aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.xml
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
Diffstat (limited to 'en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.xml')
-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.xml2643
1 files changed, 1298 insertions, 1345 deletions
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.xml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.xml
index d13933520c..b98ebd28c9 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.xml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/install/chapter.xml
@@ -27,39 +27,40 @@
<!-- January 2000 -->
</chapterinfo>
- <title>Installing &os;&nbsp;8.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and Earlier</title>
+ <title>Installing &os;&nbsp;8.<replaceable>X</replaceable></title>
<sect1 id="install-synopsis">
<title>Synopsis</title>
<indexterm><primary>installation</primary></indexterm>
- <para>FreeBSD is provided with a text-based, easy to use installation
+ <para>&os; provides a text-based, easy to use installation
program. &os; 9.0-RELEASE and later use the installation program
- known as <application>bsdinstall</application>, with releases prior
- to 9.0-RELEASE using <application>sysinstall</application> for
- installation. This chapter describes the use of <application>sysinstall</application>
- to install &os;. The use of <application>bsdinstall</application>
+ known as &man.bsdinstall.8;
+ while &os;&nbsp;8.<replaceable>X</replaceable> uses
+ &man.sysinstall.8;. This chapter describes
+ how to use &man.sysinstall.8;.
+ The use of &man.bsdinstall.8;
is covered in <xref linkend="bsdinstall"/>.</para>
<para>After reading this chapter, you will know:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>How to create the FreeBSD installation disks.</para>
+ <para>How to create the &os; installation media.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>How FreeBSD refers to, and subdivides, your hard disks.</para>
+ <para>How &os; refers to and subdivides hard disks.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>How to start <application>sysinstall</application>.</para>
+ <para>How to start &man.sysinstall.8;.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>The questions <application>sysinstall</application> will ask
- you, what they mean, and how to answer them.</para>
+ <para>The questions &man.sysinstall.8; asks,
+ what they mean, and how to answer them.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -68,19 +69,18 @@
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
<para>Read the supported hardware list that shipped with the version
- of FreeBSD you are installing, and verify that your hardware is
+ of &os; to install, and verify that the system's hardware is
supported.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
<note>
<para>In general, these installation instructions are written
- for &i386; (<quote>PC compatible</quote>) architecture
- computers. Where applicable, instructions specific to other
- platforms will be listed. Although this
- guide is kept as up to date as possible, you may find minor
- differences between the installer and what is shown here. It is
- suggested that you use this chapter as a general guide rather
+ for the &i386; and &os;/&arch.amd64; architectures.
+ Where applicable, instructions specific to other
+ platforms will be listed. There may be minor
+ differences between the installer and what is shown here.
+ This chapter should be used as a general guide rather
than a literal installation manual.</para>
</note>
@@ -96,23 +96,24 @@
&os; version and the hardware architecture.</para>
<para>A summary of this information is given in the following sections.
- Depending on the method you choose to install &os;, you may
- also need a floppy drive, a supported CDROM drive, and in some
- case a network adapter. This will be covered by the <xref
- linkend="install-boot-media"/>.</para>
+ Depending on the method chosen to install &os;,
+ a floppy drive, CDROM drive, or
+ network adapter may be needed. Instructions on how to
+ prepare the installation media can be found in
+ <xref linkend="install-boot-media"/>.</para>
<sect3>
<title>&os;/&arch.i386; and &os;/&arch.pc98;</title>
<para>Both &os;/&arch.i386; and &os;/&arch.pc98; require a 486 or
- better processor and at least 24&nbsp;MB of RAM. You will
- need at least 150&nbsp;MB of free hard drive space for the
+ better processor, at least 24&nbsp;MB of RAM, and at
+ least 150&nbsp;MB of free hard drive space for the
most minimal installation.</para>
<note>
- <para>In case of old configurations, most of time, getting
- more RAM and more hard drive space is more important than
- getting a faster processor.</para>
+ <para>In the case of older hardware, installing more RAM and
+ more hard drive space is often more important than
+ a faster processor.</para>
</note>
</sect3>
@@ -122,33 +123,32 @@
<para>There are two classes of processors capable of running
&os;/&arch.amd64;. The first are AMD64 processors,
including the &amd.athlon;64,
- &amd.athlon;64-FX, &amd.opteron; or better
+ &amd.athlon;64-FX, and &amd.opteron; or better
processors.</para>
- <para>The second class of processors that can use
- &os;/&arch.amd64; includes those using the &intel; EM64T
+ <para>The second class of processors
+ includes those using the &intel; EM64T
architecture. Examples of these processors include the
&intel;&nbsp;&core;&nbsp;2 Duo, Quad, Extreme processor
families, and the &intel;&nbsp;&xeon; 3000, 5000, and 7000
sequences of processors.</para>
- <para>If you have a machine based on an nVidia nForce3
- Pro-150, you <emphasis>must</emphasis> use the BIOS setup to
- disable the IO APIC. If you do not have an option to do
- this, you will likely have to disable ACPI instead. There
- are bugs in the Pro-150 chipset that we have not found a
- workaround for yet.</para>
+ <para>If the machine is based on an nVidia nForce3
+ Pro-150, the BIOS setup <emphasis>must</emphasis> be used to
+ disable the IO APIC. If this option does not exist,
+ disable ACPI instead as there
+ are bugs in the Pro-150 chipset.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>&os;/&arch.sparc64;</title>
- <para>To install &os;/&arch.sparc64;, you will need a supported
+ <para>To install &os;/&arch.sparc64;, use a supported
platform (see <xref
linkend="install-hardware-supported"/>).</para>
- <para>You will need a dedicated disk for &os;/&arch.sparc64;. It
- is not possible to share a disk with another operating
+ <para>A dedicated disk is needed for &os;/&arch.sparc64; as
+ it is not possible to share a disk with another operating
system at this time.</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
@@ -159,14 +159,14 @@
<para>A list of supported hardware is provided with each &os;
release in the &os; Hardware Notes. This document can usually
be found in a file named <filename>HARDWARE.TXT</filename>, in
- the top-level directory of a CDROM or FTP distribution or in
- <application>sysinstall</application>'s documentation menu.
- It lists, for a given architecture, what hardware devices are
+ the top-level directory of a CDROM or FTP distribution, or in
+ &man.sysinstall.8;'s documentation menu.
+ It lists, for a given architecture, which hardware devices are
known to be supported by each release of &os;. Copies of the
supported hardware list for various releases and architectures
can also be found on the <ulink
url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/index.html">Release
- Information</ulink> page of the &os; Web site.</para>
+ Information</ulink> page of the &os; website.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -174,28 +174,35 @@
<title>Pre-installation Tasks</title>
<sect2 id="install-inventory">
- <title>Inventory Your Computer</title>
+ <title>Inventory the Computer</title>
- <para>Before installing &os; you should attempt to inventory the
- components in your computer. The &os; installation routines will
- show you the components (hard disks, network cards, CDROM drives, and
- so forth) with their model number and manufacturer. &os; will also
+ <para>Before installing &os; it is recommended to inventory the
+ components in the computer. The &os; installation routines
+ will show components such as hard disks, network cards,
+ and CDROM drives with their model number and manufacturer.
+ &os; will also
attempt to determine the correct configuration for these devices,
- which includes information about IRQ and IO port usage. Due to the
- vagaries of PC hardware this process is not always completely
- successful, and you may need to correct &os;'s determination of
- your configuration.</para>
-
- <para>If you already have another operating system installed, such as
- &windows; or Linux, it is a good idea to use the facilities provided
- by those operating systems to see how your hardware is already
- configured. If you are not sure what settings an expansion
- card is using, you may find it printed on the card itself. Popular IRQ
- numbers are 3, 5, and 7, and IO port addresses are normally written as
- hexadecimal numbers, such as 0x330.</para>
-
- <para>We recommend you print or write down this information before
- installing &os;. It may help to use a table, like this:</para>
+ including information about IRQ and I/O port usage. Due
+ to the
+ vagaries of computer hardware, this process is not always
+ completely
+ successful, and &os; may need some manual
+ configuration.</para>
+
+ <para>If another operating system is already installed,
+ use the facilities provided
+ by that operating systems to view the hardware configuration.
+ If the settings of an expansion
+ card are not obvious, check if they are printed on the
+ card itself. Popular IRQ
+ numbers are 3, 5, and 7, and I/O port addresses are normally
+ written as
+ hexadecimal numbers, such as <literal>0x330</literal>.</para>
+
+ <para>It is recommended to print or write down this information
+ before
+ installing &os;. It may help to use a table, as seen in this
+ example:</para>
<table pgwide="1" frame="none">
<title>Sample Device Inventory</title>
@@ -211,7 +218,7 @@
<entry>IRQ</entry>
- <entry>IO port(s)</entry>
+ <entry>I/O port(s)</entry>
<entry>Notes</entry>
</row>
@@ -285,43 +292,44 @@
</tgroup>
</table>
- <para>Once the inventory of the components in your computer is
- done, you have to check if they match the hardware
- requirements of the &os; release you want to install.</para>
+ <para>Once the inventory of the components in the computer is
+ complete, check if it matches the hardware
+ requirements of the &os; release to install.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title>Backup Your Data</title>
-
- <para>If the computer you will be installing &os; on contains
- valuable data, then ensure you have it backed up, and that you have
- tested the backups before installing &os;. The &os;
- installation routine will prompt you before writing any
- data to your disk, but once that process has started it cannot be
+ <title>Make a Backup</title>
+
+ <para>If the computer contains
+ valuable data, ensure it is backed up, and that the backup
+ has been
+ tested before installing &os;. The &os;
+ installer will prompt before writing any
+ data to disk, but once that process has started, it cannot be
undone.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="install-where">
<title>Decide Where to Install &os;</title>
- <para>If you want &os; to use your entire hard disk, then there is nothing
- more to concern yourself with at this point &mdash; you can skip this
+ <para>If &os; is to be installed on the entire hard disk,
+ skip this
section.</para>
- <para>However, if you need &os; to co-exist with other operating
- systems then you need to have a rough understanding of how data is
- laid out on the disk, and how this affects you.</para>
+ <para>However, if &os; will co-exist with other operating
+ systems, a rough understanding of how data is
+ laid out on the disk is useful.</para>
<sect3 id="install-where-i386">
<title>Disk Layouts for &os;/&arch.i386;</title>
- <para>A PC disk can be divided into discrete chunks. These chunks are
- called <firstterm>partitions</firstterm>. Since
- &os; internally also has partitions, the naming
- can become confusing very quickly, therefore these
- disk chunks are referred to as disk slices or simply slices
- in &os; itself. For example, the &os; utility
- <command>fdisk</command> which operates on the PC disk partitions,
+ <para>A PC disk can be divided into discrete chunks known as
+ <firstterm>partitions</firstterm>. Since
+ &os; also has partitions, naming
+ can quickly become confusing. Therefore, these
+ disk chunks are referred to as slices
+ in &os;. For example, the &os; version of
+ &man.fdisk.8;
refers to slices instead of partitions. By design, the PC only
supports four partitions per disk. These partitions are called
<firstterm>primary partitions</firstterm>. To work around this
@@ -335,37 +343,39 @@
a number used to identify the type of data on the partition. &os;
partitions have the partition ID of <literal>165</literal>.</para>
- <para>In general, each operating system that you use will identify
- partitions in a particular way. For example, &ms-dos;, and its
- descendants, like &windows;, assign each primary and logical partition a
+ <para>In general, each operating system will identify
+ partitions in a particular way. For example,
+ &windows;, assigns each primary and logical partition a
<firstterm>drive letter</firstterm>, starting with
<devicename>C:</devicename>.</para>
- <para>&os; must be installed into a primary partition. &os; can
- keep all its data, including any files that you create, on this one
- partition. However, if you have multiple disks, then you can create a
- &os; partition on all, or some, of them. When you install &os;,
- you must have one partition available. This might be a blank
- partition that you have prepared, or it might be an existing partition
- that contains data that you no longer care about.</para>
+ <para>&os; must be installed into a primary partition. If
+ there are multiple disks, a &os;
+ partition can be created
+ on all, or some, of them. When &os; is installed, at least
+ one partition must be available. This might be a blank
+ partition or it might be an existing partition whose
+ data can be overwritten.</para>
- <para>If you are already using all the partitions on all your disks, then
- you will have to free one of them for &os; using the tools
- provided by the other operating systems you use (e.g.,
- <command>fdisk</command> on &ms-dos; or &windows;).</para>
+ <para>If all the partitions on all the disks are in use,
+ free one of them for &os; using the tools
+ provided by an existing operating system, such as &windows;
+ <command>fdisk</command>.</para>
- <para>If you have a spare partition then you can use that. However, you
- may need to shrink one or more of your existing partitions
- first.</para>
+ <para>If there is a spare partition, use that. If it is too
+ small,
+ shrink one or more existing partitions to create more
+ available space.</para>
<para>A minimal installation of &os; takes as little as 100&nbsp;MB
of disk
space. However, that is a <emphasis>very</emphasis> minimal install,
- leaving almost no space for your own files. A more realistic minimum
+ leaving almost no space for files. A more realistic minimum
is 250&nbsp;MB without a graphical environment, and 350&nbsp;MB or
- more if you
- want a graphical user interface. If you intend to install a lot of
- third-party software as well, then you will need more space.</para>
+ more for
+ a graphical user interface. If other
+ third-party software will be installed,
+ even more space is needed.</para>
<para>You can use a tool such as <application>GParted</application>
to resize your partitions and make space for
@@ -374,32 +384,29 @@
is available on a number of Live CD Linux distributions, such as
<ulink url="http://www.sysresccd.org/">SystemRescueCD</ulink>.</para>
- <para>Problems have been reported resizing &microsoft; Vista
- partitions. Having a Vista installation CDROM handy when
- attempting such an operation is recommended. As with all
- such disk maintenance tasks, a current set of backups is
- also strongly advised.</para>
-
<warning>
- <para>Incorrect use of these tools can delete the data on your disk.
- Be sure that you have recent, working backups before using
- them.</para>
+ <para>Incorrect use of a shrinking tool can delete the data
+ on the disk.
+ Always have a recent, working backup before using this
+ type of tool.</para>
</warning>
<example>
<title>Using an Existing Partition Unchanged</title>
- <para>Suppose that you have a computer with a single 4&nbsp;GB disk
+ <para>Consider a computer with a single 4&nbsp;GB disk
that
- already has a version of &windows; installed, and you have split the
- disk into two drive letters, <devicename>C:</devicename> and
+ already has a version of &windows; installed, where the
+ disk has been split into two drive letters,
+ <devicename>C:</devicename> and
<devicename>D:</devicename>, each of which is 2&nbsp;GB in size.
- You have 1&nbsp;GB of data on <devicename>C:</devicename>, and
+ There is 1&nbsp;GB of data on <devicename>C:</devicename>,
+ and
0.5&nbsp;GB of data on
<devicename>D:</devicename>.</para>
- <para>This means that your disk has two partitions on it, one per
- drive letter. You can copy all your existing data from
+ <para>This disk has two partitions, one per
+ drive letter. Copy all existing data from
<devicename>D:</devicename> to <devicename>C:</devicename>, which
will free up the second partition, ready for &os;.</para>
</example>
@@ -407,18 +414,21 @@
<example>
<title>Shrinking an Existing Partition</title>
- <para>Suppose that you have a computer with a single 4&nbsp;GB disk
- that already has a version of &windows; installed. When you installed
- &windows; you created one large partition, giving you a
- <devicename>C:</devicename> drive that is 4&nbsp;GB in size. You are
- currently using 1.5&nbsp;GB of space, and want &os; to have 2&nbsp;GB
+ <para>Consider a computer with a single 4&nbsp;GB disk
+ that already has a version of &windows; installed. When
+ &windows; was installed, it created one large partition,
+ a
+ <devicename>C:</devicename> drive that is 4&nbsp;GB in size.
+ Currently, 1.5&nbsp;GB of space is used, and &os; should
+ have 2&nbsp;GB
of space.</para>
- <para>In order to install &os; you will need to either:</para>
+ <para>In order to install &os;, either:</para>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>Backup your &windows; data, and then reinstall &windows;,
+ <para>Backup the &windows; data and then reinstall
+ &windows;,
asking for a 2&nbsp;GB partition at install time.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -433,21 +443,24 @@
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title>Collect Your Network Configuration Details</title>
+ <title>Collect the Network Configuration Details</title>
- <para>If you intend to connect to a network as part of your &os;
- installation (for example, if you will be installing from an FTP
+ <para>Before
+ installing from an FTP
site or an
- NFS server), then you need to know your network configuration. You
- will be prompted for this information during the installation so that
- &os; can connect to the network to complete the install.</para>
+ <acronym>NFS</acronym> server, make note of the network
+ configuration. The
+ installer
+ will prompt for this information so that
+ it can connect to the network to complete the
+ installation.</para>
<sect3>
<title>Connecting to an Ethernet Network or Cable/DSL Modem</title>
- <para>If you connect to an Ethernet network, or you have an Internet
- connection using an Ethernet adapter via cable or DSL, then you will
- need the following information:</para>
+ <para>If using an Ethernet network or an Internet
+ connection using an Ethernet adapter via cable or DSL, the
+ following information is needed:</para>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
@@ -471,32 +484,35 @@
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
- <para>If you do not know this information, then ask your system
- administrator or service provider. They may say that this
- information is assigned automatically, using
- <firstterm>DHCP</firstterm>. If so, make a note of this.</para>
+ <para>If this information is unknown, ask the system
+ administrator or service provider. Make note if this
+ information is assigned automatically using
+ <firstterm>DHCP</firstterm>.</para>
</sect3>
<sect3>
<title>Connecting Using a Modem</title>
- <para>If you dial up to an ISP using a regular modem then you can
- still install &os; over the Internet, it will just take a very
+ <para>If using a dialup modem,
+ &os; can still be installed over the Internet, it will just
+ take a very
long time.</para>
<para>You will need to know:</para>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>The phone number to dial for your ISP</para>
+ <para>The phone number to dial the Internet Service
+ Provider (<acronym>ISP</acronym>)</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>The COM: port your modem is connected to</para>
+ <para>The COM: port the modem is connected to</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>The username and password for your ISP account</para>
+ <para>The username and password for the
+ <acronym>ISP</acronym> account</para>
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
</sect3>
@@ -504,28 +520,30 @@
<sect2>
<title>Check for &os; Errata</title>
- <para>Although the &os; project strives to ensure that each release
+ <para>Although the &os; Project strives to ensure that each
+ release
of &os; is as stable as possible, bugs do occasionally creep into
- the process. On very rare occasions those bugs affect the
+ the process. On rare occasions those bugs affect the
installation process. As these problems are discovered and fixed, they
are noted in the <ulink url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/&rel.current;R/errata.html">&os; Errata</ulink>,
- which is found on the &os; web site. You
- should check the errata before installing to make sure that there are
- no late-breaking problems which you should be aware of.</para>
+ which is found on the &os; website.
