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<!--
The FreeBSD Documentation Project
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml,v 1.18 2000/01/11 03:50:32 jim Exp $
+ $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/ppp-and-slip/chapter.sgml,v 1.19 2000/01/23 10:22:38 kuriyama Exp $
-->
<chapter id="ppp-and-slip">
<title>PPP and SLIP</title>
-
- <para>If your connection to the Internet is through a modem, or you wish to
- provide other people with dialup connections to the Internet using
- FreeBSD, you have the option of using PPP or SLIP. Furthermore, two
- varieties of PPP are provided: <emphasis>user</emphasis> (sometimes
- referred to as <emphasis>iijppp</emphasis>) and
- <emphasis>kernel</emphasis>. The procedures for configuring both types of
- PPP, and for setting up SLIP are described in this chapter.</para>
-
+
+ <para><emphasis>Restructured, reorganized, and updated by &a.jim;,
+ 1 March 2000.</emphasis></para>
+
+ <sect1>
+ <title>Synopsis</title>
+
+ <para>If you are connecting to the Internet via modem, or wish to
+ provide dialup connections to the Internet for others using FreeBSD,
+ you have the option of using PPP or SLIP.</para>
+
+ <para>This chapter covers three varieties of PPP;
+ <emphasis>user</emphasis>, <emphasis>kernel</emphasis>, and
+ <emphasis>PPPoE</emphasis> (PPP over Ethernet). It also covers
+ setting up a SLIP client and server.</para>
+
+ <para>The first variety of PPP that will be covered is User PPP. User
+ PPP was introduced into FreeBSD in 2.0.5-RELEASE as an addition to
+ the already existing kernel implementation of PPP.</para>
+
+ <para>You may be wondering what the main difference is between User
+ PPP and kernel PPP. The answer is simple; user PPP does not run as
+ a daemon, and can run as and when desired. No PPP interface needs
+ to be compiled into ther kernel; it runs as a user process, and uses
+ the tunnel device driver (<devicename>tun</devicename>) to get data
+ into and out of the kernel.</para>
+
+ <para>From here on out in this chapter, user ppp will simply be
+ referred to as ppp unless a distinction needs to be made between it
+ and and any other PPP software such as <command>pppd</command>.
+ Unless otherwise stated, all of the commands explained in this
+ section should be executed as root.</para>
+ </sect1>
+
<sect1 id="userppp">
- <title>Setting up User PPP</title>
-
- <para>User PPP was introduced to FreeBSD in release 2.0.5 as an addition
- to the existing kernel implementation of PPP. So, what is different
- about this new PPP that warrants its addition? To quote from the manual
- page:</para>
-
- <blockquote>
- <para>This is a user process PPP software package. Normally, PPP is
- implemented as a part of the kernel (e.g. as managed by
- <command>pppd</command>) and it is thus somewhat hard to debug and/or
- modify its behavior. However, in this implementation PPP is done as a
- user process with the help of the tunnel device driver
- (<devicename>tun</devicename>).</para>
- </blockquote>
-
- <para>In essence, this means that rather than running a PPP daemon, the
- ppp program can be run as and when desired. No PPP interface needs to
- be compiled into the kernel, as the program can use the generic tunnel
- device to get data into and out of the kernel.</para>
-
- <para>From here on out, user ppp will be referred to simply as ppp unless
- a distinction needs to be made between it and any other PPP
- client/server software such as <command>pppd</command>. Unless
- otherwise stated, all commands in this section should be executed as
- root.</para>
-
- <para>There are a large number of enhancements in version 2 of ppp. You
- can discover what version you have by running ppp with no arguments and
- typing <command>show version</command> at the prompt. It is a simple
- matter to upgrade to the latest version of ppp (under any version of
- FreeBSD) by downloading the latest archive via <ulink
- url="http://www.Awfulhak.org/ppp.html">www.Awfulhak.org</ulink>.</para>
-
+ <title>Using User PPP</title>
+
+ <para><emphasis>Originally contributed by &a.brian;, with input
+ from &a.nik;, &a.dirkvangulik;, and &a.pjc;.</emphasis></para>
+
<sect2>
- <title>Before you start</title>
-
- <para>This document assumes you are in roughly this position:</para>
-
- <para>You have an account with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) which
- lets you use PPP. Further, you have a modem (or other device)
- connected and configured correctly which allows you to connect to your
- ISP.</para>
-
- <para>You are going to need the following information to hand:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Your ISPs phone number(s).</para>
- </listitem>
+ <title>User PPP</title>
- <listitem>
- <para>Your login name and password. This can be either a regular
- unix style login/password pair, or a PPP PAP or CHAP
- login/password pair.</para>
- </listitem>
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Assumptions</title>
- <listitem>
- <para>The IP addresses of one or more nameservers. Normally, you
- will be given two IP numbers. You <emphasis>must</emphasis> have
- this information for <application>PPP</application> version 1.x
- unless you run your own nameserver. From version 2 onwards,
- <application>PPP</application> supports nameserver address
- negotiation. If your ISP supports this, then using the command
- <command>enable dns</command> in your config file will tell
- <application>PPP</application> to set the nameservers for
- you.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>The following information may have been supplied by your ISP, but
- is not strictly necessary:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>The IP address of your ISP's gateway. The gateway is the
- machine to which you will connect and will be set up as your
- <emphasis>default route</emphasis>. If your ISP hasn't given you
- this number, we can make one up and your ISP's PPP server will
- tell us the correct value when we connect.</para>
-
- <para>This IP number is referred to as <literal>HISADDR</literal>
- by ppp.</para>
- </listitem>
+ <para>This document assumes you have the following:</para>
- <listitem>
- <para>Your ISP's netmask. If your ISP hasn't given you this
- information, you can safely use a netmask of <hostid
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>An account with an Internet Service Provider (ISP) which
+ you connect to using PPP. Further, you have a modem or
+ other device connected to your system and configured
+ correctly, which allows you to connect to your ISP.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The dialup number(s) of your ISP.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Your login name and password. This can be either a
+ regular unix style login and password pair, or a PAP or CHAP
+ login and password pair.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The IP address(es) of one or more name servers.
+ Normally, you will be given two IP addresses by your ISP to
+ use for this. If they have not given you at least one, then
+ you can use the <command>enable dns</command> command in
+ your <filename>ppp.conf</filename> file to tell
+ <application>ppp</application> to set the name servers for
+ you.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>The following information may be supplied by your ISP, but
+ is not completely necessary:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The IP address of your ISP's gateway. The gateway is
+ the machine to which you will connect and will be set up as
+ your <emphasis>default route</emphasis>. If you do not have
+ this information, we can make one up and your ISP's PPP
+ server will tell us the correct value when we connect.</para>
+
+ <para>This IP number is referred to as
+ <literal>HISADDR</literal> by
+ <application>ppp</application>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The netmask you should use. If your ISP has not
+ provided you with one, you can safely use <hostid
role="netmask">255.255.255.0</hostid>.</para>
-
- <para>If your ISP allocates you a static IP address and hostname
- then you can enter this information. Otherwise, we simply let the
- peer assign whatever IP number it sees fit.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para>If you do not have any of the required information, contact your
- ISP and make sure they provide it to you.</para>
- </sect2>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>If your ISP provides you with a static IP address and
+ hostname, you can enter it. Otherwise, we simply let the
+ peer assign whatever IP address it sees fit.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>If you do not have any of the required information, contact
+ your ISP and make sure they provide it to you.</para>
+ </sect3>
- <sect2>
- <title>Building a ppp ready kernel</title>
-
- <para>As the description states, <command>ppp</command> uses the kernel
- <devicename>tun</devicename> device. It is necessary to make sure
- that your kernel has support for this device compiled in.</para>
-
- <para>To check this, go to your kernel compile directory
- (<filename>/sys/i386/conf</filename> or
- <filename>/sys/pc98/conf</filename>) and examine your kernel
- configuration file. It needs to have the line
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Preparing the Kernel</title>
+
+ <para>As previously mentioned, <application>ppp</application>
+ users the <devicename>tun</devicename> device. It is necessary
+ to make sure that your kernel has support for this device
+ compiled into it.</para>
+
+ <para>To check, go to your kernel compile directory
+ (<filename>/sys/i386/conf</filename> or
+ <filename>/sys/pc98/conf</filename>) and examine your
+ configuration file. It should have the following line somewhere
+ in it:</para>
<programlisting>
-pseudo-device tun 1</programlisting>
-
- in it somewhere. The stock <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel has
- this as standard, so if you have not installed a custom kernel or you
- do not have a <filename>/sys</filename> directory, you do not have to
- change anything.</para>
-
- <para>If your kernel configuration file does not have this line in it,
- or you need to configure more than one <devicename>tun</devicename> device (for example, if you
- are setting up a server and could have 16 dialup ppp connections at
- any one time then you will need to use <literal>16</literal> instead
- of <literal>1</literal>), then you should add the line, re-compile,
- re-install and boot the new kernel. Please refer to the <link
- linkend="kernelconfig">Configuring the FreeBSD Kernel</link> section
- for more information on kernel configuration.</para>
-
- <para>You can check how many tunnel devices your current kernel has by
- typing the following:</para>
+pseudo-device tun 1</programlisting>
+
+ <para>If this line is not present, you will need to add it to the
+ configuration file and recompile your kernel. The stock
+ <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel has this included, so if you
+ have not installed a custom kernel or do not have a
+ <filename>/sys</filename> directory, you do not have to change
+ anything. If you do need to recompile your kernel, please refer
+ to the <link linkend="kernelconfig">kernel configuration</link>
+ section for more information.</para>
+
+ <para>You can check how many tunnel devices your current kernel
+ has by typing the following:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ifconfig -a</userinput>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ifconfig -a</userinput>
tun0: flags=8051&lt;UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
inet 200.10.100.1 --&gt; 203.10.100.24 netmask 0xffffffff
tun1: flags=8050&lt;POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 576
tun2: flags=8051&lt;UP,POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
inet 203.10.100.1 --&gt; 203.10.100.20 netmask 0xffffffff
tun3: flags=8010&lt;POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500</screen>
-
-
- <para>This case shows four tunnel devices, two of which are currently
- configured and being used. It should be noted that the
- <literal>RUNNING</literal> flag above indicates that the interface has
- been used at some point&mdash;it is not an error if your interface
- does not show up as <literal>RUNNING</literal>.</para>
-
- <para>If you have a kernel without the <devicename>tun</devicename> device, and you can not
- rebuild it for some reason, all is not lost. You should be able to
- dynamically load the code. Refer to the appropriate
- &man.modload.8; and &man.lkm.4; pages for further details.</para>
-
- <para>You may also wish to take this opportunity to configure a
- firewall. Details can be found in the <link
- linkend="firewalls">Firewalls</link> section.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>Check the tun device</title>
-
- <para>Most users will only require one <devicename>tun</devicename>
- device (<filename>/dev/tun0</filename>). If you have used more (i.e.,
- a number other than <literal>1</literal> in the
- <literal>pseudo-device</literal> line in the kernel configuration
- file) then alter all references to <devicename>tun0</devicename> below
- to reflect whichever device number you are using.</para>
-
- <para>The easiest way to make sure that the
- <devicename>tun0</devicename> device is configured correctly is to
- re-make it. To do this, execute the following commands:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
+
+ <para>This case shows four tunnel devices, two of which are
+ currently configured and being used. It should be noted that
+ the <literal>RUNNING</literal> flag above indicates that the
+ interface has been used at some point&mdash;it is not an error
+ if your interface does not show up as
+ <literal>RUNNING</literal>.</para>
+
+ <para>If for some reason you have a kernel that does not have the
+ <devicename>tun</devicename> device in it and cannot recompile
+ the kernel, all is not lost. You should be able to dynamically
+ load the code. Please refer to the appropriate
+ &man.modload.8; and &man.lkm.4; man pages for further
+ details.</para>
+ </sect3>
+
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Check the <devicename>tun</devicename> device</title>
+
+ <para>Under normal circumstances, most users will only require one
+ <devicename>tun</devicename> device
+ (<filename>/dev/tun0</filename>). If you have specified more
+ than one on the <literal>pseudo-device</literal> line for
+ <devicename>tun</devicename> in your kernel configuration file,
+ then alter all references to <devicename>tun0</devicename> below
+ to reflect whichever device number you are using (e.g.,
+ <devicename>tun2</devicename>).</para>
+
+ <para>The easiest way to make sure that the
+ <devicename>tun0</devicename> device is configured correctly,
+ is to remake the device. This process is quite easy. To remake
+ the device, do the following:</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>./MAKEDEV tun0</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>If you require 16 tunnel devices in your kernel, you will need to
- create more than just <devicename>tun0</devicename>:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
+
+ <para>If you need 16 tunnel devices in your kernel, you will need
+ to create them. This can be done by executing the following
+ commands:</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>./MAKEDEV tun15</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Also, to confirm that the kernel is configured correctly, the
- following command should give the indicated output:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ifconfig tun0</userinput>
-tun0: flags=8050&lt;POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500</screen>
-
- <para>The <literal>RUNNING</literal> flag may not yet be set, in which
- case you will see:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ifconfig tun0</userinput>
-tun0: flags=8010&lt;POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST> mtu 1500</screen>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>Name Resolution Configuration</title>
-
- <para>The resolver is the part of the system that turns IP addresses
- into hostnames and vice versa. It can be configured to look for maps
- that describe IP to hostname mappings in one of two places. The first
- is a file called <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> (<command>man 5
- hosts</command>). The second is the Internet Domain Name Service
- (DNS), a distributed data base, the discussion of which is beyond the
- scope of this document.</para>
-
- <para>This section describes briefly how to configure your
- resolver.</para>
-
- <para>The resolver is a set of system calls that do the name mappings,
- but you have to tell them where to find their information. You do
- this by first editing the file <filename>/etc/host.conf</filename>.
