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<!DOCTYPE linuxdoc PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD linuxdoc//EN">
<!-- $Id: FAQ.sgml,v 1.83 1997-10-12 18:49:11 wosch Exp $ -->

  <article>

<title>Frequently Asked Questions for FreeBSD 2.X
<author>Please send submissions to <tt><htmlurl url='mailto:faq@freebsd.org'
  name='&lt;faq@freebsd.org&gt;'></tt>
<date>$Date: 1997-10-12 18:49:11 $</date>

<abstract>
This is the FAQ for FreeBSD systems version 2.X  All entries are
assumed to be relevant to FreeBSD 2.0.5 and later, unless otherwise noted.
Any entries with a &lt;XXX&gt; are under construction.


</abstract>

    <toc>

    <sect>
      <heading>Preface</heading>
      <p>
        Welcome to the FreeBSD 2.X FAQ!

      <sect1>
        <heading>What is the purpose of this FAQ?</heading>
        <p>
          As is usual with Usenet FAQs, this document aims to cover the most
          frequently asked questions concerning the FreeBSD operating system
          (and of course answer them!).  Although originally intended to reduce
          bandwidth and avoid the same old questions being asked over and over
          again, FAQs have become recognized as valuable information resources.

          Every effort has been made to make this FAQ as informative as
          possible; if you have any suggestions as to how it may be improved,
          please feel free to mail them to the <url
	  url="mailto:pds@FreeBSD.ORG" name="FAQ maintainer">.

      <sect1>
	<heading>What is FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
          Briefly, FreeBSD 2.X is a UN*X-like operating system based on
          U.C. Berkeley's 4.4BSD-lite release for the i386 platform.  It is
          also based indirectly on William Jolitz's port of U.C. Berkeley's
          Net/2 to the i386, known as 386BSD, though very little of the 386BSD
	  code remains.  A fuller description of what FreeBSD is and how
	  it can work for you may be found on the <url url="http://www.freebsd.org"
          name="FreeBSD home page">.

          FreeBSD is used by companies, Internet Service Providers, researchers,
          computer professionals, students and home users all over the world
          in their work, education and recreation.  See some of them in the
          <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/gallery.html" name="FreeBSD Gallery.">

          For more detailed information on FreeBSD, please see the
          <url url="../handbook/handbook.html" name="FreeBSD Handbook.">

      <sect1>
        <heading>What are the goals of FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
          The goals of the FreeBSD Project are to provide software that may
          be used for any purpose and without strings attached.  Many of us
          have a significant investment in the code (and project) and would
	  certainly not mind a little financial renumeration now and then,
	  but we're definitely not prepared to insist on it.  We believe
	  that our first and foremost "mission" is to provide code to any
	  and all comers, and for whatever purpose, so that the code gets
	  the widest possible use and provides the widest possible benefit.
	  This is, we believe, one of the most fundamental goals of Free
	  Software and one that we enthusiastically support.

          That code in our source tree which falls under the GNU Public License
          (GPL) or GNU Library Public License (GLPL) comes with slightly more
          strings attached, though at least on the side of enforced
          access rather than the usual opposite.  Due to the additional
          complexities that can evolve in the commercial use of GPL software,
          we do, however, endeavor to replace such software with submissions
          under the more relaxed BSD copyright whenever possible.

      <sect1>
       <heading>Why is it called FreeBSD?</heading>
       <p>
         <itemize>
	   <item>It may be used free of charge, even by commercial users.
	   <item>Full source for the operating system is freely available, and
		 the minimum possible restrictions have been placed upon its
		 use, distribution and incorporation into other work (commercial
		 or non-commercial).
	   <item>Anyone who has an improvement and/or bug fix is free to submit
		 their code and have it added to the source tree (subject to
                 one or two obvious provisos).
	 </itemize>

       For those of our readers whose first language is not English, it may be
       worth pointing out that the word ``free'' is being used in two ways here,
       one meaning ``at no cost'', the other meaning ``you can do whatever you
       like''.  Apart from one or two things you <tt /cannot/ do with the
       FreeBSD code, for example pretending you wrote it, you really can do
       whatever you like with it.

      <sect1>
	<heading>What is the latest version of FreeBSD?</heading>
	<p>
	  Version <url url="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/2.1.7.1-RELEASE" name="2.1.7.1">
	  is the latest <em>stable</em> version; it was released in February, 1997.
	  Version <url url="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/2.2.2-RELEASE" name="2.2.2">
	  is the latest <em>release</em> version; it was released in March, 1997.
	Briefly explained, <bf>-stable</bf> is aimed at the ISP or other
	corporate user who wants stability and a low change count over
	the wizzy new features of the latest release (which is <bf>2.2.2</bf>).

	<p>This is not to say that 2.2.2 is unusable for business services,
	and many people who need some 2.2 specific feature (newer
	compiler technology, faster networking code, etc) have decided to take
	a chance with it with very good results.  We simply do not wish to
	"certify" 2.2 as mission-worthy until it's run another release or two
	down its branch and been better shaken-out.

      <sect1>
	<heading>What is FreeBSD-current?<label id="current"></heading>
	<p>
	  <url url="../handbook/current.html" name="FreeBSD-current"> is the
	  development version of the operating system, which will in due
	  course become 3.0-RELEASE.  As such, it is really only of interest
	  to developers working on the system and die-hard hobbiests.
 	  See the <url url="../handbook/current.html" name="relevant section">
	  in the <url url="../handbook/handbook.html" name="handbook"> for
	  details on running -current.

          <p>Every now and again, a <url url="../releases/snapshots.html"
	  name="snapshot"> release is also made of this -current development
	  code, CDROM distributions of the occasional snapshot even now being
	  made available. The goals behind each snapshot release are:

          <itemize>
            <item>To test the latest version of the installation software.

            <item>To give people who would like to run -current but who don't
                  have the time and/or bandwidth to follow it on a day-to-day
                  basis an easy way of bootstrapping it onto their systems.

            <item>To preserve a fixed reference point for the code in question,
		  just in case we break something really badly later. :)

            <item>To ensure that any new features in need of testing have the
                  greatest possible number of potential testers.
          </itemize>

          No claims are made that any snapshot can be considered
	  ``production quality'' for any purpose.  For stability
	  and tested mettle, you will have to stick to full releases.

	<p>Snapshot releases are directly available from <url
	   url="ftp://current.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/"> and are generated,
	   on the average, once a day for both the 3.0-current and 2.2-stable
	   branches.

      <sect1>
         <heading> What is the FreeBSD-stable concept?</heading>
         <p>
           Back when FreeBSD 2.0.5 was released, we decided to branch FreeBSD
           development into two parts.  One branch was named <url
	   url="../handbook/stable.html" name="-stable">, with the
           intention that only well-tested bug fixes and small incremental
           enhancements would be made to it (for Internet Service Providers
           and other commercial enterprises for whom sudden shifts or
           experimental features are quite undesirable).  The other branch was
           3.0-current, which essentially has been one unbroken line leading
           towards 3.0-RELEASE (and beyond) since 2.0 was released. If a
	   little ASCII art would help, this is how it looks:
<verb>
                  2.0
                   |
                   |
                   |  [2.1-stable]
  *BRANCH*       2.0.5 -> 2.1 -> 2.1.5 -> 2.1.6 -> 2.1.7.1  [2.1-stable ends]
                   |                            (Mar 1997)
                   |
                   |
                   |  [2.2-stable]
  *BRANCH*      2.2.1 -> 2.2.2-RELEASE -> 2.2.5-RELEASE -> ...
                   |       (Mar 1997)      (Nov 1997)
                   |
                   |
                3.0-SNAPs  (started Q1 1997)
                   |
                   |
              3.0.0-RELEASE (Q1 1998)
                   |
                  \|/
                   +
           [future 3.x releases]
</verb>
         <p>
           The -current branch is slowly progressing towards 3.0 and beyond,
           whereas the existing 2.1-stable branch was superseded by the
           release of 2.2.0, the "stability branch" resurrecting itself as
	   2.2-stable.  3.0-current will continue to be where the active
	   development takes place, up until the actual release of 3.0.
	   At that point, 3.0 will become yet another branch and 3.1-current
           will become the next "current branch".


      <sect1>
        <heading>Why is the 2.1-stable branch ending with 2.1.7.1? </heading>
        <p>
          While we'd certainly like to be able to continue 3 branches of
          development, we've found that the version control tools available to
          us are not particularly well-suited for this; in fact, they quickly
          result in a maintenance nightmare for any branch which lives much
          beyond 2-3 months. The 2.1-stable branch has, by contrast, lasted for
          well over a year and what little sanity the FreeBSD developers have
          left would be in serious jeopardy if we continued in this way.
          Perhaps in the future we'll figure out another model which gives
          everyone what they want, and we are working on such a model, but in
          the meantime it's probably best to think of -stable coming to an end
          with <url url="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/pub/2.1.7.1-RELEASE"
	  name="2.1.7.1-RELEASE"> (the final point release after 2.1.7).

      <sect1>
        <heading> When are FreeBSD releases made?</heading>
        <p>
          As a general principle, the FreeBSD core team only release a new
          version of FreeBSD when they believe that there are sufficient new
          features and/or bug fixes to justify one, and are satisfied that the
          changes made have settled down sufficiently to avoid compromising the
          stability of the release. Many users regard this caution as one of
          the best things about FreeBSD, although it can be a little
          frustrating when waiting for all the latest goodies to become
          available...
        <p>
          Releases are made about every 6 months on average.
	<p>
	  For people needing (or wanting) a little more excitement, there are
	  SNAPs released more frequently, particularly during the month or so
	  leading up to a release.

