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-<!-- Copyright (c) 1999 Neil Blakey-Milner, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $Id: chapter.sgml,v 1.1 2000-06-23 00:37:15 nik Exp $
--->
-
-<chapter id="doc-build">
- <title>The Documentation Build Process</title>
-
- <para>This chapter's main purpose is to clearly explain <emphasis>how
- the documentation build process is organised</emphasis>, and
- <emphasis>how to affect modifications to this process</emphasis>.
- </para>
-
- <para>After you have finished reading this chapter you should:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Know what you need to build the FDP documentation, in
- addition to those mentioned in the <link
- linkend="tools">SGML tools chapter</link>.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Be able to read and understand the
- <application>make</application> instructions that are present in
- each document's <filename>Makefile</filename>s, as well as an
- overview of the <filename>doc.project.mk</filename> includes.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Be able to customize the build process by using
- <application>make</application> variables and
- <application>make</application> targets.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <sect1>
- <title>The FreeBSD Documentation Build Toolset</title>
-
- <para>Here are your tools. Use them every way you can.</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>The primary build tool you will need is
- <application>make</application>, but specifically
- <application>Berkeley Make</application>.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Package building is handled by FreeBSD's
- <application>pkg_create</application>. If you are not using
- FreeBSD, you will either have to live without packages, or
- compile the source yourself.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><application>gzip</application> is needed to create
- compressed versions of the document.
- <application>bzip2</application> compression and
- <application>zip</application> archives are also supported.
- <application>tar</application> is supported, but package
- building demands it.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><application>install</application> is the default method
- to install the documentation. There are alternatives,
- however.</para
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <note>
- <para>It is unlikely you will not be able to find these last two, they
- are mentioned for completeness.</para>
- </note>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1>
- <title>Understanding Makefiles in the Documentation tree</title>
-
- <para>There are three main types of <filename>Makefile</filename>s
- in the FreeBSD Documentation Project tree.</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><link linkend="sub-make">Subdirectory
- <filename>Makefile</filename>s</link> simply pass
- commands to those directories below them.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><link linkend="doc-make">Documentation
- <filename>Makefile</filename>s</link> describe the
- document(s) that should be produced from this directory.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><link linkend="make-includes"><application>Make</application>
- includes</link> are the glue that perform the document production,
- and are usually of the form
- <filename>doc.<replaceable>xxx</replaceable>.mk</filename>.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <para><application>Make</application> syntax is quickly revised as
- the we explore these types.</para>
-
- <sect2 id="sub-make">
- <title>Subdirectory Makefiles</title>
-
- <para>These directories usually take the form of:</para>
-
- <programlisting>SUBDIR =articles
-SUBDIR+=books
-
-COMPAT_SYMLINK = en
-
-DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/..
-.include "${DOC_PREFIX}/share/mk/doc.project.mk"</programlisting>
-
- <para>In quick summary, the first four non-empty lines define the
- <application>make</application> variables,
- <makevar>SUBDIR</makevar>, <makevar>COMPAT_SYMLINK</makevar>,
- and <makevar>DOC_PREFIX</makevar>.</para>
-
- <para>The first <makevar>SUBDIR</makevar> statement, as well as
- the <makevar>COMPAT_SYMLINK</makevar> statement, shows how to
- assign a value to a variable, overriding any previous
- value.</para>
-
- <para>The second <makevar>SUBDIR</makevar> statement shows how a
- value is appended to the current value of a variable. The
- <makevar>SUBDIR</makevar> variable is now <literal>articles
- books</literal>.</para>
-
- <para>The <makevar>DOC_PREFIX</makevar> assignment shows how a
- value is assigned to the variable, but only if it is not already
- defined. This is useful if <makevar>DOC_PREFIX</makevar> is not
- where this <filename>Makefile</filename> thinks it is - the user
- can override this and provide the correct value.</para>
-
- <para>Now what does it all mean? <makevar>SUBDIR</makevar>
- mentions which subdirectories below this one the build process
- should pass any work on to.</para>
-
- <para><makevar>COMPAT_SYMLINK</makevar> is specific to
- compatibility symlinks (amazingly enough) for languages to their
- official encoding (<filename>doc/en</filename> would point to
- <filename>en_US.ISO-8859-1</filename>).</para>
-
- <para><makevar>DOC_PREFIX</makevar> is the path to the root of the
- FreeBSD Document Project tree. This is not always that easy to
- find, and is also easily overridable, to allow for flexibility.
