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index 76adc125e3..a837cf2ba3 100644
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+++ b/FAQ/FAQ.sgml
@@ -1,12 +1,12 @@
<!DOCTYPE linuxdoc PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD linuxdoc//EN">
-<!-- $Id: FAQ.sgml,v 1.82 1997-10-05 11:15:46 brian Exp $ -->
+<!-- $Id: FAQ.sgml,v 1.83 1997-10-12 18:49:11 wosch Exp $ -->
<article>
<title>Frequently Asked Questions for FreeBSD 2.X
<author>Please send submissions to <tt><htmlurl url='mailto:faq@freebsd.org'
name='&lt;faq@freebsd.org&gt;'></tt>
-<date>$Date: 1997-10-05 11:15:46 $</date>
+<date>$Date: 1997-10-12 18:49:11 $</date>
<abstract>
This is the FAQ for FreeBSD systems version 2.X All entries are
@@ -610,7 +610,9 @@ Any entries with a &lt;XXX&gt; are under construction.
<sect1>
<heading>Can I install on a disk with bad blocks?</heading>
<p>
- FreeBSD's bad block (the ``<tt/bad144/'' command) handling is
+ FreeBSD's bad block (the <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?bad144" name="bad144">
+ command) handling is
still not 100&percnt; (to put it charitably) and it must
unfortunately be said that if you've got an IDE or ESDI drive
with lots of bad blocks, then FreeBSD is probably not for you!
@@ -1033,7 +1035,7 @@ Any entries with a &lt;XXX&gt; are under construction.
those that claim to be AST compatible.
Check the <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sio"
- name="sio">n man page to get more information on
+ name="sio"> man page to get more information on
configuring such cards.
<sect1>
@@ -1101,13 +1103,18 @@ options PSM_CHECKSYNC #checks the header byte for sync.
<sect1>
<heading>Does FreeBSD support tape changers?</heading>
- <p>FreeBSD 2.2 supports SCSI changers using the <tt/ch/ device and the
- <tt/chio/ command. The details of how you actually control the
+ <p>FreeBSD 2.2 supports SCSI changers using the <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ch(4)" name="ch">
+ device and the <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?chio" name="chio">
+ command. The details of how you actually control the
changer can be found in the
<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?chio"
name="chio"> man page.
- If you're not using <tt/AMANDA/ or some other product that already
+ If you're not using <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/ports.cgi?amanda"
+ name="AMANDA"> or some other product that already
understands changers, remember that they're only know how to move a
tape from one point to another, so you need to keep track of which
slot a tape is in, and which slot the tape currently in the drive
@@ -1139,45 +1146,61 @@ options PSM_CHECKSYNC #checks the header byte for sync.
list will have to do.
<descrip>
- <tag/``de'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?de(4)"
+ name="de"> driver/
DEC DC21x40 and compatible PCI controllers<newline>
(including 21140 100bT cards) <newline>
- <tag/``ed'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ed(4)"
+ name="ed"> driver/
NE2000 and 1000<newline>
WD/SMC 8003, 8013 and Elite Ultra (8216)<newline>
3Com 3c503 <newline>
HP 27247B and 27252A <newline>
And clones of the above <newline>
- <tag/``le'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?le(4)"
+ name="le"> driver/
DEC EtherWORKS II and EtherWORKS III controllers. <newline>
- <tag/``ie'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ie(4)"
+ name="ie"> driver/
AT&amp;T EN100/StarLAN 10 <newline>
3COM 3c507 Etherlink 16/TP<newline>
NI5210 <newline>
- <tag/``is'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?is(4)"
+ name="is"> driver/
Isolan AT 4141-0 <newline>
Isolink 4110 <newline>
- <tag/``el'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?el(4)"
+ name="el"> driver/
3com 3c501 (does not support Multicast or DMA)
- <tag/``eg'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?eg(4)"
+ name="eg"> driver/
3com 3c505 Etherlink/+
- <tag/``ze'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ze(4)"
+ name="ze"> driver/
IBM PCMCIA credit card adapter
- <tag/``lnc'' drive/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?lnc(4)"
+ name="lnc"> drive/
Lance/PCnet cards (Isolan, Novell NE2100, NE32-VL)(*)
- <tag/``ep'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ep(4)"
+ name="ep"> driver/
3com 3c509 (Must disable PNP support on card)
- <tag/``ix'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ix(4)"
+ name="ix"> driver/
Intel InterExpress
- <tag/``cx'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?cx(4)"
+ name="cx"> driver/
Cronyx/Sigma multiport Sync/Async (Cisco and PPP framing)
- <tag/``zp'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?zp(4)"
+ name="zp"> driver/
3Com PCMCIA Etherlink III (aka 3c589)(A-C only)
- <tag/``fea'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fea(4)"
+ name="fea"> driver/
DEC DEFEA EISA FDDI controller
- <tag/``fpa'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fpa(4)"
+ name="fpa"> driver/
DEC DEFPA PCI FDDI controller
- <tag/``fe'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fe(4)"
+ name="fe"> driver/
Fujitsu MB86960A/MB86965A Ethernet cards
</descrip>
@@ -1232,15 +1255,19 @@ options PSM_CHECKSYNC #checks the header byte for sync.
