msgid ""
+"For browsing `internal/admin` branch on web: https://cgit.freebsd.org/"
+"${repo}/log/?h=internal/admin"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:422
+msgid "For pushing, either specify the full refspec:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:426
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "git push freebsd HEAD:refs/internal/admin\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:429
+msgid ""
+"Or set `push.default` to `freebsd` which will make `git push` to push the "
+"current branch back to its upstream by default, which is more suitable for "
+"our workflow:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:433
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "git config push.default freebsd\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:435
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Keeping Current With The FreeBSD src Tree"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:442
+msgid ""
+"First step: cloning a tree. This downloads the entire tree. There are two "
+"ways to download. Most people will want to do a deep clone of the "
+"repository. However, there are times when you may wish to do a shallow "
+"clone."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:443
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Branch names"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:450
+msgid ""
+"The branch names in the new Git repository are similar to the old names. "
+"For the stable branches, they are stable/X where X is the major release "
+"(like 11 or 12). The main branch in the new repository is 'main'. The main "
+"branch in the old GitHub mirror was 'master', but is now 'main'. Both "
+"reflect the defaults of Git at the time they were created. The 'main' "
+"branch is the default branch if you omit the '-b branch' or '--branch "
+"branch' options below."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:451
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Repositories"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:454
+msgid ""
+"Please see the <<admin,Administrative Details>> for the latest information "
+"on where to get FreeBSD sources. $URL below can be obtained from that page."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:457
+msgid ""
+"Note: The project doesn't use submodules as they are a poor fit for our "
+"workflows and development model. How we track changes in third-party "
+"applications is discussed elsewhere and generally of little concern to the "
+"casual user."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:458
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Deep Clone"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:462
+msgid ""
+"A deep clone pulls in the entire tree, as well as all the history and "
+"branches. It is the easiest to do. It also allows you to use Git's "
+"worktree feature to have all your active branches checked out into separate "
+"directories but with only one copy of the repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:465
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git clone -o freebsd $URL -b branch [dir]\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:470
+msgid ""
+"is how you make a deep clone. 'branch' should be one of the branches listed "
+"in the previous section. It is optional if it is the main branch. 'dir' is "
+"an optional directory to place it in (the default will be the name of the "
+"repo you are cloning (src, doc, etc))."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:475
+msgid ""
+"You will want a deep clone if you are interested in the history, plan on "
+"making local changes, or plan on working on more than one branch. It is the "
+"easiest to keep up to date as well. If you are interested in the history, "
+"but are working with only one branch and are short on space, you can also "
+"use --single-branch to only download the one branch (though some merge "
+"commits will not reference the merged-from branch which may be important for "
+"some users who are interested in detailed versions of history)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:476
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Shallow Clone"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:482
+msgid ""
+"A shallow clone copies just the most current code, but none or little of the "
+"history. This can be useful when you need to build a specific revision of "
+"FreeBSD, or when you are just starting out and plan to track the tree more "
+"fully. You can also use it to limit history to only so many revisions. "
+"However, see below for a significant limitation of this approach."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:486
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git clone -o freebsd -b branch --depth 1 $URL [dir]\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:491
+msgid ""
+"This clones the repository, but only has the most recent version in the "
+"repository. The rest of the history is not downloaded. Should you change "
+"your mind later, you can do 'git fetch --unshallow' to get the old history."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:496
+msgid ""
+"When you make a shallow clone, you will lose the commit count in your uname "
+"output. This can make it more difficult to determine if your system needs "
+"to be updated when a security advisory is issued."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:498
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Building"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:502
+msgid ""
+"Once you've downloaded, building is done as described in the handbook, e.g.:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:509
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cd src\n"
+"% make buildworld\n"
+"% make buildkernel\n"
+"% make installkernel\n"
+"% make installworld\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:511
+msgid "so that won't be covered in depth here."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:514
+msgid ""
+"If you want to build a custom kernel, extref:{handbook}[the kernel config "
+"section, kernelconfig] of the FreeBSD Handbook recommends creating a file "
+"MYKERNEL under sys/${ARCH}/conf with your changes against GENERIC. To have "
+"MYKERNEL disregarded by Git, it can be added to .git/info/exclude."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:515
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Updating"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:519
+msgid ""
+"To update both types of trees uses the same commands. This pulls in all the "
+"revisions since your last update."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:522
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git pull --ff-only\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:527
+msgid ""
+"will update the tree. In Git, a 'fast forward' merge is one that only needs "
+"to set a new branch pointer and doesn't need to re-create the commits. By "
+"always doing a 'fast forward' merge/pull, you'll ensure that you have an "
+"exact copy of the FreeBSD tree. This will be important if you want to "
+"maintain local patches."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:530
+msgid ""
+"See below for how to manage local changes. The simplest is to use --"
+"autostash on the 'git pull' command, but more sophisticated options are "
+"available."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:531
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Selecting a Specific Version"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:535
+msgid ""
+"In Git, the 'git checkout' checks out both branches and specific versions. "
+"Git's versions are the long hashes rather than a sequential number."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:537
+msgid ""
+"When you checkout a specific version, just specify the hash you want on the "
+"command line (the git log command can help you decide which hash you might "
+"want):"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:540
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git checkout 08b8197a74\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:543
+msgid ""
+"and you have that checked out. You will be greeted with a message similar "
+"to the following:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:546
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Note: checking out '08b8197a742a96964d2924391bf9fdfeb788865d'.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:550
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"You are in a 'detached HEAD' state. You can look around, make experimental\n"
+"changes and commit them, and you can discard any commits you make in this\n"
+"state without impacting any branches by performing another checkout.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:553
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2066
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"If you want to create a new branch to retain commits you create, you may\n"
+"do so (now or later) by using -b with the checkout command again. Example:\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:555
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2068
+#, no-wrap
+msgid " git checkout -b <new-branch-name>\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:557
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "HEAD is now at 08b8197a742a hook gpiokeys.4 to the build\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:561
+msgid ""
+"where the last line is generated from the hash you are checking out and the "
+"first line of the commit message from that revision. The hash can be "
+"abbreviated to the shortest unique length. Git itself is inconsistent about "
+"how many digits it displays."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:562
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Bisecting"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:566
+msgid ""
+"Sometimes, things go wrong. The last version worked, but the one you just "
+"updated to does not. A developer may ask you to bisect the problem to track "
+"down which commit caused the regression."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:571
+msgid ""
+"Git makes bisecting changes easy with a powerful 'git bisect' command. "
+"Here's a brief outline of how to use it. For more information, you can view "
+"https://www.metaltoad.com/blog/beginners-guide-git-bisect-process-"
+"elimination or https://git-scm.com/docs/git-bisect for more details. The "
+"man git-bisect page is good at describing what can go wrong, what to do when "
+"versions won't build, when you want to use terms other than 'good' and "
+"'bad', etc, none of which will be covered here."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:578
+msgid ""
+"`git bisect start --first-parent` will start the bisection process. Next, "
+"you need to tell a range to go through. 'git bisect good XXXXXX' will tell "
+"it the working version and 'git bisect bad XXXXX' will tell it the bad "
+"version. The bad version will almost always be HEAD (a special tag for what "
+"you have checked out). The good version will be the last one you checked "
+"out. The `--first-parent` argument is necessary so that subsequent `git "
+"bisect` commands do not try to check out a vendor branch which lacks the "
+"full FreeBSD source tree."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:582
+msgid ""
+"If you want to know the last version you checked out, you should use 'git "
+"reflog':"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:587
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"5ef0bd68b515 (HEAD -> main, freebsd/main, freebsd/HEAD) HEAD@{0}: pull --ff-only: Fast-forward\n"
+"a8163e165c5b (upstream/main) HEAD@{1}: checkout: moving from b6fb97efb682994f59b21fe4efb3fcfc0e5b9eeb to main\n"
+"...\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:591
+msgid ""
+"shows me moving the working tree to the main branch (a816...) and then "
+"updating from upstream (to 5ef0...). In this case, bad would be HEAD (or "
+"5rf0bd68) and good would be a8163e165. As you can see from the output, "
+"HEAD@{1} also often works, but isn't foolproof if you have done other things "
+"to your Git tree after updating, but before you discover the need to bisect."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:595
+msgid ""
+"Set the 'good' version first, then set the bad (though the order doesn't "
+"matter). When you set the bad version, it will give you some statistics on "
+"the process:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:602
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git bisect start --first-parent\n"
+"% git bisect good a8163e165c5b\n"
+"% git bisect bad HEAD\n"
+"Bisecting: 1722 revisions left to test after this (roughly 11 steps)\n"
+"[c427b3158fd8225f6afc09e7e6f62326f9e4de7e] Fixup r361997 by balancing parens. Duh.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:611
+msgid ""
+"You would then build/install that version. If it's good you'd type 'git "
+"bisect good' otherwise 'git bisect bad'. If the version doesn't compile, "
+"type 'git bisect skip'. You will get a similar message to the above after "
+"each step. When you are done, report the bad version to the developer (or "
+"fix the bug yourself and send a patch). 'git bisect reset' will end the "
+"process and return you back to where you started (usually tip of main). "
+"Again, the git-bisect manual (linked above) is a good resource for when "
+"things go wrong or for unusual cases."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:613
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Signing the commits, tags, and pushes, with GnuPG"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:618
+msgid ""
+"Git knows how to sign commits, tags, and pushes. When you sign a Git commit "
+"or a tag, you can prove that the code you submitted came from you and wasn't "
+"altered while you were transferring it. You also can prove that you "
+"submitted the code and not someone else."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:620
+msgid ""
+"A more in-depth documentation on signing commits and tags can be found in "
+"the https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Git-Tools-Signing-Your-Work[Git Tools - "
+"Signing Your Work] chapter of the Git's book."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:622
+msgid ""
+"The rationale behind signing pushes can be found in the https://github.com/"
+"git/git/commit/a85b377d0419a9dfaca8af2320cc33b051cbed04[commit that "
+"introduced the feature]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:625
+msgid ""
+"The best way is to simply tell Git you always want to sign commits, tags, "
+"and pushes. You can do this by setting a few configuration variables:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:632
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git config --add user.signingKey LONG-KEY-ID\n"
+"% git config --add commit.gpgSign true\n"
+"% git config --add tag.gpgSign true\n"
+"% git config --add push.gpgSign if-asked\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. push.gpgSign should probably be set to `yes` once we enable it, or be set with --global, so that it is enabled for all repositories.
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:640
+msgid ""
+"To avoid possible collisions, make sure you give a long key id to Git. You "
+"can get the long id with: `gpg --list-secret-keys --keyid-format LONG`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:646
+msgid ""
+"To use specific subkeys, and not have GnuPG to resolve the subkey to a "
+"primary key, attach `!` to the key. For example, to encrypt for the subkey "
+"`DEADBEEF`, use `DEADBEEF!`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:648
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Verifying signatures"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:651
+msgid ""
+"Commit signatures can be verified by running either `git verify-commit "
+"<commit hash>`, or `git log --show-signature`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:653
+msgid ""
+"Tag signatures can be verified with `git verity-tag <tag name>`, or `git tag "
+"-v <tag name>`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#
+#
+#. Commented out for now until we decide what to do.
+#. Git pushes are a bit different, they live in a special ref in the repository.
+#. TODO: write how to verify them
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:662
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Ports Considerations"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:665
+msgid ""
+"The ports tree operates the same way. The branch names are different and "
+"the repositories are in different locations."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:668
+msgid ""
+"The cgit repository web interface for use with web browsers is at https://"
+"cgit.FreeBSD.org/ports/ . The production Git repository is at https://git."
+"FreeBSD.org/ports.git and at ssh://anongit@git.FreeBSD.org/ports.git (or "
+"anongit@git.FreeBSD.org:ports.git)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:672
+msgid ""
+"There is also a mirror on GitHub, see extref:{handbook}/mirrors[External "
+"mirrors, mirrors] for an overview. The 'current' branch is 'main' . The "
+"quarterly branches are named 'yyyyQn' for year 'yyyy' and quarter 'n'."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:674
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Commit message formats"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:678
+msgid ""
+"A hook is available in the ports repository to help you write up your commit "
+"messages in https://cgit.freebsd.org/ports/tree/.hooks/prepare-commit-msg[."
+"hooks/prepare-commit-message]. It can be enabled by running ``git config --"
+"add core.hooksPath .hooks``."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:680
+msgid ""
+"The main point being that a commit message should be formatted in the "
+"following way:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:683
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "category/port: Summary.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:685
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Description of why the changes where made.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:687
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "PR:\t 12345\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:693
+msgid ""
+"The first line is the subject of the commit, it contains what port was "
+"changed, and a summary of the commit. It should contain 50 characters or "
+"less."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:695
+msgid "A blank line should separate it from the rest of the commit message."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:697
+msgid ""
+"The rest of the commit message should be wrapped at the 72 characters "
+"boundary."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:699
+msgid ""
+"Another blank line should be added if there are any metadata fields, so that "
+"they are easily distinguishable from the commit message."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:701
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Managing Local Changes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:704
+msgid ""
+"This section addresses tracking local changes. If you have no local "
+"changes, you can stop reading now (it is the last section and OK to skip)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:710
+msgid ""
+"One item that is important for all of them: all changes are local until "
+"pushed. Unlike Subversion, Git uses a distributed model. For users, for "
+"most things, there is very little difference. However, if you have local "
+"changes, you can use the same tool to manage them as you use to pull in "
+"changes from FreeBSD. All changes that you have not pushed are local and "
+"can easily be modified (git rebase, discussed below does this)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:711
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Keeping local changes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:718
+msgid ""
+"The simplest way to keep local changes (especially trivial ones) is to use "
+"'git stash'. In its simplest form, you use 'git stash' to record the "
+"changes (which pushes them onto the stash stack). Most people use this to "
+"save changes before updating the tree as described above. They then use "
+"'git stash apply' to re-apply them to the tree. The stash is a stack of "
+"changes that can be examined with 'git stash list'. The git-stash man page "
+"(https://git-scm.com/docs/git-stash) has all the details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:722
+msgid ""
+"This method is suitable when you have tiny tweaks to the tree. When you "
+"have anything non trivial, you'll likely be better off keeping a local "
+"branch and rebasing. Stashing is also integrated with the 'git pull' "
+"command: just add '--autostash' to the command line."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:723
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Keeping a local branch"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:730
+msgid ""
+"It is much easier to keep a local branch with Git than Subversion. In "
+"Subversion you need to merge the commit, and resolve the conflicts. This is "
+"manageable, but can lead to a convoluted history that's hard to upstream "
+"should that ever be necessary, or hard to replicate if you need to do so. "
+"Git also allows one to merge, along with the same problems. That's one way "
+"to manage the branch, but it's the least flexible."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:734
+msgid ""
+"In addition to merging, Git supports the concept of 'rebasing' which avoids "
+"these issues. The 'git rebase' command replays all the commits of a branch "
+"at a newer location on the parent branch. We will cover the most common "
+"scenarios that arise using it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:736
+msgid "====== Create a branch"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:741
+msgid ""
+"Let's say you want to make a change to FreeBSD's ls command to never, ever "
+"do color. There are many reasons to do this, but this example will use that "
+"as a baseline. The FreeBSD ls command changes from time to time, and you'll "
+"need to cope with those changes. Fortunately, with Git rebase it usually is "
+"automatic."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:763
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cd src\n"
+"% git checkout main\n"
+"% git checkout -b no-color-ls\n"
+"% cd bin/ls\n"
+"% vi ls.c # hack the changes in\n"
+"% git diff # check the changes\n"
+"diff --git a/bin/ls/ls.c b/bin/ls/ls.c\n"
+"index 7378268867ef..cfc3f4342531 100644\n"
+"--- a/bin/ls/ls.c\n"
+"+++ b/bin/ls/ls.c\n"
+"@@ -66,6 +66,7 @@ __FBSDID(\"$FreeBSD$\");\n"
+" #include <stdlib.h>\n"
+" #include <string.h>\n"
+" #include <unistd.h>\n"
+"+#undef COLORLS\n"
+" #ifdef COLORLS\n"
+" #include <termcap.h>\n"
+" #include <signal.h>\n"
+"% # these look good, make the commit...\n"
+"% git commit ls.c\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:770
+msgid ""
+"The commit will pop you into an editor to describe what you've done. Once "
+"you enter that, you have your own **local** branch in the Git repo. Build "
+"and install it like you normally would, following the directions in the "
+"handbook. Git differs from other version control systems in that you have "
+"to tell it explicitly which files to commit. I have opted to do it on the "
+"commit command line, but you can also do it with 'git add' which many of the "
+"more in depth tutorials cover."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:776
+msgid ""
+"====== Time to update When it is time to bring in a new version, it is "
+"almost the same as w/o the branches. You would update like you would above, "
+"but there is one extra command before you update, and one after. The "
+"following assumes you are starting with an unmodified tree. It is important "
+"to start rebasing operations with a clean tree (Git requires this)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:782
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout main\n"
+"% git pull --ff-only\n"
+"% git rebase -i main no-color-ls\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:787
+msgid ""
+"This will bring up an editor that lists all the commits in it. For this "
+"example, do not change it at all. This is typically what you are doing "
+"while updating the baseline (though you also use the Git rebase command to "
+"curate the commits you have in the branch)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:789
+msgid ""
+"Once you are done with the above, you have to move the commits to ls.c "
+"forward from the old version of FreeBSD to the newer one."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:796
+msgid ""
+"Sometimes there are merge conflicts. That is OK. Do not panic. Instead, "
+"handle them the same as any other merge conflicts. To keep it simple, I "
+"will just describe a common issue that may arise. A pointer to a more "
+"complete treatment can be found at the end of this section."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:799
+msgid ""
+"Let's say the includes changes upstream in a radical shift to terminfo as "
+"well as a name change for the option. When you updated, you might see "
+"something like this:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:809
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Auto-merging bin/ls/ls.c\n"
+"CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in bin/ls/ls.c\n"
+"error: could not apply 646e0f9cda11... no color ls\n"
+"Resolve all conflicts manually, mark them as resolved with\n"
+"\"git add/rm <conflicted_files>\", then run \"git rebase --continue\".\n"
+"You can instead skip this commit: run \"git rebase --skip\".\n"
+"To abort and get back to the state before \"git rebase\", run \"git rebase --abort\".\n"
+"Could not apply 646e0f9cda11... no color ls\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:812
+msgid ""
+"which looks scary. If you bring up an editor, you will see it is a typical "
+"3-way merge conflict resolution that you may be familiar with from other "
+"source code systems (the rest of ls.c has been omitted):"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:822
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"<<<<<<< HEAD\n"
+"#ifdef COLORLS_NEW\n"
+"#include <terminfo.h>\n"
+"=======\n"
+"#undef COLORLS\n"
+"#ifdef COLORLS\n"
+"#include <termcap.h>\n"
+">>>>>>> 646e0f9cda11... no color ls\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:825
+msgid ""
+"The new code is first, and your code is second. The right fix here is to "
+"just add a #undef COLORLS_NEW before #ifdef and then delete the old changes:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:830
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"#undef COLORLS_NEW\n"
+"#ifdef COLORLS_NEW\n"
+"#include <terminfo.h>\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:833
+msgid "save the file. The rebase was interrupted, so you have to complete it:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:837
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git add ls.c\n"
+"% git rebase --continue\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:842
+msgid ""
+"which tells Git that ls.c has been fixed and to continue the rebase "
+"operation. Since there was a conflict, you will get kicked into the editor "
+"to update the commit message if necessary. If the commit message is still "
+"accurate, just exit the editor."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:847
+msgid ""
+"If you get stuck during the rebase, do not panic. git rebase --abort will "
+"take you back to a clean slate. It is important, though, to start with an "
+"unmodified tree. An aside: The above mentioned 'git reflog' comes in handy "
+"here, as it will have a list of all the (intermediate) commits that you can "
+"view or inspect or cherry-pick."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:850
+msgid ""
+"For more on this topic, https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/the-ultimate-guide-"
+"to-git-merge-and-git-rebase/ provides a rather extensive treatment. It is a "
+"good resource for issues that arise occasionally but are too obscure for "
+"this guide."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:851
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Switching to a Different FreeBSD Branch"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:854
+msgid ""
+"If you wish to shift from stable/12 to the current branch. If you have a "
+"deep clone, the following will suffice:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:858
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout main\n"
+"% # build and install here...\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:863
+msgid ""
+"If you have a local branch, though, there are one or two caveats. First, "
+"rebase will rewrite history, so you will likely want to do something to save "
+"it. Second, jumping branches tends to cause more conflicts. If we pretend "
+"the example above was relative to stable/12, then to move to main, I'd "
+"suggest the following:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:868
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout no-color-ls\n"
+"% git checkout -b no-color-ls-stable-12 # create another name for this branch\n"
+"% git rebase -i stable/12 no-color-ls --onto main\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:875
+msgid ""
+"What the above does is checkout no-color-ls. Then create a new name for it "
+"(no-color-ls-stable-12) in case you need to get back to it. Then you rebase "
+"onto the main branch. This will find all the commits to the current no-"
+"color-ls branch (back to where it meets up with the stable/12 branch) and "
+"then it will replay them onto the main branch creating a new no-color-ls "
+"branch there (which is why I had you create a place holder name)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:876
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Migrating from an existing Git clone"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:878
+msgid ""
+"If you have work based on a previous Git conversion or a locally running git-"
+"svn conversion, migrating to new repository can encounter problems because "
+"Git has no knowledge about the connection between the two."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:880
+msgid ""
+"When you have only a few local changes, the easiest way would be to cherry-"
+"pick those changes to the new base:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:884
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout main\n"
+"% git cherry-pick old_branch..your_branch\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:886
+msgid "Or alternatively, do the same thing with rebase:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:889
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git rebase --onto main master your_branch\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:893
+msgid ""
+"If you do have a lot of changes, you would probably want to perform a merge "
+"instead. The idea is to create a merge point that consolidates the history "
+"of the old_branch, and the new FreeBSD repository (main)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:895
+msgid ""
+"You can find out by looking up the same commit that are found on both "
+"parents:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:898
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git show old_branch\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:900
+msgid "You will see a commit message, now search for that in the new branch:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:903
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git log --grep=\"commit message on old_branch\" freebsd/main\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:905
+msgid ""
+"You would help locate the commit hash on the new main branch, create a "
+"helper branch (in the example we call it 'stage') from that hash:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:908
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git checkout -b stage _hash_found_from_git_log_\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:910
+msgid "Then perform a merge of the old branch:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:913
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git merge -s ours -m \"Mark old branch as merged\" old_branch\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:916
+msgid ""
+"With that, it's possible to merge your work branch or the main branch in any "
+"order without problem. Eventually, when you are ready to commit your work "
+"back to main, you can perform a rebase to main, or do a squash commit by "
+"combining everything into one commit."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:918
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "MFC (Merge From Current) Procedures"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:919
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Summary"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:923
+msgid ""
+"MFC workflow can be summarized as `git cherry-pick -x` plus `git commit --"
+"amend` to adjust the commit message. For multiple commits, use `git rebase -"
+"i` to squash them together and edit the commit message."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:924
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Single commit MFC"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:930
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout stable/X\n"
+"% git cherry-pick -x $HASH --edit\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:934
+msgid ""
+"For MFC commits, for example a vendor import, you would need to specify one "
+"parent for cherry-pick purposes. Normally, that would be the \"first parent"
+"\" of the branch you are cherry-picking from, so:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:939
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout stable/X\n"
+"% git cherry-pick -x $HASH -m 1 --edit\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:942
+msgid ""
+"If things go wrong, you'll either need to abort the cherry-pick with `git "
+"cherry-pick --abort` or fix it up and do a `git cherry-pick --continue`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:945
+msgid ""
+"Once the cherry-pick is finished, push with `git push`. If you get an error "
+"due to losing the commit race, use `git pull --rebase` and try to push again."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:946
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "MFC to RELENG branch"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:950
+msgid ""
+"MFCs to branches that require approval require a bit more care. The process "
+"is the same for either a typical merge or an exceptional direct commit."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:952
+msgid ""
+"Merge or direct commit to the appropriate `stable/X` branch first before "
+"merging to the `releng/X.Y` branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:953
+msgid ""
+"Use the hash that's in the `stable/X` branch for the MFC to `releng/X.Y` "
+"branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:954
+msgid "Leave both \"cherry picked from\" lines in the commit message."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:955
+msgid "Be sure to add the `Approved by:` line when you are in the editor."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:960
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout releng/13.0\n"
+"% git cherry-pick -x $HASH --edit\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:963
+msgid ""
+"If you forget to to add the `Approved by:` line, you can do a `git commit --"
+"amend` to edit the commit message before you push the change."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:964
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Multiple commit MFC"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:975
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout -b tmp-branch stable/X\n"
+"% for h in $HASH_LIST; do git cherry-pick -x $h; done\n"
+"% git rebase -i stable/X\n"
+"# mark each of the commits after the first as 'squash'\n"
+"# Update the commit message to reflect all elements of commit, if necessary.\n"
+"# Be sure to retain the \"cherry picked from\" lines.\n"
+"% git push freebsd HEAD:stable/X\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:978
+msgid "If the push fails due to losing the commit race, rebase and try again:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:986
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout stable/X\n"
+"% git pull\n"
+"% git checkout tmp-branch\n"
+"% git rebase stable/X\n"
+"% git push freebsd HEAD:stable/X\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:989
+msgid "Once the MFC is complete, you can delete the temporary branch:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:994
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout stable/X\n"
+"% git branch -d tmp-branch\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:996
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "MFC a vendor import"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1001
+msgid ""
+"Vendor imports are the only thing in the tree that creates a merge commit in "
+"the main line. Cherry picking merge commits into stable/XX presents an "
+"additional difficulty because there are two parents for a merge commit. "
+"Generally, you'll want the first parent's diff since that's the diff to "
+"mainline (though there may be some exceptions)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1005
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git cherry-pick -x -m 1 $HASH\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1008
+msgid ""
+"is typically what you want. This will tell cherry-pick to apply the correct "
+"diff."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1012
+msgid ""
+"There are some, hopefully, rare cases where it's possible that the mainline "
+"was merged backwards by the conversion script. Should that be the case (and "
+"we've not found any yet), you'd change the above to '-m 2' to pickup the "
+"proper parent. Just do"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1016