      <sect1>
        <heading> Is FreeBSD only available for PCs?</heading>
        <p>
          At present, yes, though a port to the DEC Alpha architecture
	  is planned.  If your machine has a different architecture and
	  you need something right now, we suggest you look at
         <url url="http://www.netbsd.org/" name="NetBSD"> or
         <url url="http://www.openbsd.org/" name="OpenBSD">.

       <sect1>
         <heading> Who is responsible for FreeBSD?</heading>
         <p>
           The key decisions concerning the FreeBSD project, such as the
           overall direction of the project and who is allowed to add code to
           the source tree, are made by a <url url="../handbook/staff:core.html"
	   name="core team"> of some 17 people. There is a much larger
	   team of around 70+ <url url="../handbook/staff:committers.html"
	   name="committers"> who are authorized to make changes directly to the
	   FreeBSD source tree.
          <p>
            However, most non-trivial changes are discussed in advance in the
            <ref id="mailing" name="mailing lists">, and there are no restrictions on who may take part
            in the discussion.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Where can I get FreeBSD?<label id="where-get"></heading>
        <p>
	  Every significant release of FreeBSD is available via anonymous ftp from the
	  <url url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/" name="FreeBSD FTP site">:
	  <itemize>
	  <item>
          For the current 2.1-stable release, 2.1.7.1R, see the
	  <url url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/2.1.7.1-RELEASE/"
	  name="2.1.7.1-RELEASE"> directory.

	  <item>
          For the current 2.2-stable release, 2.2.2R, see the
          <url url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/2.2.2-RELEASE/"
	  name="2.2.2-RELEASE"> directory.

	  <item>
	  <url url="ftp://releng22.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/" name="2.2 Snapshot">
	  releases are made once a day along the RELENG_2_2 branch
	  (2.2.2 -> 2.2.x) as it winds its way towards the next point
	  release on the 2.2 branch, 2.2.5. With the occasional
	  exception of accidental breakage, the RELENG_2_2 branch is
	  being carefully maintained (no experimental changes, fixes made
	  only after testing in -current).

	  <item>
	  <url url="ftp://current.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/" name="3.0 Snapshot">
	  releases are also made once a day for the <ref id="current"
	  name="-current"> branch, these being of service purely to
	  bleeding-edge testers and developers.

	  </itemize>

          FreeBSD is also available via CDROM, from the following place(s):

          Walnut Creek CDROM<newline>
          4041 Pike Lane, Suite D-386<newline>
          Concord, CA  94520  USA<newline>
          Orders:     (800)-786-9907<newline>
          Questions:  (510)-674-0783<newline>
          FAX:        (510)-674-0821<newline>
          email: <url url="mailto:orders@cdrom.com"
		name="WC Orders address"> <newline>
          WWW: <url url="http://www.cdrom.com/" name="WC Home page"><newline>

          In Australia, you may find it at:

          Advanced Multimedia Distributors<newline>
          Factory 1/1 Ovata Drive<newline>
          Tullamarine, Melbourne<newline>
          Victoria<newline>
          Australia<newline>

          Voice: +61 3 9338 6777<newline>

          CDROM Support BBS<newline>
          17 Irvine St<newline>
          Peppermint Grove  WA 6011<newline>
	
          Voice: +61 9 385-3793<newline>
          Fax:   +61 9 385-2360<newline>

	  And in the UK:

	  The Public Domain &amp; Shareware Library<newline>
	  Winscombe House, Beacon Rd<newline>
	  Crowborough<newline>
	  Sussex. TN6 1UL<newline>

	  Voice: +44 01892 663298<newline>
          Fax:   +44 01892 667473<newline>
	  (Do not dial the leading zero if calling from outside the UK).


      <sect1>
	<heading>Where do I find info on the FreeBSD mailing lists?<label id="mailing"></heading>
	<p>
 	You can find full information in the
		<url url="../handbook/eresources:mail.html"
			name="Handbook entry on mailing-lists.">
        <p>

      <sect1>
	<heading>What FreeBSD news groups are available?</heading>
        <p>
 	You can find full information in the
		<url url="../handbook/eresources:news.html"
			name="Handbook entry on newsgroups.">

      <sect1>
        <heading>Is there anything about FreeBSD on IRC (Internet Relay Chat) ?</heading>
        <p>
          There are two channels about FreeBSD on IRC:
          <enum>
            <item>The main channel is &num;FreeBSD on the EFNET. You can
                  use your regular IRC server for it.
            <item>You can point your IRC client to <tt/irc.FreeBSD.org/
                  This server is on BSDnet and hosts &num;FreeBSD. This
                  is not the same channel.
          </enum>
      <sect1>
        <heading>Books on FreeBSD</heading>
        <p>
          Greg Lehey's book ``Installing and Running FreeBSD'' is available
          from Walnut Creek and ships with the 2.1.7 CDROM.  There is also
          a larger book entitled ``The Complete FreeBSD'', which comes with
          additional printed manpages amd includes the 2.1.7 CDROM set.  It
          should be available in most good book shops now.

          There is a FreeBSD Documentation Project which you may contact (or
          even better, join) on the <tt>doc</tt> mailing list:
          <url url="mailto:doc@FreeBSD.ORG" name="&lt;doc@FreeBSD.ORG&gt;">.

          A FreeBSD ``handbook'' is available, and can be found as:
	    <url url="../handbook/handbook.html" name="the FreeBSD Handbook">.
          Note that this is a work in progress, and so parts may be incomplete.

          However, as FreeBSD 2.X is based upon Berkeley 4.4BSD-Lite, most
          of the 4.4BSD manuals are applicable to FreeBSD 2.X.  O'Reilly
          and Associates publishes these manuals:

          4.4BSD System Manager's Manual <newline>
          By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley <newline>
          1st Edition June 1994, 804 pages <newline>
          ISBN: 1-56592-080-5 <NEWLINE>

          4.4BSD User's Reference Manual <newline>
          By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley <newline>
          1st Edition June 1994, 905 pages <newline>
          ISBN: 1-56592-075-9 <NEWLINE>

          4.4BSD User's Supplementary Documents <newline>
          By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley <newline>
          1st Edition July 1994, 712 pages <newline>
          ISBN: 1-56592-076-7 <NEWLINE>

          4.4BSD Programmer's Reference Manual <newline>
          By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley <newline>
          1st Edition June 1994, 886 pages <newline>
          ISBN: 1-56592-078-3 <NEWLINE>

          4.4BSD Programmer's Supplementary Documents <newline>
          By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley <newline>
          1st Edition July 1994, 596 pages <newline>
          ISBN: 1-56592-079-1 <NEWLINE>

          A description of these can be found via WWW as:

          <url url="http://gnn.com/gnn/bus/ora/category/bsd.html"
            name="4.4BSD books description">

	  For a more in-depth look at the 4.4BSD kernel organization,
	  you can't go wrong with:

	  McKusick, Marshall Kirk, Keith Bostic, Michael J Karels,
          and John Quarterman.<newline>
	  <em>The Design and Implementation of the 4.4BSD Operating
	  System</em>.  Reading, Mass. : Addison-Wesley, 1996.<newline>
	  ISBN 0-201-54979-4<newline>

          A good book on system administration is:

          Evi Nemeth, Garth Snyder, Scott Seebass &amp; Trent R. Hein,<newline>
          ``Unix System Administration Handbook'', Prentice-Hall, 1995<newline>
          ISBN: 0-13-151051-7<newline>

          <bf/NOTE/ make sure you get the second edition, with a red cover,
          instead of the first edition.

          This book covers the basics, as well as TCP/IP, DNS, NFS,
          SLIP/PPP, sendmail, INN/NNTP, printing, etc..  It's expensive
          (approx. US&dollar;45-&dollar;55), but worth it.  It also
          includes a CDROM with the sources for various tools; most of
          these, however, are also on the FreeBSD 2.1.7R CDROM (and the
          FreeBSD CDROM often has newer versions).

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I access your Problem Report database?</heading>
        <p>
          The Problem Report database of all open user change requests
	  may be queried (or submitted to) by using our web-based  PR
	  <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/send-pr.html" name="submission">
          and
          <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi-bin/query-pr-summary.cgi"
          name="query"> interfaces.  The <em>send-pr(1)</em> command
	  can also be used to submit change requests via electronic mail.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Other sources of information.</heading>
        <p>
	 The following newsgroups contain pertinent discussion for FreeBSD
	 users:

        <itemize>
	<item><url url="comp.unix.bsd.freebsd.announce" name="comp.unix.bsd.freebsd.announce">
	<item><url url="comp.unix.bsd.freebsd.misc" name="comp.unix.bsd.freebsd.misc">
	<item><url url="comp.unix.bsd.misc" name="comp.unix.bsd.misc">
	</itemize>

	<p>
	  Web resources:

	<itemize>
	<item>
          The <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/" name="FreeBSD Home Page">.
	<item>
          <label id="pao">If you have a laptop, be sure and see
          <url url="http://www.jp.FreeBSD.org/PAO/"
          name="Tatsumi Hosokawa's Mobile Computing page"> in Japan.

	<item>
	  <label id="smp">For information on SMP (Symmetric MultiProcessing),
	  please see the <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/~fsmp/SMP/SMP.html"
	  name="SMP support page">.