+ Check the errata before installing to make sure that there are
+ no late-breaking problems to be aware of.</para>
- <para>Information about all the releases, including the errata for each
+ <para>Information about all releases, including the errata for
+ each
release, can be found on the
<ulink
url="&url.base;/releases/index.html">release
information</ulink> section of the
<ulink
- url="&url.base;/index.html">&os; web site</ulink>.</para>
+ url="&url.base;/index.html">&os; website</ulink>.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>Obtain the &os; Installation Files</title>
- <para>The &os; installation process can install &os; from files
+ <para>The &os; installer can install &os; from files
located in any of the following places:</para>
<itemizedlist>
@@ -544,11 +562,7 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>A SCSI or QIC tape</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Floppy disks</para>
+ <para>Floppy disks (&os;/&arch.pc98; only)</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -556,8 +570,8 @@
<title>Network</title>
<listitem>
- <para>An FTP site, going through a firewall, or using an HTTP proxy,
- as necessary</para>
+ <para>An FTP site through a firewall or using an HTTP
+ proxy</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -569,14 +583,14 @@
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
- <para>If you have purchased &os; on CD or DVD then you already have
- everything you need, and should proceed to the next section
- (<xref linkend="install-boot-media"/>).</para>
+ <para>If installing from a purchased &os; CD/DVD,
+ skip ahead to
+ <xref linkend="install-boot-media"/>.</para>
- <para>If you have not obtained the &os; installation files you should
+ <para>To obtain the &os; installation files,
skip ahead to <xref linkend="install-diff-media"/> which explains how
- to prepare to install &os; from any of the above. After reading
- that section, you should come back here, and read on to
+ to prepare the installation media. After reading
+ that section, come back here and read on to
<xref linkend="install-boot-media"/>.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -584,18 +598,19 @@
<title>Prepare the Boot Media</title>
<para>The &os; installation process is started by booting the
- computer into the &os; installer&mdash;it is not a program you run
+ computer into the &os; installer. It is not a program that
+ can be run
within another operating system. The computer normally boots
using the operating system installed on the hard disk, but it
can also be configured to boot from a CDROM or from a USB
disk.</para>
<tip>
- <para>If you have &os; on CDROM or DVD (either one you purchased
- or you prepared yourself), and your computer allows you to boot from
- the CDROM or DVD (typically a BIOS option called <quote>Boot
- Order</quote> or similar), then you can skip this section. The
- &os; CDROM and DVD images are bootable and can be used to install
+ <para>If installing from a CD/DVD to a
+ computer whose BIOS supports booting from
+ the CD/DVD, skip this section. The
+ &os; CD/DVD images are bootable and can be used to
+ install
&os; without any other special preparation.</para>
</tip>
@@ -607,36 +622,38 @@
<title>Acquire the Memory Stick Image</title>
<para>Memory stick images for
- &os;&nbsp;8.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and earlier can be downloaded from
+ &os;&nbsp;8.<replaceable>X</replaceable> can be downloaded
+ from
the <filename class="directory">ISO-IMAGES/</filename>
directory at
<literal>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/<replaceable>arch</replaceable>/ISO-IMAGES/<replaceable>version</replaceable>/&os;-<replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-memstick.img</literal>.
Replace <replaceable>arch</replaceable> and
<replaceable>version</replaceable> with the
- architecture and the version number which you want to
- install, respectively. For example, the memory stick
+ architecture and the version number to
+ install. For example, the memory stick
images for &os;/&arch.i386;&nbsp;&rel2.current;-RELEASE are
available from <ulink
url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/&arch.i386;/ISO-IMAGES/&rel2.current;/&os;-&rel2.current;-RELEASE-&arch.i386;-memstick.img"></ulink>.</para>
<tip>
<para>A different directory path is used for
- &os;&nbsp;9.0-RELEASE and later versions. Details of
- download and installation of &os;&nbsp;9.0-RELEASE and
- later is covered in <xref linkend="bsdinstall"/>.</para>
+ &os;&nbsp;9.0-RELEASE and later versions. How to
+ download and install
+ &os;&nbsp;9.<replaceable>X</replaceable>
+ is covered in <xref linkend="bsdinstall"/>.</para>
</tip>
<para>The memory stick image has a <filename>.img</filename>
extension. The <filename
class="directory">ISO-IMAGES/</filename> directory
- contains a number of different images, and the one you
- will need to use will depend on the version of &os; you
- are installing, and in some cases, the hardware you are
- installing to.</para>
+ contains a number of different images and the one to
+ use depends on the version of &os; and the
+ type of media supported by the hardware being installed
+ to.</para>
<important>
<para>Before proceeding, <emphasis>back up</emphasis> the
- data you currently have on your USB stick, as this
+ data on the USB stick, as this
procedure will <emphasis>erase</emphasis> it.</para>
</important>
</step>
@@ -659,19 +676,20 @@
<title>Writing the Image with &man.dd.1;</title>
<para>The <filename>.img</filename> file
- is <emphasis>not</emphasis> a regular file you copy to the
+ is <emphasis>not</emphasis> a regular file that can
+ just be copied to the
memory stick. It is an image of the complete contents of the
- disk. This means that you <emphasis>cannot</emphasis> simply
- copy files from one disk to another. Instead, you must use
- &man.dd.1; to write the image directly to the disk:</para>
+ disk. This means that
+ &man.dd.1; must be used to write the image directly to
+ the disk:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=&os;-&rel2.current;-RELEASE-&arch.i386;-memstick.img of=/dev/<replaceable>da0</replaceable> bs=64k</userinput></screen>
<para>If an
<computeroutput>Operation not permitted</computeroutput>
error is displayed, make certain that the target device
- is not in use, mounted, or being automounted by some
- well-intentioned utility program. Then try
+ is not in use, mounted, or being automounted by
+ another program. Then try
again.</para>
</step>
</procedure>
@@ -680,8 +698,10 @@
<title>Using &windows; to Write the Image</title>
<warning>
- <para>Make sure you use the correct drive letter as the output
- target, or you may overwrite and destroy existing data.</para>
+ <para>Make sure to use the correct drive letter as the
+ output
+ target, as this command will overwrite and destroy
+ any existing data on the specified device.</para>
</warning>
<step>
@@ -736,29 +756,32 @@
<literal>kern*</literal>.</para>
<important>
- <para>Your FTP program must use <emphasis>binary mode</emphasis>
- to download these disk images. Some web browsers have been
- known to use <emphasis>text</emphasis> (or
- <emphasis>ASCII</emphasis>) mode, which will be apparent if you
- cannot boot from the disks.</para>
+ <para>The FTP program must use <emphasis>binary
+ mode</emphasis>
+ to download these disk images. Some web browsers
+ use <emphasis>text</emphasis> or
+ <emphasis>ASCII</emphasis> mode, which will be apparent
+ if
+ the disks are not bootable.</para>
</important>
</step>
<step>
<title>Prepare the Floppy Disks</title>
- <para>Prepare one floppy disk per image file you had to
- download. It is imperative that these disks are free from
- defects. The easiest way to test this is to format the disks
- for yourself. Do not trust pre-formatted floppies. The format
+ <para>Prepare one floppy disk per downloaded image file.
+ It is imperative that these disks are free from
+ defects. The easiest way to test this is to reformat the
+ disks.
+ Do not trust pre-formatted floppies. The format
utility in &windows; will not tell about the presence of
bad blocks, it simply marks them as <quote>bad</quote>
- and ignores them. It is advised that you use brand new
- floppies if choosing this installation route.</para>
+ and ignores them. It is advised to use brand new
+ floppies.</para>
<important>
- <para>If you try to install &os; and the installation
- program crashes, freezes, or otherwise misbehaves, one of
+ <para>If the installer
+ crashes, freezes, or otherwise misbehaves, one of
the first things to suspect is the floppies. Write
the floppy image files to new disks and try
again.</para>
@@ -769,47 +792,44 @@
<title>Write the Image Files to the Floppy Disks</title>
<para>The <filename>.flp</filename> files are
- <emphasis>not</emphasis> regular files you copy to the disk.
+ <emphasis>not</emphasis> regular files that can be copied
+ to the disk.
They are images of the complete contents of the
- disk. This means that you <emphasis>cannot</emphasis> simply
- copy files from one disk to another.
- Instead, you must use specific tools to write the
+ disk.
+ Specific tools must be used to write the
images directly to the disk.</para>
<indexterm><primary>DOS</primary></indexterm>
- <para>If you are creating the floppies on a computer running
- &ms-dos; / &windows;, then we provide a tool to do
- this called <command>fdimage</command>.</para>
-
- <para>If you are using the floppies from the CDROM, and your
- CDROM is the <devicename>E:</devicename> drive, then you would
- run this:</para>
-
- <screen><prompt>E:\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>tools\fdimage floppies\boot.flp A:</userinput></screen>
+ <para>&os; provides a tool called
+ <command>rawrite</command> for creating the floppies on a
+ computer running
+ &windows;. This tool can be downloaded from
+ <literal>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/pc98/<replaceable>
+ version</replaceable>-RELEASE/tools/</literal>
+ on the &os; FTP site. Download this tool, insert a
+ floppy, then specify the filename to write to the floppy
+ drive:</para>
+
+ <screen><prompt>C:\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>rawrite boot.flp A:</userinput></screen>
<para>Repeat this command for each <filename>.flp</filename>
file, replacing the floppy disk each time, being sure to label
- the disks with the name of the file that you copied to them.
- Adjust the command line as necessary, depending on where you have
- placed the <filename>.flp</filename> files. If you do not have
- the CDROM, then <command>fdimage</command> can be downloaded from
- the <ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools/"><filename class="directory">tools</filename>
- directory</ulink> on the &os; FTP site.</para>
-
- <para>If you are writing the floppies on a &unix; system (such as
- another &os; system) you can use the &man.dd.1; command to
- write the image files directly to disk. On &os;, you would
+ the disks with the name of the file.
+ Adjust the command line as necessary, depending on where
+ the <filename>.flp</filename> files are located.</para>
+
+ <para>When writing the floppies on a &unix;-like system,
+ such as
+ another &os; system, use &man.dd.1; to
+ write the image files directly to disk. On &os;,
run:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=boot.flp of=/dev/fd0</userinput></screen>
<para>On &os;, <filename>/dev/fd0</filename> refers to the
- first floppy disk (the <devicename>A:</devicename> drive).
- <filename>/dev/fd1</filename> would be the
- <devicename>B:</devicename> drive, and so on. Other &unix;
+ first floppy disk. Other &unix;
variants might have different names for the floppy disk
- devices, and you will need to check the documentation for the
+ device, so check the documentation for the
system as necessary.</para>
</step>
</procedure>
@@ -822,8 +842,9 @@
<title>Starting the Installation</title>
<important>
- <para>By default, the installation will not make any changes to your
- disk(s) until you see the following message:</para>
+ <para>By default, the installer will not make any changes to
+ the
+ disk(s) until after the following message:</para>
<literallayout class="monospaced">Last Chance: Are you SURE you want continue the installation?
@@ -832,10 +853,12 @@ STRONGLY ENCOURAGE YOU TO MAKE PROPER BACKUPS before proceeding!
We can take no responsibility for lost disk contents!</literallayout>
- <para>The install can be exited at any time prior to the final
- warning without changing the contents of the hard drive. If you are
- concerned that you have configured something incorrectly you can just
- turn the computer off before this point, and no damage will be
+ <para>The install can be exited at any time prior to this final
+ warning without changing the contents of the hard drive. If
+ there is a
+ concern that something is configured incorrectly,
+ turn the computer off before this point, and no damage
+ will be
done.</para>
</important>
@@ -847,10 +870,6 @@ We can take no responsibility for lost disk contents!</literallayout>
<procedure>
<step>
- <para>Start with your computer turned off.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
<para>Turn on the computer. As it starts it should display an
option to enter the system set up menu, or BIOS, commonly reached
by keys like <keycap>F2</keycap>, <keycap>F10</keycap>,
@@ -859,9 +878,10 @@ We can take no responsibility for lost disk contents!</literallayout>
<keycap>Alt</keycap>
<keycap>S</keycap>
</keycombo>. Use whichever keystroke is indicated on screen. In
- some cases your computer may display a graphic while it starts.
+ some cases the computer may display a graphic while it
+ starts.
Typically, pressing <keycap>Esc</keycap> will dismiss the graphic
- and allow you to see the necessary messages.</para>
+ and display the boot messages.</para>
</step>
<step>
@@ -871,11 +891,10 @@ We can take no responsibility for lost disk contents!</literallayout>
<literal>Floppy</literal>, <literal>CDROM</literal>,
<literal>First Hard Disk</literal>, and so on.</para>
- <para>If you are booting from the CDROM then make sure that
- the CDROM is selected. If you are booting from a USB disk or
- a floppy disk then
- make sure that is selected instead. In case of doubt, you
- should consult the manual that came with your computer, and/or its
+ <para>If booting from the CD/DVD, make sure that
+ the CDROM drive is selected. If booting from a USB disk,
+ make sure that it is selected instead. When in doubt,
+ consult the manual that came with the computer or its
motherboard.</para>
<para>Make the change, then save and exit. The computer should now
@@ -883,12 +902,13 @@ We can take no responsibility for lost disk contents!</literallayout>
</step>
<step>
- <para>If you prepared a <quote>bootable</quote> USB stick, as described in
- <xref linkend="install-boot-media"/>, then plug in your USB
+ <para>If using a prepared a <quote>bootable</quote> USB
+ stick, as described in
+ <xref linkend="install-boot-media"/>, plug in the USB
stick before turning on the computer.</para>
- <para>If you are booting from CDROM, then you will need to turn on
- the computer, and insert the CDROM at the first
+ <para>If booting from CD/DVD, turn on
+ the computer, and insert the CD/DVD at the first
opportunity.</para>
<note>
@@ -900,32 +920,33 @@ We can take no responsibility for lost disk contents!</literallayout>
installer.</para>
</note>
- <para>If your computer starts up as normal and loads your existing
+ <para>If the computer starts up as normal and loads the
+ existing
operating system, then either:</para>
<orderedlist>
<listitem>
<para>The disks were not inserted early enough in the boot
- process. Leave them in, and try restarting your
+ process. Leave them in, and try restarting the
computer.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>The BIOS changes earlier did not work correctly. You
- should redo that step until you get the right option.</para>
+ <para>The BIOS changes did not work correctly.
+ Redo that step until the right option is
+ selected.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Your particular BIOS does not support booting from
+ <para>That particular BIOS does not support booting from
the desired media.</para>
</listitem>
</orderedlist>
</step>
<step>
- <para>&os; will start to boot. If you are booting from CDROM you
- will see a display similar to this (version information
- omitted):</para>
+ <para>&os; will start to boot. If booting from CD/DVD,
+ messages will be displayed, similar to these:</para>
<screen>Booting from CD-Rom...
645MB medium detected
@@ -949,8 +970,8 @@ Loading /boot/defaults/loader.conf
/boot/kernel/kernel text=0x64daa0 data=0xa4e80+0xa9e40 syms=[0x4+0x6cac0+0x4+0x88e9d]
\</screen>
- <para>If you are booting from floppy disc, you will see a display
- similar to this (version information omitted):</para>
+ <para>If booting from floppy disc, a display
+ similar to this will be shown:</para>
<screen>Booting from Floppy...
Uncompressing ... done
@@ -968,16 +989,16 @@ Loading /boot/defaults/loader.conf
Insert disk labelled "Kernel floppy 1" and press any key...</screen>
- <para>Follow these instructions by removing the
- <filename>boot.flp</filename> disc, insert the
- <filename>kern1.flp</filename> disc, and press
- <keycap>Enter</keycap>. Boot from first floppy;
- when prompted, insert the other disks as required.</para>
+ <para>Remove the
+ <filename>boot.flp</filename> floppy, insert the
+ next floppy, and press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap>.
+ When prompted, insert the other disks as required.</para>
</step>
<step>
- <para>Whether you booted from CDROM, USB stick or floppy, the
- boot process will then get to the &os; boot loader
+ <para>The
+ boot process will then display the &os; boot loader
menu:</para>
<figure id="boot-loader-menu">
@@ -999,28 +1020,25 @@ Insert disk labelled "Kernel floppy 1" and press any key...</screen>
<sect3>
<title>Booting for &sparc64;</title>
- <para>Most &sparc64; systems are set up to boot automatically
- from disk. To install &os;, you need to boot over the
- network or from a CDROM, which requires you to break into
- the PROM (OpenFirmware).</para>
-
- <para>To do this, reboot the system, and wait until the boot
- message appears. It depends on the model, but should look
- about like:</para>
+ <para>Most &sparc64; systems are set to boot automatically
+ from disk. To install &os;, boot over the
+ network or from a CD/DVD and wait until the boot
+ message appears. The message depends on the model, but
+ should look similar to:</para>
<screen>Sun Blade 100 (UltraSPARC-IIe), Keyboard Present
Copyright 1998-2001 Sun Microsystems, Inc. All rights reserved.
OpenBoot 4.2, 128 MB memory installed, Serial #51090132.
Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID: 830b92d4.</screen>
- <para>If your system proceeds to boot from disk at this point,
- you need to press
+ <para>If the system proceeds to boot from disk,
+ press
<keycombo action="simul"><keycap>L1</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo>
or
<keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Stop</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo>
on the keyboard, or send a <command>BREAK</command> over the
- serial console (using for example <command>~#</command> in
- &man.tip.1; or &man.cu.1;) to get to the PROM prompt. It
+ serial console using <command>~#</command> in
+ &man.tip.1; or &man.cu.1; to get to the PROM prompt. It
looks like this:</para>
<screen><prompt>ok </prompt><co id="prompt-single"/>
@@ -1033,12 +1051,13 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID: 830b92d4.</screen>
</callout>
<callout arearefs="prompt-smp">
- <para>This is the prompt used on SMP systems, the digit
+ <para>This is the prompt used on SMP systems and the
+ digit
indicates the number of the active CPU.</para>
</callout>
</calloutlist>
- <para>At this point, place the CDROM into your drive, and from
+ <para>At this point, place the CD/DVD into the drive and from
the PROM prompt, type <command>boot cdrom</command>.</para>
</sect3>
@@ -1051,16 +1070,18 @@ Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID: 830b92d4.</screen>
<para>The last few hundred lines that have been displayed on screen are
stored and can be reviewed.</para>
- <para>To review the buffer, press <keycap>Scroll Lock</keycap>. This
- turns on scrolling in the display. You can then use the arrow keys, or
+ <para>To review this buffer, press <keycap>Scroll Lock</keycap>
+ to
+ turn on scrolling in the display. Use the arrow keys or
<keycap>PageUp</keycap> and <keycap>PageDown</keycap> to view the
results. Press <keycap>Scroll Lock</keycap> again to stop
scrolling.</para>
<para>Do this now, to review the text that scrolled off the screen when
- the kernel was carrying out the device probes. You will see text
- similar to <xref linkend="install-dev-probe"/>, although the precise
- text will differ depending on the devices that you have in your
+ the kernel was carrying out the device probes. Text
+ similar to <xref linkend="install-dev-probe"/> will be
+ displayed, although
+ it will differ depending on the devices in the
computer.</para>
<figure id="install-dev-probe">
@@ -1130,16 +1151,16 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</figure>
<para>Check the probe results carefully to make sure that &os; found
- all the devices you expected. If a device was not found, then it will
+ all the devices. If a device was not found, it will
not be listed. A <link linkend="kernelconfig">custom kernel</link>
- allows you to add in support for devices which are not in the
- <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel, such as sound cards.</para>
+ can be used to add in support for devices which are not in the
+ <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel.</para>
- <para>After the procedure of device
- probing, you will see <xref linkend="config-country"/>. Use the
+ <para>After the device
+ probe, the menu shown in <xref linkend="config-country"/>
+ will be displayed. Use the
arrow key to choose a country, region, or group. Then press
- <keycap>Enter</keycap>, it will set your country
- easily.</para>
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> to set the country.</para>
<figure id="config-country">
<title>Selecting Country Menu</title>
@@ -1151,9 +1172,10 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>If you selected <guimenuitem>United States</guimenuitem>
- as country, the standard American keyboard map will be used,
- if a different country is chosen the following menu will be
+ <para>If <guimenuitem>United States</guimenuitem> is selected
+ as the country, the standard American keyboard map will be
+ used.
