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-<!-- Copyright (c) 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.
-
- Redistribution and use in source (SGML DocBook) and 'compiled' forms
- (SGML HTML, PDF, PostScript, RTF and so forth) with or without
- modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
- are met:
-
- 1. Redistributions of source code (SGML DocBook) must retain the above
- copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
- disclaimer as the first lines of this file unmodified.
-
- 2. Redistributions in compiled form (transformed to other DTDs,
- converted to PDF, PostScript, RTF and other formats) must reproduce
- the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and the
- following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials
- provided with the distribution.
-
- THIS DOCUMENTATION IS PROVIDED BY NIK CLAYTON "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR
- IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES
- OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
- DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL NIK CLAYTON BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
- INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
- (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
- SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
- HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
- STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN
- ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENTATION, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
- POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
-
- $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/fdp-primer/translations/chapter.sgml,v 1.6 2000/08/03 23:20:48 ben Exp $
--->
-
-<chapter id="translations">
- <title>Translations</title>
-
- <para>This is the FAQ for people translating the FreeBSD documentation
- (FAQ, Handbook, tutorials, man pages, and others) to different
- languages.</para>
-
- <para>It is <emphasis>very</emphasis> heavily based on the translation FAQ
- from the FreeBSD German Documentation Project, originally written by Frank
- Gr&uuml;nder <email>elwood@mc5sys.in-berlin.de</email> and translated back to
- English by Bernd Warken <email>bwarken@mayn.de</email>.</para>
-
- <para>The FAQ maintainer is Nik Clayton
- <email>nik@FreeBSD.org</email>.</para>
-
- <qandaset>
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>Why a FAQ?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>More and more people are approaching the freebsd-doc mailing
- list and volunteering to translate FreeBSD documentation to other
- languages. This FAQ aims to answer their questions so they can start
- translating documentation as quickly as possible.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>What do <phrase>i18n</phrase> and <phrase>l10n</phrase>
- mean?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para><phrase>i18n</phrase> means
- <phrase>internationalisation</phrase> and <phrase>l10n</phrase>
- means <phrase>localisation</phrase>. They are just a convenient
- shorthand.</para>
-
- <para><phrase>i18n</phrase> can be read as &ldquo;i&rdquo; followed by
- 18 letters, followed by &ldquo;n&rdquo;. Similarly,
- <phrase>l10n</phrase> is &ldquo;l&rdquo; followed by 10 letters,
- followed by &ldquo;n&rdquo;.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>Is there a mailing list for translators?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Yes, <email>freebsd-translate@ngo.org.uk</email>. Subscribe by
- sending a message to
- <email>freebsd-translate-request@ngo.org.uk</email> with the word
- <literal>subscribe</literal> in the body of the message.</para>
-
- <para>You will receive a reply asking you to confirm your subscription
- (in exactly the same manner as the the FreeBSD lists at <hostid
- role="domainname">FreeBSD.org</hostid>).</para>
-
- <para>The primary language of the mailing list is English. However,
- posts in other languages will be accepted. The mailing list is not
- moderated, but you need to be a member of the list before you can
- post to it.</para>
-
- <para>The mailing list is archived, but they are not currently
- searchable. Sending the message <literal>help</literal> to
- <email>majordomo@ngo.org.uk</email> will send back instructions on
- how to access the archive.</para>
-
- <para>It is expected that the mailing list will transfer to <hostid
- role="domainname">FreeBSD.org</hostid> and therefore become
- <emphasis>official</emphasis> in the near future.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>Are more translators needed?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Yes. The more people work on translation the faster it gets
- done, and the faster changes to the English documentation are
- mirrored in the translated documents.</para>
-
- <para>You do not have to be a professional translator to be able to
- help.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>What languages do I need to know?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Ideally, you will have a good knowledge of written English, and
- obviously you will need to be fluent in the language you are
- translating to.</para>
-
- <para>English is not strictly necessary. For example, you could do a
- Hungarian translation of the FAQ from the Spanish
- translation.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>What software do I need to know?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>It is strongly recommended that you maintain a local copy of the
- FreeBSD CVS repository (at least the documentation part) either
- using <application>CTM</application> or
- <application>CVSup</application>. The "Staying current with FreeBSD"
- chapter in the Handbook explains how to use these
- applications.</para>
-
- <para>You should be comfortable using <application>CVS</application>.