	<item>
	  <label id="multimedia">For information on FreeBSD multimedia
	  applications, please see the <url
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/~faulkner/multimedia/mm.html"
	  name="multimedia">page.  If you're interested specifically in
	  the <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/~ahasty/Bt848.html"
	  name="Bt848"> video capture chip, then follow that link.
	</itemize>

	The FreeBSD handbook also has a fairly complete
	<url url="../handbook/bibliography.html" name="bibliography">
	section which is worth reading if you're looking for actual
	books to buy.

    <sect>
      <heading>Installation</heading>
      <p>
      <sect1>
        <heading>Which file do I download to get FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
	  You generally need just one floppy image, the <em>floppies/boot.flp</em>
	  file, which you image-copy onto a 1.44MB floppy and then boot it
	  in order to download the rest (and the installation will manage your TCP/IP
	  collection, deal with tapes, CDROMs, floppies, DOS partitions, whatever's
	  necessary to get the reset of the bits installed).

          Full instructions on this procedure and a little bit more about installation
	  issues in general can be found in the <url url="../handbook/install.html"
	  name="Handbook entry on installing FreeBSD.">

      <sect1>
        <heading>Where are the instructions for installing FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
          Installation instructions can be found in the
		<url url="../handbook/install.html"
			name="Handbook entry on installing FreeBSD.">

      <sect1>
	<heading>What do I need in order to run FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
          You'll need a 386 or better PC, with 5 MB or more of RAM and at
          least 60 MB of hard disk space. It can run with a low end MDA
          card but to run X11R6, a VGA or better video card is needed.

          See also the section on <ref id="hardware" name="Hardware compatibility">

      <sect1>
	<heading>I have only 4 MB of RAM. Can I install FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
          FreeBSD 2.1.7 was the last version of FreeBSD that could be installed on
	  a 4MB system.  Newer versions of FreeBSD, like 2.2, need at least
	  5MB to install on a new system.

          All versions of FreeBSD, including 2.2, will RUN in 4MB of ram, they
	  just can't run the installation program in 4MB.  You can add
	  extra memory for the install process, if you like, and then
	  after the system is up and running, go back to 4MB.  Or you could
	  always just swap your disk into a system which has >4MB, install onto
	  it and then swap it back.

          There are also situations in which FreeBSD 2.1.7 will not install
	  in 4 MB.  To be exact: it does not install with 640 kB base + 3 MB
	  extended memory.  If your motherboard can remap some of the ``lost''
	  memory out of the 640kB to 1MB region, then you may still be able
	  to get FreeBSD 2.1.7 up.

          Try to go into your BIOS setup and look for a ``remap'' option.
          Enable it.  You may also have to disable ROM shadowing.

          It may be easier to get 4 more MB just for the install. Build a
          custom kernel with only the options you need and then get the 4
          MB out again.

          You may also install 2.0.5 and then upgrade your system to 2.1.7
          with the ``upgrade'' option of the 2.1.7 installation program.

          After the installation, if you build a custom kernel, it will run
          in 4 MB. Someone has even succeeded in booting with 2 MB (the
          system was almost unusable though :-))

      <sect1>
        <heading>I've got some other special requirements, can I make my own
	         custom install floppy?</heading>
	<p>
	  Currently there's no way to *just* make a custom install floppy.
	  You have to cut a whole new release, which will include your
	  install floppy. There's some code in
	  <TT>/usr/src/release/floppies/Makefile</TT> that's supposed to let
	  you *just* make those floppies, but it's not really gelled yet.

	  To make a custom release, follow the instructions
            <ref id="custrel" name="here">.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How can I have more than one operating system on my PC?</heading>
	<p>
          Have a look at <url url="http://www.in.net/~jayrich/doc/multios.html"
		name="The multi-OS page.">

      <sect1>
	<heading>Can Windows 95 co-exist with FreeBSD?</heading>

        <p>
          Install Windows 95 first, after that FreeBSD. FreeBSD's boot
          manager will then manage to boot Win95 and FreeBSD.  If you
	  install Windows 95 second, it will boorishly overwrite your
	  boot manager without even asking.  If that happens, see
	  the next section.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Windows 95 killed my boot manager!  How do I get it back?</heading>

	<p>You can reinstall the boot manager FreeBSD comes with in one of
	two ways:

	<itemize>
	<item>Running DOS, go into the tools/ directory of your FreeBSD
	distribution and look for <bf>bootinst.exe</bf>.  You run it like so:
	<p><bf>bootinst.exe boot.bin</bf>
	<p>And the boot manager will be reinstalled.

	<item>Boot the FreeBSD boot floppy again and go to the Custom
	installation menu item.  Choose Partition.  Select the drive which
	used to contain your boot manager (likely the first one) and when you
	come to the partition editor for it, as the very first thing (e.g.
	do not make any changes) select (W)rite.  This will ask for
	confirmation, say yes, and when you get the Boot Manager selection
	prompt, be sure to select "Boot Manager."
	This will re-write the boot manager to disk.  Now quit out of the
	installation menu and reboot off the hard disk as normal.
        </itemize>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Can I install on a disk with bad blocks?</heading>
        <p>
          FreeBSD's bad block (the <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?bad144" name="bad144">
	  command) handling is
          still not 100&percnt; (to put it charitably) and it must
          unfortunately be said that if you've got an IDE or ESDI drive
          with lots of bad blocks, then FreeBSD is probably not for you!
          That said, it does work on thousands of IDE based systems, so
          you'd do well to try it first before simply giving up.
	<p>
	  If you have a SCSI drive with bad blocks,
	  see <ref id="awre" name="this answer">.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Strange things happen when I boot the install floppy!</heading>
	<p>
	  If you're seeing things like the machine grinding to a halt or
	  spontaneously rebooting when you try to boot the install floppy,
	  here are three questions to ask yourself:-
	  <enum>
	    <item>Did you use a new, freshly-formatted, error-free floppy
		  (preferably a brand-new one straight out of the box, as
		  opposed to the magazine coverdisk that's been lying under
		  the bed for the last three years)?
	    <item>Did you download the floppy image in binary (or image) mode?
		  (don't be embarrassed, even the best of us have made this
		  mistake at least once when FTP'ing things!)
		  shell in the GUI can cause this problem.
          </enum>

          There have also been reports of Netscape causing problems when
          downloading the boot floppy, so it's probably best to use a different
          FTP client if you can.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Help! I can't install from tape!</heading>
        <p>
          If you are installing 2.1.7R from tape, you  must create the tape
          using a  tar blocksize  of  10  (5120  bytes).  The  default  tar
          blocksize is 20  (10240   bytes), and  tapes  created using  this
          default size cannot be used to  install 2.1.7R; with these tapes,
          you will get an error that complains about  the record size being
          too big.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Can I install on my laptop over PLIP (Parallel Line IP)?</heading>
        <p>
          Connect the two computers using a Laplink parallel cable to use
          this feature:

          <verb>
            +----------------------------------------+
            |A-name A-End   B-End   Descr.  Port/Bit |
            +----------------------------------------+
            |DATA0  2       15      Data    0/0x01   |
            |-ERROR 15      2               1/0x08   |
            +----------------------------------------+
            |DATA1  3       13      Data    0/0x02   |
            |+SLCT  13      3               1/0x10   |
            +----------------------------------------+
            |DATA2  4       12      Data    0/0x04   |
            |+PE    12      4               1/0x20   |
            +----------------------------------------+
            |DATA3  5       10      Strobe  0/0x08   |
            |-ACK   10      5               1/0x40   |
            +----------------------------------------+
            |DATA4  6       11      Data    0/0x10   |
            |BUSY   11      6               1/0x80   |
            +----------------------------------------+
            |GND    18-25   18-25   GND -            |
            +----------------------------------------+
          </verb>

	See also <ref id="pao" name="this note"> on the Mobile Computing page.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Which geometry should I use for a disk drive?<label id="geometry"></heading>
        <p>
          (By the "geometry" of a disk, we mean the number of cylinders,
          heads and sectors/track on a disk - I'll refer to this as
          C/H/S for convenience.  This is how the PC's BIOS works out
          which area on a disk to read/write from).

          This seems to cause a lot of confusion for some reason.  First
          of all, the <tt /physical/ geometry of a SCSI drive is totally
          irrelevant, as FreeBSD works in term of disk blocks.  In fact, there
          is no such thing as "the" physical geometry, as the sector density
          varies across the disk - what manufacturers claim is the "true"
          physical geometry is usually the geometry that they've worked out
          results in the least wasted space.  For IDE disks, FreeBSD does
          work in terms of C/H/S, but all modern drives will convert this
          into block references internally as well.

          All that matters is the <tt /logical/ geometry - the answer that the
          BIOS gets when it asks "what is your geometry" and then uses to access
          the disk.  As FreeBSD uses the BIOS when booting, it's very important
          to get this right.  In particular, if you have more than one operating
          system on a disk, they must all agree on the geometry, otherwise you
          will have serious problems booting!

          For SCSI disks, the geometry to use depends on whether extended
          translation support is turned on in your controller (this is
          often referred to as "support for DOS disks &gt;1GB" or something
          similar).  If it's turned off, then use N cylinders, 64 heads
          and 32 sectors/track, where 'N' is the capacity of the disk in
          MB.  For example, a 2GB disk should pretend to have 2048 cylinders,
          64 heads and 32 sectors/track.

