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-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml3526
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/jails/chapter.sgml12
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml3
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mac/chapter.sgml15
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml20
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mirrors/chapter.sgml2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml6
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml28
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml18
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/users/chapter.sgml2
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/virtualization/chapter.sgml20
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml4
14 files changed, 2018 insertions, 1646 deletions
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml
index cbcb32ec15..eca3915aac 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.sgml
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
<chapterinfo>
<authorgroup>
<author>
- <firstname>Jim</firstname>
+ <firstname>Jim</firstname>
<surname>Mock</surname>
<contrib>Restructured, reorganized, and parts
rewritten by </contrib>
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@
<!-- January 2000 -->
</chapterinfo>
- <title>Installing &os;&nbsp;8.<replaceable>x</replaceable> and Earlier</title>
+ <title>Installing FreeBSD</title>
<sect1 id="install-synopsis">
<title>Synopsis</title>
@@ -34,12 +34,11 @@
<indexterm><primary>installation</primary></indexterm>
<para>FreeBSD is provided with a text-based, easy to use installation
- program. &os; 9.0-RELEASE and later use the installation program
- known as <application>bsdinstall</application>, with releases prior
- to 9.0-RELEASE using <application>sysinstall</application> for
- installation. This chapter describes the use of <application>sysinstall</application>
- to install &os;. The use of <application>bsdinstall</application>
- is covered in <xref linkend="bsdinstall">.</para>
+ program called <application>sysinstall</application>. This is the
+ default installation program for FreeBSD, although vendors are free to
+ provide their own installation suite if they wish. This chapter
+ describes how to use <application>sysinstall</application> to install
+ FreeBSD.</para>
<para>After reading this chapter, you will know:</para>
@@ -47,7 +46,7 @@
<listitem>
<para>How to create the FreeBSD installation disks.</para>
</listitem>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>How FreeBSD refers to, and subdivides, your hard disks.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -74,101 +73,17 @@
<note>
<para>In general, these installation instructions are written
- for &i386; (<quote>PC compatible</quote>) architecture
- computers. Where applicable, instructions specific to other
- platforms will be listed. Although this
+ for &i386; (<quote>PC compatible</quote>) architecture
+ computers. Where applicable, instructions specific to other
+ platforms (for example, Alpha) will be listed. Although this
guide is kept as up to date as possible, you may find minor
differences between the installer and what is shown here. It is
- suggested that you use this chapter as a general guide rather
+ suggested that you use this chapter as a general guide rather
than a literal installation manual.</para>
</note>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="install-hardware">
- <title>Hardware Requirements</title>
-
- <sect2 id="install-hardware-minimal">
- <title>Minimal Configuration</title>
-
- <para>The minimal configuration to install &os; varies with the
- &os; version and the hardware architecture.</para>
-
- <para>A summary of this information is given in the following sections.
- Depending on the method you choose to install &os;, you may
- also need a floppy drive, a supported CDROM drive, and in some
- case a network adapter. This will be covered by the <xref
- linkend="install-boot-media">.</para>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>&os;/&arch.i386; and &os;/&arch.pc98;</title>
-
- <para>Both &os;/&arch.i386; and &os;/&arch.pc98; require a 486 or
- better processor and at least 24&nbsp;MB of RAM. You will
- need at least 150&nbsp;MB of free hard drive space for the
- most minimal installation.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>In case of old configurations, most of time, getting
- more RAM and more hard drive space is more important than
- getting a faster processor.</para>
- </note>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>&os;/&arch.amd64;</title>
-
- <para>There are two classes of processors capable of running
- &os;/&arch.amd64;. The first are AMD64 processors,
- including the &amd.athlon;64,
- &amd.athlon;64-FX, &amd.opteron; or better
- processors.</para>
-
- <para>The second class of processors that can use
- &os;/&arch.amd64; includes those using the &intel; EM64T
- architecture. Examples of these processors include the
- &intel;&nbsp;&core;&nbsp;2 Duo, Quad, Extreme processor
- families, and the &intel;&nbsp;&xeon; 3000, 5000, and 7000
- sequences of processors.</para>
-
- <para>If you have a machine based on an nVidia nForce3
- Pro-150, you <emphasis>must</emphasis> use the BIOS setup to
- disable the IO APIC. If you do not have an option to do
- this, you will likely have to disable ACPI instead. There
- are bugs in the Pro-150 chipset that we have not found a
- workaround for yet.</para>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>&os;/&arch.sparc64;</title>
-
- <para>To install &os;/&arch.sparc64;, you will need a supported
- platform (see <xref
- linkend="install-hardware-supported">).</para>
-
- <para>You will need a dedicated disk for &os;/&arch.sparc64;. It
- is not possible to share a disk with another operating
- system at this time.</para>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 id="install-hardware-supported">
- <title>Supported Hardware</title>
-
- <para>A list of supported hardware is provided with each &os;
- release in the &os; Hardware Notes. This document can usually
- be found in a file named <filename>HARDWARE.TXT</filename>, in
- the top-level directory of a CDROM or FTP distribution or in
- <application>sysinstall</application>'s documentation menu.
- It lists, for a given architecture, what hardware devices are
- known to be supported by each release of &os;. Copies of the
- supported hardware list for various releases and architectures
- can also be found on the <ulink
- url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/index.html">Release
- Information</ulink> page of the &os; Web site.</para>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
<sect1 id="install-pre">
<title>Pre-installation Tasks</title>
@@ -200,10 +115,10 @@
<title>Sample Device Inventory</title>
<tgroup cols="4">
- <colspec colwidth="2*">
- <colspec colwidth="1*">
- <colspec colwidth="1*">
- <colspec colwidth="4*">
+ <colspec colwidth="2*">
+ <colspec colwidth="1*">
+ <colspec colwidth="1*">
+ <colspec colwidth="4*">
<thead>
<row>
<entry>Device Name</entry>
@@ -283,15 +198,11 @@
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</table>
-
- <para>Once the inventory of the components in your computer is
- done, you have to check if they match the hardware
- requirements of the &os; release you want to install.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>Backup Your Data</title>
-
+
<para>If the computer you will be installing FreeBSD on contains
valuable data, then ensure you have it backed up, and that you have
tested the backups before installing FreeBSD. The FreeBSD
@@ -312,16 +223,10 @@
laid out on the disk, and how this affects you.</para>
<sect3 id="install-where-i386">
- <title>Disk Layouts for &os;/&arch.i386;</title>
+ <title>Disk Layouts for the &i386;</title>
<para>A PC disk can be divided into discrete chunks. These chunks are
- called <firstterm>partitions</firstterm>. Since
- &os; internally also has partitions, the naming
- can become confusing very quickly, therefore these
- disk chunks are referred to as disk slices or simply slices
- in &os; itself. For example, the FreeBSD utility
- <command>fdisk</command> which operates on the PC disk partitions,
- refers to slices instead of partitions. By design, the PC only
+ called <firstterm>partitions</firstterm>. By design, the PC only
supports four partitions per disk. These partitions are called
<firstterm>primary partitions</firstterm>. To work around this
limitation and allow more than four partitions, a new partition type
@@ -335,7 +240,7 @@
partitions have the partition ID of <literal>165</literal>.</para>
<para>In general, each operating system that you use will identify
- partitions in a particular way. For example, &ms-dos;, and its
+ partitions in a particular way. For example, DOS, and its
descendants, like &windows;, assign each primary and logical partition a
<firstterm>drive letter</firstterm>, starting with
<devicename>C:</devicename>.</para>
@@ -351,36 +256,34 @@
<para>If you are already using all the partitions on all your disks, then
you will have to free one of them for FreeBSD using the tools
provided by the other operating systems you use (e.g.,
- <command>fdisk</command> on &ms-dos; or &windows;).</para>
+ <command>fdisk</command> on DOS or &windows;).</para>
<para>If you have a spare partition then you can use that. However, you
may need to shrink one or more of your existing partitions
first.</para>
- <para>A minimal installation of FreeBSD takes as little as 100&nbsp;MB
- of disk
+ <para>A minimal installation of FreeBSD takes as little as 100&nbsp;MB of disk
space. However, that is a <emphasis>very</emphasis> minimal install,
leaving almost no space for your own files. A more realistic minimum
- is 250&nbsp;MB without a graphical environment, and 350&nbsp;MB or
- more if you
+ is 250&nbsp;MB without a graphical environment, and 350&nbsp;MB or more if you
want a graphical user interface. If you intend to install a lot of
- third-party software as well, then you will need more space.</para>
+ third party software as well, then you will need more space.</para>
- <para>You can use a commercial tool such as <application>&partitionmagic;</application>,
- or a free tool such as <application>GParted</application>,
+ <para>You can use a commercial tool such as <application>&partitionmagic;</application>, or a free tool such as <application>GParted</application>,
to resize your partitions and make space for
- &os;. Both
+ FreeBSD. The <filename>tools</filename> directory on the CDROM
+ contains two free software tools which can carry out this task, namely
+ <application>FIPS</application> and
+ <application>PResizer</application>. Documentation for both
+ of these is available in the same directory.
+ <application>FIPS</application>,
+ <application>PResizer</application>, and
+ <application>&partitionmagic;</application> can resize
+ <acronym>FAT16</acronym> and <acronym>FAT32</acronym>
+ partitions &mdash; used in &ms-dos; through &windows; ME. Both
<application>&partitionmagic;</application> and
<application>GParted</application> are known to work on
- <acronym>NTFS</acronym>. <application>GParted</application>
- is available on a number of Live CD Linux distributions, such as
- <ulink url="http://www.sysresccd.org/">SystemRescueCD</ulink>.</para>
-
- <para>Problems have been reported resizing &microsoft; Vista
- partitions. Having a Vista installation CDROM handy when
- attempting such an operation is recommended. As with all
- such disk maintenance tasks, a current set of backups is
- also strongly advised.</para>
+ <acronym>NTFS</acronym>.</para>
<warning>
<para>Incorrect use of these tools can delete the data on your disk.
@@ -391,13 +294,11 @@
<example>
<title>Using an Existing Partition Unchanged</title>
- <para>Suppose that you have a computer with a single 4&nbsp;GB disk
- that
+ <para>Suppose that you have a computer with a single 4&nbsp;GB disk that
already has a version of &windows; installed, and you have split the
disk into two drive letters, <devicename>C:</devicename> and
- <devicename>D:</devicename>, each of which is 2&nbsp;GB in size.
- You have 1&nbsp;GB of data on <devicename>C:</devicename>, and
- 0.5&nbsp;GB of data on
+ <devicename>D:</devicename>, each of which is 2&nbsp;GB in size. You have
+ 1&nbsp;GB of data on <devicename>C:</devicename>, and 0.5&nbsp;GB of data on
<devicename>D:</devicename>.</para>
<para>This means that your disk has two partitions on it, one per
@@ -409,12 +310,12 @@
<example>
<title>Shrinking an Existing Partition</title>
- <para>Suppose that you have a computer with a single 4&nbsp;GB disk
- that already has a version of &windows; installed. When you installed
+ <para>Suppose that you have a computer with a single 4&nbsp;GB disk that
+ already has a version of &windows; installed. When you installed
&windows; you created one large partition, giving you a
<devicename>C:</devicename> drive that is 4&nbsp;GB in size. You are
- currently using 1.5&nbsp;GB of space, and want FreeBSD to have 2&nbsp;GB
- of space.</para>
+ currently using 1.5&nbsp;GB of space, and want FreeBSD to have 2&nbsp;GB of
+ space.</para>
<para>In order to install FreeBSD you will need to either:</para>
@@ -433,6 +334,58 @@
</example>
</sect3>
+
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Disk Layouts for the Alpha</title>
+
+ <indexterm><primary>Alpha</primary></indexterm>
+
+ <para>You will need a dedicated disk for FreeBSD on the
+ Alpha. It is not possible to share a disk with another
+ operating system at this time. Depending on the specific
+ Alpha machine you have, this disk can either be a SCSI disk
+ or an IDE disk, as long as your machine is capable of
+ booting from it.</para>
+
+ <para>Following the conventions of the Digital / Compaq
+ manuals all SRM input is shown in uppercase. SRM is case
+ insensitive.</para>
+
+ <para>To find the names and types of disks in your machine, use
+ the <literal>SHOW DEVICE</literal> command from the SRM
+ console prompt:</para>
+
+ <screen>&gt;&gt;&gt;<userinput>SHOW DEVICE</userinput>
+dka0.0.0.4.0 DKA0 TOSHIBA CD-ROM XM-57 3476
+dkc0.0.0.1009.0 DKC0 RZ1BB-BS 0658
+dkc100.1.0.1009.0 DKC100 SEAGATE ST34501W 0015
+dva0.0.0.0.1 DVA0
+ewa0.0.0.3.0 EWA0 00-00-F8-75-6D-01
+pkc0.7.0.1009.0 PKC0 SCSI Bus ID 7 5.27
+pqa0.0.0.4.0 PQA0 PCI EIDE
+pqb0.0.1.4.0 PQB0 PCI EIDE</screen>
+
+ <para>This example is from a Digital Personal Workstation
+ 433au and shows three disks attached to the machine. The
+ first is a CDROM drive called <devicename>DKA0</devicename> and
+ the other two are disks and are called
+ <devicename>DKC0</devicename> and
+ <devicename>DKC100</devicename> respectively.</para>
+
+ <para>Disks with names of the form <devicename>DKx</devicename>
+ are SCSI disks. For example <devicename>DKA100</devicename>
+ refers to a SCSI disk with SCSI target ID 1 on the first SCSI bus (A),
+ whereas <devicename>DKC300</devicename> refers to a SCSI disk
+ with SCSI ID 3 on the third SCSI bus (C). Devicename <devicename>
+ PKx</devicename> refers to the SCSI host bus adapter. As
+ seen in the <literal>SHOW DEVICE</literal> output SCSI
+ CDROM drives are treated as any other SCSI hard disk drive.</para>
+
+ <para>IDE disks have names similar to <devicename>DQx</devicename>,
+ while <devicename>PQx</devicename> is the associated IDE
+ controller.</para>
+
+ </sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2>
@@ -449,8 +402,8 @@
<title>Connecting to an Ethernet Network or Cable/DSL Modem</title>
<para>If you connect to an Ethernet network, or you have an Internet
- connection using an Ethernet adapter via cable or DSL, then you will
- need the following information:</para>
+ connection using an Ethernet adapter via cable or DSL, then you will need the following
+ information:</para>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
@@ -506,21 +459,20 @@
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>Check for FreeBSD Errata</title>
-
+
<para>Although the FreeBSD project strives to ensure that each release
of FreeBSD is as stable as possible, bugs do occasionally creep into
the process. On very rare occasions those bugs affect the
installation process. As these problems are discovered and fixed, they
- are noted in the <ulink url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/&rel.current;R/errata.html">FreeBSD Errata</ulink>,
- which is found on the FreeBSD web site. You
+ are noted in the <ulink url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/&rel.current;R/errata.html">FreeBSD Errata</ulink>, which is found on the FreeBSD web site. You
should check the errata before installing to make sure that there are
no late-breaking problems which you should be aware of.</para>
<para>Information about all the releases, including the errata for each
- release, can be found on the
+ release, can be found on the
<ulink
url="&url.base;/releases/index.html">release
- information</ulink> section of the
+ information</ulink> section of the
<ulink
url="&url.base;/index.html">FreeBSD web site</ulink>.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -533,17 +485,13 @@
<itemizedlist>
<title>Local Media</title>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>A CDROM or DVD</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>A USB Memory Stick</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>A &ms-dos; partition on the same computer</para>
+ <para>A DOS partition on the same computer</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -573,26 +521,26 @@
</itemizedlist>
<para>If you have purchased FreeBSD on CD or DVD then you already have
- everything you need, and should proceed to the next section
- (<xref linkend="install-boot-media">).</para>
+ everything you need, and should proceed to the next section
+ (<xref linkend="install-floppies">).</para>
<para>If you have not obtained the FreeBSD installation files you should
skip ahead to <xref linkend="install-diff-media"> which explains how
to prepare to install FreeBSD from any of the above. After reading
- that section, you should come back here, and read on to
- <xref linkend="install-boot-media">.</para>
+ that section, you should come back here, and read on to
+ <xref linkend="install-floppies">.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="install-boot-media">
+ <sect2 id="install-floppies">
<title>Prepare the Boot Media</title>
-
+
<para>The FreeBSD installation process is started by booting your
computer into the FreeBSD installer&mdash;it is not a program you run
within another operating system. Your computer normally boots using
the operating system installed on your hard disk, but it can also be
configured to use a <quote>bootable</quote> floppy disk.
Most modern computers can also
- boot from a CDROM in the CDROM drive or from a USB disk.</para>
+ boot from a CDROM in the CDROM drive.</para>
<tip>
<para>If you have FreeBSD on CDROM or DVD (either one you purchased
@@ -602,159 +550,41 @@
FreeBSD CDROM and DVD images are bootable and can be used to install
FreeBSD without any other special preparation.</para>
</tip>
-
- <para>To create a bootable memory stick, follow these
- steps:</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <title>Acquire the Memory Stick Image</title>
-
- <para>Memory stick images for
- &os;&nbsp;8.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and earlier can be downloaded from
- the <filename class="directory">ISO-IMAGES/</filename>
- directory at
- <literal>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/<replaceable>arch</replaceable>/ISO-IMAGES/<replaceable>version</replaceable>/&os;-<replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-memstick.img</literal>.
- Replace <replaceable>arch</replaceable> and
- <replaceable>version</replaceable> with the
- architecture and the version number which you want to
- install, respectively. For example, the memory stick
- images for &os;/&arch.i386;&nbsp;&rel2.current;-RELEASE are
- available from <ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/&arch.i386;/ISO-IMAGES/&rel2.current;/&os;-&rel2.current;-RELEASE-&arch.i386;-memstick.img"></ulink>.</para>
-
- <tip>
- <para>A different directory path is used for
- &os;&nbsp;9.0-RELEASE and later versions. Details of
- download and installation of &os;&nbsp;9.0-RELEASE and
- later is covered in <xref linkend="bsdinstall">.</para>
- </tip>
-
- <para>The memory stick image has a <filename>.img</filename>
- extension. The <filename
- class="directory">ISO-IMAGES/</filename> directory
- contains a number of different images, and the one you
- will need to use will depend on the version of &os; you
- are installing, and in some cases, the hardware you are
- installing to.</para>
-
- <important>
- <para>Before proceeding, <emphasis>back up</emphasis> the
- data you currently have on your USB stick, as this
- procedure will <emphasis>erase</emphasis> it.</para>
- </important>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <title>Write the Image File to the Memory Stick</title>
-
- <procedure>
- <title>Using FreeBSD to Write the Image</title>
-
- <warning>
- <para>The example below
- lists <filename class="devicefile">/dev/da0</filename> as the
- target device where the image will be written. Be very careful
- that you have the correct device as the output target, or you
- may destroy your existing data.</para>
- </warning>
-
- <step>
- <title>Writing the Image with &man.dd.1;</title>
-
- <para>The <filename>.img</filename> file
- is <emphasis>not</emphasis> a regular file you copy to the
- memory stick. It is an image of the complete contents of the
- disk. This means that you <emphasis>cannot</emphasis> simply
- copy files from one disk to another. Instead, you must use
- &man.dd.1; to write the image directly to the disk:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=&os;-&rel2.current;-RELEASE-&arch.i386;-memstick.img of=/dev/<replaceable>da0</replaceable> bs=64k</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>If an
- <computeroutput>Operation not permitted</computeroutput>
- error is displayed, make certain that the target device
- is not in use, mounted, or being automounted by some
- well-intentioned utility program. Then try
- again.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
-
- <procedure>
- <title>Using &windows; to Write the Image</title>
-
- <warning>
- <para>Make sure you use the correct drive letter as the output
- target, or you may overwrite and destroy existing data.</para>
- </warning>
-
- <step>
- <title>Obtaining <application>Image Writer for Windows</application></title>
-
- <para><application>Image Writer for Windows</application> is a
- free application that can correctly write an image file to a
- memory stick. Download it from
- <ulink url="https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/"></ulink>
- and extract it into a folder.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <title>Writing the Image with Image Writer</title>
-
- <para>Double-click
- the <application>Win32DiskImager</application> icon to start
- the program. Verify that the drive letter shown
- under <computeroutput>Device</computeroutput> is the drive
- with the memory stick. Click the folder icon and select the
- image to be written to the memory stick.
- Click <guibutton>Save</guibutton> to accept the image file
- name. Verify that everything is correct, and that no folders
- on the memory stick are open in other windows. Finally,
- click <guibutton>Write</guibutton> to write the image file to
- the drive.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </step>
- </procedure>
-
+
<para>To create boot floppy images, follow these steps:</para>
<procedure>
<step>
<title>Acquire the Boot Floppy Images</title>
-
- <important>
- <para>Please note, as of &os;&nbsp;8.<replaceable>X</replaceable>, floppy disk images are
- no longer available. Please see above for instructions
- on how to install &os; using a USB memory stick or just
- use a CDROM or a DVD.</para>
- </important>
-
+
<para>The boot disks are available on your installation media
in the <filename>floppies/</filename> directory, and
- can also be downloaded from the floppies directory,
- <literal>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/<replaceable>arch</replaceable>/<replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE/floppies/</literal>.
- Replace <replaceable>arch</replaceable> and
- <replaceable>version</replaceable>
+ can also be downloaded from the floppies directory, <literal>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/<replaceable>&lt;arch&gt;</replaceable>/<replaceable>&lt;version&gt;</replaceable>-RELEASE/floppies/</literal>.
+ Replace <replaceable>&lt;arch&gt;</replaceable> and
+ <replaceable>&lt;version&gt;</replaceable>
with the architecture and the version number
which you want to install, respectively.
For example, the boot floppy images for
- &os;/&arch.i386;&nbsp;&rel2.current;-RELEASE are available
- from <ulink url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel2.current;-RELEASE/floppies/"></ulink>.</para>
+ &os;&nbsp;&rel.current;-RELEASE for &i386; are available
+ from <ulink url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel.current;-RELEASE/floppies/"></ulink>.</para>
<para>The floppy images have a <filename>.flp</filename> extension.
The <filename>floppies/</filename> directory contains a number of
different images, and the ones you will need to use depends on the
version of FreeBSD you are installing, and in some cases, the
hardware you are installing to.
- In most cases you will need four
+ In most cases you will need three
floppies, <filename>boot.flp</filename>,
- <filename>kern1.flp</filename>,
- <filename>kern2.flp</filename>, and
- <filename>kern3.flp</filename>. Check
+ <filename>kern1.flp</filename>, and
+ <filename>kern2.flp</filename>. Check
<filename>README.TXT</filename> in the same directory for the
most up to date information about these floppy images.</para>
+ <note><para>Additional device drivers may
+ be necessary for 5.X systems older than &os;&nbsp;5.3.
+ These drivers are provided on the
+ <filename>drivers.flp</filename> image.</para></note>
+
<important>
<para>Your FTP program must use <emphasis>binary mode</emphasis>
to download these disk images. Some web browsers have been
@@ -766,7 +596,7 @@
<step>
<title>Prepare the Floppy Disks</title>
-
+
<para>You must prepare one floppy disk per image file you had to
download. It is imperative that these disks are free from
defects. The easiest way to test this is to format the disks
@@ -798,14 +628,14 @@
<indexterm><primary>DOS</primary></indexterm>
<para>If you are creating the floppies on a computer running
- &ms-dos; / &windows;, then we provide a tool to do
- this called <command>fdimage</command>.</para>
+ &ms-dos;/&windows;, then we provide a tool to do
+ this called <command>fdimage</command>.</para>
<para>If you are using the floppies from the CDROM, and your
- CDROM is the <devicename>E:</devicename> drive, then you would
+ CDROM is the <devicename>E:</devicename> drive, then you would
run this:</para>
- <screen><prompt>E:\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>tools\fdimage floppies\boot.flp A:</userinput></screen>
+ <screen><prompt>E:\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>tools\fdimage floppies\kern.flp A:</userinput></screen>
<para>Repeat this command for each <filename>.flp</filename>
file, replacing the floppy disk each time, being sure to label
@@ -816,13 +646,13 @@
the <ulink
url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools/"><filename class="directory">tools</filename>
directory</ulink> on the FreeBSD FTP site.</para>
-
+
<para>If you are writing the floppies on a &unix; system (such as
another FreeBSD system) you can use the &man.dd.1; command to
write the image files directly to disk. On FreeBSD, you would
run:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=boot.flp of=/dev/fd0</userinput></screen>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=kern.flp of=/dev/fd0</userinput></screen>
<para>On FreeBSD, <filename>/dev/fd0</filename> refers to the
first floppy disk (the <devicename>A:</devicename> drive).
