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-<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
-<!-- Copyright (c) 1998, 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
--->
-<chapter xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
- xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0"
- xml:id="xhtml-markup">
- <title><acronym>XHTML</acronym> Markup</title>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xhtml-markup-introduction">
- <title>Introduction</title>
-
- <para>This chapter describes usage of the <acronym>XHTML</acronym>
- markup language used for the &os; web site.</para>
-
- <para><acronym>XHTML</acronym> is the <acronym>XML</acronym>
- version of the HyperText Markup Language, the markup language of
- choice on the World Wide Web. More information can be found at
- <uri
- xlink:href="http://www.w3.org/">http://www.w3.org/</uri>.</para>
-
- <para><acronym>XHTML</acronym> is used to mark up pages on the
- &os; web site. It is usually not used to mark up other
- documentation, since DocBook offers a far richer set of elements
- from which to choose. Consequently, <acronym>XHTML</acronym>
- pages will normally only be encountered when writing for the web
- site.</para>
-
- <para><acronym>HTML</acronym> has gone through a number of
- versions. The <acronym>XML</acronym>-compliant version
- described here is called <acronym>XHTML</acronym>. The latest
- widespread version is <acronym>XHTML</acronym> 1.0, available in
- both <emphasis>strict</emphasis> and
- <emphasis>transitional</emphasis> variants.</para>
-
- <para>The <acronym>XHTML</acronym> <acronym>DTDs</acronym> are
- available from the Ports Collection in
- <package>textproc/xhtml</package>. They are automatically
- installed by the <package>textproc/docproj</package>
- port.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>This is <emphasis>not</emphasis> an exhaustive list of
- elements, since that would just repeat the documentation for
- <acronym>XHTML</acronym>. The aim is to list those elements
- most commonly used. Please post questions about elements or
- uses not covered here to the &a.doc;.</para>
- </note>
-
- <note>
- <title>Inline Versus Block</title>
-
- <para>In the remainder of this document, when describing
- elements, <emphasis>inline</emphasis> means that the element
- can occur within a block element, and does not cause a line
- break. A <emphasis>block</emphasis> element, by comparison,
- will cause a line break (and other processing) when it is
- encountered.</para>
- </note>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xhtml-markup-fpi">
- <title>Formal Public Identifier (<acronym>FPI</acronym>)</title>
-
- <para>There are a number of <acronym>XHTML</acronym>
- <acronym>FPI</acronym>s, depending upon the version, or
- <emphasis>level</emphasis> of <acronym>XHTML</acronym> to which
- a document conforms. Most <acronym>XHTML</acronym> documents on
- the &os; web site comply with the transitional version of
- <acronym>XHTML</acronym> 1.0.</para>
-
- <programlisting>PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"</programlisting>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xhtml-markup-sectional-elements">
- <title>Sectional Elements</title>
-
- <para>An <acronym>XHTML</acronym> document is normally split into
- two sections. The first section, called the
- <emphasis>head</emphasis>, contains meta-information about the
- document, such as its title, the name of the author, the parent
- document, and so on. The second section, the
- <emphasis>body</emphasis>, contains content that will be
- displayed to the user.</para>
-
- <para>These sections are indicated with <tag>head</tag>
- and <tag>body</tag> elements respectively. These
- elements are contained within the top-level
- <tag>html</tag> element.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>Normal <acronym>XHTML</acronym> Document
- Structure</title>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">head</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">title</tag><replaceable>The Document's Title</replaceable><tag class="endtag">title</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">head</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">body</tag>
-
- &hellip;
-
- <tag class="endtag">body</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">html</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements">
- <title>Block Elements</title>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements-headings">
- <title>Headings</title>
-
- <para><acronym>XHTML</acronym> has tags to denote headings in
- the document at up to six different levels.</para>
-
- <para>The largest and most prominent heading is
- <tag>h1</tag>, then <tag>h2</tag>,
- continuing down to <tag>h6</tag>.</para>
-
- <para>The element's content is the text of the heading.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>h1</tag>, <tag>h2</tag>,
- and Other Header Tags</title>
-
- <para>Usage:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">h1</tag>First section<tag class="endtag">h1</tag>
-
-&lt;!-- Document introduction goes here --&gt;
-
-<tag class="starttag">h2</tag>This is the heading for the first section<tag class="endtag">h2</tag>
-
-&lt;!-- Content for the first section goes here --&gt;
-
-<tag class="starttag">h3</tag>This is the heading for the first sub-section<tag class="endtag">h3</tag>
-
-&lt;!-- Content for the first sub-section goes here --&gt;
-
-<tag class="starttag">h2</tag>This is the heading for the second section<tag class="endtag">h2</tag>
-
-&lt;!-- Content for the second section goes here --&gt;</programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para>Generally, an <acronym>XHTML</acronym> page should have
- one first level heading (<tag>h1</tag>). This can
- contain many second level headings (<tag>h2</tag>),
- which can in turn contain many third level headings. Do not
- leave gaps in the numbering.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements-paragraphs">
