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@@ -0,0 +1,5768 @@
+0:00:01.619,0:00:04.150
+so its time to move on to the next talk
+
+0:00:04.150,0:00:07.160
+this talk has the keynote speech
+
+0:00:07.160,0:00:09.069
+by Eric Allman
+
+0:00:09.069,0:00:11.239
+Chief Science Officer
+
+0:00:11.239,0:00:12.839
+of sendmail
+
+0:00:12.839,0:00:17.639
+and I think that internet mail past present and bit of future
+
+0:00:17.639,0:00:20.759
+I will introduce
+
+0:00:20.759,0:00:22.380
+his biography
+
+0:00:22.380,0:00:27.409
+Eric Allman is the original author of sendmail and
+longtime contributor to partial index
+
+0:00:29.149,0:00:33.870
+he also wrote ending lockroads Ctwelve lock identification
+
+0:00:33.870,0:00:39.530
+beside externa sendmail he has worked with database management
+
+0:00:39.530,0:00:40.490
+systems and
+
+0:00:40.490,0:00:41.679
+and neural
+
+0:00:41.679,0:00:43.159
+network based speech recognition
+
+0:00:43.159,0:00:46.410
+system administration and networking
+
+0:00:46.410,0:00:50.050
+he is chief science officer and co-founder of
+
+0:00:50.050,0:00:50.999
+sendmail
+
+0:00:50.999,0:00:51.509
+incorporated
+
+0:00:51.509,0:00:52.789
+before joining sendmail
+
+0:00:52.789,0:00:54.190
+he served as CEO
+
+0:00:54.190,0:00:55.529
+for Swift
+
+0:00:55.529,0:01:00.620
+incorporated. which is now part of twenty four seven media Inc.
+
+0:01:00.620,0:01:03.490
+he was with the lovern
+
+0:01:03.490,0:01:10.250
+and provided the whole scale research software infrastructure
+for most of the projects at University of Berkeley
+
+0:01:10.250,0:01:12.740
+he has contributed as senior
+
+0:01:12.740,0:01:16.369
+at the international computer science institute
+
+0:01:16.369,0:01:17.909
+to neural network systems and
+
+0:01:17.909,0:01:19.979
+ihe was also part
+
+0:01:19.979,0:01:21.740
+of Ingress
+
+0:01:21.740,0:01:24.300
+invasion of system
+
+0:01:24.300,0:01:28.220
+and only co-authored the advisor for
+
+0:01:28.220,0:01:31.639
+Unix magazine and was a member of
+
+0:01:31.639,0:01:35.150
+the board of directors at Unix association
+
+0:01:35.150,0:01:36.580
+he has currently program chair
+
+0:01:36.580,0:01:37.969
+
+0:01:37.969,0:01:44.260
+for the conference on e-mail and spam and
+member of ACM Queue editorial board
+
+0:01:44.260,0:01:45.739
+and the board of
+
+0:01:45.739,0:01:48.340
+trustee of call performances
+
+0:01:48.340,0:01:53.650
+he holds a Master of science degree in
+computer science from University of California Berkeley
+
+0:01:53.650,0:02:00.650
+so please
+
+0:02:01.480,0:02:08.480
+make sure, can everyone hear me clearly?
+
+0:02:11.559,0:02:13.989
+okay. I'm going to give you a little bit of
+
+0:02:13.989,0:02:15.860
+well actually quite a bit of history about
+
+0:02:15.860,0:02:20.339
+ e-mail and related technologies starting
+really from
+
+0:02:20.339,0:02:22.840
+before the internet existed
+
+0:02:22.840,0:02:27.269
+this talk that I gave a couple of years
+ago and although there's a lot of slides I'm going to
+
+0:02:27.269,0:02:30.459
+try and go through it fairly quickly because the
+more interesting
+
+0:02:30.459,0:02:32.789
+current stuff is
+
+0:02:32.789,0:02:34.909
+towards the end. The current stuff will be
+
+0:02:34.909,0:02:36.729
+some observations about spam
+
+0:02:36.729,0:02:39.949
+ and e-mail security in general
+
+0:02:39.949,0:02:46.359
+and the authentication and reputation which is
+what I've been working on most recently
+
+0:02:46.359,0:02:50.019
+then I'm going to give you some everyone always
+wants to know what I think will be the future
+
+0:02:50.019,0:02:54.849
+of e-mail and I always tell them I don't know
+any better than they do but they insist on
+
+0:02:54.849,0:02:58.239
+having me tell them so I'll come up with a few
+things there
+
+0:02:58.239,0:03:01.189
+I've thrown in some stuff by the way about
+
+0:03:01.189,0:03:04.719
+ some other things that people have asked me
+about here so i'm
+
+0:03:04.719,0:03:07.299
+trying to adjust the talk to be
+
+0:03:07.299,0:03:08.350
+of
+
+0:03:08.350,0:03:09.379
+interest to
+
+0:03:09.379,0:03:12.099
+what people seem to want to hear
+
+0:03:12.099,0:03:16.299
+so first I want to talk about the
+prehistory of
+
+0:03:16.299,0:03:19.349
+of the internet really this is the Arpanet
+
+0:03:19.349,0:03:21.329
+starting from zero hosts
+
+0:03:21.329,0:03:25.819
+on the network to two hundred and thirteen which
+is where the Arpanet
+
+0:03:25.819,0:03:29.769
+peaked out it couldn't go much larger than
+two hundred thirteen because
+
+0:03:29.769,0:03:31.509
+there was only an eight bit
+
+0:03:31.509,0:03:34.329
+host address
+
+0:03:34.329,0:03:37.469
+I
+
+0:03:37.469,0:03:40.799
+I'm going to talk, plotting things on this kind of graph
+
+0:03:40.799,0:03:44.959
+this is date down at the bottom and the number of
+hosts on the side
+
+0:03:44.959,0:03:49.799
+this is a one year scale. I'll keep readjusting the
+scale as we move up
+
+0:03:49.799,0:03:56.799
+otherwise this is just a flat line down at the bottom
+
+0:03:57.469,0:04:04.469
+so yes you can
+
+0:04:05.979,0:04:09.949
+so this is kind of one thing to start of
+the history of e-mail
+
+0:04:09.949,0:04:11.750
+but it turns out this is
+
+0:04:11.750,0:04:15.719
+about an awful lot of things I just want to
+read you a quote
+
+0:04:15.719,0:04:18.160
+that describes this event in December
+
+0:04:18.160,0:04:19.419
+well
+
+0:04:19.419,0:04:22.719
+on December 9, 1968 Dirk Engelbar
+
+0:04:22.719,0:04:25.240
+who by the way who invented the computer mouse
+
+0:04:25.240,0:04:30.080
+and with a group of seventeen researchers
+working with him in the augmentation
+
+0:04:30.080,0:04:34.569
+research center at stanford research institute
+in Menlo Park, California
+
+0:04:34.569,0:04:39.210
+presented a ninety-minute live public demonstration
+of the on-line system nls
+
+0:04:39.210,0:04:42.580
+that they'd been working on since 1962
+
+0:04:42.580,0:04:46.409
+the public presentation was a session of the
+fall short of computer conference hall at
+
+0:04:46.409,0:04:48.850
+the convention center in San francisco
+
+0:04:48.850,0:04:53.090
+and was attended by about one thousand computer
+professionals
+
+0:04:53.090,0:04:54.809
+this was the public
+
+0:04:54.809,0:04:56.949
+debut of the computer mouse
+
+0:04:56.949,0:05:02.399
+but the mouse of the only one of many innovations
+demonstrated that day including hypertext, object
+
+0:05:02.399,0:05:04.400
+address and dynamic file linking
+
+0:05:04.400,0:05:09.569
+as well as shared screen collaboration involving
+two persons of different sites
+
+0:05:09.569,0:05:13.349
+communicating over a network with audio and
+video interface
+
+0:05:13.349,0:05:15.809
+Okay imagine that day
+
+0:05:15.809,0:05:17.350
+no network exists
+
+0:05:17.350,0:05:18.839
+at all
+
+0:05:18.839,0:05:21.169
+and they're doing a remote demo with
+
+0:05:21.169,0:05:22.849
+audio and video
+
+0:05:22.849,0:05:27.929
+they're interacting doing screen sharing
+over the the internet, they're showing off the mouse for
+
+0:05:27.929,0:05:30.380
+the first time that nobody's ever seen
+
+0:05:30.380,0:05:33.259
+and he throws in stuff like hypertext and what not
+
+0:05:33.259,0:05:38.030
+I can only wish I was there that must have been amazing
+
+0:05:38.030,0:05:40.350
+the point I made of course is that
+
+0:05:40.350,0:05:42.550
+back in 1968
+
+0:05:42.550,0:05:48.289
+they were demoing stuff that we only
+recently got on the internet
+
+0:05:48.289,0:05:50.720
+we havent really come that far
+
+0:05:50.720,0:05:54.069
+so in September 1969
+
+0:05:54.069,0:05:56.040
+the first Arpanet
+
+0:05:56.040,0:05:58.080
+was
+
+0:05:58.080,0:06:02.330
+brought up, September second nineteen sixty nine to be
+precise which happens to be my birthday
+
+0:06:02.330,0:06:05.839
+that was a single host at UCLA
+
+0:06:05.839,0:06:10.969
+which is a little odd because you think of most
+networks as having at least two hosts on them
+
+0:06:10.969,0:06:11.610
+but
+
+0:06:11.610,0:06:15.159
+for a while there was actually only one host on the Arpanet
+
+0:06:15.159,0:06:19.650
+this is a very smudged map of the original Arpanet
+
+
+0:06:19.650,0:06:23.710
+they had this thing called the IMP the
+Internet Message Processor
+
+0:06:23.710,0:06:26.219
+which was essentially the routers that
+
+0:06:26.219,0:06:28.729
+
+
+0:06:28.729,0:06:29.780
+but they
+
+0:06:29.780,0:06:31.740
+gather the data around the
+
+0:06:31.740,0:06:35.339
+Arpanet which wasnt particularly difficult
+in this case but
+
+0:06:35.339,0:06:38.860
+it became so later and then a
+
+0:06:38.860,0:06:44.089
+single host which was a sigma 7. this is obviously
+by the way somebody's hand drawn
+
+0:06:44.089,0:06:48.490
+slide that was done with those ink that gets
+easily smudged when you
+
+0:06:48.490,0:06:51.439
+put your inside of your hand on it
+
+0:06:51.439,0:06:54.150
+so fortunately
+
+0:06:54.150,0:06:58.509
+that one host
+a month added at SRI
+
+0:06:58.509,0:07:02.319
+university of California Santa barbara and
+the university of Utah
+
+0:07:02.319,0:07:05.470
+which gave us a map like this
+
+0:07:05.470,0:07:07.870
+so you can see
+
+0:07:07.870,0:07:12.019
+the round things here are the IMPs there's
+four of 'em
+
+0:07:12.019,0:07:14.749
+and each one of them has exactly one host
+
+0:07:14.749,0:07:15.929
+hanging off of it
+
+0:07:15.929,0:07:20.109
+you could have up to four hosts connected to a single IMP
+
+0:07:20.109,0:07:23.209
+so kind of a mini star topology.
+
+0:07:23.209,0:07:27.350
+this is actually very important look at this
+because it's already
+
+0:07:27.350,0:07:29.210
+an arbitrary
+
+0:07:29.210,0:07:36.199
+networks topology. its not a star configuration
+its not a ring configuration
+
+0:07:36.199,0:07:37.669
+its essentially arbitrary
+
+0:07:37.669,0:07:39.049
+hookup
+
+0:07:39.049,0:07:41.030
+and that actually
+
+0:07:41.030,0:07:43.849
+is something that we had
+
+0:07:43.849,0:07:47.080
+that industry had to rediscover as well
+
+0:07:47.080,0:07:48.050
+the other thing
+
+0:07:48.050,0:07:49.979
+that knows is that there is
+
+0:07:49.979,0:07:51.999
+Magnium three sixteen
+
+0:07:51.999,0:07:55.669
+a Sigma 7, an XDS nine fourteen
+
+0:07:55.669,0:07:57.969
+and a PDP ten there were no
+
+0:07:57.969,0:08:01.449
+two identical architectures on the first
+Arpanet
+
+0:08:01.449,0:08:05.309
+it was designed right from the start to
+be headed off tramps
+
+0:08:05.309,0:08:07.229
+this was untrue of
+
+0:08:07.229,0:08:09.449
+any network that you saw
+
+0:08:09.449,0:08:11.259
+ up until
+
+0:08:11.259,0:08:13.100
+ any other network
+
+0:08:13.100,0:08:14.770
+for example
+
+0:08:14.770,0:08:17.749
+microsoft networks always assume you're running
+windows
+
+0:08:17.749,0:08:19.220
+on the program
+
+0:08:19.220,0:08:19.939
+hardware
+
+0:08:19.939,0:08:23.659
+the Arpanet had a totally different view
+
+0:08:23.659,0:08:25.919
+now here's just kind of a humor
+
+0:08:25.919,0:08:28.229
+picture did
+
+0:08:28.229,0:08:32.269
+this is John Pasto sorry it's not very good
+
+0:08:32.269,0:08:33.699
+Steve Carcker
+
+0:08:33.699,0:08:35.540
+and Vint Cert
+
+0:08:35.540,0:08:40.539
+I have no idea what the pickles are
+about
+
+0:08:40.539,0:08:44.500
+but I do think it's interesting that here
+are probably the three people who were
+
+0:08:44.500,0:08:46.470
+but fathers of the internet
+
+0:08:46.470,0:08:48.690
+and they couldn't even get it right
+
+0:08:48.690,0:08:55.690
+they've got outputs connected to outputs and inputs to inputs
+
+0:08:58.030,0:08:59.510
+so wasnt
+
+0:08:59.510,0:09:02.270
+all that long
+
+0:09:02.270,0:09:07.740
+before the network was quite a bit bigger
+this has gone cross country now
+
+0:09:07.740,0:09:09.560
+we should point out
+
+0:09:09.560,0:09:11.350
+these links
+
+0:09:11.350,0:09:14.620
+were really really fast data links
+
+0:09:14.620,0:09:18.830
+fifty six kilobytes per second
+
+0:09:18.830,0:09:22.230
+and they cost a fortune
+
+0:09:22.230,0:09:23.620
+so fact
+
+0:09:23.620,0:09:27.780
+that they started off in one little cluster
+together on the west coast was just to
+
+0:09:27.780,0:09:30.000
+save costs as much as anything
+
+0:09:30.000,0:09:32.310
+but by september they had spread out
+
+0:09:32.310,0:09:34.000
+quite a bit now
+
+0:09:34.000,0:09:35.430
+the Arpanet was designed
+
+0:09:35.430,0:09:36.510
+to
+
+0:09:36.510,0:09:38.880
+share expensive resources
+
+0:09:38.880,0:09:40.040
+so
+
+0:09:40.040,0:09:43.450
+lots of universities wanted to have their
+own computer
+
+0:09:43.450,0:09:45.990
+but computers were too expensive
+
+0:09:45.990,0:09:47.580
+so they could put in
+
+0:09:47.580,0:09:49.830
+ small machines
+
+0:09:49.830,0:09:51.050
+that could
+
+0:09:51.050,0:09:54.149
+you could connect to the larger machines with
+over the net
+
+0:09:54.149,0:09:59.130
+and so the two primary protocols of the time
+were Telnet and FTP
+
+0:09:59.130,0:10:00.660
+e-mail was not
+
+0:10:00.660,0:10:01.960
+even considered
+
+0:10:01.960,0:10:06.960
+in the original design of the Arpanet
+
+0:10:06.960,0:10:10.110
+what do the
+
+0:10:10.110,0:10:11.030
+teams
+
+0:10:11.030,0:10:13.450
+mean the teams in minor. those were
+
+0:10:13.450,0:10:16.580
+they're called tips they were
+
+0:10:16.580,0:10:17.860
+essentially
+
+0:10:17.860,0:10:19.760
+access
+
+0:10:19.760,0:10:22.800
+if you will smart
+
+0:10:22.800,0:10:23.650
+
+
+0:10:23.650,0:10:27.550
+well not very smart notes. they werent actually
+computers they were places you could log in
+
+0:10:27.550,0:10:30.610
+be it just a terminal if you will
+
+0:10:30.610,0:10:32.370
+so you know being an IMP
+
+0:10:32.370,0:10:33.590
+they had no
+
+0:10:33.590,0:10:37.710
+computer there on the network that they could
+log into the other places
+
+0:10:37.710,0:10:40.950
+that's fundamentally it
+
+0:10:40.950,0:10:42.360
+okay
+
+0:10:42.360,0:10:46.620
+so in late nineteen seventy one was one of
+the first network e-mail
+
+0:10:46.620,0:10:50.450
+was sent if you're going to tell first ever
+in all of history
+
+0:10:50.450,0:10:55.340
+it was sent by this guy Ray Thompson who
+was indeed the real father of e-mail
+
+0:10:55.340,0:10:59.850
+people sometimes try and make me out to be
+that but it just isn't true
+
+0:10:59.850,0:11:00.970
+ he really is
+
+0:11:00.970,0:11:01.999
+he was working
+
+0:11:01.999,0:11:03.830
+at
+
+0:11:03.830,0:11:07.630
+Bolt Beranek and Newman which was one of the
+contractors on the Arpanet
+
+0:11:07.630,0:11:10.869
+ the original version was just
+
+0:11:10.869,0:11:15.110
+part of FTP. he did a file transfer
+and the
+
+0:11:15.110,0:11:16.010
+special semantics were
+
+0:11:16.010,0:11:20.050
+it would just depend whatever you had out of
+the end of some fixed file so each person
+
+0:11:20.050,0:11:21.220
+would have an inbox
+
+0:11:21.220,0:11:23.260
+and it would go splat
+
+0:11:23.260,0:11:26.580
+and add your text to the end of their
+
+0:11:26.580,0:11:29.520
+mailbox I don't think it had headers at the top
+
+0:11:29.520,0:11:33.750
+it was in late nineteen seventy one and it
+linked two machines that were creatively named
+
+0:11:33.750,0:11:36.630
+the BBNA and BBNB
+
+0:11:36.630,0:11:41.060
+there they are the first two e-mail notice
+that they're sitting right next to each
+
+0:11:41.060,0:11:41.690
+other
+
+0:11:41.690,0:11:46.900
+the first e-mail was not sent around the world
+or anything like that. it stayed within a single
+
+0:11:46.900,0:11:48.220
+room
+
+0:11:48.220,0:11:53.230
+these are PEP temps by the way
+
+0:11:53.230,0:11:58.820
+just as an aside now really eleven seventy
+one Unix one dot oh came out
+
+0:11:58.820,0:12:02.560
+that was done by these folks Ken thompson
+and Dennis Richie
+
+0:12:02.560,0:12:06.910
+Unix 1.0 wasn't particularly interesting
+from network point of view but
+
+0:12:06.910,0:12:08.399
+we all know what
+
+0:12:08.399,0:12:10.860
+eventually happened to
+
+0:12:10.860,0:12:15.480
+Unix I'm kind of putting this into a historic
+context
+
+0:12:15.480,0:12:20.190
+so let's go to nineteen seventy three it was
+the beginning of a really really exciting
+
+0:12:20.190,0:12:22.390
+time at Berkeley I'm not
+
+0:12:22.390,0:12:23.540
+
+
+0:12:23.540,0:12:27.360
+not entirely because that was the year I entered
+Berkeley but
+
+0:12:27.360,0:12:29.590
+that was one of the reasons
+
+0:12:29.590,0:12:32.120
+and at the same time there were people
+
+0:12:32.120,0:12:36.499
+running around like this guy Bill Joy who had a lot to do with
+
+0:12:36.499,0:12:37.980
+Berkeley NX
+
+0:12:37.980,0:12:41.930
+and this guy who's out there somewhere
+
+0:12:41.930,0:12:44.780
+you cannot have a better picture
+
+0:12:44.780,0:12:50.460
+If I had a picture of him from that your era
+he's actually leaning down next to a truck
+
+0:12:50.460,0:12:51.420
+that said
+
+0:12:51.420,0:12:54.740
+that said weak detection unit on it
+
+0:12:54.740,0:13:00.059
+but it was only a little tiny then so I didn't take that.