          If it <tt /is/ turned on (it's often supplied this way to get around
          certain limitations in MSDOS) and the disk capacity is more than 1GB,
          use M cylinders, 63 heads (*not* 64), and 255 sectors per track, where
          'M' is the disk capacity in MB divided by 7.844238 (!).  So our
          example 2GB drive would have 261 cylinders, 63 heads and 255 sectors
          per track.

          If you are not sure about this, or FreeBSD fails to detect the
          geometry correctly during installation, the simplest way around
          this is usually to create a small DOS partition on the disk.  The
          correct geometry should then be detected (and you can always remove
          the DOS partition in the partition editor if you don't want to keep
          it, or leave it around for programming network cards and the like).

          Alternatively, there is a freely available utility distributed with
          FreeBSD called ``<tt/pfdisk.exe/'' (located in the <tt>tools</tt>
          subdirectory on the FreeBSD CDROM or on the various FreeBSD
          ftp sites) which can be used to work out what geometry the other
          operating systems on the disk are using.  You can then enter this
          geometry in the partition editor.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Any restrictions on how I divide the disk up?</heading>

        <p>
          Yes. You must make sure that your root partition is below 1024
          cylinders so the BIOS can boot the kernel from it.  (Note that this
          is a limitation in the PC's BIOS, not FreeBSD).

          For a SCSI drive, this will normally imply that the root partition
          will be in the first 1024MB (or in the first 4096MB if extended
          translation is turned on - see previous question).  For IDE, the
          corresponding figure is 504MB.

      <sect1><heading>What about disk managers? My BIOS doesn't support large drives!</heading>
	<p>
	  FreeBSD recognizes the Ontrack Disk Manager and makes allowances
	  for it. Other disk managers are not supported.

	  If you just want to use the disk with FreeBSD you don't need a
	  disk manager. Just configure the disk for as much space as the
	  BIOS can deal with (usually 504 megabytes), and FreeBSD
	  should figure out how much space you really have. If you're using
	  an old disk with an MFM controller, you may need to explicitly
	  tell FreeBSD how many cylinders to use.

	  If you want to use the disk with FreeBSD and another operating
	  system, you may be able to do without a disk manager: just make sure
	  the the FreeBSD boot partition and the slice for the other
	  operating system are in the first 1024 cylinders. If you're
	  reasonably careful, a 20 megabyte boot partition should be plenty.

      <sect1>
	<heading>When I boot FreeBSD I get ``Missing Operating System''<label id="missing_os"></heading>
        <p>
          This is classically a case of FreeBSD and DOS or some other OS
          conflicting over their ideas of disk <ref id="geometry"
          name="geometry.">  You will have to reinstall FreeBSD, but obeying the
          instructions given above will almost always get you going.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I can't get past the boot manager's `F?' prompt.</heading>

        <p>
          This is another symptom of the problem described in the preceding
          question.  Your BIOS geometry and FreeBSD geometry settings do
          not agree!  If your controller or BIOS supports cylinder
          translation (often marked as ``&gt;1GB drive support''), try
          toggling its setting and reinstalling FreeBSD.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I have &gt;16MB of RAM. Will this cause any problems?<label id="bigram"></heading>

        <p>
          Apart from performance issues, no.  FreeBSD 2.X comes with bounce
	  buffers which allow your bus mastering controller access to greater
	  than 16MB. (Note that this should only be required if you are using
	  ISA devices, although one or two broken EISA and VLB devices may
	  need it as well).

	  Also look at the section on <ref id="reallybigram"
	  name="&gt;64M machines"> if you have that much memory,
	  or if you're using a Compaq or other BIOS that lies about
	  the available memory.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Do I need to install the complete sources?</heading>

        <p> In general, no.  However, we would strongly recommend that you
          install, at a minimum, the ``<tt/base/'' source kit, which
          includes several of the files mentioned here, and the
          ``<tt/sys/'' (kernel) source kit, which includes sources for the
          kernel.  There is nothing in the system which requires the
          presence of the sources to operate, however, except for the
          kernel-configuration program 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?config"
	  name="config">.  With the exception
          of the kernel sources, our build structure is set up so that you
          can read-only mount the sources from elsewhere via NFS and still
          be able to make new binaries.  (Because of the kernel-source
          restriction, we recommend that you not mount this on
          <tt>/usr/src</tt> directly, but rather in some other location
          with appropriate symbolic links to duplicate the top-level
          structure of the source tree.)

          Having the sources on-line and knowing how to build a system with
          them will make it much easier for you to upgrade to future
          releases of FreeBSD.

	  To actually select a subset of the sources, use the Custom
	  menu item when you are in the Distributions menu of the
	  system installation tool.  The <tt>src/install.sh</tt> script
	  will also install partial pieces of the source distribution,
	  depending on the arguments you pass it.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Do I need to build a kernel?</heading>

	<p>Building a new kernel was originally pretty much a required
	   step in a FreeBSD installation, but more recent releases have
	   benefited from the introduction of a much friendlier kernel
	   configuration tool. When at the FreeBSD boot prompt (boot:),
	   use the "-c" flag and you will be dropped into a visual
	   configuration screen which allows you to configure the kernel's
	   settings for most common ISA cards.

	<p> It's still recommended that you eventually build a new
	   kernel containing just the drivers that you need, just to save a
	   bit of RAM, but it's no longer a strict requirement for most
	   systems.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I live outside the US. Can I use DES encryption?</heading>

        <p> If it is not absolutely imperative that you use DES style
          encryption, you can use FreeBSD's default encryption for even
          <bf/better/ security, and with no export restrictions.  FreeBSD
          2.0's password default scrambler is now <bf/MD5/-based, and is
          more CPU-intensive to crack with an automated password cracker
          than DES, and allows longer passwords as well. The only reason
	  for not using the <bf/MD5/-based crypt today would be to use the
	  the same password entries on FreeBSD and non-FreeBSD systems.

          Since the DES encryption algorithm cannot legally be exported
          from the US, non-US users should not download this software (as
          part of the <tt/secrdist/ from US FTP sites.

          There is however a replacement libcrypt available, based on
          sources written in Australia by David Burren.  This code is now
          available on some non-US FreeBSD mirror sites.  Sources for the
          unencumbered libcrypt, and binaries of the programs which use it,
          can be obtained from the following FTP sites:

          <descrip>
            <tag/South Africa/
              <tt>ftp://ftp.internat.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD</tt><newline>
              <tt>ftp://storm.sea.uct.ac.za/pub/FreeBSD</tt>
            <tag/Brazil/
              <tt>ftp://ftp.iqm.unicamp.br/pub/FreeBSD</tt>
            <tag/Finland/
              <tt>ftp://nic.funet.fi/pub/unix/FreeBSD/eurocrypt</tt>
          </descrip>

          The non-US <tt/securedist/ can be used as a direct replacement
          for the encumbered US <tt/securedist/.  This <tt/securedist/
          package is installed the same way as the US package (see
          installation notes for details).  If you are going to install DES
          encryption, you should do so as soon as possible, before
          installing other software.

          Non-US users should please not download any encryption software
          from the USA.  This can get the maintainers of the sites from
          which the software is downloaded into severe legal difficulties.

          A non-US distribution of Kerberos is also being developed, and
          current versions can generally be obtained by anonymous FTP from
          <tt>braae.ru.ac.za</tt>.

          There is also a <ref id="mailing" name="mailing list"> for the discussion of non-US encryption
          software.  For more information, send an email message with a
          single line saying ``<tt/help/'' in the body of your message to
          <tt>&lt;majordomo@braae.ru.ac.za&gt;</tt>.

      </sect1>
    </sect>

    <sect>
      <heading>Hardware compatibility <label id="hardware"></heading>
      <p>
      <sect1>
	<heading>What kind of hard drives does FreeBSD support?</heading>

        <p>
	  FreeBSD supports EIDE and SCSI drives (with a compatible
	  controller: see the next section), and all drives using the
	  original "Western Digital" interface (MFM, RLL, ESDI, and
	  of course IDE). A few ESDI controllers that use proprietary
	  interfaces may not work: stick to WD1002/3/6/7 interfaces
	  and clones.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Which SCSI controllers are supported?</heading>

        <p>
          FreeBSD supports the following SCSI controllers:

          <descrip>
            <tag/Adaptec/
              AH-1505 &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
              AH-152x Series &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
              AH-154x Series &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
              AH-174x Series &lt;EISA&gt; <newline>
              Sound Blaster SCSI (AH-152x compat) &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
              AH-2742/2842 Series &lt;ISA/EISA&gt; <newline>
              AH-2820/2822/2825 Series (Narrow/Twin/Wide) &lt;VLB&gt; <newline>
              AH-294x and aic7870 MB controllers (Narrow/Twin/Wide) &lt;PCI&gt;<newline>
              AH-394x (Narrow/Twin/Wide)
            <tag/Buslogic/
              BT-445 Series &lt;VLB&gt; (this is one of the cards referred to
	      in the section <ref id="bigram" name="on &gt;16 MB machines">)
	      <newline>
              BT-545 Series &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
              BT-742 Series &lt;EISA&gt;<newline>
              BT-747 Series &lt;EISA&gt;<newline>
              BT-946 Series &lt;PCI&gt; <newline>
              BT-956 Series &lt;PCI&gt; <newline>
            <tag/Future Domain/
              TMC-950 Series &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
            <tag/PCI Generic/
              NCR 53C81x based controllers &lt;PCI&gt; <newline>
              NCR 53C82x based controllers &lt;PCI&gt; <newline>
              NCR 53C860/75 based controllers &lt;PCI&gt; <newline>
            <tag/ProAudioSpectrum/
              Zilog 5380 based controllers &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
              Trantor 130 based controllers &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
            <tag/DTC/
              DTC 3290 EISA SCSI in AHA-154x emulation.<newline>
            <tag/Seagate/
              ST-01/02 Series &lt;ISA&gt;<newline>
            <tag/UltraStor/
              UH-14f Series &lt;ISA&gt;<newline>
              UH-24f Series &lt;EISA&gt; <newline>
              UH-34f Series &lt;VLB&gt;<newline>
            <tag/Western Digital/
              WD7000 &lt;ISA&gt; &lt;No scatter/gather&gt;
          </descrip>

      <sect1>
	<heading>Which CD-ROM drives are supported by FreeBSD?</heading>

        <p>
          Any SCSI drive connected to a supported controller.