Driver for PC speakers to allow the playing of audio files
<tag>``spigot'' driver</tag>
Driver for the Creative Labs Video Spigot
- <tag>``gsc'' driver</tag>
+ <tag><htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?gsc(4)"
+ name="gsc"> driver</tag>
Driver for the Genuis GS-4500 Hand scanner
- <tag>``joy'' driver</tag>
+ <tag><htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?joy(4)"
+ name="joy"> driver</tag>
Driver for a joystick
- <tag/``labpc'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?labpc(4)"
+ name="labpc"> driver/
Driver for National Instrument's Lab-PC and Lab-PC+
<tag/``uart'' driver/
Stand-alone 6850 UART for MIDI
- <tag/``psm'' driver/
+ <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?psm(4)"
+ name="psm"> driver/
PS/2 mouse port
<tag><tt/tw.c/</tag>
Driver for the X-10 POWERHOUSE <newline>
@@ -1262,7 +1289,8 @@ options PSM_CHECKSYNC #checks the header byte for sync.
<heading>Does FreeBSD support power management on my laptop?</heading>
<p>
FreeBSD supports APM on certain machines. Please look in the
- <tt/LINT/ kernel config file, searching for the <tt/APM/ keyword.
+ <tt/LINT/ kernel config file, searching for the <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?apm" name="APM"> keyword.
<sect>
<heading>Troubleshooting</heading>
@@ -1507,7 +1535,8 @@ quit
This is a known problem with the ATI Mach 64 video card.
The problem is that this card uses address <tt/2e8/, and
the fourth serial port does too. Due to a bug (feature?) in the
- sio.c driver it will touch this port even if you don't have the
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sio" name="sio.c">
+ driver it will touch this port even if you don't have the
fourth serial port, and <bf/even/ if you disable sio3 (the fourth
port) which normally uses this address.
@@ -1543,7 +1572,8 @@ quit
X312BMa64.tgz</tt>
Replace the older files with the new versions and make sure you
- run <tt/xf86config/ again.
+ run <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=xf86config" name="xf86config"> again.
<sect1>
<heading>I have 128 MB of RAM but the system only uses 64 MB.<label id="reallybigram"></heading>
@@ -1588,7 +1618,8 @@ quit
connections you need to support. I'd recommend trying 2048 - this
should get rid of the panic completely. You can monitor the
number of mbuf clusters allocated/in use on the system with
- <tt/netstat -m/.
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?netstat"
+ name="netstat -m">.
<sect1>
<heading>``CMAP busy panic'' when rebooting with a new kernel.</heading>
@@ -1608,7 +1639,8 @@ quit
This is a conflict with an Ultrastor SCSI Host Adapter.
During the boot process enter the kernel configuration menu and
- disable <tt/uha0/, which is causing the problem.
+ disable <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?uha(4)"
+ name="uha0">, which is causing the problem.
<sect1><heading>Sendmail says ``mail loops back to myself''</heading>
<p>
@@ -1813,13 +1845,16 @@ quit
<p>
You first need to edit the <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>
- (or <tt/rc.conf/) file in the last
+ (or <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc.conf(5)"
+ name="/etc/rc.conf">) file in the last
section to change the following variable to <tt/YES/:
<verb>
# Set to YES if you want ibcs2 (SCO) emulation loaded at startup
ibcs2=NO
</verb>
- It will load the <tt/ibcs2/ kernel module at startup.
+ It will load the <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ibcs2" name="ibcs2">
+ kernel module at startup.
You'll then need to set up /compat/ibcs2/dev to look like:
@@ -1830,7 +1865,9 @@ lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 7 Oct 15 22:20 nfsd@ -> socksys
lrwxr-xr-x 1 root wheel 9 Oct 15 22:20 socksys@ -> /dev/null
crw-rw-rw- 1 root wheel 41, 1 Oct 15 22:14 spx
</verb>
- You just need socksys to go to <tt>/dev/null</tt> to fake the
+ You just need socksys to go to <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?null(4)"
+ name="/dev/null"> to fake the
open &amp; close. The code in -current will handle the rest.
This is much cleaner than the way it was done before. If you
want the <tt/spx/ driver for a local socket X connection, define
@@ -1924,7 +1961,9 @@ crw-rw-rw- 1 root wheel 41, 1 Oct 15 22:14 spx
<heading>My kernel compiles fail because <tt/&lowbar;hw&lowbar;float/ is missing.</heading>
<p>
- Let me guess. You removed <tt/npx0/ from your kernel configuration
+ Let me guess. You removed <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?npx(4)"
+ name="npx0"> from your kernel configuration
file because you don't have a math co-processor, right? Wrong! :-)
The <tt/npx0/ is <bf/MANDATORY/. Even if you don't have a
mathematic co-processor, you <bf/must/ include the <tt/npx0/
@@ -1959,7 +1998,8 @@ device sio5 at isa? port 0x2b8 tty flags 0x501 vector siointr
<p>
You need to uncomment the following line in the generic config
file (or add it to your config file), add a ``<tt/flags 0x1/''
- on the <tt/fdc/ line and recompile.