- Do <emphasis>not</emphasis> call this file
- <filename>/etc/hosts.conf</filename> (note the extra
- <literal>s</literal>) as the results can be confusing.</para>
+
+ <para>To confirm that the kernel is configured correctly, issue
+ the follow command and compare the results:</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ifconfig tun0</userinput>
+tun0: flags=8050&lt;POINTOPOINT,RUNNING,MULTICAST&gt; mut 1500</screen>
+
+ <para>The <literal>RUNNING</literal> flag may not yet be set, in
+ which case you will see:</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ifconfig tun0</userinput>
+tun0: flags=8010&lt;POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500</screen>
+ </sect3>
<sect3>
- <title>Edit the <filename>/etc/host.conf</filename> file</title>
+ <title>Name Resolution Configuration</title>
+
+ <para>The resolver is the part of the system that turns IP
+ addresses into hostnames and vice versa. It can be configured
+ to look for maps that describe IP to hostname mappings in one of
+ two places. The first is a file called
+ <filename>/etc/hosts</filename>. Read &man.hosts.5; for more
+ information. The second is the Internet Domain Name Service
+ (DNS), a distributed data base, the discussion of which is
+ beyond the scope of this document.</para>
+
+ <para>The resolver is a set of system calls that do the name
+ mappings, but you have to tell them where to find their
+ information. You do this by first editing the file
+ <filename>/etc/host.conf</filename>. Do <emphasis>not</emphasis>
+ call this file <filename>/etc/hosts.conf</filename> (note the
+ extra <literal>s</literal>) as the results can be
+ confusing.</para>
- <para>This file should contain the following two lines (in this
- order):</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ <sect4>
+ <title>Edit <filename>/etc/host.conf</filename></title>
+
+ <para>This file should contain the following two lines (in this
+ order):</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
hosts
bind</programlisting>
-
- <para>These instructs the resolver to first look in the file
- <filename>/etc/hosts</filename>, and then to consult the DNS if the
- name was not found.</para>
- </sect3>
+
+ <para>These instruct the resolver to first look in the file
+ <filename>/etc/hosts</filename>, and then to consult the DNS
+ if the name was not found.</para>
+ </sect4>
- <sect3>
- <title>Edit the <filename>/etc/hosts</filename>(5) file</title>
-
- <para>This file should contain the IP addresses and names of machines
- on your network. At a bare minimum it should contain entries for
- the machine which will be running ppp. Assuming that your machine
- is called <hostid role="fqdn">foo.bar.com</hostid> with the IP
- address <hostid role="ipaddr">10.0.0.1</hostid>,
- <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> should contain:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
-127.0.0.1 localhost
-10.0.0.1 foo.bar.com foo</programlisting>
-
- <para>The first line defines the alias <hostid>localhost</hostid> as a
- synonym for the current machine. Regardless of your own IP address,
- the IP address for this line should always be <hostid
- role="ipaddr">127.0.0.1</hostid>. The second line maps the name
- <hostid role="fqdn">foo.bar.com</hostid> (and the shorthand
- <hostid>foo</hostid>) to the IP address <hostid
+ <sect4>
+ <title>Edit <filename>/etc/hosts</filename></title>
+
+ <para>This file should contain the IP addresses and names of
+ machines on your network. At a bare minimum it should contain
+ entries for the machine which will be running ppp. Assuming
+ that your machine is called <hostid
+ role="fqdn">foo.bar.com</hostid> with the IP address <hostid
+ role="ipaddr">10.0.0.1</hostid>,
+ <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> should contain:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
+127.0.0.1 localhost.bar.com localhost
+127.0.0.1 localhost.bar.com.
+10.0.0.1 foo.bar.com foo
+10.0.0.1 foo.bar.com.</programlisting>
+
+ <para>The first two lines define the alias
+ <hostid>localhost</hostid> as a synonym for the current
+ machine. Regardless of your own IP address, the IP address
+ for this line should always be <hostid
+ role="ipaddr">127.0.0.1</hostid>. The second two lines map
+ the name <hostid role="fqdn">foo.bar.com</hostid> (and the
+ shorthand <hostid>foo</hostid>) to the IP address <hostid
role="ipaddr">10.0.0.1</hostid>.</para>
-
- <para>If your provider allocates you a static IP address and name,
- then use these in place of the <hostid
+
+ <para>If your provider allocates you a static IP address and
+ name, use them in place of the <hostid
role="ipaddr">10.0.0.1</hostid> entry.</para>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>Edit the <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> file</title>
+ </sect4>
- <para><filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> tells the resolver how to
- behave. If you are running your own DNS, you may leave this file
- empty. Normally, you will need to enter the following
- line(s):</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ <sect4>
+ <title>Edit <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename></title>
+
+ <para>The <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> file tells the
+ resolver how to behave. If you are running your own DNS, you
+ may leave this file empty. Normally, you will need to enter
+ the following line(s):</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
+domain <replaceable>bar.com</replaceable>
nameserver <replaceable>x.x.x.x</replaceable>
-nameserver <replaceable>y.y.y.y</replaceable>
-domain <replaceable>bar.com</replaceable></programlisting>
-
- <para>The <hostid
- role="ipaddr"><replaceable>x.x.x.x</replaceable></hostid> and
- <hostid role="ipaddr"><replaceable>y.y.y.y</replaceable></hostid>
- addresses are those given to you by your ISP. Add as many
- <literal>nameserver</literal> lines as your ISP provides. The
- <literal>domain</literal> line defaults to your hostname's domain,
- and is probably unnecessary. Refer to the
- <filename>resolv.conf</filename> manual page for details of other
- possible entries in this file.</para>
-
- <para>If you are running PPP version 2 or greater, the <command>enable
- dns</command> command will tell PPP to request that your ISP
- confirms the nameserver values. If your ISP supplies different
- addresses (or if there are no nameserver lines in
- <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename>), PPP will rewrite the file
- with the ISP-supplied values.</para>
+nameserver <replaceable>y.y.y.y</replaceable></programlisting>
+
+ <para>The <hostid
+ role="ipaddr"><replaceable>x.x.x.x</replaceable></hostid> and
+ <hostid role="ipaddr"><replaceable>y.y.y.y</replaceable></hostid>
+ addresses are those given to you by your ISP. Add as many
+ <literal>nameserver</literal> lines as your ISP provides. The
+ <literal>domain</literal> line defaults to your hostname's
+ domain, and is probably unnecessary. Refer to the
+ &man.resolv.conf.5; manual page for details of other possible
+ entries in this file.</para>
+
+ <para>If you are running PPP version 2 or greater, the
+ <command>enable dns</command> command will tell PPP to request
+ that your ISP confirms the nameserver values. If your ISP
+ supplies different addresses (or if there are no nameserver
+ lines in <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename>), PPP will
+ rewrite the file with the ISP-supplied values.</para>
+ </sect4>
</sect3>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title><command>ppp</command> Configuration</title>
-
- <para>Both user ppp and <command>pppd</command> (the kernel level
- implementation of PPP) use configuration files located in the
- <filename>/etc/ppp</filename> directory. The sample configuration
- files provided are a good reference for user ppp, so don't delete
- them.</para>
-
- <para>Configuring <command>ppp</command> requires that you edit a number
- of files, depending on your requirements. What you put in them
- depends to some extent on whether your ISP allocates IP addresses
- statically (i.e., you get given one IP address, and always use that
- one) or dynamically (i.e., your IP address can be different for each
- PPP session).</para>
-
- <sect3 id="userppp-staticIP">
- <title>PPP and Static IP addresses</title>
- <para>You will need to create a configuration file called
- <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>. It should look similar to
- the example below.</para>
+ <sect3>
+ <title><application>PPP</application> Configuration</title>
- <note>
- <para>Lines that end in a <literal>:</literal> start in the first
- column, all other lines should be indented as shown using spaces
- or tabs.</para>
- </note>
+ <para>Both <command>ppp</command> and <command>pppd</command>
+ (the kernel level implementation of PPP) use the configuration
+ files located in the <filename>/etc/ppp</filename> directory.
+ The sample configuration files provided are a good reference,
+ so do not delete them.</para>
- <programlisting>
+ <para>Configuring <command>ppp</command> requires that you edit a
+ number of files, depending on your requirements. What you put
+ in them depends to some extent on whether your ISP allocates IP
+ addresses statically (i.e., you get given one IP address, and
+ always use that one) or dynamically (i.e., your IP address
+ changes each time you connect to your ISP).</para>
+
+ <sect4 id="userppp-staticIP">
+ <title>PPP and Static IP Addresses</title>
+
+ <para>You will need to create a configuration file called
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>. It should look
+ similar to the example below.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>Lines that end in a <literal>:</literal> start in the
+ first column, all other lines should be indented as shown
+ using spaces or tabs.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <programlisting>
1 default:
2 set device /dev/cuaa0
3 set speed 115200
4 set dial "ABORT BUSY ABORT NO\\sCARRIER TIMEOUT 5 \"\" ATE1Q0 OK-AT-OK \\dATDT\\TTIMEOUT 40 CONNECT"
5 provider:
-6 set phone "(0123) 456 7890"
+6 set phone "(123) 456 7890"
7 set login "TIMEOUT 10 \"\" \"\" gin:--gin: foo word: bar col: ppp"
8 set timeout 300
9 set ifaddr <replaceable>x.x.x.x</replaceable> <replaceable>y.y.y.y</replaceable> 255.255.255.0 0.0.0.0
10 add default HISADDR
11 enable dns</programlisting>
- <para>Do not include the line numbers, they are just for reference in
- this discussion.</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 1:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Identifies the default entry. Commands in this entry are
- executed automatically when ppp is run.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 2:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Identifies the device to which the modem is connected.
- <devicename>COM1:</devicename> is
- <filename>/dev/cuaa0</filename> and
- <devicename>COM2:</devicename> is
- <filename>/dev/cuaa1</filename>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 3:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Sets the speed you want to connect at. If 115200 doesn't
- work (it should with any reasonably new modem), try 38400
- instead.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 4:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>The dial string. User PPP uses an expect-send syntax
- similar to the &man.chat.8; program. Refer to the
- manual page for information on the features of this
- language.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 5:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Identifies an entry for a provider called
- &ldquo;provider&rdquo;.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 6:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Sets the phone number for this provider. Multiple phone
- numbers may be specified using the <literal>:</literal> or
- <literal>|</literal> character as a separator. The difference
- between these separators is described in &man.ppp.8;.
- To summarize, if you want to rotate through the numbers, use
- the <literal>:</literal>. If you want to always attempt to
- dial the first number first and only use the other numbers if
- the first number fails, use the <literal>|</literal>. Always
- quote the entire set of phone numbers as shown.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 7:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>The login string is of the same chat-like syntax as the
- dial string. In this example, the string works for a service
- whose login session looks like this:</para>
-
- <screen>J. Random Provider
+ <para>Do not include the line numbers, they are just for
+ reference in this discussion.</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 1:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Identifies the default entry. Commands in this
+ entry are executed automatically when ppp is run.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 2:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Identifies the device to which the modem is
+ connected. <devicename>COM1</devicename> is
+ <filename>/dev/cuaa0</filename> and
+ <devicename>COM2</devicename> is
+ <filename>/dev/cuaa1</filename>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 3:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Sets the speed you want to connect at. If 115200
+ does not work (it should with any reasonably new modem),
+ try 38400 instead.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 4:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The dial string. User PPP uses an expect-send
+ syntax similar to the &man.chat.8; program. Refer to
+ the manual page for information on the features of this
+ language.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 5:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Identifies an entry for a provider called
+ &ldquo;provider&rdquo;.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 6:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Sets the phone number for this provider. Multiple
+ phone numbers may be specified using the colon
+ (<literal>:</literal>) or pipe character
+ (<literal>|</literal>)as a separator. The difference
+ between the two separators is described in &man.ppp.8;.
+ To summarize, if you want to rotate through the numbers,
+ use a colon. If you want to always attempt to dial the
+ first number first and only use the other numbers if the
+ first number fails, use the pipe character. Always
+ quote the entire set of phone numbers as shown.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 7:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The login string is of the same chat-like syntax as
+ the dial string. In this example, the string works for
+ a service whose login session looks like this:</para>
+
+ <screen>J. Random Provider
login: <replaceable>foo</replaceable>
password: <replaceable>bar</replaceable>
protocol: ppp</screen>
-
- <para>You will need to alter this script to suit your own needs.
- When you write this script for the first time, you should
- enable &ldquo;chat&rdquo; logging to ensure that the
- conversation is going as expected.</para>
-
- <para>If you're using PAP or CHAP, there will be no login at
- this point, so your login string can be left blank. See <link
- linkend="userppp-PAPnCHAP">PAP and CHAP
+
+ <para>You will need to alter this script to suit your own
+ needs. When you write this script for the first time,
+ you should enable &ldquo;chat&rdquo; logging to ensure
+ that the conversation is going as expected.</para>
+
+ <para>If you are using PAP or CHAP, there will be no login
+ at this point, so your login string can be left blank.
+ See <link linkend="userppp-PAPnCHAP">PAP and CHAP
authentication</link> for further details.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 8:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Sets the default timeout (in seconds) for the connection.
- Here, the connection will be closed automatically after 300
- seconds of inactivity. If you never want to timeout, set this
- value to zero.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 9:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Sets the interface addresses. The string
- <replaceable>x.x.x.x</replaceable> should be replaced by the
- IP address that your provider has allocated to you. The
- string <replaceable>y.y.y.y</replaceable> should be replaced
- by the IP address that your ISP indicated for their gateway
- (the machine to which you connect). If your ISP hasn't given
- you a gateway address, use <hostid
- role="netmask">10.0.0.2/0</hostid>. If you need to use a
- &ldquo;guessed&rdquo; address, make sure that you create an
- entry in <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename> as per the
- instructions for <link linkend="userppp-dynamicIP">PPP and
- Dynamic IP addresses</link>. If this line is omitted,
- <command>ppp</command> cannot run in <option>-auto</option> or
- <option>-dynamic</option> mode.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 10:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Adds a default route to your ISPs gateway. The special
- word <literal>HISADDR</literal> is replaced with the gateway
- address specified on line 9. It is important that this line
- appears after line 9, otherwise <literal>HISADDR</literal>
- will not yet be initialized.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 11:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>This line tells PPP to ask your ISP to confirm that your
- nameserver addresses are correct. If your ISP supports this
- facility, PPP can then update
- <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> with the correct
- nameserver entries.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <para>It is not necessary to add an entry to
- <filename>ppp.linkup</filename> when you have a static IP address as
- your routing table entries are already correct before you connect.
- You may however wish to create an entry to invoke programs after
- connection. This is explained later with the sendmail
- example.</para>
-
- <para>Example configuration files can be found in the
- <filename>/etc/ppp</filename> directory.</para>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3 id="userppp-dynamicIP">
- <title>PPP and Dynamic IP addresses</title>
-
- <para>If your service provider does not assign static IP numbers,
- <command>ppp</command> can be configured to negotiate the local and
- remote addresses. This is done by &ldquo;guessing&rdquo; an IP
- number and allowing <command>ppp</command> to set it up correctly
- using the IP Configuration Protocol (IPCP) after connecting. The
- <filename>ppp.conf</filename> configuration is the same as <link
- linkend="userppp-staticIP">PPP and Static IP addresses</link>,
- with the following change:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 8:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Sets the default timeout (in seconds) for the
+ connection. Here, the connection will be closed
+ automatically after 300 seconds of inactivity. If you
+ never want to timeout, set this value to zero.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 9:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Sets the interface addresses. The string
+ <replaceable>x.x.x.x</replaceable> should be replaced by
+ the IP address that your provider has allocated to you.