+This was another guy
+
+0:13:00.059,0:13:01.620
+another grad student
+
+0:13:01.620,0:13:05.070
+we always thought he was kind of arrogant because
+
+0:13:05.070,0:13:07.549
+he said his goal was to be
+
+0:13:07.549,0:13:10.600
+the CEO of a major corporation which we thought was
+
+0:13:10.600,0:13:11.769
+not something we could
+
+0:13:11.769,0:13:14.260
+plan for. He is now CEO Google
+
+0:13:14.260,0:13:18.190
+after being CEO novell on
+
+0:13:18.190,0:13:19.100
+well I'm
+
+0:13:19.100,0:13:20.500
+chee had I only
+
+0:13:20.500,0:13:25.120
+gone to his school
+
+0:13:25.120,0:13:27.990
+so as a result of these and a lot of other
+
+0:13:27.990,0:13:32.310
+very creative people that were just a huge number
+of people that ended up at Berkeley all at the
+
+0:13:32.310,0:13:33.119
+same time
+
+0:13:33.119,0:13:36.610
+you seemed to be really excited about this Unix stuff
+
+0:13:36.610,0:13:38.900
+they came up with
+
+0:13:38.900,0:13:40.000
+
+0:13:40.000,0:13:42.310
+what's now known as Berkeley NX
+
+0:13:42.310,0:13:47.350
+so first Bill who did the Berkeley software distributions that were quite literally
+
+0:13:47.350,0:13:49.470
+just a mad tape
+
+0:13:49.470,0:13:50.129
+and
+
+0:13:50.129,0:13:54.030
+because of various licensing reasons the
+best he could do
+
+0:13:54.030,0:13:56.830
+couldn't really even legally label the tape
+
+0:13:56.830,0:14:01.470
+he put a label out that said this is a tape of this
+
+0:14:01.470,0:14:03.070
+and turned it in
+
+0:14:03.070,0:14:08.800
+this is the first Beastie mascot
+drawing. this is out of order. this dint
+
+0:14:08.800,0:14:10.660
+actually come until later
+
+0:14:10.660,0:14:11.660
+this was
+
+0:14:11.660,0:14:16.610
+done by a guy who worked with Sam Lefller
+who was also one of the Berkeley guys
+
+0:14:16.610,0:14:18.730
+at Pixar
+
+0:14:18.730,0:14:20.630
+his name is John Lassiter
+
+0:14:20.630,0:14:24.320
+and as you know he now runs Disney corporation
+
+0:14:24.320,0:14:30.240
+so he owns the original art which is probably
+worth a fortune then
+
+0:14:30.240,0:14:32.430
+so moving along
+
+0:14:32.430,0:14:34.340
+Merkle puzzles
+
+0:14:34.340,0:14:36.270
+now Merkle puzzles
+
+0:14:36.270,0:14:37.390
+probably most of you
+
+0:14:37.390,0:14:40.500
+have never even heard of
+
+0:14:40.500,0:14:42.050
+a guy named Ralph Merkle
+
+0:14:42.050,0:14:44.160
+graduate student at Berkeley
+
+0:14:44.160,0:14:46.070
+submitted a proposal
+
+0:14:46.070,0:14:49.600
+for a paper for CS two forty four
+
+0:14:49.600,0:14:51.910
+which was rejected
+
+0:14:51.910,0:14:53.190
+because it was
+
+0:14:53.190,0:14:55.110
+an obviously absurd idea
+
+0:14:55.110,0:15:00.020
+it was in fact the basis for public key encryption
+
+0:15:00.020,0:15:00.860
+and
+
+0:15:00.860,0:15:02.590
+without public key encryption
+
+0:15:02.590,0:15:08.590
+any kind of authentication and global encryption
+was completely impractical because before
+
+0:15:08.590,0:15:10.710
+that all we had was symmetric keys
+
+0:15:10.710,0:15:13.540
+so if there were
+
+0:15:13.540,0:15:15.239
+n people on the
+
+0:15:15.239,0:15:17.140
+network
+
+0:15:17.140,0:15:20.780
+and you need to exchange with them you needed to squared
+
+0:15:20.780,0:15:22.930
+copies of keys all over the place and that
+
+0:15:22.930,0:15:25.460
+you just couldn't deal with that as n
+got
+
+0:15:25.460,0:15:29.510
+you know to really large numbers like a
+hundred
+
+0:15:29.510,0:15:32.919
+so the other thing was encryption was still
+
+0:15:32.919,0:15:35.690
+classified by the US government as a munition
+
+0:15:35.690,0:15:36.900
+which means it wasnt legal
+
+0:15:36.900,0:15:39.810
+to export it to other countries
+
+0:15:39.810,0:15:44.320
+and even back then there were starting to
+be is substantial amount of international
+
+0:15:44.320,0:15:46.000
+involvement with
+
+0:15:46.000,0:15:49.220
+Unix and other such systems
+
+0:15:49.220,0:15:50.020
+so
+
+0:15:50.020,0:15:52.100
+in
+
+0:15:52.100,0:15:56.600
+April of seventy seven the RSA algorithm was finally
+published. this of course is the
+
+0:15:56.600,0:15:58.670
+one that everyone knows about as the work
+
+0:15:58.670,0:15:59.640
+is directly
+
+0:15:59.640,0:16:04.440
+based on Merkle's work
+
+0:16:04.440,0:16:06.890
+so I think 1977
+
+0:16:06.890,0:16:10.440
+as we see that the networks gotten quite
+a bit larger
+
+0:16:10.440,0:16:12.280
+ this was
+
+0:16:12.280,0:16:15.490
+pretty close to its peak I think
+
+0:16:15.490,0:16:16.839
+ actually still its bigger
+
+0:16:16.839,0:16:21.030
+the pink loans and pink sounds
+
+0:16:21.030,0:16:21.980
+by the way
+
+0:16:21.980,0:16:24.179
+when i say different architectures
+
+0:16:24.179,0:16:26.030
+sixteen bit words
+
+0:16:26.030,0:16:30.190
+thirty six bit words sixty bit words
+
+0:16:30.190,0:16:31.149
+
+
+0:16:31.149,0:16:33.040
+what else do I have
+
+0:16:33.040,0:16:37.209
+up here? just all kinds of things are even some machines
+that have
+
+0:16:37.209,0:16:39.970
+twenty bit words ten bit bytes
+
+0:16:39.970,0:16:42.690
+and somehow they've managed to make that work
+
+0:16:42.690,0:16:45.290
+theres a couple of interesting things on here they have
+
+0:16:45.290,0:16:48.679
+so satellite links to hawaii and to
+
+0:16:48.679,0:16:51.030
+norway
+
+0:16:51.030,0:16:54.589
+and so the the network had gone international
+
+0:16:54.589,0:16:55.450
+sort of
+
+0:16:55.450,0:16:57.010
+I say sort of because
+
+0:16:57.010,0:16:59.610
+ it was going to a US
+
+0:16:59.610,0:17:02.160
+ air force base I think in
+
+0:17:02.160,0:17:04.220
+norway so
+
+0:17:04.220,0:17:06.949
+was still considered a military thing at that
+point
+
+0:17:06.949,0:17:08.070
+so
+
+0:17:08.070,0:17:14.450
+the non-US citizens werent supposed to have
+access to it
+
+0:17:14.450,0:17:16.919
+UUCP got published
+
+0:17:16.919,0:17:19.589
+in nineteen seventy eight
+
+0:17:19.589,0:17:20.939
+it brought
+
+0:17:20.939,0:17:25.539
+network access of the sort to universities
+that didn't have to darker contracts which were
+
+0:17:25.539,0:17:27.000
+I've hard to get
+
+0:17:27.000,0:17:30.990
+and by the way getting an Arpanet link was
+very expensive so you pretty much
+
+0:17:30.990,0:17:37.190
+needed to have a darker sponsor which
+is to be able to afford it
+
+0:17:37.190,0:17:43.340
+in may of nineteen seventy eight the
+first ever spent was sent on the
+
+0:17:43.340,0:17:46.489
+Arpanet. at the time it was a deck salesman
+and
+
+0:17:46.489,0:17:49.300
+I'll tell you more about what he did
+
+0:17:49.300,0:17:51.809
+ shortly
+
+0:17:51.809,0:17:54.000
+late nineteen seventy nine
+
+0:17:54.000,0:17:56.090
+was the appearance of Usenet
+
+0:17:56.090,0:17:58.980
+which was based originally on UUCP although
+
+0:17:58.980,0:18:00.890
+could easily work over the Arpanet
+
+0:18:00.890,0:18:05.520
+this made it was the predecessor of
+what we would now call forums and blogs and
+
+0:18:05.520,0:18:06.570
+things like that
+
+0:18:06.570,0:18:12.440
+but most importantly it made flame words possible
+
+0:18:12.440,0:18:14.240
+and then
+
+0:18:14.240,0:18:15.200
+finally
+
+0:18:15.200,0:18:21.140
+in September nineteen seventy nine UCB
+got an Arpanet nose. they actually had the one before
+
+0:18:21.140,0:18:24.190
+but it had then shut down because the
+
+0:18:24.190,0:18:26.410
+the guy who ran it
+
+0:18:26.410,0:18:30.170
+was told that he had failed to demonstrate
+that his
+
+0:18:30.170,0:18:34.380
+ research was going to enable them to build
+smarter bombs
+
+0:18:34.380,0:18:36.240
+literally i saw the letter
+
+0:18:36.240,0:18:38.049
+but by
+
+0:18:38.049,0:18:38.909
+this point
+
+0:18:38.909,0:18:41.600
+the group I was working on INGREs
+
+0:18:41.600,0:18:43.990
+got that link
+
+0:18:43.990,0:18:46.250
+we were database management
+
+0:18:46.250,0:18:50.500
+system and of course the government was very
+interested in data bases
+
+0:18:50.500,0:18:54.500
+and in particular distributed databases
+
+0:18:54.500,0:18:56.760
+we din't have a very big
+
+0:18:56.760,0:19:00.360
+grap so we had a whopping ninety six hundred
+baud
+
+0:19:00.360,0:19:05.960
+link to the Arpanet. this is for all of campus
+
+0:19:05.960,0:19:07.029
+actually it was for
+
+0:19:07.029,0:19:09.309
+CS division
+
+0:19:09.309,0:19:11.550
+which was not all of campus but
+
+0:19:11.550,0:19:13.659
+you know the folks some of the departments
+
+0:19:13.659,0:19:15.640
+didn't have a clue what a network was
+
+0:19:15.640,0:19:18.880
+but everyone in the CS division wanted
+
+0:19:18.880,0:19:20.000
+
+
+0:19:20.000,0:19:21.700
+access to the Arpanet
+
+0:19:21.700,0:19:26.750
+of course because it was the newest shiny bling thing
+to have and everyone
+
+0:19:26.750,0:19:27.719
+had to get there
+
+0:19:27.719,0:19:29.880
+well we had a PDP-11
+
+0:19:29.880,0:19:34.570
+that really could handle that many simultaneous
+logins much less
+
+0:19:34.570,0:19:38.150
+the ports that were expensive at the time
+
+0:19:38.150,0:19:42.390
+to put this into perspective we had a PDP-11 seventy
+that had a one point five micro
+
+0:19:42.390,0:19:46.660
+second cycle time so substantially less than one minute
+
+0:19:46.660,0:19:48.990
+the sixteen-bit word and we have
+
+0:19:48.990,0:19:52.669
+a lot of memory we had a 196K of memory
+
+0:19:52.669,0:19:54.780
+on the system
+
+0:19:54.780,0:19:55.910
+we would have to put
+
+0:19:55.910,0:19:58.990
+a DH-11 ports
+
+0:19:58.990,0:19:59.730
+another
+
+0:19:59.730,0:20:05.200
+this is a port multiplex where you get sixteen words
+cost about forty seven hundred dollars so
+
+0:20:05.200,0:20:06.960
+about three hundred dollars
+
+0:20:06.960,0:20:10.410
+per port which doesn't sound like much
+but remember
+
+0:20:10.410,0:20:14.340
+that's like a thousand dollars per port today
+
+0:20:14.340,0:20:15.590
+so
+
+0:20:15.590,0:20:16.840
+well I have to show off
+
+0:20:16.840,0:20:20.890
+some things this is a PDP 11 seventy.this
+is what computers are supposed to look like
+
+0:20:20.890,0:20:22.880
+ unlike what they are today
+
+0:20:22.880,0:20:25.610
+they had switches and lights and
+
+0:20:25.610,0:20:32.610
+all kinds of cool things and dials. Ah it was great so
+
+0:20:33.300,0:20:34.670
+we had
+
+0:20:34.670,0:20:37.120
+ we were what we're able to do was
+
+0:20:37.120,0:20:41.040
+release two TT white ports three hundred
+baud TT white ports
+
+0:20:41.040,0:20:44.790
+to be shared among everyone in the computer
+science division
+
+0:20:44.790,0:20:47.140
+at Berkeley
+
+0:20:47.140,0:20:49.950
+ probably about
+
+0:20:49.950,0:20:51.920
+fifty people well
+
+0:20:51.920,0:20:54.149
+ forty professors. there were
+
+0:20:54.149,0:20:57.280
+other students but we just said no you know
+
+0:20:57.280,0:20:58.250
+still
+
+0:20:58.250,0:21:00.640
+can't handle it can't possibly do that
+
+0:21:00.640,0:21:03.440
+ but professors could have their
+
+0:21:03.440,0:21:05.400
+computer
+
+0:21:05.400,0:21:08.010
+terminal sorry in their office
+
+0:21:08.010,0:21:11.470
+and they had a line that ran into the-mail room
+and there was a plug board
+
+0:21:11.470,0:21:12.140
+he could
+
+0:21:12.140,0:21:16.170
+put in the patch code between your office
+and whatever computer you want to have access
+
+0:21:16.170,0:21:18.370
+to and there were two those
+
+0:21:18.370,0:21:22.040
+for the Arpanet machine which was the
+machine I was
+
+0:21:22.040,0:21:23.040
+working on then
+
+0:21:23.040,0:21:26.770
+and of course people would come along
+they want access to the Arpanet. they just
+
+0:21:26.770,0:21:27.289
+unplug
+
+0:21:27.289,0:21:31.020
+one of the cables that was in there and plug in theirs
+
+0:21:31.020,0:21:35.010
+there were professors having screaming matches
+at each other in the hallways and it
+
+0:21:35.010,0:21:37.960
+probably came to fisticuffs at some point
+
+0:21:37.960,0:21:42.340
+and of course they all came to me and wanted
+me to fix the problem
+
+0:21:42.340,0:21:47.029
+I wasn't it and I don't know how they thought
+I was going to fix the problem
+
+0:21:47.029,0:21:51.960
+which I was an undergraduate then I don't know how they
+thought I was gonna fix the problem. What I did however was
+observe what they really wanted was not access to the
+
+0:21:51.960,0:21:53.490
+Arpanet like FTP and
+
+0:21:53.490,0:21:54.880
+Telnet
+
+0:21:54.880,0:21:55.920
+what they want
+
+0:21:55.920,0:21:58.970
+was e-mail.Email was the killer rap
+
+0:21:58.970,0:22:00.750
+even back then
+
+0:22:00.750,0:22:05.270
+we had something called Berknet that linked our
+internal machines
+
+0:22:05.270,0:22:09.300
+using RS two thirty two lines of ninety
+six hundred baud this is written by
+
+0:22:09.300,0:22:13.860
+a guy named Eric Schmidt yes the very same Eric Schmidt
+who is now CEO of google and he's a better
+
+0:22:13.860,0:22:17.500
+CEO than he is a coder
+
+0:22:17.500,0:22:20.640
+but it worked
+
+0:22:20.640,0:22:25.440
+as it turns out we also had a UUCP connection
+which ran from the main department machine
+