+ on the <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fdc(4)"
+ name="fdc"> line and recompile.
<verb>
controller fdc0 at isa? port "IO_FD1" bio irq 6 drq 2 flags 0x1 vector fdintr
@@ -1980,7 +2020,9 @@ disk fd1 at fdc0 drive 1
You will have a device called <tt>/dev/ft0</tt>, which you can
write to through a special program to manage it called
- ``<tt/ft/'' - see the man page on <tt/ft/ for further details.
+ ``<tt/ft/'' - see the man page on <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ft" name="ft">
+ for further details.
Versions previous to <tt/-current/ also had some trouble dealing
with bad tape media; if you have trouble where <tt/ft/ seems to
go back and forth over the same spot, try grabbing the latest
@@ -1997,7 +2039,8 @@ disk fd1 at fdc0 drive 1
<p>
From 2.0.5R to 2.2.2R, the primary configuration file is
<tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>. All the options are to be specified in
- this file and other files such as <tt>/etc/rc</tt> and
+ this file and other files such as <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc" name="/etc/rc"> and
<tt>/etc/netstart</tt> just include it.
Look in the <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> file and change the value to
@@ -2005,14 +2048,19 @@ disk fd1 at fdc0 drive 1
to put in there.
In post-2.2.2 and 3.0, <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> was renamed
- to a more self-describing <tt>rc.conf</tt> file and the syntax
+ to a more self-describing <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc.conf(5)"
+ name="rc.conf"> file and the syntax
cleaned up a bit in the process. <tt>/etc/netstart</tt> was also
renamed to <tt>/etc/rc.network</tt> so that all files could be
- copied with a <tt>cp /usr/src/etc/rc* /etc</tt> command.
+ copied with a <tt><htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?cp" name="cp">
+ /usr/src/etc/rc* /etc</tt> command.
<tt>/etc/rc.local</tt> is here as always and is the place to
- start up additional local services like <tt/INN/ or set custom
- options.
+ start up additional local services like <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/ports.cgi?^inn" name="INN">
+ or set custom options.
The <tt>/etc/rc.serial</tt> is for serial port initialization
(e.g. locking the port characteristics, and so on.).
@@ -2046,14 +2094,17 @@ disk fd1 at fdc0 drive 1
<heading>How do I add a user easily?</heading>
<p>
- Use the <tt/adduser/ command.
+ Use the <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?adduser"
+ name="adduser"> command.
There is another package called ``<tt/new-account/'' also written
in Perl by Ollivier Robert. Ask
<tt>&lt;roberto@FreeBSD.ORG&gt;</tt> about it. It is currently
undergoing further development.
- To remove the user again, use the <tt/rmuser/ command.
+ To remove the user again, use the <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rmuser" name="rmuser">
+ command.
<sect1>
<heading>How can I add my new hard disk to my FreeBSD system?</heading>
@@ -2120,7 +2171,9 @@ drivedata: 0
Make sure that the size is correct, in this case, 2459520
sectors/unit x 512 bytes/sector / 2**20 (1 Megabyte) = 1200
Megabytes. The rest of the stuff (b/s, t/c, s/c, interleave, etc.)
- should get suitable defaults from <tt /disklabel/, but see
+ should get suitable defaults from <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?disklabel"
+ name="disklabel">, but see
<ref id="ESDI" name="this note"> for older disks. 'fsize' is the
<ref id="fsize" name="Fragment size"> for the filesystem,
and 'bsize' is the <ref id="bsize" name="Block size">. 'c' is
@@ -2169,7 +2222,8 @@ drivedata: 0
# disklabel -e wd0
</verb>
- The first <tt/dd/ command ensures there is no old junk at
+ The first <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?dd"
+ name="dd"> command ensures there is no old junk at
the beginning of the disk that might confuse the disk code
in the kernel. Following is an automatic skeleton label
generation using the defaults that have been probed from the
@@ -2185,7 +2239,9 @@ drivedata: 0
</verb>
Depending on the disk name and slice number, it might be
- required that you run the script <tt>/dev/MAKEDEV</tt>
+ required that you run the script <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?MAKEDEV"
+ name="/dev/MAKEDEV">
before in order to create the desired device nodes.
And mount your new filesystems (See
@@ -2197,7 +2253,9 @@ drivedata: 0
mount /dev/wd0s2f /mnt/bar
</verb>
- You may wish to edit <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> to automatically mount
+ You may wish to edit <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fstab(5)"
+ name="/etc/fstab"> to automatically mount
the filesystems at boot time.