- <title>Paragraphs</title>
-
- <para><acronym>XHTML</acronym> supports a single paragraph
- element, <tag>p</tag>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>p</tag> Example</title>
-
- <para>Usage:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is a paragraph. It can contain just about any
- other element.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements-block-quotations">
- <title>Block Quotations</title>
-
- <para>A block quotation is an extended quotation from another
- document that will appear in a separate paragraph.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>blockquote</tag> Example</title>
-
- <para>Usage:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">p</tag>A small excerpt from the US Constitution:<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">blockquote</tag>We the People of the United States, in Order to form
- a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic
- Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general
- Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our
- Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the
- United States of America.<tag class="endtag">blockquote</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements-lists">
- <title>Lists</title>
-
- <para><acronym>XHTML</acronym> can present the user with three
- types of lists: ordered, unordered, and definition.</para>
-
- <para>Entries in an ordered list will be numbered, while entries
- in an unordered list will be preceded by bullet points.
- Definition lists have two sections for each entry. The first
- section is the term being defined, and the second section is
- the definition.</para>
-
- <para>Ordered lists are indicated by the <tag>ol</tag>
- element, unordered lists by the <tag>ul</tag>
- element, and definition lists by the <tag>dl</tag>
- element.</para>
-
- <para>Ordered and unordered lists contain listitems, indicated
- by the <tag>li</tag> element. A listitem can
- contain textual content, or it may be further wrapped in one
- or more <tag>p</tag> elements.</para>
-
- <para>Definition lists contain definition terms
- (<tag>dt</tag>) and definition descriptions
- (<tag>dd</tag>). A definition term can only contain
- inline elements. A definition description can contain other
- block elements.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>ul</tag> and
- <tag>ol</tag> Example</title>
-
- <para>Usage:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">p</tag>An unordered list. Listitems will probably be
- preceded by bullets.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">ul</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag>First item<tag class="endtag">li</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag>Second item<tag class="endtag">li</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag>Third item<tag class="endtag">li</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">ul</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">p</tag>An ordered list, with list items consisting of multiple
- paragraphs. Each item (note: not each paragraph) will be
- numbered.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">ol</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag><tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is the first item. It only has one paragraph.<tag class="endtag">p</tag><tag class="endtag">li</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag><tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is the first paragraph of the second item.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is the second paragraph of the second item.<tag class="endtag">p</tag><tag class="endtag">li</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">li</tag><tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is the first and only paragraph of the third
- item.<tag class="endtag">p</tag><tag class="endtag">li</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">ol</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <example>
- <title>Definition Lists with <tag>dl</tag></title>
-
- <para>Usage:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">dl</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">dt</tag>Term 1<tag class="endtag">dt</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">dd</tag><tag class="starttag">p</tag>Paragraph 1 of definition 1.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">p</tag>Paragraph 2 of definition 1.<tag class="endtag">p</tag><tag class="endtag">dd</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">dt</tag>Term 2<tag class="endtag">dt</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">dd</tag><tag class="starttag">p</tag>Paragraph 1 of definition 2.<tag class="endtag">p</tag><tag class="endtag">dd</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">dt</tag>Term 3<tag class="endtag">dt</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">dd</tag><tag class="starttag">p</tag>Paragraph 1 of definition 3.<tag class="endtag">p</tag><tag class="endtag">dd</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">dl</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements-preformatted-text">
- <title>Pre-formatted Text</title>
-
- <para>Pre-formatted text is shown to the user exactly as it is
- in the file. Text is shown in a fixed font. Multiple spaces
- and line breaks are shown exactly as they are in the
- file.</para>
-
- <para>Wrap pre-formatted text in the <tag>pre</tag>
- element.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>pre</tag> Example</title>
-
- <para>For example, the <tag>pre</tag> tags could be
- used to mark up an email message:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">pre</tag> From: nik@FreeBSD.org
- To: freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org
- Subject: New documentation available
-
- There is a new copy of my primer for contributors to the FreeBSD
- Documentation Project available at
-
- &amp;lt;URL:https://people.FreeBSD.org/~nik/primer/index.html&amp;gt;
-
- Comments appreciated.