- <makevar>.CURDIR</makevar> is a <application>make</application>
- builtin variable with the path to the current directory.</para>
-
- <para>The final line includes the FreeBSD Documentation Project's
- project-wide <application>make</application> system file
- <filename>doc.project.mk</filename> which is the glue which
- converts these variables into build instructions.</para>
-
- </sect2>
- <sect2 id="doc-make">
- <title>Documentation Makefiles</title>
-
- <para>These <filename>Makefile</filename>s set a bunch of
- <application>make</application> variables that describe how to
- build the documentation contained in that directory.</para>
-
- <para>Here is an example:</para>
-
- <programlisting>MAINTAINER=nik@FreeBSD.org
-
-DOC?= book
-
-FORMATS?= html-split html
-
-INSTALL_COMPRESSED?= gz
-INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESSED?=
-
-# SGML content
-SRCS= book.sgml
-
-DOC_PREFIX?= ${.CURDIR}/../../..
-
-.include "$(DOC_PREFIX)/share/mk/docproj.docbook.mk"</programlisting>
-
- <para>The <makevar>MAINTAINER</makevar> variable is a very
- important one. This variable provides the ability to claim
- ownership over a document in the FreeBSD Documentation
- Project, whereby you gain the responsibility for maintaining
- it.</para>
-
- <para><makevar>DOC</makevar> is the name (sans the
- <filename>.sgml</filename> extension) of the main document
- created by this directory. <makevar>SRCS</makevar> lists all
- the individual files that make up the document. This should
- also include important files in which a change should result
- in a rebuild.</para>
-
- <para><makevar>FORMATS</makevar> indicates the default formats
- that should be built for this document.
- <makevar>INSTALL_COMPRESSED</makevar> is the default list of
- compression techniques that should be used in the document
- build. <makevar>INSTALL_ONLY_COMPRESS</makevar>, empty by
- default, should be non-empty if only compressed documents are
- desired in the build.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para>We covered optional variable assignments in the
- <link linkend="sub-make">previous section</link>.</para>
- </note>
-
- <para>The <makevar>DOC_PREFIX</makevar> and include statements
- should be familiar already.</para>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-
- <sect1 id="make-includes">
- <title>FreeBSD Documentation Project make includes</title>
-
- <para>This is best explained by inspection of the code. Here are
- the system include files:</para>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><filename>doc.project.mk</filename> is the main project
- include file, which includes all the following include files, as
- necessary.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><filename>doc.subdir.mk</filename> handles traversing of
- the document tree during the build and install processes.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><filename>doc.install.mk</filename> provides variables
- that affect ownership and installation of documents.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><filename>doc.docbook.mk</filename> is included if
- <makevar>DOCFORMAT</makevar> is <literal>docbook</literal>
- and <makevar>DOC</makevar> is set.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>doc.project.mk</title>
-
- <para>By inspection:</para>
-
- <programlisting>DOCFORMAT?= docbook
-MAINTAINER?= doc@FreeBSD.org
-
-PREFIX?= /usr/local
-PRI_LANG?= en_US.ISO_8859-1
-
-.if defined(DOC)
-.if ${DOCFORMAT} == "docbook"
-.include "doc.docbook.mk"
-.endif
-.endif
-
-.include "doc.subdir.mk"
-.include "doc.install.mk"</programlisting>
-
- <sect3>
-
- <title>Variables</title>
-
- <para><makevar>DOCFORMAT</makevar> and <makevar>MAINTAINER</makevar>
- are assigned default values, if these are not set by the
- document make file.</para>
-
- <para><makevar>PREFIX</makevar> is the prefix under which the
- <link linkend="tools">documentation building tools</link> are
- installed. For normal package and port installation, this is
- <filename>/usr/local</filename>.</para>
-
- <para><makevar>PRI_LANG</makevar> should be set to whatever
- language and encoding is natural amongst users these documents are
- being built for. US English is the default.</para>
-
- <note>
- <para><makevar>PRI_LANG</makevar> in no way affects what documents
- can, or even will, be built. It's main use is creating links to
- commonly referenced documents into the FreeBSD documentation
- install root.</para>
- </note>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>Conditionals</title>
-
- <para>The <literal>.if defined(DOC)</literal> line is an example of
- a <application>make</application> conditional which, like in
- other programs, defines behaviour if some condition is true or
- if it is false. <literal>defined</literal> is a function which
- returns whether the variable given is defined or not.</para>
-
- <para><literal>.if ${DOCFORMAT} == "docbook"</literal>, next,
- tests whether the <makevar>DOCFORMAT</makevar> variable is
- <literal>"docbook"</literal>, and in this case, includes
- <filename>doc.docbook.mk</filename>.</para>
-
- <para>The two <literal>.endif</literal>s close the two above
- conditionals, marking the end of their application.</para>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