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git cherry-pick --abort\n"
+"% git cherry-pick -x -m 2 $HASH\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1018
+msgid "to do that. The `--abort` will cleanup the failed first attempt."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1019
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Redoing a MFC"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1023
+msgid ""
+"If you do a MFC, and it goes horribly wrong and you want to start over, then "
+"the easiest way is to use `git reset --hard` like so:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1026
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git reset --hard freebsd/stable/12\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1029
+msgid ""
+"though if you have some revs you want to keep, and others you don't, using "
+"'git rebase -i' is better."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1030
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Considerations when MFCing"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1033
+msgid ""
+"When committing source commits to stable and releng branches, we have the "
+"following goals:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1035
+msgid ""
+"Clearly mark direct commits distinct from commits that land a change from "
+"another branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1036
+msgid "Avoid introducing known breakage into stable and releng branches."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1037
+msgid ""
+"Allow developers to determine which changes have or have not been landed "
+"from one branch to another."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1039
+msgid ""
+"With Subversion, we used the following practices to achieve these goals:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1041
+msgid ""
+"Using 'MFC' and 'MFS' tags to mark commits that merged changes from another "
+"branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1042
+msgid "Squashing fixup commits into the main commit when merging a change."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1043
+msgid "Recording mergeinfo so that `svn mergeinfo --show-revs` worked."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1047
+msgid ""
+"With Git, we will need to use different strategies to achieve the same "
+"goals. This document aims to define best practices when merging source "
+"commits using Git that achieve these goals. In general, we aim to use Git's "
+"native support to achieve these goals rather than enforcing practices built "
+"on Subversion's model."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1050
+msgid ""
+"One general note: due to technical differences with Git, we will not be "
+"using Git \"merge commits\" (created via `git merge`) in stable or releng "
+"branches. Instead, when this document refers to \"merge commits\", it means "
+"a commit originally made to `main` that is replicated or \"landed\" to a "
+"stable branch, or a commit from a stable branch that is replicated to a "
+"releng branch with some variation of `git cherry-pick`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1051
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Finding Eligible Hashes to MFC"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1056
+msgid ""
+"Git provides some built-in support for this via the `git cherry` and `git "
+"log --cherry` commands. These commands compare the raw diffs of commits "
+"(but not other metadata such as log messages) to determine if two commits "
+"are identical. This works well when each commit from head is landed as a "
+"single commit to a stable branch, but it falls over if multiple commits from "
+"main are squashed together as a single commit to a stable branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1058
+msgid "There are a few options for resolving this:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1062
+msgid ""
+"We could ban squashing of commits and instead require that committers stage "
+"all of the fixup / follow-up commits to stable into a single push. This "
+"would still achieve the goal of stability in stable and releng branches "
+"since pushes are atomic and users doing a simple pull will never end up with "
+"a tree that has the main commit without the fixup(s). `git bisect` is also "
+"able to cope with this model via `git bisect skip`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1066
+msgid ""
+"We could adopt a consistent style for describing MFCs and write our own "
+"tooling to wrap around `git cherry` to determine the list of eligible "
+"commits. A simple approach here might be to use the syntax from `git cherry-"
+"pick -x`, but require that a squashed commit list all of the hashes (one "
+"line per hash) at the end of the commit message. Developers could do this "
+"by using `git cherry-pick -x` of each individual commit into a branch and "
+"then use `git rebase` to squash the commits down into a single commit, but "
+"collecting the `-x` annotations at the end of the landed commit log."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1067
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Commit message standards"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1068
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Marking MFCs"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1071
+msgid "The project has adopted the following practice for marking MFCs:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1073
+msgid ""
+"Use the `-x` flag with `git cherry-pick`. This adds a line to the commit "
+"message that includes the hash of the original commit when merging. Since it "
+"is added by Git directly, committers do not have to manually edit the commit "
+"log when merging."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1075
+msgid ""
+"When merging multiple commits, keep all the \"cherry picked from\" lines."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1076
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Trim Metadata?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1080
+msgid ""
+"One area that was not clearly documented with Subversion (or even CVS) is "
+"how to format metadata in log messages for MFC commits. Should it include "
+"the metadata from the original commit unchanged, or should it be altered to "
+"reflect information about the MFC commit itself?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1089
+msgid ""
+"Historical practice has varied, though some of the variance is by field. "
+"For example, MFCs that are relevant to a PR generally include the PR field "
+"in the MFC so that MFC commits are included in the bug tracker's audit "
+"trail. Other fields are less clear. For example, Phabricator shows the "
+"diff of the last commit tagged to a review, so including Phabricator URLs "
+"replaces the `main` commit with the landed commits. The list of reviewers "
+"is also not clear. If a reviewer has approved a change to `main`, does that "
+"mean they have approved the MFC commit? Is that true if it's identical code "
+"only, or with merely trivial rework? It's clearly not true for more "
+"extensive reworks. Even for identical code what if the commit doesn't "
+"conflict but introduces an ABI change? A reviewer may have ok'd a commit for "
+"`main` due to the ABI breakage but may not approve of merging the same "
+"commit as-is. One will have to use one's best judgment until clear "
+"guidelines can be agreed upon."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1093
+msgid ""
+"For MFCs regulated by re@, new metadata fields are added, such as the "
+"Approved by tag for approved commits. This new metadata will have to be "
+"added via `git commit --amend` or similar after the original commit has been "
+"reviewed and approved. We may also want to reserve some metadata fields in "
+"MFC commits such as Phabricator URLs for use by re@ in the future."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1096
+msgid ""
+"Preserving existing metadata provides a very simple workflow. Developers "
+"can just use `git cherry-pick -x` without having to edit the log message."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1099
+msgid ""
+"If instead we choose to adjust metadata in MFCs, developers will have to "
+"edit log messages explicitly via the use of `git cherry-pick --edit` or `git "
+"commit --amend`. However, as compared to svn, at least the existing commit "
+"message can be pre-populated and metadata fields can be added or removed "
+"without having to re-enter the entire commit message."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1101
+msgid ""
+"The bottom line is that developers will likely need to curate their commit "
+"message for MFCs that are non-trivial."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1102
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Examples"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1104
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Merging a Single Subversion Commit"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1108
+msgid ""
+"This walks through the process of merging a commit to stable/12 that was "
+"originally committed to head in Subversion. In this case, the original "
+"commit is r368685."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1111
+msgid ""
+"The first step is to map the Subversion commit to a Git hash. Once you have "
+"fetched refs/notes/commits, you can pass the revision number to `git log --"
+"grep`:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1118
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git log main --grep 368685\n"
+"commit ce8395ecfda2c8e332a2adf9a9432c2e7f35ea81\n"
+"Author: John Baldwin <jhb@FreeBSD.org>\n"
+"Date: Wed Dec 16 00:11:30 2020 +0000\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1120
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1159
+#, no-wrap
+msgid " Use the 't' modifier to print a ptrdiff_t.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1125
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" Reviewed by: imp\n"
+" Obtained from: CheriBSD\n"
+" Sponsored by: DARPA\n"
+" Differential Revision: https://reviews.freebsd.org/D27576\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1128
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Notes:\n"
+" svn path=/head/; revision=368685\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1131
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1224
+msgid "Next, MFC the commit to a `stable/12` checkout:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1136
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"git checkout stable/12\n"
+"git cherry-pick -x ce8395ecfda2c8e332a2adf9a9432c2e7f35ea81 --edit\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1141
+msgid ""
+"Git will invoke the editor. Use this to remove the metadata that only "
+"applied to the original commit (Phabricator URL and Reviewed by). After the "
+"editor saves the updated log message, Git completes the commit:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1147
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"[stable/12 3e3a548c4874] Use the 't' modifier to print a ptrdiff_t.\n"
+" Date: Wed Dec 16 00:11:30 2020 +0000\n"
+" 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1150
+msgid "The contents of the MFCd commit can be examined via `git show`:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1157
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git show\n"
+"commit 3e3a548c487450825679e4bd63d8d1a67fd8bd2d (HEAD -> stable/12)\n"
+"Author: John Baldwin <jhb@FreeBSD.org>\n"
+"Date: Wed Dec 16 00:11:30 2020 +0000\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1162
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" Obtained from: CheriBSD\n"
+" Sponsored by: DARPA\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1164
+#, no-wrap
+msgid " (cherry picked from commit ce8395ecfda2c8e332a2adf9a9432c2e7f35ea81)\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1178
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"diff --git a/sys/compat/linuxkpi/common/include/linux/printk.h b/sys/compat/linuxkpi/common/include/linux/printk.h\n"
+"index 31802bdd2c99..e6510e9e9834 100644\n"
+"--- a/sys/compat/linuxkpi/common/include/linux/printk.h\n"
+"+++ b/sys/compat/linuxkpi/common/include/linux/printk.h\n"
+"@@ -68,7 +68,7 @@ print_hex_dump(const char *level, const char *prefix_str,\n"
+" printf(\"[%p] \", buf);\n"
+" break;\n"
+" case DUMP_PREFIX_OFFSET:\n"
+"- printf(\"[%p] \", (const char *)((const char *)buf -\n"
+"+ printf(\"[%#tx] \", ((const char *)buf -\n"
+" (const char *)buf_old));\n"
+" break;\n"
+" default:\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1181
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1343
+msgid "The MFC commit can now be published via `git push`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1193
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git push freebsd\n"
+"Enumerating objects: 17, done.\n"
+"Counting objects: 100% (17/17), done.\n"
+"Delta compression using up to 4 threads\n"
+"Compressing objects: 100% (7/7), done.\n"
+"Writing objects: 100% (9/9), 817 bytes | 204.00 KiB/s, done.\n"
+"Total 9 (delta 5), reused 1 (delta 1), pack-reused 0\n"
+"To gitrepo-dev.FreeBSD.org:src.git\n"
+" 525bd9c9dda7..3e3a548c4874 stable/12 -> stable/12\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1195
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Merging a Single Subversion Commit with a Conflict"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1199
+msgid ""
+"This example is similar to the previous example except that the commit in "
+"question encounters a merge conflict. In this case, the original commit is "
+"r368314."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1201
+msgid "As above, the first step is to map the Subversion commit to a Git hash:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1208
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git log main --grep 368314\n"
+"commit 99963f5343a017e934e4d8ea2371a86789a46ff9\n"
+"Author: John Baldwin <jhb@FreeBSD.org>\n"
+"Date: Thu Dec 3 22:01:13 2020 +0000\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1210
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1298
+#, no-wrap
+msgid " Don't transmit mbufs that aren't yet ready on TOE sockets.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1213
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1301
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" This includes mbufs waiting for data from sendfile() I/O requests, or\n"
+" mbufs awaiting encryption for KTLS.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1218
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" Reviewed by: np\n"
+" MFC after: 2 weeks\n"
+" Sponsored by: Chelsio Communications\n"
+" Differential Revision: https://reviews.freebsd.org/D27469\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1221
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Notes:\n"
+" svn path=/head/; revision=368314\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1237
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout stable/12\n"
+"% git cherry-pick -x 99963f5343a017e934e4d8ea2371a86789a46ff9 --edit\n"
+"Auto-merging sys/dev/cxgbe/tom/t4_cpl_io.c\n"
+"CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in sys/dev/cxgbe/tom/t4_cpl_io.c\n"
+"warning: inexact rename detection was skipped due to too many files.\n"
+"warning: you may want to set your merge.renamelimit variable to at least 7123 and retry the command.\n"
+"error: could not apply 99963f5343a0... Don't transmit mbufs that aren't yet ready on TOE sockets.\n"
+"hint: after resolving the conflicts, mark the corrected paths\n"
+"hint: with 'git add <paths>' or 'git rm <paths>'\n"
+"hint: and commit the result with 'git commit'\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1242
+msgid ""
+"In this case, the commit encountered a merge conflict in sys/dev/cxge/tom/"
+"t4_cpl_io.c as kernel TLS is not present in stable/12. Note that Git does "
+"not invoke an editor to adjust the commit message due to the conflict. `git "
+"status` confirms that this file has merge conflicts:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1248
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1268
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git status\n"
+"On branch stable/12\n"
+"Your branch is up to date with 'upstream/stable/12'.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1253
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"You are currently cherry-picking commit 99963f5343a0.\n"
+" (fix conflicts and run \"git cherry-pick --continue\")\n"
+" (use \"git cherry-pick --skip\" to skip this patch)\n"
+" (use \"git cherry-pick --abort\" to cancel the cherry-pick operation)\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1257
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Unmerged paths:\n"
+" (use \"git add <file>...\" to mark resolution)\n"
+" both modified: sys/dev/cxgbe/tom/t4_cpl_io.c\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1259
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "no changes added to commit (use \"git add\" and/or \"git commit -a\")\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1262
+msgid ""
+"After editing the file to resolve the conflict, `git status` shows the "
+"conflict as resolved:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1273
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"You are currently cherry-picking commit 99963f5343a0.\n"
+" (all conflicts fixed: run \"git cherry-pick --continue\")\n"
+" (use \"git cherry-pick --skip\" to skip this patch)\n"
+" (use \"git cherry-pick --abort\" to cancel the cherry-pick operation)\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1276
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Changes to be committed:\n"
+" modified: sys/dev/cxgbe/tom/t4_cpl_io.c\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1279
+msgid "The cherry-pick can now be completed:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1283
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git cherry-pick --continue\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1287
+msgid ""
+"Since there was a merge conflict, Git invokes the editor to adjust the "
+"commit message. Trim the metadata fields from the commit log from the "
+"original commit to head and save the updated log message."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1289
+msgid "The contents of the MFC commit can be examined via `git show`:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1296
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git show\n"
+"commit 525bd9c9dda7e7c7efad2d4570c7fd8e1a8ffabc (HEAD -> stable/12)\n"
+"Author: John Baldwin <jhb@FreeBSD.org>\n"
+"Date: Thu Dec 3 22:01:13 2020 +0000\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1303
+#, no-wrap
+msgid " Sponsored by: Chelsio Communications\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1305
+#, no-wrap
+msgid " (cherry picked from commit 99963f5343a017e934e4d8ea2371a86789a46ff9)\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1313
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"diff --git a/sys/dev/cxgbe/tom/t4_cpl_io.c b/sys/dev/cxgbe/tom/t4_cpl_io.c\n"
+"index 8e8c2b8639e6..43861f10b689 100644\n"
+"--- a/sys/dev/cxgbe/tom/t4_cpl_io.c\n"
+"+++ b/sys/dev/cxgbe/tom/t4_cpl_io.c\n"
+"@@ -746,6 +746,8 @@ t4_push_frames(struct adapter *sc, struct toepcb *toep, int drop)\n"
+" for (m = sndptr; m != NULL; m = m->m_next) {\n"
+" int n;\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1320
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"+ if ((m->m_flags & M_NOTAVAIL) != 0)\n"
+"+ break;\n"
+" if (IS_AIOTX_MBUF(m))\n"
+" n = sglist_count_vmpages(aiotx_mbuf_pages(m),\n"
+" aiotx_mbuf_pgoff(m), m->m_len);\n"
+"@@ -821,8 +823,9 @@ t4_push_frames(struct adapter *sc, struct toepcb *toep, int drop)\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1330
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" /* nothing to send */\n"
+" if (plen == 0) {\n"
+"- KASSERT(m == NULL,\n"
+"- (\"%s: nothing to send, but m != NULL\", __func__));\n"
+"+ KASSERT(m == NULL || (m->m_flags & M_NOTAVAIL) != 0,\n"
+"+ (\"%s: nothing to send, but m != NULL is ready\",\n"
+"+ __func__));\n"
+" break;\n"
+" }\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1333
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"@@ -910,7 +913,7 @@ t4_push_frames(struct adapter *sc, struct toepcb *toep, int drop)\n"
+" toep->txsd_avail--;\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1337
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" t4_l2t_send(sc, wr, toep->l2te);\n"
+"- } while (m != NULL);\n"
+"+ } while (m != NULL && (m->m_flags & M_NOTAVAIL) == 0);\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1340
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+" /* Send a FIN if requested, but only if there's no more data to send */\n"
+" if (m == NULL && toep->flags & TPF_SEND_FIN)\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1355
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"git push freebsd\n"
+"Enumerating objects: 13, done.\n"
+"Counting objects: 100% (13/13), done.\n"
+"Delta compression using up to 4 threads\n"
+"Compressing objects: 100% (7/7), done.\n"
+"Writing objects: 100% (7/7), 819 bytes | 117.00 KiB/s, done.\n"
+"Total 7 (delta 6), reused 0 (delta 0), pack-reused 0\n"
+"To gitrepo.FreeBSD.org:src.git\n"
+" f4d0bc6aa6b9..525bd9c9dda7 stable/12 -> stable/12\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1358
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Vendor Imports with Git"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1361
+msgid "This section describes the vendor import procedure with Git in detail."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1362
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Branch naming convention"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1365
+msgid ""
+"All vendor branches and tags start with `vendor/`. These branches and tags "
+"are visible by default."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1370
+msgid ""
+"This chapter follows the convention that the `freebsd` origin is the origin "
+"name for the official FreeBSD Git repository. If you use a different "
+"convention, replace `freebsd` with the name you use instead in the examples "
+"below."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1374
+msgid ""
+"We will explore an example for updating NetBSD's mtree that is in our tree. "
+"The vendor branch for this is `vendor/NetBSD/mtree`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1375
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Updating an old vendor import"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1381
+msgid ""
+"The vendor trees usually have only the subset of the third-party software "
+"that is appropriate to FreeBSD. These trees are usually tiny in comparison "
+"to the FreeBSD tree. Git worktrees are thus quite small and fast and the "
+"preferred method to use. Make sure that whatever directory you choose below "
+"(the `../mtree`) does not currently exist."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1385
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git worktree add ../mtree vendor/NetBSD/mtree\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1387
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Update the Sources in the Vendor Branch"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1390
+msgid ""
+"Prepare a full, clean tree of the vendor sources. Import everything but "
+"merge only what is needed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1394
+msgid ""
+"This example assumes the NetBSD source is checked out from their GitHub "
+"mirror in `~/git/NetBSD`. Note that \"upstream\" might have added or "
+"removed files, so we want to make sure deletions are propagated as well. "
+"package:net/rsync[] is commonly installed, so I'll use that."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1408
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cd ../mtree\n"
+"% rsync -va --del --exclude=\".git\" ~/git/NetBSD/usr.sbin/mtree/ .\n"
+"% git add -A\n"
+"% git status\n"
+"...\n"
+"% git diff --staged\n"
+"...\n"
+"% git commit -m \"Vendor import of NetBSD's mtree at 2020-12-11\"\n"
+"[vendor/NetBSD/mtree 8e7aa25fcf1] Vendor import of NetBSD's mtree at 2020-12-11\n"
+" 7 files changed, 114 insertions(+), 82 deletions(-)\n"
+"% git tag -a vendor/NetBSD/mtree/20201211\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1412
+msgid ""
+"Note: I run the `git diff` and `git status` commands to make sure nothing "
+"weird was present. Also I used `-m` to illustrate, but you should compose a "
+"proper message in an editor (using a commit message template)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1417
+msgid ""
+"It is also important to create an annotated tag using `git tag -a`, "
+"otherwise the push will be rejected. Only annotated tags are allowed to be "
+"pushed. The annotated tag gives you a chance to enter a commit message. "
+"Enter the version you are importing, along with any salient new features or "
+"fixes in that version."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1418
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Updating the FreeBSD Copy"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1421
+msgid "At this point you can push the import to `vendor` into our repo."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1425
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git push --follow-tags freebsd vendor/NetBSD/mtree\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1428
+msgid ""
+"`--follow-tags` tells `git push` to also push tags associated with the "
+"locally committed revision."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1429
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Updating the FreeBSD source tree"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1433
+msgid ""
+"Now you need to update the mtree in FreeBSD. The sources live in `contrib/"
+"mtree` since it is upstream software."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1438
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cd ../src\n"
+"% git subtree merge -P contrib/mtree vendor/NetBSD/mtree\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1443
+msgid ""
+"This would generate a subtree merge commit of `contrib/mtree` against the "
+"local `vendor/NetBSD/mtree` branch. If there were conflicts, you would need "
+"to fix them before committing. Include details about the changes being "
+"merged in the merge commit message."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1444
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Rebasing your change against latest FreeBSD source tree"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1447
+msgid ""
+"Because the current policy recommends against using merges, if the upstream "
+"FreeBSD `main` moved forward before you get a chance to push, you would have "
+"to redo the merge."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1450
+msgid ""
+"Regular `git rebase` or `git pull --rebase` doesn't know how to rebase a "
+"merge commit **as a merge commit**, so instead of that you would have to "
+"recreate the commit."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1452
+msgid ""
+"The easiest way to do this would be to create a side branch with the "
+"**contents** of the merged tree:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1459
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cd ../src\n"
+"% git fetch freebsd\n"
+"% git checkout -b merge_result\n"
+"% git merge freebsd/main\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1463
+msgid ""
+"Typically, there would be no merge conflicts here (because developers tend "
+"to work on different components). In the worst case scenario, you would "
+"still have to resolve merge conflicts, if there was any, but this should be "
+"really rare."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1465
+msgid "Now, checkout `freebsd/main` again as `new_merge`, and redo the merge:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1470
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout -b new_merge freebsd/main\n"
+"% git subtree merge -P contrib/mtree vendor/NetBSD/mtree\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1473
+msgid "Instead of resolving the conflicts, perform this instead:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1477
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git checkout merge_result .\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1480
+msgid ""
+"Which will overwrite the files with conflicts with the version found in "
+"`merge_result`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1482
+msgid ""
+"Examine the tree against `merge_result` to make sure that you haven't missed "
+"deleted files:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1486
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git diff merge_result\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1488
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Pushing the changes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1493
+msgid ""
+"Once you are sure that you have a set of deltas you think is good, you can "
+"push it to a fork off GitHub or GitLab for others to review. One nice thing "
+"about Git is that it allows you to publish rough drafts of your work for "
+"others to review. While Phabricator is good for content review, publishing "
+"the updated vendor branch and merge commits lets others check the details as "
+"they will eventually appear in the repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1495
+msgid ""
+"After review, when you are sure it is a good change, you can push it to the "
+"FreeBSD repo:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1499
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git push freebsd main\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1501
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Creating a new vendor branch"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1508
+msgid ""
+"There are a number of ways to create a new vendor branch. The recommended "
+"way is to create a new repository and then merge that with FreeBSD. If one "
+"is importing `glorbnitz` into the FreeBSD tree, release 3.1415. For the "
+"sake of simplicity, we will not trim this release. It is a simple user "
+"command that puts the nitz device into different magical glorb states and is "
+"small enough trimming will not save much."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1509
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Create the repo"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1518
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cd /some/where\n"
+"% mkdir glorbnitz\n"
+"% cd glorbnitz\n"
+"% git init\n"
+"% git checkout -b vendor/glorbnitz\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1521
+msgid ""
+"At this point, you have a new repo, where all new commits will go on the "
+"`vendor/glorbnitz` branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1523
+msgid ""
+"Git experts can also do this right in their FreeBSD clone, using `git "
+"checkout --orphan vendor/glorbnitz` if they are more comfortable with that."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1524
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Copy the sources in"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1528
+msgid ""
+"Since this is a new import, you can just cp the sources in, or use tar or "
+"even rsync as shown above. And we will add everything, assuming no dot "
+"files."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1533
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cp -r ~/glorbnitz/* .\n"
+"% git add *\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1536
+msgid ""
+"At this point, you should have a pristine copy of glorbnitz ready to commit."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1540
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git commit -m \"Import GlorbNitz frobnosticator revision 3.1415\"\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1544
+msgid ""
+"As above, I used `-m` for simplicity, but you should likely create a commit "
+"message that explains what a Glorb is and why you'd use a Nitz to get it. "
+"Not everybody will know so, for your actual commit, you should follow the "
+"<<commit-log-message,commit log message>> section instead of emulating the "
+"brief style used here."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1545
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Now import it into our repository"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1548
+msgid "Now you need to import the branch into our repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1554
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cd /path/to/freebsd/repo/src\n"
+"% git remote add glorbnitz /some/where/glorbnitz\n"
+"% git fetch glorbnitz vendor/glorbnitz\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. perhaps the real treasure was the friends it made along the way...
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1558
+msgid ""
+"Note the vendor/glorbnitz branch is in the repo. At this point the `/some/"
+"where/glorbnitz` can be deleted, if you like. It was only a means to an end."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1560
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Tag and push"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1563
+msgid ""
+"Steps from here on out are much the same as they are in the case of updating "
+"a vendor branch, though without the updating the vendor branch step."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1571
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git worktree add ../glorbnitz vendor/glorbnitz\n"
+"% cd ../glorbnitz\n"
+"% git tag --annotate vendor/glorbnitz/3.1415\n"
+"# Make sure the commit is good with \"git show\"\n"
+"% git push --follow-tags freebsd vendor/glorbnitz\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1574
+msgid "By 'good' we mean:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1576
+msgid "All the right files are present"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1577
+msgid "None of the wrong files are present"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1578
+msgid "The vendor branch points at something sensible"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1579
+msgid "The tag looks good, and is annotated"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1580
+msgid ""
+"The commit message for the tag has a quick summary of what's new since the "
+"last tag"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1581
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Time to finally merge it into the base tree"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1590
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cd ../src\n"
+"% git subtree add -P contrib/glorbnitz vendor/glorbnitz\n"
+"# Make sure the commit is good with \"git show\"\n"
+"% git commit --amend # one last sanity check on commit message\n"
+"% git push freebsd\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1593
+msgid "Here 'good' means:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1595
+msgid ""
+"All the right files, and none of the wrong ones, were merged into contrib/"
+"glorbnitz."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1596
+msgid "No other changes are in the tree."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1597
+msgid ""
+"The commit messages look <<commit-log-message,good>>. It should contain a "
+"summary of what's changed since the last merge to the FreeBSD main line and "
+"any caveats."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1598
+msgid ""
+"UPDATING should be updated if there is anything of note, such as user "
+"visible changes, important upgrade concerns, etc."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1603
+msgid ""
+"This hasn't connected `glorbnitz` to the build yet. How so do that is "
+"specific to the software being imported and is beyond the scope of this "
+"tutorial."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1605
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "FreeBSD Src Committer Transition Guide"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1608
+msgid ""
+"This section is designed to walk people through the conversion process from "
+"Subversion to Git, written from the source committer's point of view."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1609
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Migrating from a Subversion tree"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1613
+msgid ""
+"This section will cover a couple of common scenarios for migrating from "
+"using the FreeBSD Subversion repo to the FreeBSD source Git repo. The "
+"FreeBSD Git conversion is still in beta status, so some minor things may "
+"change between this and going into production."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1616
+msgid ""
+"The first thing to do is install Git. Any version of Git will do, though the "
+"latest one in ports / packages generally will be good. Either build it from "
+"ports, or install it using pkg (though some folks might use `su` or `doas` "
+"instead of `sudo`):"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1620
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% sudo pkg install git\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1622
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "No staged changes migration"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1628
+msgid ""
+"If you have no changes pending, the migration is straightforward. In this, "
+"you abandon the Subversion tree and clone the Git repository. It's likely "
+"best to retain your Subversion tree, in case there's something you've "
+"forgotten about there. First, let's clone the repository:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1632
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git clone -o freebsd --config remote.freebsd.fetch='+refs/notes/*:refs/notes/*' https://git.freebsd.org/src.git freebsd-src\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1640
+msgid ""
+"will create a clone of the FreeBSD src repository into a subdirectory called "
+"`freebsd-src` and include the 'notes' about the revisions. We are currently "
+"mirroring the source repository to https://github.com/freebsd/freebsd-src."