@@ -863,7 +693,7 @@ We can take no responsibility for lost disk contents!</literallayout>
<title>Booting</title>
<sect3 id="install-starting-i386">
- <title>Booting for the &i386;</title>
+ <title>Booting for the &i386;</title>
<procedure>
<step>
@@ -887,14 +717,13 @@ We can take no responsibility for lost disk contents!</literallayout>
<step>
<para>Find the setting that controls which devices the system boots
from. This is usually labeled as the <quote>Boot Order</quote>
- and commonly shown as a list of devices, such as
+ and commonly shown as a list of devices, such as
<literal>Floppy</literal>, <literal>CDROM</literal>,
<literal>First Hard Disk</literal>, and so on.</para>
- <para>If you are booting from the CDROM then make sure that
- the CDROM is selected. If you are booting from a USB disk or
- a floppy disk then
- make sure that is selected instead. In case of doubt, you
+ <para>If you needed to prepare boot floppies, then make sure that the
+ floppy disk is selected. If you are booting from the CDROM then
+ make sure that that is selected instead. In case of doubt, you
should consult the manual that came with your computer, and/or its
motherboard.</para>
@@ -903,23 +732,16 @@ We can take no responsibility for lost disk contents!</literallayout>
</step>
<step>
- <para>If you prepared a <quote>bootable</quote> USB stick, as described in
- <xref linkend="install-boot-media">, then plug in your USB
- stick before turning on the computer.</para>
+ <para>If you needed to prepare boot floppies, as described in
+ <xref linkend="install-floppies">, then one of them will be the
+ first boot disc, probably the one containing
+ <filename>kern.flp</filename>. Put this disc in your floppy
+ drive.</para>
<para>If you are booting from CDROM, then you will need to turn on
the computer, and insert the CDROM at the first
opportunity.</para>
- <note>
- <para>For &os;&nbsp;7.<replaceable>X</replaceable>, installation
- boot floppies are available and can be prepared as
- described in <xref linkend="install-boot-media">. One of
- them will be the first boot disc:
- <filename>boot.flp</filename>. Put this disc in your
- floppy drive and boot the computer.</para>
- </note>
-
<para>If your computer starts up as normal and loads your existing
operating system, then either:</para>
@@ -941,132 +763,128 @@ We can take no responsibility for lost disk contents!</literallayout>
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
</step>
-
+
<step>
<para>FreeBSD will start to boot. If you are booting from CDROM you
- will see a display similar to this (version information
- omitted):</para>
-
- <screen>Booting from CD-Rom...
-645MB medium detected
-CD Loader 1.2
-
-Building the boot loader arguments
-Looking up /BOOT/LOADER... Found
-Relocating the loader and the BTX
-Starting the BTX loader
+ will see a display similar to this (version information omitted):</para>
+
+ <screen>Verifying DMI Pool Data ........
+Boot from ATAPI CD-ROM :
+ 1. FD 2.88MB System Type-(00)
+Uncompressing ... done
-BTX loader 1.00 BTX version is 1.02
-Consoles: internal video/keyboard
-BIOS CD is cd0
-BIOS drive C: is disk0
-BIOS drive D: is disk1
-BIOS 636kB/261056kB available memory
+BTX loader 1.00 BTX version is 1.01
+Console: internal video/keyboard
+BIOS drive A: is disk0
+BIOS drive B: is disk1
+BIOS drive C: is disk2
+BIOS drive D: is disk3
+BIOS 639kB/261120kB available memory
-FreeBSD/i386 bootstrap loader, Revision 1.1
+FreeBSD/i386 bootstrap loader, Revision 0.8
-Loading /boot/defaults/loader.conf
-/boot/kernel/kernel text=0x64daa0 data=0xa4e80+0xa9e40 syms=[0x4+0x6cac0+0x4+0x88e9d]
-\</screen>
+/kernel text=0x277391 data=0x3268c+0x332a8 |
+|
+Hit [Enter] to boot immediately, or any other key for command prompt.
+Booting [kernel] in 9 seconds... _</screen>
+
<para>If you are booting from floppy disc, you will see a display
similar to this (version information omitted):</para>
+
+ <screen>Verifying DMI Pool Data ........
- <screen>Booting from Floppy...
-Uncompressing ... done
-
-BTX loader 1.00 BTX version is 1.01
-Console: internal video/keyboard
-BIOS drive A: is disk0
-BIOS drive C: is disk1
-BIOS 639kB/261120kB available memory
+BTX loader 1.00 BTX version is 1.01
+Console: internal video/keyboard
+BIOS drive A: is disk0
+BIOS drive C: is disk1
+BIOS 639kB/261120kB available memory
-FreeBSD/i386 bootstrap loader, Revision 1.1
+FreeBSD/i386 bootstrap loader, Revision 0.8
-Loading /boot/defaults/loader.conf
/kernel text=0x277391 data=0x3268c+0x332a8 |
-Insert disk labelled "Kernel floppy 1" and press any key...</screen>
+Please insert MFS root floppy and press enter:</screen>
<para>Follow these instructions by removing the
- <filename>boot.flp</filename> disc, insert the
- <filename>kern1.flp</filename> disc, and press
- <keycap>Enter</keycap>. Boot from first floppy;
+ <filename>kern.flp</filename> disc, insert the
+ <filename>mfsroot.flp</filename> disc, and press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap>. &os;&nbsp;5.3
+ and above provide other floppy disks set, as described
+ in <link linkend="install-floppies">previous
+ section</link>. Boot from first floppy;
when prompted, insert the other disks as required.</para>
</step>
<step>
- <para>Whether you booted from CDROM, USB stick or floppy, the
- boot process will then get to the &os; boot loader
- menu:</para>
-
- <figure id="boot-loader-menu">
- <title>&os; Boot Loader Menu</title>
+ <para>Whether you booted from floppy or CDROM, the
+ boot process will then get to this point:</para>
- <mediaobject>
- <imageobject>
- <imagedata fileref="install/boot-loader-menu" format="PNG">
- </imageobject>
- </mediaobject>
- </figure>
+ <screen>Hit [Enter] to boot immediately, or any other key for command prompt.
+Booting [kernel] in 9 seconds... _</screen>
- <para>Either wait ten seconds, or press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
+ <para>Either wait ten seconds, or press <keycap>Enter</keycap></para>
</step>
</procedure>
</sect3>
-
<sect3>
- <title>Booting for &sparc64;</title>
-
- <para>Most &sparc64; systems are set up to boot automatically
- from disk. To install &os;, you need to boot over the
- network or from a CDROM, which requires you to break into
- the PROM (OpenFirmware).</para>
-
- <para>To do this, reboot the system, and wait until the boot
- message appears. It depends on the model, but should look
- about like:</para>
-
- <screen>Sun Blade 100 (UltraSPARC-IIe), Keyboard Present
-Copyright 1998-2001 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved.
-OpenBoot 4.2, 128 MB memory installed, Serial #51090132.
-Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID: 830b92d4.</screen>
-
- <para>If your system proceeds to boot from disk at this point,
- you need to press
- <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>L1</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo>
- or
- <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Stop</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo>
- on the keyboard, or send a <command>BREAK</command> over the
- serial console (using for example <command>~#</command> in
- &man.tip.1; or &man.cu.1;) to get to the PROM prompt. It
- looks like this:</para>
-
- <screenco>
- <areaspec>
- <area id="prompt-single" coords="1 5">
- <area id="prompt-smp" coords="2 5">
- </areaspec>
-
- <screen><prompt>ok </prompt>
-<prompt>ok {0} </prompt></screen>
-
- <calloutlist>
- <callout arearefs="prompt-single">
- <para>This is the prompt used on systems with just one
- CPU.</para>
- </callout>
-
- <callout arearefs="prompt-smp">
- <para>This is the prompt used on SMP systems, the digit
- indicates the number of the active CPU.</para>
- </callout>
- </calloutlist>
- </screenco>
-
- <para>At this point, place the CDROM into your drive, and from
- the PROM prompt, type <command>boot cdrom</command>.</para>
+ <title>Booting for the Alpha</title>
+
+ <indexterm><primary>Alpha</primary></indexterm>
+
+ <procedure>
+ <step>
+ <para>Start with your computer turned off.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Turn on the computer and wait for a boot monitor
+ prompt.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>If you needed to prepare boot floppies, as described in
+ <xref linkend="install-floppies"> then one of them will be the
+ first boot disc, probably the one containing
+ <filename>kern.flp</filename>. Put this disc in your floppy
+ drive and type the following command to boot the disk
+ (substituting the name of your floppy drive if
+ necessary):</para>
+
+ <screen>&gt;&gt;&gt;<userinput>BOOT DVA0 -FLAGS '' -FILE ''</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>If you are booting from CDROM, insert the CDROM into
+ the drive and type the following command to start the
+ installation (substituting the name of the appropriate
+ CDROM drive if necessary):</para>
+
+ <screen>&gt;&gt;&gt;<userinput>BOOT DKA0 -FLAGS '' -FILE ''</userinput></screen>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>FreeBSD will start to boot. If you are booting from a
+ floppy disc, at some point you will see the message:</para>
+
+ <screen>Please insert MFS root floppy and press enter:</screen>
+
+ <para>Follow these instructions by removing the
+ <filename>kern.flp</filename> disc, insert the
+ <filename>mfsroot.flp</filename> disc, and press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Whether you booted from floppy or CDROM, the
+ boot process will then get to this point:</para>
+
+ <screen>Hit [Enter] to boot immediately, or any other key for command prompt.
+Booting [kernel] in 9 seconds... _</screen>
+
+ <para>Either wait ten seconds, or press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. This
+ will then launch the kernel configuration menu.</para>
+ </step>
+ </procedure>
</sect3>
@@ -1093,15 +911,15 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID: 830b92d4.</screen>
<figure id="install-dev-probe">
<title>Typical Device Probe Results</title>
- <screen>avail memory = 253050880 (247120K bytes)
+ <screen>avail memory = 253050880 (247120K bytes)
Preloaded elf kernel "kernel" at 0xc0817000.
Preloaded mfs_root "/mfsroot" at 0xc0817084.
md0: Preloaded image &lt;/mfsroot&gt; 4423680 bytes at 0xc03ddcd4
md1: Malloc disk
Using $PIR table, 4 entries at 0xc00fde60
-npx0: &lt;math processor&gt; on motherboard
-npx0: INT 16 interface
+npx0: &lt;math processor&gt; on motherboard
+npx0: INT 16 interface
pcib0: &lt;Host to PCI bridge&gt; on motherboard
pci0: &lt;PCI bus&gt; on pcib0
pcib1:&lt;VIA 82C598MVP (Apollo MVP3) PCI-PCI (AGP) bridge&gt; at device 1.0 on pci0
@@ -1133,7 +951,7 @@ isa0: unexpected small tag 14
orm0: &lt;Option ROM&gt; at iomem 0xc0000-0xc7fff on isa0
fdc0: &lt;NEC 72065B or clone&gt; at port 0x3f0-0x3f5,0x3f7 irq 6 drq2 on isa0
fdc0: FIFO enabled, 8 bytes threshold
-fd0: &lt;1440-KB 3.5&rdquo; drive&gt; on fdc0 drive 0
+fd0: &lt;1440-KB 3.5" drive&gt; on fdc0 drive 0
atkbdc0: &lt;Keyboard controller (i8042)&gt; at port 0x60,0x64 on isa0
atkbd0: &lt;AT Keyboard&gt; flags 0x1 irq1 on atkbdc0
kbd0 at atkbd0
@@ -1158,44 +976,42 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<para>Check the probe results carefully to make sure that FreeBSD found
all the devices you expected. If a device was not found, then it will
- not be listed. A <link linkend="kernelconfig">custom kernel</link>
- allows you to add in support for devices which are not in the
- <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel, such as sound cards.</para>
+ not be listed. If the device's driver required configuring
+ with the IRQ and port address then you should check that you entered
+ them correctly.</para>
- <para>After the procedure of device
- probing, you will see <xref linkend="config-country">. Use the
- arrow key to choose a country, region, or group. Then press
- <keycap>Enter</keycap>, it will set your country
- easily.</para>
+ <para>If you need to make changes to the UserConfig device probing,
+ it is easy to exit the <application>sysinstall</application> program
+ and start over again. It is also a good way to become more familiar
+ with the process.</para>
- <figure id="config-country">
- <title>Selecting Country Menu</title>
+ <figure id="sysinstall-exit">
+ <title>Select Sysinstall Exit</title>
<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
- <imagedata fileref="install/config-country" format="PNG">
+ <imagedata fileref="install/sysinstall-exit" format="PNG">
</imageobject>
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>If you selected <guimenuitem>United States</guimenuitem>
- as country, the standard American keyboard map will be used,
- if a different country is chosen the following menu will be
- displayed. Use the arrow keys to choose the correct keyboard
- map and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
+ <para>Use the arrow keys to select
+ <guimenuitem>Exit Install</guimenuitem> from the Main
+ Install Screen menu. The following message will display:</para>
- <figure id="config-keymap">
- <title>Selecting Keyboard Menu</title>
- <mediaobject>
- <imageobject>
- <imagedata fileref="install/config-keymap" format="PNG">
- </imageobject>
- </mediaobject>
- </figure>
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+ Are you sure you wish to exit? The system will reboot
+ (be sure to remove any floppies from the drives).
- <para>After the country selecting, the <application>sysinstall</application>
- main menu will display.</para>
+ [ Yes ] No</screen>
+
+ <para>The install program will start again if the CDROM is left
+ in the drive and &gui.yes; is selected.</para>
+
+ <para>If you are booting from floppies it will be necessary to remove
+ the <filename>mfsroot.flp</filename> floppy and replace it with
+ <filename>kern.flp</filename> before rebooting.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -1208,10 +1024,9 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
configure and control the installation process.</para>
<para>The <application>sysinstall</application> menu system is controlled
- by the arrow keys, <keycap>Enter</keycap>, <keycap>Tab</keycap>,
- <keycap>Space</keycap>, and
+ by the arrow keys, <keycap>Enter</keycap>, <keycap>Space</keycap>, and
other keys. A detailed description of these keys and what they do is
- contained in <application>sysinstall</application>'s usage
+ contained in <application>sysinstall</application>'s usage
information.</para>
<para>To review this information, ensure that the
@@ -1270,7 +1085,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
Menu.</para>
<para>To return to the Main Installation Menu, select
- <guimenuitem>Exit</guimenuitem> with the
+ <guimenuitem>Exit</guimenuitem> with the
arrow keys and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -1299,8 +1114,8 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
<para>Only a partial list is shown in this screen representation.
- Selecting &gui.cancel; by pressing <keycap>Tab</keycap> will use the
- default keymap and return to the Main Install Menu.</para>
+ Selecting &gui.cancel; by pressing <keycap>Tab</keycap> will use the default
+ keymap and return to the Main Install Menu.</para>
<figure id="sysinstall-keymap-menu">
<title>Sysinstall Keymap Menu</title>
@@ -1324,7 +1139,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<title>Sysinstall Main Menu</title>
<mediaobject>
- <imageobject>
+ <imageobject>
<imagedata fileref="install/main-options" format="PNG">
</imageobject>
</mediaobject>
@@ -1391,17 +1206,17 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
important subject that you should be aware of, especially if you have
multiple hard drives.</para>
- <indexterm><primary>MS-DOS</primary></indexterm>
+ <indexterm><primary>DOS</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm><primary>Microsoft Windows</primary></indexterm>
<para>In a PC running a BIOS-dependent operating system such as
&ms-dos; or &microsoft.windows;, the BIOS is able to abstract the
normal disk drive order, and
the operating system goes along with the change. This allows the user
to boot from a disk drive other than the so-called <quote>primary
- master</quote>. This is especially convenient for some users who have
+ master</quote>. This is especially convenient for some users who have
found that the simplest and cheapest way to keep a system backup is to
buy an identical second hard drive, and perform routine copies of the
- first drive to the second drive using
+ first drive to the second drive using
<application><trademark class="registered">Ghost</trademark></application> or <application>XCOPY</application>
. Then, if the
first drive fails, or is attacked by a virus, or is scribbled upon by an
@@ -1430,7 +1245,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<sidebar>
<title>An Illustration from the Files of Bill and Fred's Exceptional
Adventures:</title>
-
+
<para>Bill breaks-down an older Wintel box to make another FreeBSD box
for Fred. Bill installs a single SCSI drive as SCSI unit zero and
installs FreeBSD on it.</para>
@@ -1451,8 +1266,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
SCSI unit four. FreeBSD boots and runs just fine.</para>
<para>Fred continues his work for several days, and soon Bill and Fred
- decide that it is time for a new adventure &mdash; time to upgrade
- to a
+ decide that it is time for a new adventure &mdash; time to upgrade to a
newer version of FreeBSD. Bill removes SCSI unit zero because it was
a bit flaky and replaces it with another identical disk drive from
the <quote>archive</quote>. Bill then installs the new version of
@@ -1500,8 +1314,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<para>No changes you make at this point will be written to the disk.
If you think you have made a mistake and want to start again you can
use the menus to exit <application>sysinstall</application> and try
- again or press <keycap>U</keycap> to use the
- <guimenuitem>Undo</guimenuitem> option.
+ again or press <keycap>U</keycap> to use the <guimenuitem>Undo</guimenuitem> option.
If you get confused and can not see how to exit you can
always turn your computer off.</para>
</note>
@@ -1517,14 +1330,14 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
the disk(s) selected) then use the (A)ll command to select the default
partitioning scheme followed by a (Q)uit. If you wish to allocate only
free space to FreeBSD, move to a partition marked "unused" and use the
- (C)reate command.
- [ OK ]
+ (C)reate command.
+ [ OK ]
[ Press enter or space ]</screen>
<para>Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> as instructed. You will then be
shown a list of all the hard drives that the kernel found when it
- carried out the device probes.
+ carried out the device probes.
<xref linkend="sysinstall-fdisk-drive1"> shows an example from a
system with two IDE disks. They have been called
<devicename>ad0</devicename> and <devicename>ad2</devicename>.</para>
@@ -1556,7 +1369,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
may suddenly discover that some of your filesystems no longer
appear correctly, and you would need to change your FreeBSD
configuration.</para>
-
+
<para>To work around this, the kernel can be configured to name IDE
disks based on where they are, and not the order in which they were
found. With this scheme the master disk on the second IDE
@@ -1587,16 +1400,15 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
disk, where they start and end, how large they are, the name FreeBSD
gives them, and their description and sub-type. This example shows two
small unused slices, which are artifacts of disk layout schemes on the
- PC. It also shows one large <acronym>FAT</acronym> slice, which
- almost certainly appears as <devicename>C:</devicename> in
- &ms-dos; / &windows;, and an extended slice, which may contain other
- drive letters for &ms-dos; / &windows;.</para>
+ PC. It also shows one large <acronym>FAT</acronym> slice, which almost certainly appears
+ as <devicename>C:</devicename> in &ms-dos; / &windows;, and an extended
+ slice, which may contain other drive letters for &ms-dos; / &windows;.</para>
<para>The third section shows the commands that are available in
<application>FDisk</application>.</para>
<figure id="sysinstall-fdisk1">
- <title>Typical <command>fdisk</command> Partitions Before Editing</title>
+ <title>Typical Fdisk Partitions before Editing</title>
<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
@@ -1618,7 +1430,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
layout), and then one large slice for FreeBSD. If you do this, then
you should select the newly created FreeBSD slice using the arrow
keys, and press <keycap>S</keycap> to mark the slice as being
- bootable. The screen will then look very similar to
+ bootable. The screen will then look very similar to
<xref linkend="sysinstall-fdisk2">. Note the
<literal>A</literal> in the <literal>Flags</literal> column, which
indicates that this slice is <emphasis>active</emphasis>, and will be
@@ -1629,10 +1441,10 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
then press <keycap>D</keycap>. You can then press <keycap>C</keycap>,
and be prompted for size of slice you want to create. Enter the
appropriate figure and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. The default
- value in this box represents the largest possible slice you can
+ value in this box represents the largest possible slice you can
make, which could be the largest contiguous block of unallocated
space or the size of the entire hard disk.</para>
-
+
<para>If you have already made space for FreeBSD (perhaps by using a
tool such as <application>&partitionmagic;</application>) then you can
press <keycap>C</keycap> to create a new slice. Again, you will be
@@ -1721,7 +1533,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</figure>
<para>The <keycap>Tab</keycap> key toggles between the last drive
- selected, &gui.ok;, and
+ selected, &gui.ok;, and
&gui.cancel;.</para>
<para>Press the <keycap>Tab</keycap> once to toggle to the
@@ -1733,7 +1545,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<sect2 id="bsdlabeleditor">
<title>Creating Partitions Using
<application>Disklabel</application></title>
-
+
<para>You must now create some partitions inside each slice that you
have just created. Remember that each partition is lettered, from
<literal>a</literal> through to <literal>h</literal>, and that
@@ -1756,15 +1568,15 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<title>Partition Layout for First Disk</title>
<tgroup cols="4">
- <colspec colwidth="1*">
- <colspec colwidth="1*">
- <colspec colwidth="1*">
- <colspec colwidth="4*">
+ <colspec colwidth="1*">
+ <colspec colwidth="1*">
+ <colspec colwidth="1*">
+ <colspec colwidth="4*">
<thead>
<row>
<entry>Partition</entry>
-
+
<entry>Filesystem</entry>
<entry>Size</entry>
@@ -1779,15 +1591,14 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<entry><filename>/</filename></entry>
- <entry>1&nbsp;GB</entry>
+ <entry>100&nbsp;MB</entry>
<entry>This is the root filesystem. Every other filesystem
- will be mounted somewhere under this one. 1&nbsp;GB is a
+ will be mounted somewhere under this one. 100&nbsp;MB is a
reasonable size for this filesystem. You will not be storing
too much data on it, as a regular FreeBSD install will put
- about 128&nbsp;MB of data here. The remaining space is for
- temporary data, and also leaves expansion space if future
- versions of
+ about 40&nbsp;MB of data here. The remaining space is for temporary
+ data, and also leaves expansion space if future versions of
FreeBSD need more space in <filename>/</filename>.</entry>
</row>
@@ -1798,23 +1609,23 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<entry>2-3 x RAM</entry>
- <entry><para>The system's swap space is kept on the <literal>b</literal> partition.
+ <entry><para>The system's swap space is kept on this partition.
Choosing the right amount of swap space can be a bit of an
art. A good rule of thumb is that your swap
space should be two or three times as much as the
available physical memory (RAM).
- You should also have at least 64&nbsp;MB of swap, so if you
- have less than 32&nbsp;MB of RAM in your computer then set
- the swap amount to 64&nbsp;MB.</para><para>
+ You should also have at least 64&nbsp;MB of swap, so if you have
+ less than 32&nbsp;MB of RAM in your computer then set the swap
+ amount to 64&nbsp;MB.</para><para>
If you have more than one disk then you can put swap
- space on each disk. FreeBSD will then use each disk for
+ space on each disk. FreeBSD will then use each disk for
swap, which effectively speeds up the act of swapping. In
this case, calculate the total amount of swap you need
- (e.g., 128&nbsp;MB), and then divide this by the number of
- disks you have (e.g., two disks) to give the amount of swap
- you should put on each disk, in this example, 64&nbsp;MB of
- swap per disk.</para></entry>
+ (e.g., 128&nbsp;MB), and then divide this by the number of disks
+ you have (e.g., two disks) to give the amount of swap you
+ should put on each disk, in this example, 64&nbsp;MB of swap per
+ disk.</para></entry>
</row>
<row>
@@ -1822,7 +1633,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<entry><filename>/var</filename></entry>
- <entry>512&nbsp;MB to 4096&nbsp;MB</entry>
+ <entry>50&nbsp;MB</entry>
<entry>The <filename>/var</filename> directory contains
files that are constantly varying;
@@ -1839,7 +1650,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<entry><filename>/usr</filename></entry>
- <entry>Rest of disk (at least 8&nbsp;GB)</entry>
+ <entry>Rest of disk</entry>
<entry>All your other files will typically be stored in
<filename>/usr</filename> and its subdirectories.</entry>
@@ -1847,14 +1658,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</table>
-
- <warning>
- <para>The values above are given as example and should be used
- by experienced users only. Users are encouraged to use the
- automatic partition layout called <literal>Auto
- Defaults</literal> by the &os; partition editor.</para>
- </warning>
-
+
<para>If you will be installing FreeBSD on to more than one disk then
you must also create partitions in the other slices that you
configured. The easiest way to do this is to create two partitions on
@@ -1864,15 +1668,15 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<title>Partition Layout for Subsequent Disks</title>
<tgroup cols="4">
- <colspec colwidth="1*">
- <colspec colwidth="1*">
- <colspec colwidth="2*">
- <colspec colwidth="3*">
+ <colspec colwidth="1*">
+ <colspec colwidth="1*">
+ <colspec colwidth="2*">
+ <colspec colwidth="3*">
<thead>
<row>
<entry>Partition</entry>
-
+
<entry>Filesystem</entry>
<entry>Size</entry>
@@ -1928,10 +1732,10 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<screen> Message
Now, you need to create BSD partitions inside of the fdisk
partition(s) just created. If you have a reasonable amount of disk
- space (1GB or more) and don't have any special requirements, simply
+ space (200MB or more) and don't have any special requirements, simply
use the (A)uto command to allocate space automatically. If you have
more specific needs or just don't care for the layout chosen by
- (A)uto, press F1 for more information on manual layout.
+ (A)uto, press F1 for more information on manual layout.
[ OK ]
[ Press enter or space ]</screen>
@@ -1970,9 +1774,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</figure>
<para><application>Disklabel</application> can automatically create
- partitions for you and assign them default sizes. The default sizes
- are calculated with the help of an internal partition sizing algorithm
- based on the disk size. Try this now, by
+ partitions for you and assign them default sizes. Try this now, by
Pressing <keycap>A</keycap>. You will see a display similar to that
shown in <xref linkend="sysinstall-label2">. Depending on the size of
the disk you are using, the defaults may or may not be appropriate.
