path: root/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/multimedia/chapter.sgml
diff options
Diffstat (limited to 'en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/multimedia/chapter.sgml')
1 files changed, 302 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/multimedia/chapter.sgml b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/multimedia/chapter.sgml
index fe90651df1..dad545bb6f 100644
--- a/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/multimedia/chapter.sgml
+++ b/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/multimedia/chapter.sgml
@@ -1630,6 +1630,308 @@ bktr0: Pinnacle/Miro TV, Philips SECAM tuner.</programlisting>
archives of the &a.multimedia.name; mailing list.</para>
+ <sect1 id="scanners">
+ <sect1info>
+ <authorgroup>
+ <author>
+ <firstname>Marc</firstname>
+ <surname>Fonvieille</surname>
+ <contrib>Written by </contrib>
+ <!-- 04 August 2004 -->
+ </author>
+ </authorgroup>
+ </sect1info>
+ <title>Image Scanners</title>
+ <indexterm>
+ <primary>image scanners</primary>
+ </indexterm>
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Introduction</title>
+ <para>&os;, like any modern operating system, allows the use of
+ image scanners. Standardized access to scanners is provided
+ by the <application>SANE</application> (Scanner Access Now
+ Easy) <acronym role="Application Programming
+ Interface">API</acronym> available through the &os; Ports
+ Collection. <application>SANE</application> will also use
+ some &os; devices drivers to access to the scanner
+ hardware.</para>
+ <para>&os; supports both SCSI and USB scanners. Be sure your
+ scanner is supported by <application>SANE</application> prior
+ to performing any configuration.
+ <application>SANE</application> has a <ulink
+ url="http://sane-project.org/sane-supported-devices.html">supported
+ devices</ulink> list that can provide you with information
+ about the support for a scanner and its status. The
+ &man.uscanner.4; manual page also provides a list of supported
+ USB scanners.</para>
+ </sect2>
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
+ <para>As mentionned above both SCSI and USB interfaces are
+ supported. According to your scanner interface, different
+ device drivers are required.</para>
+ <sect3 id="scanners-kernel-usb">
+ <title>USB Interface</title>
+ <para>The <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel by default
+ includes the device drivers needed to support USB scanners.
+ Should you decide to use a custom kernel, be sure that the
+ following lines are present in your kernel configuration
+ file:</para>
+ <programlisting>device usb
+device uhci
+device ohci
+device uscanner</programlisting>
+ <para>Depending upon the USB chipset on your motherboard, you
+ only need one of both <literal>device uhci</literal> and
+ <literal>device ohci</literal>, however having both in the
+ kernel configuration file is harmless.</para>
+ <para>If you do not want to rebuild your kernel and your
+ kernel is not the <filename>GENERIC</filename> one, you can
+ directly load the &man.uscanner.4; device driver module with
+ the &man.kldload.8; command:</para>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kldload uscanner</userinput></screen>
+ <para>To load this module at each system startup, add the
+ following line to
+ <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:</para>
+ <programlisting>uscanner_load="YES"</programlisting>
+ <para>After rebooting with the correct kernel, or after
+ loading the required module, plug in your USB scanner. The
+ scanner should appear in your system message buffer
+ (&man.dmesg.8;) as something like:</para>
+ <screen>uscanner0: EPSON EPSON Scanner, rev 1.10/3.02, addr 2</screen>
+ <para>This shows that our scanner is using the
+ <devicename>/dev/uscanner0</devicename> device node.</para>
+ <note>
+ <para>On &os;&nbsp;4.X, the USB daemon (&man.usbd.8;) must
+ be running to be able to see some USB devices. To enable
+ this, add <literal>usbd_enable="YES"</literal> to your
+ <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> file and reboot the
+ machine.</para>
+ </note>
+ </sect3>
+ <sect3>
+ <title>SCSI Interface</title>
+ <para>If your scanner comes with a SCSI interface, it is
+ important to know which SCSI controller board you will use.