-
- N<tag class="endtag">pre</tag></programlisting>
-
- <para>Keep in mind that <literal>&lt;</literal> and
- <literal>&amp;</literal> still are recognized as special
- characters in pre-formatted text. This is why the example
- shown had to use <literal>&amp;lt;</literal> instead of
- <literal>&lt;</literal>. For consistency,
- <literal>&amp;gt;</literal> was used in place of
- <literal>&gt;</literal>, too. Watch out for the special
- characters that may appear in text copied from a plain-text
- source, like an email message or program code.</para>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-block-elements-tables">
- <title>Tables</title>
-
- <para>Mark up tabular information using the
- <tag>table</tag> element. A table consists of one or
- more table rows (<tag>tr</tag>), each containing one
- or more cells of table data (<tag>td</tag>). Each
- cell can contain other block elements, such as paragraphs or
- lists. It can also contain another table (this nesting can
- repeat indefinitely). If the cell only contains one paragraph
- then the <tag>p</tag>element is not needed.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>Simple Use of <tag>table</tag></title>
-
- <para>Usage:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">p</tag>This is a simple 2x2 table.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">table</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Top left cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Top right cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom left cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom right cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">table</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para>A cell can span multiple rows and columns by adding the
- <tag class="attribute">rowspan</tag> or
- <tag class="attribute">colspan</tag> attributes with
- values for the number of rows or columns to be spanned.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>Using
- <tag class="attribute">rowspan</tag></title>
-
- <para>Usage:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">p</tag>One tall thin cell on the left, two short cells next to
- it on the right.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">table</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td rowspan="2"</tag>Long and thin<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Top cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">table</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <example>
- <title>Using
- <tag class="attribute">colspan</tag></title>
-
- <para>Usage:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">p</tag>One long cell on top, two short cells below it.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">table</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td colspan="2"</tag>Top cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom left cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom right cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">table</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <example>
- <title>Using <tag class="attribute">rowspan</tag> and
- <tag class="attribute">colspan</tag>
- Together</title>
-
- <para>Usage:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">p</tag>On a 3x3 grid, the top left block is a 2x2 set of
- cells merged into one. The other cells are normal.<tag class="endtag">p</tag>
-
-<tag class="starttag">table</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td colspan="2" rowspan="2"</tag>Top left large cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Top right cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- &lt;!-- Because the large cell on the left merges into
- this row, the first &lt;td&gt; will occur on its
- right --&gt;
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Middle right cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">tr</tag>
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom left cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom middle cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
-
- <tag class="starttag">td</tag>Bottom right cell<tag class="endtag">td</tag>
- <tag class="endtag">tr</tag>
-<tag class="endtag">table</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 xml:id="xhtml-markup-inline-elements">
- <title>In-line Elements</title>
-
- <sect2
- xml:id="xhtml-markup-inline-elements-emphasizing-information">
- <title>Emphasizing Information</title>
-
- <para>Two levels of emphasis are available in
- <acronym>XHTML</acronym>, <tag>em</tag> and
- <tag>strong</tag>. <tag>em</tag> is for a
- normal level of emphasis and <tag>strong</tag>
- indicates stronger emphasis.</para>
-
- <para><tag>em</tag> is typically rendered in italic