+ The string <replaceable>y.y.y.y</replaceable> should be
+ replaced by the IP address that your ISP indicated for
+ their gateway (the machine to which you connect). If
+ your ISP hasn't given you a gateway address, use <hostid
+ role="netmask">10.0.0.2/0</hostid>. If you need to use
+ a &ldquo;guessed&rdquo; address, make sure that you
+ create an entry in
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename> as per the
+ instructions for <link linkend="userppp-dynamicIP">PPP
+ and Dynamic IP addresses</link>. If this line is
+ omitted, <command>ppp</command> cannot run in
+ <option>-auto</option> or <option>-dynamic</option>
+ mode.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 10:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Adds a default route to your ISPs gateway. The
+ special word <literal>HISADDR</literal> is replaced with
+ the gateway address specified on line 9. It is
+ important that this line appears after line 9,
+ otherwise <literal>HISADDR</literal> will not yet be
+ initialized.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 11:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This line tells PPP to ask your ISP to confirm that
+ your nameserver addresses are correct. If your ISP
+ supports this facility, PPP can then update
+ <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> with the correct
+ nameserver entries.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>It is not necessary to add an entry to
+ <filename>ppp.linkup</filename> when you have a static IP
+ address as your routing table entries are already correct
+ before you connect. You may however wish to create an entry
+ to invoke programs after connection. This is explained later
+ with the sendmail example.</para>
+
+ <para>Example configuration files can be found in the
+ <filename>/etc/ppp</filename> directory.</para>
+ </sect4>
+
+ <sect4 id="userppp-dynamicIP">
+ <title>PPP and Dynamic IP Addresses</title>
+
+ <para>If your service provider does not assign static IP
+ addresses, <command>ppp</command> can be configured to
+ negotiate the local and remote addresses. This is done by
+ &ldquo;guessing&rdquo; an IP address and allowing
+ <command>ppp</command> to set it up correctly using the IP
+ Configuration Protocol (IPCP) after connecting. The
+ <filename>ppp.conf</filename> configuration is the same as
+ <link linkend="userppp-staticIP">PPP and Static IP
+ Addresses</link>, with the following change:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
9 set ifaddr 10.0.0.1/0 10.0.0.2/0 255.255.255.0</programlisting>
-
- <para>Again, do not include the line numbers, they are just for
- reference in this discussion. Indentation of at least one space is
- required.</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 9:</term>
- <listitem>
- <para>The number after the <literal>/</literal> character is the
- number of bits of the address that ppp will insist on. You
- may wish to use IP numbers more appropriate to your
- circumstances, but the above example will always work.</para>
+ <para>Again, do not include the line numbers, they are just for
+ reference. Indentation of at least one space is
+ required.</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 9:</term>
- <para>The last argument (<literal>0.0.0.0</literal>) tells PPP
- to negotiate using address <hostid
+ <listitem>
+ <para>The number after the <literal>/</literal> character
+ is the number of bits of the address that ppp will
+ insist on. You may wish to use IP numbers more
+ appropriate to your circumstances, but the above example
+ will always work.</para>
+
+ <para>The last argument (<literal>0.0.0.0</literal>) tells
+ PPP to negotiate using address <hostid
role="ipaddr">0.0.0.0</hostid> rather than <hostid
role="ipaddr">10.0.0.1</hostid>. Do not use
- <literal>0.0.0.0</literal> as the first argument to
- <command>set ifaddr</command> as it prevents PPP from setting
- up an initial route in <option>-auto</option> mode.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <para>If you are running version 1.x of PPP, you will also need to
- create an entry in <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename>.
- <filename>ppp.linkup</filename> is used after a connection has been
- established. At this point, <command>ppp</command> will know what
- IP addresses should <emphasis>really</emphasis> be used. The
- following entry will delete the existing bogus routes, and create
- correct ones:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
-1 provider:
-2 delete ALL
-3 add 0 0 HISADDR</programlisting>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 1:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>On establishing a connection, <command>ppp</command> will
- look for an entry in <filename>ppp.linkup</filename> according
- to the following rules: First, try to match the same label as
- we used in <filename>ppp.conf</filename>. If that fails, look
- for an entry for the IP number of our gateway. This entry is
- a four-octet IP style label. If we still haven't found an
- entry, look for the <literal>MYADDR</literal> entry.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 2:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>This line tells <command>ppp</command> to delete all
- existing routes for the acquired tun interface (except the
- direct route entry).</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 3:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>This line tells <command>ppp</command> to add a default
- route that points to <literal>HISADDR</literal>.
- <literal>HISADDR</literal> will be replaced with the IP number
- of the gateway as negotiated in the IPCP.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
-
- <para>See the pmdemand entry in the files
- <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf.sample</filename> and
- <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup.sample</filename> for a detailed
- example.</para>
-
- <para>Version 2 of PPP introduces &ldquo;sticky routes&rdquo;. Any
- <literal>add</literal> or <literal>delete</literal> lines that
- contain <literal>MYADDR</literal> or <literal>HISADDR</literal> will
- be remembered, and any time the actual values of
- <literal>MYADDR</literal> or <literal>HISADDR</literal> change, the
- routes will be re-applied. This removes the necessity of repeating
- these lines in <filename>ppp.linkup</filename>.</para>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>Receiving incoming calls with <command>ppp</command></title>
-
- <para>This section describes setting up <command>ppp</command> in a
- server role.</para>
+ <literal>0.0.0.0</literal> as the first argument to
+ <command>set ifaddr</command> as it prevents PPP from
+ setting up an initial route in <option>-auto</option>
+ mode.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>If you are running version 1.x of PPP, you will also need
+ to create an entry in <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename>.
+ <filename>ppp.linkup</filename> is used after a connection has
+ been established. At this point, <command>ppp</command> will
+ know what IP addresses should <emphasis>really</emphasis> be
+ used. The following entry will delete the existing bogus
+ routes, and create correct ones:</para>
- <para>When you configure <command>ppp</command> to receive incoming
- calls on a machine connected to a LAN, you must decide if you wish
- to forward packets to the LAN. If you do, you should allocate the
- peer an IP number from your LAN's subnet, and use the command
-
<programlisting>
-enable proxy</programlisting>
-
- in your <filename>ppp.conf</filename> file. You should also confirm
- that the <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> file (this file used to
- be called <filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename>) contains the
- following:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
-gateway=YES</programlisting>
-
- <sect4>
- <title>Which getty?</title>
-
- <para><link linkend="dialup">Configuring FreeBSD for Dialup
- Services</link> provides a good description on enabling dialup
- services using getty.</para>
-
- <para>An alternative to <command>getty</command> is <ulink
- url="http://www.leo.org/~doering/mgetty/index.html">mgetty</ulink>,
- a smarter version of <command>getty</command> designed with dialup
- lines in mind.</para>
-
- <para>The advantages of using <command>mgetty</command> is that it
- actively <emphasis>talks</emphasis> to modems, meaning if port is
- turned off in <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> then your modem won't
- answer the phone.</para>
-
- <para>Later versions of <command>mgetty</command> (from 0.99beta
- onwards) also support the automatic detection of PPP streams,
- allowing your clients script-less access to your server.</para>
-
- <para>Refer to <link linkend="userppp-mgetty">Mgetty and
- AutoPPP</link> for more information on
- <command>mgetty</command>.</para>
+1 provider:
+2 delete ALL
+3 add 0 0 HISADDR</programlisting>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 1:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>On establishing a connection, <command>ppp</command>
+ will look for an entry in <filename>ppp.linkup</filename>
+ according to the following rules: First, try to match
+ the same label as we used in
+ <filename>ppp.conf</filename>. If that fails, look for
+ an entry for the IP address of our gateway. This entry
+ is a four-octet IP style label. If we still have not
+ found an entry, look for the <literal>MYADDR</literal>
+ entry.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 2:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This line tells <command>ppp</command> to delete all
+ of the existing routes for the acquired
+ <devicename>tun</devicename> interface (except the
+ direct route entry).</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 3:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This line tells <command>ppp</command> to add a
+ default route that points to <literal>HISADDR</literal>.
+ <literal>HISADDR</literal> will be replaced with the IP
+ number of the gateway as negotiated in the IPCP.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+
+ <para>See the pmdemand entry in the files
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf.sample</filename> and
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup.sample</filename> for a
+ detailed example.</para>
+
+ <para>Version 2 of PPP introduces &ldquo;sticky routes&rdquo;.
+ Any <literal>add</literal> or <literal>delete</literal> lines
+ that contain <literal>MYADDR</literal> or
+ <literal>HISADDR</literal> will be remembered, and any time
+ the actual values of <literal>MYADDR</literal> or
+ <literal>HISADDR</literal> change, the routes will be
+ reapplied. This removes the necessity of repeating these
+ lines in <filename>ppp.linkup</filename>.</para>
</sect4>
<sect4>
- <title>PPP permissions</title>
-
- <para><command>ppp</command> must normally be run as user id 0. If
- however you wish to allow <command>ppp</command> to run in server
- mode as a normal user by executing <command>ppp</command> as
- described below, that user must be given permission to run
- <command>ppp</command> by adding them to the
- <username>network</username> group in
- <filename>/etc/group</filename>.</para>
-
- <para>You will also need to give them access to one or more sections
- of the configuration file using the <command>allow</command>
- command:</para>
+ <title>Receiving Incoming Calls</title>
+
+ <para>When you configure <application>ppp</application> to
+ receive incoming calls on a machine connected to a LAN, you
+ must decide if you wish to forward packets to the LAN. If you
+ do, you should allocate the peer an IP number from your LAN's
+ subnet, and use the command <command>enable proxy</command> in
+ your <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename> file. You should
+ also confirm that the <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> file
+ contains the following:</para>
<programlisting>
+gateway="YES"</programlisting>
+
+ <sect5>
+ <title>Which getty?</title>
+
+ <para><link linkend="dialup">Configuring FreeBSD for Dialup
+ Services</link> provides a good description on enabling
+ dialup services using getty.</para>
+
+ <para>An alternative to <command>getty</command> is <ulink
+ url="http://www.leo.org/~doering/mgetty/index.html">mgetty</ulink>,
+ a smarter version of <command>getty</command> designed with
+ dialup lines in mind.</para>
+
+ <para>The advantages of using <command>mgetty</command> is
+ that it actively <emphasis>talks</emphasis> to modems,
+ meaning if port is turned off in
+ <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> then your modem will not answer
+ the phone.</para>
+
+ <para>Later versions of <command>mgetty</command> (from
+ 0.99beta onwards) also support the automatic detection of
+ PPP streams, allowing your clients script-less access to
+ your server.</para>
+
+ <para>Refer to <link linkend="userppp-mgetty">Mgetty and
+ AutoPPP</link> for more information on
+ <command>mgetty</command>.</para>
+ </sect5>
+
+ <sect5>
+ <title><application>PPP</application> Permissions</title>
+
+ <para>The <command>ppp</command> command must normally be run
+ as user id 0. If however, you wish to allow
+ <command>ppp</command> to run in server mode as a normal
+ user by executing <command>ppp</command> as described below,
+ that user must be given permission to run
+ <command>ppp</command> by adding them to the
+ <username>network</username> group in
+ <filename>/etc/group</filename>.</para>
+
+ <para>You will also need to give them access to one or more
+ sections of the configuration file using the
+ <command>allow</command> command:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
allow users fred mary</programlisting>
- <para>If this command is used in the <literal>default</literal>
- section, it gives the specified users access to everything.</para>
- </sect4>
+ <para>If this command is used in the <literal>default</literal>
+ section, it gives the specified users access to
+ everything.</para>
+ </sect5>
- <sect4>
- <title>Setting up a PPP shell for dynamic-IP users</title>
-
- <para>Create a file called <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp-shell</filename>
- containing the following:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ <sect5>
+ <title>PPP Shells for Dynamic-IP Users</title>
+
+ <para>Create a file called
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp-shell</filename> containing the
+ following:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
#!/bin/sh
IDENT=`echo $0 | sed -e 's/^.*-\(.*\)$/\1/'`
CALLEDAS="$IDENT"
@@ -704,61 +715,63 @@ echo "PPP for $CALLEDAS on $TTY"
echo "Starting PPP for $IDENT"
exec /usr/sbin/ppp -direct $IDENT</programlisting>
-
- <para>This script should be executable. Now make a symbolic link
- called <filename>ppp-dialup</filename> to this script using the
- following commands:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ln -s ppp-shell /etc/ppp/ppp-dialup</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>You should use this script as the <emphasis>shell</emphasis>
- for all your dialup ppp users. This is an example from
- <filename>/etc/password</filename> for a dialup PPP user with
- username <username>pchilds</username>. (remember don't directly
- edit the password file, use <command>vipw</command>)</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+
+ <para>This script should be executable. Now make a symbolic
+ link called <filename>ppp-dialup</filename> to this script
+ using the following commands:</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ln -s ppp-shell /etc/ppp/ppp-dialup</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>You should use this script as the
+ <emphasis>shell</emphasis> for all of your dialup users.
+ This is an example from <filename>/etc/password</filename>
+ for a dialup PPP user with username
+ <username>pchilds</username> (remember don't directly edit
+ the password file, use <command>vipw</command>).</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
pchilds:*:1011:300:Peter Childs PPP:/home/ppp:/etc/ppp/ppp-dialup</programlisting>
-
- <para>Create a <filename>/home/ppp</filename> directory that is
- world readable containing the following 0 byte files
-
+
+ <para>Create a <filename>/home/ppp</filename> directory that
+ is world readable containing the following 0 byte
+ files:</para>
+
<screen>-r--r--r-- 1 root wheel 0 May 27 02:23 .hushlogin
-r--r--r-- 1 root wheel 0 May 27 02:22 .rhosts</screen>
-
- which prevents <filename>/etc/motd</filename> from being
- displayed.</para>
- </sect4>
- <sect4>
- <title>Setting up a PPP shell for static-IP users</title>
-
- <para>Create the <filename>ppp-shell</filename> file as above and
- for each account with statically assigned IPs create a symbolic
- link to <filename>ppp-shell</filename>.</para>
-
- <para>For example, if you have three dialup customers
- <username>fred</username>, <username>sam</username>, and
- <username>mary</username>, that you route class C networks for,
- you would type the following:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ln -s /etc/ppp/ppp-shell /etc/ppp/ppp-fred</userinput>
+ <para>which prevents <filename>/etc/motd</filename> from being
+ displayed.</para>
+ </sect5>
+
+ <sect5>
+ <title>PPP shells for Static-IP Users</title>
+
+ <para>Create the <filename>ppp-shell</filename> file as above
+ and for each account with statically assigned IPs create a
+ symbolic link to <filename>ppp-shell</filename>.</para>
+
+ <para>For example, if you have three dialup customers
+ <username>fred</username>, <username>sam</username>, and
+ <username>mary</username>, that you route class C networks
+ for, you would type the following:</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ln -s /etc/ppp/ppp-shell /etc/ppp/ppp-fred</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>ln -s /etc/ppp/ppp-shell /etc/ppp/ppp-sam</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>ln -s /etc/ppp/ppp-shell /etc/ppp/ppp-mary</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Each of these users dialup accounts should have their shell
- set to the symbolic link created above. (ie.
- <username>mary</username>'s shell should be
- <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp-mary</filename>).</para>
- </sect4>
- <sect4>
- <title>Setting up ppp.conf for dynamic-IP users</title>
+ <para>Each of these users dialup accounts should have their
+ shell set to the symbolic link created above (i.e.,
+ <username>mary</username>'s shell should be
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp-mary</filename>).</para>
+ </sect5>
+
+ <sect5>
+ <title>Setting up ppp.conf for dynamic-IP users</title>
- <para>The <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename> file should contain
- something along the lines of</para>
+ <para>The <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename> file should
+ contain something along the lines of:</para>
- <programlisting>
+ <programlisting>
default:
set debug phase lcp chat
set timeout 0
@@ -771,30 +784,30 @@ ttyd1:
set ifaddr 203.14.100.1 203.14.100.21 255.255.255.255
enable proxy</programlisting>
- <note>
- <para>The indenting is important.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>The <literal>default:</literal> section is loaded for each
- session. For each dialup line enabled in
- <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> create an entry similar to the one
- for <literal>ttyd0:</literal> above. Each line should get a
- unique IP address from your pool of IP addresses for dynamic
- users.</para>
- </sect4>
+ <note>
+ <para>The indenting is important.</para>
+ </note>
- <sect4>
- <title>Setting up <filename>ppp.conf</filename> for static-IP
- users</title>
-
- <para>Along with the contents of the sample
- <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename> above you should add a
- section for each of the statically assigned dialup users. We will
- continue with our <username>fred</username>,
- <username>sam</username>, and <username>mary</username>
- example.</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ <para>The <literal>default:</literal> section is loaded for
+ each session. For each dialup line enabled in
+ <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> create an entry similar to
+ the one for <literal>ttyd0:</literal> above. Each line
+ should get a unique IP address from your pool of IP
+ addresses for dynamic users.</para>
+ </sect5>
+
+ <sect5>
+ <title>Setting up <filename>ppp.conf</filename> for static-IP
+ users</title>
+
+ <para>Along with the contents of the sample
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename> above you should add
+ a section for each of the statically assigned dialup users.