+0:22:25.440,0:22:25.690
+which
+
+0:22:25.690,0:22:30.680
+was a VAX OM 780 call Ernie CoVAX
+
+0:22:30.680,0:22:32.860
+and so I wrote something called deliver mail
+
+0:22:32.860,0:22:34.380
+deliver mail was just
+
+0:22:34.380,0:22:37.000
+a quick hack to forward
+
+0:22:37.000,0:22:41.610
+messages between networks it dint have time to
+anything like fixing headers or
+
+0:22:41.610,0:22:42.900
+anything like that
+
+0:22:42.900,0:22:45.740
+so it was a disaster in some sense waiting to happen
+
+0:22:45.740,0:22:51.290
+well it got the professors off of my back
+so as far as I was concerned it was a success
+
+0:22:51.290,0:22:53.359
+It got released in four
+
+0:22:53.359,0:22:54.520
+point zero what
+
+0:22:54.520,0:22:58.140
+is now four zero BSD which is four BSD at the time
+
+0:22:58.140,0:23:03.230
+in 1980 and much to my shock it turned out to be
+very popular Berkeley
+
+0:23:03.230,0:23:06.190
+was not unique lots and lots of places
+
+0:23:06.190,0:23:11.150
+have this problem
+
+0:23:11.150,0:23:15.700
+and so there is deliver mail on the chart
+now you can see this is
+
+0:23:15.700,0:23:16.870
+pretty much
+
+0:23:16.870,0:23:20.880
+toward the end of the the Arpanet era
+
+0:23:20.880,0:23:22.520
+the Arpanet
+
+0:23:22.520,0:23:23.680
+geographically now looks
+
+0:23:23.680,0:23:24.620
+like this
+
+0:23:24.620,0:23:28.240
+the circles by the way were exploded in the other
+
+0:23:28.240,0:23:31.110
+material that I had but I dint want to
+
+0:23:31.110,0:23:32.500
+give you all of that but
+
+0:23:32.500,0:23:35.190
+there is several satellite link now
+
+0:23:35.190,0:23:36.269
+
+
+0:23:36.269,0:23:40.279
+there's a direct satellite link to London thats
+still at Hawaii link
+
+0:23:40.279,0:23:41.300
+and so forth
+
+0:23:41.300,0:23:43.429
+if you look carefully you will see the
+
+0:23:43.429,0:23:45.120
+main
+
+0:23:45.120,0:23:46.840
+university
+
+0:23:46.840,0:23:53.840
+military and military contractors sites
+
+0:23:58.450,0:24:03.810
+thats all of them. Sizemo I don't
+know if sizemo had an Arpanet link I don't think
+
+0:24:03.810,0:24:07.990
+they did although they could have
+
+0:24:07.990,0:24:10.880
+it would have been in here somewhere so
+
+0:24:10.880,0:24:13.899
+
+0:24:13.899,0:24:16.410
+I think that came later
+
+0:24:16.410,0:24:17.760
+let's put it this way
+
+0:24:17.760,0:24:22.800
+we Berkeley ended up being the gateway between
+the UUCP and the Arpanet
+
+0:24:22.800,0:24:27.080
+cos it didn't take people long to figure out
+a route-mail
+
+0:24:27.080,0:24:30.770
+you're there you had to do it manually but
+it could be done
+
+0:24:30.770,0:24:34.300
+I will have a comment about that later
+
+0:24:34.300,0:24:36.640
+so let's continue on to the next phase
+
+0:24:36.640,0:24:40.090
+by nineteen eighty one through nineteen eighty eight
+
+0:24:40.090,0:24:43.790
+this goes from two hundred thirteen hosts
+that were on
+
+0:24:43.790,0:24:48.320
+the Arpanet to thirty three thousand
+hosts in seven years
+
+0:24:48.320,0:24:53.460
+so we'll start with our usual graph
+
+0:24:53.460,0:24:58.180
+this was when I started first putting SMTP on a sendmail
+
+0:24:58.180,0:25:02.590
+worked on sendmail before because things
+like header writing
+
+0:25:02.590,0:25:06.810
+was becoming a real problem. you couldn't reply to addresses.
+everyone you had to be
+
+0:25:06.810,0:25:09.000
+to be a guru in order to
+
+0:25:09.000,0:25:14.330
+figure out how to address things there
+was even an entire book
+
+0:25:14.330,0:25:15.590
+put up
+
+0:25:15.590,0:25:16.910
+that described
+
+0:25:16.910,0:25:19.570
+how to do addressing
+
+0:25:19.570,0:25:21.070
+but
+
+0:25:21.070,0:25:22.769
+Berkeley got a contract
+
+0:25:22.769,0:25:25.140
+to do the
+
+0:25:25.140,0:25:26.390
+base
+
+0:25:26.390,0:25:31.090
+platform operating system platform to support darker
+research they had all of these
+
+0:25:31.090,0:25:33.720
+diverse machines
+
+0:25:33.720,0:25:37.700
+but they discovered that that made it really
+hard for research projects to share work with
+
+0:25:37.700,0:25:41.920
+each other so they decided that there would
+be a standard platform it would be the VAX
+
+0:25:41.920,0:25:43.259
+eleven seven eighty
+
+0:25:43.259,0:25:45.260
+running Berkeley Unix
+
+0:25:45.260,0:25:48.039
+and one of things they needed was an SMTP server
+
+0:25:48.039,0:25:50.780
+is by the way I havent said anything about
+
+0:25:50.780,0:25:56.350
+SMTP being published it wasn't published
+and I was working on up very early drafts
+
+0:25:56.350,0:26:02.100
+ and what happened was Bill Joy asked me
+random data base not sendmail
+
+0:26:02.100,0:26:03.990
+Bill Joy came up to me and said
+
+0:26:03.990,0:26:06.470
+you know would you do this
+
+0:26:06.470,0:26:07.630
+and
+
+0:26:07.630,0:26:14.300
+in a moment of weakness said sure how hard
+can it be
+
+0:26:14.300,0:26:17.840
+twenty five years later I'm telling you who
+it is
+
+0:26:17.840,0:26:20.570
+harder than it looks
+
+0:26:20.570,0:26:21.900
+and
+
+0:26:21.900,0:26:23.340
+few months later
+
+0:26:23.340,0:26:28.149
+4.1a which was tecnically test
+release
+
+0:26:28.149,0:26:30.290
+came out with sendmail
+
+0:26:30.290,0:26:31.849
+SMTP which also have
+
+0:26:31.849,0:26:33.770
+the first networks that
+
+0:26:33.770,0:26:35.160
+so
+
+0:26:35.160,0:26:37.130
+this is
+
+0:26:37.130,0:26:39.570
+Berkeley Unix on the internet
+
+0:26:39.570,0:26:42.230
+except the internet doesn't exist yet
+
+0:26:42.230,0:26:47.620
+sort of exists. there is this test platform but the
+world still using arpanet
+
+0:26:47.620,0:26:53.120
+finally about a year after I started implementing
+SMTP the specs were
+
+0:26:53.120,0:26:53.940
+published
+
+0:26:53.940,0:26:55.650
+after
+
+0:26:55.650,0:26:57.220
+it's been shipped
+
+0:26:57.220,0:27:01.940
+its an internet tradition
+by the way
+
+0:27:01.940,0:27:04.290
+January first nineteen eighty three
+
+0:27:04.290,0:27:08.530
+was the flag day it was just called the flag day
+
+0:27:08.530,0:27:10.470
+that was the day that
+
+0:27:10.470,0:27:12.800
+the government said we're going to turn off
+
+0:27:12.800,0:27:14.580
+the arpanet
+
+0:27:14.580,0:27:17.200
+and they literally just said
+
+0:27:17.200,0:27:19.620
+we're going to send out a message into all the IMPs
+
+0:27:19.620,0:27:21.940
+to stop forwarding packets
+
+0:27:21.940,0:27:24.809
+and if you're not on the internet by then
+
+0:27:24.809,0:27:27.480
+you're going to lose your network connectivity
+
+0:27:27.480,0:27:31.470
+and there were a whole bunch of people who
+said yeah yeah they're bluffing and guess what
+
+0:27:31.470,0:27:34.180
+they lost their network connectivity
+
+0:27:34.180,0:27:36.460
+but Berkeley was there we didn't
+
+0:27:36.460,0:27:37.269
+so
+
+0:27:37.269,0:27:39.520
+that was cool
+
+0:27:39.520,0:27:44.659
+in September of eighty three the same year
+a four-point two BSD shipped
+
+0:27:44.659,0:27:47.190
+this was kind of the basis for
+
+0:27:47.190,0:27:50.030
+at least from the user interface
+
+0:27:50.030,0:27:53.390
+was the basis for
+
+0:27:53.390,0:27:55.420
+Unix as we know it today
+
+0:27:55.420,0:27:57.910
+so it had all the network and
+
+0:27:57.910,0:27:59.190
+stuff and
+
+0:27:59.190,0:28:00.370
+at that point
+
+0:28:00.370,0:28:04.910
+we were able to track down John Lasetter and
+have him do an update
+
+0:28:04.910,0:28:08.830
+and does it seem much more important at the
+time so
+
+0:28:08.830,0:28:11.910
+heres Beastie in color with the attractive green
+
+0:28:11.910,0:28:17.890
+tennis shoes and so forth
+
+0:28:17.890,0:28:20.890
+once again for historic context I have to
+
+0:28:20.890,0:28:22.400
+run in some things
+
+0:28:22.400,0:28:26.670
+in eighty five there was a company actually
+did some more research it was originally called
+
+0:28:26.670,0:28:31.300
+control video corporation changed his name
+to quantum computer services
+
+0:28:31.300,0:28:36.980
+an year later that changed its name to
+America online
+
+0:28:36.980,0:28:40.210
+they had the walled garden they had an e-mail
+
+0:28:40.210,0:28:44.470
+only among other AOL subscribers they
+weren't connected to the internet
+
+0:28:44.470,0:28:45.720
+in any
+
+0:28:45.720,0:28:49.030
+any sense
+
+0:28:49.030,0:28:50.810
+this is really important
+
+0:28:50.810,0:28:55.720
+may nineteen eighty seven a guy named Rick
+Adams who worked in sizemo
+
+0:28:55.720,0:28:59.440
+went off and started the first commercialized PE
+
+0:28:59.440,0:29:05.500
+there was apparently another one that started
+on exactly the same day so the two people
+
+0:29:05.500,0:29:07.830
+get to fight each other over who was first
+
+0:29:07.830,0:29:11.500
+the difference is that UUNET turned into one of
+the largest peices
+
+0:29:11.500,0:29:15.100
+in the world and the other one didn't
+
+0:29:15.100,0:29:16.549
+so
+
+0:29:16.549,0:29:18.669
+this was the first time that you could
+
+0:29:18.669,0:29:21.470
+get access to the internet without being
+
+0:29:21.470,0:29:24.490
+a government
+
+0:29:24.490,0:29:25.610
+government-sponsored
+
+0:29:25.610,0:29:29.860
+so that's a big deal
+
+0:29:29.860,0:29:34.460
+so of next chunk of history we'll take from
+eighty eight to ninety three at this point
+
+0:29:34.460,0:29:35.940
+I'm going in about
+
+0:29:35.940,0:29:37.340
+ten x
+
+0:29:37.340,0:29:40.320
+both on the internet just in progress graphs
+
+0:29:40.320,0:29:42.130
+pretty clear
+
+0:29:42.130,0:29:43.570
+so
+
+0:29:43.570,0:29:48.549
+this was kind of the first security incidents
+on the internet the internet worm
+
+0:29:48.549,0:29:52.140
+It was written by Grampston in a Harvard and who
+
+0:29:52.140,0:29:56.620
+probably should have flunked out because he
+didn't understand commentary growth
+
+0:29:56.620,0:29:59.670
+and he really thought that this thing would run
+
+0:29:59.670,0:30:03.390
+quietly on the internet and first of
+all there was a bug in his
+
+0:30:03.390,0:30:04.380
+program
+
+0:30:04.380,0:30:07.410
+so it didn't kill itself off as it was supposed
+to and
+
+0:30:07.410,0:30:11.900
+he didn't understand that if each machine infects 4 machines
+
+0:30:11.900,0:30:13.580
+thats a really large
+
+0:30:13.580,0:30:15.200
+power not
+
+0:30:15.200,0:30:17.680
+not a small one
+
+0:30:17.680,0:30:23.470
+but it did make people start to think for
+the first time about
+
+0:30:23.470,0:30:30.000
+security on the internet up until the internet had
+been kind of
+
+0:30:30.000,0:30:31.739
+a very collegiate
+
+0:30:31.739,0:30:32.420
+atmosphere
+
+0:30:32.420,0:30:37.360
+you had to be to be on the internet you had to
+be a researcher to get on it
+
+0:30:37.360,0:30:41.409
+if you wanted an account on somebody else's
+machine to be good all you do is they can
+
+0:30:41.409,0:30:45.070
+I had an account and go sure give you an
+account
+
+0:30:45.070,0:30:48.529
+so security dint seem all that important but
+
+0:30:48.529,0:30:49.669
+this made it clear that
+
+0:30:49.669,0:30:53.890
+it was
+
+0:30:53.890,0:30:59.690
+March nineteen eighty nine in fact exactly
+twenty years ago this past Friday two days
+
+0:30:59.690,0:31:01.070
+ago
+
+0:31:01.070,0:31:03.510
+Tim Berners-Lee proposed what
+
+0:31:03.510,0:31:06.030
+we now know as the world wide web
+
+0:31:06.030,0:31:10.740
+he did a prototype browser that was published
+in October
+
+0:31:10.740,0:31:12.799
+of nineteen ninety
+
+0:31:12.799,0:31:17.649
+and but that one kind of disappeared it
+was more concerned
+
+0:31:17.649,0:31:18.779
+research
+
+0:31:18.779,0:31:21.440
+organization in switzerland
+
+0:31:21.440,0:31:23.330
+so there's Tim
+
+0:31:23.330,0:31:27.299
+I think that was not
+
+0:31:27.299,0:31:33.820
+contemporary. I think he had more hair when he
+proposed it
+
+0:31:33.820,0:31:36.720
+okay
+
+0:31:36.720,0:31:39.320
+we had the internet
+
+0:31:39.320,0:31:41.100
+and that allowed
+
+0:31:41.100,0:31:41.840
+non
+
+0:31:41.840,0:31:44.630
+government people to get access to the net
+
+0:31:44.630,0:31:49.780
+but the backbone of the internet was still run
+by the national science foundation getting transferred
+
+0:31:49.780,0:31:50.480
+from
+
+0:31:50.480,0:31:52.310
+ the military
+
+0:31:52.310,0:31:54.460
+over to
+
+0:31:54.460,0:31:58.200
+non military government funding but it
+was still
+
+0:31:58.200,0:31:59.530
+funded
+
+0:31:59.530,0:32:06.530
+and their rules that an acceptable use policy
+that said no commercial traffic
+
+0:32:07.160,0:32:09.370
+so UUNET customers could
+
+0:32:09.370,0:32:13.660
+run commercial traffic to each other but they
+could write to other people. there wasnt any chance
+
+0:32:13.660,0:32:17.800
+that would run over these wires
+
+0:32:17.800,0:32:18.670
+that effectively said
+
+0:32:18.670,0:32:23.830
+you can't use the the internet for commercial
+purposes at all
+
+0:32:23.830,0:32:24.649
+CIX
+
+0:32:24.649,0:32:30.430
+which then stood for commercial internet
+exchange was where the various
+
+0:32:30.430,0:32:34.690
+largish ISP were started to be regional.