@@ -2004,8 +1806,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
suggested partitions.</para>
<para>To create the first partition (<literal>a</literal>, mounted as
- <filename>/</filename> &mdash; root), make sure the proper disk slice
- at the top of
+ <filename>/</filename> &mdash; root), make sure the proper disk slice at the top of
the screen is selected and press <keycap>C</keycap>. A dialog box
will appear prompting you for the size of the new partition (as shown
in <xref linkend="sysinstall-label-add">). You can enter the size as
@@ -2014,6 +1815,15 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<literal>G</literal> for gigabytes, or <literal>C</literal> for
cylinders.</para>
+ <note><para>Beginning with FreeBSD&nbsp;5.X, users can: select
+ <acronym>UFS2</acronym> (which is default on &os;&nbsp;5.1 and
+ above) using the <literal>Custom Newfs</literal>
+ (<keycap>Z</keycap>) option, create labels with
+ <literal>Auto Defaults</literal> and modify them with the <literal>Custom Newfs</literal> option or
+ add <option>-O 2</option> during the regular creation period.
+ Do not forget to add <option>-U</option> for SoftUpdates if you use the <literal>Custom Newfs</literal>
+ option!</para></note>
+
<figure id="sysinstall-label-add">
<title>Free Space for Root Partition</title>
@@ -2028,10 +1838,10 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
rest of the slice. If you are using the partition sizes described
in the earlier example, then delete the existing figure using
<keycap>Backspace</keycap>, and then type in
- <userinput>512M</userinput>, as shown in
+ <userinput>64M</userinput>, as shown in
<xref linkend="sysinstall-label-add2">. Then press
&gui.ok;.</para>
-
+
<figure id="sysinstall-label-add2">
<title>Edit Root Partition Size</title>
@@ -2051,17 +1861,17 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<figure id="sysinstall-label-type">
<title>Choose the Root Partition Type</title>
-
+
<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
<imagedata fileref="install/disklabel-fs" format="PNG">
</imageobject>
</mediaobject>
</figure>
-
+
<para>Finally, because you are creating a filesystem, you must tell
<application>Disklabel</application> where the filesystem is to be
- mounted. The dialog box is shown in
+ mounted. The dialog box is shown in
<xref linkend="sysinstall-label-mount">. The root filesystem's mount
point is <filename>/</filename>, so type <userinput>/</userinput>, and
then press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
@@ -2090,7 +1900,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<figure id="sysinstall-label4">
<title>Sysinstall Disklabel Editor</title>
-
+
<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
<imagedata fileref="install/disklabel-ed2" format="PNG">
@@ -2114,16 +1924,22 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
of these canned options. Customizing a distribution set is
typically for the more experienced user.</para>
- <para>Press <keycap>F1</keycap> for more information on the
+ <para>Press <keycap>F1</keycap> for more information on the
distribution set options and what they contain. When finished
reviewing the help, pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap> will return
to the Select Distributions Menu.</para>
- <para>If a graphical user interface is desired then the
- configuration of the X server and selection of a default
+ <para>If a graphical user interface is desired then a distribution
+ set that is preceded by an <literal>X</literal> should be
+ chosen. The configuration of the X server and selection of a default
desktop must be done after the installation of &os;. More
- information regarding the installation and configuration of a
- X server can be found in <xref linkend="x11">.</para>
+ information regarding the configuration of a X server can be
+ found in <xref linkend="x11">.</para>
+
+ <para>The default version of X11 that is installed depends on the
+ version of FreeBSD that you are installing. For FreeBSD versions
+ prior to 5.3, <application>&xfree86;&nbsp;4.X</application> is installed. For &os;&nbsp;5.3 and later,
+ <application>&xorg;</application> is the default.</para>
<para>If compiling a custom kernel is anticipated, select an option
which includes the source code. For more information on why a
@@ -2131,7 +1947,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<xref linkend="kernelconfig">.</para>
<para>Obviously, the most versatile system is one that includes
- everything. If there is adequate disk space, select
+ everything. If there is adequate disk space, select
<guimenuitem>All</guimenuitem> as shown in
<xref linkend="distribution-set1"> by using the arrow keys and
press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. If there is a concern about disk
@@ -2172,21 +1988,21 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
of FreeBSD.</para>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
- Would you like to install the FreeBSD ports collection?
+ Would you like to install the FreeBSD ports collection?
This will give you ready access to over &os.numports; ported software packages,
at a cost of around &ports.size; of disk space when "clean" and possibly much
more than that if a lot of the distribution tarballs are loaded
(unless you have the extra CDs from a FreeBSD CD/DVD distribution
available and can mount it on /cdrom, in which case this is far less
- of a problem).
+ of a problem).
The Ports Collection is a very valuable resource and well worth having
- on your /usr partition, so it is advisable to say Yes to this option.
+ on your /usr partition, so it is advisable to say Yes to this option.
For more information on the Ports Collection &amp; the latest ports,
- visit:
- http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports
+ visit:
+ http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports
[ Yes ] No</screen>
@@ -2216,11 +2032,11 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<sect1 id="install-media">
<title>Choosing Your Installation Media</title>
- <para>If Installing from a CDROM or DVD, use the arrow keys to highlight
+ <para>If Installing from a CDROM or DVD, use the arrow keys to highlight
<guimenuitem>Install from a FreeBSD CD/DVD</guimenuitem>. Ensure
that &gui.ok; is highlighted, then press
<keycap>Enter</keycap> to proceed with the installation.</para>
-
+
<para>For other methods of installation, select the appropriate
option and follow the instructions.</para>
@@ -2246,7 +2062,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<secondary>network</secondary>
<tertiary>FTP</tertiary>
</indexterm>
-
+
<para>There are three FTP installation modes you can choose from:
active FTP, passive FTP, or via a HTTP proxy.</para>
@@ -2254,9 +2070,9 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<varlistentry>
<term>FTP Active: <guimenuitem>Install from an FTP
server</guimenuitem></term>
-
+
<listitem>
- <para>This option will make all FTP transfers
+ <para>This option will make all FTP transfers
use <quote>Active</quote>
mode. This will not work through firewalls, but will
often work with older FTP servers that do not support
@@ -2264,37 +2080,36 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
mode (the default), try active!</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
-
+
<varlistentry>
<term>FTP Passive: <guimenuitem>Install from an FTP server through a
firewall</guimenuitem></term>
-
+
<listitem>
<indexterm>
<primary>FTP</primary>
<secondary>passive mode</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para>This option instructs <application>sysinstall</application>
- to <quote>Passive</quote> mode for all FTP operations.
+ <para>This option instructs <application>sysinstall</application> to use
+ <quote>Passive</quote> mode for all FTP operations.
This allows the user to pass through firewalls
that do not allow incoming connections on random TCP ports.
</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
-
+
<varlistentry>
<term>FTP via a HTTP proxy: <guimenuitem>Install from an FTP server
through a http proxy</guimenuitem></term>
-
+
<listitem>
<indexterm>
<primary>FTP</primary>
<secondary>via a HTTP proxy</secondary>
</indexterm>
-
- <para>This option instructs <application>sysinstall</application>
- to use the HTTP
+
+ <para>This option instructs <application>sysinstall</application> to use the HTTP
protocol (like a web browser) to connect to a proxy
for all FTP operations. The proxy will translate
the requests and send them to the FTP server.
@@ -2306,26 +2121,26 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
-
+
<para>For a proxy FTP server, you should usually give the name of the
server you really want as a part of the username, after an
<quote>@</quote> sign. The proxy server then <quote>fakes</quote>
the real server. For example, assuming you want to install from
<hostid role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid>, using the proxy FTP
server <hostid role="fqdn">foo.example.com</hostid>, listening on port
- 1234.</para>
-
+ 1024.</para>
+
<para>In this case, you go to the options menu, set the FTP username
to <literal>ftp@ftp.FreeBSD.org</literal>, and the password to your
email address. As your installation media, you specify FTP (or
passive FTP, if the proxy supports it), and the URL
<literal>ftp://foo.example.com:1234/pub/FreeBSD</literal>.</para>
- <para>Since <filename>/pub/FreeBSD</filename> from
- <hostid role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid> is proxied under
+ <para>Since <filename>/pub/FreeBSD</filename> from
+ <hostid role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid> is proxied under
<hostid role="fqdn">foo.example.com</hostid>, you are able to install
from <emphasis>that</emphasis> machine (which will fetch the files
- from <hostid role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid> as your
+ from <hostid role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid> as your
installation requests them).</para>
</note>
</sect1>
@@ -2338,39 +2153,39 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
to the hard drive.</para>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
- Last Chance! Are you SURE you want to continue the installation?
+ Last Chance! Are you SURE you want to continue the installation?
If you're running this on a disk with data you wish to save then WE
- STRONGLY ENCOURAGE YOU TO MAKE PROPER BACKUPS before proceeding!
+ STRONGLY ENCOURAGE YOU TO MAKE PROPER BACKUPS before proceeding!
- We can take no responsibility for lost disk contents!
+ We can take no responsibility for lost disk contents!
[ Yes ] No</screen>
- <para>Select &gui.yes; and press
+ <para>Select &gui.yes; and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap> to proceed.</para>
<para>The installation time will vary according to the distribution
chosen, installation media, and the speed of the computer.
There will be a series of
messages displayed indicating the status.</para>
-
+
<para>The installation is complete when the following message is
displayed:</para>
- <screen> Message
+ <screen> Message
-Congratulations! You now have FreeBSD installed on your system.
+Congratulations! You now have FreeBSD installed on your system.
-We will now move on to the final configuration questions.
-For any option you do not wish to configure, simply select No.
+We will now move on to the final configuration questions.
+For any option you do not wish to configure, simply select No.
If you wish to re-enter this utility after the system is up, you may
-do so by typing: /usr/sbin/sysinstall.
+do so by typing: /stand/sysinstall .
- [ OK ]
+ [ OK ]
- [ Press enter or space ]</screen>
+ [ Press enter to continue ]</screen>
<para>Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to proceed with post-installation
configurations.</para>
@@ -2382,9 +2197,9 @@ do so by typing: /usr/sbin/sysinstall.
<screen> Message
Installation complete with some errors. You may wish to scroll
-through the debugging messages on VTY1 with the scroll-lock feature.
+through the debugging messages on VTY1 with the scroll-lock feature.
You can also choose "No" at the next prompt and go back into the
-installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
+installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
[ OK ]</screen>
@@ -2396,12 +2211,12 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
<sect1 id="install-post">
<title>Post-installation</title>
- <para>Configuration of various options follows the successful
+ <para>Configuration of various options follows the successful
installation. An option can be configured by re-entering the
configuration options before booting the new FreeBSD
system or after installation using
- <command>sysinstall</command>
- and selecting
+ <command>sysinstall</command> (<command>/stand/sysinstall</command>
+ in &os; versions older than 5.2) and selecting
<guimenuitem>Configure</guimenuitem>.</para>
<sect2 id="inst-network-dev">
@@ -2416,8 +2231,8 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
<link linkend="advanced-networking">Advanced Networking</link>
chapter.</para>
- <screen> User Confirmation Requested
- Would you like to configure any Ethernet or PPP network devices?
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+ Would you like to configure any Ethernet or SLIP/PPP network devices?
[ Yes ] No</screen>
@@ -2438,7 +2253,7 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
<para>Select the interface to be configured with the arrow keys and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
- <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
Do you want to try IPv6 configuration of the interface?
Yes [ No ]</screen>
@@ -2453,7 +2268,7 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
&gui.yes; and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.
It will take several seconds to scan for RA servers.</para>
- <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
Do you want to try DHCP configuration of the interface?
Yes [ No ]</screen>
@@ -2472,7 +2287,7 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
as the gateway for a Local Area Network.</para>
<figure id="ed-config2">
- <title>Set Network Configuration for <replaceable>ed0</replaceable></title>
+ <title>Set Network Configuration for ed0</title>
<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
@@ -2489,8 +2304,7 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
<term>Host</term>
<listitem>
- <para>The fully-qualified hostname, such as
- <hostid role="fqdn">k6-2.example.com</hostid> in
+ <para>The fully-qualified hostname, such as <hostid role="fqdn">k6-2.example.com</hostid> in
this case.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -2500,8 +2314,7 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
<listitem>
<para>The name of the domain that your machine is
- in, such as <hostid role="domainname">example.com</hostid>
- for this case.</para>
+ in, such as <hostid role="domainname">example.com</hostid> for this case.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -2566,8 +2379,8 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
when finished and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
- <screen> User Confirmation Requested
- Would you like to bring the ed0 interface up right now?
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+ Would you like to Bring Up the ed0 interface right now?
[ Yes ] No</screen>
@@ -2581,7 +2394,7 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
<sect2 id="gateway">
<title>Configure Gateway</title>
- <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
Do you want this machine to function as a network gateway?
[ Yes ] No</screen>
@@ -2589,7 +2402,7 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
<para>If the machine will be acting as the gateway for a local area
network and forwarding packets between other machines then select
&gui.yes; and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.
- If the machine is a node on a network then
+ If the machine is a node on a network then
select &gui.no; and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -2606,7 +2419,7 @@ Do you want to configure inetd and the network services that it provides?
such <application>telnetd</application> will not be enabled. This
means that remote users will not be able to
<application>telnet</application> into this machine. Local users
- will still be able to access remote machines with
+ will be still be able to access remote machines with
<application>telnet</application>.</para>
<para>These services can be enabled after installation by editing
@@ -2657,30 +2470,11 @@ use the current settings.
</figure>
<para>After adding the desired services, pressing <keycap>Esc</keycap>
- will display a menu which will allow exiting and saving
+ will display a menu which will allow exiting and saving
the changes.</para>
</sect2>
- <sect2 id="ssh-login">
- <title>Enabling SSH login</title>
-
- <indexterm>
- <primary>SSH</primary>
- <secondary>sshd</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <screen> User Confirmation Requested
- Would you like to enable SSH login?
- Yes [ No ]</screen>
-
- <para>Selecting &gui.yes; will enable &man.sshd.8;, the daemon
- program for <application>OpenSSH</application>. This will
- allow secure remote access to your machine. For more
- information about <application>OpenSSH</application> see <xref
- linkend="openssh">.</para>
- </sect2>
-
<sect2 id="ftpanon">
<title>Anonymous FTP</title>
@@ -2690,13 +2484,13 @@ use the current settings.
</indexterm>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
- Do you want to have anonymous FTP access to this machine?
+ Do you want to have anonymous FTP access to this machine?
Yes [ No ]</screen>
<sect3 id="deny-anon">
<title>Deny Anonymous FTP</title>
-
+
<para>Selecting the default &gui.no; and pressing
<keycap>Enter</keycap> will still allow users who have accounts
with passwords to use FTP to access the machine.</para>
@@ -2712,32 +2506,7 @@ use the current settings.
<para>To allow anonymous FTP, use the arrow keys to select
&gui.yes; and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.
- An additional confirmation will display:</para>
-
- <screen> User Confirmation Requested
- Anonymous FTP permits un-authenticated users to connect to the system
- FTP server, if FTP service is enabled. Anonymous users are
- restricted to a specific subset of the file system, and the default
- configuration provides a drop-box incoming directory to which uploads
- are permitted. You must separately enable both inetd(8), and enable
- ftpd(8) in inetd.conf(5) for FTP services to be available. If you
- did not do so earlier, you will have the opportunity to enable inetd(8)
- again later.
-
- If you want the server to be read-only you should leave the upload
- directory option empty and add the -r command-line option to ftpd(8)
- in inetd.conf(5)
-
- Do you wish to continue configuring anonymous FTP?
-
- [ Yes ] No</screen>
-
- <para>This message informs you that the FTP service will also
- have to be enabled in <filename>/etc/inetd.conf</filename>
- if you want to allow anonymous FTP connections, see <xref
- linkend="inetd-services">. Select &gui.yes; and press
- <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue; the following screen
- will display:</para>
+ The following screen (or similar) will display:</para>
<figure id="anon-ftp2">
<title>Default Anonymous FTP Configuration</title>
@@ -2749,67 +2518,38 @@ use the current settings.
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>Use <keycap>Tab</keycap> to select the information
- fields and fill in appropriate information:</para>
+ <para>Pressing <keycap>F1</keycap> will display the help:</para>
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>UID</term>
+ <screen>This screen allows you to configure the anonymous FTP user.
- <listitem>
- <para>The user ID you wish to assign to the anonymous
- FTP user. All files uploaded will be owned by this
- ID.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
+The following configuration values are editable:
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Group</term>
+UID: The user ID you wish to assign to the anonymous FTP user.
+ All files uploaded will be owned by this ID.
- <listitem>
- <para>Which group you wish the anonymous FTP user to be
- in.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
+Group: Which group you wish the anonymous FTP user to be in.
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Comment</term>
+Comment: String describing this user in /etc/passwd
- <listitem>
- <para>String describing this user in
- <filename>/etc/passwd</filename>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>FTP Root Directory</term>
+FTP Root Directory:
- <listitem>
- <para>Where files available for anonymous FTP will be
- kept.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
+ Where files available for anonymous FTP will be kept.
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Upload Subdirectory</term>
+Upload subdirectory:
- <listitem>
- <para>Where files uploaded by anonymous FTP users will
- go.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
+ Where files uploaded by anonymous FTP users will go.</screen>
- <para>The FTP root directory will be put in <filename>/var</filename>
+ <para>The ftp root directory will be put in <filename>/var</filename>
by default. If you do not have enough room there for the
anticipated FTP needs, the <filename>/usr</filename> directory
- could be used by setting the FTP root directory to
+ could be used by setting the FTP Root Directory to
<filename>/usr/ftp</filename>.</para>
- <para>When you are satisfied with the values, press
+ <para>When you are satisfied with the values, press
<keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue.</para>
- <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
Create a welcome message file for anonymous FTP users?
[ Yes ] No</screen>
@@ -2852,7 +2592,7 @@ use the current settings.
<title>NFS Server</title>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
- Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS server?
+ Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS server?
Yes [ No ]</screen>
@@ -2900,7 +2640,7 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<para>The NFS client allows your machine to access NFS servers.</para>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
- Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS client?
+ Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS client?
Yes [ No ]</screen>
@@ -2910,13 +2650,191 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
</sect3>
</sect2>
+ <sect2 id="securityprofile">
+ <title>Security Profile</title>
+
+ <para>A <quote>security profile</quote> is a set of
+ configuration options that attempts to achieve the desired
+ ratio of security to convenience by enabling and disabling
+ certain programs and other settings. The more severe the
+ security profile, the fewer programs will be enabled by
+ default. This is one of the basic principles of security: do
+ not run anything except what you must.</para>
+
+ <para>Please note that the security profile is just a default
+ setting. All programs can be enabled and disabled after you
+ have installed FreeBSD by editing or adding the appropriate
+ line(s) to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>. For more
+ information, please see the &man.rc.conf.5; manual
+ page.</para>
+
+ <para>The following table describes what each of the security
+ profiles does. The columns are the choices you have for a
+ security profile, and the rows are the program or feature that
+ the profile enables or disables.</para>
+
+ <table>
+ <title>Possible Security Profiles</title>
+
+ <tgroup cols=3>
+ <thead>
+ <row>
+ <entry></entry>
+
+ <entry>Extreme</entry>
+
+ <entry>Moderate</entry>
+ </row>
+ </thead>
+
+ <tbody>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>&man.sendmail.8;</entry>
+
+ <entry>NO</entry>
+
+ <entry>YES</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>&man.sshd.8;</entry>
+
+ <entry>NO</entry>
+
+ <entry>YES</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>&man.portmap.8;</entry>
+
+ <entry>NO</entry>
+
+ <entry>MAYBE
+ <footnote>
+ <para>The portmapper is enabled if the machine has
+ been configured as an NFS client or server earlier
+ in the installation.</para>
+ </footnote>
+ </entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>NFS server</entry>
+
+ <entry>NO</entry>
+
+ <entry>YES</entry>
+ </row>
+
+ <row>
+ <entry>&man.securelevel.8;</entry>
+
+ <entry>YES
+ <footnote>
+ <para>If you choose a security profile that sets the
+ securelevel to <quote>Extreme</quote> or
+ <quote>High</quote>, you must be aware of the
+ implications. Please read the &man.init.8;
+ manual page and pay particular attention to the
+ meanings of the security levels, or you may have
+ significant trouble later!</para>
+ </footnote>
+ </entry>
+
+ <entry>NO</entry>
+ </row>
+ </tbody>
+ </tgroup>
+ </table>
+
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+ Do you want to select a default security profile for this host (select
+ No for "medium" security)?
+
+ [ Yes ] No</screen>
+
+ <para>Selecting &gui.no; and pressing
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> will set the security profile to medium.</para>
+
+ <para>Selecting &gui.yes; and pressing
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> will allow selecting a different security
+ profile.</para>
+
+ <figure id="security-profile">
+ <title>Security Profile Options</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="install/security" format="PNG">
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Press <keycap>F1</keycap> to display the help. Press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> to return to selection menu.</para>
+
+ <para>Use the arrow keys to choose <guimenuitem>Medium</guimenuitem>
+ unless your are sure that another level is required for your needs.
+ With &gui.ok; highlighted, press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
+
+ <para>An appropriate confirmation message will display depending on
+ which security setting was chosen.</para>
+
+ <screen> Message
+
+Moderate security settings have been selected.
+
+Sendmail and SSHd have been enabled, securelevels are
+disabled, and NFS server setting have been left intact.
+PLEASE NOTE that this still does not save you from having
+to properly secure your system in other ways or exercise
+due diligence in your administration, this simply picks
+a standard set of out-of-box defaults to start with.
+
+To change any of these settings later, edit /etc/rc.conf
+
+ [OK]</screen>
+
+ <screen> Message
+
+Extreme security settings have been selected.
+
+Sendmail, SSHd, and NFS services have been disabled, and
+securelevels have been enabled.
+PLEASE NOTE that this still does not save you from having
+to properly secure your system in other ways or exercise
+due diligence in your administration, this simply picks
+a more secure set of out-of-box defaults to start with.
+
+To change any of these settings later, edit /etc/rc.conf
+
+ [OK]</screen>
+
+ <para>Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue with the
+ post-installation configuration.</para>
+
+ <warning>
+ <para>The security profile is not a silver bullet! Even if
+ you use the extreme setting, you need to keep up with
+ security issues by reading an appropriate mailing
+ list (<xref linkend="eresources-mail">),
+ using good passwords and passphrases, and
+ generally adhering to good security practices. It simply
+ sets up the desired security to convenience ratio out of the
+ box.</para>
+ </warning>
+
+ </sect2>
+
<sect2 id="console">
<title>System Console Settings</title>
<para>There are several options available to customize the system
console.</para>
- <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
Would you like to customize your system console settings?
[ Yes ] No</screen>
@@ -2999,7 +2917,7 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
time zone of the United States. Your selections will vary according
to your geographical location.</para>
- <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
Would you like to set this machine's time zone now?
[ Yes ] No</screen>
@@ -3009,11 +2927,11 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
Is this machine's CMOS clock set to UTC? If it is set to local time
- or you don't know, please choose NO here!
+ or you don't know, please choose NO here!
Yes [ No ]</screen>
- <para>Select &gui.yes;
+ <para>Select &gui.yes;
or &gui.no; according to how the machine's
clock is configured and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
@@ -3056,7 +2974,7 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<para>The appropriate time zone is selected using the arrow
keys and pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
- <screen> Confirmation
+ <screen> Confirmation
Does the abbreviation 'EDT' look reasonable?
[ Yes ] No</screen>
@@ -3069,13 +2987,7 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<sect2 id="linuxcomp">
<title>Linux Compatibility</title>
- <note>
- <para>This part only applies to &os;&nbsp;7.<replaceable>X</replaceable>
- installation, if you install &os;&nbsp;8.<replaceable>X</replaceable>
- this screen will not be proposed.</para>
- </note>
-
- <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
Would you like to enable Linux binary compatibility?
[ Yes ] No</screen>
@@ -3100,12 +3012,12 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
details on emulating the 3-button style. This example depicts a
non-USB mouse configuration (such as a PS/2 or COM port mouse):</para>
- <screen> User Confirmation Requested
- Does this system have a PS/2, serial, or bus mouse?
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+ Does this system have a non-USB mouse attached to it?
[ Yes ] No </screen>
- <para>Select &gui.yes; for a PS/2, serial or bus mouse, or
+ <para>Select &gui.yes; for a non-USB mouse or
&gui.no; for a USB mouse and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
@@ -3202,6 +3114,855 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
post-installation configuration.</para>
</sect2>
+ <sect2 id="network-services">
+ <sect2info>
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Tom</firstname>
+ <surname>Rhodes</surname>
+ <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
+ </sect2info>
+ <title>Configure Additional Network Services</title>
+
+ <para>Configuring network services can be a daunting
+ task for new users if they lack previous
+ knowledge in this area. Networking, including the Internet,
+ is critical to all modern operating systems including &os;;
+ as a result, it is very useful to have some understanding
+ &os;'s extensive networking capabilities. Doing this
+ during the installation will ensure users have some
+ understanding of the various services available to them.</para>
+
+ <para>Network services are programs that accept input from
+ anywhere on the network. Every effort is made to make sure
+ these programs will not do anything <quote>harmful</quote>.