+"git as well. https://github.com/freebsd/freebsd-legacy.git has the old "
+"GitHub mirror with the old hashes should you need that for your migration. "
+"The GitHub `master` branch has been frozen. As the default in Git has "
+"changed, we've shifted from `master` to `main`; the new repository uses "
+"`main`. We also mirror the repository to GitLab at https://gitlab.com/"
+"FreeBSD/src.git ."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1645
+msgid ""
+"It's useful to have the old Subversion revisions available. This data is "
+"stored using Git notes, but Git doesn't fetch those by default. The --"
+"config and the argument above changed the default to fetch the notes. If "
+"you've cloned the repository without this, or wish to add notes to a "
+"previously cloned repository, use the following commands:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1650
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git config --add remote.freebsd.fetch \"+refs/notes/*:refs/notes/*\"\n"
+"% git fetch\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1653
+msgid ""
+"At this point you have the src checked out into a Git tree, ready to do "
+"other things."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1654
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "But I have changes that I've not committed"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1657
+msgid ""
+"If you are migrating from a tree that has changes you've not yet committed "
+"to FreeBSD, you'll need to follow the steps from the previous section first, "
+"and then follow these."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1664
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cd path-to-svn-checkout-tree\n"
+"% svn diff > /tmp/src.diff\n"
+"% cd _mumble_/freebsd-src\n"
+"% git checkout -b working\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1668
+msgid ""
+"This will create a diff of your current changes. The last command creates a "
+"branch called `working` though you can call it whatever you want."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1672
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git apply /tmp/src.diff\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1676
+msgid ""
+"this will apply all your pending changes to the working tree. This doesn't "
+"commit the change, so you'll need to make this permanent:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1681
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git add _files_\n"
+"% git commit\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1686
+msgid ""
+"The last command will commit these changes to the branch. The editor will "
+"prompt you for a commit message. Enter one as if you were committing to "
+"FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1688
+msgid "At this point, your work is preserved, and in the Git repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1689
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Keeping current"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1695
+msgid ""
+"So, time passes. It's time now to update the tree for the latest changes "
+"upstream. When you checkout `main` make sure that you have no diffs. It's "
+"a lot easier to commit those to a branch (or use `git stash`) before doing "
+"the following."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1698
+msgid ""
+"If you are used to `git pull`, we strongly recommend using the `--ff-only` "
+"option, and further setting it as the default option. Alternatively, `git "
+"pull --rebase` is useful if you have changes staged in the main branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1702
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git config --global pull.ff only\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1705
+msgid ""
+"You may need to omit the --global if you want this setting to apply to only "
+"this repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1711
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cd freebsd-src\n"
+"% git checkout main\n"
+"% git pull (--ff-only|--rebase)\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1715
+msgid ""
+"There is a common trap, that the combination command `git pull` will try to "
+"perform a merge, which would sometimes creates a merge commit that didn't "
+"exist before. This can be harder to recover from."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1717
+msgid "The longer form is also recommended."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1724
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cd freebsd-src\n"
+"% git checkout main\n"
+"% git fetch freebsd\n"
+"% git merge --ff-only freebsd/main\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1729
+msgid ""
+"These commands reset your tree to the main branch, and then update it from "
+"where you pulled the tree from originally. It's important to switch to "
+"`main` before doing this so it moves forward. Now, it's time to move the "
+"changes forward:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1733
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git rebase -i main working\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1740
+msgid ""
+"This will bring up an interactive screen to change the defaults. For now, "
+"just exit the editor. Everything should just apply. If not, then you'll "
+"need to resolve the diffs. https://docs.github.com/en/free-pro-team@latest/"
+"github/using-git/resolving-merge-conflicts-after-a-git-rebase[This github "
+"document] can help you navigate this process."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1742
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Time to push changes upstream"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1745
+msgid ""
+"First, ensure that the push URL is properly configured for the upstream "
+"repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1749
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1863
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git remote set-url --push freebsd ssh://git@gitrepo.freebsd.org/src.git\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1753
+msgid ""
+"Then, verify that user name and email are configured right. We require that "
+"they exactly match the passwd entry in FreeBSD cluster."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1755
+msgid "Use"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1759
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "freefall% gen-gitconfig.sh\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1762
+msgid ""
+"on freefall.freebsd.org to get a recipe that you can use directly, assuming /"
+"usr/local/bin is in the PATH."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1767
+msgid ""
+"The below command merges the `working` branch into the upstream main line. "
+"It's important that you curate your changes to be just like you want them in "
+"the FreeBSD source repo before doing this. This syntax pushes the `working` "
+"branch to main, moving the `main` branch forward. You will only be able to "
+"do this if this results in a linear change to `main` (e.g. no merges)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1771
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git push freebsd working:main\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1774
+msgid ""
+"If your push is rejected due to losing a commit race, rebase your branch "
+"before trying again:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1781
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout working\n"
+"% git fetch freebsd\n"
+"% git rebase freebsd/main\n"
+"% git push freebsd working:main\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1784
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Time to push changes upstream (alternative)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1789
+msgid ""
+"Some people find it easier to merge their changes to their local `main` "
+"before pushing to the remote repository. Also, `git arc stage` moves "
+"changes from a branch to the local `main` when you need to do a subset of a "
+"branch. The instructions are similar to the prior section:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1794
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout main\n"
+"% git merge --ff-only `working`\n"
+"% git push freebsd\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1797
+msgid "If you lose the race, then try again with"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1801
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git pull --rebase\n"
+"% git push freebsd\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1804
+msgid ""
+"These commands will fetch the most recent `freebsd/main` and then rebase the "
+"local `main` changes on top of that, which is what you want when you lose "
+"the commit race. Note: merging vendor branch commits will not work with "
+"this technique."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1805
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Finding the Subversion Revision"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1809
+msgid ""
+"You'll need to make sure that you've fetched the notes (see the `No staged "
+"changes migration` section above for details. Once you have these, notes "
+"will show up in the git log command like so:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1813
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git log\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1816
+msgid "If you have a specific version in mind, you can use this construct:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1820
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git log --grep revision=XXXX\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1824
+msgid ""
+"to find the specific revision. The hex number after 'commit' is the hash "
+"you can use to refer to this commit."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1825
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Migrating from GitHub fork"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1831
+msgid ""
+"Note: as of this writing, https://github.com/freebsd/freebsd-src is "
+"mirroring all official branches, along with a `master` branch which is the "
+"legacy svn2git result. The `master` branch will not be updated anymore, and "
+"the link:https://github.com/freebsd/freebsd-src/commit/"
+"de1aa3dab23c06fec962a14da3e7b4755c5880cf[last commit] contains the "
+"instructions for migrating to the new `main` branch. We'll retain the "
+"`master` branch for a certain time, but in the future it will only be kept "
+"in the link:https://github.com/freebsd/freebsd-legacy[freebsd-legacy] "
+"repository. In addition, link:https://github.com/freebsd/git_conv/wiki/"
+"Migrating-merge-based-project-from-legacy-git-tree[this article] has an "
+"earlier version of the last commit instructions that may be helpful."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1835
+msgid ""
+"When migrating branches from a GitHub fork from the old GitHub mirror to the "
+"official repo, the process is straight forward. This assumes that you have "
+"a `freebsd` upstream pointing to GitHub, adjust if necessary. This also "
+"assumes a clean tree before starting..."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1836
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Add the new `freebsd` upstream repository:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1843
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git remote add freebsd https://git.freebsd.org/src.git\n"
+"% git fetch freebsd\n"
+"% git checkout --track freebsd/main\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1845
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Rebase all your WIP branches."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1848
+msgid ""
+"For each branch FOO, do the following after fetching the `freebsd` sources "
+"and creating a local `main` branch with the above checkout:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1852
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git rebase -i freebsd/master FOO --onto main\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1856
+msgid ""
+"And you'll now be tracking the official repository. You can then follow the "
+"`Keeping Current` section above to stay up to date."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1859
+msgid ""
+"If you need to then commit work to FreeBSD, you can do so following the "
+"`Time to push changes upstream` instructions. You'll need to do the "
+"following once to update the push URL if you are a FreeBSD committer:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1866
+msgid ""
+"(note that gitrepo.freebsd.org will be change to repo.freebsd.org in the "
+"future.)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1869
+msgid ""
+"You will also need to add `freebsd` as the location to push to. The author "
+"recommends that your upstream GitHub repository remain the default push "
+"location so that you only push things into FreeBSD you intend to by making "
+"it explicit."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1871
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Git FAQ"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1874
+msgid ""
+"This section provides a number of targeted answers to questions that are "
+"likely to come up often for users and developers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1879
+msgid ""
+"We use the common convention of having the origin for the FreeBSD repository "
+"being 'freebsd' rather than the default 'origin' to allow people to use that "
+"for their own development and to minimize \"whoops\" pushes to the wrong "
+"repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1881
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Users"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1883
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "How do I track -current and -stable with only one copy of the repository?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1888
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**Q:** Although disk space is not a huge issue, it's more efficient to use only one copy of the repository.\n"
+"With SVN mirroring, I could checkout multiple trees from the same repository.\n"
+"How do I do this with Git?\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1892
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**A:** You can use Git worktrees.\n"
+"There's a number of ways to do this, but the simplest way is to use a clone to track -current, and a worktree to track stable releases.\n"
+"While using a 'bare repository' has been put forward as a way to cope, it's more complicated and will not be documented here.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1895
+msgid ""
+"First, you need to clone the FreeBSD repository, shown here cloning into "
+"`freebsd-current` to reduce confusion. $URL is whatever mirror works best "
+"for you:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1899
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git clone -o freebsd --config remote.freebsd.fetch='+refs/notes/*:refs/notes/*' $URL freebsd-current\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1902
+msgid "then once that's cloned, you can simply create a worktree from it:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1907
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cd freebsd-current\n"
+"% git worktree add ../freebsd-stable-12 stable/12\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1911
+msgid ""
+"this will checkout `stable/12` into a directory named `freebsd-stable-12` "
+"that's a peer to the `freebsd-current` directory. Once created, it's "
+"updated very similarly to how you might expect:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1921
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% cd freebsd-current\n"
+"% git checkout main\n"
+"% git pull --ff-only\n"
+"# changes from upstream now local and current tree updated\n"
+"% cd ../freebsd-stable-12\n"
+"% git merge --ff-only freebsd/stable/12\n"
+"# now your stable/12 is up to date too\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1924
+msgid ""
+"I recommend using `--ff-only` because it's safer and you avoid accidentally "
+"getting into a 'merge nightmare' where you have an extra change in your "
+"tree, forcing a complicated merge rather than a simple one."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1926
+msgid ""
+"Here's https://adventurist.me/posts/00296[a good writeup] that goes into "
+"more detail."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1927
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Developers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1929
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Ooops! I committed to `main` instead of a branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1932
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "**Q:** From time to time, I goof up and commit to main instead of to a branch. What do I do?\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1934
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "**A:** First, don't panic.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1938
+msgid ""
+"Second, don't push. In fact, you can fix almost anything if you haven't "
+"pushed. All the answers in this section assume no push has happened."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1940
+msgid ""
+"The following answer assumes you committed to `main` and want to create a "
+"branch called `issue`:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1946
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git branch issue # Create the 'issue' branch\n"
+"% git reset --hard freebsd/main # Reset 'main' back to the official tip\n"
+"% git checkout issue # Back to where you were\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1948
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Ooops! I committed something to the wrong branch!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1952
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**Q:** I was working on feature on the `wilma` branch, but accidentally committed a change relevant to the `fred` branch in 'wilma'.\n"
+"What do I do?\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1956
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**A:** The answer is similar to the previous one, but with cherry picking.\n"
+"This assumes there's only one commit on wilma, but will generalize to more complicated situations.\n"
+"It also assumes that it's the last commit on wilma (hence using wilma in the `git cherry-pick` command), but that too can be generalized.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1964
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"# We're on branch wilma\n"
+"% git checkout fred\t\t# move to fred branch\n"
+"% git cherry-pick wilma\t\t# copy the misplaced commit\n"
+"% git checkout wilma\t\t# go back to wilma branch\n"
+"% git reset --hard HEAD^\t# move what wilma refers to back 1 commit\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1968
+msgid ""
+"Git experts would first rewind the wilma branch by 1 commit, switch over to "
+"fred and then use `git reflog` to see what that 1 deleted commit was and "
+"cherry-pick it over."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1970
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "**Q:** But what if I want to commit a few changes to `main`, but keep the rest in `wilma` for some reason?\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1976
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**A:** The same technique above also works if you are wanting to 'land' parts of the branch you are working on into `main` before the rest of the branch is ready (say you noticed an unrelated typo, or fixed an incidental bug).\n"
+"You can cherry pick those changes into main, then push to the parent repository.\n"
+"Once you've done that, cleanup couldn't be simpler: just `git rebase -i`.\n"
+"Git will notice you've done this and skip the common changes automatically (even if you had to change the commit message or tweak the commit slightly).\n"
+"There's no need to switch back to wilma to adjust it: just rebase!\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1978
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "**Q:** I want to split off some changes from branch `wilma` into branch `fred`\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1984
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**A:** The more general answer would be the same as the previous.\n"
+"You'd checkout/create the `fred` branch, cherry pick the changes you want from `wilma` one at a time, then rebase `wilma` to remove those changes you cherry picked.\n"
+"`git rebase -i main wilma` will toss you into an editor, and remove the `pick` lines that correspond to the commits you copied to `fred`.\n"
+"If all goes well, and there are no conflicts, you're done.\n"
+"If not, you'll need to resolve the conflicts as you go.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1989
+msgid ""
+"The other way to do this would be to checkout `wilma` and then create the "
+"branch `fred` to point to the same point in the tree. You can then `git "
+"rebase -i` both these branches, selecting the changes you want in `fred` or "
+"`wilma` by retaining the pick likes, and deleting the rest from the editor. "
+"Some people would create a tag/branch called `pre-split` before starting in "
+"case something goes wrong in the split. You can undo it with the following "
+"sequence:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:1996
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout pre-split\t# Go back\n"
+"% git branch -D fred\t\t# delete the fred branch\n"
+"% git checkout -B wilma\t\t# reset the wilma branch\n"
+"% git branch -d pre-split\t# Pretend it didn't happen\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2000
+msgid ""
+"The last step is optional. If you are going to try again to split, you'd "
+"omit it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2004
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**Q:** But I did things as I read along and didn't see your advice at the end to create a branch, and now `fred` and `wilma` are all screwed up.\n"
+"How do I find what `wilma` was before I started.\n"
+"I don't know how many times I moved things around.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2006
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "**A:** All is not lost. You can figure out it, so long as it hasn't been too long, or too many commits (hundreds).\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2010
+msgid ""
+"So I created a wilma branch and committed a couple of things to it, then "
+"decided I wanted to split it into fred and wilma. Nothing weird happened "
+"when I did that, but let's say it did. The way to look at what you've done "
+"is with the `git reflog`:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2025
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git reflog\n"
+"6ff9c25 (HEAD -> wilma) HEAD@{0}: rebase -i (finish): returning to refs/heads/wilma\n"
+"6ff9c25 (HEAD -> wilma) HEAD@{1}: rebase -i (start): checkout main\n"
+"869cbd3 HEAD@{2}: rebase -i (start): checkout wilma\n"
+"a6a5094 (fred) HEAD@{3}: rebase -i (finish): returning to refs/heads/fred\n"
+"a6a5094 (fred) HEAD@{4}: rebase -i (pick): Encourage contributions\n"
+"1ccd109 (freebsd/main, main) HEAD@{5}: rebase -i (start): checkout main\n"
+"869cbd3 HEAD@{6}: rebase -i (start): checkout fred\n"
+"869cbd3 HEAD@{7}: checkout: moving from wilma to fred\n"
+"869cbd3 HEAD@{8}: commit: Encourage contributions\n"
+"...\n"
+"%\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2033
+msgid ""
+"Here we see the changes I've made. You can use it to figure out where "
+"things went wrong. I'll just point out a few things here. The first one is "
+"that HEAD@{X} is a 'commitish' thing, so you can use that as an argument to "
+"a command. Although if that command commits anything to the repository, the "
+"X numbers change. You can also use the hash (first column)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2041
+msgid ""
+"Next, 'Encourage contributions' was the last commit I made to `wilma` before "
+"I decided to split things up. You can also see the same hash is there when "
+"I created the `fred` branch to do that. I started by rebasing `fred` and "
+"you see the 'start', each step, and the 'finish' for that process. While we "
+"don't need it here, you can figure out exactly what happened. Fortunately, "
+"to fix this, you can follow the prior answer's steps, but with the hash "
+"`869cbd3` instead of `pre-split`. While that seems a bit verbose, it's easy "
+"to remember since you're doing one thing at a time. You can also stack:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2046
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout -B wilma 869cbd3\n"
+"% git branch -D fred\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2053
+msgid ""
+"and you are ready to try again. The 'checkout -B' with the hash combines "
+"checking out and creating a branch for it. The -B instead of -b forces the "
+"movement of a pre-existing branch. Either way works, which is what's great "
+"(and awful) about Git. One reason I tend to use `git checkout -B xxxx hash` "
+"instead of checking out the hash, and then creating / moving the branch is "
+"purely to avoid the slightly distressing message about detached heads:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2059
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout 869cbd3\n"
+"M\tfaq.md\n"
+"Note: checking out '869cbd3'.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2063
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"You are in 'detached HEAD' state. You can look around, make experimental\n"
+"changes and commit them, and you can discard any commits you make in this\n"
+"state without impacting any branches by performing another checkout.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2071
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"HEAD is now at 869cbd3 Encourage contributions\n"
+"% git checkout -B wilma\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2074
+msgid ""
+"this produces the same effect, but I have to read a lot more and severed "
+"heads aren't an image I like to contemplate."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2075
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Ooops! I did a `git pull` and it created a merge commit, what do I do?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2079
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**Q:** I was on autopilot and did a `git pull` for my development tree and that created a merge commit on the mainline.\n"
+"How do I recover?\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2081
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "**A:** This can happen when you invoke the pull with your development branch checked out.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2084
+msgid ""
+"Right after the pull, you will have the new merge commit checked out. Git "
+"supports a `HEAD^#` syntax to examine the parents of a merge commit:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2089
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"git log --oneline HEAD^1 # Look at the first parent's commits\n"
+"git log --oneline HEAD^2 # Look at the second parent's commits\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2093
+msgid ""
+"From those logs, you can easily identify which commit is your development "
+"work. Then you simply reset your branch to the corresponding `HEAD^#`:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2097
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "git reset --hard HEAD^2\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2100
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "**Q:** But I also need to fix my `main` branch. How do I do that?\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2103
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**A:** Git keeps track of the remote repository branches in a `freebsd/` namespace.\n"
+"To fix your `main` branch, just make it point to the remote's `main`:\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2107
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "git branch -f main freebsd/main\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2112
+msgid ""
+"There's nothing magical about branches in Git: they are just labels on a "
+"graph that are automatically moved forward by making commits. So the above "
+"works because you're just moving a label. There's no metadata about the "
+"branch that needs to be preserved due to this."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2113
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Mixing and matching branches"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2117
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**Q:** So I have two branches `worker` and `async` that I'd like to combine into one branch called `feature`\n"
+"while maintaining the commits in both.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2119
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "**A:** This is a job for cherry pick.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2125
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout worker\n"
+"% git checkout -b feature\t# create a new branch\n"
+"% git cherry-pick main..async\t# bring in the changes\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2130
+msgid ""
+"You now have a new branch called `feature`. This branch combines commits "
+"from both branches. You can further curate it with `git rebase`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2132
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "**Q:** I have a branch called `driver` and I'd like to break it up into `kernel` and `userland` so I can evolve them separately and commit each branch as it becomes ready.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2135
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**A:** This takes a little bit of prep work, but `git rebase` will do the heavy\n"
+"lifting here.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2141
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout driver\t\t# Checkout the driver\n"
+"% git checkout -b kernel\t# Create kernel branch\n"
+"% git checkout -b userland\t# Create userland branch\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2146
+msgid ""
+"Now you have two identical branches. So, it's time to separate out the "
+"commits. We'll assume first that all the commits in `driver` go into either "
+"the `kernel` or the `userland` branch, but not both."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2150
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git rebase -i main kernel\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2153
+msgid ""
+"and just include the changes you want (with a 'p' or 'pick' line) and just "
+"delete the commits you don't (this sounds scary, but if worse comes to "
+"worse, you can throw this all away and start over with the `driver` branch "
+"since you've not yet moved it)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2157
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git rebase -i main userland\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2160
+msgid "and do the same thing you did with the `kernel` branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2163
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**Q:** Oh great! I followed the above and forgot a commit in the `kernel` branch.\n"
+"How do I recover?\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2166
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**A:** You can use the `driver` branch to find the hash of the commit is missing and\n"
+"cherry pick it.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2172
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout kernel\n"
+"% git log driver\n"
+"% git cherry-pick $HASH\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2178
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**Q:** OK. I have the same situation as the above, but my commits are all mixed up.\n"
+"I need parts of one commit to go to one branch and the rest to go to the other.\n"
+"In fact, I have several.\n"
+"Your rebase method to select sounds tricky.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2181
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**A:** In this situation, you'd be better off to curate the original branch to separate\n"
+"out the commits, and then use the above method to split the branch.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2186
+msgid ""
+"So let's assume that there's just one commit with a clean tree. You can "
+"either use `git rebase` with an `edit` line, or you can use this with the "
+"commit on the tip. The steps are the same either way. The first thing we "
+"need to do is to back up one commit while leaving the changes uncommitted in "
+"the tree:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2190
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git reset HEAD^\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2193
+msgid ""
+"Note: Do not, repeat do not, add `--hard` here since that also removes the "
+"changes from your tree."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2197
+msgid ""
+"Now, if you are lucky, the change needing to be split up falls entirely "
+"along file lines. In that case you can just do the usual `git add` for the "
+"files in each group than do a `git commit`. Note: when you do this, you'll "
+"lose the commit message when you do the reset, so if you need it for some "
+"reason, you should save a copy (though `git log $HASH` can recover it)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2200
+msgid ""
+"If you are not lucky, you'll need to split apart files. There's another "
+"tool to do that which you can apply one file at a time."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2204
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "git add -i foo/bar.c\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2210
+msgid ""
+"will step through the diffs, prompting you, one at time, whether to include "
+"or exclude the hunk. Once you're done, `git commit` and you'll have the "
+"remainder in your tree. You can run it multiple times as well, and even "
+"over multiple files (though I find it easier to do one file at a time and "
+"use the `git rebase -i` to fold the related commits together)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2211
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Cloning and Mirroring"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2214
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "**Q:** I'd like to mirror the entire Git repository, how do I do that?\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2216
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "**A:** If all you want to do is mirror, then\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2220
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git clone --mirror $URL\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2224
+msgid ""
+"will do the trick. However, there are two disadvantages to this if you want "
+"to use it for anything other than a mirror you'll reclone."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2228
+msgid ""
+"First, this is a 'bare repository' which has the repository database, but no "
+"checked out worktree. This is great for mirroring, but terrible for day to "
+"day work. There's a number of ways around this with 'git worktree':"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2236
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git clone --mirror https://git.freebsd.org/ports.git ports.git\n"
+"% cd ports.git\n"
+"% git worktree add ../ports main\n"
+"% git worktree add ../quarterly branches/2020Q4\n"
+"% cd ../ports\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2239
+msgid ""
+"But if you aren't using your mirror for further local clones, then it's a "
+"poor match."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2242
+msgid ""
+"The second disadvantage is that Git normally rewrites the refs (branch name, "
+"tags, etc) from upstream so that your local refs can evolve independently of "
+"upstream. This means that you'll lose changes if you are committing to this "
+"repository on anything other than private project branches."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2244
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "**Q:** So what can I do instead?\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2247
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"**A:** Well, you can stuff all of the upstream repository's refs into a private namespace in your local repository.\n"
+"Git clones everything via a 'refspec' and the default refspec is:\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2251
+#, no-wrap
+msgid " fetch = +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/freebsd/*\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2254
+msgid "which says just fetch the branch refs."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2258
+msgid ""
+"However, the FreeBSD repository has a number of other things in it. To see "
+"those, you can add explicit refspecs for each ref namespace, or you can "
+"fetch everything. To setup your repository to do that:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2262
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "git config --add remote.freebsd.fetch '+refs/*:refs/freebsd/*'\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2266
+msgid ""
+"which will put everything in the upstream repository into your local "
+"repository's 'refs/freebsd/' namespace. Please note, that this also grabs "
+"all the unconverted vendor branches and the number of refs associated with "
+"them is quite large."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2268
+msgid ""
+"You'll need to refer to these 'refs' with their full name because they "
+"aren't in and of Git's regular namespaces."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2272
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "git log refs/freebsd/vendor/zlib/1.2.10\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2275
+msgid ""
+"would look at the log for the vendor branch for zlib starting at 1.2.10."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2276
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Collaborating with others"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2280
+msgid ""
+"One of the keys to good software development on a project as large as "
+"FreeBSD is the ability to collaborate with others before you push your "
+"changes to the tree. The FreeBSD project's Git repositories do not, yet, "
+"allow user-created branches to be pushed to the repository, and therefore if "
+"you wish to share your changes with others you must use another mechanism, "
+"such as a hosted GitLab or GitHub, in order to share changes in a user-"
+"generated branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2282
+msgid ""
+"The following instructions show how to set up a user-generated branch, based "
+"on the FreeBSD main branch, and push it to GitHub."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2284
+msgid ""
+"Before you begin, make sure that your local Git repo is up to date and has "
+"the correct origins set <<keeping_current,as shown above.>>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2291
+msgid ""
+"```` % git remote -v freebsd https://git.freebsd.org/src.git (fetch) "
+"freebsd ssh://git@gitrepo.freebsd.org/src.git (push) ````"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2294
+msgid ""
+"The first step is to create a fork of https://github.com/freebsd/freebsd-"
+"src[FreeBSD] on GitHub following these https://docs.github.com/en/github/"
+"getting-started-with-github/fork-a-repo[guidelines]. The destination of the "
+"fork should be your own, personal, GitHub account (gvnn3 in my case)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2296
+msgid "Now add a remote on your local system that points to your fork:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2304
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git remote add github git@github.com:gvnn3/freebsd-src.git\n"
+"% git remote -v\n"
+"github\tgit@github.com:gvnn3/freebsd-src.git (fetch)\n"
+"github\tgit@github.com:gvnn3/freebsd-src.git (push)\n"
+"freebsd\thttps://git.freebsd.org/src.git (fetch)\n"
+"freebsd\tssh://git@gitrepo.freebsd.org/src.git (push)\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2306
+msgid ""
+"With this in place you can create a branch <<keeping_a_local_branch,as shown "
+"above.>>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2310
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% git checkout -b gnn-pr2001-fix\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2314
+msgid ""
+"Make whatever modifications you wish in your branch. Build, test, and once "
+"you're ready to collaborate with others it's time to push your changes into "
+"your hosted branch. Before you can push you'll have to set the appropriate "
+"upstream, as Git will tell you the first time you try to push to your +github"
+"+ remote:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2320
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git push github\n"
+"fatal: The current branch gnn-pr2001-fix has no upstream branch.\n"
+"To push the current branch and set the remote as upstream, use\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2322
+#, no-wrap
+msgid " git push --set-upstream github gnn-pr2001-fix\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2325
+msgid "Setting the push as +git+ advises allows it to succeed:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2343
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git push --set-upstream github gnn-feature\n"
+"Enumerating objects: 20486, done.\n"
+"Counting objects: 100% (20486/20486), done.\n"
+"Delta compression using up to 8 threads\n"
+"Compressing objects: 100% (12202/12202), done.\n"
+"Writing objects: 100% (20180/20180), 56.25 MiB | 13.15 MiB/s, done.\n"
+"Total 20180 (delta 11316), reused 12972 (delta 7770), pack-reused 0\n"
+"remote: Resolving deltas: 100% (11316/11316), completed with 247 local objects.\n"
+"remote:\n"
+"remote: Create a pull request for 'gnn-feature' on GitHub by visiting:\n"
+"remote: https://github.com/gvnn3/freebsd-src/pull/new/gnn-feature\n"
+"remote:\n"
+"To github.com:gvnn3/freebsd-src.git\n"
+" * [new branch] gnn-feature -> gnn-feature\n"
+"Branch 'gnn-feature' set up to track remote branch 'gnn-feature' from 'github'.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2346
+msgid "Subsequent changes to the same branch will push correctly by default:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2359
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git push\n"
+"Enumerating objects: 4, done.\n"
+"Counting objects: 100% (4/4), done.\n"
+"Delta compression using up to 8 threads\n"
+"Compressing objects: 100% (2/2), done.\n"
+"Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 314 bytes | 1024 bytes/s, done.\n"
+"Total 3 (delta 1), reused 1 (delta 0), pack-reused 0\n"
+"remote: Resolving deltas: 100% (1/1), completed with 1 local object.\n"
+"To github.com:gvnn3/freebsd-src.git\n"
+" 9e5243d7b659..cf6aeb8d7dda gnn-feature -> gnn-feature\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2363
+msgid ""
+"At this point your work is now in your branch on +GitHub+ and you can share "
+"the link with other collaborators."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2365
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Landing a github pull request"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2370
+msgid ""
+"This section documents how to land a GitHub pull request that's submitted "
+"against the FreeBSD Git mirrors at GitHub. While this is not an official "
+"way to submit patches at this time, sometimes good fixes come in this way "
+"and it is easiest just to bring them into a committer's tree and have them "
+"pushed into the FreeBSD's tree from there. Similar steps can be used to "
+"pull branches from other repositories and land those. When committing pull "
+"requests from others, one should take extra care to examine all the changes "
+"to ensure they are exactly as represented."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2373
+msgid ""
+"Before beginning, make sure that the local Git repo is up to date and has "
+"the correct origins set <<keeping_current,as shown above.>> In addition, "
+"make sure to have the following origins:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2380
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git remote -v\n"
+"freebsd https://git.freebsd.org/src.git (fetch)\n"
+"freebsd ssh://git@gitrepo.freebsd.org/src.git (push)\n"
+"github https://github.com/freebsd/freebsd-src (fetch)\n"
+"github https://github.com/freebsd/freebsd-src (fetch)\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2395
+msgid ""
+"Often pull requests are simple: requests that contain only a single commit. "
+"In this case, a streamlined approach may be used, though the approach in the "
+"prior section will also work. Here, a branch is created, the change is "
+"cherry picked, the commit message adjusted, and sanity-checked before being "
+"pushed. The branch `staging` is used in this example but it can be any "
+"name. This technique works for any number of commits in the pull request, "
+"especially when the changes apply cleanly to the FreeBSD tree. However, "
+"when there's multiple commits, especially when minor adjustments are needed, "
+"`git rebase -i` works better than `git cherry-pick`. Briefly, these "
+"commands create a branch; cherry-picks the changes from the pull request; "
+"tests it; adjusts the commit messages; and fast forward merges it back to "
+"`main`. The PR number is `$PR` below. When adjusting the message, add "
+"`Pull Request: https://github.com/freebsd-src/pull/$PR`. All pull requests "
+"committed to the FreeBSD repository should be reviewed by at least one "
+"person. This need not be the person committing it, but in that case the "
+"person committing it should trust the other reviewers competence to review "
+"the commit. Committers that do a code review of pull requests before "
+"pushing them into the repo should add a `Reviewed by:` line to the commit, "
+"because in this case it is not implicit. Add anybody that reviews and "
+"approves the commit on github to `Reviewed by:` as well. As always, care "
+"should be taken to ensure the change does what it is supposed to, and that "
+"no malicious code is present."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2399
+msgid ""
+"In addition, please check to make sure that the pull request author name is "
+"not anonymous. Github's web editing interface generates names like:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2402
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Author: github-user <38923459+github-user@users.noreply.github.com>\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2405
+msgid ""
+"A polite request to the author for a better name and/or email should be "
+"made. Extra care should be taken to ensure no style issue or malicious code "
+"is introduced."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2418
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git fetch github pull/$PR/head:staging\n"
+"% git rebase -i main staging\t# to move the staging branch forward, adjust commit message here\n"
+"<do testing here, as needed>\n"
+"% git checkout main\n"
+"% git pull --ff-only\t\t# to get the latest if time has passed\n"
+"% git checkout main\n"
+"% git merge --ff-only staging\n"
+"<test again if needed>\n"
+"% git push freebsd --push-option=confirm-author\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2423
+msgid ""
+"For complicated pull requests that have multiple commits with conflicts, "
+"follow the following outline."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2425
+msgid "checkout the pull request `git checkout github/pull/XXX`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2426
+msgid "create a branch to rebase `git checkout -b staging`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2427
+msgid ""
+"rebase the `staging` branch to the latest `main` with `git rebase -i main "
+"staging`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2428
+msgid "resolve conflicts and do whatever testing is needed"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2429
+msgid "fast forward the `staging` branch into `main` as above"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2430
+msgid "final sanity check of changes to make sure all is well"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2431
+msgid "push to FreeBSD's Git repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2433
+msgid ""
+"This will also work when bringing branches developed elsewhere into the "
+"local tree for committing."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2436
+msgid ""
+"Once finished with the pull request, close it using GitHub's web interface. "
+"It is worth noting that if your `github` origin uses `https://`, the only "
+"step you'll need a GitHub account for is closing the pull request."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2438
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Version Control History"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2441
+msgid "The project has moved to <<git-primer,git>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2447
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD source repository switched from CVS to Subversion on May 31st, "
+"2008. The first real SVN commit is __r179447__. The source repository "
+"switched from Subversion to Git on December 23rd, 2020. The last real svn "
+"commit is __r368820__. The first real git commit hash is "
+"__5ef5f51d2bef80b0ede9b10ad5b0e9440b60518c__."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2453
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD `doc/www` repository switched from CVS to Subversion on May "
+"19th, 2012. The first real SVN commit is __r38821__. The documentation "
+"repository switched from Subversion to Git on December 8th, 2020. The last "
+"SVN commit is __r54737__. The first real git commit hash is "
+"__3be01a475855e7511ad755b2defd2e0da5d58bbe__."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2459
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD `ports` repository switched from CVS to Subversion on July 14th, "
+"2012. The first real SVN commit is __r300894__. The ports repository "
+"switched from Subversion to Git on April 6, 2021. The last SVN commit is "
+"__r569609__ The first real git commit hash is "
+"__ed8d3eda309dd863fb66e04bccaa513eee255cbf__."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2461
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Setup, Conventions, and Traditions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2466
+msgid ""
+"There are a number of things to do as a new developer. The first set of "
+"steps is specific to committers only. These steps must be done by a mentor "
+"for those who are not committers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2468
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "For New Committers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2471
+msgid ""
+"Those who have been given commit rights to the FreeBSD repositories must "
+"follow these steps."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2473
+msgid "Get mentor approval before committing each of these changes!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2474
+msgid ""
+"All [.filename]#src# commits go to FreeBSD-CURRENT first before being merged "
+"to FreeBSD-STABLE. The FreeBSD-STABLE branch must maintain ABI and API "
+"compatibility with earlier versions of that branch. Do not merge changes "
+"that break this compatibility."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2479
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "*Steps for New Committers*\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2481
+msgid "Add an Author Entity"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2483
+msgid ""
+"[.filename]#doc/shared/authors.adoc# - Add an author entity. Later steps "
+"depend on this entity, and missing this step will cause the [.filename]#doc/"
+"# build to fail. This is a relatively easy task, but remains a good first "
+"test of version control skills."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2484
+msgid "Update the List of Developers and Contributors"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2486
+msgid ""
+"[.filename]#doc/shared/contrib-committers.adoc# - Add an entry, which will "
+"then appear in the \"Developers\" section of the extref:{contributors}"
+"[Contributors List, staff-committers]. Entries are sorted by last name."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2488
+msgid ""
+"[.filename]#doc/shared/contrib-additional.adoc# - _Remove_ the entry. "
+"Entries are sorted by first name."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2489
+msgid "Add a News Item"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2491
+msgid ""
+"[.filename]#doc/website/data/en/news/news.toml# - Add an entry. Look for the "
+"other entries that announce new committers and follow the format. Use the "
+"date from the commit bit approval email from mailto:core@FreeBSD."
+"org[core@FreeBSD.org]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2492
+msgid "Add a PGP Key"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2494
+msgid ""
+"`{des}` has written a shell script ([.filename]#doc/documentation/tools/"
+"addkey.sh#) to make this easier. See the https://cgit.freebsd.org/doc/plain/"
+"documentation/static/pgpkeys/README[README] file for more information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2496
+msgid ""
+"Use [.filename]#doc/documentation/tools/checkkey.sh# to verify that keys "
+"meet minimal best-practices standards."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2498
+msgid ""
+"After adding and checking a key, add both updated files to source control "
+"and then commit them. Entries in this file are sorted by last name."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2502
+msgid ""
+"It is very important to have a current PGP/GnuPG key in the repository. The "
+"key may be required for positive identification of a committer. For example, "
+"the `{admins}` might need it for account recovery. A complete keyring of "
+"`FreeBSD.org` users is available for download from link:https://docs.FreeBSD."