<p>
@@ -2219,7 +2277,9 @@ drivedata: 0
name="&lt;sys/disklabel.h&gt;">
<tag><label id="ESDI">
<bf>Disklabel Characteristics for Older Disks (ESDI)</bf></tag>
- You may need to provide more information to <tt /disklabel/
+ You may need to provide more information to <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?disklabel"
+ name="disklabel">
if you happen to own a ``true disk'', i.e. one with a
uniform geometry, real heads, sectors, and cylinders,
such as an old ESDI drive. All of this should be easily
@@ -2282,7 +2342,8 @@ drivedata: 0
system on it. You'll get long filename support, at least a 2X
improvement in performance, and a lot more stability. First, you
need to redo the DOS-level partitions/filesystems. You can either
- use <tt/fdisk/ or <tt>/stand/sysinstall</tt>, or for a small
+ use <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fdisk"
+ name="fdisk"> or <tt>/stand/sysinstall</tt>, or for a small
drive that you don't want to bother with multiple operating system
support on, just blow away the whole FAT partition table (slices)
and just use the BSD partitioning:
@@ -2302,7 +2363,8 @@ drivedata: 0
using the whole disk:
<verb>
- newfs /dev/rsd2c
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?newfs"
+ name="newfs"> /dev/rsd2c
</verb>
and mount it:
@@ -2312,7 +2374,8 @@ drivedata: 0
</verb>
and it's probably a good idea to add a line like this to
- <tt>/etc/fstab</tt> so you can just type "mount /zip" in the
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fstab"
+ name="/etc/fstab"> so you can just type "mount /zip" in the
future:
<verb>
@@ -2404,7 +2467,8 @@ drivedata: 0
</verb>
If FreeBSD or Linux are booting from the MBR, restore it with the
- DOS ``<tt>fdisk /mbr</tt>'' command after you reconfigure them to
+ DOS ``<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fdisk"
+ name="fdisk /mbr">'' command after you reconfigure them to
boot from their native partitions.
<sect1>
@@ -2593,7 +2657,8 @@ vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
name="kbdcontrol">.
This can be configured in <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>
- (or <tt/rc.conf/). See the
+ (or <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc.conf(5)"
+ name="rc.conf">). See the
appropriate comments in this file.
In 2.0.5R and later, everything related to text fonts, keyboard
@@ -2721,7 +2786,9 @@ vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
<p>
Tweaking <tt>/etc/sendmail.cf</tt> manually is considered
something for purists. Sendmail version 8 comes with a
- new approach of generating config files via some <tt>m4</tt>
+ new approach of generating config files via some
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?m4"
+ name="m4">
preprocessing, where the actual hand-crafted configuration
is on a higher abstraction level. You should use the
configuration files under
@@ -2870,8 +2937,8 @@ vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
The easiest way is to simply specify that you want to run X
during the installation process.
<p>
- Then read and follow the documentation on the
- <tt/xf86config/ tool, which assists you in
+ Then read and follow the documentation on the <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=xf86config" name="xf86config"> tool, which assists you in
configuring XFree86(tm) for your particular graphics
card/mouse/etc.
@@ -2907,7 +2974,8 @@ vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
<p>
Some people prefer to use ``<tt>/dev/mouse</tt>'' under X. To
make this work, ``<tt>/dev/mouse</tt>'' should be linked to
- ``<tt>/dev/sysmouse</tt>'':
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sysmouse"
+ name="/dev/sysmouse">:
<verb>
cd /dev
@@ -2955,7 +3023,9 @@ vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
enabled, and Alt-F1, Alt-F2, and Alt-F3 will switch between
these virtual consoles.
- To enable more of them, edit <tt>/etc/ttys</tt> and add
+ To enable more of them, edit <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys" name="/etc/ttys">
+ and add
entries for ``<tt/ttyv4/'' to ``<tt/ttyvc/'' after the
comment on ``Virtual terminals'' (delete the leading
whitespace in the following example):
@@ -3007,7 +3077,9 @@ vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
</verb>
(You could also just delete these lines.)
- Once you have edited <tt>/etc/ttys</tt>, the next step is to make
+ Once you have edited <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys" name="/etc/ttys">,
+ the next step is to make
sure that you have enough virtual terminal devices. The easiest
way to do this is:
<verb>
@@ -3045,10 +3117,14 @@ vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
<sect1>
<heading>How do I start XDM from the <tt>/etc/ttys</tt> file ?</heading>
<p>
- Starting xdm via /etc/ttys is a Bad Thing. I don't know why this
+ Starting <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=xdm" name="xdm">
+ via <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys"
+ name="/etc/ttys"> is a Bad Thing. I don't know why this
crept into some README file.
- Start it from your <tt/rc.local/, and be explicit about how it
+ Start it from your <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc"
+ name="rc.local">, and be explicit about how it
has to start. If this is your last action in <tt/rc.local/, put
a ``<tt/sleep 1/'' behind, to allow <tt/xdm/ to properly
daemonize before the <tt/rc/ shell exits.