          <itemize>
            <item>Mitsumi LU002 (8bit), LU005 (16bit) and FX001D (16bit 2x
              Speed).
            <item>Sony CDU 31/33A<newline>
            <item>Sound Blaster Non-SCSI CD-ROM<newline>
            <item>Matsushita/Panasonic CD-ROM<newline>
            <item>ATAPI compatible IDE CD-ROMs<newline>
          </itemize>
          All non-SCSI cards are known to be extremely slow compared to
          SCSI drives, and some ATAPI CDROMs may not work.
	  <p>
	  As of 2.2 the FreeBSD CDROM from Walnut Creek supports booting
	  directly from the CD.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Does FreeBSD support ZIP drives?</heading>

        <p>
          FreeBSD supports the SCSI ZIP drive out of the box, of course. The
	  ZIP drive can only be set to run at SCSI target IDs 5 or 6, but if
	  your SCSI host adapter's BIOS supports it you can even boot from
          it. I don't know which host adapters let you boot from targets
          other than 0 or 1... look at your docs (and let me know if it works
          out for you).

	  There is no built in support for the parallel ZIP drive, and if you
	  haven't bought your ZIP drive already I recommend you get the SCSI
	  one... the price is the same, and the performance is much better,
          and you're unlikely to ever be able to boot from the parallel port.

	  If you already have a parallel ZIP, there is a port of the Linux
	  driver available at
	  <url url="http://www.prism.uvsq.fr/~son/ppa3.html"
	    name="Nicolas Souchu's home page"> in France.

          Also check out <ref id="jaz" name="this note on removable drives">,
          and <ref id="disklabel" name="this note on 'formatting'">.

       <sect1>
         <heading>Does FreeBSD support JAZ, EZ and other removable drives?</heading>

         <p>
           Apart from the IDE version of the EZ drive, these are all SCSI
           devices, so the should all look like SCSI disks to FreeBSD, and
           the IDE EZ should look like an IDE drive.

           <label id="jaz">
           I'm not sure how well FreeBSD supports changing the media out
           while running. You will of course need to dismount the drive
           before swapping media, and make sure that any external units are
           powered on when you boot the system so FreeBSD can see them.

	   See <ref id="disklabel" name="this note on 'formatting'">.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Which multi-port serial cards are supported by FreeBSD?</heading>

	  <p>There is a list of these in
	  <htmlurl url="../handbook/handbook11.html"
	  name="section 2.1.3 of the handbook">

          Some unnamed clone cards have also been known to work, especially
          those that claim to be AST compatible.

          Check the <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sio"
	  name="sio"> man page to get more information on
          configuring such cards.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I have an unusual bus mouse. How do I set it up?</heading>

        <p>
          FreeBSD supports the Logitech and ATI Inport bus mice.  You need
          to add the following line to the kernel config file and recompile
          for the Logitech and ATI mice:
          <verb>
            device        mse0    at isa? port 0x23c tty irq5 vector mseintr
          </verb>

      <sect1>
	<heading>I have a PS/2 mouse (``keyboard'' mouse) How do I use it?<label id="ps2mouse"></heading>
        <p>
	  If you're running a relatively recent version of FreeBSD then you
	  can simply enable it in the kernel configuration menu
	  at installation time, otherwise later with -c at the boot:
	  prompt.  It is disabled by default, so you will need to enable
	  it explicitly.

	<p>If you're running an older version of FreeBSD then you'll
	   have to add the following lines to your kernel
           configuration file and compile a new kernel:
<verb>
device    psm0    at isa? port "IO_KBD" conflicts tty irq 12 vector psmintr
# Options for psm:
options   PSM_CHECKSYNC      #checks the header byte for sync.
</verb>

        <p>
	  See the <url url="../handbook/kernelconfig.html"
	  name="Handbook entry on configuring the kernel">
	  if you've no experience with building kernels.

	  Once you have a kernel detecting psm0 correctly at boot time,
	  make sure that an entry for psm0 exists in /dev.  You can do this
	  by typing:
<verb>
	cd /dev; sh MAKEDEV psm0
</verb>
	  When logged in as root.

       <sect1>
        <heading>How do I use the mouse/trackball/touchpad/etc... on my laptop?</heading>

        <p>
          Please refer to <ref id="ps2mouse" name="the answer to the previous question">.
	And check out <ref id="pao" name="this note"> on the Mobile Computing page.

      <sect1>
	<heading>What types of tape drives are supported under FreeBSD?</heading>

        <p>
          FreeBSD supports SCSI, QIC-36 (with a QIC-02 interface)
	  and QIC-40/80 (Floppy based) tape
          drives.  This includes 8-mm (aka Exabyte) and DAT drives.
          The QIC-40/80 drives are known to be slow.

	  Some of the early 8-mm drives are not quite compatible with
	  SCSI-2, and may not work well with FreeBSD.
      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Does FreeBSD support tape changers?</heading>

          <p>FreeBSD 2.2 supports SCSI changers using the <htmlurl
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ch(4)" name="ch">
	  device and the <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?chio" name="chio">
          command.  The details of how you actually control the
          changer can be found in the
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?chio"
	  name="chio"> man page.

          If you're not using <htmlurl
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/ports.cgi?amanda"
	  name="AMANDA"> or some other product that already
          understands changers, remember that they're only know how to move a
          tape from one point to another, so you need to keep track of which
          slot a tape is in, and which slot the tape currently in the drive
          needs to go back to.
      </sect1>

      <sect1>
	<heading>Which sound cards are supported by FreeBSD?</heading>

        <p>
          FreeBSD supports the SoundBlaster, SoundBlaster Pro, SoundBlaster
          16, Pro Audio Spectrum 16, AdLib and Gravis UltraSound sound
          cards. There is also limited support for MPU-401 and compatible
          MIDI cards. The SoundBlaster 16 ASP cards are not yet
          supported. The Microsoft Sound System is also supported.

          <bf/NOTE/ This is only for sound!  This driver does not support
          CD-ROMs, SCSI or joysticks on these cards, except for the
	  SoundBlaster. The SoundBlaster SCSI interface and some non-SCSI
	  CDROMS are supported, but you can't boot off this device.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Which network cards does FreeBSD support?</heading>

	  <p>See <htmlurl url="../handbook/handbook10.html"
	  name="Section 2.1.2 of the handbook"> for a more
	  complete list. Since it doesn't list the drivers
	  you need to use for each of the cards, this incomplete
	  list will have to do.

          <descrip>
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?de(4)"
	      name="de"> driver/
              DEC DC21x40 and compatible PCI controllers<newline>
              (including 21140 100bT cards) <newline>
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ed(4)"
	      name="ed"> driver/
              NE2000 and 1000<newline>
              WD/SMC 8003, 8013 and Elite Ultra (8216)<newline>
              3Com 3c503 <newline>
              HP 27247B and 27252A <newline>
              And clones of the above <newline>
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?le(4)"
	      name="le"> driver/
              DEC EtherWORKS II and EtherWORKS III controllers. <newline>
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ie(4)"
	      name="ie"> driver/
              AT&amp;T EN100/StarLAN 10 <newline>
              3COM 3c507 Etherlink 16/TP<newline>
              NI5210 <newline>
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?is(4)"
	      name="is"> driver/
              Isolan AT 4141-0 <newline>
              Isolink 4110 <newline>
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?el(4)"
	      name="el"> driver/
              3com 3c501 (does not support Multicast or DMA)
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?eg(4)"
	      name="eg"> driver/
              3com 3c505 Etherlink/+
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ze(4)"
	      name="ze"> driver/
              IBM PCMCIA credit card adapter
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?lnc(4)"
	      name="lnc"> drive/
              Lance/PCnet cards (Isolan, Novell NE2100, NE32-VL)(*)
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ep(4)"
	      name="ep"> driver/
              3com 3c509 (Must disable PNP support on card)
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ix(4)"
	      name="ix"> driver/
              Intel InterExpress
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?cx(4)"
	      name="cx"> driver/
              Cronyx/Sigma multiport Sync/Async (Cisco and PPP framing)
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?zp(4)"
	      name="zp"> driver/
              3Com PCMCIA Etherlink III (aka 3c589)(A-C only)
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fea(4)"
	      name="fea"> driver/
              DEC DEFEA EISA FDDI controller
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fpa(4)"
	      name="fpa"> driver/
              DEC DEFPA PCI FDDI controller
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fe(4)"
		name="fe"> driver/
              Fujitsu MB86960A/MB86965A Ethernet cards
          </descrip>

          <bf/NOTE/	Drivers marked with (*) are known to have problems.

          <bf/NOTE/	3C598D is NOT supported yet.