-
- <sect2>
- <title>doc.subdir.mk</title>
-
- <para>This is too long to explain by inspection, you should be
- able to work it out with the knowledge gained from the previous
- chapters, and a little help given here.</para>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>Variables</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><makevar>SUBDIR</makevar> is a list of subdirectories
- that the build process should go further down
- into.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><makevar>ROOT_SYMLINKS</makevar> is the name of
- directories that should be linked to the document
- install root from their actual locations, if the current
- language is the primary language (specified by
- <makevar>PRI_LANG</makevar>).</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><makevar>COMPAT_SYMLINK</makevar> is described in the
- <link linkend="sub-make">Subdirectory Makefile</link>
- section.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>Targets and macros</title>
-
- <para>Dependencies are described by
- <literal><replaceable>target</replaceable>:
- <replaceable>dependency1 dependency2 ...</replaceable></literal>
- tuples, where to build <literal>target</literal>, you need to build
- the given dependencies first.</para>
-
- <para>After that descriptive tuple, instructions on how to build
- the target may be given, if the conversion process between the
- target and it's dependencies are not previously defined, or if
- this particular conversion is not the same as the default
- conversion method.</para>
-
- <para>A special dependency <literal>.USE</literal> defines
- the equivalent of a macro.</para>
-
-<programlisting>_SUBDIRUSE: .USE
-.for entry in ${SUBDIR}
- @${ECHO} "===> ${DIRPRFX}${entry}"
- @(cd ${.CURDIR}/${entry} && \
- ${MAKE} ${.TARGET:S/realpackage/package/:S/realinstall/install/} DIRPRFX=${DIRPRFX}${entry}/ )
-.endfor</programlisting>
-
- <para>In the above, <maketarget>_SUBDIRUSE</maketarget> is now a
- macro which will execute the given commands when it is listed
- as a dependency.</para>
-
- <para>What sets this macro apart from other targets? Basically,
- it is executed <emphasis>after</emphasis> the instructions
- given in the build procedure it is listed as a dependency to,
- and it doesn't adjust <makevar>.TARGET</makevar>, which is the
- variable which contains the name of the target currently
- being built.</para>
-
-<programlisting>clean: _SUBDIRUSE
- rm -f ${CLEANFILES}</programlisting>
-
- <para>In the above, <maketarget>clean</maketarget> will use the
- <maketarget>_SUBDIRUSE</maketarget> macro after it has
- executed the instruction
- <command>rm -f ${CLEANFILES}</command>. In effect, this causes
- <maketarget>clean</maketarget> to go further and further down
- the directory tree, deleting built files as it goes
- <emphasis>down</emphasis>, not on the way back up.</para>
-
- <sect4>
- <title>Provided targets</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><maketarget>install</maketarget> and
- <maketarget>package</maketarget> both go down the
- directory tree calling the real versions of themselves
- in the subdirectories.
- (<maketarget>realinstall</maketarget> and
- <maketarget>realpackage</maketarget>
- respectively)</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><maketarget>clean</maketarget> removes files created
- by the build process (and goes down the directory tree
- too). <maketarget>cleandir</maketarget> does the same,
- and also removes the object directory, if any.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect4>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>More on conditionals</title>
-
- <itemizedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para><literal>exists</literal> is another condition
- function which returns true if the given file exists.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><literal>empty</literal> returns true if the given
- variable is empty.</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para><literal>target</literal> returns true if the given
- target does not already exist.</para>
- </listitem>
- </itemizedlist>
- </sect3>
-
- <sect3>
- <title>Looping constructs in make (.for)</title>
-
- <para><literal>.for</literal> provides a way to repeat a set of
- instructions for each space-seperated element in a variable.
- It does this by assigning a variable to contain the current
- element in the list being examined.</para>
-
-<programlisting>_SUBDIRUSE: .USE
-.for entry in ${SUBDIR}
- @${ECHO} "===> ${DIRPRFX}${entry}"
- @(cd ${.CURDIR}/${entry} && \
- ${MAKE} ${.TARGET:S/realpackage/package/:S/realinstall/install/} DIRPRFX=${DIRPRFX}${entry}/ )
-.endfor</programlisting>
-
- <para>In the above, if <makevar>SUBDIR</makevar> is empty, no
- action is taken; if it has one or more elements, the
- instructions between <literal>.for</literal> and
- <literal>.endfor</literal> would repeat for every element,
- with <makevar>entry</makevar> being replaced with the value of
- the current element.</para>
- </sect3>
- </sect2>
- </sect1>
-</chapter>
-
-<!--
- Local Variables:
- mode: sgml
- sgml-declaration: "../chapter.decl"
- sgml-indent-data: t
- sgml-omittag: nil
- sgml-always-quote-attributes: t
- sgml-parent-document: ("../book.sgml" "part" "chapter")
- End:
--->
-