@@ -3065,9 +3141,11 @@ vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
<sect1>
<heading>When I run xconsole, I get ``Couldn't open console''.</heading>
<p>
- If you start X with 'startx', the permissions on /dev/console will
- <tt /not/ get changed, resulting in things like ``xterm -C'' and
- ``xconsole'' not working.
+ If you start <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=X" name="X">
+ with <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=startx" name="startx">, the permissions on /dev/console will
+ <tt /not/ get changed, resulting in things like
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=xterm" name="xterm -C"> and
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=xconsole" name="xconsole"> not working.
<p>
This is because of the way console permissions are set by default.
@@ -3084,7 +3162,8 @@ vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
/dev/ttyv0 0600 /dev/console
</verb>
- is in <tt>/etc/fbtab</tt> and it will ensure that whomever logs
+ is in <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fbtab(5)"
+ name="/etc/fbtab"> and it will ensure that whomever logs
in on <tt>/dev/ttyv0</tt> will own the console.
@@ -3134,13 +3213,17 @@ vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
Internet standards and good engineering practice prohibit us from
providing packet forwarding by default in FreeBSD. You can
however enable this feature by changing the following variable to
- <tt/YES/ in <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> (or <tt/rc.conf/):
+ <tt/YES/ in <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> (or <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc.conf"
+ name="rc.conf">):
<verb>
# If you want this host to be a gateway, set to YES.
gateway=YES
</verb>
- This option will put the <tt/sysctl/ variable
+ This option will put the <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sysctl"
+ name="sysctl"> variable
<tt/net.inet.ip.forwarding/ to <tt/1/.
In most cases, you will also need to run a routing process to
@@ -3201,8 +3284,10 @@ vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ppp"
name="ppp">. <tt/pppd/ and <tt/ppp/ provide
support for both incoming and outgoing connections.
- <tt/Sliplogin/ deals exclusively with incoming connections and
- <tt/slattach/ deals exclusively with outgoing connections.
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sliplogin"
+ name="Sliplogin"> deals exclusively with incoming connections and
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?slattach"
+ name="slattach"> deals exclusively with outgoing connections.
These programs are described in the following sections of the
<url url="../handbook/handbook.html" name="handbook">:
@@ -3218,7 +3303,9 @@ vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
<p>
If you only have access to the Internet through a "shell
- account", you may want to have a look at the <tt/slirp/
+ account", you may want to have a look at the
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/ports.cgi?^slirp"
+ name="slirp">
package. It can provide you with (limited) access to services
such as ftp and http direct from your local machine.
@@ -3277,7 +3364,9 @@ vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
<p>
First, check that you've got a default route. By
- running <tt/netstat -rn/, you should see two entries
+ running <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?netstat">
+ name="netstat -rn">, you should see two entries
like this:
<verb>
Destination Gateway Flags Refs Use Netif Expire
@@ -3287,7 +3376,9 @@ default 10.0.0.2 UGSc 0 0 tun0
This is assuming that you've used the addresses from the
handbook, the man page or from the ppp.conf.sample file.
If you haven't got a default route, it may be because you're
- running an old version of <tt/ppp/ that doesn't understand the
+ running an old version of <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ppp"
+ name="ppp"> that doesn't understand the
word <tt/HISADDR/ in the ppp.conf file. If your version of
<tt/ppp/ is from before FreeBSD 2.2.5, change the
<verb>
@@ -3299,7 +3390,8 @@ default 10.0.0.2 UGSc 0 0 tun0
</verb>
Another reason for the default route line being missing is that
you have mistakenly set up a default router in your
- <tt>/etc/rc.conf</tt> file (this file was called
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc.conf"
+ name="/etc/rc.conf"> file (this file was called
<tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> prior to release 2.2.2), and you have
omitted the line saying
<verb>
@@ -3397,7 +3489,8 @@ MYADDR:
<p>
Prior to FreeBSD version 2.2.5, once the link was established,
- <tt/ppp/ would wait for the peer to initiate the Line Control
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ppp"
+ name="ppp"> would wait for the peer to initiate the Line Control
Protocol (LCP). Many ISPs will not initiate negotiations and
expect the client to do so. To force <tt/ppp/ to initiate
the LCP, use the following line:
@@ -3576,7 +3669,8 @@ MYADDR:
If all else fails, send as much information as you can,
including your config files, how you're starting <tt/ppp/,
the relevent parts of your log file and the output of the
- <tt/netstat -rn/ command (before and after connecting) to the
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?netstat"
+ name="netstat -rn"> command (before and after connecting) to the
<url url="mailto:freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org"
name="freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org"> mailing list, and someone
should point you in the right direction.