+there was one on the west coast and one
+
+0:32:34.690,0:32:37.760
+on the east coast and one of the southeast
+and
+
+0:32:37.760,0:32:38.890
+so forth said
+
+0:32:38.890,0:32:42.300
+we're all going to run wires together into one room
+
+0:32:42.300,0:32:46.070
+we're going to put a big router there and we're
+going to be able to exchange traffic with us
+
+0:32:46.070,0:32:48.960
+without ever going over an SF net
+
+0:32:48.960,0:32:52.769
+because we're not allowed commercial traffic
+and they essentially said cut the government
+
+0:32:52.769,0:32:57.539
+out of the equation which was great as that's what
+the government wanted anyway
+
+0:32:57.539,0:32:58.250
+so
+
+0:32:58.250,0:33:03.450
+ nineteen ninety one July was the first
+time he could really use the internet for
+
+0:33:03.450,0:33:07.340
+anything commercial
+
+0:33:07.340,0:33:13.529
+nineteen ninety two a multi-purpose internet
+mail extensions was published a USENET
+
+0:33:13.529,0:33:14.300
+conference
+
+0:33:14.300,0:33:16.470
+
+
+0:33:16.470,0:33:21.110
+and this allowed embedding something other
+than plain text
+
+0:33:21.110,0:33:21.850
+into
+
+0:33:21.850,0:33:25.310
+e-mail messages notably at the time it was
+used for
+
+0:33:25.310,0:33:27.700
+ pictures or graphs and
+
+0:33:27.700,0:33:30.130
+things like that there was discussion about
+maybe
+
+0:33:30.130,0:33:31.690
+maybe some day we could
+
+0:33:31.690,0:33:36.960
+do sound and possibly way way way in the distant future
+we may be able to think about video but
+
+0:33:36.960,0:33:41.450
+it was really just pictures
+
+0:33:41.450,0:33:46.300
+okay nineteen ninety three through ninety six is
+taking us from one point three million to
+
+0:33:46.300,0:33:49.639
+to almost thirteen million
+
+0:33:49.639,0:33:51.420
+
+0:33:51.420,0:33:55.549
+February of ninety three NCSA mosaic was released this is the national center
+
+0:33:55.549,0:33:59.350
+for super computer applications at the university
+of Illinois
+
+0:33:59.350,0:34:00.620
+champane urbana
+
+0:34:00.620,0:34:02.800
+it's the first broadly used
+
+0:34:02.800,0:34:05.429
+browser and in fact
+
+0:34:05.429,0:34:07.360
+was the direct descendant
+
+0:34:07.360,0:34:08.960
+sorry the
+
+0:34:08.960,0:34:10.440
+direct parent of
+
+0:34:10.440,0:34:12.099
+netscape
+
+0:34:12.099,0:34:19.099
+and mozilla and so forth all kind
+of goes back to NCSA mosaic
+
+0:34:19.739,0:34:21.450
+now sendmail had been
+
+0:34:21.450,0:34:26.149
+I had abandoned sendmail for a number
+of years because I've gone to work for start-up
+
+0:34:26.149,0:34:26.659
+and
+
+0:34:26.659,0:34:30.719
+they seem to want action work on what I was
+being paid for
+
+0:34:30.719,0:34:32.369
+and
+
+0:34:32.369,0:34:34.109
+Sendmail had diverged
+
+0:34:34.109,0:34:38.489
+and so there were many versions of it. some of them
+had some good ideas some of them some not
+
+0:34:38.489,0:34:39.519
+so good
+
+0:34:39.519,0:34:40.869
+ideas
+
+0:34:40.869,0:34:43.219
+every vendor
+
+0:34:43.219,0:34:47.449
+like Deck and HP and IBM and so forthhad their own
+
+0:34:47.449,0:34:49.449
+proprietary version of sendmail
+
+0:34:49.449,0:34:53.509
+and you couldnt really share things between them and
+I came along and I came
+
+0:34:53.509,0:34:55.809
+back to the university
+
+0:34:55.809,0:34:59.249
+first a lot of these things and that a lot
+of other things all of these things is the
+
+0:34:59.249,0:35:00.599
+sendmail eight which is
+
+0:35:00.599,0:35:01.980
+the sendmail which
+
+0:35:01.980,0:35:05.319
+pretty much still exists to this day
+
+0:35:05.319,0:35:06.719
+
+
+0:35:06.719,0:35:07.699
+that was
+
+0:35:07.699,0:35:10.289
+way more successful than I had
+
+0:35:10.289,0:35:10.989
+anticipated
+
+0:35:10.989,0:35:12.439
+and
+
+0:35:12.439,0:35:14.450
+ that turned into a problem
+
+0:35:14.450,0:35:16.249
+later as we'll see
+
+0:35:16.249,0:35:17.539
+Netscape was founded
+
+0:35:17.539,0:35:19.209
+in nineteen ninety four
+
+0:35:19.209,0:35:24.680
+ Mark Reasen was one of the principles
+in that and he essentially left
+
+0:35:24.680,0:35:31.539
+NCSA took the source code with him and co
+founded the company
+
+0:35:31.539,0:35:38.539
+the green code spam anyone remember the greencode spam?
+
+0:35:38.630,0:35:39.700
+now I mentioned
+
+0:35:39.700,0:35:41.829
+there was the first spam
+
+0:35:41.829,0:35:43.429
+earlier
+
+0:35:43.429,0:35:46.859
+but it wasnt really a spam
+
+0:35:46.859,0:35:50.299
+as i said the network previously largely cooperative
+
+0:35:50.299,0:35:53.039
+you know had flame wars but they were
+
+0:35:53.039,0:35:54.259
+mostly innocent
+
+0:35:54.259,0:35:55.779
+could be dealt with
+
+0:35:55.779,0:36:00.379
+turns out that spam was not new. the first electronically
+
+0:36:00.379,0:36:01.210
+transmitted
+
+0:36:01.210,0:36:03.239
+commercial
+
+0:36:03.239,0:36:04.049
+message
+
+0:36:04.049,0:36:07.959
+was in September thirteenth nineteen oh four
+
+0:36:07.959,0:36:10.309
+using the telegraph
+
+0:36:10.309,0:36:15.699
+so advertisers had figured out this new
+technology was going to be someplace they
+
+0:36:15.699,0:36:18.569
+could thrive
+
+0:36:18.569,0:36:19.789
+the first
+
+0:36:19.789,0:36:22.869
+e-mail spam was this DEC salesman
+
+0:36:22.869,0:36:25.700
+who DEC had released a new
+
+0:36:25.700,0:36:27.979
+part of the computer and decided that
+
+0:36:27.979,0:36:31.109
+he really want all of its customers to know
+about this
+
+0:36:31.109,0:36:31.929
+so he sent
+
+0:36:31.929,0:36:33.619
+an e-mail message
+
+0:36:33.619,0:36:36.059
+with copying every single customer
+
+0:36:36.059,0:36:37.230
+did he had
+
+0:36:37.230,0:36:41.259
+well it turns out the-mail programs of the
+time they thought about having
+
+0:36:41.259,0:36:45.309
+you know three or four may be ten recipients
+on a message
+
+0:36:45.309,0:36:47.409
+not a thousand
+
+0:36:47.409,0:36:50.170
+and so it broke the-mail system broke
+
+0:36:50.170,0:36:51.859
+all kinds of things
+
+0:36:51.859,0:36:53.769
+but I don't really cannot this is the first
+
+0:36:53.769,0:36:57.109
+spam because he said gee I didn't know
+
+0:36:57.109,0:36:58.749
+he apologized
+
+0:36:58.749,0:37:02.630
+well he wasn't trying to do anything malicious.
+he genuinely thought that
+
+0:37:02.630,0:37:05.939
+his customers would want to know about this
+new machine
+
+0:37:05.939,0:37:09.359
+there is also a nineteen eighty eight a chain letter
+
+0:37:09.359,0:37:11.589
+called make money fast it was
+
+0:37:11.589,0:37:13.619
+a pyramid scheme
+
+0:37:13.619,0:37:14.760
+But it wasnt
+
+0:37:14.760,0:37:17.219
+really technically a spam either
+
+0:37:17.219,0:37:21.109
+but we're definitely seeing the greed
+is good attitude coming to
+
+0:37:21.109,0:37:22.900
+the internet much to do
+
+0:37:22.900,0:37:24.829
+disgust of a lot of us
+
+0:37:24.829,0:37:29.219
+and they call a nation was two lawyers and
+from Texas Canter and siegel
+
+0:37:29.219,0:37:31.070
+who
+
+0:37:31.070,0:37:34.369
+advertise in technically Usenet not
+
+0:37:34.369,0:37:35.389
+not e-mail
+
+0:37:35.389,0:37:37.309
+they sent every single
+
+0:37:37.309,0:37:38.319
+news group
+
+0:37:38.319,0:37:40.469
+the same posting
+
+0:37:40.469,0:37:46.009
+offering to sign people up for a price for
+the green card lottery which was so people
+
+0:37:46.009,0:37:48.109
+non-residents could work in the US
+
+0:37:48.109,0:37:52.249
+they didn't tell you that you could sign yourself
+up for free
+
+0:37:52.249,0:37:57.890
+but if you gave them money they'd be happy to
+do for you what you could do for free
+
+0:37:57.890,0:38:02.590
+and they were completely unapologetic about
+this they said wait a minute here we have
+
+0:38:02.590,0:38:03.279
+the right
+
+0:38:03.279,0:38:04.240
+to do this
+
+0:38:04.240,0:38:06.339
+they even published a book
+
+0:38:06.339,0:38:08.959
+on how to spam
+
+0:38:08.959,0:38:11.689
+and they made a ton of money off of that book too
+
+0:38:11.689,0:38:15.979
+ I believe that brought them this far by
+the way and have
+
+0:38:15.979,0:38:19.639
+gone into
+
+0:38:19.639,0:38:21.419
+you know
+
+0:38:21.419,0:38:24.259
+very long
+
+0:38:24.259,0:38:27.209
+
+
+0:38:27.209,0:38:31.559
+April nineteen ninety four Webcaller was the
+first full text
+
+0:38:31.559,0:38:33.069
+webcaller
+
+0:38:33.069,0:38:38.929
+and was the beginning of search engines as
+we know them today
+
+0:38:38.929,0:38:40.579
+the first
+
+0:38:40.579,0:38:44.929
+well this is pseudo liar as good a time as
+virus was an e-mail message that went around
+
+0:38:44.929,0:38:46.109
+saying
+
+0:38:46.109,0:38:47.409
+it's
+
+0:38:47.409,0:38:50.300
+the subject was good times it said
+
+0:38:50.300,0:38:52.759
+there's a virus running around the network
+
+0:38:52.759,0:38:56.439
+if you even open that message
+
+0:38:56.439,0:39:02.119
+it will trash your machine you know the message because
+it has the subject good times
+
+0:39:02.119,0:39:05.589
+forward this to everyone you know
+
+0:39:05.589,0:39:08.080
+the warning was itself
+
+0:39:08.080,0:39:09.150
+the virus
+
+0:39:09.150,0:39:12.329
+and it was tremendously effective I had to
+spend
+
+0:39:12.329,0:39:15.299
+about two days calming down people about this
+
+0:39:15.299,0:39:16.629
+just saying no
+
+0:39:16.629,0:39:21.259
+don't forward it
+
+0:39:21.259,0:39:23.359
+the
+
+0:39:23.359,0:39:25.089
+as I have said so
+
+0:39:25.089,0:39:27.359
+earlier sendmail eight was very very
+
+0:39:27.359,0:39:28.550
+successful
+
+0:39:28.550,0:39:32.799
+so successful that I really couldn't support
+it myself anymore
+
+0:39:32.799,0:39:34.679
+just because untenable so
+
+0:39:34.679,0:39:41.639
+I formed a sendmail consortium was which was
+a group of volunteers that helped do this in '95
+
+0:39:41.639,0:39:47.029
+and later ninety five SMIME was published
+this was the first attempt to do
+
+0:39:47.029,0:39:49.879
+but it actually wasn't the first it was the
+
+0:39:49.879,0:39:52.869
+best known to this day attempt to do
+
+0:39:52.869,0:39:54.729
+encryption and authentication in email
+
+0:39:54.729,0:39:57.450
+ that
+
+0:39:57.450,0:39:59.249
+back book was published
+
+0:39:59.249,0:40:02.420
+I don't remember
+
+0:40:02.420,0:40:07.499
+exactly when but it was in ninety four
+
+0:40:07.499,0:40:11.549
+right in this time frame
+
+0:40:11.549,0:40:17.160
+this is ninety six to two thousand
+from about thirty million two hundred nine
+
+0:40:17.160,0:40:19.779
+million hosts
+
+0:40:19.779,0:40:24.979
+Hotmail was founded. I thought this was insane
+at the time which is why I dont
+
+0:40:24.979,0:40:27.209
+you know I'm not filthy rich right now
+
+0:40:27.209,0:40:28.519
+hotmail
+
+0:40:28.519,0:40:33.950
+it had access to the internet so I said well
+of course you've already got a mailbox they
+
+0:40:33.950,0:40:36.089
+gave you free-mail boxes
+
+0:40:36.089,0:40:37.269
+and it took off
+
+0:40:37.269,0:40:41.159
+like mad it was crazy
+
+0:40:41.159,0:40:42.569
+in
+
+0:40:42.569,0:40:44.329
+ninety seven
+
+0:40:44.329,0:40:48.369
+microsoft said hey wait a minute maybe this
+internet thing isn't going to go away after
+
+0:40:48.369,0:40:49.079
+all
+
+0:40:49.079,0:40:50.809
+and we should get in on it
+
+0:40:50.809,0:40:53.609
+and so they put a very bad
+
+0:40:53.609,0:40:55.799
+SMTP gateway into exchange
+
+0:40:55.799,0:40:59.260
+they slapped the network onto their existing
+
+0:40:59.260,0:41:01.049
+worker tools which
+
+0:41:01.049,0:41:04.070
+were not designed for a hostile environment
+at all
+
+0:41:04.070,0:41:07.689
+they did no consideration whatsoever of securing
+
+0:41:07.689,0:41:12.349
+and just dropped a huge number of people on
+the internet
+
+0:41:12.349,0:41:14.779
+essentially naked and unprotected
+
+0:41:14.779,0:41:16.010
+and we're still
+
+0:41:16.010,0:41:18.160
+dealing with this to this day
+
+0:41:18.160,0:41:19.780
+ the only thing that was
+
+0:41:19.780,0:41:24.079
+impressive about this was microsoft
+in a very short period of time was able to
+
+0:41:24.079,0:41:26.209
+completely redefine the company
+
+0:41:26.209,0:41:28.410
+as an internet company and
+
+0:41:28.410,0:41:32.059
+much faster than anyone had thought possible
+
+0:41:32.059,0:41:33.799
+Yahoo was founded in
+
+0:41:33.799,0:41:36.409
+October ninety seven
+
+0:41:36.409,0:41:37.869
+we all know about that
+
+0:41:37.869,0:41:40.549
+a microsoft acquired hot mail
+
+0:41:40.549,0:41:45.289
+they were able to do it as fast as they wanted
+the rumor
+
+0:41:45.289,0:41:48.609
+unconfirmed is that they paid four hundred
+million dollars
+
+0:41:48.609,0:41:55.609
+for this company that was barely over a year
+old and had something like ten employees
+
+0:41:59.089,0:42:00.689
+quite a coop
+
+0:42:00.689,0:42:05.299
+in March of ninety eight I and a friend of mine
+co-founded sendmail Inc.