+ If a different country is chosen, the following menu will be
displayed. Use the arrow keys to choose the correct keyboard
map and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
@@ -1167,27 +1189,25 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>After the country selecting, the <application>sysinstall</application>
+ <para>After the country selection, the &man.sysinstall.8;
main menu will display.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="using-sysinstall">
- <title>Introducing Sysinstall</title>
+ <title>Introducing &man.sysinstall.8;</title>
- <para>The <application>sysinstall</application> utility is the installation
- application provided by the &os; Project. It is console based and is
- divided into a number of menus and screens that you can use to
+ <para>The &os;&nbsp;8.<replaceable>X</replaceable> installer,
+ &man.sysinstall.8;, is console based and
+ is
+ divided into a number of menus and screens that can be used to
configure and control the installation process.</para>
- <para>The <application>sysinstall</application> menu system is controlled
+ <para>This menu system is controlled
by the arrow keys, <keycap>Enter</keycap>, <keycap>Tab</keycap>,
<keycap>Space</keycap>, and
- other keys. A detailed description of these keys and what they do is
- contained in <application>sysinstall</application>'s usage
- information.</para>
-
- <para>To review this information, ensure that the
+ other keys. To view a detailed description of these keys and
+ what they do, ensure that the
<guimenuitem>Usage</guimenuitem> entry is highlighted and that the
<guibutton>[Select]</guibutton> button is selected, as shown in <xref
linkend="sysinstall-main3"/>, then press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
@@ -1235,11 +1255,10 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>It is important to read the documents provided.</para>
-
- <para>To view a document, select it with the arrow keys and
+ <para>It is important to read the documents provided. To view a
+ document, select it with the arrow keys and
press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. When finished reading a document,
- pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap> will return to the Documentation
+ press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to return to the Documentation
Menu.</para>
<para>To return to the Main Installation Menu, select
@@ -1252,7 +1271,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<para>To change the keyboard mapping, use the arrow keys to select
<guimenuitem>Keymap</guimenuitem> from the menu and press
- <keycap>Enter</keycap>. This is only required if you are
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap>. This is only required when
using a non-standard or non-US keyboard.</para>
<figure id="sysinstall-keymap">
@@ -1266,7 +1285,8 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</figure>
<para>A different keyboard mapping may be chosen by selecting the
- menu item using up/down arrow keys and pressing <keycap>Space</keycap>.
+ menu item using the up and down arrow keys and pressing
+ <keycap>Space</keycap>.
Pressing <keycap>Space</keycap> again will unselect the item.
When finished, choose the &gui.ok; using the arrow keys and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
@@ -1325,7 +1345,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<para>Press <keycap>F1</keycap> to read the help screen about the
various options.</para>
- <para>Pressing <keycap>Q</keycap> will return to the Main Install
+ <para>Press <keycap>Q</keycap> to return to the Main Install
menu.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -1352,8 +1372,8 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<sect1 id="install-steps">
<title>Allocating Disk Space</title>
- <para>Your first task is to allocate disk space for &os;, and label
- that space so that <application>sysinstall</application> can prepare
+ <para>The first task is to allocate disk space for &os;, and label
+ that space so that &man.sysinstall.8; can prepare
it. In order to do this you need to know how &os; expects to find
information on the disk.</para>
@@ -1366,8 +1386,8 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<indexterm><primary>MS-DOS</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm><primary>Microsoft Windows</primary></indexterm>
<para>In a PC running a BIOS-dependent operating system such as
- &ms-dos; or &microsoft.windows;, the BIOS is able to abstract the
- normal disk drive order, and
+ &microsoft.windows;, the BIOS is able to abstract the
+ normal disk drive order and
the operating system goes along with the change. This allows the user
to boot from a disk drive other than the "primary
master". This is especially convenient for users
@@ -1377,24 +1397,27 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
first drive fails, is attacked by a virus, or is scribbled upon by an
operating system defect, they can easily recover by instructing the BIOS
to logically swap the drives. It is like switching the cables on the
- drives, but without having to open the case.</para>
+ drives, without having to open the case.</para>
<indexterm><primary>SCSI</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm><primary>BIOS</primary></indexterm>
- <para>More expensive systems with SCSI controllers often include BIOS
+ <para>Systems with SCSI controllers often include BIOS
extensions which allow the SCSI drives to be re-ordered in a similar
fashion for up to seven drives.</para>
<para>A user who is accustomed to taking advantage of these features may
become surprised when the results with &os; are not as expected.
&os; does not use the BIOS, and does not know the <quote>logical BIOS
- drive mapping</quote>. This can lead to very perplexing situations,
- especially when drives are physically identical in geometry, and have
- also been made as data clones of one another.</para>
+ drive mapping</quote>. This can lead to perplexing
+ situations,
+ especially when drives are physically identical in geometry
+ and have
+ been made as data clones of one another.</para>
<para>When using &os;, always restore the BIOS to natural drive
- numbering before installing &os;, and then leave it that way. If you
- need to switch drives around, then do so, but do it the hard way, and
+ numbering before installing &os;, and then leave it that way.
+ If drives
+ need to be switched around, take the time to
open the case and move the jumpers and cables.</para>
<sidebar>
@@ -1406,57 +1429,59 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
installs &os; on it.</para>
<para>Fred begins using the system, but after several days notices that
- the older SCSI drive is reporting numerous soft errors and reports
- this fact to Bill.</para>
-
- <para>After several more days, Bill decides it is time to address the
- situation, so he grabs an identical SCSI drive from the disk drive
- <quote>archive</quote> in the back room. An initial surface scan
- indicates that
- this drive is functioning well, so Bill installs this drive as SCSI
+ the older SCSI drive is reporting numerous
+ errors.</para>
+
+ <para>To address the
+ situation, Bill grabs an identical SCSI drive and installs
+ this drive as SCSI
unit four and makes an image copy from drive zero to drive four. Now
- that the new drive is installed and functioning nicely, Bill decides
- that it is a good idea to start using it, so he uses features in the
+ that the new drive is installed and functioning, Bill
+ decides
+ to start using it, so he uses features in the
SCSI BIOS to re-order the disk drives so that the system boots from
SCSI unit four. &os; boots and runs just fine.</para>
- <para>Fred continues his work for several days, and soon Bill and Fred
- decide that it is time for a new adventure &mdash; time to upgrade
+ <para>Fred continues his work and soon
+ decides that it is time to upgrade
to a
newer version of &os;. Bill removes SCSI unit zero because it was
- a bit flaky and replaces it with another identical disk drive from
- the <quote>archive</quote>. Bill then installs the new version of
- &os; onto the new SCSI unit zero using Fred's magic Internet FTP
- floppies. The installation goes well.</para>
+ a bit flaky and replaces it with another identical disk
+ drive. Bill then installs the new version of
+ &os; onto the new SCSI unit zero and the installation goes
+ well.</para>
<para>Fred uses the new version of &os; for a few days, and certifies
that it is good enough for use in the engineering department. It is
- time to copy all of his work from the old version. So Fred mounts
- SCSI unit four (the latest copy of the older &os; version). Fred
- is dismayed to find that none of his precious work is present on SCSI
+ time to copy all of his work from the old version, so Fred
+ mounts
+ SCSI unit four which should contain the latest copy of the
+ older
+ &os; version. Fred
+ is dismayed to find that none of his work is present on SCSI
unit four.</para>
- <para>Where did the data go?</para>
-
- <para>When Bill made an image copy of the original SCSI unit zero onto
+ <para>It turns out that when Bill made an image copy of the
+ original SCSI unit zero onto
SCSI unit four, unit four became the <quote>new clone</quote>.
When Bill re-ordered the SCSI BIOS so that he could boot from
- SCSI unit four, he was only fooling himself.
+ SCSI unit four,
&os; was still running on SCSI unit zero.
- Making this kind of BIOS change will cause some or all of the Boot and
- Loader code to be fetched from the selected BIOS drive, but when the
- &os; kernel drivers take-over, the BIOS drive numbering will be
- ignored, and &os; will transition back to normal drive numbering.
- In the illustration at hand, the system continued to operate on the
+ Making this kind of BIOS change causes some or all of the
+ boot and
+ loader code to be fetched from the selected BIOS drive. But
+ when the
+ &os; kernel drivers take over, the BIOS drive numbering is
+ ignored, and &os; transitions back to normal drive
+ numbering.
+ In this example, the system continued to operate on the
original SCSI unit zero, and all of Fred's data was there, not on SCSI
unit four. The fact that the system appeared to be running on SCSI
unit four was simply an artifact of human expectations.</para>
- <para>We are delighted to mention that no data bytes were killed or
- harmed in any way by our discovery of this phenomenon. The older SCSI
- unit zero was retrieved from the bone pile, and all of Fred's work was
- returned to him, (and now Bill knows that he can count as high as
- zero).</para>
+ <para>Fortunately, the older SCSI
+ unit zero was retrieved and all of Fred's work was
+ restored.</para>
<para>Although SCSI drives were used in this illustration, the concepts
apply equally to IDE drives.</para>
@@ -1466,19 +1491,9 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<sect2 id="main-fdisk">
<title>Creating Slices Using FDisk</title>
- <note>
- <para>No changes you make at this point will be written to the disk.
- If you think you have made a mistake and want to start again you can
- use the menus to exit <application>sysinstall</application> and try
- again or press <keycap>U</keycap> to use the
- <guimenuitem>Undo</guimenuitem> option.
- If you get confused and can not see how to exit you can
- always turn your computer off.</para>
- </note>
-
<para>After choosing to begin a standard installation in
- <application>sysinstall</application> you will be shown this
- message:</para>
+ &man.sysinstall.8;, this
+ message will appear:</para>
<screen> Message
In the next menu, you will need to set up a DOS-style ("fdisk")
@@ -1492,11 +1507,11 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
[ Press enter or space ]</screen>
- <para>Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> as instructed. You will then be
- shown a list of all the hard drives that the kernel found when it
- carried out the device probes.
+ <para>Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> and
+ a list of all the hard drives that the kernel found when it
+ carried out the device probes will be displayed.
<xref linkend="sysinstall-fdisk-drive1"/> shows an example from a
- system with two IDE disks. They have been called
+ system with two IDE disks called
<devicename>ad0</devicename> and <devicename>ad2</devicename>.</para>
<figure id="sysinstall-fdisk-drive1">
@@ -1509,39 +1524,43 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>You might be wondering why <devicename>ad1</devicename> is not
- listed here. Why has it been missed?</para>
+ <para>Note that <devicename>ad1</devicename> is not
+ listed here.</para>
- <para>Consider what would happen if you had two IDE hard disks, one
- as the master on the first IDE controller, and one as the master on
- the second IDE controller. If &os; numbered these as it found
- them, as <devicename>ad0</devicename> and
- <devicename>ad1</devicename> then everything would work.</para>
+ <para>Consider two IDE hard disks where one
+ is the master on the first IDE controller and one is the
+ master on
+ the second IDE controller. If &os; numbered these as
+ <devicename>ad0</devicename> and
+ <devicename>ad1</devicename>, everything would work.</para>
- <para>But if you then added a third disk, as the slave device on the
+ <para>But if a third disk is later added as the slave device on
+ the
first IDE controller, it would now be <devicename>ad1</devicename>,
and the previous <devicename>ad1</devicename> would become
- <devicename>ad2</devicename>. Because device names (such as
- <devicename>ad1s1a</devicename>) are used to find filesystems, you
- may suddenly discover that some of your filesystems no longer
- appear correctly, and you would need to change your &os;
+ <devicename>ad2</devicename>. Because device names
+ are used to find filesystems,
+ some filesystems may no longer
+ appear correctly, requiring a change to the &os;
configuration.</para>
<para>To work around this, the kernel can be configured to name IDE
- disks based on where they are, and not the order in which they were
- found. With this scheme the master disk on the second IDE
+ disks based on where they are and not the order in which they
+ were
+ found. With this scheme, the master disk on the second IDE
controller will <emphasis>always</emphasis> be
<devicename>ad2</devicename>, even if there are no
<devicename>ad0</devicename> or <devicename>ad1</devicename>
devices.</para>
<para>This configuration is the default for the &os; kernel, which
- is why this display shows <devicename>ad0</devicename> and
+ is why the display in this example shows
+ <devicename>ad0</devicename> and
<devicename>ad2</devicename>. The machine on which this screenshot
was taken had IDE disks on both master channels of the IDE
- controllers, and no disks on the slave channels.</para>
+ controllers and no disks on the slave channels.</para>
- <para>You should select the disk on which you want to install &os;,
+ <para>Select the disk on which to install &os;,
and then press &gui.ok;.
<application>FDisk</application> will start, with a display similar to
that shown in <xref linkend="sysinstall-fdisk1"/>.</para>
@@ -1556,17 +1575,19 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<para>The second section shows the slices that are currently on the
disk, where they start and end, how large they are, the name &os;
gives them, and their description and sub-type. This example shows two
- small unused slices, which are artifacts of disk layout schemes on the
+ small unused slices which are artifacts of disk layout schemes
+ on the
PC. It also shows one large <acronym>FAT</acronym> slice, which
- almost certainly appears as <devicename>C:</devicename> in
- &ms-dos; / &windows;, and an extended slice, which may contain other
- drive letters for &ms-dos; / &windows;.</para>
+ appears as <devicename>C:</devicename> in
+ &windows;, and an extended slice, which may contain other
+ drive letters in &windows;.</para>
<para>The third section shows the commands that are available in
<application>FDisk</application>.</para>
<figure id="sysinstall-fdisk1">
- <title>Typical <command>fdisk</command> Partitions Before Editing</title>
+ <title>Typical Default <application>FDisk</application>
+ Partitions</title>
<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
@@ -1575,31 +1596,32 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>What you do now will depend on how you want to slice up your
- disk.</para>
+ <para>This step varies, depending on how the disk is to be
+ sliced.</para>
- <para>If you want to use &os; for the entire disk (which will delete
- all the other data on this disk when you confirm that you want
- <application>sysinstall</application> to continue later in the
- installation process) then you can press <keycap>A</keycap>, which
+ <para>To install &os; to the entire disk, which will delete
+ all the other data on this disk, press <keycap>A</keycap>,
+ which
corresponds to the <guimenuitem>Use Entire Disk</guimenuitem> option.
- The existing slices will be removed, and replaced with a small area
- flagged as <literal>unused</literal> (again, an artifact of PC disk
- layout), and then one large slice for &os;. If you do this, then
- you should select the newly created &os; slice using the arrow
- keys, and press <keycap>S</keycap> to mark the slice as being
- bootable. The screen will then look very similar to
+ The existing slices will be removed and replaced with a small
+ area
+ flagged as <literal>unused</literal>
+ and one large slice for &os;. Then,
+ select the newly created &os; slice using the arrow
+ keys and press <keycap>S</keycap> to mark the slice as being
+ bootable. The screen will then look similar to
<xref linkend="sysinstall-fdisk2"/>. Note the
<literal>A</literal> in the <literal>Flags</literal> column, which
indicates that this slice is <emphasis>active</emphasis>, and will be
booted from.</para>
- <para>If you will be deleting an existing slice to make space for
- &os; then you should select the slice using the arrow keys, and
- then press <keycap>D</keycap>. You can then press <keycap>C</keycap>,
- and be prompted for size of slice you want to create. Enter the
- appropriate figure and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. The default
- value in this box represents the largest possible slice you can
+ <para>If an existing slice needs to be deleted to make space for
+ &os;, select the slice using the arrow keys and
+ press <keycap>D</keycap>. Then, press <keycap>C</keycap> to
+ be prompted for the size of the slice to create. Enter the
+ appropriate value and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. The
+ default
+ value in this box represents the largest possible slice to
make, which could be the largest contiguous block of unallocated
space or the size of the entire hard disk.</para>
@@ -1618,37 +1640,42 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>When finished, press <keycap>Q</keycap>. Your changes will be
- saved in <application>sysinstall</application>, but will not yet be
+ <para>When finished, press <keycap>Q</keycap>. Any changes will
+ be
+ saved in &man.sysinstall.8;, but will not yet be
written to disk.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="bootmgr">
<title>Install a Boot Manager</title>
- <para>You now have the option to install a boot manager. In general,
- you should choose to install the &os; boot manager if:</para>
+ <para>The next menu provides the option to install a boot
+ manager. In general,
+ install the &os; boot manager if:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>You have more than one drive, and have installed &os; onto
+ <para>There is more than one drive and &os; will be
+ installed onto
a drive other than the first one.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>You have installed &os; alongside another operating system
+ <para>&os; will be installed alongside another operating
+ system
on the same disk, and you want to choose whether to start &os;
- or the other operating system when you start the computer.</para>
+ or the other operating system when the computer
+ starts.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
<para>If &os; is going to be the only operating system on
this machine, installed on the first hard disk, then the
<guimenuitem>Standard</guimenuitem> boot manager will suffice.
- Choose <guimenuitem>None</guimenuitem> if you are using a
+ Choose <guimenuitem>None</guimenuitem> if using a
third-party boot manager capable of booting &os;.</para>
- <para>Make your choice and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
+ <para>Make a selection and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
<figure id="sysinstall-bootmgr">
<title>Sysinstall Boot Manager Menu</title>
@@ -1669,14 +1696,14 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<title>Creating Slices on Another Drive</title>
<para>If there is more than one drive, it will return to the
- Select Drives screen after the boot manager selection. If you wish to
- install &os; on to more than one disk, then you can select another
- disk here and repeat the slice process using
+ Select Drives screen after the boot manager selection. To
+ install &os; on to more than one disk, select another
+ disk and repeat the slice process using
<application>FDisk</application>.</para>
<important>
- <para>If you are installing &os; on a drive other than your
- first, then the &os; boot manager needs to be installed on
+ <para>If installing &os; on a drive other than the
+ first drive, the &os; boot manager needs to be installed on
both drives.</para>
</important>
@@ -1690,11 +1717,11 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>The <keycap>Tab</keycap> key toggles between the last drive
+ <para>Use <keycap>Tab</keycap> to toggle between the last drive
selected, &gui.ok;, and
&gui.cancel;.</para>
- <para>Press the <keycap>Tab</keycap> once to toggle to the
+ <para>Press <keycap>Tab</keycap> once to toggle to
&gui.ok;, then
press <keycap>Enter</keycap>
to continue with the installation.</para>
@@ -1704,22 +1731,27 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<title>Creating Partitions Using
<application>Disklabel</application></title>
- <para>You must now create some partitions inside each slice that you
- have just created. Remember that each partition is lettered, from
+ <para>Next, create some partitions inside each slice.
+ Remember that each partition is lettered, from
<literal>a</literal> through to <literal>h</literal>, and that
partitions <literal>b</literal>, <literal>c</literal>, and
- <literal>d</literal> have conventional meanings that you should adhere
+ <literal>d</literal> have conventional meanings that should
+ be adhered
to.</para>
<para>Certain applications can benefit from particular partition
- schemes, especially if you are laying out partitions across more than
- one disk. However, for this, your first &os; installation, you do
- not need to give too much thought to how you partition the disk. It
- is more important that you install &os; and start learning how to
- use it. You can always re-install &os; to change your partition
- scheme when you are more familiar with the operating system.</para>
-
- <para>This scheme features four partitions&mdash;one for swap space, and
+ schemes, especially when laying out partitions across more
+ than
+ one disk. However, for a first &os; installation, do
+ not give too much thought to how to partition the disk. It
+ is more important to install &os; and start learning how to
+ use it. You can always re-install &os; to change the
+ partition
+ scheme after becoming more familiar with the operating
+ system.</para>
+
+ <para>The following scheme features four partitions: one
+ for swap space and
three for filesystems.</para>
<table frame="none" pgwide="1">
@@ -1747,18 +1779,16 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<row>
<entry><literal>a</literal></entry>
- <entry><filename>/</filename></entry>
+ <entry><filename class="directory">/</filename></entry>
<entry>1&nbsp;GB</entry>
<entry>This is the root filesystem. Every other filesystem
will be mounted somewhere under this one. 1&nbsp;GB is a
- reasonable size for this filesystem. You will not be storing
- too much data on it, as a regular &os; install will put
- about 128&nbsp;MB of data here. The remaining space is for
- temporary data, and also leaves expansion space if future
- versions of
- &os; need more space in <filename>/</filename>.</entry>
+ reasonable size for this filesystem as user files
+ should not be stored here and
+ a regular &os; install will put
+ about 128&nbsp;MB of data here.</entry>
</row>
<row>
@@ -1770,34 +1800,37 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<entry><para>The system's swap space is kept on the <literal>b</literal> partition.
Choosing the right amount of swap space can be a bit of an
- art. A good rule of thumb is that your swap
+ art. A good rule of thumb is that swap
space should be two or three times as much as the
available physical memory (RAM).
- You should also have at least 64&nbsp;MB of swap, so if you
- have less than 32&nbsp;MB of RAM in your computer then set
- the swap amount to 64&nbsp;MB.</para><para>
-
- If you have more than one disk then you can put swap
- space on each disk. &os; will then use each disk for
+ There should be at least 64&nbsp;MB of swap, so if
+ there is
+ less than 32&nbsp;MB of RAM in the computer, set
+ the swap amount to 64&nbsp;MB.