+ According to the SCSI chipset used, you will have to tune
+ your kernel configuration file. The
+ <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel supports the most common
+ SCSI controllers. Be sure to read the
+ <filename>NOTES</filename> file (<filename>LINT</filename>
+ under &os;&nbsp;4.X) and add the correct line to your kernel
+ configuration file. In addition to the SCSI adapter driver,
+ you need to have the following lines in your kernel
+ configuration file:</para>
+ <programlisting>device scbus
+device pass</programlisting>
+ <para>Once your kernel has been properly compiled, you should
+ be able to see the devices in your system message buffer,
+ when booting:</para>
+ <screen>pass2 at aic0 bus 0 target 2 lun 0
+pass2: &lt;AGFA SNAPSCAN 600 1.10&gt; Fixed Scanner SCSI-2 device
+pass2: 3.300MB/s transfers</screen>
+ <para>If your scanner was not powered-on at system boot, it is
+ still possible to manually force the detection by performing
+ a SCSI bus scan with the &man.camcontrol.8; command:</para>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>camcontrol rescan all</userinput>
+Re-scan of bus 0 was successful
+Re-scan of bus 1 was successful
+Re-scan of bus 2 was successful
+Re-scan of bus 3 was successful</screen>
+ <para>Then the scanner will appear in the SCSI devices
+ list:</para>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>camcontrol devlist</userinput>
+&lt;IBM DDRS-34560 S97B&gt; at scbus0 target 5 lun 0 (pass0,da0)
+&lt;IBM DDRS-34560 S97B&gt; at scbus0 target 6 lun 0 (pass1,da1)
+&lt;AGFA SNAPSCAN 600 1.10&gt; at scbus1 target 2 lun 0 (pass3)
+&lt;PHILIPS CDD3610 CD-R/RW 1.00&gt; at scbus2 target 0 lun 0 (pass2,cd0)</screen>
+ <para>More details about SCSI devices, are available in the
+ &man.scsi.4; and &man.camcontrol.8; manual pages.</para>
+ </sect3>
+ </sect2>
+ <sect2>
+ <title>SANE Configuration</title>
+ <para>The <application>SANE</application> system has been
+ splitted in two parts: the backends (<filename
+ role="package">graphics/sane-backends</filename>) and the
+ frontends (<filename
+ role="package">graphics/sane-frontends</filename>). The
+ backends part provides access to the scanner itself. The
+ <application>SANE</application>'s <ulink
+ url="http://sane-project.org/sane-supported-devices.html">supported
+ devices</ulink> list specifies which backend will support your
+ image scanner. It is mandatory to determine the correct
+ backend for your scanner if you want to be able to use your
+ device. The frontends part provides a graphical scanning
+ interface (<application>xscanimage</application>).</para>
+ <para>The first thing to do is installing the <filename
+ role="package">graphics/sane-backends</filename> port or
+ package. Then, use the <command>sane-find-scanner</command>
+ command to check the scanner detection by the
+ <application>SANE</application> system:</para>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sane-find-scanner -q</userinput>
+found SCSI scanner "AGFA SNAPSCAN 600 1.10" at /dev/pass3</screen>
+ <para>The output will show the interface type of the scanner and
+ the device node used to attach the scanner to the system. The
+ vendor and the product model may not appear, it is not
+ important.</para>
+ <note>
+ <para>Some USB scanners require you to load a firmware, this
+ is explained in the backend manual page. You should also read
+ &man.sane-find-scanner.1; and &man.sane.7; manual
+ pages.</para>
+ </note>
+ <para>Now we have to check if the scanner will be identified by
+ a scanning frontend. By default, the
+ <application>SANE</application> backends come with a command
+ line tool called &man.scanimage.1;. This command allows you
+ to list the devices and to perform an image acquisition from
+ the command line. The <option>-L</option> option is used to
+ list the scanner device:</para>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>scanimage -L</userinput>
+device `snapscan:/dev/pass3' is a AGFA SNAPSCAN 600 flatbed scanner</screen>
+ <para>No output or a message saying that no scanners were
+ identified indicates that &man.scanimage.1; is unable to
+ identify the scanner. If this happens, you will need to edit
+ the backend configuration file and define the scanner device
+ used. The <filename
+ role="directory">/usr/local/etc/sane.d/</filename> directory
+ contains all backends configuration files. This