+ We will continue with our <username>fred</username>,
+ <username>sam</username>, and <username>mary</username>
+ example.</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
fred:
set ifaddr 203.14.100.1 203.14.101.1 255.255.255.255
@@ -803,14 +816,14 @@ sam:
mary:
set ifaddr 203.14.100.1 203.14.103.1 255.255.255.255</programlisting>
-
- <para>The file <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename> should also
- contain routing information for each static IP user if required.
- The line below would add a route for the <hostid
- role="ipaddr">203.14.101.0</hostid> class C via the client's
- ppp link.</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+
+ <para>The file <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename> should
+ also contain routing information for each static IP user if
+ required. The line below would add a route for the <hostid
+ role="ipaddr">203.14.101.0</hostid> class C via the
+ client's ppp link.</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
fred:
add 203.14.101.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 HISADDR
@@ -819,84 +832,87 @@ sam:
mary:
add 203.14.103.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 HISADDR</programlisting>
+ </sect5>
</sect4>
<sect4>
<title>More on <command>mgetty</command>, AutoPPP, and MS
extensions</title>
-
+
<sect5 id="userppp-mgetty">
<title><command>mgetty</command> and AutoPPP</title>
- <para>Configuring and compiling <command>mgetty</command> with the
- <literal>AUTO_PPP</literal> option enabled allows
+ <para>Configuring and compiling <command>mgetty</command> with
+ the <literal>AUTO_PPP</literal> option enabled allows
<command>mgetty</command> to detect the LCP phase of PPP
- connections and automatically spawn off a ppp shell. However,
- since the default login/password sequence does not occur it is
- necessary to authenticate users using either PAP or CHAP.</para>
-
- <para>This section assumes the user has successfully configured,
- compiled, and installed a version of <command>mgetty</command>
- with the <literal>AUTO_PPP</literal> option (v0.99beta or
- later)</para>
-
+ connections and automatically spawn off a ppp shell.
+ However, since the default login/password sequence does not
+ occur it is necessary to authenticate users using either PAP
+ or CHAP.</para>
+
+ <para>This section assumes the user has successfully
+ configured, compiled, and installed a version of
+ <command>mgetty</command> with the
+ <literal>AUTO_PPP</literal> option (v0.99beta or
+ later).</para>
+
<para>Make sure your
<filename>/usr/local/etc/mgetty+sendfax/login.config</filename>
file has the following in it:</para>
-
+
<programlisting>
/AutoPPP/ - - /etc/ppp/ppp-pap-dialup</programlisting>
-
+
<para>This will tell <command>mgetty</command> to run the
<filename>ppp-pap-dialup</filename> script for detected PPP
connections.</para>
-
+
<para>Create a file called
<filename>/etc/ppp/ppp-pap-dialup</filename> containing the
following (the file should be executable):</para>
-
+
<programlisting>
#!/bin/sh
exec /usr/sbin/ppp -direct pap$IDENT</programlisting>
-
+
<para>For each dialup line enabled in
- <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> create a corresponding entry in
- <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>. This will happily
- co-exist with the definitions we created above.</para>
-
+ <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>, create a corresponding entry
+ in <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>. This will
+ happily co-exist with the definitions we created
+ above.</para>
+
<programlisting>
pap:
enable pap
set ifaddr 203.14.100.1 203.14.100.20-203.14.100.40
enable proxy</programlisting>
-
- <para>Each user logging in with this method will need to have a
- username/password in <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.secret</filename>
- file, or alternatively add the</para>
-
+
+ <para>Each user logging in with this method will need to have
+ a username/password in
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.secret</filename> file, or
+ alternatively add the following option to authenticate users
+ via PAP from <filename>/etc/password</filename> file.</para>
+
<programlisting>
enable passwdauth</programlisting>
-
- <para>option to authenticate users via pap from the
- <filename>/etc/password</filename> file.</para>
- <para>If you wish to assign some users a static IP number, you can
- specify the number as the third argument in
+ <para>If you wish to assign some users a static IP number, you
+ can specify the number as the third argument in
<filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.secret</filename>. See
<filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.secret.sample</filename> for
examples.</para>
</sect5>
-
+
<sect5>
<title>MS extensions</title>
- <para>It is possible to configure PPP to supply DNS and NetBIOS
- nameserver addresses on demand.</para>
+ <para>It is possible to configure PPP to supply DNS and
+ NetBIOS nameserver addresses on demand.</para>
<para>To enable these extensions with PPP version 1.x, the
following lines might be added to the relevant section of
<filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>.</para>
-
+
<programlisting>
enable msext
set ns 203.14.100.1 203.14.100.2
@@ -908,342 +924,348 @@ set nbns 203.14.100.5</programlisting>
accept dns
set dns 203.14.100.1 203.14.100.2
set nbns 203.14.100.5</programlisting>
-
- <para>This will tell the clients the primary and secondary name
- server addresses, and a netbios nameserver host.</para>
- <para>In version 2 and above, if the <literal>set dns</literal>
- line is omitted, PPP will use the values found in
- <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename>.</para>
+ <para>This will tell the clients the primary and secondary
+ name server addresses, and a netbios nameserver host.</para>
+
+ <para>In version 2 and above, if the
+ <literal>set dns</literal> line is omitted, PPP will use the
+ values found in <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename>.</para>
</sect5>
</sect4>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3 id="userppp-PAPnCHAP">
- <title>PAP and CHAP authentication</title>
-
- <para>Some ISPs set their system up so that the authentication part of
- your connection is done using either of the PAP or CHAP
- authentication mechanisms. If this is the case, your ISP will not
- give a <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt when you connect, but will
- start talking PPP immediately.</para>
-
- <para>PAP is less secure than CHAP, but security is not normally an
- issue here as passwords, although being sent as plain text with PAP,
- are being transmitted down a serial line only. There's not much room
- for crackers to &ldquo;eavesdrop&rdquo;.</para>
-
- <para>Referring back to the <link linkend="userppp-staticIP">PPP and
- Static IP addresses</link> or <link
+
+ <sect4 id="userppp-PAPnCHAP">
+ <title>PAP and CHAP authentication</title>
+
+ <para>Some ISPs set their system up so that the authentication
+ part of your connection is done using either of the PAP or
+ CHAP authentication mechanisms. If this is the case, your ISP
+ will not give a <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt when you
+ connect, but will start talking PPP immediately.</para>
+
+ <para>PAP is less secure than CHAP, but security is not normally
+ an issue here as passwords, although being sent as plain text
+ with PAP, are being transmitted down a serial line only.
+ There's not much room for crackers to
+ &ldquo;eavesdrop&rdquo;.</para>
+
+ <para>Referring back to the <link linkend="userppp-staticIP">PPP
+ and Static IP addresses</link> or <link
linkend="userppp-dynamicIP">PPP and Dynamic IP addresses</link>
- sections, the following alterations must be made:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ sections, the following alterations must be made:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
7 set login
&hellip;
12 set authname <replaceable>MyUserName</replaceable>
13 set authkey <replaceable>MyPassword</replaceable></programlisting>
-
- <para>As always, do not include the line numbers, they are just for
- reference in this discussion. Indentation of at least one space is
- required.</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 7:</term>
- <listitem>
- <para>Your ISP will not normally require that you log into the
- server if you're using PAP or CHAP. You must therefore
- disable your "set login" string.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 12:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>This line specifies your PAP/CHAP user name. You will
- need to insert the correct value for
- <replaceable>MyUserName</replaceable>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Line 13:</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>This line specifies your PAP/CHAP password. You will need
- to insert the correct value for
- <replaceable>MyPassword</replaceable>. You may want to add an
- additional line
+ <para>As always, do not include the line numbers, they are just
+ for reference in this discussion. Indentation of at least one
+ space is required.</para>
+
+ <variablelist>
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 7:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Your ISP will not normally require that you log into
+ the server if you're using PAP or CHAP. You must
+ therefore disable your &ldquo;set login&rdquo;
+ string.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 12:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This line specifies your PAP/CHAP user name. You
+ will need to insert the correct value for
+ <replaceable>MyUserName</replaceable>.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+
+ <varlistentry>
+ <term>Line 13:</term>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>This line specifies your PAP/CHAP password. You
+ will need to insert the correct value for
+ <replaceable>MyPassword</replaceable>. You may want to
+ add an additional line, such as:</para>
- <programlisting>
+ <programlisting>
15 accept PAP</programlisting>
- or
-
- <programlisting>
+ <para>or</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
15 accept CHAP</programlisting>
- to make it obvious that this is the intention, but PAP and
- CHAP are both accepted by default.</para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>Changing your <command>ppp</command> configuration on the
- fly</title>
+ <para>to make it obvious that this is the intention, but
+ PAP and CHAP are both accepted by default.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </varlistentry>
+ </variablelist>
+ </sect4>
- <para>It is possible to talk to the <command>ppp</command> program
- while it is running in the background, but only if a suitable
- diagnostic port has been set up. To do this, add the following line
- to your configuration:</para>
+ <sect4>
+ <title>Changing your <command>ppp</command> configuration on the
+ fly</title>
- <programlisting>
+ <para>It is possible to talk to the <command>ppp</command>
+ program while it is running in the background, but only if a
+ suitable diagnostic port has been set up. To do this, add the
+ following line to your configuration:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
set server /var/run/ppp-tun%d DiagnosticPassword 0177</programlisting>
- <para>This will tell PPP to listen to the specified unix-domain
- socket, asking clients for the specified password before allowing
- access. The <literal>%d</literal> in the name is replaced with the
- <devicename>tun</devicename> device number that is in use.</para>
-
- <para>Once a socket has been set up, the
- &man.pppctl.8; program may be used in scripts that wish to
- manipulate the running program.</para>
+ <para>This will tell PPP to listen to the specified unix-domain
+ socket, asking clients for the specified password before
+ allowing access. The <literal>%d</literal> in the name is
+ replaced with the <devicename>tun</devicename> device number
+ that is in use.</para>
+
+ <para>Once a socket has been set up, the &man.pppctl.8; program
+ may be used in scripts that wish to manipulate the running
+ program.</para>
+ </sect4>
</sect3>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2 id="userppp-final">
- <title>Final system configuration</title>
-
- <para>You now have <command>ppp</command> configured, but there are a
- few more things to do before it is ready to work. They all involve
- editing the <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> file (was
- <filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename>).</para>
-
- <para>Working from the top down in this file, make sure the
- <literal>hostname=</literal> line is set, e.g.:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
-hostname=foo.bar.com</programlisting>
-
- <para>If your ISP has supplied you with a static IP address and name,
- it's probably best that you use this name as your host name.</para>
-
- <para>Look for the <literal>network_interfaces</literal> variable. If
- you want to configure your system to dial your ISP on demand, make
- sure the <devicename>tun0</devicename> device is added to the list,
- otherwise remove it.</para>
-
- <programlisting>
-network_interfaces="lo0 tun0" ifconfig_tun0=</programlisting>
- <note>
- <para>The <literal>ifconfig_tun0</literal> variable should be empty,
- and a file called <filename>/etc/start_if.tun0</filename> should be
- created. This file should contain the line</para>
+ <sect3 id="userppp-final">
+ <title>Final system configuration</title>
+
+ <para>You now have <command>ppp</command> configured, but there
+ are a few more things to do before it is ready to work. They
+ all involve editing the <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>
+ file.</para>
+
+ <para>Working from the top down in this file, make sure the
+ <literal>hostname=</literal> line is set, e.g.:</para>
<programlisting>
+hostname="foo.bar.com"</programlisting>
+
+ <para>If your ISP has supplied you with a static IP address and
+ name, it's probably best that you use this name as your host
+ name.</para>
+
+ <para>Look for the <literal>network_interfaces</literal> variable.
+ If you want to configure your system to dial your ISP on demand,
+ make sure the <devicename>tun0</devicename> device is added to
+ the list, otherwise remove it.</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
+network_interfaces="lo0 tun0" ifconfig_tun0=</programlisting>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>The <literal>ifconfig_tun0</literal> variable should be
+ empty, and a file called
+ <filename>/etc/start_if.tun0</filename> should be created.
+ This file should contain the line:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
ppp -auto mysystem</programlisting>
-
- <para>This script is executed at network configuration time, starting
- your ppp daemon in automatic mode. If you have a LAN for which this
- machine is a gateway, you may also wish to use the
- <option>-alias</option> switch. Refer to the manual page for
- further details.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>Set the router program to <literal>NO</literal> with the
- line</para>
-
- <programlisting>
-router_enable=NO (/etc/rc.conf)
-router=NO (/etc/sysconfig)</programlisting>
-
- <para>It is important that the <command>routed</command> daemon is not
- started (it's started by default) as <command>routed</command> tends
- to delete the default routing table entries created by
- <command>ppp</command>.</para>
-
- <para>It is probably worth your while ensuring that the
- <literal>sendmail_flags</literal> line does not include the
- <option>-q</option> option, otherwise <command>sendmail</command> will
- attempt to do a network lookup every now and then, possibly causing
- your machine to dial out. You may try:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+
+ <para>This script is executed at network configuration time,
+ starting your ppp daemon in automatic mode. If you have a LAN
+ for which this machine is a gateway, you may also wish to use
+ the <option>-alias</option> switch. Refer to the manual page
+ for further details.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>Set the router program to <literal>NO</literal> with
+ following line in your <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
+router_enable="NO"</programlisting>
+
+ <para>It is important that the <command>routed</command> daemon is
+ not started (it is started by default), as it
+ <command>routed</command> tends to delete the default routing
+ table entries created by <command>ppp</command>.</para>
+
+ <para>It is probably worth your while ensuring that the
+ <literal>sendmail_flags</literal> line does not include the
+ <option>-q</option> option, otherwise
+ <command>sendmail</command> will attempt to do a network lookup
+ every now and then, possibly causing your machine to dial out.
+ You may try:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
sendmail_flags="-bd"</programlisting>
-
- <para>The upshot of this is that you must force
- <command>sendmail</command> to re-examine the mail queue whenever the
- ppp link is up by typing:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/usr/sbin/sendmail -q</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>You may wish to use the <command>!bg</command> command in
- <filename>ppp.linkup</filename> to do this automatically:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+
+ <para>The downside of this is that you must force
+ <command>sendmail</command> to re-examine the mail queue
+ whenever the ppp link is up by typing:</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/usr/sbin/sendmail -q</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>You may wish to use the <command>!bg</command> command in
+ <filename>ppp.linkup</filename> to do this automatically:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
1 provider:
2 delete ALL
3 add 0 0 HISADDR
4 !bg sendmail -bd -q30m</programlisting>
-
- <para>If you don't like this, it is possible to set up a
- &ldquo;dfilter&rdquo; to block SMTP traffic. Refer to the sample
- files for further details.</para>
-
- <para>All that is left is to reboot the machine.</para>
-
- <para>After rebooting, you can now either type</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ppp</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>and then <command>dial provider</command> to start the PPP
- session, or, if you want <command>ppp</command> to establish sessions
- automatically when there is outbound traffic (and you haven't created
- the <filename>start_if.tun0</filename> script), type</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ppp -auto provider</userinput></screen>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>Summary</title>
-
- <para>To recap, the following steps are necessary when setting up ppp
- for the first time:</para>
-
- <para>Client side:</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>Ensure that the <devicename>tun</devicename> device is built
- into your kernel.</para>
- </step>
- <step>
- <para>Ensure that the
- <filename>tun<replaceable>X</replaceable></filename> device file
- is available in the <filename>/dev</filename> directory.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>Create an entry in <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>.