+ Unfortunately, programmers are not perfect and through time
+ there have been cases where bugs in network services have been
+ exploited by attackers to do bad things. It is important that
+ you only enable the network services you know that you need. If
+ in doubt it is best if you do not enable a network service until
+ you find out that you do need it. You can always enable it
+ later by re-running <application>sysinstall</application> or by
+ using the features provided by the
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> file.</para>
+
+ <para>Selecting the <guimenu>Networking</guimenu> option will display
+ a menu similar to the one below:</para>
+
+ <figure id="network-configuration">
+ <title>Network Configuration Upper-level</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="install/net-config-menu1" format="PNG">
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>The first option, <guimenuitem>Interfaces</guimenuitem>, was previously covered during
+ the <xref linkend="inst-network-dev">, thus this option can
+ safely be ignored.</para>
+
+ <para>Selecting the <guimenuitem>AMD</guimenuitem> option adds
+ support for the <acronym>BSD</acronym> automatic mount utility.
+ This is usually used in conjunction with the
+ <acronym>NFS</acronym> protocol (see below)
+ for automatically mounting remote file systems.
+ No special configuration is required here.</para>
+
+ <para>Next in line is the <guimenuitem>AMD Flags</guimenuitem>
+ option. When selected, a menu will pop up for you
+ to enter specific <acronym>AMD</acronym> flags.
+ The menu already contains a set of default options:</para>
+
+ <screen>-a /.amd_mnt -l syslog /host /etc/amd.map /net /etc/amd.map</screen>
+
+ <para>The <option>-a</option> option sets the default mount
+ location which is specified here as
+ <filename>/.amd_mnt</filename>. The <option>-l</option>
+ option specifies the default <filename>log</filename> file;
+ however, when <literal>syslogd</literal> is used all log
+ activity will be sent to the system log daemon. The
+ <filename class="directory">/host</filename> directory is used
+ to mount an exported file system from a remote
+ host, while <filename class="directory">/net</filename>
+ directory is used to mount an exported file system from an
+ <acronym>IP</acronym> address. The
+ <filename>/etc/amd.map</filename> file defines the default
+ options for <acronym>AMD</acronym> exports.</para>
+
+ <indexterm>
+ <primary>FTP</primary>
+ <secondary>anonymous</secondary>
+ </indexterm>
+
+ <para>The <guimenuitem>Anon FTP</guimenuitem> option permits anonymous
+ <acronym>FTP</acronym> connections. Select this option to
+ make this machine an anonymous <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.
+ Be aware of the security risks involved with this option.
+ Another menu will be displayed to explain the security risks
+ and configuration in depth.</para>
+
+ <para>The <guimenuitem>Gateway</guimenuitem> configuration menu will set
+ the machine up to be a gateway as explained previously. This
+ can be used to unset the <guimenuitem>Gateway</guimenuitem> option if you accidentally
+ selected it during the installation process.</para>
+
+ <para>The <guimenuitem>Inetd</guimenuitem> option can be used to configure
+ or completely disable the &man.inetd.8; daemon as discussed
+ above.</para>
+
+ <para>The <guimenuitem>Mail</guimenuitem> option is used to configure the system's
+ default <acronym>MTA</acronym> or Mail Transfer Agent.
+ Selecting this option will bring up the following menu:</para>
+
+ <figure id="mta-selection">
+ <title>Select a default MTA</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="install/mta-main" format="PNG">
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Here you are offered a choice as to which
+ <acronym>MTA</acronym> to install
+ and set as the default. An <acronym>MTA</acronym> is nothing
+ more than a mail server which delivers email to users on the
+ system or the Internet.</para>
+
+ <para>Selecting <guimenuitem>Sendmail</guimenuitem> will install
+ the popular <application>sendmail</application> server which
+ is the &os; default. The <guimenuitem>Sendmail local</guimenuitem> option
+ will set <application>sendmail</application> to be the default
+ <acronym>MTA</acronym>, but disable its ability to receive
+ incoming email from the Internet. The other options here,
+ <guimenuitem>Postfix</guimenuitem> and
+ <guimenuitem>Exim</guimenuitem> act similar to
+ <guimenuitem>Sendmail</guimenuitem>. They both deliver
+ email; however, some users prefer these alternatives to the
+ <application>sendmail</application>
+ <acronym>MTA</acronym>.</para>
+
+ <para>After selecting an <acronym>MTA</acronym>, or choosing
+ not to select an MTA, the network configuration menu will appear
+ with the next option being <guimenuitem>NFS client</guimenuitem>.</para>
+
+ <para>The <guimenuitem>NFS client</guimenuitem> option will
+ configure the system to communicate with a server via
+ <acronym>NFS</acronym>. An <acronym>NFS</acronym> server
+ makes file systems available to other machines on the
+ network via the <acronym>NFS</acronym> protocol. If this is
+ a stand alone machine, this option can remain unselected.
+ The system may require more configuration later; see
+ <xref linkend="network-nfs"> for more
+ information about client and server configuration.</para>
+
+ <para>Below that option is the <guimenuitem>NFS server</guimenuitem>
+ option, permitting you to set the system up as an
+ <acronym>NFS</acronym> server. This adds the required
+ information to start up the <acronym>RPC</acronym> remote
+ procedure call services. <acronym>RPC</acronym> is used to
+ coordinate connections between hosts and programs.</para>
+
+ <para>Next in line is the <guimenuitem>Ntpdate</guimenuitem> option,
+ which deals with time synchronization. When selected, a menu
+ like the one below shows up:</para>
+
+ <figure id="Ntpdate-config">
+ <title>Ntpdate Configuration</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="install/ntp-config" format="PNG">
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>From this menu, select the server which is the closest
+ to your location. Selecting a close one will make the time
+ synchronization more accurate as a server further from your
+ location may have more connection latency.</para>
+
+ <para>The next option is the <acronym>PCNFSD</acronym> selection.
+ This option will install the
+ <filename role="package">net/pcnfsd</filename> package from
+ the Ports Collection. This is a useful utility which provides
+ <acronym>NFS</acronym> authentication services for systems which
+ are unable to provide their own, such as Microsoft's
+ &ms-dos; operating system.</para>
+
+ <para>Now you must scroll down a bit to see the other
+ options:</para>
+
+ <figure id="Network-configuration-cont">
+ <title>Network Configuration Lower-level</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="install/net-config-menu2" format="PNG">
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>The &man.rpcbind.8;, &man.rpc.statd.8;, and
+ &man.rpc.lockd.8; utilities are all used for Remote Procedure
+ Calls (<acronym>RPC</acronym>).
+ The <command>rpcbind</command> utility manages communication
+ between <acronym>NFS</acronym> servers and clients, and is
+ required for <acronym>NFS</acronym> servers to operate
+ correctly. The <application>rpc.statd</application> daemon interacts
+ with the <application>rpc.statd</application> daemon on other hosts to
+ provide status monitoring. The reported status is usually held
+ in the <filename>/var/db/statd.status</filename> file. The
+ next option listed here is the <guimenuitem>rpc.lockd</guimenuitem>
+ option, which, when selected, will provide file locking
+ services. This is usually used with
+ <application>rpc.statd</application> to monitor what hosts are
+ requesting locks and how frequently they request them.
+ While these last two options are marvelous for debugging, they
+ are not required for <acronym>NFS</acronym> servers and clients
+ to operate correctly.</para>
+
+ <para>As you progress down the list the next item here is
+ <guimenuitem>Routed</guimenuitem>, which is the routing daemon. The
+ &man.routed.8; utility manages network routing tables,
+ discovers multicast routers, and supplies a copy of the routing
+ tables to any physically connected host on the network upon
+ request. This is mainly used for machines which act as a
+ gateway for the local network. When selected, a menu will be
+ presented requesting the default location of the utility.
+ The default location is already defined for you and can be
+ selected with the <keycap>Enter</keycap> key. You will then
+ be presented with yet another menu, this time asking for the
+ flags you wish to pass on to <application>routed</application>. The
+ default is <option>-q</option> and it should already appear
+ on the screen.</para>
+
+ <para>Next in line is the <guimenuitem>Rwhod</guimenuitem> option which,
+ when selected, will start the &man.rwhod.8; daemon
+ during system initialization. The <command>rwhod</command>
+ utility broadcasts system messages across the network
+ periodically, or collects them when in <quote>consumer</quote>
+ mode. More information can be found in the &man.ruptime.1; and
+ &man.rwho.1; manual pages.</para>
+
+ <para>The next to the last option in the list is for the
+ &man.sshd.8; daemon. This is the secure shell server for
+ <application>OpenSSH</application> and it is highly recommended
+ over the standard <application>telnet</application> and
+ <acronym>FTP</acronym> servers. The <application>sshd</application>
+ server is used to create a secure connection from one host to
+ another by using encrypted connections.</para>
+
+ <para>Finally there is the <guimenuitem>TCP Extensions</guimenuitem>
+ option. This enables the <acronym>TCP</acronym> Extensions
+ defined in <acronym>RFC</acronym>&nbsp;1323 and
+ <acronym>RFC</acronym>&nbsp;1644. While on many hosts this can
+ speed up connections, it can also cause some connections to be
+ dropped. It is not recommended for servers, but may be
+ beneficial for stand alone machines.</para>
+
+ <para>Now that you have configured the network services, you can
+ scroll up to the very top item which is <guimenuitem>Exit</guimenuitem>
+ and continue on to the next configuration section.</para>
+
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 id="x-server">
+ <title>Configure X Server</title>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>As of &os;&nbsp;5.3-RELEASE, the X server configuration
+ facility has been removed from
+ <application>sysinstall</application>, you have to install
+ and configure the X server after the installation of &os;.
+ More information regarding the installation and the
+ configuration of a X server can be found in <xref
+ linkend="x11">. You can skip this section if you are not
+ installing a &os; version prior to 5.3-RELEASE.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>In order to use a graphical user interface such as
+ <application>KDE</application>, <application>GNOME</application>,
+ or others, the X server will need to be configured.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>In order to run <application>&xfree86;</application> as a
+ non <username>root</username> user you will need to
+ have <filename role="package">x11/wrapper</filename> installed.
+ This is installed by default beginning with FreeBSD 4.7. For
+ earlier versions this can be added
+ from the Package Selection menu.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>To see whether your video card is supported, check the
+ <ulink url="http://www.xfree86.org/">&xfree86;</ulink> web site.</para>
+
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+ Would you like to configure your X server at this time?
+
+ [ Yes ] No</screen>
+
+ <warning>
+ <para>It is necessary to know your monitor specifications and
+ video card information. Equipment damage can occur if settings
+ are incorrect. If you do not have this information, select
+ &gui.no; and perform the configuration
+ after installation when you have the information using
+ <command>sysinstall</command> (<command>/stand/sysinstall</command>
+ in &os; versions older than 5.2), selecting
+ <guimenuitem>Configure</guimenuitem> and then
+ <guimenuitem>XFree86</guimenuitem>. Improper configuration
+ of the X server at this time can leave the machine in a
+ frozen state. It is often advised to configure the X server
+ once the installation has completed.
+ </para>
+ </warning>
+
+ <para>If you have graphics card and monitor information, select
+ &gui.yes; and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>
+ to proceed with configuring the X server.</para>
+
+ <figure id="xserver2">
+ <title>Select Configuration Method Menu</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="install/xf86setup" format="PNG">
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>There are several ways to configure the X server.
+ Use the arrow keys to select one of the methods and press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap>. Be sure to read all instructions
+ carefully.</para>
+
+ <para>The <application>xf86cfg</application> and
+ <application>xf86cfg -textmode</application> methods may make the screen
+ go dark and take a few seconds to start. Be patient.</para>
+
+
+ <para>The following will illustrate the use of the
+ <application>xf86config</application> configuration tool. The
+ configuration choices you make will depend on the hardware in the
+ system so your choices will probably be different than those
+ shown:</para>
+
+ <screen> Message
+ You have configured and been running the mouse daemon.
+ Choose "/dev/sysmouse" as the mouse port and "SysMouse" or
+ "MouseSystems" as the mouse protocol in the X configuration utility.
+
+ [ OK ]
+
+ [ Press enter to continue ]</screen>
+
+ <para>This indicates that the mouse daemon previously configured has been
+ detected.
+ Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue.</para>
+
+ <para>Starting <application>xf86config</application> will display
+ a brief introduction:</para>
+
+ <screen>This program will create a basic XF86Config file, based on menu selections you
+make.
+
+The XF86Config file usually resides in /usr/X11R6/etc/X11 or /etc/X11. A sample
+XF86Config file is supplied with XFree86; it is configured for a standard
+VGA card and monitor with 640x480 resolution. This program will ask for a
+pathname when it is ready to write the file.
+
+You can either take the sample XF86Config as a base and edit it for your
+configuration, or let this program produce a base XF86Config file for your
+configuration and fine-tune it.
+
+Before continuing with this program, make sure you know what video card
+you have, and preferably also the chipset it uses and the amount of video
+memory on your video card. SuperProbe may be able to help with this.
+
+Press enter to continue, or ctrl-c to abort.</screen>
+
+ <para>Pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap> will start the mouse
+ configuration. Be sure to follow the instructions and use
+ <quote>Mouse Systems</quote> as the mouse protocol and
+ <filename>/dev/sysmouse</filename> as the mouse port even if
+ using a PS/2 mouse is shown as an illustration.</para>
+
+ <screen>First specify a mouse protocol type. Choose one from the following list:
+
+ 1. Microsoft compatible (2-button protocol)
+ 2. Mouse Systems (3-button protocol) &amp; FreeBSD moused protocol
+ 3. Bus Mouse
+ 4. PS/2 Mouse
+ 5. Logitech Mouse (serial, old type, Logitech protocol)
+ 6. Logitech MouseMan (Microsoft compatible)
+ 7. MM Series
+ 8. MM HitTablet
+ 9. Microsoft IntelliMouse
+
+If you have a two-button mouse, it is most likely of type 1, and if you have
+a three-button mouse, it can probably support both protocol 1 and 2. There are
+two main varieties of the latter type: mice with a switch to select the
+protocol, and mice that default to 1 and require a button to be held at
+boot-time to select protocol 2. Some mice can be convinced to do 2 by sending
+a special sequence to the serial port (see the ClearDTR/ClearRTS options).
+
+Enter a protocol number: 2
+
+You have selected a Mouse Systems protocol mouse. If your mouse is normally
+in Microsoft-compatible mode, enabling the ClearDTR and ClearRTS options
+may cause it to switch to Mouse Systems mode when the server starts.
+
+Please answer the following question with either 'y' or 'n'.
+Do you want to enable ClearDTR and ClearRTS? n
+
+You have selected a three-button mouse protocol. It is recommended that you
+do not enable Emulate3Buttons, unless the third button doesn't work.
+
+Please answer the following question with either 'y' or 'n'.
+Do you want to enable Emulate3Buttons? y
+
+Now give the full device name that the mouse is connected to, for example
+/dev/tty00. Just pressing enter will use the default, /dev/mouse.
+On FreeBSD, the default is /dev/sysmouse.
+
+Mouse device: /dev/sysmouse</screen>
+
+ <para>The keyboard is the next item to be configured. A generic
+ 101-key model is shown for illustration. Any name may be used
+ for the variant or simply press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to accept
+ the default value.</para>
+
+ <screen>Please select one of the following keyboard types that is the better
+description of your keyboard. If nothing really matches,
+choose 1 (Generic 101-key PC)
+
+ 1 Generic 101-key PC
+ 2 Generic 102-key (Intl) PC
+ 3 Generic 104-key PC
+ 4 Generic 105-key (Intl) PC
+ 5 Dell 101-key PC
+ 6 Everex STEPnote
+ 7 Keytronic FlexPro
+ 8 Microsoft Natural
+ 9 Northgate OmniKey 101
+ 10 Winbook Model XP5
+ 11 Japanese 106-key
+ 12 PC-98xx Series
+ 13 Brazilian ABNT2
+ 14 HP Internet
+ 15 Logitech iTouch
+ 16 Logitech Cordless Desktop Pro
+ 17 Logitech Internet Keyboard
+ 18 Logitech Internet Navigator Keyboard
+ 19 Compaq Internet
+ 20 Microsoft Natural Pro
+ 21 Genius Comfy KB-16M
+ 22 IBM Rapid Access
+ 23 IBM Rapid Access II
+ 24 Chicony Internet Keyboard
+ 25 Dell Internet Keyboard
+
+Enter a number to choose the keyboard.
+
+1
+
+
+Please select the layout corresponding to your keyboard
+
+
+ 1 U.S. English
+ 2 U.S. English w/ ISO9995-3
+ 3 U.S. English w/ deadkeys
+ 4 Albanian
+ 5 Arabic
+ 6 Armenian
+ 7 Azerbaidjani
+ 8 Belarusian
+ 9 Belgian
+ 10 Bengali
+ 11 Brazilian
+ 12 Bulgarian
+ 13 Burmese
+ 14 Canadian
+ 15 Croatian
+ 16 Czech
+ 17 Czech (qwerty)
+ 18 Danish
+
+Enter a number to choose the country.
+Press enter for the next page
+
+1
+
+
+Please enter a variant name for 'us' layout. Or just press enter
+for default variant
+
+us
+
+
+Please answer the following question with either 'y' or 'n'.
+Do you want to select additional XKB options (group switcher,
+group indicator, etc.)? n</screen>
+
+ <para>Next, we proceed to the configuration for the monitor. Do not
+ exceed the ratings of your monitor. Damage could occur. If you
+ have any doubts, do the configuration after you have the
+ information.</para>
+
+ <screen>Now we want to set the specifications of the monitor. The two critical
+parameters are the vertical refresh rate, which is the rate at which the
+whole screen is refreshed, and most importantly the horizontal sync rate,
+which is the rate at which scanlines are displayed.
+
+The valid range for horizontal sync and vertical sync should be documented
+in the manual of your monitor. If in doubt, check the monitor database
+/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc/Monitors to see if your monitor is there.
+
+Press enter to continue, or ctrl-c to abort.
+
+
+
+You must indicate the horizontal sync range of your monitor. You can either
+select one of the predefined ranges below that correspond to industry-
+standard monitor types, or give a specific range.
+
+It is VERY IMPORTANT that you do not specify a monitor type with a horizontal
+sync range that is beyond the capabilities of your monitor. If in doubt,
+choose a conservative setting.
+
+ hsync in kHz; monitor type with characteristic modes
+ 1 31.5; Standard VGA, 640x480 @ 60 Hz
+ 2 31.5 - 35.1; Super VGA, 800x600 @ 56 Hz
+ 3 31.5, 35.5; 8514 Compatible, 1024x768 @ 87 Hz interlaced (no 800x600)
+ 4 31.5, 35.15, 35.5; Super VGA, 1024x768 @ 87 Hz interlaced, 800x600 @ 56 Hz
+ 5 31.5 - 37.9; Extended Super VGA, 800x600 @ 60 Hz, 640x480 @ 72 Hz
+ 6 31.5 - 48.5; Non-Interlaced SVGA, 1024x768 @ 60 Hz, 800x600 @ 72 Hz
+ 7 31.5 - 57.0; High Frequency SVGA, 1024x768 @ 70 Hz
+ 8 31.5 - 64.3; Monitor that can do 1280x1024 @ 60 Hz
+ 9 31.5 - 79.0; Monitor that can do 1280x1024 @ 74 Hz
+10 31.5 - 82.0; Monitor that can do 1280x1024 @ 76 Hz
+11 Enter your own horizontal sync range
+
+Enter your choice (1-11): 6
+
+You must indicate the vertical sync range of your monitor. You can either
+select one of the predefined ranges below that correspond to industry-
+standard monitor types, or give a specific range. For interlaced modes,
+the number that counts is the high one (e.g. 87 Hz rather than 43 Hz).
+
+ 1 50-70
+ 2 50-90
+ 3 50-100
+ 4 40-150
+ 5 Enter your own vertical sync range
+
+Enter your choice: 2
+
+You must now enter a few identification/description strings, namely an
+identifier, a vendor name, and a model name. Just pressing enter will fill
+in default names.
+
+The strings are free-form, spaces are allowed.
+Enter an identifier for your monitor definition: Hitachi</screen>
+
+ <para>The selection of a video card driver from a list is
+ next. If you pass your card on the list, continue to press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> and the list will repeat. Only an
+ excerpt from the list is shown:</para>
+
+ <screen>Now we must configure video card specific settings. At this point you can
+choose to make a selection out of a database of video card definitions.
+Because there can be variation in Ramdacs and clock generators even
+between cards of the same model, it is not sensible to blindly copy
+the settings (e.g. a Device section). For this reason, after you make a
+selection, you will still be asked about the components of the card, with
+the settings from the chosen database entry presented as a strong hint.
+
+The database entries include information about the chipset, what driver to
+run, the Ramdac and ClockChip, and comments that will be included in the
+Device section. However, a lot of definitions only hint about what driver
+to run (based on the chipset the card uses) and are untested.
+
+If you can't find your card in the database, there's nothing to worry about.
+You should only choose a database entry that is exactly the same model as
+your card; choosing one that looks similar is just a bad idea (e.g. a
+GemStone Snail 64 may be as different from a GemStone Snail 64+ in terms of
+hardware as can be).
+
+Do you want to look at the card database? y
+
+
+
+288 Matrox Millennium G200 8MB mgag200
+289 Matrox Millennium G200 SD 16MB mgag200
+290 Matrox Millennium G200 SD 4MB mgag200
+291 Matrox Millennium G200 SD 8MB mgag200
+292 Matrox Millennium G400 mgag400
+293 Matrox Millennium II 16MB mga2164w
+294 Matrox Millennium II 4MB mga2164w
+295 Matrox Millennium II 8MB mga2164w
+296 Matrox Mystique mga1064sg
+297 Matrox Mystique G200 16MB mgag200
+298 Matrox Mystique G200 4MB mgag200
+299 Matrox Mystique G200 8MB mgag200
+300 Matrox Productiva G100 4MB mgag100
+301 Matrox Productiva G100 8MB mgag100
+302 MediaGX mediagx
+303 MediaVision Proaxcel 128 ET6000
+304 Mirage Z-128 ET6000
+305 Miro CRYSTAL VRX Verite 1000
+
+Enter a number to choose the corresponding card definition.
+Press enter for the next page, q to continue configuration.
+
+288
+
+Your selected card definition:
+
+Identifier: Matrox Millennium G200 8MB
+Chipset: mgag200
+Driver: mga
+Do NOT probe clocks or use any Clocks line.
+
+Press enter to continue, or ctrl-c to abort.
+
+
+
+Now you must give information about your video card. This will be used for
+the "Device" section of your video card in XF86Config.
+
+You must indicate how much video memory you have. It is probably a good
+idea to use the same approximate amount as that detected by the server you
+intend to use. If you encounter problems that are due to the used server
+not supporting the amount memory you have (e.g. ATI Mach64 is limited to
+1024K with the SVGA server), specify the maximum amount supported by the
+server.
+
+How much video memory do you have on your video card:
+
+ 1 256K
+ 2 512K
+ 3 1024K
+ 4 2048K
+ 5 4096K
+ 6 Other
+
+Enter your choice: 6
+
+Amount of video memory in Kbytes: 8192
+
+You must now enter a few identification/description strings, namely an
+identifier, a vendor name, and a model name. Just pressing enter will fill
+in default names (possibly from a card definition).
+
+Your card definition is Matrox Millennium G200 8MB.
+
+The strings are free-form, spaces are allowed.
+Enter an identifier for your video card definition:</screen>
+
+ <para>Next, the video modes are set for the resolutions
+ desired. Typically, useful ranges are 640x480, 800x600, and 1024x768
+ but those are a function of video card capability, monitor size,
+ and eye comfort. When selecting a color depth, select the highest
+ mode that your card will support.</para>
+
+ <screen>For each depth, a list of modes (resolutions) is defined. The default
+resolution that the server will start-up with will be the first listed
+mode that can be supported by the monitor and card.
+Currently it is set to:
+
+"640x480" "800x600" "1024x768" "1280x1024" for 8-bit
+"640x480" "800x600" "1024x768" "1280x1024" for 16-bit
+"640x480" "800x600" "1024x768" "1280x1024" for 24-bit
+
+Modes that cannot be supported due to monitor or clock constraints will
+be automatically skipped by the server.
+
+ 1 Change the modes for 8-bit (256 colors)
+ 2 Change the modes for 16-bit (32K/64K colors)
+ 3 Change the modes for 24-bit (24-bit color)
+ 4 The modes are OK, continue.
+
+Enter your choice: 2
+
+Select modes from the following list:
+
+ 1 "640x400"
+ 2 "640x480"
+ 3 "800x600"
+ 4 "1024x768"
+ 5 "1280x1024"
+ 6 "320x200"
+ 7 "320x240"
+ 8 "400x300"
+ 9 "1152x864"
+ a "1600x1200"
+ b "1800x1400"
+ c "512x384"
+
+Please type the digits corresponding to the modes that you want to select.
+For example, 432 selects "1024x768" "800x600" "640x480", with a
+default mode of 1024x768.
+
+Which modes? 432
+
+You can have a virtual screen (desktop), which is screen area that is larger
+than the physical screen and which is panned by moving the mouse to the edge
+of the screen. If you don't want virtual desktop at a certain resolution,
+you cannot have modes listed that are larger. Each color depth can have a
+differently-sized virtual screen
+
+Please answer the following question with either 'y' or 'n'.