+"org/pgpkeys/pgpkeys.txt[https://docs.FreeBSD.org/pgpkeys/pgpkeys.txt]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2504
+msgid "Update Mentor and Mentee Information"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2506
+msgid ""
+"[.filename]#src/share/misc/committers-<repository>.dot# - Add an entry to "
+"the current committers section, where _repository_ is `doc`, `ports`, or "
+"`src`, depending on the commit privileges granted."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2508
+msgid ""
+"Add an entry for each additional mentor/mentee relationship in the bottom "
+"section."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2509
+msgid "Generate a Kerberos Password"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2511
+msgid ""
+"See <<kerberos-ldap>> to generate or set a Kerberos for use with other "
+"FreeBSD services like the bug tracking database."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2512
+msgid "Optional: Enable Wiki Account"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2514
+msgid ""
+"https://wiki.freebsd.org[FreeBSD Wiki] Account - A wiki account allows "
+"sharing projects and ideas. Those who do not yet have an account can follow "
+"instructions on the https://wiki.freebsd.org/AboutWiki[AboutWiki Page] to "
+"obtain one. Contact mailto:wiki-admin@FreeBSD.org[wiki-admin@FreeBSD.org] if "
+"you need help with your Wiki account."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2515
+msgid "Optional: Update Wiki Information"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2517
+msgid ""
+"Wiki Information - After gaining access to the wiki, some people add entries "
+"to the https://wiki.freebsd.org/HowWeGotHere[How We Got Here], https://wiki."
+"freebsd.org/IRC/Nicknames[IRC Nicks], and https://wiki.freebsd.org/Community/"
+"Dogs[Dogs of FreeBSD] pages."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2518
+msgid "Optional: Update Ports with Personal Information"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2520
+msgid ""
+"[.filename]#ports/astro/xearth/files/freebsd.committers.markers# and [."
+"filename]#src/usr.bin/calendar/calendars/calendar.freebsd# - Some people add "
+"entries for themselves to these files to show where they are located or the "
+"date of their birthday."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2521
+msgid "Optional: Prevent Duplicate Mailings"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2523
+msgid ""
+"Subscribers to {dev-commits-doc-all}, {dev-commits-ports-all} or {dev-"
+"commits-src-all} might wish to unsubscribe to avoid receiving duplicate "
+"copies of commit messages and followups."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2526
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "For Everyone"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2532
+msgid ""
+"Introduce yourself to the other developers, otherwise no one will have any "
+"idea who you are or what you are working on. The introduction need not be a "
+"comprehensive biography, just write a paragraph or two about who you are, "
+"what you plan to be working on as a developer in FreeBSD, and who will be "
+"your mentor. Email this to the {developers-name} and you will be on your way!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2533
+msgid ""
+"Log into `freefall.FreeBSD.org` and create a [.filename]#/var/forward/user# "
+"(where _user_ is your username) file containing the e-mail address where you "
+"want mail addressed to _yourusername_@FreeBSD.org to be forwarded. This "
+"includes all of the commit messages as well as any other mail addressed to "
+"the {committers-name} and the {developers-name}. Really large mailboxes "
+"which have taken up permanent residence on `freefall` may get truncated "
+"without warning if space needs to be freed, so forward it or save it "
+"elsewhere."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2537
+msgid ""
+"If your e-mail system uses SPF with strict rules, you should exclude `mx2."
+"FreeBSD.org` from SPF checks."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2540
+msgid ""
+"Due to the severe load dealing with SPAM places on the central mail servers "
+"that do the mailing list processing, the front-end server does do some basic "
+"checks and will drop some messages based on these checks. At the moment "
+"proper DNS information for the connecting host is the only check in place "
+"but that may change. Some people blame these checks for bouncing valid "
+"email. To have these checks turned off for your email, create a file named [."
+"filename]#~/.spam_lover# on `freefall.FreeBSD.org`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2544
+msgid ""
+"Those who are developers but not committers will not be subscribed to the "
+"committers or developers mailing lists. The subscriptions are derived from "
+"the access rights."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2548
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "SMTP Access Setup"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2551
+msgid ""
+"For those willing to send e-mail messages through the FreeBSD.org "
+"infrastructure, follow the instructions below:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2555
+msgid "Point your mail client at `smtp.FreeBSD.org:587`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2556
+msgid "Enable STARTTLS."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2557
+msgid "Ensure your `From:` address is set to `_yourusername_@FreeBSD.org`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2558
+msgid ""
+"For authentication, you can use your FreeBSD Kerberos username and password "
+"(see <<kerberos-ldap>>). The `_yourusername_/mail` principal is preferred, "
+"as it is only valid for authenticating to mail resources."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2562
+msgid "Do not include `@FreeBSD.org` when entering in your username."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2564
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Additional Notes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2568
+msgid ""
+"Will only accept mail from `_yourusername_@FreeBSD.org`. If you are "
+"authenticated as one user, you are not permitted to send mail from another."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2569
+msgid ""
+"A header will be appended with the SASL username: (`Authenticated sender: "
+"_username_`)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2570
+msgid ""
+"Host has various rate limits in place to cut down on brute force attempts."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2574
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Using a Local MTA to Forward Emails to the FreeBSD.org SMTP Service"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2577
+msgid ""
+"It is also possible to use a local MTA to forward locally sent emails to the "
+"FreeBSD.org SMTP servers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2579
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Using Postfix"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2584
+msgid ""
+"To tell a local Postfix instance that anything from `_yourusername_@FreeBSD."
+"org` should be forwarded to the FreeBSD.org servers, add this to your [."
+"filename]#main.cf#:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2592
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"sender_dependent_relayhost_maps = hash:/usr/local/etc/postfix/relayhost_maps\n"
+"smtp_sasl_auth_enable = yes\n"
+"smtp_sasl_security_options = noanonymous\n"
+"smtp_sasl_password_maps = hash:/usr/local/etc/postfix/sasl_passwd\n"
+"smtp_use_tls = yes\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2595
+msgid ""
+"Create [.filename]#/usr/local/etc/postfix/relayhost_maps# with the following "
+"content:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2599
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "yourusername@FreeBSD.org [smtp.freebsd.org]:587\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2602
+msgid ""
+"Create [.filename]#/usr/local/etc/postfix/sasl_passwd# with the following "
+"content:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2606
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "[smtp.freebsd.org]:587 yourusername:yourpassword\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2609
+msgid ""
+"If the email server is used by other people, you may want to prevent them "
+"from sending e-mails from your address. To achieve this, add this to your [."
+"filename]#main.cf#:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2614
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"smtpd_sender_login_maps = hash:/usr/local/etc/postfix/sender_login_maps\n"
+"smtpd_sender_restrictions = reject_known_sender_login_mismatch\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2617
+msgid ""
+"Create [.filename]#/usr/local/etc/postfix/sender_login_maps# with the "
+"following content:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2621
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "yourusername@FreeBSD.org yourlocalusername\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2624
+msgid ""
+"Where _yourlocalusername_ is the SASL username used to connect to the local "
+"instance of Postfix."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2627
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Using OpenSMTPD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2632
+msgid ""
+"To tell a local OpenSMTPD instance that anything from "
+"`_yourusername_@FreeBSD.org` should be forwarded to the FreeBSD.org servers, "
+"add this to your [.filename]#smtpd.conf#:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2637
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"action \"freebsd\" relay host smtp+tls://freebsd@smtp.freebsd.org:587 auth <secrets>\n"
+"match from any auth yourlocalusername mail-from \"_yourusername_@freebsd.org\" for any action \"freebsd\"\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2640
+msgid ""
+"Where _yourlocalusername_ is the SASL username used to connect to the local "
+"instance of OpenSMTPD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2642
+msgid ""
+"Create [.filename]#/usr/local/etc/mail/secrets# with the following content:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2646
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "freebsd\tyourusername:yourpassword\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2650
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Using Exim"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2656
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"To direct a local Exim instance to forward all mail from `_example_@FreeBSD.org`\n"
+" to FreeBSD.org servers, add this to Exim [.filename]#configuration#:\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2665
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Routers section: (at the top of the list):\n"
+"freebsd_send:\n"
+" driver = manualroute\n"
+" domains = !+local_domains\n"
+" transport = freebsd_smtp\n"
+" route_data = ${lookup {${lc:$sender_address}} lsearch {/usr/local/etc/exim/freebsd_send}}\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2677
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Transport Section:\n"
+"freebsd_smtp:\n"
+" driver = smtp\n"
+" tls_certificate=<local certificate>\n"
+" tls_privatekey=<local certificate private key>\n"
+" tls_require_ciphers = EECDH+ECDSA+AESGCM:EECDH+aRSA+AESGCM:EECDH+ECDSA+SHA384:EECDH+ECDSA+SHA256:EECDH+aRSA+SHA384:EECDH+aRSA+SHA256:EECDH+AESGCM:EECDH:EDH+AESGCM:EDH+aRSA:HIGH:!MEDIUM:!LOW:!aNULL:!eNULL:!LOW:!RC4:!MD5:!EXP:!PSK:!SRP:!DSS\n"
+" dkim_domain = <local DKIM domain>\n"
+" dkim_selector = <local DKIM selector>\n"
+" dkim_private_key= <local DKIM private key>\n"
+" dnssec_request_domains = *\n"
+" hosts_require_auth = smtp.freebsd.org\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2683
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"Authenticators:\n"
+"fixed_plain:\n"
+" driver = plaintext\n"
+" public_name = PLAIN\n"
+" client_send = ^example/mail^examplePassword\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2686
+msgid ""
+"Create [.filename]#/usr/local/etc/exim/freebsd_send# with the following "
+"content:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2690
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "example@freebsd.org:smtp.freebsd.org::587\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2695
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Mentors"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2700
+msgid ""
+"All new developers have a mentor assigned to them for the first few months. "
+"A mentor is responsible for teaching the mentee the rules and conventions of "
+"the project and guiding their first steps in the developer community. The "
+"mentor is also personally responsible for the mentee's actions during this "
+"initial period."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2703
+msgid ""
+"For committers: do not commit anything without first getting mentor "
+"approval. Document that approval with an `Approved by:` line in the commit "
+"message."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2707
+msgid ""
+"When the mentor decides that a mentee has learned the ropes and is ready to "
+"commit on their own, the mentor announces it with a commit to [."
+"filename]#mentors#. This file is in the [.filename]#admin# orphan branch of "
+"each repository. Detailed information on how to access these branches can "
+"be found in <<admin-branch>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2709
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Pre-Commit Review"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2714
+msgid ""
+"Code review is one way to increase the quality of software. The following "
+"guidelines apply to commits to the `head` (-CURRENT) branch of the `src` "
+"repository. Other branches and the `ports` and `docs` trees have their own "
+"review policies, but these guidelines generally apply to commits requiring "
+"review:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2716
+msgid ""
+"All non-trivial changes should be reviewed before they are committed to the "
+"repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2717
+msgid ""
+"Reviews may be conducted by email, in Bugzilla, in Phabricator, or by "
+"another mechanism. Where possible, reviews should be public."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2718
+msgid ""
+"The developer responsible for a code change is also responsible for making "
+"all necessary review-related changes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2719
+msgid ""
+"Code review can be an iterative process, which continues until the patch is "
+"ready to be committed. Specifically, once a patch is sent out for review, it "
+"should receive an explicit \"looks good\" before it is committed. So long as "
+"it is explicit, this can take whatever form makes sense for the review "
+"method."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2720
+msgid "Timeouts are not a substitute for review."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2722
+msgid ""
+"Sometimes code reviews will take longer than you would hope for, especially "
+"for larger features. Accepted ways to speed up review times for your patches "
+"are:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2724
+msgid ""
+"Review other people's patches. If you help out, everybody will be more "
+"willing to do the same for you; goodwill is our currency."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2725
+msgid ""
+"Ping the patch. If it is urgent, provide reasons why it is important to you "
+"to get this patch landed and ping it every couple of days. If it is not "
+"urgent, the common courtesy ping rate is one week. Remember that you are "
+"asking for valuable time from other professional developers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2726
+msgid ""
+"Ask for help on mailing lists, IRC, etc. Others may be able to either help "
+"you directly, or suggest a reviewer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2727
+msgid ""
+"Split your patch into multiple smaller patches that build on each other. The "
+"smaller your patch, the higher the probability that somebody will take a "
+"quick look at it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2729
+msgid ""
+"When making large changes, it is helpful to keep this in mind from the "
+"beginning of the effort as breaking large changes into smaller ones is often "
+"difficult after the fact."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2734
+msgid ""
+"Developers should participate in code reviews as both reviewers and "
+"reviewees. If someone is kind enough to review your code, you should return "
+"the favor for someone else. Note that while anyone is welcome to review and "
+"give feedback on a patch, only an appropriate subject-matter expert can "
+"approve a change. This will usually be a committer who works with the code "
+"in question on a regular basis."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2737
+msgid ""
+"In some cases, no subject-matter expert may be available. In those cases, a "
+"review by an experienced developer is sufficient when coupled with "
+"appropriate testing."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2739
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Commit Log Messages"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2742
+msgid ""
+"This section contains some suggestions and traditions for how commit logs "
+"are formatted."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2743
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Why are commit messages important?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2747
+msgid ""
+"When you commit a change in Git, Subversion, or another version control "
+"system (VCS), you're prompted to write some text describing the commit -- a "
+"commit message. How important is this commit message? Should you spend some "
+"significant effort writing it? Does it really matter if you write simply "
+"fixed a bug?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2750
+msgid ""
+"Most projects have more than one developer and last for some length of "
+"time. Commit messages are a very important method of communicating with "
+"other developers, in the present and for the future."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2753
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD has hundreds of active developers and hundreds of thousands of "
+"commits spanning decades of history. Over that time the developer community "
+"has learned how valuable good commit messages are; sometimes these are hard-"
+"learned lessons."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2755
+msgid "Commit messages serve at least three purposes:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2757
+msgid "Communicating with other developers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2762
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD commits generate email to various mailing lists. These include the "
+"commit message along with a copy of the patch itself. Commit messages are "
+"also viewed through commands like git log. These serve to make other "
+"developers aware of changes that are ongoing; that other developer may want "
+"to test the change, may have an interest in the topic and will want to "
+"review in more detail, or may have their own projects underway that would "
+"benefit from interaction."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2764
+msgid "Making Changes Discoverable"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2768
+msgid ""
+"In a large project with a long history it may be difficult to find changes "
+"of interest when investigating an issue or change in behaviour. Verbose, "
+"detailed commit messages allow searches for changes that might be relevant. "
+"For example, `git log --since 1year --grep 'USB timeout'`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2770
+msgid "Providing historical documentation"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2774
+msgid ""
+"Commit messages serve to document changes for future developers, perhaps "
+"years or decades later. This future developer may even be you, the original "
+"author. A change that seems obvious today may be decidedly not so much "
+"later on."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2776
+msgid ""
+"The `git blame` command annotates each line of a source file with the change "
+"(hash and subject line) that brought it in."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2778
+msgid ""
+"Having established the importance, here are elements of a good FreeBSD "
+"commit message:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2779
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Start with a subject line"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2783
+msgid ""
+"Commit messages should start with a single-line subject that briefly "
+"summarizes the change. The subject should, by itself, allow the reader to "
+"quickly determine if the change is of interest or not."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2784
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Keep subject lines short"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2789
+msgid ""
+"The subject line should be as short as possible while still retaining the "
+"required information. This is to make browsing Git log more efficient, and "
+"so that git log --oneline can display the short hash and subject on a single "
+"80-column line. A good rule of thumb is to stay below 63 characters, and "
+"aim for about 50 or fewer if possible."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2790
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Prefix the subject line with a component, if applicable"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2793
+msgid ""
+"If the change relates to a specific component the subject line may be "
+"prefixed with that component name and a colon (:)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2795
+msgid "✓ `foo: Add -k option to keep temporary data`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2797
+msgid ""
+"Include the prefix in the 63-character limit suggested above, so that `git "
+"log --oneline` avoids wrapping."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2798
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Capitalize the first letter of the subject"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2802
+msgid ""
+"Capitalize the first letter of the subject itself. The prefix, if any, is "
+"not capitalized unless necessary (e.g., `USB:` is capitalized)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2803
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Do not end the subject line with punctuation"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2807
+msgid ""
+"Do not end with a period or other punctuation. In this regard the subject "
+"line is like a newspaper headline."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2808
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Separate the subject and body with a blank line"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2811
+msgid "Separate the body from the subject with a blank line."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2813
+msgid ""
+"Some trivial commits do not require a body, and will have only a subject."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2815
+msgid "✓ `ls: Fix typo in usage text`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2816
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Limit messages to 72 columns"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2822
+msgid ""
+"`git log` and `git format-patch` indent the commit message by four spaces. "
+"Wrapping at 72 columns provides a matching margin on the right edge. "
+"Limiting messages to 72 characters also keeps the commit message in "
+"formatted patches below RFC 2822's suggested email line length limit of 78 "
+"characters. This limit works well with a variety of tools that may render "
+"commit messages; line wrapping might be inconsistent with longer line length."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2823
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Use the present tense, imperative mood"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2828
+msgid ""
+"This facilitates short subject lines and provides consistency, including "
+"with automatically generated commit messages (e.g., as generated by git "
+"revert). This is important when reading a list of commit subjects. Think "
+"of the subject as finishing the sentence \"when applied, this change will ..."
+"\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2833
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"✓ `foo: Implement the -k (keep) option`\n"
+"✗ `foo: Implemented the -k option`\n"
+"✗ `This change implements the -k option in foo`\n"
+"✗ `-k option added`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2834
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Focus on what and why, not how"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2837
+msgid ""
+"Explain what the change accomplishes and why it is being done, rather than "
+"how."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2841
+msgid ""
+"Do not assume that the reader is familiar with the issue. Explain the "
+"background and motivation for the change. Include benchmark data if you "
+"have it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2843
+msgid ""
+"If there are limitations or incomplete aspects of the change, describe them "
+"in the commit message."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2844
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Consider whether parts of the commit message could be code comments instead"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2847
+msgid ""
+"Sometimes while writing a commit message you may find yourself writing a "
+"sentence or two explaining some tricky or confusing aspect of the change. "
+"When this happens consider whether it would be valuable to have that "
+"explanation as a comment in the code itself."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2848
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Write commit messages for your future self"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2852
+msgid ""
+"While writing the commit message for a change you have all of the context in "
+"mind - what prompted the change, alternate approaches that were considered "
+"and rejected, limitations of the change, and so on. Imagine yourself "
+"revisiting the change a year or two in the future, and write the commit "
+"message in a way that would provide that necessary context."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2853
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Commit messages should stand alone"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2857
+msgid ""
+"You may include references to mailing list postings, benchmark result web "
+"sites, or code review links. However, the commit message should contain all "
+"of the relevant information in case these references are no longer available "
+"in the future."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2861
+msgid ""
+"Similarly, a commit may refer to a previous commit, for example in the case "
+"of a bug fix or revert. In addition to the commit identifier (revision or "
+"hash), include the subject line from the referenced commit (or another "
+"suitable brief reference). With each VCS migration (from CVS to Subversion "
+"to Git) revision identifiers from previous systems may become difficult to "
+"follow."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2862
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Include appropriate metadata in a footer"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2865
+msgid ""
+"As well as including an informative message with each commit, some "
+"additional information may be needed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2867
+msgid ""
+"This information consists of one or more lines containing the key word or "
+"phrase, a colon, tabs for formatting, and then the additional information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2869
+msgid "The key words or phrases are:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2875
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`PR:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2877
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "The problem report (if any) which is affected (typically, by being closed) by this commit. Multiple PRs may be specified on one line, separated by commas or spaces."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2878
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Reported by:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2882
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"The name and e-mail address of the person that reported the issue; for developers, just the username on the FreeBSD cluster.\n"
+"Typically used when there is no PR, for example if the issue was reported on\n"
+"a mailing list."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2883
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Submitted by:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2885
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "This has been deprecated with git; submitted patches should have the author set by using `git commit --author` with a full name and valid email."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2886
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Reviewed by:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2901
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"The name and e-mail address of the person or people that reviewed the change; for developers, just the username on the FreeBSD cluster. If a patch was submitted to a mailing list for review, and the review was favorable, then just include the list name. If the reviewer is not a member of the project, provide the name, email, and if ports an external role like maintainer:\n"
+"\n"
+"Reviewed by a developer:\n"
+"[source,shell]\n"
+"....\n"
+"Reviewed by: username\n"
+"....\n"
+"\n"
+"Reviewed by a ports maintainer that is not a developer:\n"
+"[source,shell]\n"
+"....\n"
+"Reviewed by: Full Name <valid@email> (maintainer)\n"
+"...."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2902
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Tested by:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2904
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "The name and e-mail address of the person or people that tested the change; for developers, just the username on the FreeBSD cluster."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2905
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Approved by:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2930
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"The name and e-mail address of the person or people that approved the change; for developers, just the username on the FreeBSD cluster.\n"
+"\n"
+"There are several cases where approval is customary:\n"
+"\n"
+"* while a new committer is under mentorship\n"
+"* commits to an area of the tree covered by the LOCKS file (src)\n"
+"* during a release cycle\n"
+"* committing to a repo where you do not hold a commit bit (e.g. src committer committing to docs)\n"
+"\n"
+"While under mentorship, get mentor approval before the commit. Enter the mentor's username in this field, and note that they are a mentor:\n"
+"\n"
+"[source,shell]\n"
+"....\n"
+"Approved by: username-of-mentor (mentor)\n"
+"....\n"
+"\n"
+"If a team approved these commits then include the team name followed by the username of the approver in parentheses. For example:\n"
+"\n"
+"[source,shell]\n"
+"....\n"
+"Approved by: re (username)\n"
+"...."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2931
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Obtained from:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2933
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "The name of the project (if any) from which the code was obtained. Do not use this line for the name of an individual person."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2934
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Fixes:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2936
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "The Git short hash and the title line of a commit that is fixed by this change as returned by `git log -n 1 --oneline GIT-COMMIT-HASH`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2937
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`MFC after:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2939
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "To receive an e-mail reminder to MFC at a later date, specify the number of days, weeks, or months after which an MFC is planned."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2940
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`MFC to:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2942
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "If the commit should be merged to a subset of stable branches, specify the branch names."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2943
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`MFC with:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2945
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "If the commit should be merged together with a previous one in a single MFC commit (for example, where this commit corrects a bug in the previous change), specify the corresponding Git hash."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2946
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`MFH:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2948
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "If the commit is to be merged into a ports quarterly branch name, specify the quarterly branch. For example `2021Q2`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2949
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Relnotes:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2951
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "If the change is a candidate for inclusion in the release notes for the next release from the branch, set to `yes`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2952
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Security:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2954
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "If the change is related to a security vulnerability or security exposure, include one or more references or a description of the issue. If possible, include a VuXML URL or a CVE ID."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2955
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Event:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2957
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "The description for the event where this commit was made. If this is a recurring event, add the year or even the month to it. For example, this could be `FooBSDcon 2019`. The idea behind this line is to put recognition to conferences, gatherings, and other types of meetups and to show that these are useful to have. Please do not use the `Sponsored by:` line for this as that is meant for organizations sponsoring certain features or developers working on them."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2958
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Sponsored by:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2960
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Sponsoring organizations for this change, if any. Separate multiple organizations with commas. If only a portion of the work was sponsored, or different amounts of sponsorship were provided to different authors, please give appropriate credit in parentheses after each sponsor name. For example, `Example.com (alice, code refactoring), Wormulon (bob), Momcorp (cindy)` shows that Alice was sponsored by Example.com to do code refactoring, while Wormulon sponsored Bob's work and Momcorp sponsored Cindy's work. Other authors were either not sponsored or chose not to list sponsorship."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2961
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Pull Request:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2965
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"This change was submitted as a pull request or merge request against one of FreeBSD's public read-only Git repositories.\n"
+"It should include the entire URL to the pull request, as these often act as code reviews for the code.\n"
+"For example: `https://github.com/freebsd/freebsd-src/pull/745`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2966
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Signed-off-by:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2968
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "ID certifies compliance with https://developercertificate.org/"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2969
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Differential Revision:`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Table
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2971
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "The full URL of the Phabricator review. This line __must be the last line__. For example: `https://reviews.freebsd.org/D1708`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2973
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Commit Log for a Commit Based on a PR"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2979
+msgid ""
+"The commit is based on a patch from a PR submitted by John Smith. The "
+"commit message \"PR\" field is filled."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2983
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3001
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3016
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3032
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3047
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "...\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2985
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "PR:\t\t12345\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2988
+msgid ""
+"The committer sets the author of the patch with `git commit --author \"John "
+"Smith <John.Smith@example.com>\"`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2991
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Commit Log for a Commit Needing Review"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:2997
+msgid ""
+"The virtual memory system is being changed. After posting patches to the "
+"appropriate mailing list (in this case, `freebsd-arch`) and the changes have "
+"been approved."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3003
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Reviewed by:\t-arch\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3007
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Commit Log for a Commit Needing Approval"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3012
+msgid ""
+"Commit a port, after working with the listed MAINTAINER, who said to go "
+"ahead and commit."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3018
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Approved by:\tabc (maintainer)\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3021
+msgid "Where _abc_ is the account name of the person who approved."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3023
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Commit Log for a Commit Bringing in Code from OpenBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3028
+msgid "Committing some code based on work done in the OpenBSD project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3034
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Obtained from:\tOpenBSD\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3038
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Commit Log for a Change to FreeBSD-CURRENT with a Planned Commit to FreeBSD-STABLE to Follow at a Later Date."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3043
+msgid ""
+"Committing some code which will be merged from FreeBSD-CURRENT into the "
+"FreeBSD-STABLE branch after two weeks."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3049
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "MFC after:\t2 weeks\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3052
+msgid ""
+"Where _2_ is the number of days, weeks, or months after which an MFC is "
+"planned. The _weeks_ option may be `day`, `days`, `week`, `weeks`, `month`, "
+"`months`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3055
+msgid "It is often necessary to combine these."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3059
+msgid ""
+"Consider the situation where a user has submitted a PR containing code from "
+"the NetBSD project. Looking at the PR, the developer sees it is not an area "
+"of the tree they normally work in, so they have the change reviewed by the "
+"`arch` mailing list. Since the change is complex, the developer opts to MFC "
+"after one month to allow adequate testing."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3061
+msgid ""
+"The extra information to include in the commit would look something like"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Block title
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3062
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Example Combined Commit Log"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3073
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"PR:\t\t54321\n"
+"Reviewed by:\t-arch\n"
+"Obtained from:\tNetBSD\n"
+"MFC after:\t1 month\n"
+"Relnotes:\tyes\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3078
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Preferred License for New Files"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3084
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD Project's full license policy can be found at link:https://www."
+"FreeBSD.org/internal/software-license/[https://www.FreeBSD.org/internal/"
+"software-license]. The rest of this section is intended to help you get "
+"started. As a rule, when in doubt, ask. It is much easier to give advice "
+"than to fix the source tree."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3086
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD Project suggests and uses this text as the preferred license "
+"scheme:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3117
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"/*-\n"
+" * SPDX-License-Identifier: BSD-2-Clause-FreeBSD\n"
+" *\n"
+" * Copyright (c) [year] [your name]\n"
+" *\n"
+" * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without\n"
+" * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions\n"
+" * are met:\n"
+" * 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright\n"
+" * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.\n"
+" * 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright\n"
+" * notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the\n"
+" * documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.\n"
+" *\n"
+" * THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND\n"
+" * ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE\n"
+" * IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE\n"
+" * ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE\n"
+" * FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL\n"
+" * DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS\n"
+" * OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)\n"
+" * HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT\n"
+" * LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY\n"
+" * OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF\n"
+" * SUCH DAMAGE.\n"
+" *\n"
+" * [id for your version control system, if any]\n"
+" */\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3123
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD project strongly discourages the so-called \"advertising clause"
+"\" in new code. Due to the large number of contributors to the FreeBSD "
+"project, complying with this clause for many commercial vendors has become "
+"difficult. If you have code in the tree with the advertising clause, please "
+"consider removing it. In fact, please consider using the above license for "
+"your code."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3127
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD project discourages completely new licenses and variations on "
+"the standard licenses. New licenses require the approval of the {core-"
+"email} to reside in the main repository. The more different licenses that "
+"are used in the tree, the more problems that this causes to those wishing to "
+"utilize this code, typically from unintended consequences from a poorly "
+"worded license."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3131
+msgid ""
+"Project policy dictates that code under some non-BSD licenses must be placed "
+"only in specific sections of the repository, and in some cases, compilation "
+"must be conditional or even disabled by default. For example, the GENERIC "
+"kernel must be compiled under only licenses identical to or substantially "
+"similar to the BSD license. GPL, APSL, CDDL, etc, licensed software must "
+"not be compiled into GENERIC."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3134
+msgid ""
+"Developers are reminded that in open source, getting \"open\" right is just "
+"as important as getting \"source\" right, as improper handling of "
+"intellectual property has serious consequences. Any questions or concerns "
+"should immediately be brought to the attention of the core team."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3136
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Keeping Track of Licenses Granted to the FreeBSD Project"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3141
+msgid ""
+"Various software or data exist in the repositories where the FreeBSD project "
+"has been granted a special license to be able to use them. A case in point "
+"are the Terminus fonts for use with man:vt[4]. Here the author Dimitar "
+"Zhekov has allowed us to use the \"Terminus BSD Console\" font under a 2-"
+"clause BSD license rather than the regular Open Font License he normally "
+"uses."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3146
+msgid ""
+"It is clearly sensible to keep a record of any such license grants. To that "
+"end, the {core-email} has decided to keep an archive of them. Whenever the "
+"FreeBSD project is granted a special license we require the {core-email} to "
+"be notified. Any developers involved in arranging such a license grant, "
+"please send details to the {core-email} including:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3148
+msgid ""
+"Contact details for people or organizations granting the special license."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3149
+msgid ""
+"What files, directories etc. in the repositories are covered by the license "
+"grant including the revision numbers where any specially licensed material "
+"was committed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3150
+msgid ""
+"The date the license comes into effect from. Unless otherwise agreed, this "
+"will be the date the license was issued by the authors of the software in "
+"question."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3151
+msgid "The license text."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3152
+msgid ""
+"A note of any restrictions, limitations or exceptions that apply "
+"specifically to FreeBSD's usage of the licensed material."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3153
+msgid "Any other relevant information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3156
+msgid ""
+"Once the {core-email} is satisfied that all the necessary details have been "
+"gathered and are correct, the secretary will send a PGP-signed "
+"acknowledgment of receipt including the license details. This receipt will "
+"be persistently archived and serve as our permanent record of the license "
+"grant."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3159
+msgid ""
+"The license archive should contain only details of license grants; this is "
+"not the place for any discussions around licensing or other subjects. "
+"Access to data within the license archive will be available on request to "
+"the {core-email}."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3161
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "SPDX Tags in the tree"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3172
+msgid ""
+"The project uses https://spdx.dev[SPDX] tags in our source base. At "
+"present, these tags are indented to help automated tools reconstruct license "
+"requirements mechanically. All _SPDX-License-Identifier_ tags in the tree "
+"should be considered to be informative. All files in the FreeBSD source "
+"tree with these tags also have a copy of the license which governs use of "
+"that file. In the event of a discrepancy, the verbatim license is "
+"controlling. The project tries to follow the https://spdx.github.io/spdx-"
+"spec/[SPDX Specification, Version 2.2]. How to mark source files and valid "
+"algebraic expressions are found in https://spdx.github.io/spdx-spec/appendix-"
+"IV-SPDX-license-expressions/[Appendix IV] and https://spdx.github.io/spdx-"
+"spec/appendix-V-using-SPDX-short-identifiers-in-source-files/[Appendix V]. "
+"The project draws identifiers from SPDX's list of valid https://spdx.org/"
+"licenses/[short license identifiers]. The project uses only the _SPDX-"
+"License-Identifier_ tag."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3174
+msgid ""
+"As of March 2021, approximately 25,000 out of 90,000 files in the tree have "
+"been marked."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3175
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Developer Relations"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3181
+msgid ""
+"When working directly on your own code or on code which is already well "
+"established as your responsibility, then there is probably little need to "
+"check with other committers before jumping in with a commit. Working on a "
+"bug in an area of the system which is clearly orphaned (and there are a few "
+"such areas, to our shame), the same applies. When modifying parts of the "
+"system which are maintained, formally, or informally, consider asking for "
+"review just as a developer would have before becoming a committer. For "
+"ports, contact the listed `MAINTAINER` in the [.filename]#Makefile#."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3186
+msgid ""
+"To determine if an area of the tree is maintained, check the MAINTAINERS "
+"file at the root of the tree. If nobody is listed, scan the revision "
+"history to see who has committed changes in the past. An example script "
+"that lists each person who has committed to a given file along with the "
+"number of commits each person has made can be found at on `freefall` at [."