- The <filename>pmdemand</filename> example should suffice for most
- ISPs.</para>
- </step>
+ <para>If you don't like this, it is possible to set up a
+ &ldquo;dfilter&rdquo; to block SMTP traffic. Refer to the
+ sample files for further details.</para>
- <step>
- <para>If you have a dynamic IP address, create an entry in
- <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename>.</para>
- </step>
+ <para>Now the only thing left to do is reboot the machine.</para>
- <step>
- <para>Update your <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> (or
- <filename>sysconfig</filename>) file.</para>
- </step>
+ <para>All that is left is to reboot the machine. After rebooting,
+ you can now either type:</para>
- <step>
- <para>Create a <filename>start_if.tun0</filename> script if you
- require demand dialing.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
-
- <para>Server side:</para>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>Ensure that the <devicename>tun</devicename> device is built
- into your kernel.</para>
- </step>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ppp</userinput></screen>
- <step>
- <para>Ensure that the
- <filename>tun<replaceable>X</replaceable></filename> device file
- is available in the <filename>/dev</filename> directory.</para>
- </step>
+ <para>and then <command>dial provider</command> to start the PPP
+ session, or, if you want <command>ppp</command> to establish
+ sessions automatically when there is outbound traffic (and
+ you have not created the <filename>start_if.tun0</filename>
+ script), type:</para>
- <step>
- <para>Create an entry in <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> (using the
- &man.vipw.8; program).</para>
- </step>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ppp -auto provider</userinput></screen>
+ </sect3>
- <step>
- <para>Create a profile in this users home directory that runs
- <command>ppp -direct direct-server</command> or similar.</para>
- </step>
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Summary</title>
+
+ <para>To recap, the following steps are necessary when setting up
+ ppp for the first time:</para>
+
+ <para>Client side:</para>
+
+ <procedure>
+ <step>
+ <para>Ensure that the <devicename>tun</devicename> device is
+ built into your kernel.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Ensure that the
+ <filename>tun<replaceable>X</replaceable></filename> device
+ file is available in the <filename>/dev</filename>
+ directory.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Create an entry in
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>. The
+ <filename>pmdemand</filename> example should suffice for
+ most ISPs.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>If you have a dynamic IP address, create an entry in
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename>.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Update your <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>
+ file.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Create a <filename>start_if.tun0</filename> script if
+ you require demand dialing.</para>
+ </step>
+ </procedure>
+
+ <para>Server side:</para>
+
+ <procedure>
+ <step>
+ <para>Ensure that the <devicename>tun</devicename> device is
+ built into your kernel.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Ensure that the
+ <filename>tun<replaceable>X</replaceable></filename> device
+ file is available in the <filename>/dev</filename>
+ directory.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Create an entry in <filename>/etc/passwd</filename>
+ (using the &man.vipw.8; program).</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Create a profile in this users home directory that runs
+ <command>ppp -direct direct-server</command> or
+ similar.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Create an entry in
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>. The
+ <filename>direct-server</filename> example should
+ suffice.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Create an entry in
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename>.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Update your <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>
+ file.</para>
+ </step>
+ </procedure>
+ </sect3>
+ </sect2>
+ </sect1>
- <step>
- <para>Create an entry in <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</filename>.
- The <filename>direct-server</filename> example should
- suffice.</para>
- </step>
+ <sect1 id="ppp">
+ <title>Using Kernel PPP</title>
- <step>
- <para>Create an entry in
- <filename>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</filename>.</para>
- </step>
+ <para><emphasis>Parts originally contributed by &a.gena; and
+ &a.rhuff;.</emphasis></para>
- <step>
- <para>Update your <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> (or
- <filename>sysconfig</filename>) file.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </sect2>
-
<sect2>
- <title>Acknowledgments</title>
-
- <para>This section of the handbook was last updated on Monday Aug 10,
- 1998 by &a.brian;</para>
-
- <para>Thanks to the following for their input, comments &amp;
- suggestions:</para>
-
- <para>&a.nik;</para>
-
- <para>&a.dirkvangulik;</para>
-
- <para>&a.pjc;</para>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 id="ppp">
- <title>Setting up Kernel PPP</title>
-
- <para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.gena;.</emphasis></para>
-
- <para>Before you start setting up PPP on your machine make sure that
- <command>pppd</command> is located in <filename>/usr/sbin</filename> and
- directory <filename>/etc/ppp</filename> exists.</para>
+ <title>Setting up Kernel PPP</title>
- <para><command>pppd</command> can work in two modes:</para>
+ <para>Before you start setting up PPP on your machine make sure
+ that <command>pppd</command> is located in
+ <filename>/usr/sbin</filename> and the directory
+ <filename>/etc/ppp</filename> exists.</para>
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>as a &ldquo;client&rdquo;, i.e. you want to connect your machine
- to outside world via PPP serial connection or modem line.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>as a &ldquo;server&rdquo;, i.e. your machine is located on the
- network and used to connect other computers using PPP.</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
-
- <para>In both cases you will need to set up an options file
- (<filename>/etc/ppp/options</filename> or <filename>~/.ppprc</filename>
- if you have more then one user on your machine that uses PPP).</para>
+ <para><command>pppd</command> can work in two modes:</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>As a &ldquo;client&rdquo;, i.e., you want to connect your
+ machine to the outside world via a PPP serial connection or
+ modem line.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para>You also will need some modem/serial software (preferably kermit) so
- you can dial and establish connection with remote host.</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>as a &ldquo;server&rdquo;, i.e. your machine is located on
+ the network and used to connect other computers using
+ PPP.</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+
+ <para>In both cases you will need to set up an options file
+ (<filename>/etc/ppp/options</filename> or
+ <filename>~/.ppprc</filename> if you have more than one user on
+ your machine that uses PPP).</para>
+
+ <para>You also will need some modem/serial software (preferably
+ kermit) so you can dial and establish a connection with the
+ remote host.</para>
+ </sect2>
<sect2>
- <title>Working as a PPP client</title>
-
+ <title>Using <command>pppd</command> as a client</title>
+
<para>I used the following <filename>/etc/ppp/options</filename> to
connect to CISCO terminal server PPP line.</para>
@@ -1263,14 +1285,14 @@ domain ppp.foo.com # put your domain name here
defaultroute # put this if you want that PPP server will be your
# default router</programlisting>
-
+
<para>To connect:</para>
<procedure>
<step>
- <para>Dial to the remote host using kermit (or other modem program)
- enter your user name and password (or whatever is needed to enable
- PPP on the remote host)</para>
+ <para>Dial to the remote host using kermit (or some other modem
+ program), and enter your user name and password (or whatever
+ is needed to enable PPP on the remote host).</para>
</step>
<step>
@@ -1278,21 +1300,21 @@ defaultroute # put this if you want that PPP server will be your
</step>
<step>
- <para>enter:</para>
-
+ <para>Enter the following:</para>
+
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>/usr/src/usr.sbin/pppd.new/pppd <replaceable>/dev/tty01</replaceable> <replaceable>19200</replaceable></userinput></screen>
- <para>Use the appropriate speed and device name.</para>
+ <para>Be sure to use the appropriate speed and device name.</para>
</step>
</procedure>
-
- <para>Now your computer is connected with PPP. If the connection fails
- for some reasons you can add the <option>debug</option> option to the
- <filename>/etc/ppp/options</filename> file and check messages on the
- console to track the problem</para>
+
+ <para>Now your computer is connected with PPP. If the connection
+ fails, you can add the <option>debug</option> option to the
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/options</filename> file and check messages on
+ the console to track the problem.</para>
- <para>Following <filename>/etc/ppp/pppup</filename> script will make all
- 3 stages automatically:</para>
+ <para>Following <filename>/etc/ppp/pppup</filename> script will make
+ all 3 stages automatically:</para>
<programlisting>
#!/bin/sh
@@ -1314,14 +1336,14 @@ ifconfig ppp0 delete
kermit -y /etc/ppp/kermit.dial
pppd /dev/tty01 19200</programlisting>
-
- <para><filename>/etc/ppp/kermit.dial</filename> is kermit script that
- dials and makes all necessary authorization on the remote host.
- (Example of such script is attached to the end of this
- document)</para>
-
- <para>Use the following <filename>/etc/ppp/pppdown</filename> script to
- disconnect the PPP line:</para>
+
+ <para><filename>/etc/ppp/kermit.dial</filename> is a kermit script
+ that dials and makes all necessary authorization on the remote
+ host (an example of such a script is attached to the end of this
+ document).</para>
+
+ <para>Use the following <filename>/etc/ppp/pppdown</filename> script
+ to disconnect the PPP line:</para>
<programlisting>
#!/bin/sh
@@ -1342,9 +1364,10 @@ fi
/sbin/ifconfig ppp0 delete
kermit -y /etc/ppp/kermit.hup
/etc/ppp/ppptest</programlisting>
-
- <para>Check if PPP is still running
- (<filename>/usr/etc/ppp/ppptest</filename>):</para>
+
+ <para>Check to see if PPP is still running by executing
+ <filename>/usr/etc/ppp/ppptest</filename>, which should look like
+ this:</para>
<programlisting>
#!/bin/sh
@@ -1357,9 +1380,10 @@ fi
set -x
netstat -n -I ppp0
ifconfig ppp0</programlisting>
-
- <para>Hangs up modem line
- (<filename>/etc/ppp/kermit.hup</filename>):</para>
+
+ <para>To hang up the modem, execute
+ <filename>/etc/ppp/kermit.hup</filename>, which should
+ contain:</para>
<programlisting>
set line /dev/tty01 ; put your modem device here
@@ -1380,17 +1404,15 @@ inp 5 OK
out ATH0\13
echo \13
exit</programlisting>
-
- <para>Here is an alternate method using <command>chat</command> instead
- of <command>kermit</command>.</para>
-
- <para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.rhuff;.</emphasis></para>
-
+
+ <para>Here is an alternate method using <command>chat</command>
+ instead of <command>kermit</command>.</para>
+
<para>The following two files are sufficient to accomplish a pppd
connection.</para>
-
+
<para><filename>/etc/ppp/options</filename>:</para>
-
+
<programlisting>
/dev/cuaa1 115200
@@ -1410,30 +1432,33 @@ domain &lt;your.domain&gt; # put your domain name here
defaultroute # put this if you want that PPP server will be
# your default router</programlisting>
-
+
<para><filename>/etc/ppp/login.chat.script</filename>:</para>
-
- <para>(This should actually go into a single line.)</para>
-
+
+ <note>
+ <para>The following should go on a single line.</para>
+ </note>
+
<programlisting>
ABORT BUSY ABORT 'NO CARRIER' "" AT OK ATDT&lt;phone.number&gt;
CONNECT "" TIMEOUT 10 ogin:-\\r-ogin: &lt;login-id&gt;
TIMEOUT 5 sword: &lt;password&gt;</programlisting>
-
- <para>Once these are installed and modified correctly, all you need to
- do is</para>
-
+
+ <para>Once these are installed and modified correctly, all you need
+ to do is run <command>pppd</command>, like so:</para>
+
<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pppd</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>This sample based primarily on information provided by: Trev
- Roydhouse &lt;Trev.Roydhouse@f401.n711.z3.fidonet.org&gt; and used by
- permission.</para>
+
+ <para>This sample is based primarily on information provided by:
+ Trev Roydhouse &lt;Trev.Roydhouse@f401.n711.z3.fidonet.org&gt;
+ and used with permission.</para>
</sect2>
-
+
<sect2>
- <title>Working as a PPP server</title>
-
- <para><filename>/etc/ppp/options</filename>:</para>
+ <title>Using <command>pppd</command> as a server</title>
+
+ <para><filename>/etc/ppp/options</filename> should contain something
+ similar to the following:</para>
<programlisting>
crtscts # Hardware flow control
@@ -1447,9 +1472,10 @@ netmask 255.255.255.0 # netmask ( not required )
domain ppp.foo.com # your domain
passive # wait for LCP
modem # modem line</programlisting>
-
- <para>Following <filename>/etc/ppp/pppserv</filename> script will enable
- ppp server on your machine:</para>
+
+ <para>The following <filename>/etc/ppp/pppserv</filename> script
+ will enable tell <application>pppd</application> to behave as a
+ server:</para>
<programlisting>
#!/bin/sh
@@ -1475,9 +1501,9 @@ kermit -y /etc/ppp/kermit.ans
# run ppp
pppd /dev/tty01 19200</programlisting>
-
- <para>Use this <filename>/etc/ppp/pppservdown</filename> script to stop
- ppp server:</para>
+
+ <para>Use this <filename>/etc/ppp/pppservdown</filename> script to
+ stop the server:</para>
<programlisting>
#!/bin/sh
@@ -1497,9 +1523,10 @@ ifconfig ppp0 down
ifconfig ppp0 delete
kermit -y /etc/ppp/kermit.noans</programlisting>
-
- <para>Following kermit script will enable/disable autoanswer mode on
- your modem (<filename>/etc/ppp/kermit.ans</filename>):</para>
+
+ <para>The following kermit script
+ (<filename>/etc/ppp/kermit.ans</filename>) will enable/disable
+ autoanswer mode on your modem. It should look like this:</para>
<programlisting>
set line /dev/tty01
@@ -1525,12 +1552,12 @@ out ATS0=1\13 ; change this to out ATS0=0\13 if you want to disable
inp 5 OK
echo \13
exit</programlisting>
-
- <para>This <filename>/etc/ppp/kermit.dial</filename> script is used for
- dialing and authorizing on remote host. You will need to customize it
- for your needs. Put your login and password in this script, also you
- will need to change input statement depending on responses from your
- modem and remote host.</para>
+
+ <para>A script named <filename>/etc/ppp/kermit.dial</filename> is
+ used for dialing and authenticating on the remote host. You will
+ need to customize it for your needs. Put your login and password
+ in this script; you will also need to change the input statement
+ depending on responses from your modem and remote host.</para>
<programlisting>
;
@@ -1649,9 +1676,9 @@ exit 1
; end:</programlisting>
</sect2>
</sect1>
-
+
<sect1 id="pppoe">
- <title>Setting up PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)</title>
+ <title>Using PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)</title>
<para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.jim; (from <ulink
url="http://www-dev.node.to/freebsd/how-tos/how-to-freebsd-pppoe.html">node.to</ulink>) 10 Jan 2000.</emphasis></para>
@@ -1827,153 +1854,158 @@ ppp_profile="default" # or your provider</programlisting>
</sect2>
</sect1>
- <sect1 id="slipc">
- <title>Setting up a SLIP Client</title>
-
- <para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.asami; 8 Aug 1995.</emphasis></para>
-
- <para>The following is one way to set up a FreeBSD machine for SLIP on a
- static host network. For dynamic hostname assignments (i.e., your
- address changes each time you dial up), you probably need to do
- something much fancier.</para>
-
- <para>First, determine which serial port your modem is connected to. I
- have a symbolic link to <filename>/dev/modem</filename> from
- <filename>/dev/cuaa1</filename>, and only use the modem name in my
- configuration files. It can become quite cumbersome when you need to
- fix a bunch of files in <filename>/etc</filename> and
- <filename>.kermrc</filename>'s all over the system!</para>
-
- <note>
- <para><filename>/dev/cuaa0</filename> is <devicename>COM1</devicename>,
- <filename>cuaa1</filename> is <devicename>COM2</devicename>,
- etc.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>Make sure you have
+ <sect1 id="slip">
+ <title>Using SLIP</title>
+
+ <para><emphasis>Originally contributed by &a.asami; and
+ &a.ghelmer;, with input from &a.wilko; and
+ &a.piero;.</emphasis></para>
+
+ <sect2 id="slipc">
+ <title>Setting up a SLIP Client</title>
+
+ <para>The following is one way to set up a FreeBSD machine for SLIP
+ on a static host network. For dynamic hostname assignments (i.e.,
+ your address changes each time you dial up), you probably need to
+ do something much fancier.</para>
+
+ <para>First, determine which serial port your modem is connected to.