+
+0:42:05.299,0:42:06.420
+sendmail
+
+0:42:06.420,0:42:08.759
+even with the help of the consortium
+
+0:42:08.759,0:42:13.179
+was still stuck with research problems and
+so we said we can commercialize this
+
+0:42:13.179,0:42:15.649
+here's a very well read picture of the
+
+0:42:15.649,0:42:17.160
+ initial
+
+0:42:17.160,0:42:24.160
+ people in the company and two of us
+are still there
+
+0:42:24.630,0:42:30.329
+now into the virus era March of ninety
+nine Melissa there was an outlook
+
+0:42:30.329,0:42:31.809
+ macrovirus
+
+0:42:31.809,0:42:34.740
+was a hypersoft
+was really kind of
+
+0:42:34.740,0:42:38.929
+a worm as much as it was a virus
+
+0:42:38.929,0:42:44.699
+in January two thousand the
+government finally relaxed the encryption policy
+
+0:42:44.699,0:42:45.630
+finally admitted it
+
+0:42:45.630,0:42:49.710
+that everyone outside the US had encryption
+anyway
+
+0:42:49.710,0:42:53.439
+and so we might as well be able to play in
+the game
+
+0:42:53.439,0:42:54.859
+with the rest of the world
+
+0:42:54.859,0:42:57.079
+we immediately put
+
+0:42:57.079,0:43:02.449
+encryption TLS encryption into sendmail
+all in fact we've already had it implemented
+
+0:43:02.449,0:43:04.239
+but we couldn't release it
+
+0:43:04.239,0:43:05.420
+and so
+
+0:43:05.420,0:43:07.419
+this came out we
+
+0:43:07.419,0:43:13.909
+pushed out the version that already had
+TLS
+
+0:43:13.909,0:43:19.489
+what we wanted to do was had the government
+changed its mind we had to be too late
+
+0:43:19.489,0:43:24.150
+so we dot to that really fast but they didn't change their
+minds but the they may have changed
+
+0:43:24.150,0:43:27.329
+not change their mind because they've realized
+it was
+
+0:43:27.329,0:43:31.069
+two weeks later it's too late
+
+0:43:31.069,0:43:33.920
+in March of two thousand we
+
+0:43:33.920,0:43:35.570
+released an interface called milter
+
+0:43:35.570,0:43:36.919
+this is
+
+0:43:36.919,0:43:39.110
+a way to do
+
+0:43:39.110,0:43:42.429
+plugins into sendmail that allow you to do email filtering
+
+0:43:42.429,0:43:45.279
+was specifically designed for anti-spam
+
+0:43:45.279,0:43:52.199
+the MTA market changed a lot back then or
+essentially not the market
+
+0:43:52.199,0:43:55.819
+the world had been about reliability and
+
+0:43:55.819,0:43:56.450
+getting
+
+0:43:56.450,0:43:59.279
+mail from A to B without losing it
+
+0:43:59.279,0:44:04.399
+and around here was when spam was getting
+so bad people said no we need to do is not
+
+0:44:04.399,0:44:05.209
+forward
+
+0:44:05.209,0:44:06.119
+anything that
+
+0:44:06.119,0:44:07.779
+might be
+
+0:44:07.779,0:44:10.319
+problematic
+
+0:44:10.319,0:44:11.469
+and
+
+0:44:11.469,0:44:12.339
+April
+
+0:44:12.339,0:44:18.019
+two thousand the i love you virus this is a
+visual basic virus he had to
+
+0:44:18.019,0:44:22.659
+click on it but it's turns out that people
+couldn't resist clicking on
+
+0:44:22.659,0:44:27.209
+a text thats called I love you
+
+0:44:27.209,0:44:31.069
+they were sad what can I say
+
+0:44:31.069,0:44:33.260
+two thousand one to the Present
+
+0:44:33.260,0:44:35.699
+well we've gone from that
+
+0:44:35.699,0:44:38.229
+hundred ten thousand roughly up to
+
+0:44:38.229,0:44:40.299
+about four hundred forty million
+
+0:44:40.299,0:44:45.709
+well as of the last survey I could find
+
+0:44:45.709,0:44:49.239
+
+
+0:44:49.239,0:44:55.019
+well let's see let's start off with an unequivocal
+the virus it was kind of one of the symbols
+
+0:44:55.019,0:44:57.760
+up postfix which was a competitor to
+
+0:44:57.760,0:45:00.359
+sendmail was released
+
+0:45:00.359,0:45:03.819
+postfix was actually really good
+
+0:45:03.819,0:45:09.249
+alternative and Lisa and I when he was writing
+postfix we would exchange a lot of email
+
+0:45:09.249,0:45:12.979
+talking but I talked with him at one point
+before it was released
+
+0:45:12.979,0:45:17.829
+ and taken surely say much longer than
+he expected
+
+0:45:17.829,0:45:20.929
+I said i asked him how the-mail was going and
+he said
+
+0:45:20.929,0:45:24.590
+well its taken longer than I thought that's
+that's harder than it looks isn't it
+
+0:45:24.590,0:45:28.869
+the it's been an exercise in humility
+
+0:45:28.869,0:45:32.219
+so you think that I hate him because he's
+
+0:45:32.219,0:45:33.589
+competitor of send mail but
+
+0:45:33.589,0:45:36.349
+no hes one of the good guys
+
+0:45:36.349,0:45:41.899
+the SPR project which was one of the first
+attempt to do e-mail authentification
+
+0:45:41.899,0:45:44.819
+in one sense or another start up
+
+0:45:44.819,0:45:45.560
+in
+
+0:45:45.560,0:45:48.159
+oh three
+
+0:45:48.159,0:45:53.130
+also you know oh three was the Sobig.F virus.
+It was the largest
+
+0:45:53.130,0:45:53.930
+attack
+
+0:45:53.930,0:45:58.279
+on today using something called .div files
+program information files
+
+0:45:58.279,0:46:00.549
+as attachment
+
+0:46:00.549,0:46:04.509
+it was significant because it contained
+it's own SMTP engine
+
+0:46:04.509,0:46:05.909
+up until then
+
+0:46:05.909,0:46:06.869
+things have been
+
+0:46:06.869,0:46:12.769
+piggybacking on exchange so submitting
+mail as though you were users submnitting from
+
+0:46:12.769,0:46:13.280
+outlook
+
+0:46:13.280,0:46:14.399
+this one
+
+0:46:14.399,0:46:15.290
+had
+
+0:46:15.290,0:46:18.479
+SMTP engine optimized for
+
+0:46:18.479,0:46:20.239
+sending out trash
+
+0:46:20.239,0:46:27.239
+It had adaptive context so it kept changing itself
+so it was harder to find fingerprints and self-destructed
+
+0:46:27.459,0:46:30.159
+on a particular day. so something
+
+0:46:30.159,0:46:32.509
+automated to just kind of disappear
+
+0:46:32.509,0:46:33.579
+on one day
+
+0:46:33.579,0:46:36.379
+I don't think anybody knows why
+
+0:46:36.379,0:46:40.910
+all sort working on domain keys which is a another
+
+0:46:40.910,0:46:45.920
+technology for the authentication.I'll talk
+about that SPF later
+
+0:46:45.920,0:46:51.239
+the MyDoom virus came out it was even
+ spread faster was even bigger than
+
+0:46:51.239,0:46:52.329
+sobig
+
+0:46:52.329,0:46:53.539
+
+
+0:46:53.539,0:46:57.479
+it's big innovation was that it used network as
+
+0:46:57.479,0:46:59.139
+well as e-mail
+
+0:46:59.139,0:47:03.979
+and it was specifically designed to infect
+machines to use them as spam engine so arguably
+
+0:47:03.979,0:47:08.709
+this was the beginning of Zombie farms
+
+0:47:08.709,0:47:10.959
+In February
+
+0:47:10.959,0:47:14.490
+oh four microsoft announces sender id which was
+
+0:47:14.490,0:47:17.249
+really kind of SPF with
+
+0:47:17.249,0:47:19.379
+synthetic sure
+
+0:47:19.379,0:47:24.239
+and in December of four DKIM work began. DKIM was
+
+0:47:24.239,0:47:26.330
+an extension of the domain keys
+
+0:47:26.330,0:47:30.130
+there were some experience with domain keys
+we realize that there were some things that
+
+0:47:30.130,0:47:31.640
+needed too
+0:47:31.640,0:47:35.079
+have improved and so far I was very much involved
+in the DKIM work
+
+0:47:35.079,0:47:37.059
+ so that's
+
+0:47:37.059,0:47:41.219
+unfortunately the five years I've been working
+on this stuff now
+
+0:47:41.219,0:47:43.059
+and
+
+0:47:43.059,0:47:44.270
+oh seven
+
+0:47:44.270,0:47:47.969
+the actual DKIM based signin spec was
+
+0:47:47.969,0:47:50.900
+released much to our relief
+
+0:47:50.900,0:47:52.109
+different tack
+
+0:47:52.109,0:47:55.830
+ some of the early RCs for EAI were published
+
+0:47:55.830,0:47:58.239
+ and
+
+0:47:58.239,0:48:02.389
+toward the end of last year EAI's email
+address
+
+0:48:02.389,0:48:04.939
+e-mail address
+
+0:48:04.939,0:48:06.319
+internationalization
+
+0:48:06.319,0:48:09.759
+and the idea is you been able to send around
+
+0:48:09.759,0:48:14.779
+txt in Japanese and so forth there
+were hacks even have domain names in Japanese
+
+0:48:14.779,0:48:17.160
+but you couldnt have an e-mail
+
+0:48:17.160,0:48:17.919
+address
+
+0:48:17.919,0:48:19.009
+in Japanese
+
+0:48:19.009,0:48:20.149
+the EAI says
+
+0:48:20.149,0:48:21.880
+we want it to be
+
+0:48:21.880,0:48:24.259
+completely hundred percent international as
+a whole
+
+0:48:24.259,0:48:26.249
+all through e-mail
+
+0:48:26.249,0:48:28.380
+a good thing
+
+0:48:28.380,0:48:33.439
+ a lot of people dont realize
+that the venerable RC twenty twenty
+
+0:48:33.439,0:48:35.619
+one and twenty two which
+
+0:48:35.619,0:48:39.899
+were the other internal specs for years were
+actually just recently
+
+0:48:39.899,0:48:40.409
+updated
+
+0:48:40.409,0:48:44.709
+so the new numbers you have to memorize are
+fifty three twenty one in fifty three twenty
+
+0:48:44.709,0:48:47.640
+two
+
+0:48:47.640,0:48:48.319
+this
+
+0:48:48.319,0:48:51.310
+I was the latest map that I could find so
+this
+
+0:48:51.310,0:48:54.300
+pretty old back in nineteen ninety nine bill
+cheswick
+
+0:48:54.300,0:48:55.589
+produced this
+
+0:48:55.589,0:48:57.999
+this does not show the hosts
+
+0:48:57.999,0:49:00.769
+on the internet this shows the ISPs
+
+0:49:00.769,0:49:03.489
+on the internet
+
+0:49:03.489,0:49:06.779
+and I won't go into any more detail
+
+0:49:06.779,0:49:09.079
+and I don't recall what the
+
+0:49:09.079,0:49:10.409
+calling yes
+
+0:49:10.409,0:49:11.719
+so
+
+0:49:11.719,0:49:13.339
+let me get into this this year
+
+0:49:13.339,0:49:14.590
+
+
+0:49:14.590,0:49:18.529
+probably messaging spam security and authentication
+
+0:49:18.529,0:49:23.519
+so lets talk about spamming a little.
+I wasnt going to talk about spamming but
+
+0:49:23.519,0:49:28.629
+ever since I got here people in asking
+me about it so there's still a lot of interest about it
+
+0:49:28.629,0:49:29.979
+obviously
+
+0:49:29.979,0:49:33.599
+the stand is arguably an economic issue the cost
+
+0:49:33.599,0:49:34.899
+to send
+
+0:49:34.899,0:49:40.429
+a message is far lower than the cost to receive
+it
+
+0:49:40.429,0:49:42.160
+if this were true of
+
+0:49:42.160,0:49:44.759
+physical junk mail
+
+0:49:44.759,0:49:49.100
+then adump mail truck would come up to my house every
+day and just dump all the junk mail
+
+0:49:49.100,0:49:51.269
+off on my lawn
+
+0:49:51.269,0:49:53.559
+but it's not fortunately
+
+0:49:53.559,0:49:57.150
+notice that that possible misuse isnt necessarily
+about
+
+0:49:57.150,0:49:59.819
+dollars or yen or anything like that
+
+0:49:59.819,0:50:04.199
+it's not currency it can be things like CPU time memory usage
+
+0:50:04.199,0:50:06.519
+human time etc
+
+0:50:06.519,0:50:09.530
+notice that every single thing we try to do
+
+0:50:09.530,0:50:12.440
+to protect ourselves from spam until this
+point
+
+0:50:12.440,0:50:16.049
+has increased the cost to the receiver
+
+0:50:16.049,0:50:20.239
+so as we put inmore and more antispam security what actually
+
+0:50:20.239,0:50:21.479
+move this function
+
+0:50:21.479,0:50:24.479
+to be more advantageous for the spammer
+
+0:50:24.479,0:50:27.839
+its a little strange
+
+0:50:27.839,0:50:29.690
+now there are a bunch of
+
+0:50:29.690,0:50:30.570
+possible approaches
+
+0:50:30.570,0:50:32.989
+there is of course
+
+0:50:32.989,0:50:35.519
+content filtering which is what
+
+0:50:35.519,0:50:40.129
+people normally do for example ninety days
+and filters and so forth this is getting
+
+0:50:40.129,0:50:44.299
+pretty close to its limits and it doesn't
+fix the crossfire
+
+0:50:44.299,0:50:49.060
+epostage which is what you really do
+use some kind of money you can
+
+0:50:49.060,0:50:52.449
+attach it to each message
+
+0:50:52.449,0:50:53.919
+unfortunately needed any
+
+0:50:53.919,0:50:58.559
+pretty huge infrastructure to do all that
+payment processing and
+
+0:50:58.559,0:51:01.169
+that's there's a lot of bickering on how to
+do that
+
+0:51:01.169,0:51:04.099
+and acceptance problems. people don't
+
+0:51:04.099,0:51:08.649
+but it's always been afraid i refuse to pay anything
+to send a message that
+
+0:51:08.649,0:51:10.909
+we're going to ask you to do
+
+0:51:10.909,0:51:12.400
+a tenth of a cent
+
+0:51:12.400,0:51:18.709
+hundredth of the cent promotes per message.