- and <tag>strong</tag> is rendered in bold. This is
- not always the case, and should not be relied upon. According
- to best practices, web pages only hold structural and
- semantical information, and stylesheets are later applied to
- them. Think of semantics, not formatting, when using these
- tags.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>em</tag> and
- <tag>strong</tag> Example</title>
-
- <para>Usage:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">p</tag><tag class="starttag">em</tag>This<tag class="endtag">em</tag> has been emphasized, while
- <tag class="starttag">strong</tag>this<tag class="endtag">strong</tag> has been strongly emphasized.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-inline-elements-fixed-pitch-text">
- <title>Indicating Fixed-Pitch Text</title>
-
- <para>Content that should be rendered in a fixed pitch
- (typewriter) typeface is tagged with <tag>tt</tag>
- (for <quote>teletype</quote>).</para>
-
- <example>
- <title><tag>tt</tag> Example</title>
-
- <para>Usage:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">p</tag>Many system settings are stored in
- <tag class="starttag">tt</tag>/etc<tag class="endtag">tt</tag>.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 xml:id="xhtml-markup-inline-elements-links">
- <title>Links</title>
-
- <note>
- <para>Links are also inline elements.</para>
- </note>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="xhtml-markup-inline-elements-linking">
- <title>Linking to Other Documents on the Web</title>
-
- <para>A link points to the <acronym>URL</acronym> of a
- document on the web. The link is indicated with
- <tag>a</tag>, and the
- <tag class="attribute">href</tag> attribute contains
- the <acronym>URL</acronym> of the target document. The
- content of the element becomes the link, indicated to the
- user by showing it in a different color or with an
- underline.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>Using
- <tag class="starttag">a href="..."</tag></title>
-
- <para>Usage:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">p</tag>More information is available at the
- <tag class="starttag">a href="http://www.&amp;os;.org/"</tag>&amp;os; web site<tag class="endtag">a</tag>.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para>This link always takes the user to the top of the linked
- document.</para>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3 xml:id="xhtml-markup-inline-elements-specific-parts">
- <title>Linking to Specific Parts of Documents</title>
-
- <para>To link to a specific point within a document, that
- document must include an <emphasis>anchor</emphasis> at the
- desired point. Anchors are included by setting the
- <tag class="attribute">id</tag> attribute of an
- element to a name. This example creates an anchor by
- setting the <tag class="attribute">id</tag>
- attribute of a <tag class="element">p</tag>
- element.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>Creating an Anchor</title>
-
- <para>Usage:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">p id="samplepara"</tag>This paragraph can be referenced
- in other links with the name <tag class="starttag">tt</tag>samplepara<tag class="endtag">tt</tag>.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para>Links to anchors are similar to plain links, but include
- a <literal>#</literal> symbol and the anchor's
- <acronym>ID</acronym> at the end of the
- <acronym>URL</acronym>.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>Linking to a Named Part of a Different
- Document</title>
-
- <para>The <literal>samplepara</literal> example is part of a
- document called <filename>foo.html</filename>. A link to
- that specific paragraph in the document is constructed in
- this example.</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">p</tag>More information can be found in the
- <tag class="starttag">a href="foo.html#samplepara"</tag>sample paragraph<tag class="endtag">a</tag> of
- <tag class="starttag">tt</tag>foo.html<tag class="endtag">tt</tag>.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
-
- <para>To link to a named anchor within the same document, omit
- the document's <acronym>URL</acronym>, and just use the
- <literal>#</literal> symbol followed by the name of the
- anchor.</para>
-
- <example>
- <title>Linking to a Named Part of the Same Document</title>
-
- <para>The <literal>samplepara</literal> example
- resides in this document. To link to it:</para>
-
- <programlisting><tag class="starttag">p</tag>More information can be found in the
- <tag class="starttag">a href="#samplepara"</tag>sample paragraph<tag class="endtag">a</tag> of this
- document.<tag class="endtag">p</tag></programlisting>
- </example>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>