+"filename]#~eadler/bin/whodid#. If queries go unanswered or the committer "
+"otherwise indicates a lack of interest in the area affected, go ahead and "
+"commit it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3191
+msgid ""
+"Avoid sending private emails to maintainers. Other people might be "
+"interested in the conversation, not just the final output."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3197
+msgid ""
+"If there is any doubt about a commit for any reason at all, have it reviewed "
+"before committing. Better to have it flamed then and there rather than when "
+"it is part of the repository. If a commit does results in controversy "
+"erupting, it may be advisable to consider backing the change out again until "
+"the matter is settled. Remember, with a version control system we can "
+"always change it back."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3201
+msgid ""
+"Do not impugn the intentions of others. If they see a different solution to "
+"a problem, or even a different problem, it is probably not because they are "
+"stupid, because they have questionable parentage, or because they are trying "
+"to destroy hard work, personal image, or FreeBSD, but basically because they "
+"have a different outlook on the world. Different is good."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3204
+msgid ""
+"Disagree honestly. Argue your position from its merits, be honest about any "
+"shortcomings it may have, and be open to seeing their solution, or even "
+"their vision of the problem, with an open mind."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3210
+msgid ""
+"Accept correction. We are all fallible. When you have made a mistake, "
+"apologize and get on with life. Do not beat up yourself, and certainly do "
+"not beat up others for your mistake. Do not waste time on embarrassment or "
+"recrimination, just fix the problem and move on."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3214
+msgid ""
+"Ask for help. Seek out (and give) peer reviews. One of the ways open "
+"source software is supposed to excel is in the number of eyeballs applied to "
+"it; this does not apply if nobody will review code."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3216
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "If in Doubt..."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3220
+msgid ""
+"When unsure about something, whether it be a technical issue or a project "
+"convention be sure to ask. If you stay silent you will never make progress."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3224
+msgid ""
+"If it relates to a technical issue ask on the public mailing lists. Avoid "
+"the temptation to email the individual person that knows the answer. This "
+"way everyone will be able to learn from the question and the answer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3226
+msgid "For project specific or administrative questions ask, in order:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3228
+msgid "Your mentor or former mentor."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3229
+msgid "An experienced committer on IRC, email, etc."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3230
+msgid "Any team with a \"hat\", as they can give you a definitive answer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3231
+msgid "If still not sure, ask on {developers-name}."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3233
+msgid ""
+"Once your question is answered, if no one pointed you to documentation that "
+"spelled out the answer to your question, document it, as others will have "
+"the same question."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3235
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Bugzilla"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3240
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD Project utilizes Bugzilla for tracking bugs and change "
+"requests. Be sure that if you commit a fix or suggestion found in the PR "
+"database to close it. It is also considered nice if you take time to close "
+"any PRs associated with your commits, if appropriate."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3242
+msgid ""
+"Committers with non-``FreeBSD.org`` Bugzilla accounts can have the old "
+"account merged with the `FreeBSD.org` account by following these steps:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3246
+msgid "Log in using your old account."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3247
+msgid ""
+"Open new bug. Choose `Services` as the Product, and `Bug Tracker` as the "
+"Component. In bug description list accounts you wish to be merged."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3248
+msgid ""
+"Log in using `FreeBSD.org` account and post comment to newly opened bug to "
+"confirm ownership. See <<kerberos-ldap>> for more details on how to generate "
+"or set a password for your `FreeBSD.org` account."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3249
+msgid ""
+"If there are more than two accounts to merge, post comments from each of "
+"them."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3252
+msgid "You can find out more about Bugzilla at:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3254
+msgid "extref:{pr-guidelines}[FreeBSD Problem Report Handling Guidelines]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3255
+msgid "link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/support/[https://www.FreeBSD.org/support]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3257
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Phabricator"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3261
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD Project utilizes https://reviews.freebsd.org[Phabricator] for "
+"code review requests. See the https://wiki.freebsd.org/"
+"Phabricator[Phabricator wiki page] for details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3263
+msgid ""
+"Committers with non-``FreeBSD.org`` Phabricator accounts can have the old "
+"account renamed to the ``FreeBSD.org`` account by following these steps:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3267
+msgid "Change your Phabricator account email to your `FreeBSD.org` email."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3268
+msgid ""
+"Open new bug on our bug tracker using your `FreeBSD.org` account, see "
+"<<bugzilla>> for more information. Choose `Services` as the Product, and "
+"`Code Review` as the Component. In bug description request that your "
+"Phabricator account be renamed, and provide a link to your Phabricator user. "
+"For example, `https://reviews.freebsd.org/p/bob_example.com/`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3273
+msgid ""
+"Phabricator accounts cannot be merged, please do not open a new account."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3276
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Who's Who"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3279
+msgid ""
+"Besides the repository meisters, there are other FreeBSD project members and "
+"teams whom you will probably get to know in your role as a committer. "
+"Briefly, and by no means all-inclusively, these are:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Labeled list
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3280
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`{doceng}`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3286
+msgid ""
+"doceng is the group responsible for the documentation build infrastructure, "
+"approving new documentation committers, and ensuring that the FreeBSD "
+"website and documentation on the FTP site is up to date with respect to the "
+"Subversion tree. It is not a conflict resolution body. The vast majority "
+"of documentation related discussion takes place on the {freebsd-doc}. More "
+"details regarding the doceng team can be found in its https://www.FreeBSD."
+"org/internal/doceng/[charter]. Committers interested in contributing to the "
+"documentation should familiarize themselves with the extref:{fdp-primer}"
+"[Documentation Project Primer]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Labeled list
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3287
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`{re-members}`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3292
+msgid ""
+"These are the members of the `{re}`. This team is responsible for setting "
+"release deadlines and controlling the release process. During code freezes, "
+"the release engineers have final authority on all changes to the system for "
+"whichever branch is pending release status. If there is something you want "
+"merged from FreeBSD-CURRENT to FreeBSD-STABLE (whatever values those may "
+"have at any given time), these are the people to talk to about it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Labeled list
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3293
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`{so}`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3295
+msgid ""
+"`{so-name}` is the link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/security/[FreeBSD Security "
+"Officer] and oversees the `{security-officer}`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3300
+msgid ""
+"{committers-name}:: {svn-src-all}, {svn-ports-all} and {svn-doc-all} are the "
+"mailing lists that the version control system uses to send commit messages "
+"to. _Never_ send email directly to these lists. Only send replies to this "
+"list when they are short and are directly related to a commit."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3305
+msgid ""
+"{developers-name}:: All committers are subscribed to -developers. This list "
+"was created to be a forum for the committers \"community\" issues. Examples "
+"are Core voting, announcements, etc."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3309
+msgid ""
+"The {developers-name} is for the exclusive use of FreeBSD committers. To "
+"develop FreeBSD, committers must have the ability to openly discuss matters "
+"that will be resolved before they are publicly announced. Frank discussions "
+"of work in progress are not suitable for open publication and may harm "
+"FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3313
+msgid ""
+"All FreeBSD committers are expected not to not publish or forward messages "
+"from the {developers-name} outside the list membership without permission of "
+"all of the authors. Violators will be removed from the {developers-name}, "
+"resulting in a suspension of commit privileges. Repeated or flagrant "
+"violations may result in permanent revocation of commit privileges."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3319
+msgid ""
+"This list is _not_ intended as a place for code reviews or for any technical "
+"discussion. In fact using it as such hurts the FreeBSD Project as it gives "
+"a sense of a closed list where general decisions affecting all of the "
+"FreeBSD using community are made without being \"open\". Last, but not "
+"least __never, never ever, email the {developers-name} and CC:/BCC: another "
+"FreeBSD list__. Never, ever email another FreeBSD email list and CC:/BCC: "
+"the {developers-name}. Doing so can greatly diminish the benefits of this "
+"list."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3320
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "SSH Quick-Start Guide"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3325
+msgid ""
+"If you do not wish to type your password in every time you use man:ssh[1], "
+"and you use keys to authenticate, man:ssh-agent[1] is there for your "
+"convenience. If you want to use man:ssh-agent[1], make sure that you run it "
+"before running other applications. X users, for example, usually do this "
+"from their [.filename]#.xsession# or [.filename]#.xinitrc#. See man:ssh-"
+"agent[1] for details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3326
+msgid ""
+"Generate a key pair using man:ssh-keygen[1]. The key pair will wind up in "
+"your [.filename]#$HOME/.ssh/# directory."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3330
+msgid "Only ECDSA, Ed25519 or RSA keys are supported."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3332
+msgid ""
+"Send your public key ([.filename]#$HOME/.ssh/id_ecdsa.pub#, [.filename]#"
+"$HOME/.ssh/id_ed25519.pub#, or [.filename]#$HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub#) to the "
+"person setting you up as a committer so it can be put into [."
+"filename]#yourlogin# in [.filename]#/etc/ssh-keys/# on `freefall`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3337
+msgid ""
+"Now man:ssh-add[1] can be used for authentication once per session. It "
+"prompts for the private key's pass phrase, and then stores it in the "
+"authentication agent (man:ssh-agent[1]). Use `ssh-add -d` to remove keys "
+"stored in the agent."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3339
+msgid "Test with a simple remote command: `ssh freefall.FreeBSD.org ls /usr`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3341
+msgid ""
+"For more information, see package:security/openssh-portable[], man:ssh[1], "
+"man:ssh-add[1], man:ssh-agent[1], man:ssh-keygen[1], and man:scp[1]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3343
+msgid ""
+"For information on adding, changing, or removing man:ssh[1] keys, see "
+"https://wiki.freebsd.org/clusteradm/ssh-keys[this article]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3345
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Coverity(R) Availability for FreeBSD Committers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3349
+msgid ""
+"All FreeBSD developers can obtain access to Coverity analysis results of all "
+"FreeBSD Project software. All who are interested in obtaining access to the "
+"analysis results of the automated Coverity runs, can sign up at http://scan."
+"coverity.com/[Coverity Scan]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3352
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD wiki includes a mini-guide for developers who are interested in "
+"working with the Coverity(R) analysis reports: https://wiki.freebsd.org/"
+"CoverityPrevent[https://wiki.freebsd.org/CoverityPrevent]. Please note that "
+"this mini-guide is only readable by FreeBSD developers, so if you cannot "
+"access this page, you will have to ask someone to add you to the appropriate "
+"Wiki access list."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3354
+msgid ""
+"Finally, all FreeBSD developers who are going to use Coverity(R) are always "
+"encouraged to ask for more details and usage information, by posting any "
+"questions to the mailing list of the FreeBSD developers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3356
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "The FreeBSD Committers' Big List of Rules"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3361
+msgid ""
+"Everyone involved with the FreeBSD project is expected to abide by the _Code "
+"of Conduct_ available from link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/internal/code-of-"
+"conduct/[https://www.FreeBSD.org/internal/code-of-conduct]. As committers, "
+"you form the public face of the project, and how you behave has a vital "
+"impact on the public perception of it. This guide expands on the parts of "
+"the _Code of Conduct_ specific to committers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3363
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3393
+msgid "Respect other committers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3364
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3409
+msgid "Respect other contributors."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3365
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3424
+msgid "Discuss any significant change _before_ committing."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3366
+msgid ""
+"Respect existing maintainers (if listed in the `MAINTAINER` field in [."
+"filename]#Makefile# or in [.filename]#MAINTAINER# in the top-level "
+"directory)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3367
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3439
+msgid ""
+"Any disputed change must be backed out pending resolution of the dispute if "
+"requested by a maintainer. Security related changes may override a "
+"maintainer's wishes at the Security Officer's discretion."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3368
+msgid ""
+"Changes go to FreeBSD-CURRENT before FreeBSD-STABLE unless specifically "
+"permitted by the release engineer or unless they are not applicable to "
+"FreeBSD-CURRENT. Any non-trivial or non-urgent change which is applicable "
+"should also be allowed to sit in FreeBSD-CURRENT for at least 3 days before "
+"merging so that it can be given sufficient testing. The release engineer has "
+"the same authority over the FreeBSD-STABLE branch as outlined for the "
+"maintainer in rule #5."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3369
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3454
+msgid "Do not fight in public with other committers; it looks bad."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3370
+msgid ""
+"Respect all code freezes and read the `committers` and `developers` mailing "
+"lists in a timely manner so you know when a code freeze is in effect."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3371
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3469
+msgid "When in doubt on any procedure, ask first!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3372
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3474
+msgid "Test your changes before committing them."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3373
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3483
+msgid ""
+"Do not commit to contributed software without _explicit_ approval from the "
+"respective maintainers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3384
+msgid ""
+"As noted, breaking some of these rules can be grounds for suspension or, "
+"upon repeated offense, permanent removal of commit privileges. Individual "
+"members of core have the power to temporarily suspend commit privileges "
+"until core as a whole has the chance to review the issue. In case of an "
+"\"emergency\" (a committer doing damage to the repository), a temporary "
+"suspension may also be done by the repository meisters. Only a 2/3 majority "
+"of core has the authority to suspend commit privileges for longer than a "
+"week or to remove them permanently. This rule does not exist to set core up "
+"as a bunch of cruel dictators who can dispose of committers as casually as "
+"empty soda cans, but to give the project a kind of safety fuse. If someone "
+"is out of control, it is important to be able to deal with this immediately "
+"rather than be paralyzed by debate. In all cases, a committer whose "
+"privileges are suspended or revoked is entitled to a \"hearing\" by core, "
+"the total duration of the suspension being determined at that time. A "
+"committer whose privileges are suspended may also request a review of the "
+"decision after 30 days and every 30 days thereafter (unless the total "
+"suspension period is less than 30 days). A committer whose privileges have "
+"been revoked entirely may request a review after a period of 6 months has "
+"elapsed. This review policy is _strictly informal_ and, in all cases, core "
+"reserves the right to either act on or disregard requests for review if they "
+"feel their original decision to be the right one."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3388
+msgid ""
+"In all other aspects of project operation, core is a subset of committers "
+"and is bound by the __same rules__. Just because someone is in core this "
+"does not mean that they have special dispensation to step outside any of the "
+"lines painted here; core's \"special powers\" only kick in when it acts as a "
+"group, not on an individual basis. As individuals, the core team members "
+"are all committers first and core second."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3389
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Details"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3397
+msgid ""
+"This means that you need to treat other committers as the peer-group "
+"developers that they are. Despite our occasional attempts to prove the "
+"contrary, one does not get to be a committer by being stupid and nothing "
+"rankles more than being treated that way by one of your peers. Whether we "
+"always feel respect for one another or not (and everyone has off days), we "
+"still have to _treat_ other committers with respect at all times, on public "
+"forums and in private email."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3399
+msgid ""
+"Being able to work together long term is this project's greatest asset, one "
+"far more important than any set of changes to the code, and turning "
+"arguments about code into issues that affect our long-term ability to work "
+"harmoniously together is just not worth the trade-off by any conceivable "
+"stretch of the imagination."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3405
+msgid ""
+"To comply with this rule, do not send email when you are angry or otherwise "
+"behave in a manner which is likely to strike others as needlessly "
+"confrontational. First calm down, then think about how to communicate in "
+"the most effective fashion for convincing the other persons that your side "
+"of the argument is correct, do not just blow off some steam so you can feel "
+"better in the short term at the cost of a long-term flame war. Not only is "
+"this very bad \"energy economics\", but repeated displays of public "
+"aggression which impair our ability to work well together will be dealt with "
+"severely by the project leadership and may result in suspension or "
+"termination of your commit privileges. The project leadership will take "
+"into account both public and private communications brought before it. It "
+"will not seek the disclosure of private communications, but it will take it "
+"into account if it is volunteered by the committers involved in the "
+"complaint."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3408
+msgid ""
+"All of this is never an option which the project's leadership enjoys in the "
+"slightest, but unity comes first. No amount of code or good advice is worth "
+"trading that away."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3421
+msgid ""
+"You were not always a committer. At one time you were a contributor. "
+"Remember that at all times. Remember what it was like trying to get help "
+"and attention. Do not forget that your work as a contributor was very "
+"important to you. Remember what it was like. Do not discourage, belittle, "
+"or demean contributors. Treat them with respect. They are our committers in "
+"waiting. They are every bit as important to the project as committers. "
+"Their contributions are as valid and as important as your own. After all, "
+"you made many contributions before you became a committer. Always remember "
+"that."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3423
+msgid ""
+"Consider the points raised under <<respect,Respect other committers>> and "
+"apply them also to contributors."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3430
+msgid ""
+"The repository is not where changes are initially submitted for correctness "
+"or argued over, that happens first in the mailing lists or by use of the "
+"Phabricator service. The commit will only happen once something resembling "
+"consensus has been reached. This does not mean that permission is required "
+"before correcting every obvious syntax error or manual page misspelling, "
+"just that it is good to develop a feel for when a proposed change is not "
+"quite such a no-brainer and requires some feedback first. People really do "
+"not mind sweeping changes if the result is something clearly better than "
+"what they had before, they just do not like being _surprised_ by those "
+"changes. The very best way of making sure that things are on the right "
+"track is to have code reviewed by one or more other committers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3432
+msgid "When in doubt, ask for review!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3433
+msgid "Respect existing maintainers if listed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3438
+msgid ""
+"Many parts of FreeBSD are not \"owned\" in the sense that any specific "
+"individual will jump up and yell if you commit a change to \"their\" area, "
+"but it still pays to check first. One convention we use is to put a "
+"maintainer line in the [.filename]#Makefile# for any package or subtree "
+"which is being actively maintained by one or more people; see extref:"
+"{developers-handbook}[Source Tree Guidelines and Policies, policies] for "
+"documentation on this. Where sections of code have several maintainers, "
+"commits to affected areas by one maintainer need to be reviewed by at least "
+"one other maintainer. In cases where the \"maintainer-ship\" of something "
+"is not clear, look at the repository logs for the files in question and see "
+"if someone has been working recently or predominantly in that area."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3444
+msgid ""
+"This may be hard to swallow in times of conflict (when each side is "
+"convinced that they are in the right, of course) but a version control "
+"system makes it unnecessary to have an ongoing dispute raging when it is far "
+"easier to simply reverse the disputed change, get everyone calmed down again "
+"and then try to figure out what is the best way to proceed. If the change "
+"turns out to be the best thing after all, it can be easily brought back. If "
+"it turns out not to be, then the users did not have to live with the bogus "
+"change in the tree while everyone was busily debating its merits. People "
+"_very_ rarely call for back-outs in the repository since discussion "
+"generally exposes bad or controversial changes before the commit even "
+"happens, but on such rare occasions the back-out should be done without "
+"argument so that we can get immediately on to the topic of figuring out "
+"whether it was bogus or not."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3445
+msgid ""
+"Changes go to FreeBSD-CURRENT before FreeBSD-STABLE unless specifically "
+"permitted by the release engineer or unless they are not applicable to "
+"FreeBSD-CURRENT. Any non-trivial or non-urgent change which is applicable "
+"should also be allowed to sit in FreeBSD-CURRENT for at least 3 days before "
+"merging so that it can be given sufficient testing. The release engineer has "
+"the same authority over the FreeBSD-STABLE branch as outlined in rule #5."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3451
+msgid ""
+"This is another \"do not argue about it\" issue since it is the release "
+"engineer who is ultimately responsible (and gets beaten up) if a change "
+"turns out to be bad. Please respect this and give the release engineer your "
+"full cooperation when it comes to the FreeBSD-STABLE branch. The management "
+"of FreeBSD-STABLE may frequently seem to be overly conservative to the "
+"casual observer, but also bear in mind the fact that conservatism is "
+"supposed to be the hallmark of FreeBSD-STABLE and different rules apply "
+"there than in FreeBSD-CURRENT. There is also really no point in having "
+"FreeBSD-CURRENT be a testing ground if changes are merged over to FreeBSD-"
+"STABLE immediately. Changes need a chance to be tested by the FreeBSD-"
+"CURRENT developers, so allow some time to elapse before merging unless the "
+"FreeBSD-STABLE fix is critical, time sensitive or so obvious as to make "
+"further testing unnecessary (spelling fixes to manual pages, obvious bug/"
+"typo fixes, etc.) In other words, apply common sense."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3453
+msgid ""
+"Changes to the security branches (for example, `releng/9.3`) must be "
+"approved by a member of the `{security-officer}`, or in some cases, by a "
+"member of the `{re}`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3464
+msgid ""
+"This project has a public image to uphold and that image is very important "
+"to all of us, especially if we are to continue to attract new members. "
+"There will be occasions when, despite everyone's very best attempts at self-"
+"control, tempers are lost and angry words are exchanged. The best thing "
+"that can be done in such cases is to minimize the effects of this until "
+"everyone has cooled back down. Do not air angry words in public and do not "
+"forward private correspondence or other private communications to public "
+"mailing lists, mail aliases, instant messaging channels or social media "
+"sites. What people say one-to-one is often much less sugar-coated than what "
+"they would say in public, and such communications therefore have no place "
+"there - they only serve to inflame an already bad situation. If the person "
+"sending a flame-o-gram at least had the grace to send it privately, then "
+"have the grace to keep it private yourself. If you feel you are being "
+"unfairly treated by another developer, and it is causing you anguish, bring "
+"the matter up with core rather than taking it public. Core will do its best "
+"to play peace makers and get things back to sanity. In cases where the "
+"dispute involves a change to the codebase and the participants do not appear "
+"to be reaching an amicable agreement, core may appoint a mutually-agreeable "
+"third party to resolve the dispute. All parties involved must then agree to "
+"be bound by the decision reached by this third party."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3465
+msgid ""
+"Respect all code freezes and read the `committers` and `developers` mailing "
+"list on a timely basis so you know when a code freeze is in effect."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3468
+msgid ""
+"Committing unapproved changes during a code freeze is a really big mistake "
+"and committers are expected to keep up-to-date on what is going on before "
+"jumping in after a long absence and committing 10 megabytes worth of "
+"accumulated stuff. People who abuse this on a regular basis will have their "
+"commit privileges suspended until they get back from the FreeBSD Happy "
+"Reeducation Camp we run in Greenland."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3473
+msgid ""
+"Many mistakes are made because someone is in a hurry and just assumes they "
+"know the right way of doing something. If you have not done it before, "
+"chances are good that you do not actually know the way we do things and "
+"really need to ask first or you are going to completely embarrass yourself "
+"in public. There is no shame in asking \"how in the heck do I do this?\" We "
+"already know you are an intelligent person; otherwise, you would not be a "
+"committer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3482
+msgid ""
+"This may sound obvious, but if it really were so obvious then we probably "
+"would not see so many cases of people clearly not doing this. If your "
+"changes are to the kernel, make sure you can still compile both GENERIC and "
+"LINT. If your changes are anywhere else, make sure you can still make "
+"world. If your changes are to a branch, make sure your testing occurs with "
+"a machine which is running that code. If you have a change which also may "
+"break another architecture, be sure and test on all supported "
+"architectures. Please refer to the https://www.FreeBSD.org/internal/"
+"[FreeBSD Internal Page] for a list of available resources. As other "
+"architectures are added to the FreeBSD supported platforms list, the "
+"appropriate shared testing resources will be made available."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3485
+msgid ""
+"Contributed software is anything under the [.filename]#src/contrib#, [."