- This will allow you to see what has changed between different
- versions of the files that make up the documentation.</para>
-
- <para>[XXX To Do -- write a tutorial that shows how to use CVSup to
- get just the documentation, check it out, and see what's changed
- between two arbitrary revisions]</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>How do I find out who else might be translating to the same
- language?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>The <ulink
- url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/docproj/translations.html">Documentation
- Project translations page</ulink> lists the translation efforts
- that are currently known about. If others are already working
- on translating documentation to your language, please don't
- duplicate their efforts. Instead, contact them to see how you can
- help.</para>
-
- <para>If no one is listed on that page as translating for your
- language, then send a message to
- <email>freebsd-doc@FreeBSD.org</email> in case someone else is
- thinking of doing a translation, but hasn't announced it yet.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>No one else is translating to my language. What do I do?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Congratulations, you have just started the &ldquo;FreeBSD
- <replaceable>your-language-here</replaceable> Documentation
- Translation Project&rdquo;. Welcome aboard.</para>
-
- <para>First, decide whether or not you've got the time to spare. Since
- you are the only person working on your language at the moment it is
- going to be your responsibility to publicise your work and
- coordinate any volunteers that might want to help you.</para>
-
- <para>Write an e-mail to the Documentation Project mailing list,
- announcing that you are going to translate the documentation, so the
- Documentation Project translations page can be maintained.</para>
-
- <para>You should subscribe to the
- <email>freebsd-translate@ngo.org.uk</email> mailing list (as
- described earlier).</para>
-
- <para>If there is already someone in your country providing FreeBSD
- mirroring services you should contact them and ask if you can
- have some webspace for your project, and possibly an e-mail
- address or mailing list services.</para>
-
- <para>Then pick a document and start translating. It is best to start
- with something fairly small&mdash;either the FAQ, or one of the
- tutorials.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>I've translated some documentation, where do I send it?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>That depends. If you are already working with a translation team
- (such as the Japanese team, or the German team) then they will have
- their own procedures for handling submitted documentation, and these
- will be outlined on their web pages.</para>
-
- <para>If you are the only person working on a particular language (or
- you are responsible for a translation project and want to submit
- your changes back to the FreeBSD project) then you should send your
- translation to the FreeBSD project (see the next question).</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>I'm the only person working on translating to this language, how
- do I submit my translation?</para>
-
- <para>or</para>
-
- <para>We're a translation team, and want to submit documentation that
- our members have translated for us?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>First, make sure your translation is organised properly. This
- means that it should drop in to the existing documentation tree and
- build straight away.</para>
-
- <para>Currently, the FreeBSD documentation is stored in a top level
- directory called <filename>doc/</filename>. Directories below this
- are named according to the language code they are written in, as
- defined in ISO639 (<filename>/usr/share/misc/iso639</filename> on a
- version of FreeBSD newer than 20th January 1999).</para>
-
- <para>If your language can be encoded in different ways (for example,
- Chinese) then there should be directories below this, one for each
- encoding format you have provided.</para>
-
- <para>Finally, you should have directories for each document.</para>
-
- <para>For example, a hypothetical Swedish translation might look
- like</para>
-
- <programlisting>doc/
- sv_SE.ISO_8859-1/
- Makefile
- books/
- faq/
- Makefile
- book.sgml</programlisting>
-
- <para><literal>sv_SE.ISO_8859-1</literal> is the name of the
- translation, in
- <filename><replaceable>lang</replaceable>.<replaceable>encoding</replaceable></filename>
- form. Note the
- two Makefiles, which will be used to build the documentation.</para>
-
- <para>Use &man.tar.1; and &man.gzip.1; to compress up your
- documentation, and send it to the project.</para>
-
- <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cd doc</userinput>
-&prompt.user; <userinput>tar cf swedish-docs.tar sv</userinput>
-&prompt.user; <userinput>gzip -9 swedish-docs.tar</userinput></screen>
-
- <para>Put <filename>swedish-docs.tar.gz</filename> somewhere. If you
- do not have access to your own webspace (perhaps your ISP does not
- let you have any) then you can e-mail Nik Clayton
- <email>nik@FreeBSD.org</email>, and arrange to e-mail the files
- when it is convenient.</para>
-
- <para>Either way, you should use &man.send-pr.1; to submit a report
- indicating that you have submitted the documentation. It would be
- very helpful if you could get other people to look over your
- translation and double check it first, since it is unlikely that the