@@ -3598,8 +3692,9 @@ MYADDR:
<sect1>
<heading>How can I setup Ethernet aliases?</heading>
<p>
- Add ``<tt/netmask 0xffffffff/'' to your <tt/ifconfig/
- command-line like the following:
+ Add ``<tt/netmask 0xffffffff/'' to your <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ifconfig"
+ name="ifconfig"> command-line like the following:
<verb>
ifconfig ed0 alias 204.141.95.2 netmask 0xffffffff
</verb>
@@ -3748,7 +3843,9 @@ search foo.bar.edu bar.edu
<p><tt>
domain foo.bar.edu
</tt><p>
- into your <tt>/etc/resolv.conf</tt>. However, make sure
+ into your <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?resolv.conf"
+ name="/etc/resolv.conf">. However, make sure
that the search order does not go beyond the ``boundary
between local and public administration'', as RFC 1535
calls it.
@@ -3832,7 +3929,9 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
<sect1>
<heading>How do I access the serial ports on FreeBSD?</heading>
<p>
- The third serial port, <tt/sio2/ (known as COM3 in DOS), is on
+ The third serial port, <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sio"
+ name="sio2"> (known as COM3 in DOS), is on
<tt>/dev/cuaa2</tt> for dial-out devices, and on
<tt>/dev/ttyd2</tt> for dial-in devices. What's the difference
between these two classes of devices?
@@ -3854,7 +3953,9 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
<p>
Again, the section on kernel configuration provides information
about configuring your kernel. For a multiport serial card,
- place an <tt/sio/ line for each serial port on the card in the
+ place an <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sio"
+ name="sio"> line for each serial port on the card in the
kernel configuration file. But place the irq and vector
specifiers on only one of the entries. All of the ports on the
card should share one irq. For consistency, use the last serial
@@ -3915,7 +4016,9 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
speed of the port will be stuck with 57600 bps.
Naturally, you should make the initial state and lock state
- devices writable only by <tt/root/. The <tt/MAKEDEV/ script does
+ devices writable only by <tt/root/. The <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?MAKEDEV"
+ name="MAKEDEV"> script does
<bf/NOT/ do this when it creates the device entries.
<sect1>
@@ -3941,7 +4044,9 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
commands"> below for information on how to make these settings
without resorting to an MS-DOS terminal program.
- Next, make an entry in <tt>/etc/ttys</tt> for the modem. This
+ Next, make an entry in <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys"
+ name="/etc/ttys"> for the modem. This
file lists all the ports on which the operating system will await
logins. Add a line that looks something like this:
<verb>
@@ -3950,7 +4055,8 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
This line indicates that the second serial port
(<tt>/dev/ttyd1</tt>) has a modem connected running at 57600 bps
and no parity (<tt/std.57600/, which comes from the file
- <tt>/etc/gettytab</tt>). The terminal type for this port is
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?gettytab"
+ name="/etc/gettytab">). The terminal type for this port is
``dialup.'' The port is ``on'' and is ``insecure''---meaning
root logins on the port aren't allowed. For dialin ports like
this one, use the <tt/ttydX/ entry.
@@ -3959,16 +4065,24 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
Many users set up in their .profile or .login files a prompt for
the actual terminal type if the starting type is dialup. The
example shows the port as insecure. To become root on this port,
- you have to login as a regular user, then ``<tt/su/'' to
+ you have to login as a regular user, then <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?su"
+ name="su">'' to
<tt/root/. If you use ``secure'' then <tt/root/ can login in
directly.
- After making modifications to <tt>/etc/ttys</tt>, you need to
- send a hangup or <tt/HUP/ signal to the <tt/init/ process:
+ After making modifications to <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys"
+ name="/etc/ttys">, you need to
+ send a hangup or <tt/HUP/ signal to the <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?init"
+ name="init"> process:
<verb>
kill -1 1
</verb>
- This forces the init process to reread <tt>/etc/ttys</tt>. The
+ This forces the init process to reread <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys"
+ name="/etc/ttys">. The
init process will then start getty processes on all ``on'' ports.
You can find out if logins are available for your port by typing
<verb>
@@ -3988,7 +4102,9 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
ports. If you're using an actual terminal, see its accompanying
instructions.
- Then, modify <tt>/etc/ttys</tt>, like above. For example, if
+ Then, modify <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys"
+ name="/etc/ttys">, like above. For example, if
you're hooking up a WYSE-50 terminal to the fifth serial port,
use an entry like this:
<verb>
@@ -3996,14 +4112,22 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
</verb>
This example shows that the port on <tt>/dev/ttyd4</tt> has a
wyse50 terminal connected at 38400 bps with no parity
- (<tt/std.38400/ from <tt>/etc/gettytab</tt>) and <tt/root/ logins
+ (<tt/std.38400/ from <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?gettytab"
+ name="/etc/gettytab">) and <tt/root/ logins
are allowed (secure).