+ I have a symbolic link to <filename>/dev/modem</filename> from
+ <filename>/dev/cuaa1</filename>, and only use the modem name in
+ my configuration files. It can become quite cumbersome when you
+ need to fix a bunch of files in <filename>/etc</filename> and
+ <filename>.kermrc</filename>'s all over the system!</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para><filename>/dev/cuaa0</filename> is
+ <devicename>COM1</devicename>, <filename>cuaa1</filename> is
+ <devicename>COM2</devicename>, etc.</para>
+ </note>
+
+ <para>Make sure you have the following in your kernel configuration
+ file:</para>
<programlisting>
pseudo-device sl 1</programlisting>
- in your kernel's config file. It is included in the
- <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel, so this will not be a problem
- unless you deleted it.</para>
+ <para>It is included in the <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel, so
+ this should not be a problem unless you have deleted it.</para>
- <sect2>
- <title>Things you have to do only once</title>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>Add your home machine, the gateway and nameservers to your
- <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> file. Mine looks like
- this:</para>
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Things you have to do only once</title>
- <programlisting>
+ <procedure>
+ <step>
+ <para>Add your home machine, the gateway and nameservers to
+ your <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> file. Mine looks like
+ this:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
127.0.0.1 localhost loghost
136.152.64.181 silvia.HIP.Berkeley.EDU silvia.HIP silvia
136.152.64.1 inr-3.Berkeley.EDU inr-3 slip-gateway
128.32.136.9 ns1.Berkeley.edu ns1
128.32.136.12 ns2.Berkeley.edu ns2</programlisting>
-
- <para>By the way, silvia is the name of the car that I had when I
- was back in Japan (it is called 2?0SX here in U.S.).</para>
- </step>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Make sure you have <option>hosts</option> before
+ <option>bind</option> in your
+ <filename>/etc/host.conf</filename>. Otherwise, funny
+ things may happen.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Edit the <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> file.</para>
+
+ <orderedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Set your hostname by editing the line that
+ says:</para>
- <step>
- <para>Make sure you have <option>hosts</option> before
- <option>bind</option> in your <filename>/etc/host.conf</filename>.
- Otherwise, funny things may happen.</para>
- </step>
+ <programlisting>
+hostname=&ldquo;myname.my.domain&rdquo;</programlisting>
- <step>
- <para>Edit the file <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>. Note that
- you should edit the file <filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename>
- instead if you are running FreeBSD previous to version
- 2.2.2.</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Set your hostname by editing the line that says:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
-hostname=myname.my.domain</programlisting>
+ <para>You should give it your full Internet
+ hostname.</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para>You should give it your full Internet hostname.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Add sl0 to the list of network interfaces by changing the
- line that says:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Add sl0 to the list of network interfaces by
+ changing the line that says:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
network_interfaces="lo0"</programlisting>
- <para>to:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
-network_interfaces="lo0 sl0"</programlisting>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Set the startup flags of sl0 by adding a line:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ <para>to:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
+network_interfaces=&ldquo;lo0 sl0&rdquo;</programlisting>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Set the startup flags of sl0 by adding a
+ line:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
ifconfig_sl0="inet ${hostname} slip-gateway netmask 0xffffff00 up"</programlisting>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Designate the default router by changing the line:</para>
+ </listitem>
- <programlisting>
-defaultrouter=NO</programlisting>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Designate the default router by changing the
+ line:</para>
- <para>to:</para>
+ <programlisting>
+defaultrouter=&ldquo;NO&rdquo;</programlisting>
- <programlisting>
-defaultrouter=slip-gateway</programlisting>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
- </step>
+ <para>to:</para>
- <step>
- <para>Make a file <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> which
- contains:</para>
+ <programlisting>
+defaultrouter=&ldquo;slip-gateway&rdquo;</programlisting>
+ </listitem>
+ </orderedlist>
+ </step>
- <programlisting>
+ <step>
+ <para>Make a file <filename>/etc/resolv.conf</filename> which
+ contains:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
domain HIP.Berkeley.EDU
nameserver 128.32.136.9
nameserver 128.32.136.12</programlisting>
- <para>As you can see, these set up the nameserver hosts. Of course,
- the actual domain names and addresses depend on your
- environment.</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>Set the password for root and toor (and any other accounts
- that does not have a password). Use passwd, do not edit the
- <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> or
- <filename>/etc/master.passwd</filename> files!</para>
- </step>
-
- <step>
- <para>Reboot your machine and make sure it comes up with the correct
- hostname.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>Making a SLIP connection</title>
-
- <procedure>
- <step>
- <para>Dial up, type <command>slip</command> at the prompt, enter
- your machine name and password. The things you need to enter
- depends on your environment. I use kermit, with a script like
- this:</para>
+ <para>As you can see, these set up the nameserver hosts. Of
+ course, the actual domain names and addresses depend on your
+ environment.</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Set the password for root and toor (and any other
+ accounts that do not have a password). Use passwd or
+ &man.vipw.8;, do not edit the
+ <filename>/etc/passwd</filename> or
+ <filename>/etc/master.passwd</filename> files!</para>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Reboot your machine and make sure it comes up with the
+ correct hostname.</para>
+ </step>
+ </procedure>
+ </sect3>
- <programlisting>
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Making a SLIP connection</title>
+
+ <procedure>
+ <step>
+ <para>Dial up, type <command>slip</command> at the prompt,
+ enter your machine name and password. The things you need
+ to enter depends on your environment. I use kermit, with a
+ script like this:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
# kermit setup
set modem hayes
set line /dev/modem
@@ -1983,90 +2015,94 @@ set flow rts/cts
set terminal bytesize 8
set file type binary
# The next macro will dial up and login
-define slip dial 643-9600, input 10 =>, if failure stop, -
+define slip dial 643-9600, input 10 =&gt;, if failure stop, -
output slip\x0d, input 10 Username:, if failure stop, -
output silvia\x0d, input 10 Password:, if failure stop, -
output ***\x0d, echo \x0aCONNECTED\x0a</programlisting>
- <para>(of course, you have to change the hostname and password to
- fit yours). Then you can just type <command>slip</command> from
- the kermit prompt to get connected.</para>
+ <para>Of course, you have to change the hostname and password
+ to fit yours. After doing so, you can just type
+ <command>slip</command> from the kermit prompt to get
+ connected.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>Leaving your password in plain text anywhere in the
+ filesystem is generally a BAD idea. Do it at your own
+ risk.</para>
+ </note>
+ </step>
+
+ <step>
+ <para>Leave the kermit there (you can suspend it by
+ <command>z</command>) and as root, type:</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>slattach -h -c -s 115200 /dev/modem</userinput></screen>
+
+ <para>If you are able to <command>ping</command> hosts on the
+ other side of the router, you are connected! If it does not
+ work, you might want to try <option>-a</option> instead of
+ <option>-c</option> as an argument to slattach.</para>
+ </step>
+ </procedure>
+ </sect3>
- <note>
- <para>Leaving your password in plain text anywhere in the
- filesystem is generally a BAD idea. Do it at your own risk. I
- am just too lazy.</para>
- </note>
- </step>
+ <sect3>
+ <title>How to shutdown the connection</title>
- <step>
- <para>Leave the kermit there (you can suspend it by
- <command>z</command>) and as root, type:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>slattach -h -c -s 115200 /dev/modem</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>If you are able to <command>ping</command> hosts on the other
- side of the router, you are connected! If it does not work, you
- might want to try <option>-a</option> instead of
- <option>-c</option> as an argument to slattach.</para>
- </step>
- </procedure>
- </sect2>
+ <para>Do the following:</para>
- <sect2>
- <title>How to shutdown the connection</title>
-
- <para>Type
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kill -INT `cat /var/run/slattach.modem.pid`</userinput></screen>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kill -INT `cat /var/run/slattach.modem.pid`</userinput></screen>
- (as root) to kill slattach. Then go back to kermit
- (<command>fg</command> if you suspended it) and exit from it
- (<command>q</command>).</para>
+ <para>to kill slattach. Keep in mind you must be
+ <username>root</username> to do the above. Then go back to
+ kermit (<command>fg</command> if you suspended it) and exit from
+ it (<command>q</command>).</para>
- <para>The slattach man page says you have to use <command>ifconfig sl0
- down</command> to mark the interface down, but this does not seem to
- make any difference for me. (<command>ifconfig sl0</command> reports
- the same thing.)</para>
-
- <para>Some times, your modem might refuse to drop the carrier (mine
- often does). In that case, simply start kermit and quit it again. It
- usually goes out on the second try.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>Troubleshooting</title>
-
- <para>If it does not work, feel free to ask me. The things that people
- tripped over so far:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Not using <option>-c</option> or <option>-a</option> in
- slattach (I have no idea why this can be fatal, but adding this
- flag solved the problem for at least one person)</para>
- </listitem>
+ <para>The slattach man page says you have to use <command>ifconfig
+ sl0 down</command> to mark the interface down, but this does not
+ seem to make any difference for me.
+ (<command>ifconfig sl0</command> reports the same thing.)</para>
- <listitem>
- <para>Using <option>s10</option> instead of <option>sl0</option>
- (might be hard to see the difference on some fonts).</para>
- </listitem>
+ <para>Some times, your modem might refuse to drop the carrier
+ (mine often does). In that case, simply start kermit and quit
+ it again. It usually goes out on the second try.</para>
+ </sect3>
- <listitem>
- <para>Try <command>ifconfig sl0</command> to see your interface
- status. I get:</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ifconfig sl0</userinput>
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Troubleshooting</title>
+
+ <para>If it does not work, feel free to ask me. The things that
+ people tripped over so far:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Not using <option>-c</option> or <option>-a</option> in
+ slattach (I have no idea why this can be fatal, but adding
+ this flag solved the problem for at least one
+ person).</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Using <option>s10</option> instead of
+ <option>sl0</option> (might be hard to see the difference on
+ some fonts).</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Try <command>ifconfig sl0</command> to see your
+ interface status. I get:</para>
+
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ifconfig sl0</userinput>
sl0: flags=10&lt;POINTOPOINT&gt;
inet 136.152.64.181 --&gt; 136.152.64.1 netmask ffffff00</screen>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Also, <command>netstat -r</command> will give the routing
- table, in case you get the "no route to host" messages from ping.
- Mine looks like:</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Also, <command>netstat -r</command> will give the
+ routing table, in case you get the &ldquo;no route to
+ host&rdquo; messages from ping. Mine looks like:</para>
- <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>netstat -r</userinput>
+ <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>netstat -r</userinput>
Routing tables
Destination Gateway Flags Refs Use IfaceMTU Rtt Netmasks:
@@ -2080,316 +2116,311 @@ localhost.Berkel localhost.Berkeley UH 5 42127 lo0 - 0.438
inr-3.Berkeley.E silvia.HIP.Berkele UH 1 0 sl0 - -
silvia.HIP.Berke localhost.Berkeley UGH 34 47641234 lo0 - 0.438
(root node)</screen>
-
- <para>(this is after transferring a bunch of files, your numbers
- should be smaller).</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 id="slips">
- <title>Setting up a SLIP Server</title>
-
- <para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.ghelmer;. v1.0, 15 May
- 1995.</emphasis></para>
-
- <para>This document provides suggestions for setting up SLIP Server
- services on a FreeBSD system, which typically means configuring your
- system to automatically startup connections upon login for remote SLIP
- clients. The author has written this document based on his experience;
- however, as your system and needs may be different, this document may
- not answer all of your questions, and the author cannot be responsible
- if you damage your system or lose data due to attempting to follow the
- suggestions here.</para>
-
- <para>This guide was originally written for SLIP Server services on a
- FreeBSD 1.x system. It has been modified to reflect changes in the
- pathnames and the removal of the SLIP interface compression flags in
- early versions of FreeBSD 2.X, which appear to be the only major changes
- between FreeBSD versions. If you do encounter mistakes in this
- document, please email the author with enough information to help
- correct the problem.</para>
-
- <sect2 id="slips-prereqs">
- <title>Prerequisites</title>
-
- <para>This document is very technical in nature, so background knowledge
- is required. It is assumed that you are familiar with the TCP/IP
- network protocol, and in particular, network and node addressing,
- network address masks, subnetting, routing, and routing protocols,
- such as RIP. Configuring SLIP services on a dial-up server requires a
- knowledge of these concepts, and if you are not familiar with them,
- please read a copy of either Craig Hunt's <emphasis>TCP/IP Network
- Administration</emphasis> published by O'Reilly &amp; Associates,
- Inc. (ISBN Number 0-937175-82-X), or Douglas Comer's books on the
- TCP/IP protocol.</para>
-
- <para>It is further assumed that you have already setup your modem(s)
- and configured the appropriate system files to allow logins through
- your modems. If you have not prepared your system for this yet,
- please see the tutorial for configuring dialup services; if you have a
- World-Wide Web browser available, browse the list of tutorials at
- <ulink url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/</ulink>;
- otherwise, check the place where you found this document for a
- document named <filename>dialup.txt</filename> or something similar.
- You may also want to check the manual pages for
- &man.sio.4; for information on the serial port device driver and
- &man.ttys.5;, &man.gettytab.5;, &man.getty.8;, &amp; &man.init.8;
- for information relevant to configuring the system to accept logins on
- modems, and perhaps &man.stty.1; for information on setting serial
- port parameters (such as <literal>clocal</literal> for
- directly-connected serial interfaces).</para>
+
+ <para>This is after transferring a bunch of files, your
+ numbers should be smaller).</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+ </sect3>
</sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>Quick Overview</title>
-
- <para>In its typical configuration, using FreeBSD as a SLIP server works
- as follows: a SLIP user dials up your FreeBSD SLIP Server system and
- logs in with a special SLIP login ID that uses
- <filename>/usr/sbin/sliplogin</filename> as the special user's shell.
- The <command>sliplogin</command> program browses the file
- <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.hosts</filename> to find a matching line
- for the special user, and if it finds a match, connects the serial
- line to an available SLIP interface and then runs the shell script
- <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename> to configure the SLIP
- interface.</para>
-
+
+ <sect2 id="slips">
+ <title>Setting up a SLIP Server</title>
+
+ <para>This document provides suggestions for setting up SLIP Server
+ services on a FreeBSD system, which typically means configuring
+ your system to automatically startup connections upon login for
+ remote SLIP clients. The author has written this document based
+ on his experience; however, as your system and needs may be
+ different, this document may not answer all of your questions, and
+ the author cannot be responsible if you damage your system or lose
+ data due to attempting to follow the suggestions here.</para>
+
+ <sect3 id="slips-prereqs">
+ <title>Prerequisites</title>
+
+ <para>This document is very technical in nature, so background
+ knowledge is required. It is assumed that you are familiar with
+ the TCP/IP network protocol, and in particular, network and node
+ addressing, network address masks, subnetting, routing, and
+ routing protocols, such as RIP. Configuring SLIP services on a
+ dial-up server requires a knowledge of these concepts, and if
+ you are not familiar with them, please read a copy of either
+ Craig Hunt's <emphasis>TCP/IP Network Administration</emphasis>
+ published by O'Reilly &amp; Associates, Inc. (ISBN Number
+ 0-937175-82-X), or Douglas Comer's books on the TCP/IP
+ protocol.</para>
+
+ <para>It is further assumed that you have already setup your
+ modem(s) and configured the appropriate system files to allow
+ logins through your modems. If you have not prepared your
+ system for this yet, please see the tutorial for configuring
+ dialup services; if you have a World-Wide Web browser available,
+ browse the list of tutorials at <ulink
+ url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/</ulink>.