+ If there is more than one disk, swap
+ space can be put on each disk. &os; will then use
+ each disk for
swap, which effectively speeds up the act of swapping. In
- this case, calculate the total amount of swap you need
- (e.g., 128&nbsp;MB), and then divide this by the number of
- disks you have (e.g., two disks) to give the amount of swap
- you should put on each disk, in this example, 64&nbsp;MB of
- swap per disk.</para></entry>
+ this case, calculate the total amount of swap needed
+ and divide this by the number of
+ disks to give the amount of swap
+ to put on each disk.</para></entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry><literal>e</literal></entry>
- <entry><filename>/var</filename></entry>
+ <entry><filename
+ class="directory">/var</filename></entry>
<entry>512&nbsp;MB to 4096&nbsp;MB</entry>
- <entry>The <filename>/var</filename> directory contains
- files that are constantly varying;
- log files, and other administrative files. Many
- of these files are read-from or written-to extensively during
+ <entry><filename class="directory">/var</filename>
+ contains
+ files that are constantly varying, such as
+ log files and other administrative files. Many
+ of these files are read from or written to extensively
+ during
&os;'s day-to-day running. Putting these files on another
filesystem allows &os; to optimize the access of these
files without affecting other files in other directories that
@@ -1807,12 +1840,14 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<row>
<entry><literal>f</literal></entry>
- <entry><filename>/usr</filename></entry>
+ <entry><filename
+ class="directory">/usr</filename></entry>
<entry>Rest of disk (at least 8&nbsp;GB)</entry>
- <entry>All your other files will typically be stored in
- <filename>/usr</filename> and its subdirectories.</entry>
+ <entry>All other files will typically be stored in
+ <filename class="directory">/usr</filename> and its
+ subdirectories.</entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
@@ -1825,9 +1860,9 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
Defaults</literal> by the &os; partition editor.</para>
</warning>
- <para>If you will be installing &os; on to more than one disk then
- you must also create partitions in the other slices that you
- configured. The easiest way to do this is to create two partitions on
+ <para>If installing &os; on to more than one disk,
+ create partitions in the other configured slices.
+ The easiest way to do this is to create two partitions on
each disk, one for the swap space, and one for a filesystem.</para>
<table frame="none" pgwide="1">
@@ -1859,7 +1894,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<entry>See description</entry>
- <entry>As already discussed, you can split swap space across
+ <entry>Swap space can be split across
each disk. Even though the <literal>a</literal> partition is
free, convention dictates that swap space stays on the
<literal>b</literal> partition.</entry>
@@ -1877,23 +1912,25 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
partition, instead of the <literal>e</literal> partition.
However, convention says that the <literal>a</literal>
partition on a slice is reserved for the filesystem that will
- be the root (<filename>/</filename>) filesystem. You do not
- have to follow this convention, but
- <application>sysinstall</application> does, so following it
- yourself makes the installation slightly cleaner. You can
- choose to mount this filesystem anywhere; this example
- suggests that you mount them as directories
- <filename>/disk<replaceable>n</replaceable></filename>, where
+ be the root (<filename class="directory">/</filename>)
+ filesystem. Following
+ this convention is not necessary, but
+ &man.sysinstall.8; uses it, so following it
+ makes the installation slightly cleaner.
+ This filesystem can be mounted anywhere; this example
+ mounts it as
+ <filename
+ class="directory">/disk<replaceable>n</replaceable></filename>,
+ where
<replaceable>n</replaceable> is a number that changes for each
- disk. But you can use another scheme if you prefer.</entry>
+ disk.</entry>
</row>
</tbody>
</tgroup>
</table>
- <para>Having chosen your partition layout you can now create it using
- <application>sysinstall</application>. You will see this
- message:</para>
+ <para>Having chosen the partition layout, create it using
+ &man.sysinstall.8;.</para>
<screen> Message
Now, you need to create BSD partitions inside of the fdisk
@@ -1906,17 +1943,19 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
[ OK ]
[ Press enter or space ]</screen>
- <para>Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to start the FreeBSD partition
+ <para>Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to start the &os; partition
editor, called <application>Disklabel</application>.</para>
- <para><xref linkend="sysinstall-label"/> shows the display when you first
- start <application>Disklabel</application>. The display is divided in
- to three sections.</para>
+ <para><xref linkend="sysinstall-label"/> shows the display when
+ <application>Disklabel</application> starts. The display is
+ divided into three sections.</para>
- <para>The first few lines show the name of the disk you are currently
- working on, and the slice that contains the partitions you are
- creating (at this point <application>Disklabel</application> calls
- this the <literal>Partition name</literal> rather than slice name).
+ <para>The first few lines show the name of the disk being
+ worked on and the slice that contains the partitions to
+ create. At this point, <application>Disklabel</application>
+ calls
+ this the <literal>Partition name</literal> rather than slice
+ name.
This display also shows the amount of free space within the slice;
that is, space that was set aside in the slice, but that has not yet
been assigned to a partition.</para>
@@ -1940,20 +1979,21 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</figure>
<para><application>Disklabel</application> can automatically create
- partitions for you and assign them default sizes. The default sizes
+ partitions and assign them default sizes. The default sizes
are calculated with the help of an internal partition sizing algorithm
- based on the disk size. Try this now, by
- Pressing <keycap>A</keycap>. You will see a display similar to that
+ based on the disk size.
+ Press <keycap>A</keycap> to see a display similar to that
shown in <xref linkend="sysinstall-label2"/>. Depending on the size of
- the disk you are using, the defaults may or may not be appropriate.
- This does not matter, as you do not have to accept the
- defaults.</para>
+ the disk, the defaults may or may not be appropriate.</para>
<note>
<para>The default partitioning assigns
- the <filename>/tmp</filename> directory its own partition instead
- of being part of the <filename>/</filename> partition. This
- helps avoid filling the <filename>/</filename> partition with
+ <filename class="directory">/tmp</filename> its own
+ partition instead
+ of being part of the <filename
+ class="directory">/</filename> partition. This
+ helps avoid filling the <filename
+ class="directory">/</filename> partition with
temporary files.</para>
</note>
@@ -1967,19 +2007,23 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>If you choose to not use the default partitions and wish to
- replace them with your
- own, use the arrow keys to select the first partition, and press
+ <para>To
+ replace the default partitions,
+ use the arrow keys to select the first partition and press
<keycap>D</keycap> to delete it. Repeat this to delete all the
suggested partitions.</para>
- <para>To create the first partition (<literal>a</literal>, mounted as
- <filename>/</filename> &mdash; root), make sure the proper disk slice
+ <para>To create the first partition, <literal>a</literal>,
+ mounted as
+ <filename class="directory">/</filename>, make sure the
+ proper disk slice
at the top of
the screen is selected and press <keycap>C</keycap>. A dialog box
- will appear prompting you for the size of the new partition (as shown
- in <xref linkend="sysinstall-label-add"/>). You can enter the size as
- the number of disk blocks you want to use, or as a
+ will appear, prompting for the size of the new partition,
+ as shown
+ in <xref linkend="sysinstall-label-add"/>. The size can
+ be entered as
+ the number of disk blocks to use or as a
number followed by either <literal>M</literal> for megabytes,
<literal>G</literal> for gigabytes, or <literal>C</literal> for
cylinders.</para>
@@ -1995,8 +2039,8 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</figure>
<para>The default size shown will create a partition that takes up the
- rest of the slice. If you are using the partition sizes described
- in the earlier example, then delete the existing figure using
+ rest of the slice. If using the partition sizes described
+ in the earlier example, delete the existing figure using
<keycap>Backspace</keycap>, and then type in
<userinput>512M</userinput>, as shown in
<xref linkend="sysinstall-label-add2"/>. Then press
@@ -2012,7 +2056,8 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>Having chosen the partition's size you will then be asked whether
+ <para>After choosing the partition's size, the installer will
+ ask whether
this partition will contain a filesystem or swap space. The dialog
box is shown in <xref linkend="sysinstall-label-type"/>. This first
partition will contain a filesystem, so check that
@@ -2029,11 +2074,12 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>Finally, because you are creating a filesystem, you must tell
- <application>Disklabel</application> where the filesystem is to be
+ <para>Finally, tell
+ <application>Disklabel</application> where the filesystem will
+ be
mounted. The dialog box is shown in
- <xref linkend="sysinstall-label-mount"/>. The root filesystem's mount
- point is <filename>/</filename>, so type <userinput>/</userinput>, and
+ <xref linkend="sysinstall-label-mount"/>. Type
+ <userinput>/</userinput>, and
then press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
<figure id="sysinstall-label-mount">
@@ -2046,16 +2092,19 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>The display will then update to show you the newly created
- partition. You should repeat this procedure for the other
- partitions. When you create the swap partition, you will not be
- prompted for the filesystem mount point, as swap partitions are never
- mounted. When you create the final partition,
- <filename>/usr</filename>, you can leave the suggested size as is, to
+ <para>The display will then update to show the newly created
+ partition. Repeat this procedure for the other
+ partitions. When creating the swap partition, it will not
+ prompt for the filesystem mount point. When creating the
+ final partition,
+ <filename class="directory">/usr</filename>, leave the
+ suggested size as is to
use the rest of the slice.</para>
- <para>Your final &os; DiskLabel Editor screen will appear similar to
- <xref linkend="sysinstall-label4"/>, although your values chosen may
+ <para>The final &os; DiskLabel Editor screen will appear similar
+ to
+ <xref linkend="sysinstall-label4"/>, although the values
+ chosen may
be different. Press <keycap>Q</keycap> to finish.</para>
<figure id="sysinstall-label4">
@@ -2080,32 +2129,36 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
on the intended use of the system and the amount of disk space
available. The predefined options range from installing the
smallest possible configuration to everything. Those who are
- new to &unix; and/or &os; should almost certainly select one
+ new to &unix; or &os; should select one
of these canned options. Customizing a distribution set is
typically for the more experienced user.</para>
<para>Press <keycap>F1</keycap> for more information on the
distribution set options and what they contain. When finished
- reviewing the help, pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap> will return
+ reviewing the help, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to return
to the Select Distributions Menu.</para>
- <para>If a graphical user interface is desired then the
- configuration of the X server and selection of a default
+ <para>If a graphical user interface is desired, the
+ configuration of <application>&xorg;</application> and
+ selection of a default
desktop must be done after the installation of &os;. More
information regarding the installation and configuration of a
- X server can be found in <xref linkend="x11"/>.</para>
+ <application>&xorg;</application> can be found in <xref
+ linkend="x11"/>.</para>
<para>If compiling a custom kernel is anticipated, select an option
which includes the source code. For more information on why a
custom kernel should be built or how to build a custom kernel, see
<xref linkend="kernelconfig"/>.</para>
- <para>Obviously, the most versatile system is one that includes
+ <para>The most versatile system is one that includes
everything. If there is adequate disk space, select
- <guimenuitem>All</guimenuitem> as shown in
- <xref linkend="distribution-set1"/> by using the arrow keys and
- press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. If there is a concern about disk
- space consider using an option that is more suitable for the
+ <guimenuitem>All</guimenuitem>, as shown in
+ <xref linkend="distribution-set1"/>, by using the arrow keys
+ and
+ pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap>. If there is a concern about
+ disk
+ space, consider using an option that is more suitable for the
situation.
Do not fret over the perfect choice, as other distributions can be
added after installation.</para>
@@ -2125,14 +2178,13 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<title>Installing the Ports Collection</title>
<para>After selecting the desired distribution, an opportunity to
- install the &os; Ports Collection is presented. The ports
- collection is an easy and convenient way to install software.
- The Ports Collection does not contain the source code necessary
- to compile the software. Instead, it is a collection of files which
- automates the downloading, compiling and installation
+ install the &os; Ports Collection is presented. The Ports
+ Collection is an easy and convenient way to install software
+ as it provides a collection of files that
+ automate the downloading, compiling, and installation
of third-party software packages.
- <xref linkend="ports"/> discusses how to use the ports
- collection.</para>
+ <xref linkend="ports"/> discusses how to use the Ports
+ Collection.</para>
<para>The installation program does not check to see if you have
adequate space. Select this option only if you have
@@ -2175,19 +2227,19 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>If satisfied with the options, select
+ <para>Once satisfied with the options, select
<guimenuitem>Exit</guimenuitem> with the arrow keys, ensure that
- &gui.ok; is highlighted, and pressing
+ &gui.ok; is highlighted, and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="install-media">
- <title>Choosing Your Installation Media</title>
+ <title>Choosing the Installation Media</title>
- <para>If Installing from a CDROM or DVD, use the arrow keys to highlight
- <guimenuitem>Install from a FreeBSD CD/DVD</guimenuitem>. Ensure
+ <para>If installing from a CD/DVD, use the arrow keys to highlight
+ <guimenuitem>Install from a &os; CD/DVD</guimenuitem>. Ensure
that &gui.ok; is highlighted, then press
<keycap>Enter</keycap> to proceed with the installation.</para>
@@ -2217,7 +2269,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<tertiary>FTP</tertiary>
</indexterm>
- <para>There are three FTP installation modes you can choose from:
+ <para>There are three FTP installation modes to choose from:
active FTP, passive FTP, or via a HTTP proxy.</para>
<variablelist>
@@ -2226,12 +2278,12 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
server</guimenuitem></term>
<listitem>
- <para>This option will make all FTP transfers
+ <para>This option makes all FTP transfers
use <quote>Active</quote>
mode. This will not work through firewalls, but will
often work with older FTP servers that do not support
- passive mode. If your connection hangs with passive
- mode (the default), try active!</para>
+ passive mode. If the connection hangs with passive
+ mode (the default), try using active mode.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -2245,8 +2297,9 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<secondary>passive mode</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para>This option instructs <application>sysinstall</application>
- to <quote>Passive</quote> mode for all FTP operations.
+ <para>This option instructs &man.sysinstall.8;
+ to use passive mode for all FTP
+ operations.
This allows the user to pass through firewalls
that do not allow incoming connections on random TCP ports.
</para>
@@ -2263,40 +2316,40 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<secondary>via a HTTP proxy</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para>This option instructs <application>sysinstall</application>
+ <para>This option instructs &man.sysinstall.8;
to use the HTTP
- protocol (like a web browser) to connect to a proxy
+ protocol to connect to a proxy
for all FTP operations. The proxy will translate
the requests and send them to the FTP server.
This allows the user to pass through firewalls
- that do not allow FTP at all, but offer a HTTP
+ that do not allow FTP, but offer a HTTP
proxy.
- In this case, you have to specify the proxy in
+ In this case, specify the proxy in
addition to the FTP server.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
- <para>For a proxy FTP server, you should usually give the name of the
- server you really want as a part of the username, after an
+ <para>For a proxy FTP server, give the name of the
+ server as part of the username, after an
<quote>@</quote> sign. The proxy server then <quote>fakes</quote>
- the real server. For example, assuming you want to install from
+ the real server. For example, to install from
<hostid role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid>, using the proxy FTP
server <hostid role="fqdn">foo.example.com</hostid>, listening on port
- 1234.</para>
-
- <para>In this case, you go to the options menu, set the FTP username
- to <literal>ftp@ftp.FreeBSD.org</literal>, and the password to your
- email address. As your installation media, you specify FTP (or
+ 1234, go to the options menu, set the FTP username
+ to <literal>ftp@ftp.FreeBSD.org</literal> and the password to
+ an
+ email address. As the installation media, specify FTP (or
passive FTP, if the proxy supports it), and the URL
<literal>ftp://foo.example.com:1234/pub/FreeBSD</literal>.</para>
- <para>Since <filename>/pub/FreeBSD</filename> from
+ <para>Since <filename class="directory">/pub/FreeBSD</filename>
+ from
<hostid role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid> is proxied under
- <hostid role="fqdn">foo.example.com</hostid>, you are able to install
- from <emphasis>that</emphasis> machine (which will fetch the files
- from <hostid role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid> as your
- installation requests them).</para>
+ <hostid role="fqdn">foo.example.com</hostid>, the proxy
+ will fetch the files
+ from <hostid role="fqdn">ftp.FreeBSD.org</hostid> as the
+ installer requests them.</para>
</note>
</sect1>
@@ -2323,7 +2376,7 @@ Mounting root from ufs:/dev/md0c
<para>The installation time will vary according to the distribution
chosen, installation media, and the speed of the computer.
There will be a series of
- messages displayed indicating the status.</para>
+ messages displayed, indicating the status.</para>
<para>The installation is complete when the following message is
displayed:</para>
@@ -2347,7 +2400,7 @@ do so by typing: /usr/sbin/sysinstall.
<para>Selecting &gui.no; and pressing
<keycap>Enter</keycap> will abort
- the installation so no changes will be made to your system. The
+ the installation so no changes will be made to the system. The
following message will appear:</para>
<screen> Message
@@ -2366,19 +2419,21 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
<sect1 id="install-post">
<title>Post-installation</title>
- <para>Configuration of various options follows the successful
- installation. An option can be configured by re-entering the
- configuration options before booting the new &os;
- system or after installation using
- <command>sysinstall</command>
- and selecting
- <guimenuitem>Configure</guimenuitem>.</para>
+ <para>Configuration of various options can be performed after a
+ successful installation. An option can be configured by
+ re-entering the
+ configuration menus before booting the new &os;
+ system or after boot using
+ &man.sysinstall.8;
+ and then selecting the
+ <guimenuitem>Configure</guimenuitem> menu.</para>
<sect2 id="inst-network-dev">
<title>Network Device Configuration</title>
- <para>If you previously configured PPP for an FTP install, this screen
- will not display and can be configured later as described
+ <para>If PPP was previously configured for an FTP install, this
+ screen
+ will not display and can be configured after boot as described
above.</para>
<para>For detailed information on Local Area Networks and
@@ -2418,8 +2473,9 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
was selected with the arrow keys and <keycap>Enter</keycap>
pressed.</para>
- <para>If you are connected to an existing <acronym>IPv6</acronym> network
- with an <acronym>RA</acronym> server, then choose
+ <para>If connected to an existing <acronym>IPv6</acronym>
+ network
+ with an <acronym>RA</acronym> server, choose
&gui.yes; and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.
It will take several seconds to scan for RA servers.</para>
@@ -2428,12 +2484,13 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
Yes [ No ]</screen>
- <para>If DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is not required
+ <para>If Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
+ <acronym>DHCP</acronym>) is not required,
select &gui.no; with the arrow keys and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
<para>Selecting &gui.yes; will execute
- <application>dhclient</application>, and if successful, will fill
+ &man.dhclient.8; and, if successful, will fill
in the network configuration information automatically. Refer to
<xref linkend="network-dhcp"/> for more information.</para>
@@ -2469,7 +2526,7 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
<term>Domain</term>
<listitem>
- <para>The name of the domain that your machine is
+ <para>The name of the domain that the machine is
in, such as <hostid role="domainname">example.com</hostid>
for this case.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -2480,7 +2537,8 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
<listitem>
<para>IP address of host forwarding packets to non-local
- destinations. You must fill this in if the machine is a node
+ destinations. This must be filled in if the machine is
+ a node
on the network. <emphasis>Leave this field blank</emphasis>
if the machine is the gateway to the Internet for the
network. The IPv4 Gateway is also known as the default
@@ -2492,7 +2550,8 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
<term>Name server</term>
<listitem>
- <para>IP address of your local DNS server. There is no local
+ <para>IP address of the local DNS server. There is no
+ local
DNS server on this private local area network so the IP
address of the provider's DNS server
(<hostid role="ipaddr">208.163.10.2</hostid>) was used.</para>
@@ -2522,11 +2581,11 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
</varlistentry>
<varlistentry>
- <term>Extra options to ifconfig</term>
+ <term>Extra options to &man.ifconfig.8;</term>
<listitem>
- <para>Any interface-specific options to <command>ifconfig</command>
- you would like to add. There were none in this case.</para>
+ <para>Any additional interface-specific options to
+ &man.ifconfig.8;. There were none in this case.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -2543,7 +2602,8 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
<para>Choosing &gui.yes; and pressing
<keycap>Enter</keycap> will bring
- the machine up on the network and be ready for use. However,
+ the machine up on the network so it is ready for use.