<sect1>
<heading>Why can't I run <tt/tip/ or <tt/cu/?</heading>
<p>
- On your system, the programs <tt/tip/ and <tt/cu/ are probably
- executable only by <tt/uucp/ and group <tt/dialer/. You can use
+ On your system, the programs <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
+ name="tip"> and <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?cu"
+ name="cu"> are probably
+ executable only by <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?uucp"
+ name="uucp"> and group <tt/dialer/. You can use
the group <tt/dialer/ to control who has access to your modem or
remote systems. Just add yourself to group dialer.
@@ -4017,14 +4141,20 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
<sect1>
<heading>My stock Hayes modem isn't supported---what can I do?</heading>
<p>
- Actually, the man page for <tt/tip/ is out of date. There is a
+ Actually, the man page for <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
+ name="tip"> is out of date. There is a
generic Hayes dialer already built in. Just use
- ``<tt/at=hayes/'' in your <tt>/etc/remote</tt> file.
+ ``<tt/at=hayes/'' in your <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?remote"
+ name="/etc/remote"> file.
The Hayes driver isn't smart enough to recognize some of the
advanced features of newer modems---messages like <tt/BUSY/,
<tt/NO DIALTONE/, or <tt/CONNECT 115200/ will just confuse it.
- You should turn those messages off when you use <tt/tip/ (using
+ You should turn those messages off when you use <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
+ name="tip"> (using
<tt/ATX0&amp;W/).
Also, the dial timeout for <tt/tip/ is 60 seconds. Your modem
@@ -4044,14 +4174,17 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
<heading>How am I expected to enter these AT commands?<label id="direct-at"></heading>
<p>
Make what's called a ``<tt/direct/'' entry in your
- <tt>/etc/remote</tt> file. For example, if your modem's hooked
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?remote"
+ name="/etc/remote"> file. For example, if your modem's hooked
up to the first serial port, <tt>/dev/cuaa0</tt>, then put in the
following line:
<verb>
cuaa0:dv=/dev/cuaa0:br#19200:pa=none
</verb>
Use the highest bps rate your modem supports in the br
- capability. Then, type ``<tt/tip cuaa0/'' and you'll be
+ capability. Then, type <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
+ name="tip cuaa0"> and you'll be
connected to your modem.
If there is no <tt>/dev/cuaa0</tt> on your system, do this:
@@ -4072,9 +4205,11 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
<heading>The <tt/@/ sign for the pn capability doesn't work!</heading>
<p>
The <tt/@/ sign in the phone number capability tells tip to look in
- <tt>/etc/phones</tt> for a phone number. But the <tt/@/ sign is
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?phones(5)"
+ name="/etc/phones"> for a phone number. But the <tt/@/ sign is
also a special character in capability files like
- <tt>/etc/remote</tt>. Escape it with a backslash:
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?remote"
+ name="/etc/remote">. Escape it with a backslash:
<verb>
pn=\@
</verb>
@@ -4083,7 +4218,8 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
<heading>How can I dial a phone number on the command line?</heading>
<p>
Put what's called a ``<tt/generic/'' entry in your
- <tt>/etc/remote</tt> file. For example:
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?remote"
+ name="/etc/remote"> file. For example:
<verb>
tip115200|Dial any phone number at 115200 bps:\
:dv=/dev/cuaa0:br#115200:at=hayes:pa=none:du:
@@ -4092,7 +4228,10 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
</verb>
Then you can things like ``<tt/tip -115200 5551234/''. If you
- prefer <tt/cu/ over <tt/tip/, use a generic cu entry:
+ prefer <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?cu"
+ name="cu"> over <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
+ name="tip">, use a generic cu entry:
<verb>
cu115200|Use cu to dial any number at 115200bps:\
:dv=/dev/cuaa1:br#57600:at=hayes:pa=none:du:
@@ -4104,7 +4243,9 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
<p>
Put in an entry for <tt/tip1200/ or <tt/cu1200/, but go ahead and
use whatever bps rate is appropriate with the br
- capability. <tt/tip/ thinks a good default is 1200 bps which is
+ capability. <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
+ name="tip"> thinks a good default is 1200 bps which is
why it looks for a ``<tt/tip1200/'' entry. You don't have to use
1200 bps, though.
@@ -4114,7 +4255,8 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
Rather than waiting until you're connected and typing
``<tt/CONNECT &lt;host&gt;/'' each time, use tip's <tt/cm/
capability. For example, these entries in
- <tt>/etc/remote</tt>:
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?remote"
+ name="/etc/remote">:
<verb>
pain|pain.deep13.com|Forrester's machine:\
:cm=CONNECT pain\n:tc=deep13:
@@ -4134,7 +4276,9 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
This is often a problem where a university has several modem lines
and several thousand students trying to use them...