          <bf/NOTE/ We also support TCP/IP over parallel lines.  At this point
          we are incompatible with other versions, but we hope to correct
          this in the near future.

	  <bf/NOTE/ Some of these cards require a DOS partition on your hard
	  drive to run the configuration software. Software configured cards
	  may also need to be hard-reset after running another operating
	  system that uses manufacturer-supplied drivers. This may even
	  require a full power cycle.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I don't have a math co-processor - is that bad?</heading>

        <p>
          <tt /Note/ This will only affect 386/486SX/486SLC owners - other
          machines will have one built into the CPU.
        <p>
          In general this will not cause any problems, but there are
          circumstances where you will take a hit, either in performance or
          accuracy of the math emulation code (see the section <ref id="emul"
          name="on FP emulation">).  In particular, drawing arcs in X will be
          VERY slow.  It is highly recommended that you buy a math
          co-processor; it's well worth it.

          <bf/NOTE/ Some math co-processors are better than others.  It pains
          us to say it, but nobody ever got fired for buying Intel.  Unless
          you're sure it works with FreeBSD, beware of clones.

      <sect1>
	<heading>What other devices does 2.X support?</heading>

        <p>
          Here is a listing of drivers which do not fit into any of the
          earlier categories.

          <descrip>
            <tag><tt/b004.c/</tag>
              Driver for B004 compatible Transputer boards <newline>
            <tag>``ctx'' driver</tag>
              Driver for CORTEX-I Frame grabber <newline>
            <tag>``gp'' driver</tag>
              Driver for National Instruments AT-GPIB and<newline>
              AT-GPIB/TNT boards
            <tag>``pca'' driver</tag>
              Driver for PC speakers to allow the playing of audio files
            <tag>``spigot'' driver</tag>
              Driver for the Creative Labs Video Spigot
            <tag><htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?gsc(4)"
		name="gsc"> driver</tag>
              Driver for the Genuis GS-4500 Hand scanner
            <tag><htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?joy(4)"
		name="joy"> driver</tag>
              Driver for a joystick
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?labpc(4)"
		name="labpc"> driver/
              Driver for National Instrument's Lab-PC and Lab-PC+
            <tag/``uart'' driver/
              Stand-alone 6850 UART for MIDI
            <tag/<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?psm(4)"
		name="psm"> driver/
              PS/2 mouse port
            <tag><tt/tw.c/</tag>
              Driver for the X-10 POWERHOUSE <newline>
          </descrip>
<!--
      <sect1>
        <heading>I am about to buy a new machine. What do you recommend?</heading>

        <p>
          See the <url url="../handbook/hw.html" name="hardware section">
	  of the handbook for general tips if you're going to build it
	  yourself, otherwise see the 
	  FreeBSD <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/commercial/hardware.html"
	  name="Hardware vendors"> page for various companies who offer
	  FreeBSD compatible systems.

-->
      <sect1>
        <heading>Does FreeBSD support power management on my laptop?</heading>
        <p>
          FreeBSD supports APM on certain machines.  Please look in the
          <tt/LINT/ kernel config file, searching for the <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?apm" name="APM"> keyword.

    <sect>
      <heading>Troubleshooting</heading>
      <p>
      <sect1>
	<heading>I have bad blocks on my hard drive!<label id="awre"></heading>
        <p>
          With SCSI drives, the drive should be capable of re-mapping
          these automatically.  However, many drives are shipped with
          this feature disabled, for some mysterious reason...

          To enable this, you'll need to edit the first device page mode,
          which can be done on FreeBSD by giving the command (as root)

<verb>
 scsi -f /dev/rsd0c -m 1 -e -P 3
</verb>

          and changing the values of AWRE and ARRE from 0 to 1:-
<verb>
 AWRE (Auto Write Reallocation Enbld):  1
 ARRE (Auto Read Reallocation Enbld):  1
</verb>

          For other drive types, you are dependent on support from the
          operating system.  Unfortunately, the ``bad144'' command that
	  FreeBSD supplies for this purpose needs a considerable amount
	  of work done on it. In other words, it doesn't work. If you're
	  lucky, you can create a file that contains the bad blocks and
	  stuff it away with a name like ".BADBLOCKS". This is how I got
	  386BSD Patchkit 24 completed. <tt/NOTE/: don't do this unless
	  your time is effectively free.

          IDE drives are <em/supposed/ to come with built-in bad-block
          remapping; if you have documentation for your drive, you may want
          to see if this feature has been disabled on your drive.  However,
          ESDI, RLL, and ST-506 drives normally do not do this.


      <sect1>
        <heading>FreeBSD does not recognize my Bustek 742a EISA SCSI!</heading>
        <p>
          This info is specific to the 742a but may also cover other
          Buslogic cards.  (Bustek = Buslogic)

          There are 2 general ``versions'' of the 742a card.  They are
          hardware revisions A-G, and revisions H - onwards.  The revision
          letter is located after the Assembly number on the edge of the
          card.  The 742a has 2 ROM chips on it, one is the BIOS chip and
          the other is the Firmware chip.  FreeBSD doesn't care what
          version of BIOS chip you have but it does care about what version
          of firmware chip.  Buslogic will send upgrade ROMS out if you
          call their tech support dept.  The BIOS and Firmware chips are
          shipped as a matched pair.  You must have the most current
          Firmware ROM in your adapter card for your hardware revision.

          The REV A-G cards can only accept BIOS/Firmware sets up to
          2.41/2.21.  The REV H- up cards can accept the most current
          BIOS/Firmware sets of 4.70/3.37. The difference between the
          firmware sets is that the 3.37 firmware supports ``round robin''

          The Buslogic cards also have a serial number on them.  If you
          have a old hardware revision card you can call the Buslogic RMA
          department and give them the serial number and attempt to
          exchange the card for a newer hardware revision.  If the card is
          young enough they will do so.

          FreeBSD 2.1 only supports Firmware revisions 2.21 onward.  If you
          have a Firmware revision older than this your card will not be
          recognized as a Buslogic card.  It may be recognized as an
          Adaptec 1540, however.  The early Buslogic firmware contains an
          AHA1540 ``emulation'' mode.  This is not a good thing for an EISA
          card, however.

          If you have an old hardware revision card and you obtain the 2.21
          firmware for it, you will need to check the position of jumper W1
          to B-C, the default is A-B.

          The 742a EISA cards never had the ``&gt;16MB'' problem mentioned in
          the section <ref id="bigram" name="on &gt;16 MB machines">. This is a
          problem that occurs with the Vesa-Local Buslogic SCSI cards.

      <sect1>
        <heading>FreeBSD does not recognize my on-board AIC-7xxx EISA SCSI in an HP Netserver!</heading>
        <p>
	  This is basically a known problem.  The EISA on-board SCSI controller
	  in the HP Netserver machines occupies EISA slot number 11, so all
	  the ``true'' EISA slots are in front of it.  Alas, the address space
	  for EISA slots >= 10 collides with the address space assigned to PCI,
	  and FreeBSD's auto-configuration currently cannot handle this
	  situation very well.

	  So now, the best you can do is to pretend there were no address
	  range clash :), by bumping the kernel option <tt/EISA_SLOTS/
	  to a value of 12.
	  Configure and compile a kernel, as described in the
	  <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/handbook/kernelconfig.html"
	  name="Handbook entry on configuring the kernel">.

	  Of course, this does present you a chicken-and-egg problem when
	  installing on such a machine.  In order to work around this
	  problem, a special hack is available inside <em>UserConfig</em>.
	  Do not use the ``visual'' interface, but the plain command-line
	  interface there.  Simply type
<verb>
eisa 12
quit
</verb>

	  at the prompt, and install your system as usual.  While it's
	  recommendable to compile and install a custom kernel anyway,
	  
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?dset"
	  name="dset"> now also understands to save this value.

	  Hopefully, future version will have a proper fix for this problem.

          <tt/NOTE:/ You can not use a <bf/dangerously dedicated/ disk with
          an HP Netserver. See <ref id="dedicate" name="this note"> for
          more info.

      <sect1>
	<heading>What's up with this CMD640 IDE controller?</heading>

	<p>It's broken.  It cannot handle commands on both channels
	simultaneously.

        <p>There's a workaround available now and it is enabled automatically
        if your system uses this chip. For the details refer to the
        manual page of the disk driver (man 4 wd).

	<p>If you're already running FreeBSD 2.2.1 or 2.2.2 with a
	CMD640 IDE controller and you want to use the second channel,
	build a new kernel with <tt/options "CMD640"/ enabled. This
	is the default for 2.2.5 and later.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I keep seeing messages like ``<tt/ed1: timeout/''.</heading>
        <p>
          This is usually caused by an interrupt conflict (e.g., two boards
          using the same IRQ).  FreeBSD prior to 2.0.5R used to be tolerant
          of this, and  the  network driver  would  still function  in  the
          presence  of IRQ conflicts.  However, with  2.0.5R and later, IRQ
          conflicts are no  longer tolerated.  Boot with the -c option and
          change the ed0/de0/... entry to match your board.

      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <heading>When I mount a CDROM, I get ``Incorrect super block''.</heading>
        <p>
          You have to tell 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?mount"
	  name="mount"> the type of the device that you
          want to mount.  By default, 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?mount"
	  name="mount"> will assume the
          filesystem is of type ``<tt/ufs/''.  You want to mount a CDROM
          filesystem, and you do this by specifying the ``<tt/-t cd9660/''
          option to 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?mount"
	  name="mount">.  This does, of course, assume that the
          CDROM contains an ISO 9660 filesystem, which is what most CDROMs
          have.  As of 1.1R, FreeBSD automatically understands the Rock Ridge
          (long filename) extensions as well.