+ However,
this does not accomplish much during installation, since
the machine still needs to be rebooted.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -2557,9 +2617,9 @@ installation menus to retry whichever operations have failed.
[ Yes ] No</screen>
<para>If the machine will be acting as the gateway for a local area
- network and forwarding packets between other machines then select
+ network and forwarding packets between other machines, select
&gui.yes; and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.
- If the machine is a node on a network then
+ If the machine is a node on a network,
select &gui.no; and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -2573,17 +2633,12 @@ Do you want to configure inetd and the network services that it provides?
Yes [ No ]</screen>
<para>If &gui.no; is selected, various services
- such <application>telnetd</application> will not be enabled. This
- means that remote users will not be able to
- <application>telnet</application> into this machine. Local users
- will still be able to access remote machines with
- <application>telnet</application>.</para>
-
- <para>These services can be enabled after installation by editing
- <filename>/etc/inetd.conf</filename> with your favorite text editor.
+ will not be enabled. These services can be enabled after
+ installation by editing
+ <filename>/etc/inetd.conf</filename> with a text editor.
See <xref linkend="network-inetd-overview"/> for more information.</para>
- <para>Select &gui.yes; if you wish to
+ <para>Otherwise, select &gui.yes; to
configure these services during install. An additional
confirmation will display:</para>
@@ -2612,9 +2667,9 @@ use the current settings.
[ Yes ] No</screen>
- <para>Selecting &gui.yes; will allow adding
- services by deleting the <literal>#</literal> at the beginning
- of a line.</para>
+ <para>Selecting &gui.yes; allows services to be enabled
+ by deleting the <literal>#</literal> at the beginning
+ of the lines representing those services.</para>
<figure id="inetd-edit">
<title>Editing <filename>inetd.conf</filename></title>
@@ -2626,8 +2681,8 @@ use the current settings.
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>After adding the desired services, pressing <keycap>Esc</keycap>
- will display a menu which will allow exiting and saving
+ <para>Once the edits are complete, press <keycap>Esc</keycap>
+ to display a menu which will exit the editor and save
the changes.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -2645,10 +2700,10 @@ use the current settings.
Yes [ No ]</screen>
<para>Selecting &gui.yes; will enable &man.sshd.8;, the daemon
- program for <application>OpenSSH</application>. This will
- allow secure remote access to your machine. For more
- information about <application>OpenSSH</application> see <xref
- linkend="openssh"/>.</para>
+ for <application>OpenSSH</application>. This
+ allows secure remote access to the machine. For more
+ information about <application>OpenSSH</application>, see
+ <xref linkend="openssh"/>.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="ftpanon">
@@ -2675,10 +2730,11 @@ use the current settings.
<sect3 id="ftpallow">
<title>Allow Anonymous FTP</title>
- <para>Anyone can access your machine if you elect to allow
- anonymous FTP connections. The security implications should be
+ <para>Anyone can access the machine if
+ anonymous FTP connections are allowed. The security
+ implications should be
considered before enabling this option. For more information
- about security see <xref linkend="security"/>.</para>
+ about security, see <xref linkend="security"/>.</para>
<para>To allow anonymous FTP, use the arrow keys to select
&gui.yes; and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.
@@ -2702,11 +2758,11 @@ use the current settings.
[ Yes ] No</screen>
- <para>This message informs you that the FTP service will also
+ <para>This message indicates that the FTP service will also
have to be enabled in <filename>/etc/inetd.conf</filename>
- if you want to allow anonymous FTP connections, see <xref
- linkend="inetd-services"/>. Select &gui.yes; and press
- <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue; the following screen
+ to allow anonymous FTP connections. Select &gui.yes; and
+ press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue. The following screen
will display:</para>
<figure id="anon-ftp2">
@@ -2727,7 +2783,7 @@ use the current settings.
<term>UID</term>
<listitem>
- <para>The user ID you wish to assign to the anonymous
+ <para>The user ID to assign to the anonymous
FTP user. All files uploaded will be owned by this
ID.</para>
</listitem>
@@ -2737,8 +2793,8 @@ use the current settings.
<term>Group</term>
<listitem>
- <para>Which group you wish the anonymous FTP user to be
- in.</para>
+ <para>Which group to place the anonymous FTP user
+ into.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -2770,13 +2826,15 @@ use the current settings.
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
- <para>The FTP root directory will be put in <filename>/var</filename>
- by default. If you do not have enough room there for the
- anticipated FTP needs, the <filename>/usr</filename> directory
- could be used by setting the FTP root directory to
- <filename>/usr/ftp</filename>.</para>
+ <para>The FTP root directory will be put in <filename
+ class="directory">/var</filename>
+ by default. If there is not enough room there for the
+ anticipated FTP needs, use <filename
+ class="directory">/usr</filename> instead
+ by setting the FTP root directory to
+ <filename class="directory">/usr/ftp</filename>.</para>
- <para>When you are satisfied with the values, press
+ <para>Once satisfied with the values, press
<keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue.</para>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
@@ -2784,9 +2842,9 @@ use the current settings.
[ Yes ] No</screen>
- <para>If you select &gui.yes; and press
- <keycap>Enter</keycap>, an editor will automatically start
- allowing you to edit the message.</para>
+ <para>If &gui.yes; is selected, press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> and the &man.cu.1; editor
+ will automatically start.</para>
<figure id="anon-ftp4">
<title>Edit the FTP Welcome Message</title>
@@ -2798,25 +2856,26 @@ use the current settings.
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>This is a text editor called <command>ee</command>. Use the
- instructions to change the message or change the message later
- using a text editor of your choice. Note the file name/location
+ <para>Use the
+ instructions to change the message. Note the file name
+ location
at the bottom of the editor screen.</para>
<para>Press <keycap>Esc</keycap> and a pop-up menu will default
to <guimenuitem>a) leave editor</guimenuitem>. Press
<keycap>Enter</keycap> to exit and continue. Press
- <keycap>Enter</keycap> again to save changes if you made
- any.</para>
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> again to save any changes.</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="nfsconf">
- <title>Configure Network File System</title>
+ <title>Configure the Network File System</title>
- <para>Network File System (NFS) allows sharing of files across a
+ <para>The Network File System (<acronym>NFS</acronym>) allows
+ sharing of files across a
network. A machine can be configured as a server, a client, or
- both. Refer to <xref linkend="network-nfs"/> for a more information.</para>
+ both. Refer to <xref linkend="network-nfs"/> for more
+ information.</para>
<sect3 id="nsf-server-options">
<title>NFS Server</title>
@@ -2826,12 +2885,13 @@ use the current settings.
Yes [ No ]</screen>
- <para>If there is no need for a Network File System server,
+ <para>If there is no need for a <acronym>NFS</acronym> server,
select &gui.no; and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
<para>If &gui.yes; is chosen, a message will
- pop-up indicating that the <filename>exports</filename> file must be
+ pop-up indicating that <filename>/etc/exports</filename>
+ must be
created.</para>
<screen> Message
@@ -2842,8 +2902,8 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
[ OK ]</screen>
<para>Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue. A text editor will
- start allowing the <filename>exports</filename> file to be created
- and edited.</para>
+ start, allowing <filename>/etc/exports</filename> to be
+ edited.</para>
<figure id="nfs-server-edit">
<title>Editing <filename>exports</filename></title>
@@ -2855,9 +2915,10 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>Use the instructions to add the actual exported filesystems
- now or later using a text editor of your choice. Note the
- file name/location at the bottom of the editor screen.</para>
+ <para>Use the instructions to add the exported filesystems.
+ Note the
+ file name location at the bottom of the editor
+ screen.</para>
<para>Press <keycap>Esc</keycap> and a pop-up menu will default to
<guimenuitem>a) leave editor</guimenuitem>. Press
@@ -2865,9 +2926,10 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
</sect3>
<sect3 id="nfs-client-options">
- <title>NFS Client</title>
+ <title><acronym>NFS</acronym> Client</title>
- <para>The NFS client allows your machine to access NFS servers.</para>
+ <para>The <acronym>NFS</acronym> client allows the machine to
+ access <acronym>NFS</acronym> servers.</para>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
Do you want to configure this machine as an NFS client?
@@ -2953,21 +3015,22 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>Selecting <guimenuitem>Exit</guimenuitem> and pressing
- <keycap>Enter</keycap> will continue with the post-installation
- configurations.</para>
+ <para>Select <guimenuitem>Exit</guimenuitem> and press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue with the post-installation
+ configuration.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="timezone">
<title>Setting the Time Zone</title>
- <para>Setting the time zone for your machine will allow it to
+ <para>Setting the time zone allows the system to
automatically correct for any regional time changes and perform
other time zone related functions properly.</para>
<para>The example shown is for a machine located in the Eastern
- time zone of the United States. Your selections will vary according
- to your geographical location.</para>
+ time zone of the United States. The selections will vary
+ according
+ to the geographic location.</para>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
Would you like to set this machine's time zone now?
@@ -2985,10 +3048,10 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<para>Select &gui.yes;
or &gui.no; according to how the machine's
- clock is configured and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
+ clock is configured, then press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
<figure id="set-timezone-region">
- <title>Select Your Region</title>
+ <title>Select the Region</title>
<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
@@ -3001,7 +3064,7 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
and then pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
<figure id="set-timezone-country">
- <title>Select Your Country</title>
+ <title>Select the Country</title>
<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
@@ -3014,7 +3077,7 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
<figure id="set-timezone-locality">
- <title>Select Your Time Zone</title>
+ <title>Select the Time Zone</title>
<mediaobject>
<imageobject>
@@ -3031,7 +3094,8 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
[ Yes ] No</screen>
- <para>Confirm the abbreviation for the time zone is correct.
+ <para>Confirm that the abbreviation for the time zone is
+ correct.
If it looks okay, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue with
the post-installation configuration.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -3039,19 +3103,20 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<sect2 id="mouse">
<title>Mouse Settings</title>
- <para>This option will allow you to cut and paste text in the
- console and user programs with a 3-button mouse. If using a 2-button
- mouse, refer to manual page, &man.moused.8;, after installation for
+ <para>This option allows cut and paste in the
+ console and user programs using a 3-button mouse. If using a
+ 2-button
+ mouse, refer to &man.moused.8; for
details on emulating the 3-button style. This example depicts a
- non-USB mouse configuration (such as a PS/2 or COM port mouse):</para>
+ non-USB mouse configuration:</para>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
Does this system have a PS/2, serial, or bus mouse?
[ Yes ] No </screen>
- <para>Select &gui.yes; for a PS/2, serial or bus mouse, or
- &gui.no; for a USB mouse and press
+ <para>Select &gui.yes; for a PS/2, serial, or bus mouse, or
+ &gui.no; for a USB mouse, then press
<keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
<figure id="mouse-protocol">
@@ -3078,7 +3143,8 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
</figure>
<para>The mouse used in this example is a PS/2 type, so the default
- <guimenuitem>Auto</guimenuitem> was appropriate. To change protocol,
+ <guimenuitem>Auto</guimenuitem> is appropriate. To change the
+ mouse protocol,
use the arrow keys to select another option. Ensure that &gui.ok; is
highlighted and press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to exit this menu.</para>
@@ -3106,7 +3172,8 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
</figure>
<para>This system had a PS/2 mouse, so the default
- <guimenuitem>PS/2</guimenuitem> was appropriate. To change the port,
+ <guimenuitem>PS/2</guimenuitem> is appropriate. To change the
+ port,
use the arrow keys and then press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
<figure id="test-daemon">
@@ -3135,15 +3202,15 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>Move the mouse around the screen and verify the cursor
- shown responds properly. If it does, select
+ <para>Move the mouse around the screen to verify that the cursor
+ responds properly. If it does, select
&gui.yes; and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. If
- not, the mouse has not been configured correctly &mdash; select
+ not, the mouse has not been configured correctly. Select
&gui.no; and try using different configuration
options.</para>
<para>Select <guimenuitem>Exit</guimenuitem> with the arrow keys
- and press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to return to continue with the
+ and press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue with the
post-installation configuration.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -3155,8 +3222,8 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<para>Installation of one package is shown for purposes of
illustration. Additional packages can also be added at this
- time if desired. After installation
- <command>sysinstall</command> can be used to add additional
+ time if desired. After installation,
+ &man.sysinstall.8; can be used to add additional
packages.</para>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
@@ -3166,9 +3233,9 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
[ Yes ] No</screen>
- <para>Selecting &gui.yes; and pressing
- <keycap>Enter</keycap> will be
- followed by the Package Selection screens:</para>
+ <para>Select &gui.yes; and press
+ <keycap>Enter</keycap> to be presented with
+ the Package Selection screens:</para>
<figure id="package-category">
<title>Select Package Category</title>
@@ -3184,8 +3251,9 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
available for installation at any given time.</para>
<para>All packages available will be displayed if
- <guimenuitem>All</guimenuitem> is selected or you can select a
- particular category. Highlight your selection with the arrow
+ <guimenuitem>All</guimenuitem> is selected. Otherwise, select
+ a
+ particular category. Highlight the selection with the arrow
keys and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
<para>A menu will display showing all the packages available for
@@ -3201,16 +3269,20 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>The <application>bash</application> shell is shown selected.
- Select as many as desired by highlighting the package and pressing the
- <keycap>Space</keycap> key. A short description of each package will
+ <para>The <application>bash</application> shell is shown as
+ selected.
+ Select as many packages as desired by highlighting the package
+ and pressing
+ <keycap>Space</keycap>. A short description of each package
+ will
appear in the lower left corner of the screen.</para>
- <para>Pressing the <keycap>Tab</keycap> key will toggle between the last
+ <para>Press <keycap>Tab</keycap> to toggle between the last
selected package, &gui.ok;, and &gui.cancel;.</para>
- <para>When you have finished marking the packages for installation,
- press <keycap>Tab</keycap> once to toggle to the &gui.ok; and press
+ <para>Once finished marking the packages for installation,
+ press <keycap>Tab</keycap> once to toggle to &gui.ok; and
+ press
<keycap>Enter</keycap> to return to the Package Selection menu.</para>
<para>The left and right arrow keys will also toggle between &gui.ok;
@@ -3229,8 +3301,8 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
</figure>
<para>Use the <keycap>Tab</keycap> and arrow keys to select <guibutton>[&nbsp;Install&nbsp;]</guibutton>
- and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. You will then need to confirm
- that you want to install the packages:</para>
+ and press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to see the installation
+ confirmation message:</para>
<figure id="package-install-confirm">
<title>Confirm Package Installation</title>
@@ -3242,21 +3314,22 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>Selecting &gui.ok; and pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap> will start
- the package installation. Installing messages will appear until
+ <para>Select &gui.ok; and press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to start
+ the package installation. Installation messages will appear
+ until all of the installations have
completed. Make note if there are any error messages.</para>
<para>The final configuration continues after packages are
- installed. If you end up not selecting any packages, and wish
- to return to the final configuration, select
- <guibutton>Install</guibutton> anyways.</para>
+ installed. If no packages are selected, select
+ <guibutton>Install</guibutton> to return to the final
+ configuration.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2 id="addusers">
<title>Add Users/Groups</title>
- <para>You should add at least one user during the installation so
- that you can use the system without being logged in as
+ <para>Add at least one user during the installation so
+ that the system can be used without logging in as
<username>root</username>. The root partition is generally small
and running applications as <username>root</username> can quickly
fill it. A bigger danger is noted below:</para>
@@ -3347,8 +3420,7 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<term>Member groups</term>
<listitem>
- <para>The groups this user belongs to (i.e., gets access
- rights for).</para>
+ <para>The groups this user belongs to.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -3365,24 +3437,26 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<term>Login shell</term>
<listitem>
<para>The user's login shell (leave blank for
- default, e.g., <filename>/bin/sh</filename>).</para>
+ default of <filename>/bin/sh</filename>).</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
</variablelist>
- <para>The login shell was changed from <filename>/bin/sh</filename> to
+ <para>In this example, the login shell was changed from
+ <filename>/bin/sh</filename> to
<filename>/usr/local/bin/bash</filename> to use the
<application>bash</application> shell that was previously installed as
- a package. Do not try to use a shell that does not exist or you will
- not be able to login. The most common shell used in the
- BSD-world is the C shell, which can be indicated as
+ a package. Do not use a shell that does not exist or the user
+ will
+ not be able to login. The most common shell used in &os;
+ is the C shell,
<filename>/bin/tcsh</filename>.</para>
<para>The user was also added to the <groupname>wheel</groupname> group
to be able to become a superuser with <username>root</username>
privileges.</para>
- <para>When you are satisfied, press &gui.ok; and
+ <para>Once satisfied, press &gui.ok; and
the User and Group Management menu will redisplay:</para>
<figure id="add-user4">
@@ -3395,13 +3469,12 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>Groups can also be added at this time if specific needs
- are known. Otherwise, this may be accessed through using
- <command>sysinstall</command>
- after installation is
- completed.</para>
+ <para>Groups can also be added at this time. Otherwise, this
+ menu may be accessed using
+ &man.sysinstall.8;
+ at a later time.</para>
- <para>When you are finished adding users, select
+ <para>When finished adding users, select
<guimenuitem>Exit</guimenuitem> with the arrow keys and press
<keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue the installation.</para>
</sect2>
@@ -3420,9 +3493,9 @@ Press [Enter] now to invoke an editor on /etc/exports
<para>Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to set the <username>root</username>
password.</para>
- <para>The password will need to be typed in twice correctly. Needless to
- say, make sure you have a way of finding the password if you
- forget. Notice that the password you type in is not echoed, nor
+ <para>The password will need to be typed in twice correctly.
+ Do not forget this password.
+ Notice that the typed password is not echoed, nor
are asterisks displayed.</para>
<screen>New password:
@@ -3435,10 +3508,8 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
<sect2 id="exit-inst">
<title>Exiting Install</title>
- <para>If you need to configure
- <link linkend="network-services">additional network services</link>
- or any other configuration, you can do it at this point or
- after installation with <command>sysinstall</command>.</para>
+ <para>A message will ask if
+ configuration is complete:</para>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
Visit the general configuration menu for a chance to set any last
@@ -3461,7 +3532,8 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
</figure>
<para>Select <guibutton>[X Exit Install]</guibutton> with the arrow
- keys and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. You will be asked to
+ keys and press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. The installer will
+ prompt to
confirm exiting the installation:</para>
<screen> User Confirmation Requested
@@ -3469,7 +3541,7 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
[ Yes ] No</screen>
- <para>Select &gui.yes;. If you are booting from the CDROM drive
+ <para>Select &gui.yes;. If booting from the CDROM drive,
the following message will remind you to remove the
disk:</para>
@@ -3480,8 +3552,8 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
[ Press enter or space ]</screen>
<para>The CDROM drive is locked until the machine
- starts to reboot then the disk can
- be removed from drive (quickly). Press &gui.ok; to reboot.</para>
+ starts to reboot, then the disk can quickly
+ be removed from the drive. Press &gui.ok; to reboot.</para>
<para>The system will reboot so watch for any error messages that
may appear, see <xref linkend="freebsdboot"/> for more
@@ -3501,26 +3573,22 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
<title>Configure Additional Network Services</title>
<para>Configuring network services can be a daunting
- task for new users if they lack previous
- knowledge in this area. Networking, including the Internet,
- is critical to all modern operating systems including &os;;
- as a result, it is very useful to have some understanding
- &os;'s extensive networking capabilities. Doing this
- during the installation will ensure users have some
- understanding of the various services available to them.</para>
+ task for users that lack previous
+ knowledge in this area. Since networking and the Internet
+ are critical to all modern operating systems,
+ it is useful to have some understanding of
+ &os;'s extensive networking capabilities.</para>
<para>Network services are programs that accept input from
- anywhere on the network. Every effort is made to make sure
- these programs will not do anything <quote>harmful</quote>.