+Do you want a virtual screen that is larger than the physical screen? n
+
+
+
+For each depth, a list of modes (resolutions) is defined. The default
+resolution that the server will start-up with will be the first listed
+mode that can be supported by the monitor and card.
+Currently it is set to:
+
+"640x480" "800x600" "1024x768" "1280x1024" for 8-bit
+"1024x768" "800x600" "640x480" for 16-bit
+"640x480" "800x600" "1024x768" "1280x1024" for 24-bit
+
+Modes that cannot be supported due to monitor or clock constraints will
+be automatically skipped by the server.
+
+ 1 Change the modes for 8-bit (256 colors)
+ 2 Change the modes for 16-bit (32K/64K colors)
+ 3 Change the modes for 24-bit (24-bit color)
+ 4 The modes are OK, continue.
+
+Enter your choice: 4
+
+
+
+Please specify which color depth you want to use by default:
+
+ 1 1 bit (monochrome)
+ 2 4 bits (16 colors)
+ 3 8 bits (256 colors)
+ 4 16 bits (65536 colors)
+ 5 24 bits (16 million colors)
+
+Enter a number to choose the default depth.
+
+4</screen>
+
+ <para>Finally, the configuration needs to be saved. Be sure
+ to enter <filename>/etc/X11/XF86Config</filename> as the location
+ for saving the configuration.</para>
+
+ <screen>I am going to write the XF86Config file now. Make sure you don't accidently
+overwrite a previously configured one.
+
+Shall I write it to /etc/X11/XF86Config? y</screen>
+
+ <para>If the configuration fails, you can try the configuration again
+ by selecting &gui.yes; when the following
+ message appears:</para>
+
+ <screen> User Confirmation Requested
+The XFree86 configuration process seems to have
+failed. Would you like to try again?
+
+ [ Yes ] No</screen>
+
+ <para>If you have trouble configuring <application>&xfree86;</application>, select
+ &gui.no; and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>
+ and continue with the installation process. After installation
+ you can use <command>xf86cfg -textmode</command> or
+ <command>xf86config</command> to access the command line
+ configuration utilities as <username>root</username>. There is
+ an additional method for configuring <application>&xfree86;</application> described in
+ <xref linkend="x11">. If you choose not to configure
+ <application>&xfree86;</application> at this time the next menu will be for package
+ selection.</para>
+
+ <para>The default setting which allows the server to be killed
+ is the hotkey sequence <keycombo action='simul'>
+ <keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap>
+ <keycap>Backspace</keycap></keycombo>. This
+ can be executed if something is wrong with the server settings and
+ prevent hardware damage.</para>
+
+ <para>The default setting that allows video mode switching will
+ permit changing of the mode while running X with the hotkey
+ sequence
+ <keycombo action='simul'>
+ <keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>+</keycap>
+ </keycombo> or
+ <keycombo action='simul'>
+ <keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>-</keycap>
+ </keycombo>.
+ </para>
+
+ <para>After you have <application>&xfree86;</application>
+ running, the display can be adjusted for height, width,
+ or centering by using <application>xvidtune</application>.</para>
+
+ <para>There are warnings that improper settings can
+ damage your equipment. Heed them. If in doubt, do not do
+ it. Instead, use the monitor controls to adjust the display for
+ X Window. There may be some display differences when switching
+ back to text mode, but it is better than damaging equipment.</para>
+
+ <para>Read the &man.xvidtune.1; manual page before making
+ any adjustments.</para>
+
+ <para>Following a successful <application>&xfree86;</application> configuration, it will proceed
+ to the selection of a default desktop.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2 id="default-desktop">
+ <title>Select Default X Desktop</title>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>As of &os;&nbsp;5.3-RELEASE, the X desktop selection
+ facility has been removed from
+ <application>sysinstall</application>, you have to configure
+ the X desktop after the installation of &os;. More
+ information regarding the installation and the configuration
+ of a X desktop can be found in <xref linkend="x11">. You
+ can skip this section if you are not installing a &os;
+ version prior to 5.3-RELEASE.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>There are a variety of window managers available. They range
+ from very basic environments to full desktop environments with a
+ large suite of software. Some require only minimal disk space and
+ low memory while others with more features require much more. The
+ best way to determine which is most suitable for you is to try a few
+ different ones. Those are available from the Ports Collection or as
+ packages and can be added after installation.</para>
+
+ <para>You can select one of the popular desktops to be installed
+ and configured as the default desktop. This will allow you
+ to start it right after installation.</para>
+
+ <figure id="x-desktop">
+ <title>Select Default Desktop</title>
+
+ <mediaobject>
+ <imageobject>
+ <imagedata fileref="install/desktop" format="PNG">
+ </imageobject>
+ </mediaobject>
+ </figure>
+
+ <para>Use the arrow keys to select a desktop and press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap>. Installation of the selected desktop will
+ proceed.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
<sect2 id="packages">
<title>Install Packages</title>
@@ -3211,13 +3972,14 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<para>Installation of one package is shown for purposes of
illustration. Additional packages can also be added at this
time if desired. After installation
- <command>sysinstall</command> can be used to add additional
+ <command>sysinstall</command> (<command>/stand/sysinstall</command>
+ in &os; versions older than 5.2) can be used to add additional
packages.</para>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
The FreeBSD package collection is a collection of hundreds of
ready-to-run applications, from text editors to games to WEB servers
- and more. Would you like to browse the collection now?
+ and more. Would you like to browse the collection now?
[ Yes ] No</screen>
@@ -3238,7 +4000,7 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<para>Only packages on the current installation media are
available for installation at any given time.</para>
- <para>All packages available will be displayed if
+ <para>All packages available will be displayed if
<guimenuitem>All</guimenuitem> is selected or you can select a
particular category. Highlight your selection with the arrow
keys and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
@@ -3320,7 +4082,7 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
Would you like to add any initial user accounts to the system? Adding
at least one account for yourself at this stage is suggested since
working as the "root" user is dangerous (it is easy to do things which
- adversely affect the entire system).
+ adversely affect the entire system).
[ Yes ] No</screen>
@@ -3365,7 +4127,7 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<varlistentry>
<term>UID</term>
-
+
<listitem>
<para>The numerical ID for this user (leave blank for
automatic choice).</para>
@@ -3402,7 +4164,7 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<term>Member groups</term>
<listitem>
- <para>The groups this user belongs to (i.e., gets access
+ <para>The groups this user belongs to (i.e. gets access
rights for).</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -3420,7 +4182,7 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<term>Login shell</term>
<listitem>
<para>The user's login shell (leave blank for
- default, e.g., <filename>/bin/sh</filename>).</para>
+ default, e.g. <filename>/bin/sh</filename>).</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
@@ -3452,11 +4214,11 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<para>Groups can also be added at this time if specific needs
are known. Otherwise, this may be accessed through using
- <command>sysinstall</command>
- after installation is
+ <command>sysinstall</command> (<command>/stand/sysinstall</command>
+ in &os; versions older than 5.2) after installation is
completed.</para>
- <para>When you are finished adding users, select
+ <para>When you are finished adding users, select
<guimenuitem>Exit</guimenuitem> with the arrow keys and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue the installation.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -3465,12 +4227,12 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<title>Set the <username>root</username> Password</title>
<screen> Message
- Now you must set the system manager's password.
- This is the password you'll use to log in as "root".
+ Now you must set the system manager's password.
+ This is the password you'll use to log in as "root".
- [ OK ]
+ [ OK ]
- [ Press enter or space ]</screen>
+ [ Press enter to continue ]</screen>
<para>Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to set the <username>root</username>
password.</para>
@@ -3480,7 +4242,8 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
forget. Notice that the password you type in is not echoed, nor
are asterisks displayed.</para>
- <screen>New password:
+ <screen>Changing local password for root.
+New password :
Retype new password :</screen>
<para>The installation will continue after the password is
@@ -3490,14 +4253,15 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
<sect2 id="exit-inst">
<title>Exiting Install</title>
- <para>If you need to configure
- <link linkend="network-services">additional network services</link>
- or any other configuration, you can do it at this point or
- after installation with <command>sysinstall</command>.</para>
+ <para>If you need to configure additional network devices or
+ any other configuration, you can do it at this point or
+ after installation with <command>sysinstall</command>
+ (<command>/stand/sysinstall</command> in &os; versions older
+ than 5.2).</para>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
Visit the general configuration menu for a chance to set any last
- options?
+ options?
Yes [ No ]</screen>
@@ -3520,296 +4284,25 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
confirm exiting the installation:</para>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
- Are you sure you wish to exit? The system will reboot.
+ Are you sure you wish to exit? The system will reboot (be sure to
+ remove any floppies from the drives).
[ Yes ] No</screen>
- <para>Select &gui.yes;. If you are booting from the CDROM drive
- the following message will remind you to remove the
- disk:</para>
-
- <screen> Message
- Be sure to remove the media from the drive.
-
- [ OK ]
- [ Press enter or space ]</screen>
-
- <para>The CDROM drive is locked until the machine
- starts to reboot then the disk can
- be removed from drive (quickly). Press &gui.ok; to reboot.</para>
+ <para>Select &gui.yes; and remove the floppy if
+ booting from the floppy. The CDROM drive is locked until the machine
+ starts to reboot. The CDROM drive is then unlocked and the disk can
+ be removed from drive (quickly).</para>
<para>The system will reboot so watch for any error messages that
- may appear, see <xref linkend="freebsdboot"> for more
- details.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 id="network-services">
- <sect2info>
- <authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Tom</firstname>
- <surname>Rhodes</surname>
- <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
- </author>
- </authorgroup>
- </sect2info>
- <title>Configure Additional Network Services</title>
-
- <para>Configuring network services can be a daunting
- task for new users if they lack previous
- knowledge in this area. Networking, including the Internet,
- is critical to all modern operating systems including &os;;
- as a result, it is very useful to have some understanding
- &os;'s extensive networking capabilities. Doing this
- during the installation will ensure users have some
- understanding of the various services available to them.</para>
-
- <para>Network services are programs that accept input from
- anywhere on the network. Every effort is made to make sure
- these programs will not do anything <quote>harmful</quote>.
- Unfortunately, programmers are not perfect and through time
- there have been cases where bugs in network services have been
- exploited by attackers to do bad things. It is important that
- you only enable the network services you know that you need. If
- in doubt it is best if you do not enable a network service until
- you find out that you do need it. You can always enable it
- later by re-running <application>sysinstall</application> or by
- using the features provided by the
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> file.</para>
-
- <para>Selecting the <guimenu>Networking</guimenu> option will display
- a menu similar to the one below:</para>
-
- <figure id="network-configuration">
- <title>Network Configuration Upper-level</title>
-
- <mediaobject>
- <imageobject>
- <imagedata fileref="install/net-config-menu1" format="PNG">
- </imageobject>
- </mediaobject>
- </figure>
-
- <para>The first option, <guimenuitem>Interfaces</guimenuitem>, was
- previously covered during the <xref linkend="inst-network-dev">,
- thus this option can safely be ignored.</para>
-
- <para>Selecting the <guimenuitem>AMD</guimenuitem> option adds
- support for the <acronym>BSD</acronym> automatic mount utility.
- This is usually used in conjunction with the
- <acronym>NFS</acronym> protocol (see below)
- for automatically mounting remote file systems.
- No special configuration is required here.</para>
-
- <para>Next in line is the <guimenuitem>AMD Flags</guimenuitem>
- option. When selected, a menu will pop up for you
- to enter specific <acronym>AMD</acronym> flags.
- The menu already contains a set of default options:</para>
-
- <screen>-a /.amd_mnt -l syslog /host /etc/amd.map /net /etc/amd.map</screen>
-
- <para>The <option>-a</option> option sets the default mount
- location which is specified here as
- <filename>/.amd_mnt</filename>. The <option>-l</option>
- option specifies the default <filename>log</filename> file;
- however, when <literal>syslogd</literal> is used all log
- activity will be sent to the system log daemon. The
- <filename class="directory">/host</filename> directory is used
- to mount an exported file system from a remote
- host, while <filename class="directory">/net</filename>
- directory is used to mount an exported file system from an
- <acronym>IP</acronym> address. The
- <filename>/etc/amd.map</filename> file defines the default
- options for <acronym>AMD</acronym> exports.</para>
-
- <indexterm>
- <primary>FTP</primary>
- <secondary>anonymous</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para>The <guimenuitem>Anon FTP</guimenuitem> option permits anonymous
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> connections. Select this option to
- make this machine an anonymous <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.
- Be aware of the security risks involved with this option.
- Another menu will be displayed to explain the security risks
- and configuration in depth.</para>
-
- <para>The <guimenuitem>Gateway</guimenuitem> configuration menu will set
- the machine up to be a gateway as explained previously. This
- can be used to unset the <guimenuitem>Gateway</guimenuitem> option if
- you accidentally selected it during the installation process.</para>
-
- <para>The <guimenuitem>Inetd</guimenuitem> option can be used to configure
- or completely disable the &man.inetd.8; daemon as discussed
- above.</para>
-
- <para>The <guimenuitem>Mail</guimenuitem> option is used to configure the
- system's default <acronym>MTA</acronym> or Mail Transfer Agent.
- Selecting this option will bring up the following menu:</para>
-
- <figure id="mta-selection">
- <title>Select a default MTA</title>
-
- <mediaobject>
- <imageobject>
- <imagedata fileref="install/mta-main" format="PNG">
- </imageobject>
- </mediaobject>
- </figure>
-
- <para>Here you are offered a choice as to which
- <acronym>MTA</acronym> to install
- and set as the default. An <acronym>MTA</acronym> is nothing
- more than a mail server which delivers email to users on the
- system or the Internet.</para>
-
- <para>Selecting <guimenuitem>Sendmail</guimenuitem> will install
- the popular <application>sendmail</application> server which
- is the &os; default. The <guimenuitem>Sendmail local</guimenuitem>
- option will set <application>sendmail</application> to be the default
- <acronym>MTA</acronym>, but disable its ability to receive
- incoming email from the Internet. The other options here,
- <guimenuitem>Postfix</guimenuitem> and
- <guimenuitem>Exim</guimenuitem> act similar to
- <guimenuitem>Sendmail</guimenuitem>. They both deliver
- email; however, some users prefer these alternatives to the
- <application>sendmail</application>
- <acronym>MTA</acronym>.</para>
-
- <para>After selecting an <acronym>MTA</acronym>, or choosing
- not to select an MTA, the network configuration menu will appear
- with the next option being <guimenuitem>NFS client</guimenuitem>.</para>
-
- <para>The <guimenuitem>NFS client</guimenuitem> option will
- configure the system to communicate with a server via
- <acronym>NFS</acronym>. An <acronym>NFS</acronym> server
- makes file systems available to other machines on the
- network via the <acronym>NFS</acronym> protocol. If this is
- a stand-alone machine, this option can remain unselected.
- The system may require more configuration later; see
- <xref linkend="network-nfs"> for more
- information about client and server configuration.</para>
-
- <para>Below that option is the <guimenuitem>NFS server</guimenuitem>
- option, permitting you to set the system up as an
- <acronym>NFS</acronym> server. This adds the required
- information to start up the <acronym>RPC</acronym> remote
- procedure call services. <acronym>RPC</acronym> is used to
- coordinate connections between hosts and programs.</para>
-
- <para>Next in line is the <guimenuitem>Ntpdate</guimenuitem> option,
- which deals with time synchronization. When selected, a menu
- like the one below shows up:</para>
-
- <figure id="Ntpdate-config">
- <title>Ntpdate Configuration</title>
-
- <mediaobject>
- <imageobject>
- <imagedata fileref="install/ntp-config" format="PNG">
- </imageobject>
- </mediaobject>
- </figure>
-
- <para>From this menu, select the server which is the closest
- to your location. Selecting a close one will make the time
- synchronization more accurate as a server further from your
- location may have more connection latency.</para>
-
- <para>The next option is the <acronym>PCNFSD</acronym> selection.
- This option will install the
- <filename role="package">net/pcnfsd</filename> package from
- the Ports Collection. This is a useful utility which provides
- <acronym>NFS</acronym> authentication services for systems which
- are unable to provide their own, such as Microsoft's
- &ms-dos; operating system.</para>
-
- <para>Now you must scroll down a bit to see the other
- options:</para>
-
- <figure id="Network-configuration-cont">
- <title>Network Configuration Lower-level</title>
-
- <mediaobject>
- <imageobject>
- <imagedata fileref="install/net-config-menu2" format="PNG">
- </imageobject>
- </mediaobject>
- </figure>
-
- <para>The &man.rpcbind.8;, &man.rpc.statd.8;, and
- &man.rpc.lockd.8; utilities are all used for Remote Procedure
- Calls (<acronym>RPC</acronym>).
- The <command>rpcbind</command> utility manages communication
- between <acronym>NFS</acronym> servers and clients, and is
- required for <acronym>NFS</acronym> servers to operate
- correctly. The <application>rpc.statd</application> daemon interacts
- with the <application>rpc.statd</application> daemon on other hosts to
- provide status monitoring. The reported status is usually held
- in the <filename>/var/db/statd.status</filename> file. The
- next option listed here is the <guimenuitem>rpc.lockd</guimenuitem>
- option, which, when selected, will provide file locking
- services. This is usually used with
- <application>rpc.statd</application> to monitor what hosts are
- requesting locks and how frequently they request them.
- While these last two options are marvelous for debugging, they
- are not required for <acronym>NFS</acronym> servers and clients
- to operate correctly.</para>
-
- <para>As you progress down the list the next item here is
- <guimenuitem>Routed</guimenuitem>, which is the routing daemon. The
- &man.routed.8; utility manages network routing tables,
- discovers multicast routers, and supplies a copy of the routing
- tables to any physically connected host on the network upon
- request. This is mainly used for machines which act as a
- gateway for the local network. When selected, a menu will be
- presented requesting the default location of the utility.
- The default location is already defined for you and can be
- selected with the <keycap>Enter</keycap> key. You will then
- be presented with yet another menu, this time asking for the
- flags you wish to pass on to <application>routed</application>. The
- default is <option>-q</option> and it should already appear
- on the screen.</para>
-
- <para>Next in line is the <guimenuitem>Rwhod</guimenuitem> option which,
- when selected, will start the &man.rwhod.8; daemon
- during system initialization. The <command>rwhod</command>
- utility broadcasts system messages across the network
- periodically, or collects them when in <quote>consumer</quote>
- mode. More information can be found in the &man.ruptime.1; and
- &man.rwho.1; manual pages.</para>
-
- <para>The next to the last option in the list is for the
- &man.sshd.8; daemon. This is the secure shell server for
- <application>OpenSSH</application> and it is highly recommended
- over the standard <application>telnet</application> and
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> servers. The <application>sshd</application>
- server is used to create a secure connection from one host to
- another by using encrypted connections.</para>
-
- <para>Finally there is the <guimenuitem>TCP Extensions</guimenuitem>
- option. This enables the <acronym>TCP</acronym> Extensions
- defined in <acronym>RFC</acronym>&nbsp;1323 and
- <acronym>RFC</acronym>&nbsp;1644. While on many hosts this can
- speed up connections, it can also cause some connections to be
- dropped. It is not recommended for servers, but may be
- beneficial for stand alone machines.</para>
-
- <para>Now that you have configured the network services, you can
- scroll up to the very top item which is
- <guimenuitem>X Exit</guimenuitem>
- and continue on to the next configuration item or simply exit
- <application>sysinstall</application> in selecting
- <guimenuitem>X Exit</guimenuitem> twice then <guibutton>[X
- Exit Install]</guibutton>.</para>
-
+ may appear.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="freebsdboot">
- <title>&os; Bootup</title>
+ <title>FreeBSD Bootup</title>
<sect3 id="freebsdboot-i386">
- <title>&os;/&arch.i386; Bootup</title>
+ <title>FreeBSD Bootup on the &i386;</title>
<para>If everything went well, you will see messages scroll
off the screen and you will arrive at a login prompt. You can view
@@ -3828,131 +4321,131 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
<para>Typical boot messages (version information omitted):</para>
-<screen>Copyright (c) 1992-2002 The FreeBSD Project.
+<screen>Copyright (c) 1992-2002 The FreeBSD Project.
Copyright (c) 1979, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1988, 1989, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994
- The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
+ The Regents of the University of California. All rights reserved.
Timecounter "i8254" frequency 1193182 Hz
CPU: AMD-K6(tm) 3D processor (300.68-MHz 586-class CPU)
Origin = "AuthenticAMD" Id = 0x580 Stepping = 0
- Features=0x8001bf&lt;FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,MCE,CX8,MMX&gt;
- AMD Features=0x80000800&lt;SYSCALL,3DNow!&gt;
-real memory = 268435456 (262144K bytes)
-config&gt; di sn0
-config&gt; di lnc0
-config&gt; di le0
-config&gt; di ie0
-config&gt; di fe0
-config&gt; di cs0
-config&gt; di bt0
-config&gt; di aic0
-config&gt; di aha0
-config&gt; di adv0
-config&gt; q
+ Features=0x8001bf&lt;FPU,VME,DE,PSE,TSC,MSR,MCE,CX8,MMX&gt;
+ AMD Features=0x80000800&lt;SYSCALL,3DNow!&gt;
+real memory = 268435456 (262144K bytes)
+config&gt; di sn0
+config&gt; di lnc0
+config&gt; di le0
+config&gt; di ie0
+config&gt; di fe0
+config&gt; di cs0
+config&gt; di bt0
+config&gt; di aic0
+config&gt; di aha0
+config&gt; di adv0
+config&gt; q
avail memory = 256311296 (250304K bytes)
-Preloaded elf kernel "kernel" at 0xc0491000.
-Preloaded userconfig_script "/boot/kernel.conf" at 0xc049109c.
-md0: Malloc disk
+Preloaded elf kernel "kernel" at 0xc0491000.
+Preloaded userconfig_script "/boot/kernel.conf" at 0xc049109c.
+md0: Malloc disk
Using $PIR table, 4 entries at 0xc00fde60
-npx0: &lt;math processor&gt; on motherboard
-npx0: INT 16 interface
-pcib0: &lt;Host to PCI bridge&gt; on motherboard
-pci0: &lt;PCI bus&gt; on pcib0
-pcib1: &lt;VIA 82C598MVP (Apollo MVP3) PCI-PCI (AGP) bridge&gt; at device 1.0 on pci0
-pci1: &lt;PCI bus&gt; on pcib1
-pci1: &lt;Matrox MGA G200 AGP graphics accelerator&gt; at 0.0 irq 11
-isab0: &lt;VIA 82C586 PCI-ISA bridge&gt; at device 7.0 on pci0
-isa0: &lt;ISA bus&gt; on isab0
-atapci0: &lt;VIA 82C586 ATA33 controller&gt; port 0xe000-0xe00f at device 7.1 on pci0
-ata0: at 0x1f0 irq 14 on atapci0
-ata1: at 0x170 irq 15 on atapci0
-uhci0: &lt;VIA 83C572 USB controller&gt; port 0xe400-0xe41f irq 10 at device 7.2 on pci0
-usb0: &lt;VIA 83C572 USB controller&gt; on uhci0
-usb0: USB revision 1.0
-uhub0: VIA UHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1
-uhub0: 2 ports with 2 removable, self powered
-chip1: &lt;VIA 82C586B ACPI interface&gt; at device 7.3 on pci0
+npx0: &lt;math processor&gt; on motherboard
+npx0: INT 16 interface
+pcib0: &lt;Host to PCI bridge&gt; on motherboard
+pci0: &lt;PCI bus&gt; on pcib0
+pcib1: &lt;VIA 82C598MVP (Apollo MVP3) PCI-PCI (AGP) bridge&gt; at device 1.0 on pci0
+pci1: &lt;PCI bus&gt; on pcib1
+pci1: &lt;Matrox MGA G200 AGP graphics accelerator&gt; at 0.0 irq 11
+isab0: &lt;VIA 82C586 PCI-ISA bridge&gt; at device 7.0 on pci0
+isa0: &lt;ISA bus&gt; on isab0
+atapci0: &lt;VIA 82C586 ATA33 controller&gt; port 0xe000-0xe00f at device 7.1 on pci0
+ata0: at 0x1f0 irq 14 on atapci0
+ata1: at 0x170 irq 15 on atapci0
+uhci0: &lt;VIA 83C572 USB controller&gt; port 0xe400-0xe41f irq 10 at device 7.2 on pci0
+usb0: &lt;VIA 83C572 USB controller&gt; on uhci0
+usb0: USB revision 1.0
+uhub0: VIA UHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1
+uhub0: 2 ports with 2 removable, self powered
+chip1: &lt;VIA 82C586B ACPI interface&gt; at device 7.3 on pci0
ed0: &lt;NE2000 PCI Ethernet (RealTek 8029)&gt; port 0xe800-0xe81f irq 9 at
-device 10.0 on pci0
-ed0: address 52:54:05:de:73:1b, type NE2000 (16 bit)
-isa0: too many dependant configs (8)
-isa0: unexpected small tag 14
+device 10.0 on pci0
+ed0: address 52:54:05:de:73:1b, type NE2000 (16 bit)
+isa0: too many dependant configs (8)
+isa0: unexpected small tag 14
fdc0: &lt;NEC 72065B or clone&gt; at port 0x3f0-0x3f5,0x3f7 irq 6 drq 2 on isa0
-fdc0: FIFO enabled, 8 bytes threshold
-fd0: &lt;1440-KB 3.5" drive&gt; on fdc0 drive 0
-atkbdc0: &lt;keyboard controller (i8042)&gt; at port 0x60-0x64 on isa0
-atkbd0: &lt;AT Keyboard&gt; flags 0x1 irq 1 on atkbdc0
-kbd0 at atkbd0
-psm0: &lt;PS/2 Mouse&gt; irq 12 on atkbdc0
-psm0: model Generic PS/2 mouse, device ID 0
+fdc0: FIFO enabled, 8 bytes threshold
+fd0: &lt;1440-KB 3.5" drive&gt; on fdc0 drive 0
+atkbdc0: &lt;keyboard controller (i8042)&gt; at port 0x60-0x64 on isa0
+atkbd0: &lt;AT Keyboard&gt; flags 0x1 irq 1 on atkbdc0
+kbd0 at atkbd0
+psm0: &lt;PS/2 Mouse&gt; irq 12 on atkbdc0
+psm0: model Generic PS/2 mouse, device ID 0
vga0: &lt;Generic ISA VGA&gt; at port 0x3c0-0x3df iomem 0xa0000-0xbffff on isa0
-sc0: &lt;System console&gt; at flags 0x1 on isa0
-sc0: VGA &lt;16 virtual consoles, flags=0x300&gt;
-sio0 at port 0x3f8-0x3ff irq 4 flags 0x10 on isa0
-sio0: type 16550A
-sio1 at port 0x2f8-0x2ff irq 3 on isa0
-sio1: type 16550A
-ppc0: &lt;Parallel port&gt; at port 0x378-0x37f irq 7 on isa0
-ppc0: SMC-like chipset (ECP/EPP/PS2/NIBBLE) in COMPATIBLE mode
-ppc0: FIFO with 16/16/15 bytes threshold
+sc0: &lt;System console&gt; at flags 0x1 on isa0
+sc0: VGA &lt;16 virtual consoles, flags=0x300&gt;
+sio0 at port 0x3f8-0x3ff irq 4 flags 0x10 on isa0
+sio0: type 16550A
+sio1 at port 0x2f8-0x2ff irq 3 on isa0
+sio1: type 16550A
+ppc0: &lt;Parallel port&gt; at port 0x378-0x37f irq 7 on isa0
+ppc0: SMC-like chipset (ECP/EPP/PS2/NIBBLE) in COMPATIBLE mode
+ppc0: FIFO with 16/16/15 bytes threshold
ppbus0: IEEE1284 device found /NIBBLE
-Probing for PnP devices on ppbus0:
-plip0: &lt;PLIP network interface&gt; on ppbus0
-lpt0: &lt;Printer&gt; on ppbus0
-lpt0: Interrupt-driven port
+Probing for PnP devices on ppbus0:
+plip0: &lt;PLIP network interface&gt; on ppbus0
+lpt0: &lt;Printer&gt; on ppbus0
+lpt0: Interrupt-driven port
ppi0: &lt;Parallel I/O&gt; on ppbus0
-ad0: 8063MB &lt;IBM-DHEA-38451&gt; [16383/16/63] at ata0-master using UDMA33
-ad2: 8063MB &lt;IBM-DHEA-38451&gt; [16383/16/63] at ata1-master using UDMA33
-acd0: CDROM &lt;DELTA OTC-H101/ST3 F/W by OIPD&gt; at ata0-slave using PIO4
-Mounting root from ufs:/dev/ad0s1a
-swapon: adding /dev/ad0s1b as swap device
-Automatic boot in progress...