+no no its too expensive. I can't afford it
+
+0:51:18.709,0:51:23.479
+that's a legitimate concerns about some elements
+that sort of thing they're work around
+
+0:51:23.479,0:51:24.999
+challenge response is
+
+0:51:24.999,0:51:26.350
+popular
+
+0:51:26.350,0:51:31.020
+when you get mail from someone the never talked
+to before you send them back challenge if they
+
+0:51:31.020,0:51:35.739
+would respond there's a human
+being on the other hand what the bill through
+
+0:51:35.739,0:51:37.039
+unfortunately a lot of
+
+0:51:37.039,0:51:37.650
+people
+
+0:51:37.650,0:51:41.319
+get the challenges are spam and never replied
+
+0:51:41.319,0:51:47.049
+five thousand scale well it's particularly
+bad for
+
+0:51:47.049,0:51:50.350
+automated systems that are trying to send out mail
+like your bank
+
+0:51:50.350,0:51:52.430
+sending your bank statements
+
+0:51:52.430,0:51:54.599
+just don't respond well to that
+
+0:51:54.599,0:51:56.239
+challenge response
+
+0:51:56.239,0:51:58.230
+havshcash is
+
+0:51:58.230,0:52:01.179
+technique to do CPU
+
+0:52:01.179,0:52:02.270
+using time
+
+0:52:02.270,0:52:04.469
+CPU time memory
+
+0:52:04.469,0:52:05.199
+whatever
+
+0:52:05.199,0:52:10.180
+it's completely useless for Zombie farms because
+they're not burning their own resources they're
+
+0:52:10.180,0:52:10.680
+burning
+
+0:52:10.680,0:52:14.099
+some victims resources so what's the point
+
+0:52:14.099,0:52:18.829
+graylisting is where you get a message from
+somebody that you never seen before you
+
+0:52:18.829,0:52:21.559
+do a temporary failure on it
+
+0:52:21.559,0:52:26.249
+and wait for them to come back is there is
+generally don't have a cue as a cue is
+
+0:52:26.249,0:52:27.259
+expensive
+
+0:52:27.259,0:52:30.469
+but it turns out they don't actually have
+to have a cue because they don't change
+
+0:52:30.469,0:52:33.079
+the message very much that isn't it
+
+0:52:33.079,0:52:36.989
+he trying these things multiple times are
+going back to keep track of what happened
+
+0:52:36.989,0:52:41.549
+before you just try multiple times if three
+copies of their message gets through all the betterf
+
+0:52:41.549,0:52:44.779
+that
+
+0:52:44.779,0:52:48.130
+and on of course authentication that this
+is the
+
+0:52:48.130,0:52:51.379
+if we know who actually sent the message
+
+0:52:51.379,0:52:54.099
+maybe we can hunt down and kill them
+
+0:52:54.099,0:52:54.750
+the
+
+0:52:54.750,0:52:56.539
+
+
+0:52:56.539,0:52:58.019
+maybe not kill them
+
+0:52:58.019,0:53:00.049
+there's something a little less
+
+0:53:00.049,0:53:05.600
+that is insufficient by itself people go how
+well what authenticated that's good right
+
+0:53:05.600,0:53:09.499
+well spammer can authenticate
+as themselves
+
+0:53:09.499,0:53:16.499
+so you're saying it's authenticate it doesn't
+mean it's still something you dont want to read
+
+0:53:16.529,0:53:17.519
+so
+
+0:53:17.519,0:53:19.749
+let me just talk about fish in the little
+bit
+
+0:53:19.749,0:53:22.750
+fishing and spamming are not quite the same
+thing although there's often
+
+0:53:22.750,0:53:24.459
+a lot of overlap
+
+0:53:24.459,0:53:28.679
+fishing is trying to track some money into
+giving up some cards had a private information
+
+0:53:28.679,0:53:33.939
+too often to get a bank account information
+or older than he needed to identity theft
+
+0:53:33.939,0:53:37.599
+it's not limited to do e-mail and it's not
+
+0:53:37.599,0:53:42.220
+the nigerian or four nineteen spam was working
+in physical mail
+
+0:53:42.220,0:53:45.699
+long before it hit the-mail I have personally
+receive
+
+0:53:45.699,0:53:47.859
+those badly typed
+
+0:53:47.859,0:53:48.849
+letters
+
+0:53:48.849,0:53:54.720
+that were exactly of four elections than I
+am and nigerian dictator in these to get
+
+0:53:54.720,0:54:01.099
+a hundred million dollars out and you've been
+identified as the trustworthy dot dot dot
+
+0:54:01.099,0:54:05.430
+pranksters have been preying on the elderly
+as long as there have been elderly
+
+0:54:05.430,0:54:09.029
+ so for none of this is new
+
+0:54:09.029,0:54:10.170
+that's true
+
+0:54:10.170,0:54:14.859
+basic forms of vision was one call your shop
+and fishing which is really just
+
+0:54:14.859,0:54:19.759
+send out these things to enough people I hope
+in some ways to promote the body
+
+0:54:19.759,0:54:22.669
+which works by the way unfortunately
+
+0:54:22.669,0:54:27.589
+are there still people think you can get something
+for nothing
+
+0:54:27.589,0:54:30.079
+well what's being called spear fishing
+
+0:54:30.079,0:54:31.890
+he is actually pretty bad
+
+0:54:31.890,0:54:37.259
+this is where they actually spend a fair amount
+of time researching an individual
+
+0:54:37.259,0:54:39.889
+they do a custom-made
+
+0:54:39.889,0:54:40.939
+message
+
+0:54:40.939,0:54:47.120
+I have received some of these things that
+for example claim to be from the IRS saying that
+
+0:54:47.120,0:54:48.369
+so no I didn't
+
+0:54:48.369,0:54:52.130
+something earlier about this them
+
+0:54:52.130,0:54:53.339
+some of them
+
+0:54:53.339,0:54:58.469
+with some of our forms somewhere and it has
+leader urgent that we contact some so immediately
+
+0:54:58.469,0:54:59.230
+or else
+
+0:54:59.230,0:55:00.859
+then the forced
+
+0:55:00.859,0:55:01.979
+we're actually were
+
+0:55:01.979,0:55:04.479
+forced to freeze all of our bank accounts
+
+0:55:04.479,0:55:09.670
+and so forth they know who I am and also with the company
+
+0:55:09.670,0:55:12.959
+not a thing that people will do it is %uh
+
+0:55:12.959,0:55:14.649
+people throw away
+
+0:55:14.649,0:55:18.269
+but bank saying some things that have the
+last four digits of your account number on
+
+0:55:18.269,0:55:18.759
+it
+
+0:55:18.759,0:55:22.189
+which is perfectly safe because they don't
+have a whole credit card number
+
+0:55:22.189,0:55:23.900
+well I'm wrong that right
+
+0:55:23.900,0:55:26.060
+all that out dumpster no I didn't
+
+0:55:26.060,0:55:29.189
+they send you a letter claiming to be from
+your
+
+0:55:29.189,0:55:30.980
+%uh credit card prior
+
+0:55:30.980,0:55:35.570
+they have the last four digits of your account
+number to give you exactly the same information
+
+0:55:35.570,0:55:36.770
+that you're legitimate
+
+0:55:36.770,0:55:40.389
+credit card company would
+
+0:55:40.389,0:55:41.239
+and
+
+0:55:41.239,0:55:43.159
+that's a lot easier to trickpeople
+
+0:55:43.159,0:55:46.819
+they can't stand significant money
+
+0:55:46.819,0:55:49.329
+talking to someone
+
+0:55:49.329,0:55:51.849
+so up
+
+0:55:51.849,0:55:54.549
+one other thing about the fishing know which
+is
+
+0:55:54.549,0:55:58.690
+but the cracker what I just described attackers
+lot of harvard be
+
+0:55:58.690,0:56:00.480
+pretend to be someone you trust
+
+0:56:00.480,0:56:05.160
+an authentication can actually help with that
+if it claims to be from one bank and would
+
+0:56:05.160,0:56:06.799
+not from my bank
+
+0:56:06.799,0:56:11.089
+and we're done
+
+0:56:11.089,0:56:11.900
+
+
+0:56:11.900,0:56:15.399
+there's really two forms of authentication
+
+0:56:15.399,0:56:16.859
+and the standards
+
+0:56:16.859,0:56:20.839
+I'm not stand ready an FBI forms of half days
+
+0:56:20.839,0:56:22.620
+plus which is where where you look
+
+0:56:22.620,0:56:25.539
+our message across to you whose sending
+
+0:56:25.539,0:56:29.579
+they're sending the message to you and is
+it possible that they would be sending a message
+
+0:56:29.579,0:56:31.799
+claiming to be from my bank
+
+0:56:31.799,0:56:34.420
+they were signature base which is where you
+do
+
+0:56:34.420,0:56:38.599
+he's public encryption to do put digital signature
+on the message
+
+0:56:38.599,0:56:41.380
+I mean there are these
+
+0:56:41.380,0:56:46.129
+authenticate users a lot of the key domains
+because of the key management problems
+
+0:56:46.129,0:56:49.950
+and wboth of them can authenticate malicious
+messages so this
+
+0:56:49.950,0:56:52.549
+not perfect
+
+0:56:52.549,0:56:56.200
+it did him in
+
+0:56:56.200,0:56:57.970
+potentially the cold war
+
+0:56:57.970,0:56:59.869
+consistently if we could get
+
+0:56:59.869,0:57:01.319
+Bob the entire network
+
+0:57:01.319,0:57:03.449
+to never mind your message
+
+0:57:03.449,0:57:09.049
+I wish probably can happen in hundred years
+or so
+
+0:57:09.049,0:57:13.589
+I didn't get a talk show on this you know
+who wants to be the first person sons message
+
+0:57:13.589,0:57:14.389
+well
+
+0:57:14.389,0:57:16.969
+we expected the recipients would want that
+
+0:57:16.969,0:57:21.100
+because they want to protect themselves but
+it turns out has been descenders like the banks
+
+0:57:21.100,0:57:24.069
+they have really really been pushing us
+
+0:57:24.069,0:57:27.529
+plus some of the forward looking
+
+0:57:27.529,0:57:28.670
+places like google
+
+0:57:28.670,0:57:34.499
+have been using DKIMand of the SP
+up for some time
+
+0:57:34.499,0:57:35.800
+one important thing
+
+0:57:35.800,0:57:37.359
+for a transition period
+
+0:57:37.359,0:57:39.169
+you have to
+
+0:57:39.169,0:57:41.859
+allow unsigned mail to come in
+
+0:57:41.859,0:57:43.790
+because that's the way it's always been
+
+0:57:43.790,0:57:46.520
+and he can't just bring the world that we've
+moved in
+
+0:57:46.520,0:57:48.070
+we will never have
+
+0:57:48.070,0:57:52.769
+another flag day on the internet like that
+and just can't happen at this point
+
+0:57:52.769,0:57:58.709
+so what you'd like is for a the banks and
+to be able to somehow tell you I signed all
+
+0:57:58.709,0:58:00.939
+my message is so if you
+
+0:58:00.939,0:58:05.889
+but if you get an unsigned message that claims
+to be for me it's not for me
+
+0:58:05.889,0:58:10.229
+interior up argument signed in paris is eight
+the SP
+
+0:58:10.229,0:58:12.890
+and this is very controversial and still
+
+0:58:12.890,0:58:16.199
+stuck in the working group
+
+0:58:16.199,0:58:19.880
+I want to emphasize that
+
+0:58:19.880,0:58:21.799
+evacuations is not
+
+0:58:21.799,0:58:24.639
+because members can authenticate
+
+0:58:24.639,0:58:30.609
+and we can't leave it to humans either because
+of things like cousin domains
+
+0:58:30.609,0:58:34.989
+but he had a ebay-biling was a famous one
+that was not associate with
+
+0:58:34.989,0:58:36.699
+the bay in any way
+
+0:58:36.699,0:58:39.689
+and was trying to frighten people
+
+0:58:39.689,0:58:42.299
+so let me talk a little bit about the camera
+
+0:58:42.299,0:58:45.149
+which is what I've been working on mostly
+
+0:58:45.149,0:58:47.959
+I just wanted to specifications
+
+0:58:47.959,0:58:48.980
+one is the
+
+0:58:48.980,0:58:54.929
+the signature at the base standards which tells
+how to sign and verified message
+
+0:58:54.929,0:58:56.840
+I've heard a lot of work and the other one
+
+0:58:56.840,0:59:02.090
+no one is the sign in practices which is how
+to interpret on science messages on that one
+
+0:59:02.090,0:59:04.989
+has gotten laid down in the works
+
+0:59:04.989,0:59:06.529
+and at this point on
+
+0:59:06.529,0:59:08.939
+I walked away from it because
+
+0:59:08.939,0:59:10.129
+that's amazing
+
+0:59:10.129,0:59:13.049
+how many hours people can spend arguing about
+
+0:59:13.049,0:59:14.719
+the meaning of
+
+0:59:14.719,0:59:19.359
+relatively simple words
+
+0:59:19.359,0:59:21.439
+the way you can get away with it
+
+0:59:21.439,0:59:28.299
+is to use other DMS to destroy your
+public he's since policies can indeed be public
+
+0:59:28.299,0:59:31.599
+you are rich off of this exist in the world
+war
+
+0:59:31.599,0:59:34.479
+distributed database to get the keys out
+
+0:59:34.479,0:59:37.490
+this is a little unusual because normally
+
+0:59:37.490,0:59:40.349
+you don't have something that is so simple
+to this
+
+0:59:40.349,0:59:45.430
+we do not by the way he serves we don't have
+a assigning tree or anything like that it's
+
+0:59:45.430,0:59:47.469
+just to keep pair
+
+0:59:47.469,0:59:49.119
+because if you're asking
+
+0:59:49.119,0:59:53.269
+the purported sendmail to give you the republican
+or
+
+0:59:53.269,0:59:54.639
+reported sender
+
+0:59:54.639,0:59:56.199
+to give them
+
+0:59:56.199,1:00:00.109
+their home and he give you their publication
+
+1:00:00.109,1:00:01.309
+I mean
+
+1:00:01.309,1:00:03.299
+presumably contrast that
+
+1:00:03.299,1:00:04.369
+presumably
+
+1:00:04.369,1:00:05.809
+now there are people who
+
+1:00:05.809,1:00:07.709
+would like to put searche
+
+1:00:07.709,1:00:11.749
+and investigators social security that probably
+will go through some point
+
+1:00:11.749,1:00:14.339
+ but it probably won't be necessary
+
+1:00:14.339,1:00:17.729
+with the the
+
+1:00:17.729,1:00:18.729
+I'm
+
+1:00:18.729,1:00:23.079
+possibility of theft of keys is one of the
+nice ones is
+
+1:00:23.079,1:00:25.799
+if you get mail
+
+1:00:25.799,1:00:30.900
+they signed from a domain you don't know about
+how do you know that that's a good omen were
+
+1:00:30.900,1:00:33.940
+not while reputation which I've got to
+
+1:00:33.940,1:00:37.079
+is the major approach but if you had
+
+1:00:37.079,1:00:42.549
+it's signed by someone that has served so
+the key itself was signed by someone else
+
+1:00:42.549,1:00:45.799
+you could ask is that
+
+1:00:45.799,1:00:49.890
+and that gives you some of the reputation
+is called of
+
+1:00:49.890,1:00:52.640
+%uh accreditation
+
+1:00:52.640,1:00:56.269
+and it sort of gives you the poor man's her
+accreditation
+
+1:00:56.269,1:00:59.619
+%uh they're also of course the places that
+wants to
+
+1:00:59.619,1:01:04.219
+I was moved towards first because they can't
+make a living so on
+
+1:01:04.219,1:01:07.979
+as they think this is a fine idea is building
+
+1:01:07.979,1:01:11.319
+what was the
+
+1:01:11.319,1:01:16.079
+it really did do it obviously would
+
+1:01:16.079,1:01:19.109
+that's that's
+
+1:01:19.109,1:01:21.219
+what's the response
+
+1:01:21.219,1:01:23.069
+there is nobody there
+
+1:01:23.069,1:01:24.739
+yes
+
+1:01:24.739,1:01:27.230
+the you have built into your browser
+
+1:01:27.230,1:01:30.910
+Obama assures jurors that are prosperous should
+say
+
+1:01:30.910,1:01:33.779
+sonya forties that are trusted
+
+1:01:33.779,1:01:39.469
+it because you believe that they're not going
+to start really signing one ski
+
+1:01:39.469,1:01:40.640
+exactly the same thing
+
+1:01:40.640,1:01:43.479
+think for a minute
+
+1:01:43.479,1:01:46.130
+the quality the city
+
+1:01:46.130,1:01:49.159
+yeah
+
+1:01:49.159,1:01:50.469
+the
+
+1:01:50.469,1:01:56.160
+you can first of all a matter of places that
+would actually
+
+1:01:56.160,1:02:00.349
+make sure that you are legitimate but you
+at least have a mailing address that really
+
+1:02:00.349,1:02:01.529
+works
+
+1:02:01.529,1:02:06.219
+that the people who claimed on the company
+actually exists
+
+1:02:06.219,1:02:09.799
+simple things like that and somebody could
+make a fair amount of money
+
+1:02:09.799,1:02:13.069
+the in certifying agency that
+
+1:02:13.069,1:02:14.429
+this is your views
+
+1:02:14.429,1:02:19.169
+to sign anything where they had check you
+out for
+
+1:02:19.169,1:02:22.599
+they and there are places that do that for
+the world as well but you're right some of
+
+1:02:22.599,1:02:23.449
+them are
+
+1:02:23.449,1:02:27.459
+in a tent lots of course inside turkey
+
+1:02:27.459,1:02:30.619
+sometimes it's not that expensive
+
+1:02:30.619,1:02:33.099
+%um
+
+1:02:33.099,1:02:37.799
+an hour to talk about signing practices unfortunately
+it's got water down to the point where our
+
+1:02:37.799,1:02:44.039
+in my opinion it's not terribly useful in
+or
+
+1:02:44.039,1:02:49.049
+so we're at the station is the usual way you
+deal with that
+
+1:02:49.049,1:02:50.130
+the message too
+