+"filename]#src/crypto#, or [.filename]#src/sys/contrib# trees."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3490
+msgid ""
+"The trees mentioned above are for contributed software usually imported onto "
+"a vendor branch. Committing something there may cause unnecessary headaches "
+"when importing newer versions of the software. As a general consider "
+"sending patches upstream to the vendor. Patches may be committed to FreeBSD "
+"first with permission of the maintainer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3494
+msgid ""
+"Reasons for modifying upstream software range from wanting strict control "
+"over a tightly coupled dependency to lack of portability in the canonical "
+"repository's distribution of their code. Regardless of the reason, effort "
+"to minimize the maintenance burden of fork is helpful to fellow "
+"maintainers. Avoid committing trivial or cosmetic changes to files since it "
+"makes every merge thereafter more difficult: such patches need to be "
+"manually re-verified every import."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3497
+msgid ""
+"If a particular piece of software lacks a maintainer, you are encouraged to "
+"take up ownership. If you are unsure of the current maintainership email "
+"{freebsd-arch} and ask."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3498
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Policy on Multiple Architectures"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3502
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD has added several new architecture ports during recent release "
+"cycles and is truly no longer an i386(TM) centric operating system. In an "
+"effort to make it easier to keep FreeBSD portable across the platforms we "
+"support, core has developed this mandate:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3506
+msgid ""
+"Our 32-bit reference platform is i386, and our 64-bit reference platform is "
+"amd64. Major design work (including major API and ABI changes) must prove "
+"itself on at least one 32-bit and at least one 64-bit platform, preferably "
+"the primary reference platforms, before it may be committed to the source "
+"tree."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3508
+msgid ""
+"The i386 and amd64 platforms were chosen due to being more readily available "
+"to developers and as representatives of more diverse processor and system "
+"designs - big versus little endian, register file versus register stack, "
+"different DMA and cache implementations, hardware page tables versus "
+"software TLB management etc."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3510
+msgid ""
+"We will continue to re-evaluate this policy as cost and availability of the "
+"64-bit platforms change."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3514
+msgid ""
+"Developers should also be aware of our Tier Policy for the long term support "
+"of hardware architectures. The rules here are intended to provide guidance "
+"during the development process, and are distinct from the requirements for "
+"features and architectures listed in that section. The Tier rules for "
+"feature support on architectures at release-time are more strict than the "
+"rules for changes during the development process."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3515
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Other Suggestions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3519
+msgid ""
+"When committing documentation changes, use a spell checker before "
+"committing. For all XML docs, verify that the formatting directives are "
+"correct by running `make lint` and package:textproc/igor[]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3521
+msgid ""
+"For manual pages, run package:sysutils/manck[] and package:textproc/igor[] "
+"over the manual page to verify all of the cross references and file "
+"references are correct and that the man page has all of the appropriate "
+"`MLINKS` installed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3528
+msgid ""
+"Do not mix style fixes with new functionality. A style fix is any change "
+"which does not modify the functionality of the code. Mixing the changes "
+"obfuscates the functionality change when asking for differences between "
+"revisions, which can hide any new bugs. Do not include whitespace changes "
+"with content changes in commits to [.filename]#doc/#. The extra clutter in "
+"the diffs makes the translators' job much more difficult. Instead, make any "
+"style or whitespace changes in separate commits that are clearly labeled as "
+"such in the commit message."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3529
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Deprecating Features"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3532
+msgid ""
+"When it is necessary to remove functionality from software in the base "
+"system, follow these guidelines whenever possible:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3534
+msgid ""
+"Mention is made in the manual page and possibly the release notes that the "
+"option, utility, or interface is deprecated. Use of the deprecated feature "
+"generates a warning."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3535
+msgid ""
+"The option, utility, or interface is preserved until the next major (point "
+"zero) release."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3536
+msgid ""
+"The option, utility, or interface is removed and no longer documented. It is "
+"now obsolete. It is also generally a good idea to note its removal in the "
+"release notes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3537
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Privacy and Confidentiality"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3540
+msgid "Most FreeBSD business is done in public."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3543
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD is an _open_ project. Which means that not only can anyone use the "
+"source code, but that most of the development process is open to public "
+"scrutiny."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3544
+msgid "Certain sensitive matters must remain private or held under embargo."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3550
+msgid ""
+"There unfortunately cannot be complete transparency. As a FreeBSD developer "
+"you will have a certain degree of privileged access to information. "
+"Consequently you are expected to respect certain requirements for "
+"confidentiality. Sometimes the need for confidentiality comes from external "
+"collaborators or has a specific time limit. Mostly though, it is a matter "
+"of not releasing private communications."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3551
+msgid ""
+"The Security Officer has sole control over the release of security "
+"advisories."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3556
+msgid ""
+"Where there are security problems that affect many different operating "
+"systems, FreeBSD frequently depends on early access to be able to prepare "
+"advisories for coordinated release. Unless FreeBSD developers can be "
+"trusted to maintain security, such early access will not be made available. "
+"The Security Officer is responsible for controlling pre-release access to "
+"information about vulnerabilities, and for timing the release of all "
+"advisories. He may request help under condition of confidentiality from any "
+"developer with relevant knowledge to prepare security fixes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3557
+msgid ""
+"Communications with Core are kept confidential for as long as necessary."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3562
+msgid ""
+"Communications to core will initially be treated as confidential. "
+"Eventually however, most of Core's business will be summarized into the "
+"monthly or quarterly core reports. Care will be taken to avoid publicising "
+"any sensitive details. Records of some particularly sensitive subjects may "
+"not be reported on at all and will be retained only in Core's private "
+"archives."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3563
+msgid ""
+"Non-disclosure Agreements may be required for access to certain commercially "
+"sensitive data."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3566
+msgid ""
+"Access to certain commercially sensitive data may only be available under a "
+"Non-Disclosure Agreement. The FreeBSD Foundation legal staff must be "
+"consulted before any binding agreements are entered into."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3567
+msgid "Private communications must not be made public without permission."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3570
+msgid ""
+"Beyond the specific requirements above there is a general expectation not to "
+"publish private communications between developers without the consent of all "
+"parties involved. Ask permission before forwarding a message onto a public "
+"mailing list, or posting it to a forum or website that can be accessed by "
+"other than the original correspondents."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3571
+msgid ""
+"Communications on project-only or restricted access channels must be kept "
+"private."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3574
+msgid ""
+"Similarly to personal communications, certain internal communications "
+"channels, including FreeBSD Committer only mailing lists and restricted "
+"access IRC channels are considered private communications. Permission is "
+"required to publish material from these sources."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3575
+msgid "Core may approve publication."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3577
+msgid ""
+"Where it is impractical to obtain permission due to the number of "
+"correspondents or where permission to publish is unreasonably withheld, Core "
+"may approve release of such private matters that merit more general "
+"publication."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3579
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Support for Multiple Architectures"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3586
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD is a highly portable operating system intended to function on many "
+"different types of hardware architectures. Maintaining clean separation of "
+"Machine Dependent (MD) and Machine Independent (MI) code, as well as "
+"minimizing MD code, is an important part of our strategy to remain agile "
+"with regards to current hardware trends. Each new hardware architecture "
+"supported by FreeBSD adds substantially to the cost of code maintenance, "
+"toolchain support, and release engineering. It also dramatically increases "
+"the cost of effective testing of kernel changes. As such, there is strong "
+"motivation to differentiate between classes of support for various "
+"architectures while remaining strong in a few key architectures that are "
+"seen as the FreeBSD \"target audience\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3587
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Statement of General Intent"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3592
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD Project targets \"production quality commercial off-the-shelf "
+"(COTS) workstation, server, and high-end embedded systems\". By retaining a "
+"focus on a narrow set of architectures of interest in these environments, "
+"the FreeBSD Project is able to maintain high levels of quality, stability, "
+"and performance, as well as minimize the load on various support teams on "
+"the project, such as the ports team, documentation team, security officer, "
+"and release engineering teams. Diversity in hardware support broadens the "
+"options for FreeBSD consumers by offering new features and usage "
+"opportunities, but these benefits must always be carefully considered in "
+"terms of the real-world maintenance cost associated with additional platform "
+"support."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3599
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD Project differentiates platform targets into four tiers. Each "
+"tier includes a list of guarantees consumers may rely on as well as "
+"obligations by the Project and developers to fulfill those guarantees. "
+"These lists define the minimum guarantees for each tier. The Project and "
+"developers may provide additional levels of support beyond the minimum "
+"guarantees for a given tier, but such additional support is not guaranteed. "
+"Each platform target is assigned to a specific tier for each stable branch. "
+"As a result, a platform target might be assigned to different tiers on "
+"concurrent stable branches."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3600
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Platform Targets"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3607
+msgid ""
+"Support for a hardware platform consists of two components: kernel support "
+"and userland Application Binary Interfaces (ABIs). Kernel platform support "
+"includes things needed to run a FreeBSD kernel on a hardware platform such "
+"as machine-dependent virtual memory management and device drivers. A "
+"userland ABI specifies an interface for user processes to interact with a "
+"FreeBSD kernel and base system libraries. A userland ABI includes system "
+"call interfaces, the layout and semantics of public data structures, and the "
+"layout and semantics of arguments passed to subroutines. Some components of "
+"an ABI may be defined by specifications such as the layout of C++ exception "
+"objects or calling conventions for C functions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3609
+msgid ""
+"A FreeBSD kernel also uses an ABI (sometimes referred to as the Kernel "
+"Binary Interface (KBI)) which includes the semantics and layouts of public "
+"data structures and the layout and semantics of arguments to public "
+"functions within the kernel itself."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3614
+msgid ""
+"A FreeBSD kernel may support multiple userland ABIs. For example, FreeBSD's "
+"amd64 kernel supports FreeBSD amd64 and i386 userland ABIs as well as Linux "
+"x86_64 and i386 userland ABIs. A FreeBSD kernel should support a \"native\" "
+"ABI as the default ABI. The native \"ABI\" generally shares certain "
+"properties with the kernel ABI such as the C calling convention, sizes of "
+"basic types, etc."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3616
+msgid ""
+"Tiers are defined for both kernels and userland ABIs. In the common case, a "
+"platform's kernel and FreeBSD ABIs are assigned to the same tier."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3617
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Tier 1: Fully-Supported Architectures"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3622
+msgid ""
+"Tier 1 platforms are the most mature FreeBSD platforms. They are supported "
+"by the security officer, release engineering, and Ports Management Team. "
+"Tier 1 architectures are expected to be Production Quality with respect to "
+"all aspects of the FreeBSD operating system, including installation and "
+"development environments."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3624
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD Project provides the following guarantees to consumers of Tier 1 "
+"platforms:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3626
+msgid ""
+"Official FreeBSD release images will be provided by the release engineering "
+"team."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3627
+msgid ""
+"Binary updates and source patches for Security Advisories and Errata Notices "
+"will be provided for supported releases."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3628
+msgid ""
+"Source patches for Security Advisories will be provided for supported "
+"branches."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3629
+msgid ""
+"Binary updates and source patches for cross-platform Security Advisories "
+"will typically be provided at the time of the announcement."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3630
+msgid ""
+"Changes to userland ABIs will generally include compatibility shims to "
+"ensure correct operation of binaries compiled against any stable branch "
+"where the platform is Tier 1. These shims might not be enabled in the "
+"default install. If compatibility shims are not provided for an ABI change, "
+"the lack of shims will be clearly documented in the release notes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3631
+msgid ""
+"Changes to certain portions of the kernel ABI will include compatibility "
+"shims to ensure correct operation of kernel modules compiled against the "
+"oldest supported release on the branch. Note that not all parts of the "
+"kernel ABI are protected."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3632
+msgid ""
+"Official binary packages for third party software will be provided by the "
+"ports team. For embedded architectures, these packages may be cross-built "
+"from a different architecture."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3633
+msgid ""
+"Most relevant ports should either build or have the appropriate filters to "
+"prevent inappropriate ones from building."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3634
+msgid ""
+"New features which are not inherently platform-specific will be fully "
+"functional on all Tier 1 architectures."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3635
+msgid ""
+"Features and compatibility shims used by binaries compiled against older "
+"stable branches may be removed in newer major versions. Such removals will "
+"be clearly documented in the release notes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3636
+msgid ""
+"Tier 1 platforms should be fully documented. Basic operations will be "
+"documented in the FreeBSD Handbook."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3637
+msgid "Tier 1 platforms will be included in the source tree."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3638
+msgid ""
+"Tier 1 platforms should be self-hosting either via the in-tree toolchain or "
+"an external toolchain. If an external toolchain is required, official binary "
+"packages for an external toolchain will be provided."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3640
+msgid ""
+"To maintain maturity of Tier 1 platforms, the FreeBSD Project will maintain "
+"the following resources to support development:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3642
+msgid ""
+"Build and test automation support either in the FreeBSD.org cluster or some "
+"other location easily available for all developers. Embedded platforms may "
+"substitute an emulator available in the FreeBSD.org cluster for actual "
+"hardware."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3643
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3673
+msgid "Inclusion in the `make universe` and `make tinderbox` targets."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3644
+msgid ""
+"Dedicated hardware in one of the FreeBSD clusters for package building "
+"(either natively or via qemu-user)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3646
+msgid ""
+"Collectively, developers are required to provide the following to maintain "
+"the Tier 1 status of a platform:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3648
+msgid ""
+"Changes to the source tree should not knowingly break the build of a Tier 1 "
+"platform."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3649
+msgid ""
+"Tier 1 architectures must have a mature, healthy ecosystem of users and "
+"active developers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3650
+msgid ""
+"Developers should be able to build packages on commonly available, non-"
+"embedded Tier 1 systems. This can mean either native builds if non-embedded "
+"systems are commonly available for the platform in question, or it can mean "
+"cross-builds hosted on some other Tier 1 architecture."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3651
+msgid ""
+"Changes cannot break the userland ABI. If an ABI change is required, ABI "
+"compatibility for existing binaries should be provided via use of symbol "
+"versioning or shared library version bumps."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3652
+msgid ""
+"Changes merged to stable branches cannot break the protected portions of the "
+"kernel ABI. If a kernel ABI change is required, the change should be "
+"modified to preserve functionality of existing kernel modules."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3653
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Tier 2: Developmental and Niche Architectures"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3657
+msgid ""
+"Tier 2 platforms are functional, but less mature FreeBSD platforms. They "
+"are not supported by the security officer, release engineering, and Ports "
+"Management Team."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3661
+msgid ""
+"Tier 2 platforms may be Tier 1 platform candidates that are still under "
+"active development. Architectures reaching end of life may also be moved "
+"from Tier 1 status to Tier 2 status as the availability of resources to "
+"continue to maintain the system in a Production Quality state diminishes. "
+"Well-supported niche architectures may also be Tier 2."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3663
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD Project provides the following guarantees to consumers of Tier 2 "
+"platforms:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3665
+msgid ""
+"The ports infrastructure should include basic support for Tier 2 "
+"architectures sufficient to support building ports and packages. This "
+"includes support for basic packages such as ports-mgmt/pkg, but there is no "
+"guarantee that arbitrary ports will be buildable or functional."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3666
+msgid ""
+"New features which are not inherently platform-specific should be feasible "
+"on all Tier 2 architectures if not implemented."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3667
+msgid "Tier 2 platforms will be included in the source tree."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3668
+msgid ""
+"Tier 2 platforms should be self-hosting either via the in-tree toolchain or "
+"an external toolchain. If an external toolchain is required, official binary "
+"packages for an external toolchain will be provided."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3669
+msgid ""
+"Tier 2 platforms should provide functional kernels and userlands even if an "
+"official release distribution is not provided."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3671
+msgid ""
+"To maintain maturity of Tier 2 platforms, the FreeBSD Project will maintain "
+"the following resources to support development:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3675
+msgid ""
+"Collectively, developers are required to provide the following to maintain "
+"the Tier 2 status of a platform:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3677
+msgid ""
+"Changes to the source tree should not knowingly break the build of a Tier 2 "
+"platform."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3678
+msgid ""
+"Tier 2 architectures must have an active ecosystem of users and developers."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3679
+msgid ""
+"While changes are permitted to break the userland ABI, the ABI should not be "
+"broken gratuitously. Significant userland ABI changes should be restricted "
+"to major versions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3680
+msgid ""
+"New features that are not yet implemented on Tier 2 architectures should "
+"provide a means of disabling them on those architectures."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3681
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Tier 3: Experimental Architectures"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3685
+msgid ""
+"Tier 3 platforms have at least partial FreeBSD support. They are _not_ "
+"supported by the security officer, release engineering, and Ports Management "
+"Team."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3688
+msgid ""
+"Tier 3 platforms are architectures in the early stages of development, for "
+"non-mainstream hardware platforms, or which are considered legacy systems "
+"unlikely to see broad future use. Initial support for Tier 3 platforms may "
+"exist in a separate repository rather than the main source repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3691
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD Project provides no guarantees to consumers of Tier 3 platforms "
+"and is not committed to maintaining resources to support development. Tier "
+"3 platforms may not always be buildable, nor are any kernel or userland ABIs "
+"considered stable."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3692
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Unsupported Architectures"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3696
+msgid ""
+"Other platforms are not supported in any form by the project. The project "
+"previously described these as Tier 4 systems."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3699
+msgid ""
+"After a platform transitions to unsupported, all support for the platform is "
+"removed from the source, ports and documentation trees. Note that ports "
+"support should remain as long as the platform is supported in a branch "
+"supported by ports."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3700
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Policy on Changing the Tier of an Architecture"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3704
+msgid ""
+"Systems may only be moved from one tier to another by approval of the "
+"FreeBSD Core Team, which shall make that decision in collaboration with the "
+"Security Officer, Release Engineering, and ports management teams. For a "
+"platform to be promoted to a higher tier, any missing support guarantees "
+"must be satisfied before the promotion is completed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3706
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Ports Specific FAQ"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3709
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Adding a New Port"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3712
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "How do I add a new port?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3716
+msgid ""
+"Adding a port to the tree is relatively simple. Once the port is ready to be "
+"added, as explained later <<ports-qa-add-new-extra,here>>, you need to add "
+"the port's directory entry in the category's [.filename]#Makefile#. In this "
+"[.filename]#Makefile#, ports are listed in alphabetical order and added to "
+"the `SUBDIR` variable, like this:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3720
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "\tSUBDIR += newport\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3723
+msgid ""
+"Once the port and its category's Makefile are ready, the new port can be "
+"committed:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3728
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git add category/Makefile category/newport\n"
+"% git commit\n"
+"% git push\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3732
+msgid ""
+"Don't forget to <<port-commit-message-formats,setup git hooks for the ports "
+"tree as explained here>>; a specific hook has been developed to verify the "
+"category's [.filename]#Makefile#."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3735
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Any other things I need to know when I add a new port?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3738
+msgid ""
+"Check the port, preferably to make sure it compiles and packages correctly."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3741
+msgid ""
+"The extref:{porters-handbook}testing[Porters Handbook's Testing Chapter] "
+"contains more detailed instructions. See the extref:{porters-handbook}"
+"testing[Portclippy / Portfmt, testing-portclippy] and the extref:{porters-"
+"handbook}testing[Poudriere, testing-poudriere] sections."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3743
+msgid ""
+"You do not necessarily have to eliminate all warnings but make sure you have "
+"fixed the simple ones."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3745
+msgid ""
+"If the port came from a submitter who has not contributed to the Project "
+"before, add that person's name to the extref:{contributors}[Additional "
+"Contributors, contrib-additional] section of the FreeBSD Contributors List."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3748
+msgid ""
+"Close the PR if the port came in as a PR. To close a PR, change the state "
+"to `Issue Resolved` and the resolution as `Fixed`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3752
+msgid ""
+"If for some reason using extref:{porters-handbook}testing[Poudriere, testing-"
+"poudriere] to test the new port is not possible, the bare minimum of testing "
+"includes this sequence:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3762
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"# make install\n"
+"# make package\n"
+"# make deinstall\n"
+"# pkg add package you built above\n"
+"# make deinstall\n"
+"# make reinstall\n"
+"# make package\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3765
+msgid ""
+"Note that poudriere is the reference for package building, it the port does "
+"not build in poudriere, it will be removed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3768
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Removing an Existing Port"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3771
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "How do I remove an existing port?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3774
+msgid ""
+"First, please read the section about repository copies. Before you remove "
+"the port, you have to verify there are no other ports depending on it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3776
+msgid "Make sure there is no dependency on the port in the ports collection:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3777
+msgid "The port's PKGNAME appears in exactly one line in a recent INDEX file."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3778
+msgid ""
+"No other ports contains any reference to the port's directory or PKGNAME in "
+"their Makefiles"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3782
+msgid ""
+"When using Git, consider using man:git-grep[1], it is much faster than `grep "
+"-r`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3785
+msgid "Then, remove the port:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3789
+msgid "Remove the port's files and directory with `git rm`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3790
+msgid ""
+"Remove the `SUBDIR` listing of the port in the parent directory [."
+"filename]#Makefile#."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3791
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3806
+msgid "Add an entry to [.filename]#ports/MOVED#."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3792
+msgid "Remove the port from [.filename]#ports/LEGAL# if it is there."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3797
+msgid ""
+"Alternatively, you can use the rmport script, from [.filename]#ports/Tools/"
+"scripts#. This script was written by {vd}. When sending questions about "
+"this script to the {freebsd-ports}, please also CC {crees}, the current "
+"maintainer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3799
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "How do I move a port to a new location?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3804
+msgid ""
+"Perform a thorough check of the ports collection for any dependencies on the "
+"old port location/name, and update them. Running `grep` on [."
+"filename]#INDEX# is not enough because some ports have dependencies enabled "
+"by compile-time options. A full man:git-grep[1] of the ports collection is "
+"recommended."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3805
+msgid ""
+"Remove the `SUBDIR` entry from the old category Makefile and add a `SUBDIR` "
+"entry to the new category Makefile."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3807
+msgid ""
+"Search for entries in xml files inside [.filename]#ports/security/vuxml# and "
+"adjust them accordingly. In particular, check for previous packages with the "
+"new name which version could include the new port."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3808
+msgid "Move the port with `git mv`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3809
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3820
+msgid "Commit the changes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3812
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "How do I copy a port to a new location?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3817
+msgid "Copy port with `cp -R old-cat/old-port new-cat/new-port`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3818
+msgid "Add the new port to the [.filename]#new-cat/Makefile#."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3819
+msgid "Change stuff in [.filename]#new-cat/new-port#."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3823
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Ports Freeze"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3826
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "What is a “ports freeze”?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3833
+msgid ""
+"A “ports freeze” was a restricted state the ports tree was put in before a "
+"release. It was used to ensure a higher quality for the packages shipped "
+"with a release. It usually lasted a couple of weeks. During that time, "
+"build problems were fixed, and the release packages were built. This "
+"practice is no longer used, as the packages for the releases are built from "
+"the current stable, quarterly branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3835
+msgid ""
+"For more information on how to merge commits to the quarterly branch, see "
+"<<ports-qa-misc-request-mfh>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3837
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Quarterly Branches"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3840
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "What is the procedure to request authorization for merging a commit to the quarterly branch?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3843
+msgid ""
+"As of November 30, 2020, there is no need to seek explicit approval to "
+"commit to the quarterly branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3845
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "What is the procedure for merging commits to the quarterly branch?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3848
+msgid ""
+"Merging commits to the quarterly branch (a process we call MFH for a "
+"historical reason) is very similar to MFC'ing a commit in the src "
+"repository, so basically:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3854
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"% git checkout 2021Q2\n"
+"% git cherry-pick -x $HASH\n"
+"(verify everything is OK, for example by doing a build test)\n"
+"% git push\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3858
+msgid ""
+"where '$HASH' is the hash of the commit you want to copy over to the "
+"quarterly branch. The -x parameter ensures the hash '$HASH' of the main "
+"branch is included in the new commit message of the quarterly branch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3860
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Creating a New Category"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3863
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "What is the procedure for creating a new category?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3868
+msgid ""
+"Please see extref:{porters-handbook}[Proposing a New Category, proposing-"
+"categories] in the Porter's Handbook. Once that procedure has been followed "
+"and the PR has been assigned to the {portmgr}, it is their decision whether "
+"or not to approve it. If they do, it is their responsibility to:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3872
+msgid "Perform any needed moves. (This only applies to physical categories.)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3873
+msgid ""
+"Update the `VALID_CATEGORIES` definition in [.filename]#ports/Mk/bsd.port."
+"mk#."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3874
+msgid "Assign the PR back to you."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3877
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "What do I need to do to implement a new physical category?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3882
+msgid ""
+"Upgrade each moved port's [.filename]#Makefile#. Do not connect the new "
+"category to the build yet."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3884
+msgid "To do this, you will need to:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3888
+msgid ""
+"Change the port's `CATEGORIES` (this was the point of the exercise, "
+"remember?) The new category is listed first. This will help to ensure that "
+"the PKGORIGIN is correct."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3889
+msgid ""
+"Run a `make describe`. Since the top-level `make index` that you will be "
+"running in a few steps is an iteration of `make describe` over the entire "
+"ports hierarchy, catching any errors here will save you having to re-run "
+"that step later on."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3890
+msgid ""
+"If you want to be really thorough, now might be a good time to run man:"
+"portlint[1]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3893
+msgid ""
+"Check that the ``PKGORIGIN``s are correct. The ports system uses each port's "
+"`CATEGORIES` entry to create its `PKGORIGIN`, which is used to connect "
+"installed packages to the port directory they were built from. If this entry "
+"is wrong, common port tools like man:pkg-version[8] and man:portupgrade[1] "
+"fail."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3895
+msgid ""
+"To do this, use the [.filename]#chkorigin.sh# tool: `env PORTSDIR=/path/to/"
+"ports sh -e /path/to/ports/Tools/scripts/chkorigin.sh`. This will check "
+"every port in the ports tree, even those not connected to the build, so you "
+"can run it directly after the move operation. Hint: do not forget to look at "
+"the ``PKGORIGIN``s of any slave ports of the ports you just moved!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3896
+msgid ""
+"On your own local system, test the proposed changes: first, comment out the "
+"SUBDIR entries in the old ports' categories' [.filename]##Makefile##s; then "
+"enable building the new category in [.filename]#ports/Makefile#. Run make "
+"checksubdirs in the affected category directories to check the SUBDIR "
+"entries. Next, in the [.filename]#ports/# directory, run make index. This "
+"can take over 40 minutes on even modern systems; however, it is a necessary "
+"step to prevent problems for other people."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3897
+msgid ""
+"Once this is done, you can commit the updated [.filename]#ports/Makefile# to "
+"connect the new category to the build and also commit the [."
+"filename]#Makefile# changes for the old category or categories."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3898
+msgid "Add appropriate entries to [.filename]#ports/MOVED#."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3899
+msgid "Update the documentation by modifying:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3900
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3909
+msgid ""
+"the extref:{porters-handbook}[list of categories, PORTING-CATEGORIES] in the "
+"Porter's Handbook"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3902
+msgid ""
+"Only once all the above have been done, and no one is any longer reporting "
+"problems with the new ports, should the old ports be deleted from their "
+"previous locations in the repository."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3904
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "What do I need to do to implement a new virtual category?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3907
+msgid ""
+"This is much simpler than a physical category. Only a few modifications are "
+"needed:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3911
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4005
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Miscellaneous Questions"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3914
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Are there changes that can be committed without asking the maintainer for approval?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3917
+msgid "Blanket approval for most ports applies to these types of fixes:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3919
+msgid ""
+"Most infrastructure changes to a port (that is, modernizing, but not "
+"changing the functionality). For example, the blanket covers converting to "
+"new `USES` macros, enabling verbose builds, and switching to new ports "
+"system syntaxes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3920
+msgid "Trivial and _tested_ build and runtime fixes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3921
+msgid ""
+"Documentations or metadata changes to ports, like [.filename]#pkg-descr# or "
+"`COMMENT`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3926
+msgid ""
+"Exceptions to this are anything maintained by the {portmgr}, or the "
+"{security-officer}. No unauthorized commits may ever be made to ports "
+"maintained by those groups."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3929
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "How do I know if my port is building correctly or not?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3933
+msgid ""
+"The packages are built multiple times each week. If a port fails, the "
+"maintainer will receive an email from `pkg-fallout@FreeBSD.org`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3935
+msgid ""
+"Reports for all the package builds (official, experimental, and non-"
+"regression) are aggregated at link:pkg-status.FreeBSD.org[pkg-status.FreeBSD."
+"org]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3937
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "I added a new port. Do I need to add it to the [.filename]#INDEX#?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3940
+msgid ""
+"No. The file can either be generated by running `make index`, or a pre-"
+"generated version can be downloaded with `make fetchindex`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3942
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Are there any other files I am not allowed to touch?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3946
+msgid ""
+"Any file directly under [.filename]#ports/#, or any file under a "
+"subdirectory that starts with an uppercase letter ([.filename]#Mk/#, [."
+"filename]#Tools/#, etc.). In particular, the {portmgr} is very protective "
+"of [.filename]#ports/Mk/bsd.port*.mk# so do not commit changes to those "
+"files unless you want to face their wrath."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3948
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "What is the proper procedure for updating the checksum for a port distfile when the file changes without a version change?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3952
+msgid ""
+"When the checksum for a distribution file is updated due to the author "
+"updating the file without changing the port revision, the commit message "
+"includes a summary of the relevant diffs between the original and new "
+"distfile to ensure that the distfile has not been corrupted or maliciously "
+"altered. If the current version of the port has been in the ports tree for "
+"a while, a copy of the old distfile will usually be available on the ftp "
+"servers; otherwise the author or maintainer should be contacted to find out "
+"why the distfile has changed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3954
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "How can an experimental test build of the ports tree (exp-run) be requested?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3958
+msgid ""
+"An exp-run must be completed before patches with a significant ports impact "
+"are committed. The patch can be against the ports tree or the base system."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3960
+msgid ""
+"Full package builds will be done with the patches provided by the submitter, "
+"and the submitter is required to fix detected problems _(fallout)_ before "
+"commit."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3964
+msgid "Go to the link:https://bugs.freebsd.org/submit[Bugzilla new PR page]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3965
+msgid "Select the product your patch is about."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3966
+msgid "Fill in the bug report as normal. Remember to attach the patch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3967
+msgid ""
+"If at the top it says “Show Advanced Fields” click on it. It will now say "
+"“Hide Advanced Fields”. Many new fields will be available. If it already "
+"says “Hide Advanced Fields”, no need to do anything."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3968
+msgid ""
+"In the “Flags” section, set the “exp-run” one to `?`. As for all other "
+"fields, hovering the mouse over any field shows more details."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3969
+msgid "Submit. Wait for the build to run."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3970
+msgid "{portmgr} will reply with a possible fallout."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3971
+msgid "Depending on the fallout:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3972
+msgid ""
+"If there is no fallout, the procedure stops here, and the change can be "
+"committed, pending any other approval required."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3973
+msgid ""
+"If there is fallout, it _must_ be fixed, either by fixing the ports directly "
+"in the ports tree, or adding to the submitted patch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3974
+msgid ""
+"When this is done, go back to step 6 saying the fallout was fixed and wait "
+"for the exp-run to be run again. Repeat as long as there are broken ports."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3977
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Issues Specific to Developers Who Are Not Committers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3982
+msgid ""
+"A few people who have access to the FreeBSD machines do not have commit "
+"bits. Almost all of this document will apply to these developers as well "
+"(except things specific to commits and the mailing list memberships that go "
+"with them). In particular, we recommend that you read:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3984
+msgid "<<admin>>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3985
+msgid "<<conventions-everyone>>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3989
+msgid ""
+"Get your mentor to add you to the \"Additional Contributors\" ([."
+"filename]#doc/shared/contrib-additional.adoc#), if you are not already "
+"listed there."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3991
+msgid "<<developer.relations>>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3992
+msgid "<<ssh.guide>>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3993
+msgid "<<rules>>"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3995
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Information About Google Analytics"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:3998
+msgid ""
+"As of December 12, 2012, Google Analytics was enabled on the FreeBSD Project "
+"website to collect anonymized usage statistics regarding usage of the site."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4002
+msgid ""
+"As of March 3, 2022, Google Analytics was removed from the FreeBSD Project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4007
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "How do I access people.FreeBSD.org to put up personal or project information?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4011
+msgid ""
+"`people.FreeBSD.org` is the same as `freefall.FreeBSD.org`. Just create a [."
+"filename]#public_html# directory. Anything you place in that directory will "
+"automatically be visible under https://people.FreeBSD.org/[https://people."
+"FreeBSD.org/]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4012
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Where are the mailing list archives stored?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4015
+msgid ""
+"The mailing lists are archived under [.filename]#/local/mail# on `freefall."
+"FreeBSD.org`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4016
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "I would like to mentor a new committer. What process do I need to follow?"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4019
+msgid ""
+"See the https://www.freebsd.org/internal/new-account/[New Account Creation "
+"Procedure] document on the internal pages."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4021
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Benefits and Perks for FreeBSD Committers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4024
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Recognition"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4028
+msgid ""
+"Recognition as a competent software engineer is the longest lasting value. "
+"In addition, getting a chance to work with some of the best people that "
+"every engineer would dream of meeting is a great perk!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4030
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "FreeBSD Mall"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4033
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD committers can get a free 4-CD or DVD set at conferences from http://"
+"www.freebsdmall.com[FreeBSD Mall, Inc.]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4035
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`Gandi.net`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4038
+msgid ""
+"https://gandi.net[Gandi] provides website hosting, cloud computing, domain "
+"registration, and X.509 certificate services."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4042
+msgid ""
+"Gandi offers an E-rate discount to all FreeBSD developers. In order to "
+"streamline the process of getting the discount first set up a Gandi account, "
+"fill in the billing information and select the currency. Then send an mail "
+"to mailto:non-profit@gandi.net[non-profit@gandi.net] using your `@freebsd."
+"org` mail address, and indicate your Gandi handle."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4044
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "`rsync.net`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4047
+msgid ""
+"https://rsync.net[rsync.net] provides cloud storage for offsite backup that "
+"is optimized for UNIX users. Their service runs entirely on FreeBSD and ZFS."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/committers-guide/_index.adoc:4048
+msgid ""
+"rsync.net offers a free-forever 500 GB account to FreeBSD developers. Simply "
+"sign up at https://www.rsync.net/freebsd.html[https://www.rsync.net/freebsd."
+"html] using your `@freebsd.org` address to receive this free account."
+msgstr ""
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.po b/documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.po
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..f7e17252ab
--- /dev/null
+++ b/documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.po
@@ -0,0 +1,1524 @@
+# SOME DESCRIPTIVE TITLE
+# Copyright (C) YEAR The FreeBSD Project
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the FreeBSD Documentation package.
+# FIRST AUTHOR <EMAIL@ADDRESS>, YEAR.