          As an example, if you want to mount the CDROM device,
          ``<tt>/dev/cd0c</tt>'', under <tt>/mnt</tt>, you would execute:

          <verb>
            mount -t cd9660 /dev/cd0c /mnt
          </verb>

          Note that your device name (``<tt>/dev/cd0c</tt>'' in this
          example) could be different, depending on the CDROM interface.
          Note that the ``<tt/-t cd9660/'' option just causes the
          ``<tt/mount&lowbar;cd9660/'' command to be executed, and so the
          above example could be shortened to:
          <verb>
            mount_cd9660 /dev/cd0c /mnt
          </verb>

      <sect1>
        <heading>When I mount a CDROM, I get ``Device not configured''.</heading>
        <p>
          This generally means that there is no CDROM in the CDROM drive,
          or the drive is not visible on the bus. Feed the drive
          something, and/or check its master/slave status if it is
          IDE (ATAPI). It can take a couple of seconds for a CDROM drive
	  to notice that it's been fed, so be patient.

	  Sometimes a SCSI CD-ROM may be missed because it hadn't enough time
	  to answer the bus reset. In you have a SCSI CD-ROM please try to
	  add the following symbol into your  kernel configuration file
          and recompile.

          <verb>
            options "SCSI_DELAY=15"
          </verb>

      <sect1>
        <heading>My printer is ridiculously slow. What can I do ?</heading>
        <p>
          If it's parallel, and the only problem is that it's terribly
          slow, try setting your printer port into ``polled'' mode:

          <verb>
            lptcontrol -p
          </verb>

          Some newer HP printers are claimed not to work correctly in
          interrupt mode, apparently due to some (not yet exactly
          understood) timing problem.

      <sect1>
        <heading>My programs occasionally die with ``Signal 11'' errors.</heading>
        <p>
          This can be caused by bad hardware (memory, motherboard, etc.).
          Try running a memory-testing program on your PC.  Note that, even
          though every memory testing program you try will report your
          memory as being fine, it's possible for slightly marginal memory
          to pass all memory tests, yet fail under operating conditions
          (such as during bus mastering DMA from a SCSI controller like the
          Adaptec 1542, when you're beating on memory by compiling a kernel,
	  or just when the system's running particularly hot).

	  The SIG11 FAQ (listed below) points up slow memory as being the
	  most common problem. Increase the number of wait states in your
	  BIOS setup, or get faster memory.

	  For me the guilty party has been bad cache RAM or a bad on-board
	  cache controller. Try disabling the on-board (secondary) cache in
	  the BIOS setup and see if that solves the problem.

	  There's an extensive FAQ on this at
	  <url url="http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/"
               name="the SIG11 problem FAQ">

      <sect1>
        <heading>When I boot, the screen goes black and loses sync!</heading>
        <p>
          This is a known problem with the ATI Mach 64 video card.
          The problem is that this card uses address <tt/2e8/, and
          the fourth serial port does too. Due to a bug (feature?) in the
          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sio" name="sio.c">
	  driver it will touch this port even if you don't have the
          fourth serial port, and <bf/even/ if you disable sio3 (the fourth
          port) which normally uses this address.

          Until the bug has been fixed, you can use this workaround:
          <enum>
            <item> Enter <tt/-c/ at the bootprompt.
              (This will put the kernel into configuration mode).
            <item> Disable <tt/sio0/, <tt/sio1/, <tt/sio2/ and <tt/sio3/
              (all of them).  This way the sio driver doesn't get activated
              -> no problems.
            <item> Type exit to continue booting.
          </enum>

          If you want to be able to use your serial ports,
          you'll have to build a new kernel with the following
          modification: in <tt>/usr/src/sys/i386/isa/sio.c</tt> find the
          one occurrence of the string <tt/0x2e8/ and remove that string
          and the preceding comma (keep the trailing comma).  Now follow
          the normal procedure of building a new kernel.

          Even after applying these workarounds, you may still find that
          X Window does not work properly.  Some newer ATI Mach 64 video
          cards (notably ATI Mach Xpression) do not run with the current
          version of <tt/XFree86/; the screen goes black when you start
          X Window, or it works with strange problems. You can get
          a beta-version of a new X-server that works better, by looking at
          <url url="http://www.xfree86.org" name="the XFree86 site">
          and following the links to the new beta release. Get the
          following files:

          <tt>AccelCards, BetaReport, Cards, Devices, FILES, README.ati,
            README.FreeBSD, README.Mach64, RELNOTES, VGADriver.Doc,
            X312BMa64.tgz</tt>

          Replace the older files with the new versions and make sure you
          run <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=xf86config"	name="xf86config"> again.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I have 128 MB of RAM but the system only uses 64 MB.<label id="reallybigram"></heading>

        <p>
          Due to the manner in which FreeBSD gets the memory size from the
          BIOS, it can only detect 16 bits worth of Kbytes in size (65535
          Kbytes = 64MB). If you have more than 64MB, FreeBSD will only see
          the first 64MB (or less... some BIOSes peg the memory size to 16M).

	  To work around this problem, you need to use the
          kernel option specified below. There is a way to get complete
          memory information from the BIOS, but we don't have room in the
          bootblocks to do it. Someday when lack of room in the bootblocks
          is fixed, we'll use the extended BIOS functions to get the full
          memory information...but for now we're stuck with the kernel
          option.

          <tt>
            options "MAXMEM=&lt;n>"
          </tt>

          Where <tt/n/ is your memory in Kilobytes. For a 128 MB machine,
          you'd want to use <tt/131072/.

      <sect1>
        <heading>FreeBSD 2.0 panics with ``kmem_map too small!''</heading>

        <p>
          <tt /Note/ The message may also be ``mb_map too small!''
        <p>
          The panic indicates that the system ran out of virtual memory for
          network buffers (specifically, mbuf clusters). You can increase
          the amount of VM available for mbuf clusters by adding:

          <tt>
            options "NMBCLUSTERS=&lt;n>"
          </tt>

          to your kernel config file, where &lt;n&gt; is a number in the
          range 512-4096, depending on the number of concurrent TCP
          connections you need to support. I'd recommend trying 2048 - this
          should get rid of the panic completely. You can monitor the
          number of mbuf clusters allocated/in use on the system with
          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?netstat"
	  name="netstat -m">.

      <sect1>
        <heading>``CMAP busy panic'' when rebooting with a new kernel.</heading>
        <p>
          The logic that attempts to detect an out of data
          <tt>/var/db/kvm_*.db</tt> files sometimes fails and using a
          mismatched file can sometimes lead to panics.

          If this happens, reboot single-user and do:
          <verb>
            rm /var/db/kvm_*.db
          </verb>

      <sect1>
        <heading>ahc0: brkadrint,  Illegal Host Access at seqaddr 0x0</heading>
        <p>
         This is a conflict with an Ultrastor SCSI Host Adapter. 

	 During the boot process enter the kernel configuration menu and
	 disable <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?uha(4)"
	 name="uha0">, which is causing the problem.

      <sect1><heading>Sendmail says ``mail loops back to myself''</heading>
	<p>
	  This is answered in the sendmail FAQ as follows:-
	  <verb>
          * I'm getting "Local configuration error" messages, such as:

          553 relay.domain.net config error: mail loops back to myself
          554 <user@domain.net>... Local configuration error

          How can I solve this problem?

          You have asked mail to the domain (e.g., domain.net) to be
          forwarded to a specific host (in this case, relay.domain.net)
          by using an MX record, but the relay machine doesn't recognize
          itself as domain.net.  Add domain.net to /etc/sendmail.cw
          (if you are using FEATURE(use_cw_file)) or add "Cw domain.net"
          to /etc/sendmail.cf.
	  </verb>
	<p>
	  The current version of the <url
	  url="ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/mail/sendmail-faq"
	  name="sendmail FAQ"> is no longer maintained with the sendmail
	  release.  It is however regularly posted to
	  <url url="news:comp.mail.sendmail" name="comp.mail.sendmail">,
	  <url url="news:comp.mail.misc" name="comp.mail.misc">,
	  <url url="news:comp.mail.smail" name="comp.mail.smail">,
	  <url url="news:comp.answers" name="comp.answers">, and
	  <url url="news:news.answers" name="news.answers">.
	  You can also receive a copy via email by sending a message to
	  <url url="mailto:mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu"
	  name="mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu"> with the command "send
	  usenet/news.answers/mail/sendmail-faq" as the body of the
	  message.


    </sect>

    <sect>
      <heading>Commercial Applications</heading>

      <p>
        <bf/NOTE/ This section is still very sparse, though we're hoping, of
        course, that companies will add to it! :) The FreeBSD group has no
        financial interest in any of the companies listed here but simply
        lists them as a public service (and feels that commercial interest
        in FreeBSD can have very positive effects on FreeBSD's long-term
        viability).  We encourage commercial software vendors to send their
        entries here for inclusion.


      <sect1>
	<heading>Where can I get Motif for FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>Contact <ref id="xig" name="Xi Graphics"> for a Motif 2.0
           distribution for FreeBSD.