+1:02:50.130,1:02:54.059
+I threw it out of the message comes from the
+bagel in dakar
+
+1:02:54.059,1:02:59.069
+okay because I've gotten their public he is
+verify is so important step in mathematics
+
+1:02:59.069,1:03:00.370
+and cruel
+
+1:03:00.370,1:03:01.709
+provable
+
+1:03:01.709,1:03:08.359
+Joe I want to talk to he made a one dot com
+don't believe them go on record on that one
+
+1:03:08.359,1:03:13.869
+and the usual approach his reputation what
+we know about you being the one dot com
+
+1:03:13.869,1:03:15.029
+that reputation
+
+1:03:15.029,1:03:17.179
+it's been around for a long time
+
+1:03:17.179,1:03:19.689
+in the form of diana's black homeless
+
+1:03:19.689,1:03:26.249
+as only negative reputation can say but it
+remains good of the comoros a that
+
+1:03:26.249,1:03:28.049
+and of course
+
+1:03:28.049,1:03:32.639
+bad guys are switching around like he addresses
+all time so
+
+1:03:32.639,1:03:35.429
+those lists are always tell
+
+1:03:35.429,1:03:37.959
+so in fact
+
+1:03:37.959,1:03:38.599
+helpful
+
+1:03:38.599,1:03:42.480
+but it's not actually all that great the main
+event he gives you his
+
+1:03:42.480,1:03:45.109
+they a black hole
+
+1:03:45.109,1:03:47.170
+huge address bases that are
+
+1:03:47.170,1:03:48.729
+%um
+
+1:03:48.729,1:03:51.519
+for example dialogue but he
+
+1:03:51.519,1:03:52.459
+don't love
+
+1:03:52.459,1:03:56.430
+like the address this thing know nobody should
+ever be sending
+
+1:03:56.430,1:04:00.280
+mail from those demands that don't go through
+their providers mail services and that action
+
+1:04:00.280,1:04:02.599
+does help a lot
+
+1:04:02.599,1:04:06.380
+positive reputation on the other hand is really
+hard to do
+
+1:04:06.380,1:04:11.149
+our because it breaks the world as we know
+it
+
+1:04:11.149,1:04:16.049
+so right now there has been some sense a presumption
+of innocence
+
+1:04:16.049,1:04:20.239
+when you receive email from so that you've
+never seen it before well it might be would
+
+1:04:20.239,1:04:21.829
+you let me go
+
+1:04:21.829,1:04:22.889
+Spanish actor
+
+1:04:22.889,1:04:26.159
+so for but it might be legitimate
+
+1:04:26.159,1:04:30.729
+if you go to a world where you looked out
+and say well if they have no
+
+1:04:30.729,1:04:32.579
+known reputation
+
+1:04:32.579,1:04:36.549
+there is probably bad think it's probably
+a stammer as the jury
+
+1:04:36.549,1:04:37.849
+you know thousand
+
+1:04:37.849,1:04:40.359
+I can remember what the
+
+1:04:40.359,1:04:42.409
+number is ours
+
+1:04:42.409,1:04:44.569
+thousands of new domain stumble
+
+1:04:44.569,1:04:46.199
+online every day
+
+1:04:46.199,1:04:49.749
+first anniversary exists only for a day or
+so and then they go away
+
+1:04:49.749,1:04:53.369
+to send a lot of the middle of the day
+
+1:04:53.369,1:04:54.289
+so
+
+1:04:54.289,1:04:58.099
+how does does a small player join the club
+
+1:04:58.099,1:05:04.229
+without having a positive reputation to begin
+with the legitimate small player
+
+1:05:04.229,1:05:05.829
+this is
+
+1:05:05.829,1:05:08.989
+still a months old pro
+
+1:05:08.989,1:05:11.849
+we may end up going to a closed society
+
+1:05:11.849,1:05:14.920
+if you don't have somebody to introduce to
+you
+
+1:05:14.920,1:05:15.529
+then
+
+1:05:15.529,1:05:17.599
+you can't get your mail for
+
+1:05:17.599,1:05:22.619
+%uh this is actually been true in human society
+for a long long time so it's not the end of
+
+1:05:22.619,1:05:26.279
+the world but it does have some
+
+1:05:26.279,1:05:28.199
+unfortunate
+
+1:05:28.199,1:05:31.480
+implications and there's going to have to
+be exceptions sales tax
+
+1:05:31.480,1:05:38.480
+anything that Tom foley is going to want to
+reject mail from people that heard of before
+
+1:05:38.749,1:05:42.300
+about I will point out challenge responses
+of a chance to
+
+1:05:42.300,1:05:45.019
+this is to create a closed society
+
+1:05:45.019,1:05:46.679
+we have a
+
+1:05:46.679,1:05:48.519
+attacks in their house
+
+1:05:48.519,1:05:52.359
+if you will a proven true test to try and
+see if there's a human being on the other
+
+1:05:52.359,1:05:54.199
+end of the line
+
+1:05:54.199,1:05:57.229
+as a lot of places that would love to do it
+credit nation
+
+1:05:57.229,1:05:58.889
+which is where they'll say
+
+1:05:58.889,1:06:01.039
+how about for you
+
+1:06:01.039,1:06:02.949
+for a fee
+
+1:06:02.949,1:06:04.850
+even having the base of money
+
+1:06:04.850,1:06:08.339
+does have value because they have to give
+it credit card number
+
+1:06:08.339,1:06:11.270
+and it has to go through the crack of service
+in your
+
+1:06:11.270,1:06:12.339
+essentially
+
+1:06:12.339,1:06:13.880
+one emerging off the
+
+1:06:13.880,1:06:16.309
+credit cards
+
+1:06:16.309,1:06:18.609
+companies work on reputation
+
+1:06:18.609,1:06:19.869
+well I don't know
+
+1:06:19.869,1:06:21.399
+the possibility
+
+1:06:21.399,1:06:23.439
+the likelihood of of
+
+1:06:23.439,1:06:29.269
+stolen credit cards
+
+1:06:29.269,1:06:32.189
+what a lot of people say it as well you know
+we
+
+1:06:32.189,1:06:33.989
+why don't we just
+
+1:06:33.989,1:06:37.919
+here's another media messages
+
+1:06:37.919,1:06:43.209
+yes well as a messenger who doesn't have spent
+all that's why I did it get
+
+1:06:43.209,1:06:48.619
+message is pretty much every day from so and
+so sexy teenage foxy girls
+
+1:06:48.619,1:06:51.369
+morning to get it wrong with me
+
+1:06:51.369,1:06:53.409
+collins then as it's called
+
+1:06:53.409,1:06:56.640
+on is has been a problem for a while it is
+doing that
+
+1:06:56.640,1:06:58.939
+yeah
+
+1:06:58.939,1:07:00.280
+authentication helps
+
+1:07:00.280,1:07:04.279
+but it's just too easy to get
+
+1:07:04.279,1:07:08.169
+all social networking storage tank was the
+problem will just use
+
+1:07:08.169,1:07:09.499
+social networking
+
+1:07:09.499,1:07:11.619
+and use that for all or up
+
+1:07:11.619,1:07:15.299
+e-mail and in so you've got to be a friend
+of mine
+
+1:07:15.299,1:07:19.829
+well it turns out has recently there's been
+a lot of publicity
+
+1:07:19.829,1:07:22.209
+of worms in virus is that going to
+
+1:07:22.209,1:07:24.939
+%uh my face and facebook and
+
+1:07:24.939,1:07:28.609
+what not an issue
+
+1:07:28.609,1:07:31.649
+you are you will accidentally
+
+1:07:31.649,1:07:33.929
+sanders down to your friends
+
+1:07:33.929,1:07:36.599
+it would generally comes from you
+
+1:07:36.599,1:07:37.529
+and so they
+
+1:07:37.529,1:07:41.479
+are more likely to trust you so what is actually
+almost
+
+1:07:41.479,1:07:43.099
+works
+
+1:07:43.099,1:07:43.790
+them
+
+1:07:43.790,1:07:46.219
+the male staffer
+
+1:07:46.219,1:07:48.519
+and it's this
+
+1:07:48.519,1:07:51.109
+on internet telephony spam spam over internet
+
+1:07:51.109,1:07:52.339
+it taught me
+
+1:07:52.339,1:07:55.469
+on his was just placed a growth industry
+
+1:07:55.469,1:07:57.919
+I wish is going to get
+
+1:07:57.919,1:07:59.139
+unbelievably bad
+
+1:07:59.139,1:08:00.449
+sometime soon
+
+1:08:00.449,1:08:05.529
+so some speculations on the future here that
+these are speculations my opinion
+
+1:08:05.529,1:08:09.819
+I can't justify the runway
+
+1:08:09.819,1:08:11.149
+miss first term
+
+1:08:11.149,1:08:12.839
+I think we will get
+
+1:08:12.839,1:08:14.739
+some authenticated mail out there
+
+1:08:14.739,1:08:18.789
+%uh there will be some center reputation and
+we'll roll
+
+1:08:18.789,1:08:22.079
+with time it will grow as quickly as i'd like
+
+1:08:22.079,1:08:23.509
+they've done it will
+
+1:08:23.509,1:08:25.439
+happen and it will start to grow
+
+1:08:25.439,1:08:27.859
+and it will be useful in only
+
+1:08:27.859,1:08:31.710
+because when you can get of not people
+
+1:08:31.710,1:08:34.119
+authenticated and they have good reputation
+
+1:08:34.119,1:08:39.489
+the probability that the other male is then
+goes us the and actually
+
+1:08:39.489,1:08:41.960
+tarnoff use them filters sensitivity
+
+1:08:41.960,1:08:44.079
+so if you will it will be a
+
+1:08:44.079,1:08:46.759
+well why didn't he was around
+
+1:08:46.759,1:08:50.770
+existence of them soldiers not something that
+is this by itself
+
+1:08:50.770,1:08:55.000
+all we will see movement toward e-mail address
+internationalization once again is going to
+
+1:08:55.000,1:08:56.529
+be relatively slow
+
+1:08:56.529,1:09:01.689
+the reason for that is because there's a part
+of our problem not which is downgrading
+
+1:09:01.689,1:09:02.880
+a message for men
+
+1:09:02.880,1:09:04.659
+in our national life
+
+1:09:04.659,1:09:05.900
+mel which by the way
+
+1:09:05.900,1:09:08.849
+what they're looking at it saying we're going
+to use you sheila tate
+
+1:09:08.849,1:09:12.000
+for everything we're talking to declare the
+characters that we just
+
+1:09:12.000,1:09:13.730
+he issued yesterday
+
+1:09:13.730,1:09:16.619
+with low vision done years ago
+
+1:09:16.619,1:09:17.819
+Bob that
+
+1:09:17.819,1:09:22.809
+taking AZT a great message and downgrading
+them soon ask the message it is
+
+1:09:22.809,1:09:24.420
+almost impossible
+
+1:09:24.420,1:09:25.690
+and I did
+
+1:09:25.690,1:09:27.099
+and that's important
+
+1:09:27.099,1:09:32.889
+the daylights tensions in to send them all
+and release them yet
+
+1:09:32.889,1:09:37.249
+try to do the downgrading and finally came
+to the conclusion that there's certain things
+
+1:09:37.249,1:09:39.139
+we just have to guess
+
+1:09:39.139,1:09:41.989
+and you might not guess right all the time
+
+1:09:41.989,1:09:43.830
+so my inclination to say
+
+1:09:43.830,1:09:47.589
+I will not allow downgrading
+
+1:09:47.589,1:09:52.139
+the FAA on the message will bounce back me
+up set down great message to begin with that
+
+1:09:52.139,1:09:56.360
+will slow adoption
+
+1:09:56.360,1:10:00.719
+the people young people in particular are
+moving off of us and to keep this now we're
+
+1:10:00.719,1:10:05.199
+going into things like playing on people's
+walls and facebook
+
+1:10:05.199,1:10:07.250
+polymarker warnings investigating
+
+1:10:07.250,1:10:12.659
+so forth that is going to continue
+
+1:10:12.659,1:10:15.679
+take pot
+
+1:10:15.679,1:10:17.340
+a lot of people say
+
+1:10:17.340,1:10:19.250
+partially because people them
+
+1:10:19.250,1:10:22.510
+moving on to these things that are said to
+be is that
+
+1:10:22.510,1:10:24.340
+but I think that indeed he is dead
+
+1:10:24.340,1:10:26.010
+what would that send to AP
+
+1:10:26.010,1:10:28.280
+as and he's not going away
+
+1:10:28.280,1:10:30.860
+a lot of reasons
+
+1:10:30.860,1:10:34.860
+are some things that could be dealt with this
+one of the big proposals is to switch from
+
+1:10:34.860,1:10:37.059
+a portion or all of the-mail where
+
+1:10:37.059,1:10:38.380
+the center
+
+1:10:38.380,1:10:39.830
+connects to the recipient
+
+1:10:39.830,1:10:41.420
+this year's the male take it
+
+1:10:41.420,1:10:43.159
+to uphold
+
+1:10:43.159,1:10:47.649
+model where the recipient just sends a short
+message to have male for you here and then
+
+1:10:47.649,1:10:48.789
+the
+
+1:10:48.789,1:10:49.880
+recipient
+
+1:10:49.880,1:10:51.159
+polls back for it
+
+1:10:51.159,1:10:53.219
+when it's convenient for them to do so
+
+1:10:53.219,1:10:55.909
+that does show that the cost function
+
+1:10:55.909,1:10:57.699
+so the %uh
+
+1:10:57.699,1:11:00.020
+the center actually has to
+
+1:11:00.020,1:11:01.210
+have some of
+
+1:11:01.210,1:11:04.900
+infrastructure there they have to be prepared
+to use the word was mail
+
+1:11:04.900,1:11:09.110
+that's not true
+
+1:11:09.110,1:11:12.399
+he's still going to be in the essence the
+structure I think
+
+1:11:12.399,1:11:16.869
+the essentially is a sensible and can do almost
+anything with the exceptions it's going to
+
+1:11:16.869,1:11:17.890
+be good enough
+
+1:11:17.890,1:11:19.780
+for a long time
+
+1:11:19.780,1:11:20.789
+I think
+
+1:11:20.789,1:11:26.360
+in the medium term we will succeed in getting
+the GSA absolutely everywhere
+
+1:11:26.360,1:11:30.689
+that's about the only people who have to ask
+the e-mail will be
+
+1:11:30.689,1:11:34.979
+the people who listen to peace are rich and
+other pressures and they can't go out and
+
+1:11:34.979,1:11:36.620
+upgrade the
+
+1:11:36.620,1:11:40.760
+of so I I'm pretty optimistic on that
+
+1:11:40.760,1:11:41.920
+and
+
+1:11:41.920,1:11:44.900
+most e-mail is going to end up being opposed
+to the providers
+
+1:11:44.900,1:11:48.039
+it's gotten so much harder to run in this
+juror
+
+1:11:48.039,1:11:51.440
+now than it was twenty years ago or ten years
+ago were you
+
+1:11:51.440,1:11:53.760
+five years ago for a lot of reasons
+
+1:11:53.760,1:11:56.419
+the gallery reasons for example
+
+1:11:56.419,1:12:01.670
+there's a lot of new laws that apply to the
+mail and retention and so forth
+
+1:12:01.670,1:12:06.440
+you really don't want to push that off onto
+somebody else who can worry about it so
+
+1:12:06.440,1:12:09.790
+lots of companies for example who used to
+run the romanovs jurors
+
+1:12:09.790,1:12:12.089
+are moving to jeanette
+
+1:12:12.089,1:12:13.230
+and I think you'll see
+
+1:12:13.230,1:12:15.239
+more of that I think you'll see a lot
+
+1:12:15.239,1:12:16.169
+more of that
+
+1:12:16.169,1:12:17.989
+I don't think we'll get to the
+
+1:12:17.989,1:12:21.489
+place where there are three companies in the
+entire world that
+
+1:12:21.489,1:12:23.400
+have-mailboxes
+
+1:12:23.400,1:12:26.920
+although there would actually be certain advantages
+to that
+
+1:12:26.920,1:12:29.270
+they won't get any more like that but
+
+1:12:29.270,1:12:32.459
+of small companies
+
+1:12:32.459,1:12:37.729
+don't want to deal with that
+
+1:12:37.729,1:12:39.639
+so some larger thoughts
+
+1:12:39.639,1:12:45.449
+%uh casual messaging well and he continued
+to move away from essence few days now
+
+1:12:45.449,1:12:48.440
+you see more and more start going through
+this book
+
+1:12:48.440,1:12:50.300
+%um %um
+
+1:12:50.300,1:12:52.969
+more and more self-government arrangements
+again
+
+1:12:52.969,1:12:55.129
+people forty eight
+
+1:12:55.129,1:12:57.189
+instant gratification
+
+1:12:57.189,1:13:00.440
+and I am give somebody a man told us
+
+1:13:00.440,1:13:03.869
+he also sits there with mobile usage and
+
+1:13:03.869,1:13:07.770
+is there anyone in this room who is not secure
+and one of these
+
+1:13:07.770,1:13:12.189
+anyone who wants to admit that their letter
+I didn't think so
+
+1:13:12.189,1:13:15.360
+I e-mail is not going to die
+
+1:13:15.360,1:13:16.329
+on this
+
+1:13:16.329,1:13:18.610
+been predicted that that's just not true
+
+1:13:18.610,1:13:20.420
+it's to us into business
+
+1:13:20.420,1:13:24.980
+it's to a lawsuit in places where you can
+really yes and water message
+
+1:13:24.980,1:13:27.760
+you have to think about what you're saying
+
+1:13:27.760,1:13:29.149
+for the standard
+
+1:13:29.149,1:13:31.949
+%uh it's the if you got
+
+1:13:31.949,1:13:34.709
+security and regulatory issues up
+
+1:13:34.709,1:13:37.949
+there are real problems with instant message
+in
+
+1:13:37.949,1:13:43.110
+one of the things is it totally artificial
+is that tax to have some us
+
+1:13:43.110,1:13:47.349
+I saw a lot of money in a light two cents
+attacks
+
+1:13:47.349,1:13:49.360
+constant so companies as euro
+
+1:13:49.360,1:13:54.329
+to do that effectively zero when they put
+this cost on it and they're making
+
+1:13:54.329,1:13:55.230
+fortune
+
+1:13:55.230,1:13:56.400
+off of that
+
+1:13:56.400,1:14:00.320
+and that will be enough people say I don't
+want to pay a tenth of a cent for e-mail but
+
+1:14:00.320,1:14:01.549
+there will end soon
+
+1:14:01.549,1:14:04.000
+the two sides for anathema us
+
+1:14:04.000,1:14:05.820
+this is crazy
+