- person committing it will be fluent in the language.</para>
-
- <para>Someone (probably the Documentation Project Manager, currently
- Nik Clayton <email>nik@FreeBSD.org</email>) will then take your
- translation and confirm that it builds. In particular, the
- following things will be looked at:</para>
-
- <orderedlist>
- <listitem>
- <para>Do all your files use RCS strings (such as "ID")?</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Does <command>make all</command> in the
- <filename>sv_SE.ISO_8859-1</filename> directory work correctly?</para>
- </listitem>
-
- <listitem>
- <para>Does <command>make install</command> work correctly?</para>
- </listitem>
- </orderedlist>
-
- <para>If there are any problems then whoever is looking at the
- submission will get back to you to try and work them out.</para>
-
- <para>If there are no problems your translation will be committed
- as soon as possible.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>Can I include language or country specific text in my
- translation?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>We would prefer that you did not.</para>
-
- <para>For example, suppose that you are translating the Handbook to
- Korean, and want to include a section about retailers in Korea in
- your Handbook.</para>
-
- <para>There's no real reason why that information should not be in the
- English (or German, or Spanish, or Japanese, or &hellip;) versions
- as well. It is feasible that an English speaker in Korea might try
- and pick up a copy of FreeBSD whilst over there. It also helps
- increase FreeBSD's perceived presence around the globe, which is not
- a bad thing.</para>
-
- <para>If you have country specific information, please submit it as a
- change to the English Handbook (using &man.send-pr.1;) and then
- translate the change back to your language in the translated
- Handbook.</para>
-
- <para>Thanks.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>How should language specific characters be included?</para>
-
- <para>Non-ASCII characters in the documentation should be included
- using SGML entities.</para>
-
- <para>Briefly, these look like an ampersand (&amp;), the name of the
- entity, and a semi-colon (;).</para>
-
- <para>The entity names are defined in ISO8879, which is in the ports
- tree as <filename>textproc/iso8879</filename>.</para>
-
- <para>A few examples include</para>
-
- <segmentedlist>
- <segtitle>Entity</segtitle>
-
- <segtitle>Appearance</segtitle>
-
- <segtitle>Description</segtitle>
-
- <seglistitem>
- <seg>&amp;eacute;</seg>
- <seg>&eacute;</seg>
- <seg>Small &ldquo;e&rdquo; with an acute accent</seg>
- </seglistitem>
-
- <seglistitem>
- <seg>&amp;Eacute;</seg>
- <seg>&Eacute;</seg>
- <seg>Large &ldquo;E&rdquo; with an acute accent</seg>
- </seglistitem>
-
- <seglistitem>
- <seg>&amp;uuml;</seg>
- <seg>&uuml;</seg>
- <seg>Small &ldquo;u&rdquo; with an umlaut</seg>
- </seglistitem>
- </segmentedlist>
-
- <para>After you have installed the iso8879 port, the files in
- <filename>/usr/local/share/sgml/iso8879</filename> contain the
- complete list.</para>
- </question>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>Addressing the reader</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>In the English documents, the reader is addressed as
- &ldquo;you&rdquo;, there is no formal/informal distinction as there
- is in some languages.</para>
-
- <para>If you are translating to a language which does distinguish, use
- whichever form is typically used in other technical documentation in
- your language. If in doubt, use a mildly polite form.</para>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
-
- <qandaentry>
- <question>
- <para>Do I need to include any additional information in my
- translations?</para>
- </question>
-
- <answer>
- <para>Yes.</para>
-
- <para>The header of the English version of each document will look
- something like this;</para>
-
- <programlisting>&lt;!--
- The FreeBSD Documentation Project
-
- &dollar;FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/fdp-primer/translations/chapter.sgml,v 1.5 2000/07/07 18:38:38 dannyboy Exp &dollar;
---&gt;</programlisting>
-
- <para>The exact boilerplate may change, but it will always include a
- &dollar;FreeBSD&dollar; line and the phrase <literal>The FreeBSD Documentation
- Project</literal>.
- Note that the &dollar;FreeBSD part is expanded automatically by
- CVS, so it should be empty (just
- <literal>&dollar;FreeBSD&dollar;</literal>) for new files.</para>
-
- <para>Your translated documents should include their own
- &dollar;FreeBSD&dollar; line, and change the
- <literal>FreeBSD Documentation Project</literal> line to
- <literal>The FreeBSD <replaceable>language</replaceable>
- Documentation Project</literal>.</para>
-
- <para>In addition, you should add a third line which indicates which
- revision of the English text this is based on.</para>
-
- <para>So, the Spanish version of this file might start</para>
-
- <programlisting>&lt;!--
- The FreeBSD Spanish Documentation Project
-
- &dollar;FreeBSD: doc/es_ES.ISO_8859-1/books/fdp-primer/translations/chapter.sgml,v 1.3 1999/06/24 19:12:32 jesusr Exp &dollar;
- Original revision: 1.11
---&gt;</programlisting>
- </answer>
- </qandaentry>
- </qandaset>
-</chapter>
-
-<!--
- Local Variables:
- mode: sgml
- sgml-declaration: "../chapter.decl"
- sgml-indent-data: t
- sgml-omittag: nil
- sgml-always-quote-attributes: t
- sgml-parent-document: ("../book.sgml" "part" "chapter")
- End:
--->