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-rw-r--r--en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.xml212
1 files changed, 93 insertions, 119 deletions
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.xml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.xml
index a3f47526a3..c6c929d3a4 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.xml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.xml
@@ -27,9 +27,9 @@
<para>&os; is a distributed project with users and contributors
located all over the world. As such, &os; supports localization
- into many languages. This allows a user to view, input, or
- process data in non-English languages. Currently, one can
- choose from most of the major languages, including but not
+ into many languages, allowing users to view, input, or
+ process data in non-English languages. One can
+ choose from most of the major languages, including, but not
limited to: Chinese, German, Japanese, Korean, French, Russian,
and Vietnamese.</para>
@@ -41,30 +41,20 @@
<para>The term internationalization has been shortened to
<acronym>i18n</acronym>, which represents the number of letters
- between the first and the last letters of internationalization.
- <acronym>L10n</acronym> uses the same naming scheme, coming from
- <quote>localization</quote>. Combined together,
+ between the first and the last letters of <literal>internationalization</literal>.
+ <acronym>L10n</acronym> uses the same naming scheme, but from
+ <literal>localization</literal>. The
<acronym>i18n</acronym>/<acronym>L10n</acronym> methods,
protocols, and applications allow users to use languages of
their choice.</para>
- <para><acronym>i18n</acronym> applications are programmed using
- <acronym>i18n</acronym> kits under libraries. These allow
- developers to write a simple file and translate displayed menus
- and texts to each language.</para>
-
<para>This chapter discusses the internationalization and
- localization features of &os;. Since there are many aspects of
- the <acronym>i18n</acronym> implementation at both the system
- and application levels, more specific sources of documentation
- are referred to, where applicable.</para>
-
- <para>After reading this chapter, you will know:</para>
+ localization features of &os;. After reading this chapter, you
+ will know:</para>
<itemizedlist>
<listitem>
- <para>How different languages and locales are encoded on
- modern operating systems.</para>
+ <para>How locale names are constructed.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
@@ -77,13 +67,17 @@
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>How to use <application>Xorg</application> effectively
- with different languages.</para>
+ <para>How to configure <application>Xorg</application> for
+ different languages.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>How to find <acronym>i18n</acronym>-compliant applications.</para>
</listitem>
<listitem>
- <para>Where to find more information about writing
- <acronym>i18n</acronym>-compliant applications.</para>
+ <para>Where to find more information for configuring specific
+ languages.</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -146,31 +140,43 @@
</tgroup>
</table>
+ <para>A complete listing of available locales can be found by
+ typing:</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>locale -a | more</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>To determine the current locale setting:</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>locale</userinput></screen>
<indexterm><primary>encodings</primary></indexterm>
<indexterm><primary>ASCII</primary></indexterm>
+ <para>Language specific character sets, such as
+ ISO8859-1, ISO8859-15, KOI8-R, and CP437, are
+ described in &man.multibyte.3;. The active list of character sets can be found at the <link
+ xlink:href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA
+ Registry</link>.</para>
+
<para>Some languages, such as Chinese or Japanese, cannot be
- represented using ASCII characters and require an extended
+ represented using <acronym>ASCII</acronym> characters and require an extended
language encoding using either wide or multibyte characters.
+ Examples of wide or multibyte encodings include EUC and Big5.
Older applications may mistake these encodings for control
- characters while newer applications usually recognize 8-bit
+ characters while newer applications usually recognize these
characters. Depending on the implementation, users may be
required to compile an application with wide or multibyte
- character support, or configure it correctly. The rest of
+ character support, or to configure it correctly.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>&os; uses Xorg-compatible locale encodings.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>The rest of
this section describes the various methods for configuring the
locale on a &os; system. The next section will discuss the
- considerations for finding or compiling applications with i18n
+ considerations for finding and compiling applications with <acronym>i18n</acronym>
support.</para>
- <para>A complete listing of available locales can be found by
- typing:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>locale -a | more</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>To determine the current locale setting:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>locale</userinput></screen>
-
<sect2 xml:id="setting-locale">
<title>Setting Locale for Login Shell</title>
@@ -193,7 +199,7 @@
<listitem>
<indexterm><primary>MIME</primary></indexterm>
- <para><envar>MM_CHARSET</envar> which sets the MIME
+ <para><envar>MM_CHARSET</envar>, which sets the <acronym>MIME</acronym>
character set used by applications</para>
</listitem>
</itemizedlist>
@@ -218,7 +224,7 @@
<para>This first method is the recommended method as it
assigns the required environment variables for locale name
- and MIME character sets for every possible shell. This
+ and <acronym>MIME</acronym> character sets for every possible shell. This
setup can either be performed by each user or it can be
configured for all users by the superuser.</para>
@@ -257,7 +263,7 @@ me:\
<para>Alternately, the superuser can configure all users of