-/dev/ad0s1a: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS
+ad0: 8063MB &lt;IBM-DHEA-38451&gt; [16383/16/63] at ata0-master using UDMA33
+ad2: 8063MB &lt;IBM-DHEA-38451&gt; [16383/16/63] at ata1-master using UDMA33
+acd0: CDROM &lt;DELTA OTC-H101/ST3 F/W by OIPD&gt; at ata0-slave using PIO4
+Mounting root from ufs:/dev/ad0s1a
+swapon: adding /dev/ad0s1b as swap device
+Automatic boot in progress...
+/dev/ad0s1a: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS
/dev/ad0s1a: clean, 48752 free (552 frags, 6025 blocks, 0.9% fragmentation)
-/dev/ad0s1f: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS
+/dev/ad0s1f: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS
/dev/ad0s1f: clean, 128997 free (21 frags, 16122 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)
/dev/ad0s1g: FILESYSTEM CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS
/dev/ad0s1g: clean, 3036299 free (43175 frags, 374073 blocks, 1.3% fragmentation)
-/dev/ad0s1e: filesystem CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS
+/dev/ad0s1e: filesystem CLEAN; SKIPPING CHECKS
/dev/ad0s1e: clean, 128193 free (17 frags, 16022 blocks, 0.0% fragmentation)
-Doing initial network setup: hostname.
+Doing initial network setup: hostname.
ed0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST> mtu 1500
inet 192.168.0.1 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
inet6 fe80::5054::5ff::fede:731b%ed0 prefixlen 64 tentative scopeid 0x1
ether 52:54:05:de:73:1b
-lo0: flags=8049&lt;UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 16384
- inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x8
- inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128
- inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000
+lo0: flags=8049&lt;UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 16384
+ inet6 fe80::1%lo0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x8
+ inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128
+ inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 0xff000000
Additional routing options: IP gateway=YES TCP keepalive=YES
-routing daemons:.
-additional daemons: syslogd.
-Doing additional network setup:.
-Starting final network daemons: creating ssh RSA host key
+routing daemons:.
+additional daemons: syslogd.
+Doing additional network setup:.
+Starting final network daemons: creating ssh RSA host key
Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.
-Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.
-Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub.
-The key fingerprint is:
+Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.
+Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub.
+The key fingerprint is:
cd:76:89:16:69:0e:d0:6e:f8:66:d0:07:26:3c:7e:2d root@k6-2.example.com
- creating ssh DSA host key
+ creating ssh DSA host key
Generating public/private dsa key pair.
-Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.
-Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub.
-The key fingerprint is:
+Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.
+Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub.
+The key fingerprint is:
f9:a1:a9:47:c4:ad:f9:8d:52:b8:b8:ff:8c:ad:2d:e6 root@k6-2.example.com.
setting ELF ldconfig path: /usr/lib /usr/lib/compat /usr/X11R6/lib
-/usr/local/lib
-a.out ldconfig path: /usr/lib/aout /usr/lib/compat/aout /usr/X11R6/lib/aout
+/usr/local/lib
+a.out ldconfig path: /usr/lib/aout /usr/lib/compat/aout /usr/X11R6/lib/aout
starting standard daemons: inetd cron sshd usbd sendmail.
-Initial rc.i386 initialization:.
-rc.i386 configuring syscons: blank_time screensaver moused.
-Additional ABI support: linux.
-Local package initialization:.
-Additional TCP options:.
+Initial rc.i386 initialization:.
+rc.i386 configuring syscons: blank_time screensaver moused.
+Additional ABI support: linux.
+Local package initialization:.
+Additional TCP options:.
FreeBSD/i386 (k6-2.example.com) (ttyv0)
-login: rpratt
+login: rpratt
Password:</screen>
<para>Generating the RSA and DSA keys may take some time on slower
@@ -3964,6 +4457,30 @@ Password:</screen>
the command line.</para>
</sect3>
+
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Bootup of FreeBSD on the Alpha</title>
+
+ <indexterm><primary>Alpha</primary></indexterm>
+
+ <para>Once the install procedure has finished, you will be
+ able to start FreeBSD by typing something like this to the
+ SRM prompt:</para>
+
+ <screen>&gt;&gt;&gt;<userinput>BOOT DKC0</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>This instructs the firmware to boot the specified
+ disk. To make FreeBSD boot automatically in the future, use
+ these commands:</para>
+
+ <screen><prompt>&gt;&gt;&gt;</prompt> <userinput>SET BOOT_OSFLAGS A</userinput>
+<prompt>&gt;&gt;&gt;</prompt> <userinput>SET BOOT_FILE ''</userinput>
+<prompt>&gt;&gt;&gt;</prompt> <userinput>SET BOOTDEF_DEV DKC0</userinput>
+<prompt>&gt;&gt;&gt;</prompt> <userinput>SET AUTO_ACTION BOOT</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>The boot messages will be similar (but not identical) to
+ those produced by FreeBSD booting on the &i386;.</para>
+ </sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="shutdown">
@@ -3977,17 +4494,16 @@ Password:</screen>
Otherwise, login as <username>root</username> and use
<command>shutdown -h now</command>.</para>
- <screen>The operating system has halted.
+ <screen>The operating system has halted.
Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<para>It is safe to turn off the power after the shutdown command
- has been issued and the message
- <quote>Please press any key to reboot</quote>
+ has been issued and the message <quote>Please press any key to reboot</quote>
appears. If any key is pressed instead of turning off the power
switch, the system will reboot.</para>
<para>You could also use the
- <keycombo action="simul">
+ <keycombo action="simul">
<keycap>Ctrl</keycap>
<keycap>Alt</keycap>
<keycap>Del</keycap>
@@ -3998,6 +4514,31 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</sect2>
</sect1>
+ <sect1 id="install-supported-hardware">
+ <title>Supported Hardware</title>
+
+ <indexterm><primary>hardware</primary></indexterm>
+ <para>FreeBSD currently runs on a wide variety of ISA, VLB, EISA, and PCI
+ bus-based PCs with Intel, AMD, Cyrix, or NexGen <quote>x86</quote>
+ processors, as well as a number of machines based on the Compaq Alpha
+ processor. Support for generic IDE or ESDI drive configurations,
+ various SCSI controllers, PCMCIA cards, USB devices, and network and
+ serial cards is also provided. FreeBSD also supports IBM's microchannel
+ (MCA) bus.</para>
+
+ <para>A list of supported hardware is provided with each FreeBSD release
+ in the FreeBSD Hardware Notes. This document can usually be found in a
+ file named <filename>HARDWARE.TXT</filename>, in the top-level directory
+ of a CDROM or FTP distribution or in
+ <application>sysinstall</application>'s documentation menu. It lists,
+ for a given architecture, what hardware devices are known to be
+ supported by each release of FreeBSD. Copies of the supported
+ hardware list for various releases and architectures can also be
+ found on the <ulink
+ url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/index.html">Release
+ Information</ulink> page of the FreeBSD Web site.</para>
+ </sect1>
+
<sect1 id="install-trouble">
<title>Troubleshooting</title>
@@ -4008,293 +4549,192 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<para>The following section covers basic installation troubleshooting,
such as common problems people have reported. There are also a few
questions and answers for people wishing to dual-boot FreeBSD with
- &ms-dos; or &windows;.</para>
+ &ms-dos;.</para>
<sect2>
<title>What to Do If Something Goes Wrong</title>
<para>Due to various limitations of the PC architecture, it is
- impossible for probing to be 100% reliable, however, there are a
- few things you can do if it fails.</para>
+ impossible for probing to be 100% reliable, however, there are a
+ few things you can do if it fails.</para>
- <para>Check the <ulink
- url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/index.html">Hardware Notes
- </ulink> document for your version of &os; to make sure your
- hardware is supported.</para>
+ <para>Check the Hardware Notes document for your version of
+ FreeBSD to make sure your hardware is
+ supported.</para>
<para>If your hardware is supported and you still experience
- lock-ups or other problems, you will need to build a <link
- linkend="kernelconfig">custom kernel</link>. This will
- allow you to add in support for devices which are not present in the
- <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel. The kernel on the boot disks
- is configured assuming that most hardware devices are in their
- factory default configuration in terms of IRQs, IO addresses, and
- DMA channels. If your hardware has been reconfigured, you will most
- likely need to edit the kernel configuration and recompile to tell
- &os; where to find things.</para>
+ lock-ups or other problems, reset your computer, and when the
+ visual kernel configuration option is given, choose it. This will
+ allow you to go through your hardware and supply information to the
+ system about it. The kernel on the boot disks is configured
+ assuming that most hardware devices are in their factory default
+ configuration in terms of IRQs, IO addresses, and DMA channels. If
+ your hardware has been reconfigured, you will most likely need to
+ use the configuration editor to tell FreeBSD where to find
+ things.</para>
<para>It is also possible that a probe for a device not present will
- cause a later probe for another device that is present to fail. In
- that case, the probes for the conflicting driver(s) should be
- disabled.</para>
+ cause a later probe for another device that is present to fail. In
+ that case, the probes for the conflicting driver(s) should be
+ disabled.</para>
<note>
- <para>Some installation problems can be avoided or alleviated
- by updating the firmware on various hardware components, most notably
- the motherboard. The motherboard firmware may also be referred to
- as <acronym>BIOS</acronym> and most of the motherboard or computer
- manufactures have a website where the upgrades and upgrade
- information may be located.</para>
-
- <para>Most manufacturers strongly advise against upgrading the
- motherboard <acronym>BIOS</acronym> unless there is a good reason
- for doing so, which
- could possibly be a critical update of sorts. The upgrade process
- <emphasis>can</emphasis> go wrong, causing permanent damage to the
- <acronym>BIOS</acronym> chip.</para>
- </note>
+ <para>Some installation problems can be avoided or alleviated
+ by updating the firmware on various hardware components, most notably
+ the motherboard. The motherboard firmware may also be referred to
+ as <acronym>BIOS</acronym> and most of the motherboard or computer
+ manufactures have a website where the upgrades and upgrade information
+ may be located.</para>
+
+ <para>Most manufacturers strongly advise against upgrading the motherboard
+ <acronym>BIOS</acronym> unless there is a good reason for doing so, which
+ could possibly be a critical update of sorts. The upgrade process
+ <emphasis>can</emphasis> go wrong, causing permanent damage to the
+ <acronym>BIOS</acronym> chip.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <warning>
+ <para>Do not disable any drivers you will need during the
+ installation, such as your screen (<devicename>sc0</devicename>).
+ If the installation wedges or fails mysteriously after leaving
+ the configuration editor, you have probably removed or changed
+ something you should not have. Reboot and try again.</para>
+ </warning>
+
+ <para>In configuration mode, you can:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>List the device drivers installed in the kernel.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Disable device drivers for hardware that is not present in
+ your system.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Change IRQs, DRQs, and IO port addresses used by a device
+ driver.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>After adjusting the kernel to match your hardware
+ configuration, type <command>Q</command> to boot with the new
+ settings. Once the installation has completed, any changes you
+ made in the configuration mode will be permanent so you do not have
+ to reconfigure every time you boot. It is still highly likely that
+ you will eventually want to build a <link
+ linkend="kernelconfig">custom kernel</link>.</para>
+ </sect2>
+
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Dealing with Existing &ms-dos; Partitions</title>
+
+ <indexterm><primary>DOS</primary></indexterm>
+ <para>Many users wish to install &os; on <acronym>PC</acronym>s inhabited by
+ &microsoft; based operating systems. For those instances, &os; has a
+ utility known as <application>FIPS</application>. This utility can be found
+ in the <filename>tools</filename> directory on the install CD-ROM, or downloaded
+ from one of various <link linkend="mirrors">&os; mirrors</link>.</para>
+
+ <para>The <application>FIPS</application> utility allows you to split an
+ existing &ms-dos; partition into two pieces, preserving the original
+ partition and allowing you to install onto the second free piece.
+ You first need to defragment your &ms-dos; partition using the &windows;
+ <application>Disk Defragmenter</application> utility (go into Explorer, right-click on
+ the hard drive, and choose to defrag your hard drive), or use
+ <application>Norton Disk Tools</application>. Now you can run the
+ <application>FIPS</application> utility. It will prompt you for the rest of
+ the information, just follow the on screen instructions. Afterwards, you can
+ reboot and install &os; on the new free slice. See the <guimenuitem>Distributions</guimenuitem> menu
+ for an estimate of how much free space you will need for the kind of
+ installation you want.</para>
+
+ <para>There is also a very useful product from PowerQuest
+ (<ulink url="http://www.powerquest.com/">http://www.powerquest.com</ulink>) called
+ <application>&partitionmagic;</application>. This application has far more
+ functionality than <application>FIPS</application>, and is highly recommended
+ if you plan to add/remove operating systems often. It does cost money, so if you
+ plan to install &os; and keep it installed, <application>FIPS</application>
+ will probably be fine for you.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>Using &ms-dos; and &windows; File Systems</title>
- <para>At this time, &os; does not support file systems compressed with
- the <application>Double Space&trade;</application> application.
- Therefore the file system will need to be uncompressed before &os; can
- access the data. This
+ <para>At this time, &os; does not support file systems compressed with the
+ <application>Double Space&trade;</application> application. Therefore the file
+ system will need to be uncompressed before &os; can access the data. This
can be done by running the <application>Compression Agent</application>
- located in the
- <guimenuitem>Start</guimenuitem>&gt; <guimenuitem>Programs</guimenuitem> &gt;
+ located in the <guimenuitem>Start</guimenuitem>&gt; <guimenuitem>Programs</guimenuitem> &gt;
<guimenuitem>System Tools</guimenuitem> menu.</para>
- <para>&os; can support &ms-dos; file systems (sometimes called
- FAT file systems). The &man.mount.msdosfs.8; command grafts such file
- systems onto the existing directory hierarchy, allowing the file
- system's contents to be accessed. The &man.mount.msdosfs.8; program
- is not usually
- invoked directly; instead, it is called by the system through a line
- in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> or by a call to the &man.mount.8;
- utility with the appropriate parameters.</para>
-
- <para>A typical line in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> is:</para>
-
- <programlisting>/dev/ad0sN /dos msdosfs rw 0 0</programlisting>
-
- <note><para>The <filename>/dos</filename> directory must already
- exist for this to work. For details about the format of
- <filename>/etc/fstab</filename>, see &man.fstab.5;.</para></note>
-
- <para>A typicall call to &man.mount.8; for a &ms-dos; file system
- looks like:</para>
+ <para>&os; can support &ms-dos; based file systems. This requires you use
+ the &man.mount.msdosfs.8; command
+ with the required parameters. The utility most common usage is:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount -t msdosfs /dev/ad0s1 /mnt</userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount_msdosfs /dev/ad0s1 /mnt</userinput></screen>
- <para>In this example, the &ms-dos; file system is located on the first
- partition of the primary hard disk. Your situation may be different,
- check the output from the <command>dmesg</command>, and
- <command>mount</command> commands. They should produce enough
- information to give an idea of the partition layout.</para>
+ <para>In this example, the &ms-dos; file system is located on the first partition of
+ the primary hard disk. Your situation may be different, check the output from
+ the <command>dmesg</command>, and <command>mount</command> commands. They should
+ produce enough information to give an idea of the partition layout.</para>
- <note><para>&os; may number disk slices (that is, &ms-dos; partitions)
- differently than other operating systems. In particular, extended
- &ms-dos; partitions are usually given higher slice numbers than
- primary &ms-dos; partitions. The &man.fdisk.8; utility can help
- determine which slices belong to &os; and which belong to other
- operating systems.</para></note>
+ <note><para>Extended &ms-dos; file systems are usually mapped after the &os;
+ partitions. In other words, the slice number may be higher than the ones
+ &os; is using. For instance, the first &ms-dos; partition may be
+ <filename>/dev/ad0s1</filename>, the &os; partition may be
+ <filename>/dev/ad0s2</filename>, with the extended &ms-dos; partition being
+ located on <filename>/dev/ad0s3</filename>. To some, this can be confusing
+ at first.</para></note>
<para>NTFS partitions can also be mounted in a similar manner
using the &man.mount.ntfs.8; command.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title>Troubleshooting Questions and Answers</title>
+ <title>Alpha User's Questions and Answers</title>
+
+ <indexterm><primary>Alpha</primary></indexterm>
+
+ <para>This section answers some commonly asked questions about
+ installing FreeBSD on Alpha systems.</para>
<qandaset>
<qandaentry>
<question>
- <para>My system hangs while probing hardware during boot,
- or it behaves strangely during install, or the floppy
- drive is not probed.</para>
+ <para>Can I boot from the ARC or Alpha BIOS Console?</para>
</question>
- <answer>
- <para>&os; makes extensive use of the system
- ACPI service on the i386, amd64 and ia64 platforms to
- aid in system configuration if it is detected during
- boot. Unfortunately, some bugs still exist in both the
- ACPI driver and within system motherboards and BIOS.
- The use of ACPI can be disabled by setting
- the <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled</literal> hint in the
- third stage boot loader:</para>
-
- <screen><userinput>set hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>This is reset each time the system is booted, so it
- is necessary to
- add <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"</literal> to the
- file
- <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>. More
- information about the boot loader can be found
- in <xref linkend="boot-synopsis">.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>I go to boot from the hard disk for the first time
- after installing &os;, the kernel loads and probes my
- hardware, but stops with messages like:</para>
- <screen>changing root device to ad1s1a panic: cannot mount root</screen>
+ <indexterm><primary>ARC</primary></indexterm>
+ <indexterm><primary>Alpha BIOS</primary></indexterm>
+ <indexterm><primary>SRM</primary></indexterm>
- <para>What is wrong? What can I do?</para>
-
- <para>What is this
- <literal>bios_drive:interface(unit,partition)kernel_name</literal>
- thing that is displayed with the boot help?</para>
- </question>
- <answer>
- <para>There is a longstanding problem in the case where
- the boot disk is not the first disk in the system. The
- BIOS uses a different numbering scheme to &os;, and
- working out which numbers correspond to which is
- difficult to get right.</para>
-
- <para>In the case where the boot disk is not the first
- disk in the system, &os; can need some help finding it.
- There are two common situations here, and in both of
- these cases, you need to tell &os; where the root
- filesystem is. You do this by specifying the BIOS disk
- number, the disk type and the &os; disk number for that
- type.</para>
-
- <para>The first situation is where you have two IDE disks,
- each configured as the master on their respective IDE
- busses, and wish to boot &os; from the second disk. The
- BIOS sees these as disk 0 and disk 1, while &os; sees
- them as <devicename>ad0</devicename> and
- <devicename>ad2</devicename>.</para>
-
- <para>&os; is on BIOS disk 1, of type
- <literal>ad</literal> and the &os; disk number is 2, so
- you would say:</para>
-
- <screen><userinput>1:ad(2,a)kernel</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Note that if you have a slave on the primary bus,
- the above is not necessary (and is effectively
- wrong).</para>
-
- <para>The second situation involves booting from a SCSI
- disk when you have one or more IDE disks in the system.
- In this case, the &os; disk number is lower than the
- BIOS disk number. If you have two IDE disks as well as
- the SCSI disk, the SCSI disk is BIOS disk 2,
- type <literal>da</literal> and &os; disk number 0, so
- you would say:</para>
-
- <screen><userinput>2:da(0,a)kernel</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>To tell &os; that you want to boot from BIOS disk 2,
- which is the first SCSI disk in the system. If you only
- had one IDE disk, you would use <literal>1:</literal>
- instead.</para>
-
- <para>Once you have determined the correct values to use,
- you can put the command exactly as you would have typed
- it in the <filename>/boot.config</filename> file using a
- standard text editor. Unless instructed otherwise, &os;
- will use the contents of this file as the default
- response to the <literal>boot:</literal> prompt.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>I go to boot from the hard disk for the first time
- after installing &os;, but the Boot Manager prompt just
- prints <literal>F?</literal> at the boot menu each time
- but the boot will not go any further.</para>
- </question>
<answer>
- <para>The hard disk geometry was set incorrectly in the
- partition editor when you installed &os;. Go back into
- the partition editor and specify the actual geometry of
- your hard disk. You must reinstall &os; again from the
- beginning with the correct geometry.</para>
-
- <para>If you are failing entirely in figuring out the
- correct geometry for your machine, here is a tip: Install
- a small &ms-dos; partition at the beginning of the disk and
- install &os; after that. The install program will see
- the &ms-dos; partition and try to infer the correct geometry
- from it, which usually works.</para>
-
- <para>The following tip is no longer recommended, but is
- left here for reference:</para>
-
- <blockquote>
- <para>If you are setting up a truly dedicated &os;
- server or workstation where you do not care for
- (future) compatibility with &ms-dos;, Linux or another
- operating system, you also have got the option to use
- the entire disk (<guimenuitem>A</guimenuitem> in the partition
- editor), selecting the non-standard option where &os; occupies
- the entire disk from the very first to the very last
- sector. This will leave all geometry considerations
- aside, but is somewhat limiting unless you're never
- going to run anything other than &os; on a
- disk.</para>
- </blockquote>
+ <para>No. &os;, like Compaq Tru64 and VMS, will only boot
+ from the SRM console.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
+
<qandaentry>
<question>
- <para>The system finds my &man.ed.4; network card, but I
- keep getting device timeout errors.</para>
+ <para>Help, I have no space! Do I need to delete
+ everything first?</para>
</question>
+
<answer>
- <para>Your card is probably on a different IRQ from what
- is specified in
- the <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename> file. The
- &man.ed.4; driver does not use the <quote>soft</quote>
- configuration by default (values entered using EZSETUP in
- &ms-dos;),
- but it will use the software configuration if you
- specify <literal>-1</literal> in the hints for the
- interface.</para>
-
- <para>Either move the jumper on the card to a hard
- configuration setting (altering the kernel settings if
- necessary), or specify the IRQ as <literal>-1</literal>
- by setting the hint <literal>hint.ed.0.irq="-1"</literal>.