<p>
- Make an entry for your university in <tt>/etc/remote</tt>
+ Make an entry for your university in <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?remote"
+ name="/etc/remote">
and use <tt>\@</tt> for the <tt/pn/ capability:
<verb>
big-university:\
@@ -4144,7 +4288,8 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
</verb>
Then, list the phone numbers for the university in
- <tt>/etc/phones</tt>:
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?phones"
+ name="/etc/phones">:
<verb>
big-university 5551111
big-university 5551112
@@ -4152,13 +4297,16 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
big-university 5551114
</verb>
- <tt/tip/ will try each one in the listed order, then give up. If
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
+ name="tip"> will try each one in the listed order, then give up. If
you want to keep retrying, run <tt/tip/ in a while loop.
<sect1>
<heading>Why do I have to hit CTRL+P twice to send CTRL+P once?</heading>
<p>
- CTRL+P is the default ``force'' character, used to tell <tt/tip/
+ CTRL+P is the default ``force'' character, used to tell
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
+ name="tip">
that the next character is literal data. You can set the force
character to any other character with the <tt/~s/ escape, which
means ``set a variable.''
@@ -4180,7 +4328,9 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
<sect1>
<heading>Suddenly everything I type is in UPPER CASE??</heading>
<p>
- You must've pressed CTRL+A, <tt/tip/'s ``raise character,''
+ You must've pressed CTRL+A, <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
+ name="tip"> ``raise character,''
specially designed for people with broken caps-lock keys. Use
<tt/~s/ as above and set the variable ``raisechar'' to something
reasonable. In fact, you can set it to the same as the force
@@ -4199,7 +4349,11 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
<p>
If you're talking to another UNIX system, you can send and
receive files with <tt/~p/ (put) and <tt/~t/ (take). These
- commands run ``<tt/cat/'' and ``<tt/echo/'' on the remote system
+ commands run <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?cat"
+ name="cat"> and <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?echo"
+ name="echo"> on the remote system
to accept and send files. The syntax is:
<verb>
~p <local-file> [<remote-file>]
@@ -4245,11 +4399,13 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
formats for UNIX:
<itemize>
- <item><bf>a.out</bf>
+ <item><htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?a.out(5)"
+ name="a.out">
<p>The oldest and `classic' unix object format. It uses a
short and compact header with a magic number at the beginning
that's often used to characterize the format (see the
- <tt>a.out</tt>(5) for more details). It contains three loaded
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?a.out(5)"
+ name="a.out(5)"> for more details). It contains three loaded
segments: .text, .data, and .bss plus a symbol table and a
string table.
</item>
@@ -4278,7 +4434,8 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
</itemize>
<p>FreeBSD comes from the "classic" camp and uses the
- <tt/a.out/ format, a technology tried and proven through
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?a.out(5)"
+ name="a.out"> format, a technology tried and proven through
many generations of BSD releases. Though it has also been possible
for some time to build and run native <tt/ELF/ binaries (and
kernels) on a FreeBSD system, no official "push" to switch to
@@ -4329,7 +4486,9 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
chmod 555 foo/
</verb>
- With the trailing slash, <tt/chmod/ will follow the symlink,
+ With the trailing slash, <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?chmod"
+ name="chmod"> will follow the symlink,
``<tt/foo/'', to change the permissions of the directory,
``<tt/bar/''.
</sect1>
@@ -4357,7 +4516,9 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
name="The FreeBSD emulation discussion list">
if you're interested in joining this effort!
- For now, there is a neat utility called ``<tt/pcemu/'' in the
+ For now, there is a neat utility called
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/ports.cgi?^pcemu"
+ name="pcemu"> in the
ports collection which emulates an 8088 and enough BIOS services
to run DOS text mode applications. It requires the X Window
System (provided as XFree86 3.1.2).
@@ -4366,7 +4527,9 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
<heading>What is this thing called ``<tt/sup/'', and how do I use it?</heading>
<p>
- SUP stands for Software Update Protocol, and was developed by CMU
+ <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/ports.cgi?^sup"
+ name="SUP">
+ stands for Software Update Protocol, and was developed by CMU
for keeping their development trees in sync. We used it to keep
remote sites in sync with our central development sources.
@@ -4460,7 +4623,9 @@ domain foo.bar.edu
<heading>How do I make my own custom release?<label id="custrel"></heading>
<p>
To make a release you need to do three things: First, you need to
- be running a kernel with the <tt/vn/ driver configured in. Add
+ be running a kernel with the <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?vn"
+ name="vn"> driver configured in. Add
this to your kernel config file and build a new kernel:
<verb>
@@ -4681,7 +4846,9 @@ make release BUILDNAME=3.0-MY-SNAP CHROOTDIR=/some/big/filesystem/release
publicly available. If you do, then please send us a copy of the
driver source code, plus the appropriate modifications to
<tt>files.i386</tt>, a sample configuration file entry, and the
- appropriate <tt>MAKEDEV</tt> code to create any special files
+ appropriate <htmlurl
+ url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?MAKEDEV"
+ name="MAKEDEV"> code to create any special files
your device uses. If you do not, or are unable to because of
licensing restrictions, then character major number 32 and block
major number 8 have been reserved specifically for this purpose;