+#
+#, fuzzy
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: FreeBSD Documentation VERSION\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2022-08-07 10:21-0300\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: YEAR-MO-DA HO:MI+ZONE\n"
+"Last-Translator: FULL NAME <EMAIL@ADDRESS>\n"
+"Language-Team: LANGUAGE <LL@li.org>\n"
+"Language: \n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+
+#. type: YAML Front Matter: description
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:1
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "How to contribute to the FreeBSD Project"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:1
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:13
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Contributing to FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:46
+msgid "Abstract"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:48
+msgid ""
+"This article describes the different ways in which an individual or "
+"organization may contribute to the FreeBSD Project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:50
+msgid "'''"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:55
+msgid ""
+"So you want to contribute to FreeBSD? That is great! FreeBSD _relies_ on the "
+"contributions of its user base to survive. Your contributions are not only "
+"appreciated, they are vital to FreeBSD's continued growth."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:58
+msgid ""
+"A large and growing number of international contributors, of greatly varying "
+"ages and areas of technical expertise, develop FreeBSD. There is always "
+"more work to be done than there are people available to do it, and more help "
+"is always appreciated."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:62
+msgid ""
+"As a volunteer, what you do is limited only by what you want to do. "
+"However, we do ask that you are aware of what other members of the FreeBSD "
+"community will expect of you. You may want to take this into account before "
+"deciding to volunteer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:66
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD project is responsible for an entire operating system "
+"environment, rather than just a kernel or a few scattered utilities. As "
+"such, our [.filename]#TODO# lists span a very wide range of tasks: from "
+"documentation, beta testing and presentation, to the system installer and "
+"highly specialized types of kernel development. People of any skill level, "
+"in almost any area, can almost certainly help the project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:71
+msgid ""
+"Commercial entities engaged in FreeBSD-related enterprises are also "
+"encouraged to contact us. Do you need a special extension to make your "
+"product work? You will find us receptive to your requests, given that they "
+"are not too outlandish. Are you working on a value-added product? Please "
+"let us know! We may be able to work cooperatively on some aspect of it. The "
+"free software world is challenging many existing assumptions about how "
+"software is developed, sold, and maintained, and we urge you to at least "
+"give it a second look."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:73
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "What Is Needed"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:76
+msgid ""
+"The following list of tasks and sub-projects represents something of an "
+"amalgam of various [.filename]#TODO# lists and user requests."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:78
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Ongoing Non-Programmer Tasks"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:83
+msgid ""
+"Many people who are involved in FreeBSD are not programmers. The Project "
+"includes documentation writers, Web designers, and support people. All that "
+"these people need to contribute is an investment of time and a willingness "
+"to learn."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:85
+msgid ""
+"Read through the FAQ and Handbook periodically. If anything is poorly "
+"explained, ambiguous, out of date or incorrect, let us know. Even better, "
+"send us a fix (AsciiDoc is not difficult to learn, but there is no objection "
+"to plain text submissions)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:86
+msgid ""
+"Help translate FreeBSD documentation into your native language. If "
+"documentation already exists for your language, you can help translate "
+"additional documents or verify that the translations are up-to-date and "
+"correct. First take a look at the extref:{fdp-primer}[Translations FAQ, "
+"translations] in the FreeBSD Documentation Project Primer. You are not "
+"committing yourself to translating every single FreeBSD document by doing "
+"this - as a volunteer, you can do as much or as little translation as you "
+"desire. Once someone begins translating, others almost always join the "
+"effort. If you only have the time or energy to translate one part of the "
+"documentation, please translate the installation instructions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:87
+msgid ""
+"Read the {freebsd-questions} occasionally (or even regularly). It can be "
+"very satisfying to share your expertise and help people solve their "
+"problems; sometimes you may even learn something new yourself! These forums "
+"can also be a source of ideas for things to improve upon."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:89
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Ongoing Programmer Tasks"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:93
+msgid ""
+"Most of the tasks listed here may require a considerable investment of time, "
+"an in-depth knowledge of the FreeBSD kernel, or both. However, there are "
+"also many useful tasks which are suitable for \"weekend hackers\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:95
+msgid ""
+"If you run FreeBSD-CURRENT and have a good Internet connection, there is a "
+"machine `current.FreeBSD.org` which builds a full release once a day-every "
+"now and again, try to install the latest release from it and report any "
+"failures in the process."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:96
+msgid ""
+"Read the {freebsd-bugs}. There may be a problem you can comment "
+"constructively on or with patches you can test. Or you could even try to fix "
+"one of the problems yourself."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:97
+msgid ""
+"If you know of any bug fixes which have been successfully applied to -"
+"CURRENT but have not been merged into -STABLE after a decent interval "
+"(normally a couple of weeks), send the committer a polite reminder."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:98
+msgid ""
+"Move contributed software to [.filename]#src/contrib# in the source tree."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:99
+msgid "Make sure code in [.filename]#src/contrib# is up to date."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:100
+msgid ""
+"Build the source tree (or just part of it) with extra warnings enabled and "
+"clean up the warnings. A list of build warnings can also be found from our "
+"https://ci.freebsd.org[CI] by selecting a build and checking \"LLVM/Clang "
+"Warnings\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:101
+msgid ""
+"Fix warnings for ports which do deprecated things like using `gets()` or "
+"including [.filename]#malloc.h#."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:102
+msgid ""
+"If you have contributed any ports and you had to make FreeBSD-specific "
+"changes, send your patches back to the original authors (this will make your "
+"life easier when they bring out the next version)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:103
+msgid ""
+"Get copies of formal standards like POSIX(R). Compare FreeBSD's behavior to "
+"that required by the standard. If the behavior differs, particularly in "
+"subtle or obscure corners of the specification, send in a PR about it. If "
+"you are able, figure out how to fix it and include a patch in the PR. If you "
+"think the standard is wrong, ask the standards body to consider the question."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:104
+msgid "Suggest further tasks for this list!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:105
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Work through the PR Database"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:112
+msgid ""
+"The https://bugs.FreeBSD.org/search/[FreeBSD PR list] shows all the current "
+"active problem reports and requests for enhancement that have been submitted "
+"by FreeBSD users. The PR database includes both programmer and non-"
+"programmer tasks. Look through the open PRs, and see if anything there "
+"takes your interest. Some of these might be very simple tasks that just "
+"need an extra pair of eyes to look over them and confirm that the fix in the "
+"PR is a good one. Others might be much more complex, or might not even have "
+"a fix included at all."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:115
+msgid ""
+"Start with the PRs that have not been assigned to anyone else. If a PR is "
+"assigned to someone else, but it looks like something you can handle, email "
+"the person it is assigned to and ask if you can work on it-they might "
+"already have a patch ready to be tested, or further ideas that you can "
+"discuss with them."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:116
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Ongoing Ports Tasks"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:121
+msgid ""
+"The Ports Collection is a perpetual work in progress. We want to provide "
+"our users with an easy to use, up to date, high quality repository of third "
+"party software. We need people to donate some of their time and effort to "
+"help us achieve this goal."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:125
+msgid ""
+"Anyone can get involved, and there are lots of different ways to do so. "
+"Contributing to ports is an excellent way to help \"give back\" something to "
+"the project. Whether you are looking for an ongoing role, or a fun "
+"challenge for a rainy day, we would love to have your help!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:127
+msgid ""
+"There are a number of easy ways you can contribute to keeping the ports tree "
+"up to date and in good working order:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:129
+msgid ""
+"Find some cool or useful software and extref:{porters-handbook}[create a "
+"port] for it."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:130
+msgid ""
+"There are a large number of ports that have no maintainer. Become a "
+"maintainer and <<adopt-port>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:131
+msgid "If you have created or adopted a port, be aware of <<maintain-port>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:132
+msgid "When you are looking for a quick challenge you could <<fix-broken>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:133
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Pick one of the items from the Ideas page"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:137
+msgid ""
+"The https://wiki.freebsd.org/IdeasPage[FreeBSD list of projects and ideas "
+"for volunteers] is also available for people willing to contribute to the "
+"FreeBSD project. The list is being regularly updated and contains items for "
+"both programmers and non-programmers with information about each project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:139
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "How to Contribute"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:142
+msgid ""
+"Contributions to the system generally fall into one or more of the following "
+"5 categories:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:144
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Bug Reports and General Commentary"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:149
+msgid ""
+"An idea or suggestion of _general_ technical interest should be mailed to "
+"the {freebsd-hackers}. Likewise, people with an interest in such things "
+"(and a tolerance for a _high_ volume of mail!) may subscribe to the {freebsd-"
+"hackers}. See extref:{handbook}[The FreeBSD Handbook, eresources-mail] for "
+"more information about this and other mailing lists."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:156
+msgid ""
+"If you find a bug or are submitting a specific change, please report it "
+"using the https://bugs.FreeBSD.org/submit/[bug submission form]. Try to "
+"fill-in each field of the bug report. Unless they exceed 65KB, include any "
+"patches directly in the report. If the patch is suitable to be applied to "
+"the source tree put `[PATCH]` in the synopsis of the report. When including "
+"patches, _do not_ use cut-and-paste because cut-and-paste turns tabs into "
+"spaces and makes them unusable. When patches are a lot larger than 20KB, "
+"consider compressing them (eg. with man:gzip[1] or man:bzip2[1]) prior to "
+"uploading them."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:159
+msgid ""
+"After filing a report, you should receive confirmation along with a tracking "
+"number. Keep this tracking number so that you can update us with details "
+"about the problem."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:161
+msgid ""
+"See also extref:{problem-reports}[this article] on how to write good problem "
+"reports."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:162
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Changes to the Documentation"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:167
+msgid ""
+"Changes to the documentation are overseen by the {freebsd-doc}. Please look "
+"at the extref:{fdp-primer}[FreeBSD Documentation Project Primer] for "
+"complete instructions. Send submissions and changes (even small ones are "
+"welcome!) using the same method as any other bug report."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:168
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Changes to Existing Source Code"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:173
+msgid ""
+"An addition or change to the existing source code is a somewhat trickier "
+"affair and depends a lot on how far out of date you are with the current "
+"state of FreeBSD development. There is a special on-going release of "
+"FreeBSD known as \"FreeBSD-CURRENT\" which is made available in a variety of "
+"ways for the convenience of developers working actively on the system. See "
+"extref:{handbook}[The FreeBSD Handbook, current-stable] for more information "
+"about getting and using FreeBSD-CURRENT."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:176
+msgid ""
+"Working from older sources unfortunately means that your changes may "
+"sometimes be too obsolete or too divergent for easy re-integration into "
+"FreeBSD. Chances of this can be minimized somewhat by subscribing to the "
+"{freebsd-announce} and the {freebsd-current} lists, where discussions on the "
+"current state of the system take place."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:179
+msgid ""
+"Assuming that you can manage to secure fairly up-to-date sources to base "
+"your changes on, the next step is to produce a set of diffs to send to the "
+"FreeBSD maintainers. This is done with the man:diff[1] command."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:181
+msgid ""
+"The preferred man:diff[1] format for submitting patches is the unified "
+"output format generated by `diff -u`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:185
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% diff -u oldfile newfile\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:188
+msgid "or"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:192
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "% diff -u -r -N olddir newdir\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:195
+msgid ""
+"would generate a set of unified diffs for the given source file or directory "
+"hierarchy."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:197
+msgid "See man:diff[1] for more information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:201
+msgid ""
+"Once you have a set of diffs (which you may test with the man:patch[1] "
+"command), you should submit them for inclusion with FreeBSD as a bug "
+"report. _Do not_ just send the diffs to the {freebsd-hackers} or they will "
+"get lost! We greatly appreciate your submission (this is a volunteer "
+"project!); because we are busy, we may not be able to address it "
+"immediately, but it will remain in the PR database until we do. Indicate "
+"your submission by including `[PATCH]` in the synopsis of the report."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:204
+msgid ""
+"If you feel it appropriate (e.g. you have added, deleted, or renamed files), "
+"bundle your changes into a `tar` file. Archives created with man:shar[1] "
+"are also welcome."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:208
+msgid ""
+"If your change is of a potentially sensitive nature, such as if you are "
+"unsure of copyright issues governing its further distribution then you "
+"should send it to {core-email} directly rather than submitting as a bug "
+"report. The {core-email} reaches a much smaller group of people who do much "
+"of the day-to-day work on FreeBSD. Note that this group is also _very busy_ "
+"and so you should only send mail to them where it is truly necessary."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:211
+msgid ""
+"Please refer to man:intro[9] and man:style[9] for some information on coding "
+"style. We would appreciate it if you were at least aware of this "
+"information before submitting code."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:212
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "New Code or Major Value-Added Packages"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:216
+msgid ""
+"In the case of a significant contribution of a large body work, or the "
+"addition of an important new feature to FreeBSD, it becomes almost always "
+"necessary to either send changes as tar files or upload them to a web or FTP "
+"site for other people to access. If you do not have access to a web or FTP "
+"site, ask on an appropriate FreeBSD mailing list for someone to host the "
+"changes for you."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:221
+msgid ""
+"When working with large amounts of code, the touchy subject of copyrights "
+"also invariably comes up. FreeBSD prefers free software licenses such as "
+"BSD or ISC. Copyleft licenses such as GPLv2 are sometimes permitted. The "
+"complete listing can be found on the link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/internal/"
+"software-license/[core team licensing policy] page."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:222
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Money or Hardware"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:225
+msgid ""
+"We are always very happy to accept donations to further the cause of the "
+"FreeBSD Project and, in a volunteer effort like ours, a little can go a long "
+"way! Donations of hardware are also very important to expanding our list of "
+"supported peripherals since we generally lack the funds to buy such items "
+"ourselves."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:227
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Donating Funds"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:232
+msgid ""
+"The https://www.freebsdfoundation.org[FreeBSD Foundation] is a non-profit, "
+"tax-exempt foundation established to further the goals of the FreeBSD "
+"Project. As a 501(c)3 entity, the Foundation is generally exempt from US "
+"federal income tax as well as Colorado State income tax. Donations to a tax-"
+"exempt entity are often deductible from taxable federal income."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:234
+msgid "Donations may be sent in check form to:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block * 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:242
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD Foundation\n"
+"3980 Broadway Street\n"
+"STE #103-107\n"
+"Boulder CO 80304\n"
+"USA"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:245
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD Foundation is also able to accept https://www.freebsdfoundation."
+"org/donate/[online donations] through various payment options."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:248
+msgid ""
+"More information about the FreeBSD Foundation can be found in https://people."
+"FreeBSD.org/~jdp/foundation/announcement.html[The FreeBSD Foundation -- an "
+"Introduction]. To contact the Foundation by email, write to mailto:"
+"info@FreeBSDFoundation.org[info@FreeBSDFoundation.org]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:249
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Donating Hardware"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:253
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD Project happily accepts donations of hardware that it can find "
+"good use for. If you are interested in donating hardware, please contact "
+"the link:https://www.FreeBSD.org/donations/[Donations Liaison Office]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:255
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Contributing to ports"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:258
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Adopting an unmaintained port"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:260
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Choosing an unmaintained port"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:266
+msgid ""
+"Taking over maintainership of ports that are unmaintained is a great way to "
+"get involved. Unmaintained ports are only updated and fixed when somebody "
+"volunteers to work on them. There are a large number of unmaintained "
+"ports. It is a good idea to start with adopting a port that you use "
+"regularly."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:269
+msgid ""
+"Unmaintained ports have their `MAINTAINER` set to `ports@FreeBSD.org`. Many "
+"unmaintained ports can have pending updates, this can be seen at the https://"
+"portscout.freebsd.org/ports@freebsd.org.html[FreeBSD Ports distfile scanner]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:271
+msgid ""
+"On https://portsfallout.com/fallout?port=&maintainer=ports%40FreeBSD."
+"org[PortsFallout] can be seen a list of unmaintained ports with errors."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:274
+msgid ""
+"Some ports affect a large number of others due to dependencies and slave "
+"port relationships. Generally, we want people to have some experience "
+"before they maintain such ports."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:278
+msgid ""
+"You can find out whether or not a port has dependencies or slave ports by "
+"looking at a master index of ports called [.filename]#INDEX#. (The name of "
+"the file varies by release of FreeBSD; for instance, [.filename]#INDEX-8#.) "
+"Some ports have conditional dependencies that are not included in a default "
+"[.filename]#INDEX# build. We expect you to be able to recognize such ports "
+"by looking through other ports' [.filename]#Makefile#'s."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:279
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "How to adopt the port"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:284
+msgid ""
+"First make sure you understand your <<maintain-port>>. Also read the extref:"
+"{porters-handbook}[Porter's Handbook]. _Please do not commit yourself to "
+"more than you feel you can comfortably handle._"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:290
+msgid ""
+"You may request maintainership of any unmaintained port as soon as you "
+"wish. Simply set `MAINTAINER` to your own email address and send a PR "
+"(Problem Report) with the change. If the port has build errors or needs "
+"updating, you may wish to include any other changes in the same PR. This "
+"will help because many committers are less willing to assign maintainership "
+"to someone who does not have a known track record with FreeBSD. Submitting "
+"PRs that fix build errors or update ports are the best ways to establish one."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:294
+msgid ""
+"File your PR with category `ports` and class `change-request`. A committer "
+"will examine your PR, commit the changes, and finally close the PR. "
+"Sometimes this process can take a little while (committers are volunteers, "
+"too :)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:296
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "The challenge for port maintainers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:299
+msgid ""
+"This section will give you an idea of why ports need to be maintained and "
+"outline the responsibilities of a port maintainer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:301
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Why ports require maintenance"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:306
+msgid ""
+"Creating a port is a once-off task. Ensuring that a port is up to date and "
+"continues to build and run requires an ongoing maintenance effort. "
+"Maintainers are the people who dedicate some of their time to meeting these "
+"goals."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:309
+msgid ""
+"The foremost reason ports need maintenance is to bring the latest and "
+"greatest in third party software to the FreeBSD community. An additional "
+"challenge is to keep individual ports working within the Ports Collection "
+"framework as it evolves."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:311
+msgid "As a maintainer, you will need to manage the following challenges:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:313
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "*New software versions and updates.* New versions and updates of existing ported software become available all the time, and these need to be incorporated into the Ports Collection in order to provide up-to-date software.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:315
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "*Changes to dependencies.* If significant changes are made to the dependencies of your port, it may need to be updated so that it will continue to work correctly.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:317
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "*Changes affecting dependent ports.* If other ports depend on a port that you maintain, changes to your port may require coordination with other maintainers.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:319
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "*Interaction with other users, maintainers and developers.* Part of being a maintainer is taking on a support role. You are not expected to provide general support (but we welcome it if you choose to do so). What you should provide is a point of coordination for FreeBSD-specific issues regarding your ports.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:321
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "*Bug hunting.* A port may be affected by bugs which are specific to FreeBSD. You will need to investigate, find, and fix these bugs when they are reported. Thoroughly testing a port to identify problems before they make their way into the Ports Collection is even better.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:323
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "*Changes to ports infrastructure and policy.* Occasionally the systems that are used to build ports and packages are updated or a new recommendation affecting the infrastructure is made. You should be aware of these changes in case your ports are affected and require updating.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:325
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "*Changes to the base system.* FreeBSD is under constant development. Changes to software, libraries, the kernel or even policy changes can cause flow-on change requirements to ports.\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:326
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Maintainer responsibilities"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:328
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Keep your ports up to date"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:331
+msgid ""
+"This section outlines the process to follow to keep your ports up to date."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:334
+msgid ""
+"This is an overview. More information about upgrading a port is available "
+"in the extref:{porters-handbook}[Porter's Handbook]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:338
+msgid "Watch for updates"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:343
+msgid ""
+"Monitor the upstream vendor for new versions, updates and security fixes for "
+"the software. Announcement mailing lists or news web pages are useful for "
+"doing this. Sometimes users will contact you and ask when your port will be "
+"updated. If you are busy with other things or for any reason just cannot "
+"update it at the moment, ask if they will help you by submitting an update."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:346
+msgid ""
+"You may also receive automated email from the `FreeBSD Ports Version Check` "
+"informing you that a newer version of your port's distfile is available. "
+"More information about that system (including how to stop future emails) "
+"will be provided in the message."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:347
+msgid "Incorporate changes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:350
+msgid ""
+"When they become available, incorporate the changes into the port. You need "
+"to be able to generate a patch between the original port and your updated "
+"port."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:351
+msgid "Review and test"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:353
+msgid "Thoroughly review and test your changes:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:355
+msgid ""
+"Build, install and test your port on as many platforms and architectures as "
+"you can. It is common for a port to work on one branch or platform and fail "
+"on another."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:356
+msgid ""
+"Make sure your port's dependencies are complete. The recommended way of "
+"doing this is by installing your own ports tinderbox. See <<resources>> for "
+"more information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:357
+msgid ""
+"Check that the packing list is up to date. This involves adding in any new "
+"files and directories and removing unused entries."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:358
+msgid ""
+"Verify your port using man:portlint[1] as a guide. See <<resources>> for "
+"important information about using portlint."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:359
+msgid ""
+"Consider whether changes to your port might cause any other ports to break. "
+"If this is the case, coordinate the changes with the maintainers of those "
+"ports. This is especially important if your update changes the shared "
+"library version; in this case, at the very least, the dependent ports will "
+"need to get a `PORTREVISION` bump so that they will automatically be "
+"upgraded by automated tools such as portmaster or man:portupgrade[1]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:361
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:428
+msgid "Submit changes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:364
+msgid ""
+"Send your update by submitting a PR with an explanation of the changes and a "
+"patch containing the differences between the original port and the updated "
+"one. Please refer to extref:{problem-reports}[Writing FreeBSD Problem "
+"Reports] for information on how to write a really good PR."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 6
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:370
+msgid ""
+"Please do not submit a man:shar[1] archive of the entire port; instead, use "
+"man:git-format-patch[1] or man:diff[1] `-ruN`. In this way, committers can "
+"much more easily see exactly what changes are being made. The Porter's "
+"Handbook section on extref:{porters-handbook}[Upgrading, port-upgrading] has "
+"more information."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:372
+msgid "Wait"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:376
+msgid ""
+"At some stage a committer will deal with your PR. It may take minutes, or "
+"it may take one or two weeks - so please be patient. If it takes any "
+"longer, please seek for help on mailing lists ({freebsd-ports}), IRC: "
+"#bsdports on EFNet or #freebsd-ports on Libera for example."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:377
+msgid "Give feedback"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:380
+msgid ""
+"If a committer finds a problem with your changes, they will most likely "
+"refer it back to you. A prompt response will help get your PR committed "
+"faster, and is better for maintaining a thread of conversation when trying "
+"to resolve any problems."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:381
+msgid "And Finally"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:384
+msgid ""
+"Your changes will be committed and your port will have been updated. The PR "
+"will then be closed by the committer. That's it!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:386
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Ensure your ports continue to build correctly"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:389
+msgid ""
+"This section is about discovering and fixing problems that stop your ports "
+"from building correctly."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:392
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD only guarantees that the Ports Collection works on the `-STABLE` "
+"branches. In theory, you should be able to get by with running the latest "
+"release of each stable branch (since the ABIs are not supposed to change) "
+"but if you can run the branch, that is even better."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:396
+msgid ""
+"Since the majority of FreeBSD installations run on PC-compatible machines "
+"(what is termed the `i386` architecture), we expect you to keep the port "
+"working on that architecture. We prefer that ports also work on the `amd64` "
+"architecture running native. It is completely fair to ask for help if you "
+"do not have one of these machines."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:401
+msgid ""
+"The usual failure modes for non-`x86` machines are that the original "
+"programmers assumed that, for instance, pointers are `int`-s, or that a "
+"relatively lax older gcc compiler was being used. More and more, "
+"application authors are reworking their code to remove these assumptions - "
+"but if the author is not actively maintaining their code, you may need to do "
+"this yourself."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:404
+msgid ""
+"These are the tasks you need to perform to ensure your port is able to be "
+"built:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:408
+msgid "Watch for build failures"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:410
+msgid ""
+"Check your mail for mail from `pkg-fallout@FreeBSD.org` and the http://"
+"portscout.FreeBSD.org[distfiles scanner] to see if any of the port which are "
+"failing to build are out of date."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:411
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:459
+msgid "Collect information"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:415
+msgid ""
+"Once you are aware of a problem, collect information to help you fix it. "
+"Build errors reported by `pkg-fallout` are accompanied by logs which will "
+"show you where the build failed. If the failure was reported to you by a "
+"user, ask them to send you information which may help in diagnosing the "
+"problem, such as:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:417
+msgid "Build logs"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:418
+msgid ""
+"The commands and options used to build the port (including options set in [."
+"filename]#/etc/make.conf#)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:419
+msgid ""
+"A list of packages installed on their system as shown by man:pkg-info[8]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:420
+msgid "The version of FreeBSD they are running as shown by man:uname[1] `-a`"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:421
+msgid "When their ports collection was last updated"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:422
+msgid "When their ports tree and [.filename]#INDEX# was last updated"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:424
+msgid "Investigate and find a solution"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:427
+msgid ""
+"Unfortunately there is no straightforward process to follow to do this. "
+"Remember, though: if you are stuck, ask for help! The {freebsd-ports} is a "
+"good place to start, and the upstream developers are often very helpful."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:430
+msgid ""
+"Just as with updating a port, you should now incorporate changes, review and "
+"test, submit your changes in a PR, and provide feedback if required."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:431
+msgid "Send patches to upstream authors"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:436
+msgid ""
+"In some cases, you will have to make patches to the port to make it run on "
+"FreeBSD. Some (but not all) upstream authors will accept such patches back "
+"into their code for the next release. If so, this may even help their users "
+"on other BSD-based systems as well and perhaps save duplicated effort. "
+"Please consider sending any applicable patches to the authors as a courtesy."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:438
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Investigate bug reports and PRs related to your port"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:441
+msgid "This section is about discovering and fixing bugs."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:444
+msgid ""
+"FreeBSD-specific bugs are generally caused by assumptions about the build "
+"and runtime environments that do not apply to FreeBSD. You are less likely "
+"to encounter a problem of this type, but it can be more subtle and difficult "
+"to diagnose."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:446
+msgid ""
+"These are the tasks you need to perform to ensure your port continues to "
+"work as intended:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:450
+msgid "Respond to bug reports"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:453
+msgid ""
+"Bugs may be reported to you through email via the https://bugs.FreeBSD.org/"
+"search/[Problem Report database]. Bugs may also be reported directly to you "
+"by users."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:456
+msgid ""
+"You should respond to PRs and other reports within 14 days, but please try "
+"not to take that long. Try to respond as soon as possible, even if it is "
+"just to say you need some more time before you can work on the PR."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:458
+msgid ""
+"If you have not responded after 14 days, any committer may commit from a PR "
+"that you have not responded to via a `maintainer-timeout`."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:461
+msgid ""
+"If the person reporting the bug has not also provided a fix, you need to "
+"collect the information that will allow you to generate one."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:464
+msgid ""
+"If the bug is reproducible, you can collect most of the required information "
+"yourself. If not, ask the person who reported the bug to collect the "
+"information for you, such as:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:466
+msgid ""
+"A detailed description of their actions, expected program behavior and "
+"actual behavior"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:467
+msgid "Copies of input data used to trigger the bug"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:468
+msgid ""
+"Information about their build and execution environment - for example, a "
+"list of installed packages and the output of man:env[1]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:469
+msgid "Core dumps"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:470
+msgid "Stack traces"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:472
+msgid "Eliminate incorrect reports"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:478
+msgid ""
+"Some bug reports may be incorrect. For example, the user may have simply "
+"misused the program; or their installed packages may be out of date and "
+"require updating. Sometimes a reported bug is not specific to FreeBSD. In "
+"this case report the bug to the upstream developers. If the bug is within "
+"your capabilities to fix, you can also patch the port so that the fix is "
+"applied before the next upstream release."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:479
+msgid "Find a solution"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:482
+msgid ""
+"As with build errors, you will need to sort out a fix to the problem. "
+"Again, remember to ask if you are stuck!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:483
+msgid "Submit or approve changes"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:486
+msgid ""
+"Just as with updating a port, you should now incorporate changes, review and "
+"test, and submit your changes in a PR (or send a follow-up if a PR already "
+"exists for the problem). If another user has submitted changes in the PR, "
+"you can also send a follow-up saying whether or not you approve the changes."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =====
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:488
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Providing support"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:493
+msgid ""
+"Part of being a maintainer is providing support - not for the software in "
+"general - but for the port and any FreeBSD-specific quirks and problems. "
+"Users may contact you with questions, suggestions, problems and patches. "
+"Most of the time their correspondence will be specific to FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:497
+msgid ""
+"Occasionally you may have to invoke your skills in diplomacy, and kindly "
+"point users seeking general support to the appropriate resources. Less "
+"frequently you will encounter a person asking why the `RPMS` are not up to "
+"date or how can they get the software to run under Foo Linux. Take the "
+"opportunity to tell them that your port is up to date (if it is, of "
+"course!), and suggest that they try FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:500
+msgid ""
+"Sometimes users and developers will decide that you are a busy person whose "
+"time is valuable and do some of the work for you. For example, they might:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:502
+msgid "submit a PR or send you patches to update your port,"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:503
+msgid "investigate and perhaps provide a fix to a PR, or"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:504
+msgid "otherwise submit changes to your port."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:510
+msgid ""
+"In these cases your main obligation is to respond in a timely manner. "
+"Again, the timeout for non-responsive maintainers is 14 days. After this "
+"period changes may be committed unapproved. They have taken the trouble to "
+"do this for you; so please try to at least respond promptly. Then review, "
+"approve, modify or discuss their changes with them as soon as possible."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:512
+msgid ""
+"If you can make them feel that their contribution is appreciated (and it "
+"should be) you will have a better chance persuading them to do more things "
+"for you in the future :-)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:514
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Finding and fixing a broken port"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:517
+msgid ""
+"There are some really good places to find a port that needs some attention."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:520
+msgid ""
+"You can use the https://bugs.freebsd.org/search[web interface] to the "
+"Problem Report database to search through and view unresolved PRs. The "
+"majority of ports PRs are updates, but with a little searching and skimming "
+"over synopses you should be able to find something interesting to work on "
+"(the `sw-bug` class is a good place to start)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:522
+msgid ""
+"https://portsfallout.com/[PortsFallout] shows port issues gathered from the "
+"FreeBSD package building."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:524
+msgid ""
+"It is OK to send changes for a maintained port as well, but remember to ask "
+"the maintainer in case they are already working on the problem."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:528
+msgid ""
+"Once you have found a bug or problem, collect information, investigate and "
+"fix! If there is an existing PR, follow up to that. Otherwise create a new "
+"PR. Your changes will be reviewed and, if everything checks out, committed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:530
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "When to call it quits"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:536
+msgid ""
+"As your interests and commitments change, you may find that you no longer "
+"have time to continue some (or all) of your ports contributions. That is "
+"fine! Please let us know if you are no longer using a port or have otherwise "
+"lost time or interest in being a maintainer. In this way we can go ahead "
+"and allow other people to try to work on existing problems with the port "
+"without waiting for your response. Remember, FreeBSD is a volunteer "
+"project, so if maintaining a port is no fun any more, it is probably time to "
+"let someone else do it!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:540
+msgid ""
+"In any case, the Ports Management Team (`portmgr`) reserves the right to "
+"reset your maintainership if you have not actively maintained your port in "
+"some time. (Currently, this is set to 3 months.) By this, we mean that "
+"there are unresolved problems or pending updates that have not been worked "
+"on during that time."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:542
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Resources for ports maintainers and contributors"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:545
+msgid ""
+"The extref:{porters-handbook}[Porter's Handbook] is your hitchhiker's guide "
+"to the ports system. Keep it handy!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:548
+msgid ""
+"extref:{problem-reports}[Writing FreeBSD Problem Reports] describes how to "
+"best formulate and submit a PR. In 2005 more than eleven thousand ports PRs "
+"were submitted! Following this article will greatly assist us in reducing "
+"the time needed to handle your PRs."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:550
+msgid ""
+"The https://bugs.freebsd.org/bugzilla/query.cgi[Problem Report database]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:553
+msgid ""
+"The http://portscout.FreeBSD.org[FreeBSD Ports distfile scanner (portscout)] "
+"can show you ports for which the distfiles are not fetchable. You can check "
+"on your own ports or use it to find ports that need their `MASTER_SITES` "
+"updated."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:556
+msgid ""
+"package:ports-mgmt/poudriere[] is the most thorough way to test a port "
+"through the entire cycle of installation, packaging, and deinstallation. "
+"Documentation is located at the https://github.com/freebsd/"
+"poudriere[poudriere github repository]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:560
+msgid ""
+"man:portlint[1] is an application which can be used to verify that your port "
+"conforms to many important stylistic and functional guidelines. portlint is "
+"a simple heuristic application, so you should use it __only as a guide__. "
+"If portlint suggests changes which seem unreasonable, consult the extref:"
+"{porters-handbook}[Porter's Handbook] or ask for advice."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:565
+msgid ""
+"The {freebsd-ports} is for general ports-related discussion. It is a good "
+"place to ask for help. You can link:https://lists.freebsd.org/[subscribe, "
+"or read and search the list archives]. Reading the archives of the {freebsd-"
+"ports-bugs} and the {svn-ports-head} may also be of interest."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:567
+msgid ""
+"https://portsfallout.com/[PortsFallout] is a place to help in searching for "
+"the https://lists.freebsd.org/archives/freebsd-pkg-fallout/[FreeBSD package-"
+"fallout archive]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:569
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Getting Started in Other Areas"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:572
+msgid ""
+"Looking for something interesting to get started that is not mentioned "
+"elsewhere in this article? The FreeBSD Project has several Wiki pages "
+"containing areas within which new contributors can get ideas on how to get "
+"started."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:574
+msgid ""
+"The https://wiki.freebsd.org/JuniorJobs[Junior Jobs] page has a list of "
+"projects that might be of interest to people just getting started in "
+"FreeBSD, and want to work on interesting things to get their feet wet."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributing/_index.adoc:575
+msgid ""
+"The https://wiki.freebsd.org/IdeasPage[Ideas Page] contains various \"nice "
+"to have\" or \"interesting\" things to work on in the Project."