- This will tell the kernel to use the soft
- configuration.</para>
-
- <para>Another possibility is that your card is at IRQ 9,
- which is shared by IRQ 2 and frequently a cause of
- problems (especially when you have a VGA card using IRQ
- 2!). You should not use IRQ 2 or 9 if at all
- possible.</para>
+ <para>Unfortunately, yes.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
-
- <indexterm>
- <primary>color</primary>
- <secondary>contrast</secondary>
- </indexterm>
<question>
- <para>When <application>sysinstall</application> is used
- in an X11 terminal, the yellow font is difficult to read
- against the light gray background. Is there a way to
- provide higher contrast for this application?</para>
+ <para>Can I mount my Compaq Tru64 or VMS filesystems?</para>
</question>
+
<answer>
- <para>If you already have X11 installed and the default
- colors chosen by <application>sysinstall</application>
- make text illegible while using &man.xterm.1; or &man.rxvt.1;,
- add the following to your <filename>~/.Xdefaults</filename> to
- get a darker background gray: <literal>XTerm*color7:
- #c0c0c0</literal></para>
+ <para>No, not at this time.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
</qandaset>
@@ -4311,15 +4751,6 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</author>
<!-- May 2001 -->
</authorgroup>
-
- <authorgroup>
- <author>
- <firstname>Marc</firstname>
- <surname>Fonvieille</surname>
- <contrib>Updated by </contrib>
- </author>
- </authorgroup>
- <!-- August 2010 -->
</sect1info>
<title>Advanced Installation Guide</title>
@@ -4329,116 +4760,69 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<sect2 id="headless-install">
<title>Installing FreeBSD on a System without a Monitor or
- Keyboard</title>
+ Keyboard</title>
<indexterm>
- <primary>installation</primary>
- <secondary>headless (serial console)</secondary>
+ <primary>installation</primary>
+ <secondary>headless (serial console)</secondary>
</indexterm>
<indexterm><primary>serial console</primary></indexterm>
<para>This type of installation is called a <quote>headless
install</quote>, because the machine that you are trying to install
FreeBSD on either does not have a monitor attached to it, or does not
even have a VGA output. How is this possible you ask? Using a
- serial console. A serial console is basically using another
- machine to act as the main display and keyboard for a
- system. To do this, just follow the steps to create
- an installation USB memstick, explained in <xref
- linkend="install-boot-media"> or download the correct
- installation ISO image, see <xref
- linkend="install-cdrom">.</para>
-
+ serial console. A serial console is basically using another
+ machine to act as the main display and keyboard for a
+ system. To do this, just follow the steps to create
+ installation floppies, explained in <xref
+ linkend="install-floppies">.</para>
- <para>To modify these media to boot into a serial console, follow
- these steps (If you want to use a CDROM you can skip the first
- step):</para>
+ <para>To modify these floppies to boot into a serial console, follow
+ these steps:</para>
<procedure>
<step>
- <title>Enabling the Installation USB Stick to Boot into a
- Serial Console</title>
- <indexterm>
+ <title>Enabling the Boot Floppies to Boot into a Serial Console</title>
+ <indexterm>
<primary><command>mount</command></primary>
</indexterm>
- <para>If you were to boot into the USB stick that you just
+ <para>If you were to boot into the floppies that you just
made, FreeBSD would boot into its normal install mode. We
want FreeBSD to boot into a serial console for our
install. To do this, you have to mount the
- USB disk onto your &os;
+ <filename>kern.flp</filename> floppy onto your FreeBSD
system using the &man.mount.8; command.</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/<replaceable>da0a</replaceable> <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt</userinput></screen>
- <note>
- <para>Adapt the device node and the mount point to your
- situation.</para>
- </note>
+ <para>Now that you have the floppy mounted, you must
+ change into the <filename class="directory">/mnt</filename> directory:</para>
- <para>Now that you have the stick mounted, you must set
- the USB stick to boot into a serial console. You have
- to add to the <filename>loader.conf</filename> file of
- the USB stick file system a line setting the serial
- console as the system console:</para>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput></screen>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>echo 'console="comconsole"' &gt;&gt; <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable>/boot/loader.conf</userinput></screen>
+ <para>Here is where you must set the floppy to boot into a
+ serial console. You have to make a file called
+ <filename>boot.config</filename> containing
+ <literal>/boot/loader -h</literal>. All this does is pass a flag to the bootloader to
+ boot into a serial console.</para>
- <para>Now that you have your USB stick configured correctly,
- you must unmount the disk using the &man.umount.8;
- command:</para>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>echo "/boot/loader -h" &gt; boot.config</userinput></screen>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>umount <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <para>Now that you have your floppy configured correctly,
+ you must unmount the floppy using the &man.umount.8;
+ command:</para>
- <para>Now you can unplug the USB stick and jump directly
- to the third step of this procedure.</para>
- </step>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /</userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>umount /mnt</userinput></screen>
- <step>
- <title>Enabling the Installation CD to Boot into a
- Serial Console</title>
- <indexterm>
- <primary><command>mount</command></primary>
- </indexterm>
- <para>If you were to boot into the CD that you just
- made from the installation ISO image (see <xref
- linkend="install-cdrom">), &os; would boot into its
- normal install mode. We want &os; to boot into a serial
- console for our install. To do this, you have to
- extract, modify and regenerate the ISO image before
- burning it on a CD-R media.</para>
-
- <para>From the &os; system where is saved the installation
- ISO image, for example
- <filename>&os;-<replaceable>&rel.current;</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>i386</replaceable>-disc1.iso</filename>,
- use the &man.tar.1; utility to extract all the files:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkdir <replaceable>/path/to/headless-iso</replaceable></userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>tar -C <replaceable>/path/to/headless-iso</replaceable> -pxvf &os;-<replaceable>&rel.current;</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>i386</replaceable>-disc1.iso</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Now you must set the installation media to boot into a
- serial console. You have to add to the
- <filename>loader.conf</filename> file from the extracted
- ISO image a line setting the serial console as the
- system console:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>echo 'console="comconsole"' &gt;&gt; <replaceable>/path/to/headless-iso</replaceable>/boot/loader.conf</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Then we can create a new ISO image from the modified
- tree. The &man.mkisofs.8; tool from the <filename
- role="package">sysutils/cdrtools</filename> port is
- used:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkisofs -v -b boot/cdboot -no-emul-boot -r -J -V "<replaceable>Headless_install</replaceable>" \
- -o <replaceable>Headless-</replaceable>&os;-<replaceable>&rel.current;</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>i386</replaceable>-disc1.iso <replaceable>/path/to/headless-iso</replaceable></userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Now that you have your ISO image configured correctly,
- you can burn it on a CD-R with your favorite burning
- application.</para>
+ <para>Now you can remove the floppy from the floppy
+ drive.</para>
</step>
<step>
<title>Connecting Your Null-modem Cable</title>
- <indexterm><primary>null-modem cable</primary></indexterm>
+ <indexterm><primary>null-modem cable</primary></indexterm>
<para>You now need to connect a
<link linkend="term-cables-null">null-modem cable</link> between
the two machines. Just connect the cable to the serial
@@ -4451,12 +4835,10 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<step>
<title>Booting Up for the Install</title>
- <para>It is now time to go ahead and start the install. Plug in
- the USB memstick on
- the machine you are doing the headless install
- on, and power on the machine. If you are using a
- prepared CDROM, power on the machine and insert the disk
- to boot on.</para>
+ <para>It is now time to go ahead and start the install. Put
+ the <filename>kern.flp</filename> floppy in the floppy
+ drive of the machine you are doing the headless install
+ on, and power on the machine.</para>
</step>
<step>
@@ -4465,21 +4847,15 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<primary><command>cu</command></primary>
</indexterm>
<para>Now you have to connect to that machine with
- &man.cu.1;:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cu -l /dev/cuau0</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>On &os;&nbsp;7.<replaceable>X</replaceable> use the following command
- instead:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cu -l /dev/cuad0</userinput></screen>
+ &man.cu.1;:</para>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cu -l /dev/cuaa0</userinput></screen>
</step>
</procedure>
<para>That's it! You should now be able to control the headless machine
- through your <command>cu</command> session. It will load the kernel
- and then it will come up
+ through your <command>cu</command> session. It will ask you to
+ put in the <filename>mfsroot.flp</filename>, and then it will come up
with a selection of what kind of terminal to use. Select the
FreeBSD color console and proceed with your install!</para>
@@ -4512,10 +4888,10 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>You have a FreeBSD disc, and FreeBSD does not recognize your
- CD/DVD drive, but &ms-dos; / &windows; does. You want to copy the
- FreeBSD installation files to a &ms-dos; partition on the same
- computer, and then install FreeBSD using those files.</para>
+ <para>You have a FreeBSD disc, and FreeBSD does not recognize your CD/DVD
+ drive, but &ms-dos;/&windows; does. You want to copy the FreeBSD
+ installation files to a DOS partition on the same computer, and
+ then install FreeBSD using those files.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -4534,9 +4910,8 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<sect2 id="install-cdrom">
<title>Creating an Installation CDROM</title>
- <para>As part of each release, the FreeBSD project makes available at
- least two CDROM images (<quote>ISO images</quote>) per supported
- architecture. These images can be written
+ <para>As part of each release, the FreeBSD project makes available two
+ CDROM images (<quote>ISO images</quote>). These images can be written
(<quote>burned</quote>) to CDs if you have a CD writer, and then used
to install FreeBSD. If you have a CD writer, and bandwidth is cheap,
then this is the easiest way to install FreeBSD.</para>
@@ -4545,124 +4920,119 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<step>
<title>Download the Correct ISO Images</title>
- <para>The ISO images for each release can be downloaded from <filename>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ISO-IMAGES-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>/<replaceable>version</replaceable></filename> or the closest mirror.
- Substitute <replaceable>arch</replaceable> and
+ <para>The ISO images for each release can be downloaded from <filename>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ISO-IMAGES-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>/<replaceable>version</replaceable></filename> or the closest mirror.
+ Substitute <replaceable>arch</replaceable> and
<replaceable>version</replaceable> as appropriate.</para>
<para>That directory will normally contain the following images:</para>
<table frame="none">
- <title>FreeBSD 7.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and 8.<replaceable>X</replaceable>
- ISO Image Names and Meanings</title>
+ <title>FreeBSD 4.<replaceable>X</replaceable> ISO Image Names and Meanings</title>
<tgroup cols="2">
<thead>
<row>
<entry>Filename</entry>
- <entry>Contents</entry>
+ <entry>Contains</entry>
</row>
</thead>
<tbody>
<row>
- <entry><filename>&os;-<replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-bootonly.iso</filename></entry>
-
- <entry>This CD image allows you to start the installation
- process by booting from a CD-ROM drive but it does not
- contain the support for installing &os; from the CD
- itself. You would need to perform a network based install
- (e.g., from an FTP server) after booting from this CD.</entry>
+ <entry><filename><replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-miniinst.iso</filename></entry>
+
+ <entry>Everything you need to install FreeBSD.</entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry><filename>&os;-<replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-dvd1.iso.gz</filename></entry>
+ <entry><filename><replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-disc1.iso</filename></entry>
- <entry>This DVD image contains everything necessary to
- install the base FreeBSD operating system, a
- collection of pre-built packages, and the
- documentation. It also supports booting into a
- <quote>livefs</quote> based rescue mode.</entry>
+ <entry>Everything you need to install FreeBSD, and as many
+ additional third party packages as would fit on the
+ disc.</entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry><filename>&os;-<replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-memstick.img</filename></entry>
-
- <entry>This image can be written to an USB memory stick
- and used to do an install on machines capable of booting
- off USB drives. It also supports booting into a
- <quote>livefs</quote> based rescue mode. The
- documentation packages are provided but no other
- packages. This image is not available for &os;&nbsp;7.<replaceable>X</replaceable>.</entry>
+ <entry><filename><replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-disc2.iso</filename></entry>
+
+ <entry>A <quote>live filesystem</quote>, which is used in
+ conjunction with the <quote>Repair</quote> facility in
+ <application>sysinstall</application>. A copy of the
+ FreeBSD CVS tree. As many additional third party packages
+ as would fit on the disc.</entry>
</row>
+ </tbody>
+ </tgroup>
+ </table>
+ <table frame="none">
+ <title>FreeBSD 5.<replaceable>X</replaceable> ISO Image Names and Meanings</title>
+
+ <tgroup cols="2">
+ <thead>
<row>
- <entry><filename>&os;-<replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-disc1.iso</filename></entry>
+ <entry>Filename</entry>
- <entry>This CD image contains the base &os; operating
- system and the documentation packages but no other
- packages.</entry>
+ <entry>Contains</entry>
</row>
+ </thead>
+ <tbody>
<row>
- <entry><filename>&os;-<replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-disc2.iso</filename></entry>
+ <entry><filename><replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-bootonly.iso</filename></entry>
- <entry>A CD image with as many third-party packages
- as would fit on the disc. This image is not
- available for &os;&nbsp;8.<replaceable>X</replaceable>.</entry>
+ <entry>Everything you need to boot into a FreeBSD
+ kernel and start the installation interface.
+ The installable files have to be pulled over FTP
+ or some other supported source.</entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry><filename>&os;-<replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-disc3.iso</filename></entry>
-
- <entry>Another CD image with as many third-party
- packages as would fit on the disc. This image is
- not available for &os;&nbsp;8.<replaceable>X</replaceable>.</entry>
+ <entry><filename><replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-miniinst.iso</filename></entry>
+
+ <entry>Everything you need to install FreeBSD.</entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry><filename><replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-docs.iso</filename></entry>
+ <entry><filename><replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-disc1.iso</filename></entry>
- <entry>The &os; documentation.</entry>
+ <entry>Everything you need to install &os; and a
+ <quote>live filesystem</quote>, which is used in
+ conjunction with the <quote>Repair</quote> facility
+ in <application>sysinstall</application>.</entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry><filename>&os;-<replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-livefs.iso</filename></entry>
+ <entry><filename><replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-disc2.iso</filename></entry>
- <entry>This CD image contains support for booting into
- a <quote>livefs</quote> based rescue mode but does not
- support doing an install from the CD itself.</entry>
+ <entry>&os; documentation and as many third party packages as
+ would fit on the disc.</entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</table>
+ <para>You <emphasis>must</emphasis> download one of either the miniinst
+ ISO image, or the image of disc one. Do not download both of them,
+ since the disc one image contains everything that the miniinst ISO
+ image contains.</para>
+
<note>
- <para>&os;&nbsp;7.<replaceable>X</replaceable> releases before
- &os;&nbsp;7.3 and &os;&nbsp;8.0 used a
- different naming convention. The names of their ISO
- images are not prefixed with
- <literal>&os;-</literal>.</para>
+ <para>The miniinst ISO image is only available for releases prior
+ to 5.4-RELEASE.</para>
</note>
- <para>You <emphasis>must</emphasis> download one of either
- the <literal>bootonly</literal> ISO image,
- or the image of <literal>disc1</literal>. Do not download
- both of them, since the <literal>disc1</literal> image
- contains everything that the <literal>bootonly</literal>
- ISO image contains.</para>
-
- <para>Use the <literal>bootonly</literal> ISO if Internet
- access is cheap for you. It will let you install &os;, and
- you can then install third-party
+ <para>Use the miniinst ISO if Internet access is cheap for you. It will
+ let you install FreeBSD, and you can then install third party
packages by downloading them using the ports/packages system (see
<xref linkend="ports">) as
necessary.</para>
- <para>Use the image of <literal>dvd1</literal> if you want to
- install a &os;
- release and want a reasonable selection of third-party packages
- on the disc as well.</para>
+ <para>Use the image of disc one if you want to install a &os;
+ release and want
+ a reasonable selection of third party packages on the disc
+ as well.</para>
<para>The additional disc images are useful, but not essential,
especially if you have high-speed access to the Internet.</para>
@@ -4672,9 +5042,9 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<title>Write the CDs</title>
<para>You must then write the CD images to disc. If you will be
- doing this on another FreeBSD system then see
- <xref linkend="creating-cds"> for more information (in
- particular, <xref linkend="burncd"> and
+ doing this on another FreeBSD system then see
+ <xref linkend="creating-cds"> for more information (in
+ particular, <xref linkend="burncd"> and
<xref linkend="cdrecord">).</para>
<para>If you will be doing this on another platform then you will
@@ -4685,15 +5055,15 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</procedure>
<note><para>If you are interested in building a customized
- release of FreeBSD, please see the <ulink
- url="&url.articles.releng;">Release Engineering
- Article</ulink>.</para></note>
+ release of FreeBSD, please see the <ulink
+ url="&url.articles.releng;">Release Engineering
+ Article</ulink>.</para></note>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="install-ftp">
<title>Creating a Local FTP Site with a FreeBSD Disc</title>
-
+
<indexterm>
<primary>installation</primary>
<secondary>network</secondary>
@@ -4737,11 +5107,10 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<note>
<para>If the boot media (floppy disks, usually) for your FTP
clients is not precisely the same version as that provided
- by the local FTP site, then <application>sysinstall</application>
- will not let you
+ by the local FTP site, then <application>sysinstall</application> will not let you
complete the installation. If the versions are not similar and
- you want to override this, you must go into the
- <guimenu>Options</guimenu> menu and change distribution name to
+ you want to override this, you must go into the <guimenu>Options</guimenu> menu
+ and change distribution name to
<guimenuitem>any</guimenuitem>.</para>
</note>
@@ -4756,7 +5125,7 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title>Creating Installation Floppies</title>
+ <title>Creating Installation Floppies</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>installation</primary>
@@ -4768,15 +5137,14 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
hardware or simply because you insist on doing things the hard
way, you must first prepare some floppies for the installation.</para>
- <para>At a minimum, you will need as many 1.44&nbsp;MB floppies
+ <para>At a minimum, you will need as many 1.44&nbsp;MB or 1.2&nbsp;MB floppies
as it takes to hold all the files in the
- <filename>base</filename> (base distribution) directory. If
- you are preparing the floppies from &ms-dos;, then they
+ <filename>bin</filename> (binary distribution) directory. If
+ you are preparing the floppies from DOS, then they
<emphasis>must</emphasis> be formatted using the &ms-dos;
<command>FORMAT</command> command. If you are using &windows;,
use Explorer to format the disks (right-click on the
- <devicename>A:</devicename> drive, and select
- <quote>Format</quote>).</para>
+ <devicename>A:</devicename> drive, and select <quote>Format</quote>).</para>
<para>Do <emphasis>not</emphasis> trust factory pre-formatted
floppies. Format them again yourself, just to be sure. Many
@@ -4786,16 +5154,21 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<para>If you are creating the floppies on another FreeBSD machine,
a format is still not a bad idea, though you do not need to put
- a &ms-dos; filesystem on each floppy. You can use the
+ a DOS filesystem on each floppy. You can use the
<command>bsdlabel</command> and <command>newfs</command>
commands to put a UFS filesystem on them instead, as the
following sequence of commands (for a 3.5" 1.44&nbsp;MB floppy)
illustrates:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>fdformat -f 1440 fd0.1440</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>bsdlabel -w fd0.1440 floppy3</userinput>
+&prompt.root; <userinput>bsdlabel -w -r fd0.1440 floppy3</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs -t 2 -u 18 -l 1 -i 65536 /dev/fd0</userinput></screen>
+ <note>
+ <para>Use <literal>fd0.1200</literal> and
+ <literal>floppy5</literal> for 5.25" 1.2&nbsp;MB disks.</para>
+ </note>
+
<para>Then you can mount and write to them like any other
filesystem.</para>
@@ -4806,16 +5179,8 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
files as will fit on each one, until you have all of the
distributions you want packed up in this fashion. Each
distribution should go into a subdirectory on the floppy, e.g.:
- <filename>a:\base\base.aa</filename>,
- <filename>a:\base\base.ab</filename>, and so on.</para>
-
- <important>
- <para>The <filename>base.inf</filename> file also needs to go on the
- first floppy of the <filename>base</filename> set since it is read
- by the installation program in order to figure out how many
- additional pieces to look for when fetching and concatenating the
- distribution.</para>
- </important>
+ <filename>a:\bin\bin.aa</filename>,
+ <filename>a:\bin\bin.ab</filename>, and so on.</para>
<para>Once you come to the Media screen during the install
process, select <guimenuitem>Floppy</guimenuitem> and you
@@ -4823,7 +5188,7 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="install-msdos">
- <title>Installing from an &ms-dos; Partition</title>
+ <title>Installing from an &ms-dos; Partition</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>installation</primary>
@@ -4831,10 +5196,10 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</indexterm>
<para>To prepare for an installation from an &ms-dos; partition,
copy the files from the distribution into a directory
- called <filename>freebsd</filename> in the root directory of the
+ called <filename>freebsd</filename> in the root directory of the
partition. For example, <filename>c:\freebsd</filename>. The
directory structure of the CDROM or FTP site must be partially
- reproduced within this directory, so we suggest using the &ms-dos;
+ reproduced within this directory, so we suggest using the DOS
<command>xcopy</command> command if you are copying it from a CD.
For example, to prepare for a minimal installation of
FreeBSD:</para>
@@ -4846,7 +5211,7 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<para>Assuming that <devicename>C:</devicename> is where you have
free space and <devicename>E:</devicename> is where your CDROM
is mounted.</para>
-
+
<para>If you do not have a CDROM drive, you can download the
distribution from <ulink
url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel.current;-RELEASE/">ftp.FreeBSD.org</ulink>.
@@ -4863,7 +5228,7 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title>Creating an Installation Tape</title>
+ <title>Creating an Installation Tape</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>installation</primary>
@@ -4894,12 +5259,12 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title>Before Installing over a Network</title>
+ <title>Before Installing over a Network</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>installation</primary>
<secondary>network</secondary>
- <tertiary>serial (PPP)</tertiary>
+ <tertiary>serial (SLIP or PPP)</tertiary>
</indexterm>
<indexterm>
<primary>installation</primary>
@@ -4912,10 +5277,43 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<tertiary>Ethernet</tertiary>
</indexterm>
<para>There are three types of network installations available.
- Ethernet (a standard Ethernet controller), Serial port (PPP), or
- Parallel port (PLIP (laplink cable)).</para>
+ Serial port (SLIP or PPP), Parallel port (PLIP (laplink cable)),
+ or Ethernet (a standard Ethernet controller (includes some
+ PCMCIA)).</para>
+
+ <para>The SLIP support is rather primitive, and limited primarily
+ to hard-wired links, such as a serial cable running between a
+ laptop computer and another computer. The link should be
+ hard-wired as the SLIP installation does not currently offer a
+ dialing capability; that facility is provided with the PPP
+ utility, which should be used in preference to SLIP whenever
+ possible.</para>
+
+ <para>If you are using a modem, then PPP is almost certainly
+ your only choice. Make sure that you have your service
+ provider's information handy as you will need to know it fairly
+ early in the installation process.</para>
+
+ <para>If you use PAP or CHAP to connect your ISP (in other words, if
+ you can connect to the ISP in &windows; without using a script), then
+ all you will need to do is type in <command>dial</command> at the
+ <application>ppp</application> prompt. Otherwise, you will need to
+ know how to dial your ISP using the <quote>AT commands</quote>
+ specific to your modem, as the PPP dialer provides only a very
+ simple terminal emulator. Please refer to the user-ppp <link
+ linkend="userppp">handbook</link> and <ulink
+ url="&url.books.faq;/ppp.html">FAQ</ulink> entries for further information.
+ If you have problems, logging can be directed to the screen using
+ the command <command>set log local ...</command>.</para>
- <para>For the fastest possible network installation, an
+ <para>If a hard-wired connection to another FreeBSD (2.0-R or
+ later) machine is available, you might also consider installing
+ over a <quote>laplink</quote> parallel port cable. The data rate
+ over the parallel port is much higher than what is typically
+ possible over a serial line (up to 50&nbsp;kbytes/sec), thus resulting
+ in a quicker installation.</para>
+
+ <para>Finally, for the fastest possible network installation, an
Ethernet adapter is always a good choice! FreeBSD supports most
common PC Ethernet cards; a table of supported cards (and their
required settings) is provided in the Hardware Notes for each
@@ -4941,31 +5339,6 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
or ISP <emphasis>before</emphasis> trying this type of
installation.</para>
- <para>If you are using a modem, then PPP is almost certainly
- your only choice. Make sure that you have your service
- provider's information handy as you will need to know it fairly
- early in the installation process.</para>
-
- <para>If you use PAP or CHAP to connect your ISP (in other words, if
- you can connect to the ISP in &windows; without using a script), then
- all you will need to do is type in <command>dial</command> at the
- <application>ppp</application> prompt. Otherwise, you will need to
- know how to dial your ISP using the <quote>AT commands</quote>
- specific to your modem, as the PPP dialer provides only a very
- simple terminal emulator. Please refer to the user-ppp <link
- linkend="userppp">handbook</link> and <ulink
- url="&url.books.faq;/ppp.html">FAQ</ulink>
- entries for further information.