+ You may also want to check the manual pages for &man.sio.4; for
+ information on the serial port device driver and &man.ttys.5;,
+ &man.gettytab.5;, &man.getty.8;, &amp; &man.init.8; for
+ information relevant to configuring the system to accept logins
+ on modems, and perhaps &man.stty.1; for information on setting
+ serial port parameters (such as <literal>clocal</literal> for
+ directly-connected serial interfaces).</para>
+ </sect3>
+
<sect3>
- <title>An Example of a SLIP Server Login</title>
+ <title>Quick Overview</title>
+
+ <para>In its typical configuration, using FreeBSD as a SLIP server
+ works as follows: a SLIP user dials up your FreeBSD SLIP Server
+ system and logs in with a special SLIP login ID that uses
+ <filename>/usr/sbin/sliplogin</filename> as the special user's
+ shell. The <command>sliplogin</command> program browses the
+ file <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.hosts</filename> to find a
+ matching line for the special user, and if it finds a match,
+ connects the serial line to an available SLIP interface and then
+ runs the shell script
+ <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename> to configure the
+ SLIP interface.</para>
+
+ <sect4>
+ <title>An Example of a SLIP Server Login</title>
+
+ <para>For example, if a SLIP user ID were
+ <username>Shelmerg</username>, <username>Shelmerg</username>'s
+ entry in <filename>/etc/master.passwd</filename> would look
+ something like this (except it would be all on one
+ line):</para>
- <para>For example, if a SLIP user ID were
- <username>Shelmerg</username>, <username>Shelmerg</username>'s entry
- in <filename>/etc/master.passwd</filename> would look something like
- this (except it would be all on one line):</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ <programlisting>
Shelmerg:password:1964:89::0:0:Guy Helmer - SLIP:/usr/users/Shelmerg:/usr/sbin/sliplogin</programlisting>
-
- <para>When <username>Shelmerg</username> logs in,
- <command>sliplogin</command> will search
- <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.hosts</filename> for a line that had a
- matching user ID; for example, there may be a line in
- <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.hosts</filename> that reads:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+
+ <para>When <username>Shelmerg</username> logs in,
+ <command>sliplogin</command> will search
+ <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.hosts</filename> for a line that
+ had a matching user ID; for example, there may be a line in
+ <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.hosts</filename> that
+ reads:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmer 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting>
-
- <para><command>sliplogin</command> will find that matching line, hook
- the serial line into the next available SLIP interface, and then
- execute <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename> like
- this:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+
+ <para><command>sliplogin</command> will find that matching line,
+ hook the serial line into the next available SLIP interface,
+ and then execute <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename>
+ like this:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
/etc/sliphome/slip.login 0 19200 Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmer 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting>
-
- <para>If all goes well, <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename>
- will issue an <command>ifconfig</command> for the SLIP interface to
- which <command>sliplogin</command> attached itself (slip interface
- 0, in the above example, which was the first parameter in the list
- given to <filename>slip.login</filename>) to set the local IP
- address (<hostid>dc-slip</hostid>), remote IP address
- (<hostid>sl-helmer</hostid>), network mask for the SLIP interface
- (<hostid role="netmask">0xfffffc00</hostid>), and any additional
- flags (<literal>autocomp</literal>). If something goes wrong,
- <command>sliplogin</command> usually logs good informational
- messages via the <literal>daemon</literal> syslog facility, which
- usually goes into <filename>/var/log/messages</filename> (see the
- manual pages for &man.syslogd.8; and
- &man.syslog.conf.5, and perhaps check
- <filename>/etc/syslog.conf</filename> to see to which files
- <command>syslogd</command> is logging).</para>
-
- <para>OK, enough of the examples &mdash; let us dive into setting up
- the system.</para>
+
+ <para>If all goes well,
+ <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename> will issue an
+ <command>ifconfig</command> for the SLIP interface to which
+ <command>sliplogin</command> attached itself (slip interface
+ 0,in the above example, which was the first parameter in the
+ list given to <filename>slip.login</filename>) to set the
+ local IP address (<hostid>dc-slip</hostid>), remote IP address
+ (<hostid>sl-helmer</hostid>), network mask for the SLIP
+ interface (<hostid role="netmask">0xfffffc00</hostid>), and
+ any additional flags (<literal>autocomp</literal>). If
+ something goes wrong, <command>sliplogin</command> usually
+ logs good informational messages via the
+ <literal>daemon</literal> syslog facility, which usually goes
+ into <filename>/var/log/messages</filename> (see the manual
+ pages for &man.syslogd.8; and &man.syslog.conf.5; and perhaps
+ check <filename>/etc/syslog.conf</filename> to see to which
+ files <command>syslogd</command> is logging).</para>
+
+ <para>OK, enough of the examples &mdash; let us dive into
+ setting up the system.</para>
+ </sect4>
</sect3>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
-
- <para>FreeBSD's default kernels usually come with two SLIP interfaces
- defined (<devicename>sl0</devicename> and
- <devicename>sl1</devicename>); you can use <command>netstat
+
+ <sect3>
+ <title>Kernel Configuration</title>
+
+ <para>FreeBSD's default kernels usually come with two SLIP
+ interfaces defined (<devicename>sl0</devicename> and
+ <devicename>sl1</devicename>); you can use <command>netstat
-i</command> to see whether these interfaces are defined in your
- kernel.</para>
-
- <para>Sample output from <command>netstat -i</command>:</para>
-
- <screen>Name Mtu Network Address Ipkts Ierrs Opkts Oerrs Coll
+ kernel.</para>
+
+ <para>Sample output from <command>netstat -i</command>:</para>
+
+ <screen>Name Mtu Network Address Ipkts Ierrs Opkts Oerrs Coll
ed0 1500 &lt;Link&gt;0.0.c0.2c.5f.4a 291311 0 174209 0 133
ed0 1500 138.247.224 ivory 291311 0 174209 0 133
lo0 65535 &lt;Link&gt; 79 0 79 0 0
lo0 65535 loop localhost 79 0 79 0 0
sl0* 296 &lt;Link&gt; 0 0 0 0 0
sl1* 296 &lt;Link&gt; 0 0 0 0 0</screen>
-
- <para>The <devicename>sl0</devicename> and <devicename>sl1</devicename>
- interfaces shown in <command>netstat -i</command>'s output indicate
- that there are two SLIP interfaces built into the kernel. (The
- asterisks after the <literal>sl0</literal> and <literal>sl1</literal>
- indicate that the interfaces are &ldquo;down&rdquo;.)</para>
-
- <para>However, FreeBSD's default kernels do not come configured to
- forward packets (ie, your FreeBSD machine will not act as a router)
- due to Internet RFC requirements for Internet hosts (see RFC's 1009
- [Requirements for Internet Gateways], 1122 [Requirements for Internet
- Hosts &mdash; Communication Layers], and perhaps 1127 [A Perspective
- on the Host Requirements RFCs]), so if you want your FreeBSD SLIP
- Server to act as a router, you will have to edit the
- <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> file (called
- <filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename> in FreeBSD releases prior to
- 2.2.2) and change the setting of the <literal>gateway</literal>
- variable to <option>YES</option>. If you have an older system which
- predates even the <filename>/etc/sysconfig</filename> file, then add
- the following command:
- <programlisting>
-sysctl -w net.inet.ip.forwarding = 1</programlisting>
+ <para>The <devicename>sl0</devicename> and
+ <devicename>sl1</devicename> interfaces shown in
+ <command>netstat -i</command>'s output indicate that there are
+ two SLIP interfaces built into the kernel. (The asterisks after
+ the <literal>sl0</literal> and <literal>sl1</literal> indicate
+ that the interfaces are &ldquo;down&rdquo;.)</para>
+
+ <para>However, FreeBSD's default kernels do not come configured
+ to forward packets (ie, your FreeBSD machine will not act as a
+ router) due to Internet RFC requirements for Internet hosts (see
+ RFCs 1009 [Requirements for Internet Gateways], 1122
+ [Requirements for Internet Hosts &mdash; Communication Layers],
+ and perhaps 1127 [A Perspective on the Host Requirements RFCs]),
+ so if you want your FreeBSD SLIP Server to act as a router, you
+ will have to edit the <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> file and
+ change the setting of the <literal>gateway</literal> variable to
+ <option>YES</option>.</para>
+
+ <para>You will then need to reboot for the new settings to take
+ effect.</para>
+
+ <para>You will notice that near the end of the default kernel
+ configuration file (<filename>/sys/i386/conf/GENERIC</filename>)
+ is a line that reads:</para>
- to your <filename>/etc/rc.local</filename> file.</para>
-
- <para>You will then need to reboot for the new settings to take
- effect.</para>
-
- <para>You will notice that near the end of the default kernel
- configuration file (<filename>/sys/i386/conf/GENERIC</filename>) is a
- line that reads:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ <programlisting>
pseudo-device sl 2</programlisting>
-
- <para>This is the line that defines the number of SLIP devices available
- in the kernel; the number at the end of the line is the maximum number
- of SLIP connections that may be operating simultaneously.</para>
-
- <para>Please refer to <link linkend="kernelconfig">Configuring the
- FreeBSD Kernel</link> for help in reconfiguring your kernel.</para>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>Sliplogin Configuration</title>
-
- <para>As mentioned earlier, there are three files in the
- <filename>/etc/sliphome</filename> directory that are part of the
- configuration for <filename>/usr/sbin/sliplogin</filename> (see
- &man.sliplogin.8; for the actual manual page for
- <command>sliplogin</command>): <filename>slip.hosts</filename>, which
- defines the SLIP users &amp; their associated IP addresses;
- <filename>slip.login</filename>, which usually just configures the
- SLIP interface; and (optionally) <filename>slip.logout</filename>,
- which undoes <filename>slip.login</filename>'s effects when the serial
- connection is terminated.</para>
-
+
+ <para>This is the line that defines the number of SLIP devices
+ available in the kernel; the number at the end of the line is
+ the maximum number of SLIP connections that may be operating
+ simultaneously.</para>
+
+ <para>Please refer to <link linkend="kernelconfig">Configuring the
+ FreeBSD Kernel</link> for help in reconfiguring your
+ kernel.</para>
+ </sect3>
+
<sect3>
- <title><filename>slip.hosts</filename> Configuration</title>
+ <title>Sliplogin Configuration</title>
+
+ <para>As mentioned earlier, there are three files in the
+ <filename>/etc/sliphome</filename> directory that are part of
+ the configuration for <filename>/usr/sbin/sliplogin</filename>
+ (see &man.sliplogin.8; for the actual manual page for
+ <command>sliplogin</command>): <filename>slip.hosts</filename>,
+ which defines the SLIP users &amp; their associated IP
+ addresses; <filename>slip.login</filename>, which usually just
+ configures the SLIP interface; and (optionally)
+ <filename>slip.logout</filename>, which undoes
+ <filename>slip.login</filename>'s effects when the serial
+ connection is terminated.</para>
+
+ <sect4>
+ <title><filename>slip.hosts</filename> Configuration</title>
+
+ <para><filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.hosts</filename> contains
+ lines which have at least four items, separated by
+ whitespace:</para>
+
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>SLIP user's login ID</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para><filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.hosts</filename> contains lines
- which have at least four items, separated by whitespace:</para>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Local address (local to the SLIP server) of the SLIP
+ link</para>
+ </listitem>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>SLIP user's login ID</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Local address (local to the SLIP server) of the SLIP
- link</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Remote address of the SLIP link</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Network mask</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Remote address of the SLIP link</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para>The local and remote addresses may be host names (resolved to IP
- addresses by <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> or by the domain name
- service, depending on your specifications in
- <filename>/etc/host.conf</filename>), and I believe the network mask
- may be a name that can be resolved by a lookup into
- <filename>/etc/networks</filename>. On a sample system,
- <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.hosts</filename> looks like
- this:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ <listitem>
+ <para>Network mask</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>The local and remote addresses may be host names (resolved
+ to IP addresses by <filename>/etc/hosts</filename> or by the
+ domain name service, depending on your specifications in
+ <filename>/etc/host.conf</filename>), and I believe the
+ network mask may be a name that can be resolved by a lookup
+ into <filename>/etc/networks</filename>. On a sample system,
+ <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.hosts</filename> looks like
+ this:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
#
# login local-addr remote-addr mask opt1 opt2
# (normal,compress,noicmp)
#
Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting>
-
- <para>At the end of the line is one or more of the options.</para>
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><option>normal</option> &mdash; no header compression</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><option>compress</option> &mdash; compress headers</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><option>autocomp</option> &mdash; compress headers if the
- remote end allows it</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><option>noicmp</option> &mdash; disable ICMP packets (so any
- &ldquo;ping&rdquo; packets will be dropped instead of using up
- your bandwidth)</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
+ <para>At the end of the line is one or more of the
+ options.</para>
- <para>Note that <command>sliplogin</command> under early releases of
- FreeBSD 2 ignored the options that FreeBSD 1.x recognized, so the
- options <option>normal</option>, <option>compress</option>,
- <option>autocomp</option>, and <option>noicmp</option> had no effect
- until support was added in FreeBSD 2.2 (unless your
- <filename>slip.login</filename> script included code to make use of
- the flags).</para>
-
- <para>Your choice of local and remote addresses for your SLIP links
- depends on whether you are going to dedicate a TCP/IP subnet or if
- you are going to use &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo; on your SLIP server (it
- is not &ldquo;true&rdquo; proxy ARP, but that is the terminology
- used in this document to describe it). If you are not sure which
- method to select or how to assign IP addresses, please refer to the
- TCP/IP books referenced in the <link
- linkend="slips-prereqs">slips-prereqs</link> section and/or
- consult your IP network manager.</para>
-
- <para>If you are going to use a separate subnet for your SLIP clients,
- you will need to allocate the subnet number out of your assigned IP
- network number and assign each of your SLIP client's IP numbers out
- of that subnet. Then, you will probably either need to configure a
- static route to the SLIP subnet via your SLIP server on your nearest
- IP router, or install <command>gated</command> on your FreeBSD SLIP
- server and configure it to talk the appropriate routing protocols to
- your other routers to inform them about your SLIP server's route to
- the SLIP subnet.</para>
-
- <para>Otherwise, if you will use the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo; method,
- you will need to assign your SLIP client's IP addresses out of your
- SLIP server's Ethernet subnet, and you will also need to adjust your
- <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename> and
- <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename> scripts to use
- &man.arp.8; to manage the proxy-ARP entries in the SLIP server's
- ARP table.</para>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title><filename>slip.login</filename> Configuration</title>
+ <itemizedlist>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><option>normal</option> &mdash; no header
+ compression</para>
+ </listitem>
- <para>The typical <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename> file
- looks like this:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ <listitem>
+ <para><option>compress</option> &mdash; compress
+ headers</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><option>autocomp</option> &mdash; compress headers if
+ the remote end allows it</para>
+ </listitem>
+
+ <listitem>
+ <para><option>noicmp</option> &mdash; disable ICMP packets
+ (so any &ldquo;ping&rdquo; packets will be dropped instead
+ of using up your bandwidth)</para>
+ </listitem>
+ </itemizedlist>
+
+ <para>Note that <command>sliplogin</command> under early releases
+ of FreeBSD 2 ignored the options that FreeBSD 1.x recognized,
+ so the options <option>normal</option>,
+ <option>compress</option>, <option>autocomp</option>, and
+ <option>noicmp</option> had no effect until support was added
+ in FreeBSD 2.2 (unless your <filename>slip.login</filename>
+ script included code to make use of the flags).</para>
+
+ <para>Your choice of local and remote addresses for your SLIP
+ links depends on whether you are going to dedicate a TCP/IP
+ subnet or if you are going to use &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo; on
+ your SLIP server (it is not &ldquo;true&rdquo; proxy ARP, but
+ that is the terminology used in this document to describe it).