+msgstr ""
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc b/documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc
index fcedd93ebd..55e1887b8d 100644
--- a/documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc
+++ b/documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc
@@ -61,6 +61,7 @@ endif::[]
Abstract
This article lists individuals and organizations who have made a contribution to FreeBSD.
+To see the current list of FreeBSD Committers you can take a look at the following <<staff-committers, list>>.
'''
@@ -137,8 +138,8 @@ The following individuals and businesses have generously contributed hardware fo
[[staff-committers]]
== The FreeBSD Developers
-These are the people who have commit privileges and do the engineering work on the FreeBSD source tree.
-All core team members are also developers.
+This list, which includes all members of the Core Team, names everyone who has commit privileges for one or more of the three source trees (doc, ports and src).
+To see the current Core Team members you can take a look at the link:https://www.freebsd.org/administration/#t-core[administration page].
(in alphabetical order by last name):
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.po b/documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.po
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..5b0e861eac
--- /dev/null
+++ b/documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.po
@@ -0,0 +1,520 @@
+# SOME DESCRIPTIVE TITLE
+# Copyright (C) YEAR The FreeBSD Project
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the FreeBSD Documentation package.
+# FIRST AUTHOR <EMAIL@ADDRESS>, YEAR.
+#
+#, fuzzy
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: FreeBSD Documentation VERSION\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2022-07-07 23:23-0300\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: YEAR-MO-DA HO:MI+ZONE\n"
+"Last-Translator: FULL NAME <EMAIL@ADDRESS>\n"
+"Language-Team: LANGUAGE <LL@li.org>\n"
+"Language: \n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+
+#. type: YAML Front Matter: description
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:1
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "A list of organizations and individuals who have contributed to FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:1
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:8
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Contributors to FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:62
+msgid "Abstract"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:65
+msgid ""
+"This article lists individuals and organizations who have made a "
+"contribution to FreeBSD. To see the current list of FreeBSD Committers you "
+"can take a look at the following <<staff-committers, list>>."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:67
+msgid "'''"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:71
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Donors Gallery"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:76
+msgid ""
+"As of 2010, the following section is several years out-of-date. Donations "
+"from the past several years appear https://www.FreeBSD.org/donations/donors/"
+"[here]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:79
+msgid ""
+"The FreeBSD Project is indebted to the following donors and would like to "
+"publicly thank them here!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:81
+msgid "_Contributors to the central server project:_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:83
+msgid ""
+"The following individuals and businesses made it possible for the FreeBSD "
+"Project to build a new central server machine, which has replaced `freefall."
+"FreeBSD.org` at one point, by donating the following items:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:85
+msgid ""
+"{mbarkah} and his employer, http://www.hemi.com/[ Hemisphere Online], "
+"donated a _Pentium Pro (P6) 200MHz CPU_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:86
+msgid ""
+"http://www.asacomputers.com/[ASA Computers] donated a _Tyan 1662 "
+"motherboard_."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:87
+msgid ""
+"Joe McGuckin mailto:joe@via.net[joe@via.net] of http://www.via.net/[ViaNet "
+"Communications] donated a _Kingston ethernet controller._"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:88
+msgid ""
+"Jack O'Neill mailto:jack@diamond.xtalwind.net[jack@diamond.xtalwind.net] "
+"donated an _NCR 53C875 SCSI controller card_."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:89
+msgid ""
+"Ulf Zimmermann mailto:ulf@Alameda.net[ulf@Alameda.net] of http://www.Alameda."
+"net/[Alameda Networks] donated _128MB of memory_, a _4 Gb disk drive and the "
+"case._"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:91
+msgid "_Direct funding:_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:93
+msgid ""
+"The following individuals and businesses have generously contributed direct "
+"funding to the project:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:95
+msgid ""
+"Annelise Anderson mailto:ANDRSN@HOOVER.STANFORD.EDU[ANDRSN@HOOVER.STANFORD."
+"EDU]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:96
+msgid "{dillon}"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:97
+msgid "http://www.bluemountain.com/[Blue Mountain Arts]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:98
+msgid "http://www.epilogue.com/[Epilogue Technology Corporation]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:99
+msgid "{sef}"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:100
+msgid "http://www.gta.com/[Global Technology Associates, Inc]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:101
+msgid "Don Scott Wilde"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:102
+msgid "Gianmarco Giovannelli mailto:gmarco@masternet.it[gmarco@masternet.it]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:103
+msgid "Josef C. Grosch mailto:joeg@truenorth.org[joeg@truenorth.org]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:104
+msgid "Robert T. Morris"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:105
+msgid "{chuckr}"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:106
+msgid ""
+"Kenneth P. Stox mailto:ken@stox.sa.enteract.com[ken@stox.sa.enteract.com] of "
+"http://www.imagescape.com/[Imaginary Landscape, LLC.]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:107
+msgid "Dmitry S. Kohmanyuk mailto:dk@dog.farm.org[dk@dog.farm.org]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:108
+msgid ""
+"http://www.cdrom.co.jp/[Laser5] of Japan (a portion of the profits from "
+"sales of their various FreeBSD CDROMs)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:109
+msgid ""
+"http://www.mmjp.or.jp/fuki/[Fuki Shuppan Publishing Co.] donated a portion "
+"of their profits from _Hajimete no FreeBSD_ (FreeBSD, Getting started) to "
+"the FreeBSD and XFree86 projects."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:110
+msgid ""
+"http://www.ascii.co.jp/[ASCII Corp.] donated a portion of their profits from "
+"several FreeBSD-related books to the FreeBSD project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:111
+msgid ""
+"http://www.yokogawa.co.jp/[Yokogawa Electric Corp] has generously donated "
+"significant funding to the FreeBSD project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:112
+msgid "http://www.buffnet.net/[BuffNET]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:113
+msgid "http://www.pacificsolutions.com/[Pacific Solutions]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:114
+msgid ""
+"http://www.siemens.de/[Siemens AG] via Andre Albsmeier mailto:andre."
+"albsmeier@mchp.siemens.de[andre.albsmeier@mchp.siemens.de]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:115
+msgid "Chris Silva mailto:ras@interaccess.com[ras@interaccess.com]"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:117
+msgid "_Hardware contributors:_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:119
+msgid ""
+"The following individuals and businesses have generously contributed "
+"hardware for testing and device driver development/support:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:121
+msgid ""
+"BSDi for providing the Pentium P5-90 and 486/DX2-66 EISA/VL systems that are "
+"being used for our development work, to say nothing of the network access "
+"and other donations of hardware resources."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:122
+msgid ""
+"http://www.compaq.com[Compaq] has donated a variety of Alpha systems to the "
+"FreeBSD Project. Among the many generous donations are 4 AlphaStation DS10s, "
+"an AlphaServer DS20, AlphaServer 2100s, an AlphaServer 4100, 8 500Mhz "
+"Personal Workstations, 4 433Mhz Personal Workstations, and more! These "
+"machines are used for release engineering, package building, SMP "
+"development, and general development on the Alpha architecture."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:123
+msgid ""
+"TRW Financial Systems, Inc. provided 130 PCs, three 68 GB file servers, "
+"twelve Ethernets, two routers and an ATM switch for debugging the diskless "
+"code."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:124
+msgid ""
+"Dermot McDonnell donated the Toshiba XM3401B CDROM drive currently used in "
+"freefall."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:125
+msgid ""
+"Chuck Robey mailto:chuckr@glue.umd.edu[chuckr@glue.umd.edu] contributed his "
+"floppy tape streamer for experimental work."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:126
+msgid ""
+"Larry Altneu mailto:larry@ALR.COM[larry@ALR.COM], and {wilko}, provided "
+"Wangtek and Archive QIC-02 tape drives in order to improve the [."
+"filename]#wt# driver."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:127
+msgid ""
+"Ernst Winter (http://berklix.org/ewinter/[Deceased]) contributed a 2.88 MB "
+"floppy drive to the project. This will hopefully increase the pressure for "
+"rewriting the floppy disk driver."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:128
+msgid ""
+"http://www.tekram.com/[Tekram Technologies] sent one each of their DC-390, "
+"DC-390U and DC-390F FAST and ULTRA SCSI host adapter cards for regression "
+"testing of the NCR and AMD drivers with their cards. They are also to be "
+"applauded for making driver sources for free operating systems available "
+"from their FTP server link:ftp://ftp.tekram.com/scsi/FreeBSD/[ftp://ftp."
+"tekram.com/scsi/FreeBSD/]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:129
+msgid ""
+"Larry M. Augustin contributed not only a Symbios Sym8751S SCSI card, but "
+"also a set of data books, including one about the forthcoming Sym53c895 chip "
+"with Ultra-2 and LVD support, and the latest programming manual with "
+"information on how to safely use the advanced features of the latest Symbios "
+"SCSI chips. Thanks a lot!"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:130
+msgid ""
+"{kuku} donated an FX120 12 speed Mitsumi CDROM drive for IDE CDROM driver "
+"development."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:131
+msgid ""
+"Mike Tancsa mailto:mike@sentex.ca[mike@sentex.ca] donated four various ATM "
+"PCI cards in order to help increase support of these cards as well as help "
+"support the development effort of the netatm ATM stack."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:133
+msgid "_Special contributors:_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:135
+msgid ""
+"http://www.osd.bsdi.com/[BSDi] (formerly Walnut Creek CDROM) has donated "
+"almost more than we can say (see the 'About the FreeBSD Project' section of "
+"the extref:{handbook}[FreeBSD Handbook] for more details). In particular, we "
+"would like to thank them for the original hardware used for `freefall."
+"FreeBSD.org`, our primary development machine, and for `thud.FreeBSD.org`, a "
+"testing and build box. We are also indebted to them for funding various "
+"contributors over the years and providing us with unrestricted use of their "
+"T1 connection to the Internet."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:136
+msgid ""
+"The http://www.interface-business.de/[interface business GmbH, Dresden] has "
+"been patiently supporting {joerg} who has often preferred FreeBSD work over "
+"paid work, and used to fall back to their (quite expensive) EUnet Internet "
+"connection whenever his private connection became too slow or flaky to work "
+"with it..."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:137
+msgid ""
+"http://www.bsdi.com/[Berkeley Software Design, Inc.] has contributed their "
+"DOS emulator code to the remaining BSD world, which is used in the _doscmd_ "
+"command."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:139
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "The FreeBSD Developers"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:143
+msgid ""
+"This list, which includes all members of the Core Team, names everyone who "
+"has commit privileges for one or more of the three source trees (doc, ports "
+"and src). To see the current Core Team members you can take a look at the "
+"link:https://www.freebsd.org/administration/#t-core[administration page]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:145
+msgid "(in alphabetical order by last name):"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:149
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Core Team Alumni"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:153
+msgid ""
+"The following people were members of the FreeBSD core team during the "
+"periods indicated. We thank them for their past efforts in the service of "
+"the FreeBSD project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:155
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:165
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:175
+msgid "_In rough reverse chronological order:_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:159
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Development Team Alumni"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:163
+msgid ""
+"The following people were members of the FreeBSD development team during the "
+"periods indicated. We thank them for their past efforts in the service of "
+"the FreeBSD project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:169
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Ports Management Team Alumni"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:173
+msgid ""
+"The following people were members of the FreeBSD portmgr team during the "
+"periods indicated. We thank them for their past efforts in the service of "
+"the FreeBSD project."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:179
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Development Team: In Memoriam"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:183
+msgid ""
+"During the many years that the FreeBSD Project has been in existence, sadly, "
+"some of our developers have passed away. Here are some remembrances."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:185
+msgid "_In rough reverse chronological order of their passing:_"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:189
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Derived Software Contributors"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:193
+msgid ""
+"This software was originally derived from William F. Jolitz's 386BSD release "
+"0.1, though almost none of the original 386BSD specific code remains. This "
+"software has been essentially re-implemented from the 4.4BSD-Lite release "
+"provided by the Computer Science Research Group (CSRG) at the University of "
+"California, Berkeley and associated academic contributors."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:195
+msgid ""
+"There are also portions of NetBSD and OpenBSD that have been integrated into "
+"FreeBSD as well, and we would therefore like to thank all the contributors "
+"to NetBSD and OpenBSD for their work."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:197
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Additional FreeBSD Contributors"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:200
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:207
+msgid "(in alphabetical order by first name):"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/_index.adoc:204
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "386BSD Patch Kit Patch Contributors"
+msgstr ""
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.po b/documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.po
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..66029316a4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.po
@@ -0,0 +1,266 @@
+# SOME DESCRIPTIVE TITLE
+# Copyright (C) YEAR The FreeBSD Project
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the FreeBSD Documentation package.
+# FIRST AUTHOR <EMAIL@ADDRESS>, YEAR.
+#
+#, fuzzy
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: FreeBSD Documentation VERSION\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2021-07-25 09:16-0300\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: YEAR-MO-DA HO:MI+ZONE\n"
+"Last-Translator: FULL NAME <EMAIL@ADDRESS>\n"
+"Language-Team: LANGUAGE <LL@li.org>\n"
+"Language: \n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:3
+msgid "Bruce D. Evans (1991 - 2019; RIP 2019)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:5
+msgid "Bruce was a programming giant who made FreeBSD his home."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:7
+msgid ""
+"Back before FreeBSD and Linux there was Minix, a toy \"unix\" written by "
+"Andy Tannenbaum, released in 1987, sold with complete sources on three "
+"floppy disks, for $99."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:9
+msgid "Bruce ported Minix to the i386 around 1989."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:11
+msgid ""
+"Linus Torvalds used Minix/386 to develop his own kernel, and Bruce was the "
+"first person he thanked in the release-announcement."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:13
+msgid ""
+"When Bill Jolitz released 386BSD 0.1 in 1992, Bruce was listed as a "
+"contributor."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:15
+msgid ""
+"Bruce co-founded the FreeBSD project, and served on core.0, but he was never "
+"partisan, and over the years many other projects have benefitted from his "
+"patches, advice and wisdom."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:17
+msgid ""
+"Code reviews from Bruce came in three flavours, \"mild\", \"brucified\" and "
+"\"brucifiction\", but they were never personal: It was always only about the "
+"code, the mistakes, the sloppy thinking, the missing historical context, the "
+"ambiguous standards - and the style(9) transgressions."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:19
+msgid ""
+"As Bruce gave more code reviews than anybody else in the history of the "
+"FreeBSD project, the commit logs hide the true scale of his impact until you "
+"pay attention to \"Submitted by\", \"Reviewed by\" and \"Pointed out by\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:21
+msgid "Being hard of hearing, Bruce did not attend conferences."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:23
+msgid ""
+"The notable exception was the 1999 BSDcon in California, where his core team "
+"colleagues greeted him with \"We're not worthy!\" in Wayne's World fashion."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:25
+msgid "Twenty years later we're still not."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:26
+msgid "Kurt Lidl (2015 - 2019; RIP 2019)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:28
+msgid ""
+"Kurt first got involved with BSD while it was still a project at the "
+"University of California at Berkeley. Shortly after personalized license "
+"plates became available in Maryland, he got \"BSDWZRD\"."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:30
+msgid ""
+"He began contributing to FreeBSD shortly after the conception of the "
+"project. He became a FreeBSD source committer in October 2015."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:32
+msgid ""
+"Kurt's most well known FreeBSD project was man:blacklistd[8] which blocks "
+"and releases ports on demand to avoid DoS abuse. He has also made many other "
+"bug fixes and enhancements to DTrace, boot loaders, and other bits and "
+"pieces of the FreeBSD infrastructure."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:34
+msgid ""
+"Earlier work included the game XTank, an author on RFC 2516 https://tools."
+"ietf.org/html/rfc2516[\"A Method for Transmitting PPP Over Ethernet "
+"(PPPoE)\"], and the USENIX paper https://www.usenix.org/conference/usenix-"
+"winter-1994-technical-conference/drinking-firehose-multicast-usenet-"
+"news[\"Drinking from the Firehose: Multicast USENET News\"]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:35
+msgid "Frank Durda IV (1995 - 2003; RIP 2018)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:37
+msgid ""
+"Frank had been around the project since the very early days, contributing "
+"code to the 1.x line before becoming a committer."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:38
+msgid "Andrey A. Chernov (1993 - 2017; RIP 2017)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:40
+msgid ""
+"Andrey contributions to FreeBSD can not be overstated. Having been involved "
+"for a long there is hardly an area which he did not touch."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:41
+msgid "Jürgen Lock (2006 - 2015; RIP 2015)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:43
+msgid ""
+"Jürgen made a number of contributions to FreeBSD, including work on libvirt, "
+"the graphics stack, and QEMU. Jürgen's contributions and helpfulness were "
+"appreciated by people around the world. That work continues to improve the "
+"lives of thousands every day."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:44
+msgid "{alexbl} (2006 - 2011; RIP 2012)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:46
+msgid ""
+"http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/sfgate/obituary.aspx?"
+"pid=159801494[Alexander] was best known as a major contributor to FreeBSD's "
+"Python ports and a founding member of {python} as well as his work on XMMS2."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:47
+msgid "{jb} (1997 - 2009; RIP 2009)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:49
+msgid ""
+"http://hub.opensolaris.org/bin/view/Community+Group+ogb/In+Memoriam[John] "
+"made major contributions to FreeBSD, the best known of which is the import "
+"of the man:dtrace[1] code. John's unique sense of humor and plain-spokenness "
+"either ruffled feathers or made him quick friends. At the end of his life, "
+"he had moved to a rural area and was attempting to live with as minimal "
+"impact to the planet as possible, while at the same time still working in "
+"the high-tech area."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:50
+msgid "{jmz} (1994 - 2009; RIP 2009)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:52
+msgid ""
+"http://www.obs-besancon.fr/article.php3?id_article=323[Jean-Marc] was an "
+"astrophysicist who made important contributions to the modeling of the "
+"atmospheres of both planets and comets at http://www.obs-besancon.fr/"
+"[l'Observatoire de Besançon] in Besançon, France. While there, he "
+"participated in the conception and construction of the Vega tricanal "
+"spectrometer that studied Halley's Comet. He had also been a long-time "
+"contributor to FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:53
+msgid "{itojun} (1997 - 2001; RIP 2008)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:55
+msgid ""
+"Known to everyone as http://astralblue.livejournal.com/350702.html[itojun], "
+"Jun-ichiro Hagino was a core researcher at the http://www.kame.net/[KAME "
+"Project], which aimed to provide IPv6 and IPsec technology in freely "
+"redistributable form. Much of this code was incorporated into FreeBSD. "
+"Without his efforts, the state of IPv6 on the Internet would be much "
+"different."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:56
+msgid "{cg} (1999 - 2005; RIP 2005)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:58
+msgid ""
+"http://www.dbsi.org/cam/[Cameron] was a unique individual who contributed to "
+"the project despite serious physical disabilities. He was responsible for a "
+"complete rewrite of our sound system during the late 1990s. Many of those "
+"who corresponded with him had no idea of his limited mobility, due to his "
+"cheerful spirit and willingness to help others."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:59
+msgid "{alane} (2002 - 2003; RIP 2003)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/contributors/contrib-develinmemoriam.adoc:60
+msgid ""
+"http://freebsd.kde.org/memoriam/alane.php[Alan] was a major contributor to "
+"the KDE on FreeBSD group. In addition, he maintained many other difficult "
+"and time-consuming ports such as autoconf, CUPS, and python. Alan's path was "
+"not an easy one but his passion for FreeBSD, and dedication to programming "
+"excellence, won him many friends."
+msgstr ""
diff --git a/documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.po b/documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.po
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..90ea212eca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.po
@@ -0,0 +1,502 @@
+# SOME DESCRIPTIVE TITLE
+# Copyright (C) YEAR The FreeBSD Project
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the FreeBSD Documentation package.
+# FIRST AUTHOR <EMAIL@ADDRESS>, YEAR.
+#
+#, fuzzy
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: FreeBSD Documentation VERSION\n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2022-02-01 09:21-0300\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: YEAR-MO-DA HO:MI+ZONE\n"
+"Last-Translator: FULL NAME <EMAIL@ADDRESS>\n"
+"Language-Team: LANGUAGE <LL@li.org>\n"
+"Language: \n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+
+#. type: YAML Front Matter: description
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:1
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "How to install and use CUPS on FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title =
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:1
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:11
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "CUPS on FreeBSD"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:44
+msgid "Abstract"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:46
+msgid "An article about configuring CUPS on FreeBSD."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:48
+msgid "'''"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:52
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "An Introduction to the Common Unix Printing System (CUPS)"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:56
+msgid ""
+"CUPS, the Common UNIX Printing System, provides a portable printing layer "
+"for UNIX(R)-based operating systems. It has been developed by Easy Software "
+"Products to promote a standard printing solution for all UNIX(R) vendors and "
+"users."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:61
+msgid ""
+"CUPS uses the Internet Printing Protocol (IPP) as the basis for managing "
+"print jobs and queues. The Line Printer Daemon (LPD), Server Message Block "
+"(SMB), and AppSocket (aka JetDirect) protocols are also supported with "
+"reduced functionality. CUPS adds network printer browsing and PostScript "
+"Printer Description (PPD) based printing options to support real-world "
+"printing under UNIX(R). As a result, CUPS is ideally-suited for sharing and "
+"accessing printers in mixed environments of FreeBSD, Linux(R), Mac OS(R) X, "
+"or Windows(R)."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:63
+msgid "The main site for CUPS is http://www.cups.org/[http://www.cups.org/]."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:65
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Installing the CUPS Print Server"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:68
+msgid ""
+"To install CUPS using a precompiled binary, issue the following command from "
+"a root terminal:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:72
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "# pkg install cups\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:76
+msgid ""
+"Other optional, but recommended, packages are package:print/gutenprint[] and "
+"package:print/hplip[], both of which add drivers and utilities for a variety "
+"of printers. Once installed, the CUPS configuration files can be found in "
+"the directory [.filename]#/usr/local/etc/cups#."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:78
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Configuring the CUPS Print Server"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:82
+msgid ""
+"After installation, a few files must be edited in order to configure the "
+"CUPS server. First, create or modify, as the case may be, the file [."
+"filename]#/etc/devfs.rules# and add the following information to set the "
+"proper permissions on all potential printer devices and to associate "
+"printers with the `cups` user group:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:90
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"[system=10]\n"
+"add path 'unlpt*' mode 0660 group cups\n"
+"add path 'ulpt*' mode 0660 group cups\n"
+"add path 'lpt*' mode 0660 group cups\n"
+"add path 'usb/X.Y.Z' mode 0660 group cups\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block = 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:96
+msgid ""
+"Note that _X_, _Y_, and _Z_ should be replaced with the target USB device "
+"listed in the [.filename]#/dev/usb# directory that corresponds to the "
+"printer. To find the correct device, examine the output of man:dmesg[8], "
+"where [.filename]#ugenX.Y# lists the printer device, which is a symbolic "
+"link to a USB device in [.filename]#/dev/usb#."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:99
+msgid "Next, add two lines to [.filename]#/etc/rc.conf# as follows:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:104
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"cupsd_enable=\"YES\"\n"
+"devfs_system_ruleset=\"system\"\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:107
+msgid ""
+"These two entries will start the CUPS print server on boot and invoke the "
+"local devfs rule created above, respectively."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:109
+msgid ""
+"In order to enable CUPS printing under certain Microsoft(R) Windows(R) "
+"clients, the line below should be uncommented in [.filename]#/usr/local/etc/"
+"cups/mime.types# and [.filename]#/usr/local/etc/cups/mime.convs#:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:113
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "application/octet-stream\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:116
+msgid ""
+"Once these changes have been made, the man:devfs[8] and CUPS systems must "
+"both be restarted, either by rebooting the computer or issuing the following "
+"two commands in a root terminal:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:121
+#, no-wrap
+msgid ""
+"# /etc/rc.d/devfs restart\n"
+"# /usr/local/etc/rc.d/cupsd restart\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:124
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Configuring Printers on the CUPS Print Server"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:128
+msgid ""
+"After the CUPS system has been installed and configured, the administrator "
+"can begin configuring the local printers attached to the CUPS print server. "
+"This part of the process is very similar, if not identical, to configuring "
+"CUPS printers on other UNIX(R)-based operating systems, such as a Linux(R) "
+"distribution."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:133
+msgid ""
+"The primary means for managing and administering the CUPS server is through "
+"the web-based interface, which can be found by launching a web browser and "
+"entering http://localhost:631[http://localhost:631] in the browser's URL "
+"bar. If the CUPS server is on another machine on the network, substitute "
+"the server's local IP address for `localhost`. The CUPS web interface is "
+"fairly self-explanatory, as there are sections for managing printers and "
+"print jobs, authorizing users, and more. Additionally, on the right-hand "
+"side of the Administration screen are several check-boxes allowing easy "
+"access to commonly-changed settings, such as whether to share published "
+"printers connected to the system, whether to allow remote administration of "
+"the CUPS server, and whether to allow users additional access and privileges "
+"to the printers and print jobs."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:137
+msgid ""
+"Adding a printer is generally as easy as clicking \"Add Printer\" at the "
+"Administration screen of the CUPS web interface, or clicking one of the "
+"\"New Printers Found\" buttons also at the Administration screen. When "
+"presented with the \"Device\" drop-down box, simply select the desired "
+"locally-attached printer, and then continue through the process. If one has "
+"added the package:print/gutenprint-cups[] or package:print/hplip[] ports or "
+"packages as referenced above, then additional print drivers will be "
+"available in the subsequent screens that might provide more stability or "
+"features."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ==
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:139
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Configuring CUPS Clients"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:143
+msgid ""
+"Once the CUPS server has been configured and printers have been added and "
+"published to the network, the next step is to configure the clients, or the "
+"machines that are going to access the CUPS server. If one has a single "
+"desktop machine that is acting as both server and client, then much of this "
+"information may not be needed."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:145
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "UNIX(R) Clients"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:151
+msgid ""
+"CUPS will also need to be installed on your UNIX(R) clients. Once CUPS is "
+"installed on the clients, then CUPS printers that are shared across the "
+"network are often automatically discovered by the printer managers for "
+"various desktop environments such as GNOME or KDE. Alternatively, one can "
+"access the local CUPS interface on the client machine at http://"
+"localhost:631[http://localhost:631] and click on \"Add Printer\" in the "
+"Administration section. When presented with the \"Device\" drop-down box, "
+"simply select the networked CUPS printer, if it was automatically "
+"discovered, or select `ipp` or `http` and enter the IPP or HTTP URI of the "
+"networked CUPS printer, usually in one of the two following syntaxes:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:155
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "ipp://server-name-or-ip/printers/printername\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:160
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:182
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "http://server-name-or-ip:631/printers/printername\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:163
+msgid ""
+"If the CUPS clients have difficulty finding other CUPS printers shared "
+"across the network, sometimes it is helpful to add or create a file [."
+"filename]#/usr/local/etc/cups/client.conf# with a single entry as follows:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: delimited block . 4
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:167
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "ServerName server-ip\n"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:170
+msgid ""
+"In this case, _server-ip_ would be replaced by the local IP address of the "
+"CUPS server on the network."
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Title ===
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:172
+#, no-wrap
+msgid "Windows(R) Clients"
+msgstr ""
+
+#. type: Plain text
+#: documentation/content/en/articles/cups/_index.adoc:178
+msgid ""
+"Versions of Windows(R) prior to XP did not have the capability to natively "
+"network with IPP-based printers. However, Windows(R) XP and later versions "
+"do have this capability. Therefore, to add a CUPS printer in these versions "
+"of Windows(R) is quite easy. Generally, the Windows(R) administrator will "
+"run the Windows(R) `Ad