- If you have problems, logging can be directed to the screen using
- the command <command>set log local ...</command>.</para>
-
- <para>If a hard-wired connection to another FreeBSD
- machine is available, you might also consider installing
- over a <quote>laplink</quote> parallel port cable. The data rate
- over the parallel port is much higher than what is typically
- possible over a serial line (up to 50&nbsp;kbytes/sec), thus
- resulting in a quicker installation.</para>
-
<sect3>
<title>Before Installing via NFS</title>
@@ -4981,16 +5354,15 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<para>If this server supports only <quote>privileged port</quote>
(as is generally the default for Sun workstations), you will
need to set the option <literal>NFS Secure</literal> in the
- <guimenu>Options</guimenu> menu before installation can
- proceed.</para>
+ <guimenu>Options</guimenu> menu before installation can proceed.</para>
<para>If you have a poor quality Ethernet card which suffers
from very slow transfer rates, you may also wish to toggle the
<literal>NFS Slow</literal> flag.</para>
<para>In order for NFS installation to work, the server must
- support subdir mounts, for example, if your
- FreeBSD&nbsp;&rel.current; distribution directory lives on:
+ support subdir mounts, for example, if your FreeBSD&nbsp;&rel.current; distribution
+ directory lives on:
<filename>ziggy:/usr/archive/stuff/FreeBSD</filename>, then
<hostid>ziggy</hostid> will have to allow the direct mounting
of <filename>/usr/archive/stuff/FreeBSD</filename>, not just
@@ -5009,7 +5381,7 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</sect1>
</chapter>
-<!--
+<!--
Local Variables:
mode: sgml
sgml-declaration: "../chapter.decl"
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/jails/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/jails/chapter.sgml
index 8f28a49105..bfa0ef32e7 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/jails/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/jails/chapter.sgml
@@ -394,7 +394,7 @@ jail_<replaceable>www</replaceable>_devfs_ruleset="<replaceable>www_ruleset</rep
</itemizedlist>
<sect2 id="jails-tuning-utilities">
- <title>System Tools for Jail Tuning in &os;</title>
+ <title>System tools for jail tuning in &os;</title>
<para>Fine tuning of a jail's configuration is mostly done by
setting &man.sysctl.8; variables. A special subtree of sysctl
@@ -483,7 +483,7 @@ jail_<replaceable>www</replaceable>_devfs_ruleset="<replaceable>www_ruleset</rep
</sect2>
<sect2 id="jails-tuning-admintools">
- <title>High-Level Administrative Tools in &os; Ports
+ <title>High-level administrative tools in &os; Ports
Collection</title>
<para>Among the many third-party utilities for jail administration,
@@ -546,7 +546,7 @@ jail_<replaceable>www</replaceable>_devfs_ruleset="<replaceable>www_ruleset</rep
<para>This idea has been presented to resolve such issues by
sharing as much as is possible between jails, in a safe way
&mdash; using read-only &man.mount.nullfs.8; mounts, so that
- updating will be simpler, and putting single services into
+ updating will be be simpler, and putting single services into
individual jails will become more attractive. Additionally,
it provides a simple way to add or remove jails as well as a
way to upgrade them.</para>
@@ -626,7 +626,7 @@ jail_<replaceable>www</replaceable>_devfs_ruleset="<replaceable>www_ruleset</rep
<listitem>
<para>Each jailspace (read-write portion of each jail) shall
be created in <filename
- class="directory">/home/js</filename>.</para>
+ class="directory">/home/js</filename>.<para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -645,7 +645,7 @@ jail_<replaceable>www</replaceable>_devfs_ruleset="<replaceable>www_ruleset</rep
<para>This section will describe the steps needed to create the
master template that will be the read-only portion for the
- jails to use.</para>
+ jails to use.<para>
<para>It is always a good idea to update the &os; system to the
latest -RELEASE branch. Check the corresponding Handbook
@@ -746,7 +746,7 @@ jail_<replaceable>www</replaceable>_devfs_ruleset="<replaceable>www_ruleset</rep
setup and configure the jails in
<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>. This example demonstrates
the creation of 3 jails: <quote>NS</quote>,
- <quote>MAIL</quote> and <quote>WWW</quote>.</para>
+ <quote>MAIL</quote> and <quote>WWW</quote>.<para>
<procedure>
<step>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml
index be0b450363..197a42d760 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig/chapter.sgml
@@ -579,7 +579,7 @@ cpu I686_CPU</programlisting>
<para>This is the identification of the kernel. You should change
this to whatever you named your kernel,
- i.e., <literal><replaceable>MYKERNEL</replaceable></literal> if you have
+ i.e. <literal><replaceable>MYKERNEL</replaceable></literal> if you have
followed the instructions of the previous examples. The value you put
in the <literal>ident</literal> string will print when you boot up the
kernel, so it is useful to give the new kernel a different name if you
@@ -605,7 +605,7 @@ cpu I686_CPU</programlisting>
<para>The normal build process of &os; includes
debugging information when building the kernel with the
- <option>-g</option> option, which enables debugging
+ the <option>-g</option> option, which enables debugging
information when passed to &man.gcc.1;.</para>
<programlisting>options SCHED_ULE # ULE scheduler</programlisting>
@@ -1242,7 +1242,7 @@ device wi # WaveLAN/Intersil/Symbol 802.11 wireless NICs.
device loop # Network loopback</programlisting>
<para>This is the generic loopback device for TCP/IP. If you telnet
- or FTP to <hostid>localhost</hostid> (aka <hostid
+ or FTP to <hostid>localhost</hostid> (a.k.a. <hostid
role="ipaddr">127.0.0.1</hostid>) it will come back at you through
this device. This is <emphasis>mandatory</emphasis>.</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml
index 47e9070f35..6ac3dd92c0 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml
@@ -187,7 +187,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Wide or multibyte encodings, e.g., EUC, Big5.</para>
+ <para>Wide or multibyte encodings, e.g. EUC, Big5.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml
index 256d308b09..1abb326aa5 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/linuxemu/chapter.sgml
@@ -155,7 +155,8 @@ Id Refs Address Size Name
<para>This is by far the easiest method to use when installing the
runtime libraries. It is just like installing any other port
- from the <ulink type="html" url="file://localhost/usr/ports/">Ports Collection</ulink>:
+ from the <ulink type="html" url="file://localhost/usr/ports/">Ports Collection</ulink>.
+ Simply do the following:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/emulators/linux_base-f10</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make install distclean</userinput></screen>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mac/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mac/chapter.sgml
index c96ff6ad72..55ee7f018d 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mac/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mac/chapter.sgml
@@ -140,7 +140,7 @@
</sect1>
<sect1 id="mac-inline-glossary">
- <title>Key Terms in This Chapter</title>
+ <title>Key Terms in this Chapter</title>
<para>Before reading this chapter, a few key terms must be
explained. This will hopefully clear up any confusion that
@@ -260,7 +260,7 @@
<listitem>
<para><emphasis>subject</emphasis>: a subject is any
active entity that causes information to flow between
- <emphasis>objects</emphasis>; e.g., a user, user processor,
+ <emphasis>objects</emphasis>; e.g. a user, user processor,
system process, etc. On &os;, this is almost always a thread
acting in a process on behalf of a user.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -1065,7 +1065,7 @@ test: biba/high</screen>
using a variety of <command>sysctl</command> variables. In
essence &man.mac.portacl.4; makes it possible to allow
non-<username>root</username> users to bind to specified
- privileged ports, i.e., ports fewer than 1024.</para>
+ privileged ports, i.e. ports fewer than 1024.</para>
<para>Once loaded, this module will enable the
<acronym>MAC</acronym> policy on all sockets. The following
@@ -1115,13 +1115,13 @@ test: biba/high</screen>
<note>
<para>Since the ruleset is interpreted directly by the kernel
only numeric values can be used for the user ID, group ID, and
- port parameters. User, group, and port service names
+ port parameters. I.e. user, group, and port service names
cannot be used.</para>
</note>
<para>By default, on &unix;-like systems, ports fewer than 1024
can only be used by/bound to privileged processes,
- i.e., those run as <username>root</username>. For
+ i.e. those run as <username>root</username>. For
&man.mac.portacl.4; to allow non-privileged processes to bind
to ports below 1024 this standard &unix; restriction has to be
disabled. This can be accomplished by setting the &man.sysctl.8;
@@ -1880,8 +1880,7 @@ setpmac biba/10\(10-10\) /usr/local/etc/rc.d/nagios.sh forcestart</userinput></s
<para>For this scenario, the &man.mac.bsdextended.4; mixed with
&man.mac.seeotheruids.4; could co-exist and block access not
- only to system objects, but to hide user processes as
- well.</para>
+ only to system objects but to hide user processes as well.
<para>Begin by adding the following line to
<filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:</para>
@@ -1984,7 +1983,7 @@ setpmac biba/10\(10-10\) /usr/local/etc/rc.d/nagios.sh forcestart</userinput></s
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title>Cannot Start a X11 Server After <acronym>MAC</acronym></title>
+ <title>Cannot start a X11 server after <acronym>MAC</acronym></title>
<para>After establishing a secure environment with
<acronym>MAC</acronym>, I am no longer able to start
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml
index 5b455f1426..7a82660745 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mail/chapter.sgml
@@ -356,7 +356,7 @@ FreeBSD.org mail is handled (pri=10) by mx1.FreeBSD.org</screen>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="local">
- <title>Accessing Local Mailboxes</title>
+ <title>Accessing local mailboxes</title>
<para>Mailboxes may be accessed locally by directly utilizing
<acronym>MUA</acronym>s on the server on which the mailbox
@@ -550,7 +550,7 @@ procmail: "|/usr/local/bin/procmail"</programlisting>
<para>The file format is simple; the mailbox name on the left
side of the colon is expanded to the target(s) on the right.
The
- first example expands the mailbox <username>root</username>
+ first example simply expands the mailbox <username>root</username>
to the mailbox <username>localuser</username>, which is then
looked up again in the aliases database. If no match is found,
then the message is delivered to the local user
@@ -673,7 +673,7 @@ postmaster@example.com postmaster@noc.example.net
<para>However, for a variety of reasons, some system
administrators want to change their system's MTA. These
- reasons range from merely wanting to try out another MTA to
+ reasons range from simply wanting to try out another MTA to
needing a specific feature or package which relies on another
mailer. Fortunately, whatever the reason, FreeBSD makes it
easy to make the change.</para>
@@ -818,7 +818,7 @@ purgestat /usr/local/supermailer/bin/purgestat-compat</programlisting>
<para>Once you have everything configured the way you want it, you should
either kill the <application>sendmail</application> processes that
you no longer need and start the processes belonging to your new
- software, or merely reboot. Rebooting will also
+ software, or simply reboot. Rebooting will also
give you the opportunity to ensure that you have correctly
configured your system to start your new MTA automatically on boot.</para>
@@ -952,7 +952,7 @@ to /etc/mail/sendmail.cf.</programlisting>
deliver the mail it will try to connect to you (<hostid role="domainname">example.com</hostid>) over the modem
link. It will most likely time out because you are not online.
The program <application>sendmail</application> will automatically deliver it to the
- secondary MX site, i.e., your Internet provider (<hostid role="domainname">example.net</hostid>). The secondary MX
+ secondary MX site, i.e. your Internet provider (<hostid role="domainname">example.net</hostid>). The secondary MX
site will then periodically try to connect to
your host and deliver the mail to the primary MX host (<hostid role="domainname">example.com</hostid>).</para>
@@ -1037,8 +1037,8 @@ the DNS for <quote>customer.com</quote>.</programlisting>
locally, or would like to use a point and click
client/system on another machine or even another ISP. It
is also very useful if you only have one or two email
- accounts set up. If there are a large number of addresses
- to add, open this file in your favorite
+ accounts set up. If there is a large number of addresses
+ to add, you can simply open this file in your favorite
text editor and then add the domains, one per line:</para>
<programlisting>your.isp.example.com
@@ -1355,7 +1355,7 @@ if-bus.UUCP uucp-dom:if-bus
<para>Final hint: if you are uncertain whether some particular
mail routing would work, remember the <option>-bt</option>
option to <application>sendmail</application>. It starts <application>sendmail</application> in <emphasis>address test
- mode</emphasis>; enter <literal>3,0</literal>, followed
+ mode</emphasis>; simply enter <literal>3,0</literal>, followed
by the address you wish to test for the mail routing. The last
line tells you the used internal mail agent, the destination
host this agent will be called with, and the (possibly
@@ -1727,7 +1727,7 @@ define(`confAUTH_MECHANISMS', `GSSAPI DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 LOGIN')dnl</programlis
will be discussed later in this chapter (<xref
linkend="mail-fetchmail">).</para>
- <para>In order to send and receive email, invoke the
+ <para>In order to send and receive email, simply invoke the
<command>mail</command> command as per the following
example:</para>
@@ -1884,7 +1884,7 @@ EOT</screen>
</imageobject>
</mediaobject>
- <para>In order to read an email, select it using the cursor
+ <para>In order to read an email, simply select it using the cursor
keys, and press the <keycap>Enter</keycap> key. An example of
<application>mutt</application> displaying email can be seen
below:</para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mirrors/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mirrors/chapter.sgml
index 9a0f08e977..a10901b6e5 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mirrors/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/mirrors/chapter.sgml
@@ -422,7 +422,7 @@ SSH2 HostKey: 1024 e8:3b:29:7b:ca:9f:ac:e9:45:cb:c8:17:ae:9b:eb:55 /etc/ssh/ssh_
</example>
<example>
- <title>Using SSH to Check out the <filename>src/</filename>
+ <title>Using SSH to check out the <filename>src/</filename>
tree:</title>
<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cvs -d anoncvs@anoncvs1.FreeBSD.org:/home/ncvs co src</userinput>
The authenticity of host 'anoncvs1.freebsd.org (216.87.78.137)' can't be established.
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml
index 46894acfe0..44cccea951 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/ports/chapter.sgml
@@ -1183,7 +1183,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/ fetch</userinput></screen>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="portupgrade">
- <title>Upgrading Ports Using Portupgrade</title>
+ <title>Upgrading Ports using Portupgrade</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>portupgrade</primary>
@@ -1237,7 +1237,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/ fetch</userinput></screen>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="portmanager">
- <title>Upgrading Ports Using Portmanager</title>
+ <title>Upgrading Ports using Portmanager</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>portmanager</primary>
@@ -1277,7 +1277,7 @@ ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/distfiles/ fetch</userinput></screen>
</sect3>
<sect3 id="portmaster">
- <title>Upgrading Ports Using Portmaster</title>
+ <title>Upgrading Ports using Portmaster</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>portmaster</primary>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml
index 469afb0264..dc54744d5e 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/security/chapter.sgml
@@ -588,7 +588,7 @@
<sect2>
<title>Securing the Kernel Core, Raw Devices, and
- File Systems</title>
+ File systems</title>
<para>If an attacker breaks <username>root</username> he can do
just about anything, but there are certain conveniences. For
@@ -1879,8 +1879,8 @@ Aug 27 15:37:58 Aug 28 01:37:58 krbtgt/EXAMPLE.ORG@EXAMPLE.ORG</screen>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title><application>Kerberos</application> Enabling a Server
- with Heimdal Services</title>
+ <title><application>Kerberos</application> enabling a server
+ with Heimdal services</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>Kerberos5</primary>
@@ -1989,7 +1989,7 @@ kadmin><userinput> exit</userinput></screen>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title><application>Kerberos</application> Enabling a Client
+ <title><application>Kerberos</application> enabling a client
with Heimdal</title>
<indexterm>
@@ -2040,7 +2040,7 @@ kadmin><userinput> exit</userinput></screen>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title>User Configuration Files: <filename>.k5login</filename>
+ <title>User configuration files: <filename>.k5login</filename>
and <filename>.k5users</filename></title>
<indexterm>
@@ -2237,7 +2237,7 @@ jdoe@example.org</screen>
<sect2>
<title>Differences with the <acronym>MIT</acronym>
- Port</title>
+ port</title>
<para>The major difference between the <acronym>MIT</acronym>
and Heimdal installs relates to the
@@ -2292,7 +2292,7 @@ kadmind5_server_enable="YES"</programlisting>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title>Mitigating Limitations Found in
+ <title>Mitigating limitations found in
<application>Kerberos</application></title>
<indexterm>
@@ -2316,8 +2316,8 @@ kadmind5_server_enable="YES"</programlisting>
</sect3>
<sect3>
- <title><application>Kerberos</application> is Intended for
- Single-User Workstations</title>
+ <title><application>Kerberos</application> is intended for
+ single-user workstations</title>
<para>In a multi-user environment,
<application>Kerberos</application> is less secure.
@@ -2337,7 +2337,7 @@ kadmind5_server_enable="YES"</programlisting>
</sect3>
<sect3>
- <title>The KDC is a Single Point of Failure</title>
+ <title>The KDC is a single point of failure</title>
<para>By design, the <acronym>KDC</acronym> must be as
secure as the master password database is contained on it.
@@ -3185,7 +3185,7 @@ racoon_enable="yes"</programlisting>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title>Enabling <application>sshd</application></title>
+ <title>Enabling sshd</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>OpenSSH</primary>
@@ -3307,7 +3307,7 @@ COPYRIGHT 100% |*****************************| 4735
</sect2>
<sect2 id="security-ssh-keygen">
- <title><application>ssh-keygen</application></title>
+ <title>ssh-keygen</title>
<para>Instead of using passwords, &man.ssh-keygen.1; can
be used to generate DSA or RSA keys to authenticate a
@@ -3356,7 +3356,7 @@ bb:48:db:f2:93:57:80:b6:aa:bc:f5:d5:ba:8f:79:17 user@host.example.com</screen>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="security-ssh-agent">
- <title><application>ssh-agent</application> and <application>ssh-add</application></title>
+ <title>ssh-agent and ssh-add</title>
<para>The &man.ssh-agent.1; and &man.ssh-add.1; utilities
provide methods for <application>SSH</application> keys to
@@ -3887,7 +3887,7 @@ You are advised to update or deinstall the affected package(s) immediately.</pro
to patch a system.</para>
<sect2>
- <title>What Does an Advisory Look Like?</title>
+ <title>What does an advisory look like?</title>
<para>The &os; security advisories look similar to the one
below, taken from the &a.security-notifications.name;
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml
index 7bfa0e699a..6451a4b97d 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/serialcomms/chapter.sgml
@@ -810,7 +810,7 @@ sio3: type 16550A</screen>
through the Ports Collection. The Ports include quite a few
utilities which can work in ways similar to &man.cu.1; and
&man.tip.1;,
- i.e., <filename role="package">comms/minicom</filename>.</para>
+ i.e. <filename role="package">comms/minicom</filename>.</para>
</note>
</sect3>
@@ -1173,7 +1173,7 @@ ttyu5 "/usr/libexec/getty std.19200" vt100 on insecure
modems instead of terminals.</para>
<sect2>
- <title>External Versus Internal Modems</title>
+ <title>External vs. Internal Modems</title>
<para>External modems seem to be more convenient for dial-up, because
external modems often can be semi-permanently configured via
@@ -1881,7 +1881,7 @@ AT&amp;B2&amp;W</programlisting>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="direct-at">
- <title>How Am I Expected to Enter These <literal>AT</literal> Commands?</title>
+ <title>How Am I Expected to Enter These AT Commands?</title>
<indexterm>
<primary><filename>/etc/remote</filename></primary>
@@ -1895,7 +1895,7 @@ AT&amp;B2&amp;W</programlisting>
<para>Use the highest bps rate your modem supports in the br capability.
Then, type <command>tip cuau0</command> and you will be connected to
- your modem.</para >
+ your modem.</para>
<para>Or use <command>cu</command> as <username>root</username> with the
following command:</para>
@@ -1903,9 +1903,9 @@ AT&amp;B2&amp;W</programlisting>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cu -l<replaceable>line</replaceable> -s<replaceable>speed</replaceable></userinput></screen>
<para><replaceable>line</replaceable> is the serial port
- (e.g., <filename>/dev/cuau0</filename>) and
+ (e.g.<filename>/dev/cuau0</filename>) and
<replaceable>speed</replaceable> is the speed
- (e.g., <literal>57600</literal>). When you are done entering the AT
+ (e.g.<literal>57600</literal>). When you are done entering the AT
commands type <command>~.</command> to exit.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -2117,7 +2117,7 @@ raisechar=^^</programlisting>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="zmodem-tip">
- <title>How Can I Run <application>zmodem</application> with <command>tip</command>?</title>
+ <title>How Can I Run zmodem with <command>tip</command>?</title>
<para>To receive files, start the sending program on the remote end.
Then, type <command>~C rz</command> to begin receiving them
@@ -2829,7 +2829,7 @@ ttyu3 "/usr/libexec/getty std.9600" unknown off secure</programlisting>
Change <literal>off</literal> to <literal>on</literal> for the
desired port. If you have changed the speed of the serial port,
you need to change <literal>std.9600</literal> to match the current
- setting, e.g., <literal>std.19200</literal>.</para>
+ setting, e.g. <literal>std.19200</literal>.</para>
<para>You may also want to change the terminal type from
<literal>unknown</literal> to the actual type of your serial
@@ -2907,7 +2907,7 @@ ttyu3 "/usr/libexec/getty std.9600" unknown off secure</programlisting>
while most systems will let you boot without a keyboard, there
are quite a few that will not let you boot without a graphics adapter.
Machines with AMI BIOSes can be configured to boot with no graphics
- adapter installed by changing the
+ adapter installed simply by changing the
<quote>graphics adapter</quote> setting in the CMOS configuration to
<quote>Not installed.</quote></para>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/users/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/users/chapter.sgml
index 72a780dcdb..8f616a7c9d 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/users/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/users/chapter.sgml
@@ -392,7 +392,7 @@
the new user a welcome message.</para>
<example>
- <title>Adding a User on &os;</title>
+ <title>Adding a user on &os;</title>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>adduser</userinput>
Username: <userinput>jru</userinput>
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/virtualization/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/virtualization/chapter.sgml
index f699c32d85..66da4709d3 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/virtualization/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/virtualization/chapter.sgml
@@ -231,7 +231,7 @@
<procedure>
<step>
- <title>Set Boot Loader Variables</title>
+ <title>Set boot loader variables</title>
<para>The most important step is to reduce the
<option>kern.hz</option> tunable to reduce the CPU utilization
@@ -249,7 +249,7 @@
</step>
<step>
- <title>Create a New Kernel Configuration File</title>
+ <title>Create a new kernel configuration file</title>
<para>You can remove all of the SCSI, FireWire, and USB
device drivers. <application>Parallels</application>
@@ -261,7 +261,7 @@
</step>
<step>
- <title>Setup Networking</title>
+ <title>Setup networking</title>
<para>The most basic networking setup involves simply
using DHCP to connect your virtual machine to the same
@@ -731,7 +731,7 @@ xenbr1 8000.feffffffffff no vif0.1
<procedure>
<step>
- <title>Set Boot Loader Variables</title>
+ <title>Set boot loader variables</title>
<para>The most important step is to reduce the
<option>kern.hz</option> tunable to reduce the CPU utilization
@@ -749,7 +749,7 @@ xenbr1 8000.feffffffffff no vif0.1
</step>
<step>
- <title>Create a New Kernel Configuration File</title>
+ <title>Create a new kernel configuration file</title>
<para>You can remove all of the SCSI, FireWire, and USB
device drivers. <application>Virtual PC</application>
@@ -761,7 +761,7 @@ xenbr1 8000.feffffffffff no vif0.1
</step>
<step>
- <title>Setup Networking</title>
+ <title>Setup networking</title>
<para>The most basic networking setup involves simply
using DHCP to connect your virtual machine to the same
@@ -926,7 +926,7 @@ xenbr1 8000.feffffffffff no vif0.1
<procedure>
<step>
- <title>Set Boot Loader Variables</title>
+ <title>Set boot loader variables</title>
<para>The most important step is to reduce the
<option>kern.hz</option> tunable to reduce the CPU utilization
@@ -944,7 +944,7 @@ xenbr1 8000.feffffffffff no vif0.1
</step>
<step>
- <title>Create a New Kernel Configuration file</title>
+ <title>Create a new kernel configuration file</title>
<para>You can remove all of the FireWire, and USB device
drivers. <application>VMware</application> provides a
@@ -954,7 +954,7 @@ xenbr1 8000.feffffffffff no vif0.1
</step>
<step>
- <title>Setup Networking</title>
+ <title>Setup networking</title>
<para>The most basic networking setup involves simply
using DHCP to connect your virtual machine to the same
@@ -1051,7 +1051,7 @@ EndSection</programlisting>
&lt;!--
# Sun VirtualBox
# Hal driver description for the vboxmouse driver
-# $Id: chapter.sgml,v 1.28 2012-02-15 18:14:17 eadler Exp $
+# $Id: chapter.sgml,v 1.29 2012-02-15 18:37:26 eadler Exp $
Copyright (C) 2008-2009 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml
index 08d4c89295..047437a196 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/x11/chapter.sgml
@@ -113,7 +113,7 @@
<quote>X server</quote> runs on the computer that has the keyboard,
monitor, and mouse attached. The server's responsibility includes tasks such as managing
the display, handling input from the keyboard and mouse, and other
- input or output devices (i.e., a <quote>tablet</quote> can be used as
+ input or output devices (i.e. a <quote>tablet</quote> can be used as
an input device, and a video projector may be an alternative output
device).
Each X application (such as <application>XTerm</application>, or
@@ -530,7 +530,7 @@ dbus_enable="YES"</programlisting>
<programlisting>Option "AutoAddDevices" "false"</programlisting>
<para>Input devices may then be configured as in previous versions,
- along with any other options needed (e.g., keyboard layout
+ along with any other options needed (e.g. keyboard layout
switching).</para>
<note>