- Unfortunately, programmers are not perfect and through time
+ anywhere on the network. Since
there have been cases where bugs in network services have been
- exploited by attackers to do bad things. It is important that
- you only enable the network services you know that you need. If
- in doubt it is best if you do not enable a network service until
- you find out that you do need it. You can always enable it
- later by re-running <application>sysinstall</application> or by
- using the features provided by the
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> file.</para>
+ exploited by attackers, it is important to
+ only enable needed network services. If
+ in doubt, do not enable a network service until
+ it is needed. Services can be enabled
+ with &man.sysinstall.8; or by
+ editing
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>.</para>
<para>Selecting the <guimenu>Networking</guimenu> option will display
a menu similar to the one below:</para>
@@ -3535,37 +3603,35 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>The first option, <guimenuitem>Interfaces</guimenuitem>, was
- previously covered during the <xref linkend="inst-network-dev"/>,
- thus this option can safely be ignored.</para>
+ <para>The first option, <guimenuitem>Interfaces</guimenuitem>,
+ is covered in <xref linkend="inst-network-dev"/>.</para>
<para>Selecting the <guimenuitem>AMD</guimenuitem> option adds
- support for the <acronym>BSD</acronym> automatic mount utility.
- This is usually used in conjunction with the
- <acronym>NFS</acronym> protocol (see below)
- for automatically mounting remote file systems.
- No special configuration is required here.</para>
-
- <para>Next in line is the <guimenuitem>AMD Flags</guimenuitem>
- option. When selected, a menu will pop up for you
- to enter specific <acronym>AMD</acronym> flags.
+ support for &man.amd.8;.
+ This is usually used in conjunction with
+ <acronym>NFS</acronym>
+ for automatically mounting remote filesystems.</para>
+
+ <para>Next is the <guimenuitem>AMD Flags</guimenuitem>
+ option. When selected, a menu will pop up where
+ specific <acronym>AMD</acronym> flags can be entered.
The menu already contains a set of default options:</para>
<screen>-a /.amd_mnt -l syslog /host /etc/amd.map /net /etc/amd.map</screen>
- <para>The <option>-a</option> option sets the default mount
+ <para><option>-a</option> sets the default mount
location which is specified here as
- <filename>/.amd_mnt</filename>. The <option>-l</option>
- option specifies the default <filename>log</filename> file;
- however, when <literal>syslogd</literal> is used all log
- activity will be sent to the system log daemon. The
- <filename class="directory">/host</filename> directory is used
+ <filename>/.amd_mnt</filename>. <option>-l</option>
+ specifies the default <filename>log</filename>;
+ however, when &man.syslogd.8; is used, all log
+ activity will be sent to the system log daemon.
+ <filename class="directory">/host</filename> is used
to mount an exported file system from a remote
host, while <filename class="directory">/net</filename>
- directory is used to mount an exported file system from an
- <acronym>IP</acronym> address. The
- <filename>/etc/amd.map</filename> file defines the default
- options for <acronym>AMD</acronym> exports.</para>
+ is used to mount an exported filesystem from an
+ <acronym>IP</acronym> address. The default
+ options for <acronym>AMD</acronym> exports are defined in
+ <filename>/etc/amd.map</filename>.</para>
<indexterm>
<primary>FTP</primary>
@@ -3579,17 +3645,17 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
Another menu will be displayed to explain the security risks
and configuration in depth.</para>
- <para>The <guimenuitem>Gateway</guimenuitem> configuration menu will set
- the machine up to be a gateway as explained previously. This
- can be used to unset the <guimenuitem>Gateway</guimenuitem> option if
- you accidentally selected it during the installation process.</para>
+ <para>The <guimenuitem>Gateway</guimenuitem> menu will configure
+ the machine to be a gateway. This menu
+ can also be used to unset the
+ <guimenuitem>Gateway</guimenuitem> option if
+ it was accidentally selected during installation.</para>
<para>The <guimenuitem>Inetd</guimenuitem> option can be used to configure
- or completely disable the &man.inetd.8; daemon as discussed
- above.</para>
+ or completely disable &man.inetd.8;.</para>
<para>The <guimenuitem>Mail</guimenuitem> option is used to configure the
- system's default <acronym>MTA</acronym> or Mail Transfer Agent.
+ system's default Mail Transfer Agent (<acronym>MTA</acronym>).
Selecting this option will bring up the following menu:</para>
<figure id="mta-selection">
@@ -3602,44 +3668,41 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>Here you are offered a choice as to which
+ <para>This menu offers a choice as to which
<acronym>MTA</acronym> to install
- and set as the default. An <acronym>MTA</acronym> is nothing
- more than a mail server which delivers email to users on the
+ and set as the default. An <acronym>MTA</acronym> is
+ a mail server which delivers email to users on the
system or the Internet.</para>
- <para>Selecting <guimenuitem>Sendmail</guimenuitem> will install
- the popular <application>sendmail</application> server which
- is the &os; default. The <guimenuitem>Sendmail local</guimenuitem>
- option will set <application>sendmail</application> to be the default
+ <para>Select <guimenuitem>Sendmail</guimenuitem> to install
+ <application>Sendmail</application> as the default
+ <acronym>MTA</acronym>. Select
+ <guimenuitem>Sendmail local</guimenuitem>
+ to set <application>Sendmail</application> as the
+ default
<acronym>MTA</acronym>, but disable its ability to receive
- incoming email from the Internet. The other options here,
+ incoming email from the Internet. The other options,
<guimenuitem>Postfix</guimenuitem> and
- <guimenuitem>Exim</guimenuitem> act similar to
- <guimenuitem>Sendmail</guimenuitem>. They both deliver
- email; however, some users prefer these alternatives to the
- <application>sendmail</application>
- <acronym>MTA</acronym>.</para>
-
- <para>After selecting an <acronym>MTA</acronym>, or choosing
- not to select an MTA, the network configuration menu will appear
- with the next option being <guimenuitem>NFS client</guimenuitem>.</para>
-
- <para>The <guimenuitem>NFS client</guimenuitem> option will
- configure the system to communicate with a server via
- <acronym>NFS</acronym>. An <acronym>NFS</acronym> server
- makes file systems available to other machines on the
- network via the <acronym>NFS</acronym> protocol. If this is
- a stand-alone machine, this option can remain unselected.
- The system may require more configuration later; see
+ <guimenuitem>Exim</guimenuitem>, provide
+ alternatives to
+ <application>Sendmail</application>.</para>
+
+ <para>The next menu after the <acronym>MTA</acronym> menu is
+ <guimenuitem>NFS client</guimenuitem>. This menu is used to
+ configure the system to communicate with a
+ <acronym>NFS</acronym> server which in turn is used to
+ make filesystems available to other machines on the
+ network over the <acronym>NFS</acronym> protocol.
+ See
<xref linkend="network-nfs"/> for more
information about client and server configuration.</para>
<para>Below that option is the <guimenuitem>NFS server</guimenuitem>
- option, permitting you to set the system up as an
+ option, for setting the system up as an
<acronym>NFS</acronym> server. This adds the required
- information to start up the <acronym>RPC</acronym> remote
- procedure call services. <acronym>RPC</acronym> is used to
+ information to start up the Remote Procedure
+ Call <acronym>RPC</acronym>
+ services. <acronym>RPC</acronym> is used to
coordinate connections between hosts and programs.</para>
<para>Next in line is the <guimenuitem>Ntpdate</guimenuitem> option,
@@ -3656,10 +3719,11 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>From this menu, select the server which is the closest
- to your location. Selecting a close one will make the time
- synchronization more accurate as a server further from your
- location may have more connection latency.</para>
+ <para>From this menu, select the server which is geographically
+ closest.
+ This will make the time
+ synchronization more accurate as a farther server
+ may have more connection latency.</para>
<para>The next option is the <acronym>PCNFSD</acronym> selection.
This option will install the
@@ -3669,7 +3733,7 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
are unable to provide their own, such as Microsoft's
&ms-dos; operating system.</para>
- <para>Now you must scroll down a bit to see the other
+ <para>Now, scroll down a bit to see the other
options:</para>
<figure id="Network-configuration-cont">
@@ -3682,69 +3746,69 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
</mediaobject>
</figure>
- <para>The &man.rpcbind.8;, &man.rpc.statd.8;, and
- &man.rpc.lockd.8; utilities are all used for Remote Procedure
- Calls (<acronym>RPC</acronym>).
- The <command>rpcbind</command> utility manages communication
- between <acronym>NFS</acronym> servers and clients, and is
+ <para><acronym>RPC</acronym>.
+ communication
+ between <acronym>NFS</acronym> servers and clients is managed
+ by &man.rpcbind.8; which is
required for <acronym>NFS</acronym> servers to operate
- correctly. The <application>rpc.statd</application> daemon interacts
- with the <application>rpc.statd</application> daemon on other hosts to
- provide status monitoring. The reported status is usually held
- in the <filename>/var/db/statd.status</filename> file. The
- next option listed here is the <guimenuitem>rpc.lockd</guimenuitem>
- option, which, when selected, will provide file locking
+ correctly. Status monitoring is provided by
+ &man.rpc.statd.8; and the reported status is usually held
+ in <filename>/var/db/statd.status</filename>. The
+ next option is for &man.rpc.lockd.8;
+ which provides file locking
services. This is usually used with
- <application>rpc.statd</application> to monitor what hosts are
+ &man.rpc.statd.8; to monitor which hosts are
requesting locks and how frequently they request them.
- While these last two options are marvelous for debugging, they
+ While these last two options are useful for debugging, they
are not required for <acronym>NFS</acronym> servers and clients
to operate correctly.</para>
- <para>As you progress down the list the next item here is
- <guimenuitem>Routed</guimenuitem>, which is the routing daemon. The
- &man.routed.8; utility manages network routing tables,
+ <para>The next menu,
+ <guimenuitem>Routed</guimenuitem>, configures the routing
+ daemon.
+ &man.routed.8;, manages network routing tables,
discovers multicast routers, and supplies a copy of the routing
tables to any physically connected host on the network upon
request. This is mainly used for machines which act as a
- gateway for the local network. When selected, a menu will be
- presented requesting the default location of the utility.
- The default location is already defined for you and can be
- selected with the <keycap>Enter</keycap> key. You will then
- be presented with yet another menu, this time asking for the
- flags you wish to pass on to <application>routed</application>. The
- default is <option>-q</option> and it should already appear
+ gateway for the local network. If selected, a menu will
+ request the default location of the utility.
+ To accept the default location,
+ press <keycap>Enter</keycap>. Yet
+ another menu will ask for the
+ flags to pass to &man.routed.8;. The
+ default of <option>-q</option> should appear
on the screen.</para>
- <para>Next in line is the <guimenuitem>Rwhod</guimenuitem> option which,
- when selected, will start the &man.rwhod.8; daemon
- during system initialization. The <command>rwhod</command>
+ <para>The next menu, <guimenuitem>Rwhod</guimenuitem>,
+ starts &man.rwhod.8;
+ during system initialization. This
utility broadcasts system messages across the network
periodically, or collects them when in <quote>consumer</quote>
- mode. More information can be found in the &man.ruptime.1; and
- &man.rwho.1; manual pages.</para>
-
- <para>The next to the last option in the list is for the
- &man.sshd.8; daemon. This is the secure shell server for
- <application>OpenSSH</application> and it is highly recommended
- over the standard <application>telnet</application> and
- <acronym>FTP</acronym> servers. The <application>sshd</application>
- server is used to create a secure connection from one host to
- another by using encrypted connections.</para>
-
- <para>Finally there is the <guimenuitem>TCP Extensions</guimenuitem>
- option. This enables the <acronym>TCP</acronym> Extensions
+ mode. More information can be found in &man.ruptime.1; and
+ &man.rwho.1;.</para>
+
+ <para>The next to last option in the list is for
+ &man.sshd.8;, the secure shell server for
+ <application>OpenSSH</application>. It is highly recommended
+ over the standard &man.telnetd.8; and
+ &man.ftpd.8; servers as it
+ is used to create a secure, encrypted connection from one host
+ to
+ another.</para>
+
+ <para>The final option is <guimenuitem>TCP
+ Extensions</guimenuitem> which are
defined in <acronym>RFC</acronym>&nbsp;1323 and
<acronym>RFC</acronym>&nbsp;1644. While on many hosts this can
speed up connections, it can also cause some connections to be
dropped. It is not recommended for servers, but may be
beneficial for stand alone machines.</para>
- <para>Now that you have configured the network services, you can
+ <para>Once the network services are configured,
scroll up to the very top item which is
<guimenuitem>X Exit</guimenuitem>
and continue on to the next configuration item or simply exit
- <application>sysinstall</application> in selecting
+ &man.sysinstall.8; by selecting
<guimenuitem>X Exit</guimenuitem> twice then <guibutton>[X
Exit Install]</guibutton>.</para>
@@ -3756,19 +3820,21 @@ Retype new password :</screen>
<sect3 id="freebsdboot-i386">
<title>&os;/&arch.i386; Bootup</title>
- <para>If everything went well, you will see messages scroll
- off the screen and you will arrive at a login prompt. You can view
- the content of the messages by pressing <keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap>
- and using <keycap>PgUp</keycap> and <keycap>PgDn</keycap>.
- Pressing <keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> again will return
+ <para>If everything went well, messages will scroll along
+ the screen and a login prompt will appear. To view
+ these messages, press
+ <keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap>
+ then use <keycap>PgUp</keycap> and <keycap>PgDn</keycap>.
+ Press <keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> again to return
to the prompt.</para>
- <para>The entire message may not display (buffer limitation) but
- it can be viewed from the command line after logging in by typing
- <command>dmesg</command> at the prompt.</para>
+ <para>All of the messages may not display due to buffer
+ limitations, but
+ they can be read after logging using
+ &man.dmesg.8;.</para>
- <para>Login using the username/password you set during installation
- (<username>rpratt</username>, in this example). Avoid logging in as
+ <para>Login using the username and password which were set
+ during installation. Avoid logging in as
<username>root</username> except when necessary.</para>
<para>Typical boot messages (version information omitted):</para>
@@ -3904,7 +3970,8 @@ Password:</screen>
machines. This happens only on the initial boot-up of a new
installation. Subsequent boots will be faster.</para>
- <para>If the X server has been configured and a Default Desktop
+ <para>If <application>&xorg;</application> has been configured
+ and a default desktop
chosen, it can be started by typing <command>startx</command> at
the command line.</para>
@@ -3915,11 +3982,13 @@ Password:</screen>
<title>&os; Shutdown</title>
<para>It is important to properly shutdown the operating
- system. Do not just turn off power. First, become a superuser by
- typing <command>su</command> at the command line and entering the
+ system. Do not just turn off the power. First, become the
+ superuser using
+ &man.su.1; and entering the
<username>root</username> password. This will work only if the user
- is a member of the <groupname>wheel</groupname> group.
- Otherwise, login as <username>root</username> and use
+ is a member of <groupname>wheel</groupname>.
+ Otherwise, login as <username>root</username>. To shutdown
+ the system, type
<command>shutdown -h now</command>.</para>
<screen>The operating system has halted.
@@ -3931,14 +4000,14 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
appears. If any key is pressed instead of turning off the power
switch, the system will reboot.</para>
- <para>You could also use the
+ <para>The
<keycombo action="simul">
<keycap>Ctrl</keycap>
<keycap>Alt</keycap>
<keycap>Del</keycap>
</keycombo>
- key combination to reboot the system, however this is not recommended
- during normal operation.</para>
+ key combination can also be used to reboot the system;
+ however, this is not recommended.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
@@ -3950,35 +4019,39 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<primary>installation</primary>
<secondary>troubleshooting</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para>The following section covers basic installation troubleshooting,
- such as common problems people have reported. There are also a few
+ <para>This section covers basic installation troubleshooting of
+ common problems. There are also a few
questions and answers for people wishing to dual-boot &os; with
- &ms-dos; or &windows;.</para>
+ &windows;.</para>
<sect2>
- <title>What to Do If Something Goes Wrong</title>
+ <title>If Something Goes Wrong</title>
<para>Due to various limitations of the PC architecture, it is
- impossible for probing to be 100% reliable, however, there are a
- few things you can do if it fails.</para>
+ impossible for device probing to be 100% reliable. However,
+ there are a
+ few things to try if it fails.</para>
<para>Check the <ulink
url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/index.html">Hardware Notes
- </ulink> document for your version of &os; to make sure your
+ </ulink> document for the version of &os; to make sure the
hardware is supported.</para>
- <para>If your hardware is supported and you still experience
- lock-ups or other problems, you will need to build a <link
- linkend="kernelconfig">custom kernel</link>. This will
- allow you to add in support for devices which are not present in the
- <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel. The kernel on the boot disks
- is configured assuming that most hardware devices are in their
- factory default configuration in terms of IRQs, IO addresses, and
- DMA channels. If your hardware has been reconfigured, you will most
- likely need to edit the kernel configuration and recompile to tell
+ <para>If the hardware is supported but still experiences
+ lock-ups or other problems, build a <link
+ linkend="kernelconfig">custom kernel</link>
+ to add in support for devices which are not present in the
+ <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel. The default kernel
+ assumes that most hardware devices are in their
+ factory default configuration in terms of IRQs, I/O addresses,
+ and
+ DMA channels. If the hardware has been reconfigured,
+ create a custom kernel configuration file and recompile to
+ tell
&os; where to find things.</para>
- <para>It is also possible that a probe for a device not present will
+ <para>It is also possible that a probe for a device not present
+ will
cause a later probe for another device that is present to fail. In
that case, the probes for the conflicting driver(s) should be
disabled.</para>
@@ -3986,22 +4059,22 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<note>
<para>Some installation problems can be avoided or alleviated
by updating the firmware on various hardware components, most notably
- the motherboard. The motherboard firmware may also be referred to
- as <acronym>BIOS</acronym> and most of the motherboard or computer
- manufactures have a website where the upgrades and upgrade
+ the motherboard
+ <acronym>BIOS</acronym>. Most motherboard and computer
+ manufacturers have a website where upgrade
information may be located.</para>
<para>Most manufacturers strongly advise against upgrading the
motherboard <acronym>BIOS</acronym> unless there is a good reason
- for doing so, which
- could possibly be a critical update of sorts. The upgrade process
+ for doing so, such as
+ a critical update. The upgrade process
<emphasis>can</emphasis> go wrong, causing permanent damage to the
<acronym>BIOS</acronym> chip.</para>
</note>
</sect2>
<sect2>
- <title>Using &ms-dos; and &windows; File Systems</title>
+ <title>Using &windows; Filesystems</title>
<para>At this time, &os; does not support file systems compressed with
the <application>Double Space&trade;</application> application.
@@ -4018,37 +4091,40 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
system's contents to be accessed. The &man.mount.msdosfs.8; program
is not usually
invoked directly; instead, it is called by the system through a line
- in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> or by a call to the &man.mount.8;
- utility with the appropriate parameters.</para>
+ in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> or by using
+ &man.mount.8;
+ with the appropriate parameters.</para>
<para>A typical line in <filename>/etc/fstab</filename> is:</para>
<programlisting>/dev/ad0sN /dos msdosfs rw 0 0</programlisting>
- <note><para>The <filename>/dos</filename> directory must already
+ <note><para><filename class="directory">/dos</filename> must
+ already
exist for this to work. For details about the format of
<filename>/etc/fstab</filename>, see &man.fstab.5;.</para></note>
- <para>A typical call to &man.mount.8; for a &ms-dos; file system
+ <para>A typical call to &man.mount.8; for a FAT filesystem
looks like:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount -t msdosfs /dev/ad0s1 /mnt</userinput></screen>
- <para>In this example, the &ms-dos; file system is located on the first
- partition of the primary hard disk. Your situation may be different,
- check the output from the <command>dmesg</command>, and
- <command>mount</command> commands. They should produce enough
+ <para>In this example, the FAT filesystem is located on the
+ first
+ partition of the primary hard disk. The
+ output from &man.dmesg.8; and
+ &man.mount.8; should produce enough
information to give an idea of the partition layout.</para>
- <note><para>&os; may number disk slices (that is, &ms-dos; partitions)
+ <note><para>&os; may number FAT partitions
differently than other operating systems. In particular, extended
- &ms-dos; partitions are usually given higher slice numbers than
- primary &ms-dos; partitions. The &man.fdisk.8; utility can help
+ partitions are usually given higher slice numbers than
+ primary partitions. Use &man.fdisk.8; to help
determine which slices belong to &os; and which belong to other
operating systems.</para></note>
<para>NTFS partitions can also be mounted in a similar manner
- using the &man.mount.ntfs.8; command.</para>
+ using &man.mount.ntfs.8;.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
@@ -4057,166 +4133,141 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<qandaset>
<qandaentry>
<question>
- <para>My system hangs while probing hardware during boot,
- or it behaves strangely during install, or the floppy
- drive is not probed.</para>
+ <para>My system hangs while probing hardware during boot
+ or it behaves strangely during install.</para>
</question>
<answer>
<para>&os; makes extensive use of the system
- ACPI service on the i386, amd64 and ia64 platforms to
+ ACPI service on the i386, amd64, and ia64 platforms to
aid in system configuration if it is detected during
- boot. Unfortunately, some bugs still exist in both the
- ACPI driver and within system motherboards and BIOS.