the system for localization. The following variables in
<filename>/etc/login.conf</filename> are used to set the
- locale and MIME character sete:</para>
+ locale and <acronym>MIME</acronym> character set:</para>
<programlisting><replaceable>language_name</replaceable>|<replaceable>Account Type Description</replaceable>:\
:charset=<replaceable>MIME_charset</replaceable>:\
@@ -336,7 +342,7 @@ me:\
<sect3 xml:id="startup-file">
<title>Shell Startup File Method</title>
- <para>This method is not recommended as each shell that is
+ <para>This second method is not recommended as each shell that is
used requires manual configuration, where each shell has a
different configuration file and differing syntax. As an
example, to set the German language for the
@@ -407,11 +413,11 @@ keychange="<replaceable>fkey_number sequence</replaceable>"</programlisting>
area if the screen font uses a bit 8 column.</para>
<para>To see the list of available keymaps, type
- <filename>ls /usr/share/syscons/keymaps</filename>. When
+ <command>ls /usr/share/syscons/keymaps</command>. When
specifying the <replaceable>keymap_name</replaceable>, do not
- include the <filename>.kbd</filename> suffix. When uncertain
- as to which keymap to use, &man.kbdmap.1; can be used to test
- keymaps without rebooting.</para>
+ include the <filename>.kbd</filename> suffix. To test
+ keymaps without rebooting,
+ use &man.kbdmap.1;.</para>
<para>The <literal>keychange</literal> entry is usually needed
to program function keys to match the selected terminal type
@@ -507,13 +513,13 @@ keychange="<replaceable>fkey_number sequence</replaceable>"</programlisting>
</row>
<row>
- <entry>Japanese</entry>
- <entry><package>chinese/kon2</package></entry>
+ <entry>Chinese/Japanese/Korean</entry>
+ <entry><package>chinese/zhcon</package></entry>
</row>
<row>
- <entry>Chinese/Japanese/Korean</entry>
- <entry><package>chinese/zhcon</package></entry>
+ <entry>Japanese</entry>
+ <entry><package>chinese/kon2</package></entry>
</row>
<row>
@@ -535,7 +541,7 @@ keychange="<replaceable>fkey_number sequence</replaceable>"</programlisting>
&man.syscons.4; driver occupies the
<literal>0xd0</literal>-<literal>0xd3</literal> range in the
character set. If the language uses this range, move the
- cursor's range. To enable this workaround for &os;, add the
+ cursor's range by adding the
following line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting>mousechar_start=3</programlisting>
@@ -751,7 +757,7 @@ Comment out for now. If needed, can be added as note in new Printing chapter.
converted to &postscript; or PDF formats using language
specific converters.</para>
</sect2>
- -->
+Not sure where to put this section, perhaps as a note in the File system chapter?
<sect2>
<title>Kernel and File Systems</title>
@@ -773,62 +779,32 @@ Comment out for now. If needed, can be added as note in new Printing chapter.
character sets, and chosen &os; filesystem character sets.
Refer to &man.mount.msdosfs.8; for details.</para>
</sect2>
+ -->
</sect1>
<sect1 xml:id="l10n-compiling">
- <title>Compiling <acronym>i18n</acronym> Programs</title>
-
- <para>The &os; <link xlink:href="&url.base;/ports/index.html">&os;
- Ports Collection</link> contains programs which provide
- application support for wide or multibyte characters for several
- languages. Refer to the <acronym>i18n</acronym> documentation
- in the respective &os; port for more information on how to
- configure the application correctly or to determine which
- compile options to use when building the port.</para>
-
- <para>Some things to keep in mind are:</para>
+ <title>Finding <acronym>i18n</acronym> Applications</title>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Language specific single C chars character sets such as
- ISO8859-1, ISO8859-15, KOI8-R, and CP437. These are
- described in &man.multibyte.3;.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Wide or multibyte encodings such as EUC and Big5.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>The active list of character sets can be found at the <link
- xlink:href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA
- Registry</link>.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>&os; uses Xorg-compatible locale encodings instead.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>In the &os; Ports Collection, <acronym>i18n</acronym>
- applications include <literal>i18n</literal> in their names for
+ <para><acronym>i18n</acronym> applications are programmed using
+ <acronym>i18n</acronym> kits under libraries. These allow
+ developers to write a simple file and translate displayed menus
+ and texts to each language.</para>
+ <para>The <link xlink:href="&url.base;/ports/index.html">&os;
+ Ports Collection</link> contains many
+ applications with built-in support for wide or multibyte characters for several
+ languages. Such applications include <literal>i18n</literal> in their names for
easy identification. However, they do not always support the
language needed.</para>
- <para>Many applications in the &os; Ports Collection have been
- ported with <acronym>i18n</acronym> support. Some of these
- include <literal>-i18n</literal> in the port name. These
- and many other programs have built in support for
- <acronym>i18n</acronym> and need no special
- consideration.</para>
-
- <indexterm>
- <primary><application>MySQL</application></primary>
- </indexterm>
- <para>However, some applications such as
- <application>MySQL</application> need to have their
- <filename>Makefile</filename> configured with the specific
+ <para>Some applications can be compiled
+ with the specific
charset. This is usually done in the port's
<filename>Makefile</filename> or by passing a value to
- <application>configure</application> in the source.</para>
+ <application>configure</application>. Refer to the <acronym>i18n</acronym> documentation
+ in the respective &os; port's source for more information on how to
+ determine the needed <application>configure</application> value
+ or the port's <filename>Makefile</filename> to determine which
+ compile options to use when building the port.</para>
</sect1>
<sect1 xml:id="lang-setup">
@@ -853,8 +829,13 @@ Comment out for now. If needed, can be added as note in new Printing chapter.