+ If you are not sure which method to select or how to assign IP
+ addresses, please refer to the TCP/IP books referenced in the
+ <link linkend="slips-prereqs">slips-prereqs</link> section
+ and/or consult your IP network manager.</para>
+
+ <para>If you are going to use a separate subnet for your SLIP
+ clients, you will need to allocate the subnet number out of
+ your assigned IP network number and assign each of your SLIP
+ client's IP numbers out of that subnet. Then, you will
+ probably either need to configure a static route to the SLIP
+ subnet via your SLIP server on your nearest IP router, or
+ install <command>gated</command> on your FreeBSD SLIP server
+ and configure it to talk the appropriate routing protocols to
+ your other routers to inform them about your SLIP server's
+ route to the SLIP subnet.</para>
+
+ <para>Otherwise, if you will use the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;
+ method, you will need to assign your SLIP client's IP
+ addresses out of your SLIP server's Ethernet subnet, and you
+ will also need to adjust your
+ <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename> and
+ <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename> scripts to use
+ &man.arp.8; to manage the proxy-ARP entries in the SLIP
+ server's ARP table.</para>
+ </sect4>
+
+ <sect4>
+ <title><filename>slip.login</filename> Configuration</title>
+
+ <para>The typical <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename>
+ file looks like this:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
#!/bin/sh -
#
# @(#)slip.login 5.1 (Berkeley) 7/1/90
@@ -2401,18 +2432,18 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
# slipunit ttyspeed loginname local-addr remote-addr mask opt-args
#
/sbin/ifconfig sl$1 inet $4 $5 netmask $6</programlisting>
-
- <para>This <filename>slip.login</filename> file merely
- <command>ifconfig</command>'s the appropriate SLIP interface with
- the local and remote addresses and network mask of the SLIP
- interface.</para>
-
- <para>If you have decided to use the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo; method
- (instead of using a separate subnet for your SLIP clients), your
- <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename> file will need to look
- something like this:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+
+ <para>This <filename>slip.login</filename> file merely
+ <command>ifconfig</command>'s the appropriate SLIP interface
+ with the local and remote addresses and network mask of the
+ SLIP interface.</para>
+
+ <para>If you have decided to use the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;
+ method (instead of using a separate subnet for your SLIP
+ clients), your <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename>
+ file will need to look something like this:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
#!/bin/sh -
#
# @(#)slip.login 5.1 (Berkeley) 7/1/90
@@ -2426,52 +2457,56 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
/sbin/ifconfig sl$1 inet $4 $5 netmask $6
# Answer ARP requests for the SLIP client with our Ethernet addr
/usr/sbin/arp -s $5 00:11:22:33:44:55 pub</programlisting>
-
- <para>The additional line in this <filename>slip.login</filename>,
- <command>arp -s &#36;5 00:11:22:33:44:55 pub</command>, creates an
- ARP entry in the SLIP server's ARP table. This ARP entry causes the
- SLIP server to respond with the SLIP server's Ethernet MAC address
- whenever a another IP node on the Ethernet asks to speak to the SLIP
- client's IP address.</para>
-
- <para>When using the example above, be sure to replace the Ethernet
- MAC address (<hostid role="mac">00:11:22:33:44:55</hostid>) with the
- MAC address of your system's Ethernet card, or your &ldquo;proxy
- ARP&rdquo; will definitely not work! You can discover your SLIP
- server's Ethernet MAC address by looking at the results of running
- <command>netstat -i</command>; the second line of the output should
- look something like:</para>
-
- <screen>ed0 1500 &lt;Link&gt;0.2.c1.28.5f.4a 191923 0 129457 0 116</screen>
-
- <para>This indicates that this particular system's Ethernet MAC
- address is <hostid role="mac">00:02:c1:28:5f:4a</hostid> &mdash; the
- periods in the Ethernet MAC address given by <command>netstat
- -i</command> must be changed to colons and leading zeros should be
- added to each single-digit hexadecimal number to convert the address
- into the form that
- &man.arp.8; desires; see the manual page on &man.arp.8; for
- complete information on usage.</para>
- <note>
- <para>When you create <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename>
- and <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename>, the
- &ldquo;execute&rdquo; bit (ie, <command>chmod 755
+ <para>The additional line in this
+ <filename>slip.login</filename>, <command>arp -s
+ &#36;5 00:11:22:33:44:55 pub</command>, creates an ARP entry
+ in the SLIP server's ARP table. This ARP entry causes the
+ SLIP server to respond with the SLIP server's Ethernet MAC
+ address whenever a another IP node on the Ethernet asks to
+ speak to the SLIP client's IP address.</para>
+
+ <para>When using the example above, be sure to replace the
+ Ethernet MAC address (<hostid
+ role="mac">00:11:22:33:44:55</hostid>) with the MAC address of
+ your system's Ethernet card, or your &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;
+ will definitely not work! You can discover your SLIP server's
+ Ethernet MAC address by looking at the results of running
+ <command>netstat -i</command>; the second line of the output
+ should look something like:</para>
+
+ <screen>ed0 1500 &lt;Link&gt;0.2.c1.28.5f.4a 191923 0 129457 0 116</screen>
+
+ <para>This indicates that this particular system's Ethernet MAC
+ address is <hostid role="mac">00:02:c1:28:5f:4a</hostid>
+ &mdash; the periods in the Ethernet MAC address given by
+ <command>netstat -i</command> must be changed to colons and
+ leading zeros should be added to each single-digit hexadecimal
+ number to convert the address into the form that &man.arp.8;
+ desires; see the manual page on &man.arp.8; for complete
+ information on usage.</para>
+
+ <note>
+ <para>When you create
+ <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.login</filename> and
+ <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename>, the
+ &ldquo;execute&rdquo; bit (ie, <command>chmod 755
/etc/sliphome/slip.login /etc/sliphome/slip.logout</command>)
- must be set, or <command>sliplogin</command> will be unable to
- execute it.</para>
- </note>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title><filename>slip.logout</filename> Configuration</title>
+ must be set, or <command>sliplogin</command> will be unable
+ to execute it.</para>
+ </note>
+ </sect4>
- <para><filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename> is not strictly
- needed (unless you are implementing &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;), but if
- you decide to create it, this is an example of a basic
- <filename>slip.logout</filename> script:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ <sect4>
+ <title><filename>slip.logout</filename> Configuration</title>
+
+ <para><filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename> is not
+ strictly needed (unless you are implementing &ldquo;proxy
+ ARP&rdquo;), but if you decide to create it, this is an
+ example of a basic
+ <filename>slip.logout</filename> script:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
#!/bin/sh -
#
# slip.logout
@@ -2484,11 +2519,11 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
#
/sbin/ifconfig sl$1 down</programlisting>
- <para>If you are using &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;, you will want to have
- <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename> remove the ARP entry
- for the SLIP client:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ <para>If you are using &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;, you will want to
+ have <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename> remove the
+ ARP entry for the SLIP client:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
#!/bin/sh -
#
# @(#)slip.logout
@@ -2502,65 +2537,69 @@ Shelmerg dc-slip sl-helmerg 0xfffffc00 autocomp</programlisting
/sbin/ifconfig sl$1 down
# Quit answering ARP requests for the SLIP client
/usr/sbin/arp -d $5</programlisting>
-
- <para>The <command>arp -d &#36;5</command> removes the ARP entry that
- the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo; <filename>slip.login</filename> added
- when the SLIP client logged in.</para>
-
- <para>It bears repeating: make sure
- <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename> has the execute
- bit set for after you create it (ie, <command>chmod
- 755 /etc/sliphome/slip.logout</command>).</para>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>Routing Considerations</title>
-
- <para>If you are not using the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo; method for
- routing packets between your SLIP clients and the rest of your network
- (and perhaps the Internet), you will probably either have to add
- static routes to your closest default router(s) to route your SLIP
- client subnet via your SLIP server, or you will probably need to
- install and configure <command>gated</command> on your FreeBSD SLIP
- server so that it will tell your routers via appropriate routing
- protocols about your SLIP subnet.</para>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>Static Routes</title>
-
- <para>Adding static routes to your nearest default routers can be
- troublesome (or impossible, if you do not have authority to do
- so...). If you have a multiple-router network in your organization,
- some routers, such as Cisco and Proteon, may not only need to be
- configured with the static route to the SLIP subnet, but also need
- to be told which static routes to tell other routers about, so some
- expertise and troubleshooting/tweaking may be necessary to get
- static-route-based routing to work.</para>
+
+ <para>The <command>arp -d &#36;5</command> removes the ARP entry
+ that the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo;
+ <filename>slip.login</filename> added when the SLIP client
+ logged in.</para>
+
+ <para>It bears repeating: make sure
+ <filename>/etc/sliphome/slip.logout</filename> has the execute
+ bit set for after you create it (ie, <command>chmod 755
+ /etc/sliphome/slip.logout</command>).</para>
+ </sect4>
</sect3>
-
+
<sect3>
- <title>Running <command>gated</command></title>
-
- <para>An alternative to the headaches of static routes is to install
- <command>gated</command> on your FreeBSD SLIP server and configure
- it to use the appropriate routing protocols (RIP/OSPF/BGP/EGP) to
- tell other routers about your SLIP subnet. You can use
- <command>gated</command> from the <link linkend="ports">ports
- collection</link> or retrieve and build it yourself from <ulink
+ <title>Routing Considerations</title>
+
+ <para>If you are not using the &ldquo;proxy ARP&rdquo; method for
+ routing packets between your SLIP clients and the rest of your
+ network (and perhaps the Internet), you will probably either
+ have to add static routes to your closest default router(s) to
+ route your SLIP client subnet via your SLIP server, or you will
+ probably need to install and configure <command>gated</command>
+ on your FreeBSD SLIP server so that it will tell your routers
+ via appropriate routing protocols about your SLIP subnet.</para>
+
+ <sect4>
+ <title>Static Routes</title>
+
+ <para>Adding static routes to your nearest default routers can
+ be troublesome (or impossible, if you do not have authority to
+ do so...). If you have a multiple-router network in your
+ organization, some routers, such as Cisco and Proteon, may
+ not only need to be configured with the static route to the
+ SLIP subnet, but also need to be told which static routes to
+ tell other routers about, so some expertise and
+ troubleshooting/tweaking may be necessary to get
+ static-route-based routing to work.</para>
+ </sect4>
+
+ <sect4>
+ <title>Running <command>gated</command></title>
+
+ <para>An alternative to the headaches of static routes is to
+ install <command>gated</command> on your FreeBSD SLIP server
+ and configure it to use the appropriate routing protocols
+ (RIP/OSPF/BGP/EGP) to tell other routers about your SLIP
+ subnet. You can use <command>gated</command> from the <link
+ linkend="ports">ports collection</link> or retrieve and build
+ it yourself from <ulink
url="ftp://ftp.gated.merit.edu/research.and.development/gated/">the
- GateD anonymous ftp site</ulink>; I believe the current version as
- of this writing is <filename>gated-R3_5Alpha_8.tar.Z</filename>,
- which includes support for FreeBSD &ldquo;out-of-the-box&rdquo;.
- Complete information and documentation on <command>gated</command>
- is available on the Web starting at <ulink
+ GateD anonymous ftp site</ulink>; I believe the current version
+ as of this writing is
+ <filename>gated-R3_5Alpha_8.tar.Z</filename>, which includes
+ support for FreeBSD &ldquo;out-of-the-box&rdquo;. Complete
+ information and documentation on <command>gated</command> is
+ available on the Web starting at <ulink
url="http://www.gated.merit.edu/">the Merit GateD
Consortium</ulink>. Compile and install it, and then write a
- <filename>/etc/gated.conf</filename> file to configure your gated;
- here is a sample, similar to what the author used on a FreeBSD SLIP
- server:</para>
-
- <programlisting>
+ <filename>/etc/gated.conf</filename> file to configure your
+ gated; here is a sample, similar to what the author used on a
+ FreeBSD SLIP server:</para>
+
+ <programlisting>
#
# gated configuration file for dc.dsu.edu; for gated version 3.5alpha5
# Only broadcast RIP information for xxx.xxx.yy out the ed Ethernet interface
@@ -2598,56 +2637,34 @@ export proto rip interface ed {
import proto rip interface ed {
all ;
} ;</programlisting>
-
- <para>The above sample <filename>gated.conf</filename> file broadcasts
- routing information regarding the SLIP subnet
- <replaceable>xxx.xxx.yy</replaceable> via RIP onto the Ethernet; if
- you are using a different Ethernet driver than the
- <devicename>ed</devicename> driver, you will need to change the
- references to the <devicename>ed</devicename> interface
- appropriately. This sample file also sets up tracing to
- <filename>/var/tmp/gated.output</filename> for debugging
- <command>gated</command>'s activity; you can certainly turn off the
- tracing options if <command>gated</command> works OK for you. You
- will need to change the <replaceable>xxx.xxx.yy</replaceable>'s into
- the network address of your own SLIP subnet (be sure to change the
- net mask in the <literal>proto direct</literal> clause as
- well).</para>
-
- <para>When you get <command>gated</command> built and installed and
- create a configuration file for it, you will need to run
- <command>gated</command> in place of <command>routed</command> on
- your FreeBSD system; change the <filename>routed/gated</filename>
- startup parameters in <filename>/etc/netstart</filename> as
- appropriate for your system. Please see the manual page for
- <command>gated</command> for information on
- <command>gated</command>'s command-line parameters.</para>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>Acknowledgments</title>
-
- <para>Thanks to these people for comments and advice regarding this
- tutorial:</para>
-
- <variablelist>
- <varlistentry>
- <term>&a.wilko;</term>
- <listitem>
- <para></para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
-
- <varlistentry>
- <term>Piero Serini</term>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><email>Piero@Strider.Inet.IT</email></para>
- </listitem>
- </varlistentry>
- </variablelist>
+ <para>The above sample <filename>gated.conf</filename> file
+ broadcasts routing information regarding the SLIP subnet
+ <replaceable>xxx.xxx.yy</replaceable> via RIP onto the
+ Ethernet; if you are using a different Ethernet driver than
+ the <devicename>ed</devicename> driver, you will need to
+ change the references to the <devicename>ed</devicename>
+ interface appropriately. This sample file also sets up
+ tracing to <filename>/var/tmp/gated.output</filename> for
+ debugging <command>gated</command>'s activity; you can
+ certainly turn off the tracing options if
+ <command>gated</command> works OK for you. You will need to
+ change the <replaceable>xxx.xxx.yy</replaceable>'s into the
+ network address of your own SLIP subnet (be sure to change the
+ net mask in the <literal>proto direct</literal> clause as
+ well).</para>
+
+ <para>When you get <command>gated</command> built and installed
+ and create a configuration file for it, you will need to run
+ <command>gated</command> in place of <command>routed</command>
+ on your FreeBSD system; change the
+ <filename>routed/gated</filename> startup parameters in
+ <filename>/etc/netstart</filename> as appropriate for your
+ system. Please see the manual page for
+ <command>gated</command> for information on
+ <command>gated</command>'s command-line parameters.</para>
+ </sect4>
+ </sect3>
</sect2>
</sect1>
</chapter>