+ boot. Unfortunately, some bugs still exist in the
+ ACPI driver and various system motherboards.
The use of ACPI can be disabled by setting
- the <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled</literal> hint in the
+ <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled</literal> in the
third stage boot loader:</para>
<screen><userinput>set hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"</userinput></screen>
<para>This is reset each time the system is booted, so it
is necessary to
- add <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"</literal> to the
- file
- <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>. More
+ add <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"</literal> to
+ <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> to make this
+ change permanent. More
information about the boot loader can be found
in <xref linkend="boot-synopsis"/>.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
<question>
- <para>I go to boot from the hard disk for the first time
- after installing &os;, the kernel loads and probes my
+ <para>When booting from the hard disk for the first time
+ after installing &os;, the kernel loads and probes
hardware, but stops with messages like:</para>
<screen>changing root device to ad1s1a panic: cannot mount root</screen>
- <para>What is wrong? What can I do?</para>
-
- <para>What is this
- <literal>bios_drive:interface(unit,partition)kernel_name</literal>
- thing that is displayed with the boot help?</para>
+ <para>What is wrong?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>There is a longstanding problem in the case where
+ <para>This can occur when
the boot disk is not the first disk in the system. The
BIOS uses a different numbering scheme to &os;, and
working out which numbers correspond to which is
difficult to get right.</para>
- <para>In the case where the boot disk is not the first
- disk in the system, &os; can need some help finding it.
- There are two common situations here, and in both of
- these cases, you need to tell &os; where the root
- filesystem is. You do this by specifying the BIOS disk
- number, the disk type and the &os; disk number for that
+ <para>If this occurs,
+ tell &os; where the root
+ filesystem is by specifying the BIOS disk
+ number, the disk type, and the &os; disk number for that
type.</para>
- <para>The first situation is where you have two IDE disks,
+ <para>Consider two IDE disks,
each configured as the master on their respective IDE
- busses, and wish to boot &os; from the second disk. The
+ bus, where &os; should be booted from the second disk.
+ The
BIOS sees these as disk 0 and disk 1, while &os; sees
them as <devicename>ad0</devicename> and
<devicename>ad2</devicename>.</para>
- <para>&os; is on BIOS disk 1, of type
- <literal>ad</literal> and the &os; disk number is 2, so
- you would say:</para>
+ <para>If &os; is on BIOS disk 1, of type
+ <literal>ad</literal> and the &os; disk number is 2,
+ this is the correct value:</para>
<screen><userinput>1:ad(2,a)kernel</userinput></screen>
- <para>Note that if you have a slave on the primary bus,
- the above is not necessary (and is effectively
- wrong).</para>
+ <para>Note that if there is a slave on the primary bus,
+ the above is not necessary and is effectively
+ wrong.</para>
<para>The second situation involves booting from a SCSI
- disk when you have one or more IDE disks in the system.
+ disk when there are one or more IDE disks in the system.
In this case, the &os; disk number is lower than the
- BIOS disk number. If you have two IDE disks as well as
- the SCSI disk, the SCSI disk is BIOS disk 2,
- type <literal>da</literal> and &os; disk number 0, so
- you would say:</para>
+ BIOS disk number. For two IDE disks and a
+ SCSI disk, where the SCSI disk is BIOS disk 2,
+ type <literal>da</literal>, and &os; disk number 0, the
+ correct value is:</para>
<screen><userinput>2:da(0,a)kernel</userinput></screen>
- <para>To tell &os; that you want to boot from BIOS disk 2,
- which is the first SCSI disk in the system. If you only
- had one IDE disk, you would use <literal>1:</literal>
+ <para>This tells &os; to boot from BIOS disk 2,
+ which is the first SCSI disk in the system. If there
+ is only IDE disk, use <literal>1:</literal>
instead.</para>
- <para>Once you have determined the correct values to use,
- you can put the command exactly as you would have typed
- it in the <filename>/boot.config</filename> file using a
- standard text editor. Unless instructed otherwise, &os;
+ <para>Once the correct value to use is determined,
+ put the command
+ in <filename>/boot.config</filename> using a
+ text editor. Unless instructed otherwise, &os;
will use the contents of this file as the default
response to the <literal>boot:</literal> prompt.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
<question>
- <para>I go to boot from the hard disk for the first time
- after installing &os;, but the Boot Manager prompt just
- prints <literal>F?</literal> at the boot menu each time
- but the boot will not go any further.</para>
+ <para>When booting from the hard disk for the first time
+ after installing &os;, the Boot Manager prompt just
+ prints <literal>F?</literal> at the boot menu and
+ the boot will not go any further.</para>
</question>
<answer>
<para>The hard disk geometry was set incorrectly in the
- partition editor when you installed &os;. Go back into
+ partition editor when &os; was installed. Go back into
the partition editor and specify the actual geometry of
- your hard disk. You must reinstall &os; again from the
+ the hard disk. &os; must be reinstalled again from the
beginning with the correct geometry.</para>
- <para>If you are failing entirely in figuring out the
- correct geometry for your machine, here is a tip: Install
- a small &ms-dos; partition at the beginning of the disk and
- install &os; after that. The install program will see
- the &ms-dos; partition and try to infer the correct geometry
- from it, which usually works.</para>
-
- <para>The following tip is no longer recommended, but is
- left here for reference:</para>
-
- <blockquote>
- <para>If you are setting up a truly dedicated &os;
- server or workstation where you do not care for
- (future) compatibility with &ms-dos;, Linux or another
- operating system, you also have got the option to use
- the entire disk (<guimenuitem>A</guimenuitem> in the partition
- editor), selecting the non-standard option where &os; occupies
- the entire disk from the very first to the very last
- sector. This will leave all geometry considerations
- aside, but is somewhat limiting unless you're never
- going to run anything other than &os; on a
- disk.</para>
- </blockquote>
+ <para>For a dedicated &os; system that does not need
+ future compatibility with another operating system,
+ use the entire disk by selecting
+ <guimenuitem>A</guimenuitem> in the installer's
+ partition editor.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
<qandaentry>
<question>
- <para>The system finds my &man.ed.4; network card, but I
- keep getting device timeout errors.</para>
+ <para>The system finds the &man.ed.4; network card but
+ continuously displays device timeout errors.</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>Your card is probably on a different IRQ from what
+ <para>The card is probably on a different IRQ from what
is specified in
- the <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename> file. The
- &man.ed.4; driver does not use the <quote>soft</quote>
- configuration by default (values entered using EZSETUP in
- &ms-dos;),
- but it will use the software configuration if you
- specify <literal>-1</literal> in the hints for the
+ <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename>. The
+ &man.ed.4; driver does not use software
+ configuration by default,
+ but it will if
+ <literal>-1</literal> is specified in the hints for the
interface.</para>
- <para>Either move the jumper on the card to a hard
- configuration setting (altering the kernel settings if
- necessary), or specify the IRQ as <literal>-1</literal>
+ <para>Either move the jumper on the card to the
+ configuration setting or specify the IRQ as
+ <literal>-1</literal>
by setting the hint <literal>hint.ed.0.irq="-1"</literal>.
- This will tell the kernel to use the soft
+ This tells the kernel to use the software
configuration.</para>
- <para>Another possibility is that your card is at IRQ 9,
+ <para>Another possibility is that the card is at IRQ 9,
which is shared by IRQ 2 and frequently a cause of
- problems (especially when you have a VGA card using IRQ
- 2!). You should not use IRQ 2 or 9 if at all
+ problems, especially if a VGA card is using IRQ
+ 2. Do not use IRQ 2 or 9 if at all
possible.</para>
</answer>
</qandaentry>
@@ -4228,16 +4279,20 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<primary>color</primary>
<secondary>contrast</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para>When <application>sysinstall</application> is used
- in an X11 terminal, the yellow font is difficult to read
+ <para>When &man.sysinstall.8; is used
+ in an <application>&xorg;</application> terminal, the
+ yellow font is difficult to read
against the light gray background. Is there a way to
provide higher contrast for this application?</para>
</question>
<answer>
- <para>If you already have X11 installed and the default
- colors chosen by <application>sysinstall</application>
- make text illegible while using &man.xterm.1; or &man.rxvt.1;,
- add the following to your <filename>~/.Xdefaults</filename> to
+ <para>If the default
+ colors chosen by &man.sysinstall.8;
+ make text illegible while using <filename
+ role="package">x11/xterm</filename> or <filename
+ role="package">x11/rxvt</filename>,
+ add the following to <filename>~/.Xdefaults</filename>
+ to
get a darker background gray: <literal>XTerm*color7:
#c0c0c0</literal></para>
</answer>
@@ -4282,19 +4337,20 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</indexterm>
<indexterm><primary>serial console</primary></indexterm>
<para>This type of installation is called a <quote>headless
- install</quote>, because the machine that you are trying to install
- &os; on either does not have a monitor attached to it, or does not
- even have a VGA output. How is this possible you ask? Using a
- serial console. A serial console is basically using another
- machine to act as the main display and keyboard for a
- system. To do this, just follow the steps to create
- an installation USB memstick, explained in <xref
- linkend="install-boot-media"/> or download the correct
- installation ISO image, see <xref
+ install</quote> because the machine to be installed
+ does not have either an attached monitor or a
+ VGA output. This type of installation is possible using a
+ serial console, another
+ machine which acts as the main display and keyboard.
+ To do this, follow the steps to create
+ an installation USB stick, explained in <xref
+ linkend="install-boot-media"/>, or download the correct
+ installation ISO image as described in <xref
linkend="install-cdrom"/>.</para>
- <para>To modify these media to boot into a serial console, follow
- these steps (If you want to use a CDROM you can skip the first
+ <para>To modify the installation media to boot into a serial
+ console, follow
+ these steps. If using a CD/DVD media, skip the first
step):</para>
<procedure>
@@ -4303,116 +4359,107 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
Serial Console</title>
<indexterm>
- <primary><command>mount</command></primary>
+ <primary>&man.mount.8;</primary>
</indexterm>
- <para>If you were to boot into the USB stick that you just
- made, &os; would boot into its normal install mode. We
- want &os; to boot into a serial console for our
- install. To do this, you have to mount the
- USB disk onto your &os;
- system using the &man.mount.8; command.</para>
+ <para>By default, booting into the USB stick
+ boots into the installer.
+ To instead boot into a serial console, mount the
+ USB disk onto a &os;
+ system using &man.mount.8;:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/<replaceable>da0a</replaceable> <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput></screen>
<note>
- <para>Adapt the device node and the mount point to your
+ <para>Adapt the device node and the mount point to the
situation.</para>
</note>
- <para>Now that you have the stick mounted, you must set
- the USB stick to boot into a serial console. You have
- to add to the <filename>loader.conf</filename> file of
- the USB stick file system a line setting the serial
- console as the system console:</para>
+ <para>Once the USB stick is mounted, set
+ it to boot into a serial console.
+ Add this line to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>
+ on the USB stick:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>echo 'console="comconsole"' &gt;&gt; <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable>/boot/loader.conf</userinput></screen>
- <para>Now that you have your USB stick configured correctly,
- you must unmount the disk using the &man.umount.8;
- command:</para>
+ <para>Now that the USB is stick configured correctly,
+ unmount the disk using &man.umount.8;:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>umount <replaceable>/mnt</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para>Now you can unplug the USB stick and jump directly
+ <para>Now, unplug the USB stick and jump directly
to the third step of this procedure.</para>
</step>
<step>
- <title>Enabling the Installation CD to Boot into a
+ <title>Enabling the Installation CD/DVD to Boot into a
Serial Console</title>
<indexterm>
- <primary><command>mount</command></primary>
+ <primary>&man.mount.8;</primary>
</indexterm>
- <para>If you were to boot into the CD that you just
- made from the installation ISO image (see <xref
- linkend="install-cdrom"/>), &os; would boot into its
- normal install mode. We want &os; to boot into a serial
- console for our install. To do this, you have to
- extract, modify and regenerate the ISO image before
- burning it on a CD-R media.</para>
-
- <para>From the &os; system where is saved the installation
- ISO image, for example
- <filename>&os;-<replaceable>&rel.current;</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>i386</replaceable>-disc1.iso</filename>,
- use the &man.tar.1; utility to extract all the files:</para>
+ <para>By default, when booting into the installation
+ CD/DVD, &os; boots into its
+ normal install mode. To instead boot into a serial
+ console,
+ extract, modify, and regenerate the ISO image before
+ burning it to the CD/DVD media.</para>
+
+ <para>From the &os; system with the saved installation
+ ISO image,
+ use &man.tar.1; to extract all the files:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkdir <replaceable>/path/to/headless-iso</replaceable></userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>tar -C <replaceable>/path/to/headless-iso</replaceable> -pxvf &os;-<replaceable>&rel.current;</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>i386</replaceable>-disc1.iso</userinput></screen>
- <para>Now you must set the installation media to boot into a
- serial console. You have to add to the
- <filename>loader.conf</filename> file from the extracted
- ISO image a line setting the serial console as the
- system console:</para>
+ <para>Next, set the installation media to boot into a
+ serial console. Add this line to the
+ <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> of the extracted
+ ISO image:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>echo 'console="comconsole"' &gt;&gt; <replaceable>/path/to/headless-iso</replaceable>/boot/loader.conf</userinput></screen>
- <para>Then we can create a new ISO image from the modified
- tree. The &man.mkisofs.8; tool from the <filename
- role="package">sysutils/cdrtools</filename> port is
- used:</para>
+ <para>Then, create a new ISO image from the modified
+ tree. This example uses &man.mkisofs.8; from the
+ <filename role="package">sysutils/cdrtools</filename>
+ package or port:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkisofs -v -b boot/cdboot -no-emul-boot -r -J -V "<replaceable>Headless_install</replaceable>" \
- -o <replaceable>Headless-</replaceable>&os;-<replaceable>&rel.current;</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>i386</replaceable>-disc1.iso <replaceable>/path/to/headless-iso</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ -o <replaceable>Headless-</replaceable>&os;-<replaceable>&rel2.current;</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>i386</replaceable>-disc1.iso<replaceable>/path/to/headless-iso</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para>Now that you have your ISO image configured correctly,
- you can burn it on a CD-R with your favorite burning
+ <para>Now that the ISO image is configured correctly,
+ burn it to a CD/DVD media using a burning
application.</para>
</step>
<step>
- <title>Connecting Your Null-modem Cable</title>
+ <title>Connecting the Null-modem Cable</title>
<indexterm><primary>null-modem cable</primary></indexterm>
- <para>You now need to connect a
- <link linkend="term-cables-null">null-modem cable</link> between
- the two machines. Just connect the cable to the serial
- ports of the 2 machines. <emphasis>A normal serial cable
- will not work here</emphasis>, you need a null-modem
- cable because it has some of the wires inside crossed
- over.</para>
+ <para>Connect a
+ <link linkend="term-cables-null">null-modem cable</link>
+ to the serial
+ ports of the two machines. <emphasis>A normal serial
+ cable will not work</emphasis>. A null-modem
+ cable is required.</para>
</step>
<step>
<title>Booting Up for the Install</title>
<para>It is now time to go ahead and start the install. Plug in
- the USB memstick on
- the machine you are doing the headless install
- on, and power on the machine. If you are using a
- prepared CDROM, power on the machine and insert the disk
- to boot on.</para>
+ the USB stick or insert the CD/DVD media in
+ the headless install machine
+ and power it on.</para>
</step>
<step>
- <title>Connecting to Your Headless Machine</title>
+ <title>Connecting to the Headless Machine</title>
<indexterm>
- <primary><command>cu</command></primary>
+ <primary>&man.cu.1;</primary>
</indexterm>
- <para>Now you have to connect to that machine with
+ <para>Next, connect to that machine with
&man.cu.1;:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cu -l /dev/cuau0</userinput></screen>
@@ -4420,79 +4467,75 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</step>
</procedure>
- <para>That's it! You should now be able to control the headless machine
- through your <command>cu</command> session. It will load the kernel
- and then it will come up
- with a selection of what kind of terminal to use. Select the
- &os; color console and proceed with your install!</para>
+ <para>The headless machine can now be controlled
+ using &man.cu.1;. It will load the kernel
+ and then dispaly
+ a selection of which type of terminal to use. Select the
+ &os; color console and proceed with the installation.</para>
</sect2>
</sect1>
<sect1 id="install-diff-media">
- <title>Preparing Your Own Installation Media</title>
+ <title>Preparing Custom Installation Media</title>
- <note>
- <para>To prevent repetition, <quote>&os; disc</quote> in this context
- means a &os; CDROM or DVD that you have purchased or produced
- yourself.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>There may be some situations in which you need to create your own
- &os; installation media and/or source. This might be physical media,
- such as a tape, or a source that <application>sysinstall</application>
- can use to retrieve the files, such as a local FTP site, or an &ms-dos;
- partition.</para>
-
- <para>For example:</para>
+ <para>Some situations may require a customized
+ &os; installation media and/or source. This might be physical
+ media
+ or a source that &man.sysinstall.8;
+ can use to retrieve the installation files. Some example
+ situations include:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>You have many machines connected to your local network, and one
- &os; disc. You want to create a local FTP site using the
- contents of the &os; disc, and then have your machines use this
- local FTP site instead of needing to connect to the Internet.</para>
+ <para>A local network with many machines has a private
+ FTP server hosting the
+ &os; installation files which the machines should
+ use for installation.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>You have a &os; disc, and &os; does not recognize your
- CD/DVD drive, but &ms-dos; / &windows; does. You want to copy the
- &os; installation files to a &ms-dos; partition on the same
+ <para>&os; does not recognize the
+ CD/DVD drive but &windows; does. In this case, copy the
+ &os; installation files to a &windows; partition on the same
computer, and then install &os; using those files.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>The computer you want to install on does not have a CD/DVD
- drive or a network card, but you can connect a
- <quote>Laplink-style</quote> serial or parallel cable to a computer
+ <para>The computer to install does not have a CD/DVD
+ drive or a network card, but can be connected using a
+ null-printer cable to a computer
that does.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>You want to create a tape that can be used to install
+ <para>A tape will be be used to install
&os;.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
<sect2 id="install-cdrom">
- <title>Creating an Installation CDROM</title>
+ <title>Creating an Installation ISO</title>
- <para>As part of each release, the &os; project makes available at
- least two CDROM images (<quote>ISO images</quote>) per supported
+ <para>As part of each release, the &os; Project provides ISO
+ images for each supported
architecture. These images can be written
- (<quote>burned</quote>) to CDs if you have a CD writer, and then used
- to install &os;. If you have a CD writer, and bandwidth is cheap,
- then this is the easiest way to install &os;.</para>
+ (<quote>burned</quote>) to CD or DVD media using a burning
+ application, and then used
+ to install &os;. If a CD/DVD writer is available,
+ this is the easiest way to install &os;.</para>
<procedure>
<step>
<title>Download the Correct ISO Images</title>
<para>The ISO images for each release can be downloaded from <filename>ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ISO-IMAGES-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>/<replaceable>version</replaceable></filename> or the closest mirror.