<secondary>Russian</secondary>
</indexterm>
+ <para>This section shows the specific settings needed to
+ localize a &os; system for the Russian language. Refer to
+ <link linkend="using-localization">Using Localization</link> for
+ a more complete description of each type of setting.</para>
+
<para>To set this locale for the login shell, add the following
- lines into each user's
+ lines to each user's
<filename>~/.login_conf</filename>:</para>
<programlisting>me:My Account:\
@@ -944,25 +925,23 @@ Option "XkbOptions" "grp:toggle"</programlisting>
<note>
<para>The Russian XKB keyboard may not work with
- non-localized applications.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>Minimally localized applications should call a
+ non-localized applications. Minimally localized applications should call a
<function>XtSetLanguageProc (NULL, NULL, NULL);</function>
function early in the program.</para>
+ </note>
- <para>See <link xlink:href="http://koi8.pp.ru/xwin.html">
- KOI8-R for X Window</link> for more instructions on
+ <para>See <uri xlink:href="http://koi8.pp.ru/xwin.html">http://koi8.pp.ru/xwin.html</uri>
+ for more instructions on
localizing <application>Xorg</application> applications. For
more general information about KOI8-R encoding, refer to
- <link xlink:href="http://koi8.pp.ru/">KOI8-R -
- Russian Net Character Set</link>.</para>
+ <uri xlink:href="http://koi8.pp.ru/">http://koi8.pp.ru/</uri>.</para>
</sect2>
<sect2>
<title>Additional Language-Specific Resources</title>
- <para>Some intro text here...</para>
+ <para>This section lists some additional resources for
+ configuring other locales.</para>
<indexterm>
<primary>localization</primary>
@@ -992,11 +971,7 @@ Option "XkbOptions" "grp:toggle"</programlisting>
<listitem>
<para>The &os;-Taiwan Project has a Chinese HOWTO for &os;
at <uri
- xlink:href="http://netlab.cse.yzu.edu.tw/~statue/freebsd/zh-tut/">http://netlab.cse.yzu.edu.tw/~statue/freebsd/zh-tut/</uri>
- using many Chinese ports. The current editor for the
- <literal>&os; Chinese HOWTO</literal> is Shen
- Chuan-Hsing
- <email>statue@freebsd.sinica.edu.tw</email>.</para>
+ xlink:href="http://netlab.cse.yzu.edu.tw/~statue/freebsd/zh-tut/">http://netlab.cse.yzu.edu.tw/~statue/freebsd/zh-tut/</uri>.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -1005,9 +980,9 @@ Option "XkbOptions" "grp:toggle"</programlisting>
Languages</term>
<listitem>
- <para>Slaven <email>eserte@cs.tu-berlin.de</email> wrote a
- tutorial on using umlauts on &os;. The tutorial is
- written in German and is available at <uri
+ <para>A
+ tutorial on using umlauts on &os; is
+ available in German at <uri
xlink:href="http://user.cs.tu-berlin.de/~eserte/FreeBSD/doc/umlaute/umlaute.html">http://user.cs.tu-berlin.de/~eserte/FreeBSD/doc/umlaute/umlaute.html</uri>.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>
@@ -1016,9 +991,8 @@ Option "XkbOptions" "grp:toggle"</programlisting>
<term>Greek Language Localization</term>
<listitem>
- <para>Nikos Kokkalis <email>nickkokkalis@gmail.com</email>
- has written a complete article on Greek support in &os;.
- It is available <link
+ <para>A complete article on Greek support in &os;
+ is available <link
xlink:href="&url.doc.base;/el_GR.ISO8859-7/articles/greek-language-support/index.html">here</link>,
in Greek only, as part of the official &os; Greek
documentation.</para>
@@ -1043,7 +1017,7 @@ Option "XkbOptions" "grp:toggle"</programlisting>
<para>Some &os; contributors have translated parts of the
&os; documentation to other languages. They are
available through links on the <link
- xlink:href="&url.base;/index.html">main site</link> or
+ xlink:href="&url.base;/index.html">&os; web site</link> or
in <filename>/usr/share/doc</filename>.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>