+1:14:05.820,1:14:07.489
+I'm hoping that won't go away
+
+1:14:07.489,1:14:11.260
+the other thing is that as you get into the
+business world were more you're dealing with
+
+1:14:11.260,1:14:12.909
+people across time zones
+
+1:14:12.909,1:14:14.510
+%uh when you're a hacker
+
+1:14:14.510,1:14:16.810
+and you're up around the clock ticking away
+
+1:14:16.810,1:14:21.410
+that's not such a big deal but when we start
+to get into the more conventional world actually
+
+1:14:21.410,1:14:22.489
+kind of the monarchy
+
+1:14:22.489,1:14:24.190
+and you get married you have kids
+
+1:14:24.190,1:14:25.239
+he started
+
+1:14:25.239,1:14:28.679
+go on to a more conventional schedule
+
+1:14:28.679,1:14:30.079
+that distinction
+
+1:14:30.079,1:14:31.370
+that's what you know
+
+1:14:31.370,1:14:32.760
+he's investigating
+
+1:14:32.760,1:14:38.780
+and even voice he's going to be were it's
+already boring as it were and more than that
+
+1:14:38.780,1:14:41.270
+I actually were talking about that
+
+1:14:41.270,1:14:44.019
+of little bit in the last one
+
+1:14:44.019,1:14:48.900
+and I think there's a lot of very interesting
+work to be done again the computer human interface
+
+1:14:48.900,1:14:49.949
+of the-mail
+
+1:14:49.949,1:14:51.589
+right now the-mail
+
+1:14:51.589,1:14:54.479
+but e-mails started off as a in box here
+
+1:14:54.479,1:14:56.489
+carol millhouse you go through them
+
+1:14:56.489,1:15:00.639
+it's gotten to the point where it's sort of
+like it down secretary him to sort out the
+
+1:15:00.639,1:15:01.550
+junk mail
+
+1:15:01.550,1:15:02.959
+and give you the rest of it
+
+1:15:02.959,1:15:06.670
+e-mails should be news of new York should
+say he messaging
+
+1:15:06.670,1:15:08.380
+is there any light eight
+
+1:15:08.380,1:15:10.409
+really the executive and then
+
+1:15:10.409,1:15:13.810
+who knows what it is you're doing can deal
+with
+
+1:15:13.810,1:15:18.030
+and that is so rotten that stuff that you
+actually cancer this stuff
+
+1:15:18.030,1:15:18.849
+where is not
+
+1:15:18.849,1:15:20.400
+a difficult time
+
+1:15:20.400,1:15:24.840
+who can sort of the things into an order and
+say this is the most important thing for you
+
+1:15:24.840,1:15:27.300
+to deal with right now
+
+1:15:27.300,1:15:30.880
+your mind you know when someone for meeting
+is coming up
+
+1:15:30.880,1:15:31.980
+who will
+
+1:15:31.980,1:15:33.020
+you know when
+
+1:15:33.020,1:15:37.319
+you call a meeting and people have responded
+will go off and and
+
+1:15:37.319,1:15:38.340
+do you know about it
+
+1:15:38.340,1:15:40.260
+et cetera et cetera
+
+1:15:40.260,1:15:45.389
+there's a huge amount of work that can happen
+here
+
+1:15:45.389,1:15:49.479
+what scares me is unified message in almost
+a month or
+
+1:15:49.479,1:15:52.969
+too many messaging services in applications
+out there
+
+1:15:52.969,1:15:55.919
+well I think there's too much
+
+1:15:55.919,1:15:58.330
+overlap and there's not enough compatibility
+
+1:15:58.330,1:16:00.989
+I want to show you a little chart that I made
+up
+
+1:16:00.989,1:16:02.560
+just lost couple days
+
+1:16:02.560,1:16:09.560
+all of the services in applications on the
+stars are ones by personal use
+
+1:16:10.520,1:16:15.219
+just run through this week or two
+
+1:16:15.219,1:16:17.110
+we start with haiti and it
+
+1:16:17.110,1:16:20.599
+originally started out as an ally and application
+
+1:16:20.599,1:16:26.719
+it does I am really does that somehow some
+lawyers roosevelt for Israel
+
+1:16:26.719,1:16:32.040
+bosses from the board life where I think also
+for him or whatever it does have its own address
+
+1:16:32.040,1:16:33.800
+book
+
+1:16:33.800,1:16:35.409
+the hum
+
+1:16:35.409,1:16:36.729
+right
+
+1:16:36.729,1:16:40.110
+on or is it was designed originally as a up
+
+1:16:40.110,1:16:41.739
+of course acquisitions
+
+1:16:41.739,1:16:43.630
+but it's not a all right and wrong headed
+
+1:16:43.630,1:16:45.509
+it's kind of a deal now
+
+1:16:45.509,1:16:50.729
+it will called for him
+
+1:16:50.729,1:16:52.169
+%um
+
+1:16:52.169,1:16:54.489
+for additional money
+
+1:16:54.489,1:16:56.460
+you can't do that by definition is that
+
+1:16:56.460,1:16:59.199
+for additional monies was time for a little
+
+1:16:59.199,1:17:00.540
+in the case
+
+1:17:00.540,1:17:02.339
+money changes hands
+
+1:17:02.339,1:17:07.219
+you know that's a nice for income in or outgoing
+calls so I am
+
+1:17:07.219,1:17:09.460
+outgoing start flying but no in coming
+
+1:17:09.460,1:17:11.840
+strike one
+
+1:17:11.840,1:17:17.899
+well lawyers which was up from seoul a couple
+of days ago was called grand central
+
+1:17:17.899,1:17:21.169
+%uh harris
+
+1:17:21.169,1:17:22.420
+mister President
+
+1:17:22.420,1:17:27.710
+for its part is not but the no three there
+is that there are other this who was talk
+
+1:17:27.710,1:17:29.070
+as well
+
+1:17:29.070,1:17:33.210
+and so in some sense is closely related so
+that's kind of the US
+
+1:17:33.210,1:17:35.570
+because unless the masses those two boys
+
+1:17:35.570,1:17:39.340
+it doesn't invade year old yes
+
+1:17:39.340,1:17:40.409
+bobbie
+
+1:17:40.409,1:17:44.269
+that's a incoming calls
+
+1:17:44.269,1:17:46.680
+in fact that's the whole point
+
+1:17:46.680,1:17:48.999
+who was
+
+1:17:48.999,1:17:50.870
+you can do and how going
+
+1:17:50.870,1:17:57.239
+calls in the US yet to take action if you
+want to do international outgoing calls
+
+1:17:57.239,1:18:02.139
+%um
+
+1:18:02.139,1:18:04.469
+he did not have a call for him
+
+1:18:04.469,1:18:09.530
+no that's what it was designed to do and recently
+he can actually called for not just to of
+
+1:18:09.530,1:18:13.089
+regular phone number on what's called a PSA
+and
+
+1:18:13.089,1:18:15.709
+up
+
+1:18:15.709,1:18:18.769
+public's something telephone network
+
+1:18:18.769,1:18:20.020
+%um
+
+1:18:20.020,1:18:22.329
+sorry I should know that
+
+1:18:22.329,1:18:24.020
+so that's what you have
+
+1:18:24.020,1:18:27.879
+that kind of remark you're no longer couldn't
+find it
+
+1:18:27.879,1:18:32.469
+it can also go to portland numbers in Texas
+I don't want to count and there's no way to
+
+1:18:32.469,1:18:34.709
+call him from a regular telephone
+
+1:18:34.709,1:18:38.040
+but in fact when some told him for it to you
+so
+
+1:18:38.040,1:18:39.119
+%uh which is
+
+1:18:39.119,1:18:40.639
+what I'm using
+
+1:18:40.639,1:18:42.929
+well let me get to
+
+1:18:42.929,1:18:47.960
+brought boris is a service of had for a while
+it's just the four okay
+
+1:18:47.960,1:18:48.989
+sir I was
+
+1:18:48.989,1:18:50.090
+I did
+
+1:18:50.090,1:18:51.889
+only those boys
+
+1:18:51.889,1:18:56.260
+okay does have an incoming calls
+
+1:18:56.260,1:19:00.619
+and of course you always get more on that
+and also I said that number of local number
+
+1:19:00.619,1:19:04.369
+in the UK which were inspired Tony birtley
+
+1:19:04.369,1:19:07.419
+on for a very serious sewers some for anything
+
+1:19:07.419,1:19:11.099
+you can see there
+
+1:19:11.099,1:19:12.520
+and it does
+
+1:19:12.520,1:19:15.090
+coming up phone calls
+
+1:19:15.090,1:19:19.900
+yes well I just heard plan was recently if
+they saw
+
+1:19:19.900,1:19:23.190
+I'm I have it on this mission here
+
+1:19:23.190,1:19:25.769
+it's got I am still has some thoughts
+
+1:19:25.769,1:19:27.239
+it's not for us
+
+1:19:27.239,1:19:30.000
+but it does have video
+
+1:19:30.000,1:19:33.429
+for additional not even to incoming and outgoing
+calls
+
+1:19:33.429,1:19:36.480
+but those are three
+
+1:19:36.480,1:19:39.969
+except for incoming board calls
+
+1:19:39.969,1:19:43.789
+so that's kind of another thing he can do
+cole porter N
+
+1:19:43.789,1:19:45.599
+it does have a voice-mail
+
+1:19:45.599,1:19:49.479
+the and why everything here is that it's all
+a matter of book
+
+1:19:49.479,1:19:54.020
+which by the way are in general not integrated
+with one another so you have to have
+
+1:19:54.020,1:19:56.590
+one address
+
+1:19:56.590,1:19:58.849
+contacted you want to have happen
+
+1:19:58.849,1:20:01.849
+five or six for a and return address book
+
+1:20:01.849,1:20:06.360
+and of course I shall I use primarily because
+then you scream saying
+
+1:20:06.360,1:20:08.280
+to know about my mom
+
+1:20:08.280,1:20:12.000
+when she has a problem and I don't want to
+drive up your house
+
+1:20:12.000,1:20:16.300
+%uh on by will go into all of these details
+is the know
+
+1:20:16.300,1:20:19.810
+there's almost no immigration on adverse book
+which is a disaster
+
+1:20:19.810,1:20:22.869
+these things overlap in major ways
+
+1:20:22.869,1:20:23.909
+I've got it
+
+1:20:23.909,1:20:27.479
+a google voice number now that came forward
+
+1:20:27.479,1:20:31.599
+sue my laptop live on the road but it also
+brings it home
+
+1:20:31.599,1:20:35.299
+ but I don't have a way to get that UK
+number
+
+1:20:35.299,1:20:38.269
+to follow me around even though i'd like to
+
+1:20:38.269,1:20:41.500
+it's like a person getting immigration going
+
+1:20:41.500,1:20:42.719
+properly out
+
+1:20:42.719,1:20:44.720
+and what you have today is
+
+1:20:44.720,1:20:46.700
+in the mind message in
+
+1:20:46.700,1:20:48.229
+you have any clothes
+
+1:20:48.229,1:20:49.669
+of this
+
+1:20:49.669,1:20:52.889
+where they were were around in the day
+
+1:20:52.889,1:20:53.879
+don't know
+
+1:20:53.879,1:20:55.250
+that's where you know
+
+1:20:55.250,1:20:58.319
+peres would look like that was an original
+e-mail
+
+1:20:58.319,1:21:00.650
+are a real legitimate email address
+
+1:21:00.650,1:21:02.399
+yeah
+
+1:21:02.399,1:21:07.110
+I didn't forget percent couldn't figure out how to
+put that in there
+
+1:21:07.110,1:21:08.860
+ that
+
+1:21:08.860,1:21:10.880
+it could be from Texas
+
+1:21:10.880,1:21:14.279
+
+
+1:21:14.279,1:21:17.330
+I I'm going to talk him into it
+
+1:21:17.330,1:21:21.670
+some groups who is advertising here if you're
+interested in the e-mail message in
+
+1:21:21.670,1:21:26.000
+the conference on the melody spam is coming
+up in July and mountain view
+
+1:21:26.000,1:21:29.480
+take a look at the web site
+
+1:21:29.480,1:21:36.480
+thank you very much and are there any questions
+
+1:21:37.139,1:21:38.820
+I answered everything
+
+1:21:38.820,1:21:40.329
+a lot of so-called
+
+1:21:40.329,1:21:46.760
+you're so long
+
+1:21:46.760,1:21:48.090
+okay what is without doubt
+
+1:21:48.090,1:21:51.320
+a little early for policy then I will be around
+
+1:21:51.320,1:21:52.599
+on the rest of the day
+
+1:21:52.599,1:21:54.960
+a few
+
+1:21:54.960,1:22:01.960
+what they're asking thing also
+
+1:22:05.650,1:22:06.760
+the IRS
+
+1:22:06.760,1:22:11.679
+I was not something I was doing I started
+off with the initial design
+
+1:22:11.679,1:22:12.979
+of parents
+
+1:22:12.979,1:22:15.010
+how close are slim
+
+1:22:15.010,1:22:16.280
+was working on it
+
+1:22:16.280,1:22:18.280
+ we concluded
+
+1:22:18.280,1:22:19.840
+at the company
+
+1:22:19.840,1:22:24.079
+that sent a text was not going to be
+
+1:22:24.079,1:22:28.349
+significantly better than postfix and it
+certainly wasn't going to be ready anytime
+
+1:22:28.349,1:22:29.789
+since close as eight
+
+1:22:29.789,1:22:31.520
+great voter
+
+1:22:31.520,1:22:33.059
+ but hes very
+
+1:22:33.059,1:22:35.020
+careful
+
+1:22:35.020,1:22:36.219
+that means he's not
+
+1:22:36.219,1:22:38.199
+really all that clear
+
+1:22:38.199,1:22:41.090
+and so we look at it and said
+
+1:22:41.090,1:22:45.840
+worth it to us to do this he is remanded
+
+1:22:45.840,1:22:48.300
+and there on the line
+
+1:22:48.300,1:22:52.210
+I think it's insider and she a one-dot or
+her
+
+1:22:52.210,1:22:52.980
+the
+
+1:22:52.980,1:22:55.820
+and ETA one dot org I don't remember
+
+1:22:55.820,1:22:58.610
+which and so you can download it but I don't
+know about
+
+1:22:58.610,1:23:02.510
+certainly he's working on that now
+
+1:23:02.510,1:23:06.989
+as I just said by the way I'm working on some
+stuff in sendmail eight mostly stuff like
+
+1:23:06.989,1:23:11.739
+the IRS tensions what I don't know when or
+if that's going to get released
+
+1:23:11.739,1:23:15.179
+why is not a priority for the company right
+now
+
+1:23:15.179,1:23:16.139
+and
+
+1:23:16.139,1:23:20.189
+all of them so I'm hoping to do is to a private
+release outflow
+
+1:23:20.189,1:23:23.230
+do not use this under any circumstances
+
+1:23:23.230,1:23:24.869
+et cetera kind of
+
+1:23:24.869,1:23:25.840
+release
+
+1:23:25.840,1:23:32.840
+but we'll see
+
+1:23:36.409,1:23:43.409
+so the question is who owns the market
+
+1:23:54.820,1:23:57.309
+that so there's two things there one it is
+
+1:23:57.309,1:23:59.830
+don't have any steps on all what
+
+1:23:59.830,1:24:02.109
+it's often e-mail servers are using
+
+1:24:02.109,1:24:05.860
+that information there used to be some
+places that
+
+1:24:05.860,1:24:08.079
+did and publish it for free
+
+1:24:08.079,1:24:09.460
+but they have started
+
+1:24:09.460,1:24:10.320
+charging money for it
+
+1:24:10.320,1:24:12.670
+a lot of money for
+
+1:24:12.670,1:24:13.650
+and I'm so
+
+1:24:13.650,1:24:19.800
+so I don't have anything really recent but
+from what I can determine piecing together
+
+1:24:19.800,1:24:22.750
+on sendmail is still the largest
+
+1:24:22.750,1:24:25.690
+and she a in terms of America
+
+1:24:25.690,1:24:28.449
+numbers out there are leave of
+
+1:24:28.449,1:24:30.460
+microsoft number two
+
+1:24:30.460,1:24:32.239
+what is
+
+1:24:32.239,1:24:33.980
+senate although it is a problem
+
+1:24:33.980,1:24:35.210
+thirty percent
+
+1:24:35.210,1:24:39.219
+something like that in my interest also around
+
+1:24:39.219,1:24:39.720
+of
+
+1:24:39.720,1:24:42.739
+maybe twenty percent of that everyone else
+breaks up the
+
+1:24:42.739,1:24:45.029
+fifty percent so
+
+1:24:45.029,1:24:47.070
+on the other hand but
+
+1:24:47.070,1:24:48.919
+I'm afraid that's
+
+1:24:48.919,1:24:52.350
+speculative speculation and tribulations
+
+1:24:52.350,1:24:53.350
+%um
+
+1:24:53.350,1:24:56.599
+the second question is can we use in essence
+you're doing
+
+1:24:56.599,1:24:59.729
+well we're just MTV's to improve the situation
+
+1:24:59.729,1:25:02.709
+yes i'd love to do that
+
+1:25:02.709,1:25:07.319
+there was a time when that would have been
+easier for me when
+
+1:25:07.319,1:25:12.029
+when really seventy percent of the network
+according to send mail and they mostly upgraded
+
+1:25:12.029,1:25:13.840
+fairly quickly
+
+1:25:13.840,1:25:17.860
+I no longer have that kind of leverage
+
+1:25:17.860,1:25:22.530
+people have gotten much more reluctant to
+upgrade the rail sir
+
+1:25:22.530,1:25:26.099
+now I can't talk the visa into doing it
+too
+
+1:25:26.099,1:25:28.380
+then we might actually have something
+
+1:25:28.380,1:25:35.380
+we were in a state like utah microsoft int doing it
+ yeah that's likely
+
+1:25:37.010,1:25:39.489
+the window of opportunity could be close
+
+1:25:39.489,1:25:41.889
+and once again I would love to do that
+
+1:25:41.889,1:25:44.050
+but he is just not
+
+1:25:44.050,1:25:47.739
+I I I do work for commercial companies not
+
+1:25:47.739,1:25:51.949
+reasonable for them to pay me to do that right
+now it's not a priority
+
+1:25:51.949,1:25:54.260
+and so I can't do it on my own
+
+1:25:54.260,1:25:56.190
+that would like
+
+1:25:56.190,1:26:00.500
+I am doing some stuff on my own but there
+are limits to what I can do a very old and
+
+1:26:00.500,1:26:02.709
+I was twenty five years ago
+
+1:26:02.709,1:26:05.829
+so that and can no longer pull those all nighters
+
+1:26:05.829,1:26:09.109
+every night for a week
+
+1:26:09.109,1:26:16.109
+any other questions
+
+1:26:16.859,1:26:20.900
+silence all right
+
+1:26:20.900,1:26:21.480
+thank you very much