+ identification problem does appear with some USB
+ scanners.</para>
+ <para>For example, with the USB scanner used in the <xref
+ linkend="scanners-kernel-usb">,
+ <command>sane-find-scanner</command> gives us the following
+ information:<para>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sane-find-scanner -q</userinput>
+found USB scanner (UNKNOWN vendor and product) at device /dev/uscanner0</screen>
+ <para>The scanner is correctly detected, it uses the USB
+ interface and is attached to the
+ <devicename>/dev/uscanner0</devicename> device node. We can now
+ check if the scanner is correctly identified:</para>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>scanimage -L</userinput>
+No scanners were identified. If you were expecting something different,
+check that the scanner is plugged in, turned on and detected by the
+sane-find-scanner tool (if appropriate). Please read the documentation
+which came with this software (README, FAQ, manpages).</screen>
+ <para>Since the scanner is not identified, we will need to edit
+ the <filename>/usr/local/etc/sane.d/epson.conf</filename>
+ file. The scanner model used was the EPSON Perfection 1650,
+ so we know the scanner will use the <literal>epson</literal>
+ backend. Be sure to read the help comments in the backends
+ configuration files. Line changes are quite simple: comment
+ out all lines that have the wrong interface for your scanner
+ (in our case, we will comment out all lines starting with the
+ word <literal>scsi</literal> as our scanner uses the USB
+ interface), then add at the end of the file a line specifying
+ the interface and the device node used. In this case, we add
+ the following line:</para>
+ <programlisting>usb /dev/uscanner0</programlisting>
+ <para>Please be sure to read the comments provided in the
+ backend configuration file as well as the backend manual page
+ for more details and correct syntax to use. We can now verify
+ if the scanner is identified:</para>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>scanimage -L</userinput>
+device `epson:/dev/uscanner0' is a Epson GT-8200 flatbed scanner</screen>
+ <para>Our USB scanner has been identified. It is not important
+ if the brand and the model do not match. The key item to be
+ concerned with is the
+ <literal>`epson:/dev/uscanner0'</literal> field, which give us
+ the right backend name and the right device node.</para>
+ <para>Once the <command>scanimage -L</command> command is able
+ to see the scanner, the configuration is complete. The device
+ is now ready to scan.</para>
+ <para>While &man.scanimage.1; does does allow us to perform an
+ image acquisition from the command line, it is preferable to
+ use a graphical user interface to perform image scanning.
+ <application>SANE</application> offers a simple but efficient
+ graphical interface: <application>xscanimage</application>
+ (<filename
+ role="package">graphics/sane-frontends</filename>).</para>
+ <para><application>Xsane</application> (<filename
+ role="package">graphics/xsane</filename>) is another popular
+ graphical scanning frontend. This frontend offers advanced
+ features like various scanning mode (photocopy, fax, etc.),
+ color correction, batch scans, etc. Both of these applications
+ are useable as a <application>GIMP</application>
+ plugin.</para>
+ </sect2>
+ <sect2>
+ <title>Allowing Scanner Access to Other Users</title>
+ <para>All previous operations have been done with the
+ <username>root</username> privileges, however a user should be
+ able to use the scanner. The user will need read and write
+ permissions to the device node used by the scanner. As an
+ example, our USB scanner uses the device node
+ <devicename>/dev/uscanner0</devicename> which is owned by the
+ <groupname>operator</groupname> group. Adding the user
+ <username>joe</username> to the
+ <groupname>operator</groupname> group will allow him to use
+ the scanner:</para>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pw groupmod operator -m <replaceable>joe</replaceable></userinput></screen>
+ <para>For more details read the &man.pw.8; manual page.</para>
+ <note>
+ <para>Of course, for security reasons, you should think twice
+ before adding a user to any group, especially the
+ <groupname>operator</groupname> group.</para>
+ </note>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>