- Substitute <replaceable>arch</replaceable> and
+ or the closest mirror. Substitute
+ <replaceable>arch</replaceable> and
<replaceable>version</replaceable> as appropriate.</para>
- <para>That directory will normally contain the following images:</para>
+ <para>An image directory normally contains the following
+ images:</para>
<table frame="none">
<title>&os;
@@ -4511,11 +4554,12 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<row>
<entry><filename>&os;-<replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-bootonly.iso</filename></entry>
- <entry>This CD image allows you to start the installation
+ <entry>This CD image starts the installation
process by booting from a CD-ROM drive but it does not
contain the support for installing &os; from the CD
- itself. You would need to perform a network based install
- (e.g. from an FTP server) after booting from this CD.</entry>
+ itself. Perform a network based install, such as
+ from an FTP server, after booting from this
+ CD.</entry>
</row>
<row>
@@ -4532,18 +4576,18 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<entry><filename>&os;-<replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-memstick.img</filename></entry>
<entry>This image can be written to an USB memory stick
- and used to do an install on machines capable of booting
- off USB drives. It also supports booting into a
- <quote>livefs</quote> based rescue mode. The
- documentation packages are provided but no other
- packages.</entry>
+ in order to install machines capable of booting
+ from USB drives. It also supports booting into a
+ <quote>livefs</quote> based rescue mode. The only
+ included package is the documentation
+ package.</entry>
</row>
<row>
<entry><filename>&os;-<replaceable>version</replaceable>-RELEASE-<replaceable>arch</replaceable>-disc1.iso</filename></entry>
<entry>This CD image contains the base &os; operating
- system and the documentation packages but no other
+ system and the documentation package but no other
packages.</entry>
</row>
@@ -4574,47 +4618,42 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</tgroup>
</table>
- <para>You <emphasis>must</emphasis> download one of either
- the <literal>bootonly</literal> ISO image,
- or the image of <literal>disc1</literal>. Do not download
- both of them, since the <literal>disc1</literal> image
+ <para>When performing a CD installation, download either
+ the <literal>bootonly</literal> ISO image
+ or <literal>disc1</literal>. Do not download
+ both, since <literal>disc1</literal>
contains everything that the <literal>bootonly</literal>
ISO image contains.</para>
- <para>Use the <literal>bootonly</literal> ISO if Internet
- access is cheap for you. It will let you install &os;, and
- you can then install third-party
- packages by downloading them using the ports/packages system (see
- <xref linkend="ports"/>) as
- necessary.</para>
+ <para>Use the <literal>bootonly</literal> ISO to perform a
+ network install over the Internet. Additional software
+ can be installed as needed using
+ the Ports Collection as described in
+ <xref linkend="ports"/>.</para>
- <para>Use the image of <literal>dvd1</literal> if you want to
- install a &os;
- release and want a reasonable selection of third-party packages
- on the disc as well.</para>
-
- <para>The additional disc images are useful, but not essential,
- especially if you have high-speed access to the Internet.</para>
+ <para>Use <literal>dvd1</literal> to
+ install &os;
+ and a selection of third-party packages
+ from the disc.</para>
</step>
<step>
- <title>Write the CDs</title>
-
- <para>You must then write the CD images to disc. If you will be
- doing this on another &os; system then see
- <xref linkend="creating-cds"/> for more information (in
- particular, <xref linkend="burncd"/> and
- <xref linkend="cdrecord"/>).</para>
-
- <para>If you will be doing this on another platform then you will
- need to use whatever utilities exist to control your CD writer on
- that platform. The images provided are in the standard ISO format,
- which many CD writing applications support.</para>
+ <title>Burn the Media</title>
+
+ <para>Next, write the downloaded image(s) to disc. If using
+ another &os; system, refer to
+ <xref linkend="burncd"/> and
+ <xref linkend="cdrecord"/> for instructions.</para>
+
+ <para>If using another platform,
+ use any burning utility that exists for
+ that platform. The images are in the standard ISO format
+ which most CD writing applications support.</para>
</step>
</procedure>
- <note><para>If you are interested in building a customized
- release of &os;, please see the <ulink
+ <note><para>To build a customized
+ release of &os;, refer to the <ulink
url="&url.articles.releng;">Release Engineering
Article</ulink>.</para></note>
@@ -4630,22 +4669,20 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</indexterm>
<para>&os; discs are laid out in the same way as the FTP site. This
- makes it very easy for you to create a local FTP site that can be used
- by other machines on your network when installing &os;.</para>
+ makes it easy to create a local FTP site that can be used
+ by other machines on a network to install &os;.</para>
<procedure>
<step>
<para>On the &os; computer that will host the FTP site, ensure
- that the CDROM is in the drive, and mounted on
- <filename>/cdrom</filename>.</para>
+ that the CD/DVD is in the drive and mounted:</para>
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /cdrom</userinput></screen>
</step>
<step>
- <para>Create an account for anonymous FTP in
- <filename>/etc/passwd</filename>. Do this by editing
- <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> using &man.vipw.8; and adding
+ <para>Create an account for anonymous FTP. Use &man.vipw.8;
+ to insert
this line:</para>
<programlisting>ftp:*:99:99::0:0:FTP:/cdrom:/nonexistent</programlisting>
@@ -4657,169 +4694,79 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
</step>
</procedure>
- <para>Anyone with network connectivity to your machine can now
+ <para>Anyone with network connectivity to the machine can now
chose a media type of FTP and type in
<userinput>ftp://<replaceable>your machine</replaceable></userinput>
after picking <quote>Other</quote> in the FTP sites menu during
the install.</para>
<note>
- <para>If the boot media (floppy disks, usually) for your FTP
+ <para>If the boot media for the FTP
clients is not precisely the same version as that provided
- by the local FTP site, then <application>sysinstall</application>
- will not let you
- complete the installation. If the versions are not similar and
- you want to override this, you must go into the
- <guimenu>Options</guimenu> menu and change distribution name to
+ by the local FTP site, &man.sysinstall.8;
+ will not
+ complete the installation.
+ To override this, go into the
+ <guimenu>Options</guimenu> menu and change the distribution
+ name to
<guimenuitem>any</guimenuitem>.</para>
</note>
<warning>
- <para>This approach is OK for a machine that is on your local network,
- and that is protected by your firewall. Offering up FTP services to
- other machines over the Internet (and not your local network)
- exposes your computer to the attention of crackers and other
- undesirables. We strongly recommend that you follow good security
- practices if you do this.</para>
+ <para>This approach is acceptable for a machine on the local
+ network which
+ is protected by a firewall. Offering anonymous FTP services
+ to
+ other machines over the Internet
+ exposes the computer to increased security risks.
+ It is strongly recommended to follow good security
+ practices when providing services over the Internet.</para>
</warning>
</sect2>
- <sect2>
- <title>Creating Installation Floppies</title>
-
- <indexterm>
- <primary>installation</primary>
- <secondary>floppies</secondary>
- </indexterm>
-
- <para>If you must install from floppy disk (which we suggest you
- do <emphasis>not</emphasis> do), either due to unsupported
- hardware or simply because you insist on doing things the hard
- way, you must first prepare some floppies for the installation.</para>
-
- <para>At a minimum, you will need as many 1.44&nbsp;MB floppies
- as it takes to hold all the files in the
- <filename>base</filename> (base distribution) directory. If
- you are preparing the floppies from &ms-dos;, then they
- <emphasis>must</emphasis> be formatted using the &ms-dos;
- <command>FORMAT</command> command. If you are using &windows;,
- use Explorer to format the disks (right-click on the
- <devicename>A:</devicename> drive, and select
- <quote>Format</quote>).</para>
-
- <para>Do <emphasis>not</emphasis> trust factory pre-formatted
- floppies. Format them again yourself, just to be sure. Many
- problems reported by our users in the past have resulted from
- the use of improperly formatted media, which is why we are
- making a point of it now.</para>
-
- <para>If you are creating the floppies on another &os; machine,
- a format is still not a bad idea, though you do not need to put
- a &ms-dos; filesystem on each floppy. You can use the
- <command>bsdlabel</command> and <command>newfs</command>
- commands to put a UFS filesystem on them instead, as the
- following sequence of commands (for a 3.5" 1.44&nbsp;MB floppy)
- illustrates:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>fdformat -f 1440 fd0.1440</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>bsdlabel -w fd0.1440 floppy3</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs -t 2 -u 18 -l 1 -i 65536 /dev/fd0</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Then you can mount and write to them like any other
- filesystem.</para>
-
- <para>After you have formatted the floppies, you will need to copy
- the files to them. The distribution files are split into chunks
- conveniently sized so that five of them will fit on a conventional
- 1.44&nbsp;MB floppy. Go through all your floppies, packing as many
- files as will fit on each one, until you have all of the
- distributions you want packed up in this fashion. Each
- distribution should go into a subdirectory on the floppy, e.g.:
- <filename>a:\base\base.aa</filename>,
- <filename>a:\base\base.ab</filename>, and so on.</para>
-
- <important>
- <para>The <filename>base.inf</filename> file also needs to go on the
- first floppy of the <filename>base</filename> set since it is read
- by the installation program in order to figure out how many
- additional pieces to look for when fetching and concatenating the
- distribution.</para>
- </important>
-
- <para>Once you come to the Media screen during the install
- process, select <guimenuitem>Floppy</guimenuitem> and you
- will be prompted for the rest.</para>
- </sect2>
-
<sect2 id="install-msdos">
- <title>Installing from an &ms-dos; Partition</title>
+ <title>Installing from an &windows; Partition</title>
<indexterm>
<primary>installation</primary>
- <secondary>from MS-DOS</secondary>
+ <secondary>from &windows;</secondary>
</indexterm>
- <para>To prepare for an installation from an &ms-dos; partition,
+ <para>To prepare for an installation from a &windows;
+ partition,
copy the files from the distribution into a directory
- called <filename>freebsd</filename> in the root directory of the
- partition. For example, <filename>c:\freebsd</filename>. The
- directory structure of the CDROM or FTP site must be partially
- reproduced within this directory, so we suggest using the &ms-dos;
- <command>xcopy</command> command if you are copying it from a CD.
+ in the root directory of the
+ partition, such as <filename
+ class="directory">c:\freebsd</filename>. Since the
+ directory structure must be
+ reproduced, it is recommended to use
+ <command>robocopy</command> when copying from a CD/DVD.
For example, to prepare for a minimal installation of
&os;:</para>
<screen><prompt>C:\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>md c:\freebsd</userinput>
-<prompt>C:\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>xcopy e:\bin c:\freebsd\bin\ /s</userinput>
-<prompt>C:\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>xcopy e:\manpages c:\freebsd\manpages\ /s</userinput></screen>
+<prompt>C:\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>robocopy e:\bin c:\freebsd\bin\ /s</userinput>
+<prompt>C:\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>robocopy e:\manpages c:\freebsd\manpages\ /s</userinput></screen>
- <para>Assuming that <devicename>C:</devicename> is where you have
- free space and <devicename>E:</devicename> is where your CDROM
+ <para>This example assumes that <devicename>C:</devicename>
+ has enough
+ free space and <devicename>E:</devicename> is where the
+ CD/DVD
is mounted.</para>
- <para>If you do not have a CDROM drive, you can download the
+ <para>Alternatively, download the
distribution from <ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel.current;-RELEASE/">ftp.FreeBSD.org</ulink>.
+ url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel2.current;-RELEASE/">ftp.FreeBSD.org</ulink>.
Each distribution is in its own directory; for example, the
<emphasis>base</emphasis> distribution can be found in the <ulink
- url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel.current;-RELEASE/base/">&rel.current;/base/</ulink>
+ url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel2.current;-RELEASE/base/">&rel2.current;/base/</ulink>
directory.</para>
- <para>For as many distributions you wish to install from an &ms-dos;
- partition (and you have the free space for), install each one
- under <filename>c:\freebsd</filename> &mdash; the
- <literal>BIN</literal> distribution is the only one required for
- a minimum installation.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>Creating an Installation Tape</title>
-
- <indexterm>
- <primary>installation</primary>
- <secondary>from QIC/SCSI Tape</secondary>
- </indexterm>
- <para>Installing from tape is probably the easiest method, short
- of an online FTP install or CDROM install. The installation
- program expects the files to be simply tarred onto the tape.
- After getting all of the distribution files you are interested
- in, simply tar them onto the tape:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /freebsd/distdir</userinput>
-&prompt.root; <userinput>tar cvf /dev/rwt0 dist1 ... dist2</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>When you perform the installation, you should make
- sure that you leave enough room in some temporary directory
- (which you will be allowed to choose) to accommodate the
- <emphasis>full</emphasis> contents of the tape you have created.
- Due to the non-random access nature of tapes, this method of
- installation requires quite a bit of temporary storage.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>When starting the installation, the tape must be in the
- drive <emphasis>before</emphasis> booting from the boot
- floppy. The installation probe may otherwise fail to find
- it.</para>
- </note>
+ <para>Copy the distributions to install from a &windows;
+ partition to <filename
+ class="directory">c:\freebsd</filename>. Both the
+ <literal>base</literal> and <literal>kernel</literal>
+ distributions are needed for
+ the most minimal installation.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
@@ -4840,97 +4787,103 @@ Please press any key to reboot.</screen>
<secondary>network</secondary>
<tertiary>Ethernet</tertiary>
</indexterm>
- <para>There are three types of network installations available.
- Ethernet (a standard Ethernet controller), Serial port (PPP), or
- Parallel port (PLIP (laplink cable)).</para>
-
- <para>For the fastest possible network installation, an
- Ethernet adapter is always a good choice! &os; supports most
- common PC Ethernet cards; a table of supported cards (and their
- required settings) is provided in the Hardware Notes for each
- release of &os;. If you are using one of the supported PCMCIA
- Ethernet cards, also be sure that it is plugged in
- <emphasis>before</emphasis> the laptop is powered on! &os; does
- not, unfortunately, currently support hot insertion of PCMCIA cards
+ <para>There are three types of network installations
+ available:
+ Ethernet, PPP, and
+ PLIP.</para>
+
+ <para>For the fastest possible network installation, use an
+ Ethernet adapter. &os; supports most
+ common Ethernet cards. A list of supported cards
+ is provided in the Hardware Notes for each
+ release of &os;. If using a supported PCMCIA
+ Ethernet card, be sure that it is plugged in
+ <emphasis>before</emphasis> the system is powered on as
+ &os; does
+ not support hot insertion of PCMCIA cards
during installation.</para>
- <para>You will also need to know your IP address on the network,
- the netmask value for your address class, and the name of your
- machine. If you are installing over a PPP connection and do not
- have a static IP, fear not, the IP address can be dynamically
- assigned by your ISP. Your system administrator can tell you
- which values to use for your particular network setup. If you
- will be referring to other hosts by name rather than IP address,
- you will also need a name server and possibly the address of a
- gateway (if you are using PPP, it is your provider's IP address)
- to use in talking to it. If you want to install by FTP via a
- HTTP proxy, you will also need the proxy's address.
- If you do not know the answers to all or most of these questions,
- then you should really probably talk to your system administrator
+ <para>Make note of the system's IP address,
+ subnet mask, hostname, default gateway address, and DNS
+ server addresses if these values are statically assigned.
+ If installing by FTP through a
+ HTTP proxy, make note of the proxy's address.
+ If you do not know these values, ask the system
+ administrator
or ISP <emphasis>before</emphasis> trying this type of
installation.</para>
- <para>If you are using a modem, then PPP is almost certainly
- your only choice. Make sure that you have your service
- provider's information handy as you will need to know it fairly
+ <para>If using a dialup modem, have the service
+ provider's PPP information handy as it is needed
early in the installation process.</para>
- <para>If you use PAP or CHAP to connect your ISP (in other words, if
- you can connect to the ISP in &windows; without using a script), then
- all you will need to do is type in <command>dial</command> at the
- <application>ppp</application> prompt. Otherwise, you will need to
- know how to dial your ISP using the <quote>AT commands</quote>
- specific to your modem, as the PPP dialer provides only a very
- simple terminal emulator. Please refer to the user-ppp <link
- linkend="userppp">handbook</link> and <ulink
- url="&url.books.faq;/ppp.html">FAQ</ulink>
- entries for further information.
- If you have problems, logging can be directed to the screen using
- the command <command>set log local ...</command>.</para>
+ <para>If PAP or CHAP are used to connect to the
+ <acronym>ISP</acronym> without using a script,
+ type <command>dial</command> at the &os;
+ <application>ppp</application> prompt. Otherwise,
+ know how to dial the <acronym>ISP</acronym> using the
+ <quote>AT commands</quote>
+ specific to the modem, as the PPP dialer provides only a
+ simple terminal emulator. Refer to <xref
+ linkend="userppp"/> and <ulink
+ url="&url.books.faq;/ppp.html"></ulink>
+ for further information.
+ Logging can be directed to the screen using
+ <command>set log local ...</command>.</para>
<para>If a hard-wired connection to another &os;
- machine is available, you might also consider installing
- over a <quote>laplink</quote> parallel port cable. The data rate
- over the parallel port is much higher than what is typically
- possible over a serial line (up to 50&nbsp;kbytes/sec), thus
- resulting in a quicker installation.</para>
+ machine is available, the installation can occur
+ over a null-modem parallel port cable. The data rate
+ over the parallel port is higher than what is typically
+ possible over a serial line.</para>
<sect3>
- <title>Before Installing via NFS</title>
+ <title>Before Installing via <acronym>NFS</acronym></title>
<indexterm>
<primary>installation</primary>
<secondary>network</secondary>
<tertiary>NFS</tertiary>
</indexterm>
- <para>The NFS installation is fairly straight-forward. Simply
- copy the &os; distribution files you want onto an NFS server
- and then point the NFS media selection at it.</para>
-
- <para>If this server supports only <quote>privileged port</quote>
- (as is generally the default for Sun workstations), you will
- need to set the option <literal>NFS Secure</literal> in the
- <guimenu>Options</guimenu> menu before installation can
+ <para>To perform an <acronym>NFS</acronym> installation,
+ copy the needed &os; distribution files to an
+ <acronym>NFS</acronym> server
+ and then point the installer's <acronym>NFS</acronym>
+ media selection to it.</para>
+
+ <para>If the server supports only a <quote>privileged
+ port</quote>,
+ set the option <literal>NFS Secure</literal> in the
+ <guimenu>Options</guimenu> menu so that the installation
+ can
proceed.</para>
- <para>If you have a poor quality Ethernet card which suffers
- from very slow transfer rates, you may also wish to toggle the
- <literal>NFS Slow</literal> flag.</para>
+ <para>If using a poor quality Ethernet card which suffers
+ from slow transfer rates, toggle the
+ <literal>NFS Slow</literal> flag to on.</para>
- <para>In order for NFS installation to work, the server must
- support subdir mounts, for example, if your
- &os;&nbsp;&rel.current; distribution directory lives on:
- <filename>ziggy:/usr/archive/stuff/FreeBSD</filename>, then
+ <para>In order for an <acronym>NFS</acronym> installation to
+ work, the server must
+ support subdir mounts. For example, if the
+ &os;&nbsp;&rel.current; distribution lives on:
+ <filename
+ class="directory">ziggy:/usr/archive/stuff/FreeBSD</filename>,
<hostid>ziggy</hostid> will have to allow the direct mounting
- of <filename>/usr/archive/stuff/FreeBSD</filename>, not just
- <filename>/usr</filename> or
- <filename>/usr/archive/stuff</filename>.</para>
-
- <para>In &os;'s <filename>/etc/exports</filename> file, this
- is controlled by the <option>-alldirs</option> options. Other NFS
- servers may have different conventions. If you are getting
- <errorname>permission denied</errorname> messages from the
- server, then it is likely that you do not have this enabled
+ of <filename
+ class="directory">/usr/archive/stuff/FreeBSD</filename>,
+ not just
+ <filename class="directory">/usr</filename> or
+ <filename
+ class="directory">/usr/archive/stuff</filename>.</para>
+
+ <para>In &os;, this
+ is controlled by using <option>-alldirs</option> in
+ <filename>/etc/exports</filename>. Other
+ <acronym>NFS</acronym>
+ servers may have different conventions. If the server is
+ displaying
+ <errorname>permission denied</errorname> messages,
+ it is likely that this is not enabled
properly.</para>
</sect3>
</sect2>