	  This distribution includes:
          <itemize>
	     <item>OSF/Motif manager, xmbind, panner, wsm.
	     <item>Development kit with uil, mrm, xm, xmcxx, include and Imake files.
	     <item>Static and dynamic libraries.
	     <item>Demonstration applets.
	     <item>Preformatted man pages.
	  </itemize>

	  <p>Be sure to specify that you want the FreeBSD version of Motif
	  when ordering!  Versions for BSDI and Linux are also sold by
	  <em>Xi Graphics</em>. This is currently a 4 diskette set... in the
	  future this will change to a unified CD distribution like their CDE.</p>

      <sect1>
	<heading>Where can I get CDE for FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>Contact <ref id="xig" name="Xi Graphics"> for a CDE 1.0.10
           distribution for FreeBSD.  This includes Motif 1.2.5, and can
           be used with Motif 2.0.

	  <p>This is a unified CDROM distribution for FreeBSD and Linux.</p>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Are there any commercial high-performance X servers?<label id="xig"></heading>
        <p>
          Yes, <url url="http://www.xig.com" name="Xi Graphics">
          sells their Accelerated-X product for FreeBSD and other Intel
          based systems.

          This high performance X Server offers easy configuration, support
          for multiple concurrent video boards and is distributed in binary
          form only, in a unified diskette distribution for FreeBSD and Linux.

          There is a free "compatibility demo" of version 3.1 available.

          Xi Graphics also sells Motif and CDE for FreeBSD (see above).

          <descrip>
            <tag/More info/
              <url url="http://www.xig.com/" name="Xi Graphics WWW page">
            <tag/or/
              <url url="mailto:sales@xig.com" name="Sales"> or
              <url url="mailto:support@xig.com" name="Support">
              email addresses.
            <tag/or/
              phone (800) 946 7433  or +1 303 298-7478.
          </descrip>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Are there any Database systems for FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
         Yes! Conetic Software Systems has ported their C/base and C/books
         database systems to FreeBSD 2.0.5 and higher, and Sleepycat
	 Software is selling a commercially supported version of the DB
	 database library.

         <descrip>
         <tag/For more information/
           <url url="http://www.conetic.com/" name="Conetic Software Systems">
         <tag/or mail/
           <url url="mailto:info@conetic.com" name="Information E-mail address">,
	 <tag/and/
	   <url url="http://www.sleepycat.com/" name = "Sleepycat Software">.
         </descrip>

    <sect>
      <heading>User Applications</heading>
      <sect1>
        <heading>So, where are all the user applications?</heading>

	<p>
          Please take a look at <url
          url="http://www.FreeBSD.ORG/ports/" name="the ports page">
          for info on software packages ported to FreeBSD.  The list currently
	  tops 1000 and is growing daily, so come back to check often
	  or subscribe to the <tt/freebsd-announce/ <ref id="mailing"
	  name="mailing list"> for periodic updates on new entries.

	  Most ports should be available for both the 2.2 and 3.0
	  branches, and many of them should work on 2.1.x systems as
	  well.  Each time a FreeBSD release is made, a snapshot of the
	  ports tree at the time of release in also included in the
	  <tt>ports/</tt> directory.

          We also support the concept of a ``package'', essentially no
	  more than a gzipped binary distribution with a little extra
          intelligence embedded in it for doing whatever custom installation
          work is required.  A package can installed and uninstalled
          again easily without having to know the gory details of which
	  files it includes.

          Use the package installation menu in <tt>/stand/sysinstall</tt>
          (under the post-configuration menu item) or invoke the
          <em>pkg_add(1)</em> command on the specific package files you're
          interested in installing.  Package files can usually be identified by
          their <em>.tgz</em> suffix and CDROM distribution people will have
          a <tt>packages/All</tt> directory on their CD which contains such
          files.  They can also be downloaded over the net for various versions
          of FreeBSD at the following locations:

          <descrip>
          <tag>for 2.1.x-release</tag>
            <url url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/packages-2.1.7/"
              name="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/packages-2.1.7/">
          <tag>for 2.2.2-release/2.2-stable</tag>
            <url url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/packages-2.2/"
              name="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/packages-2.2/">
          <tag>for 3.0-current</tag>
            <url url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/packages-3.0/"
              name="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/packages-3.0/">
          </descrip>

          or your nearest local mirror site.

          Note that all ports may not be available as packages since
          new ones are constantly being added.  It is always a good
          idea to check back periodically to see which packages are available
          at the <url url="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/"
	  name="ftp.freebsd.org"> master site.

      <sect1>
        <heading>ghostscript gives lots of errors with my 386/486SX.<label id="emul"></heading>

        <p>
          You don't have a math co-processor, right?
          You will need to add the alternative math emulator to your kernel;
          you do this by adding the following to your kernel config file
          and it will be compiled in.

          <verb>
            options GPL_MATH_EMULATE
          </verb>

          <bf/NOTE/ You will need to remove the <tt/MATH&lowbar;EMULATE/
          option when you do this.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Where do I find libc.so.3.0?</heading>
	<p>
	  You are trying to run a package for 2.2/3.0 on a 2.1.x
	  system.  Please take a look at the previous section and get
	  the correct port/package for your system.

      <sect1>
        <heading>When I run a SCO/iBCS2 application, it bombs on <tt/socksys/.</heading>

        <p>
          You first need to edit the <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>
	  (or <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc.conf(5)"
		name="/etc/rc.conf">) file in the last
          section to change the following variable to <tt/YES/:
          <verb>
            # Set to YES if you want ibcs2 (SCO) emulation loaded at startup
            ibcs2=NO
          </verb>
          It will load the <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ibcs2" name="ibcs2">
	  kernel module at startup.

          You'll then need to set up /compat/ibcs2/dev to look like:

          <verb>
lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel         9 Oct 15 22:20 X0R@ -> /dev/null
lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel         7 Oct 15 22:20 nfsd@ -> socksys
-rw-rw-r--  1 root  wheel         0 Oct 28 12:02 null
lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel         9 Oct 15 22:20 socksys@ -> /dev/null
crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel   41,   1 Oct 15 22:14 spx
          </verb>
          You just need socksys to go to <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?null(4)"
	  name="/dev/null"> to fake the
          open &amp; close. The code in -current will handle the rest.
          This is much cleaner than the way it was done before.  If you
          want the <tt/spx/ driver for a local socket X connection, define
          <tt/SPX&lowbar;HACK/ when you compile the system.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I configure INN (Internet News) for my machine?</heading>

        <p>After installing the inn package or port, the
        <url url="http://www.math.psu.edu/barr/INN.html"
		name="Dave Barr's INN Page">
	 where you'll find the INN FAQ may be an excellent place to start.

    <sect>
      <heading>Kernel Configuration</heading>
      <p>
      <sect1>
        <heading>I'd like to customize my kernel. Is it difficult?<label id="make-kernel"></heading>
        <p>
          Not at all! First, you need either the complete
          <tt/srcdist/ or, at the minimum, the <tt/kerndist/ loaded on your
          system.  This provides the necessary sources for building the
          kernel, as, unlike most commercial UNIX vendors, we have a policy
          of <bf/NOT/ shipping our kernel code in binary object form.
          Shipping the source takes a bit more space, but it also means
          that you can refer to the actual kernel sources in case of
          difficulty or to further your understanding of what's
          <bf/really/ happening.

          Once you have the <tt/kerndist/ or <tt/srcdist/ loaded, do this:

          <enum>
            <item> <tt>cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf</tt>
            <item> <tt/cp GENERIC MYKERNEL/
            <item> <tt/vi MYKERNEL/
            <item> <tt/config MYKERNEL/
            <item> <tt>cd ../../compile/MYKERNEL</tt>
            <item> <tt/make depend/
            <item> <tt/make all/
            <item> <tt/make install/
            <item> <tt/reboot/
          </enum>

          Step 2 may not be necessary if you already have a kernel
          configuration file from a previous release of FreeBSD 2.X. -
          simply bring your old one over and check it carefully for any
          drivers that may have changed boot syntax or been rendered
          obsolete.

          A good kernel config file to look into is <tt/LINT/, which
          contains entries for <bf/all/ possible kernel options and
          documents them fairly well.  The <tt/GENERIC/ kernel config file
          is used to build the initial release you probably loaded (unless
          you upgraded in-place) and contains entries for the most common
          configurations.  It's a pretty good place to start from.

          If you don't need to make any changes to <tt/GENERIC/, you can
          also skip step 3, where you customize the kernel for your
          configuration.  Step 8 should only be undertaken if steps 6 and 7
          succeed.  This will copy the new kernel image to
          <tt>/kernel</tt> and <bf/BACK UP YOUR OLD ONE IN/
          <tt>/kernel.old</tt>!  It's very important to remember this in
          case the new kernel fails to work for some reason - you can still
          select <tt>/kernel.old</tt> at the boot prompt to boot the old
          one.  When you reboot, the new kernel will boot by default.

          If the compile in step 7 falls over for some reason, then it's
          recommended that you start from step 4 but substitute
          <tt/GENERIC/ for <tt/MYKERNEL/.  If you can generate a
          <tt/GENERIC/ kernel, then it's likely something in your special
          configuration file that's bad (or you've uncovered a bug!).  If
          the build of the <tt/GENERIC/ kernel does <bf/NOT/ succeed, then
          it's very likely that your sources are somehow corrupted.

          Finally, if you need to see your original boot messages again to
          compile a new kernel that's better tailored to your hardware, try
          the <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?dmesg"
	  name="dmesg"> command.  It should print out all the boot-time
          messages printed by your old kernel, some of which may be quite
          helpful in configuring the new one.

	  <bf/NOTE:/ I recommend making a dated snapshot of your kernel
	  in <tt/kernel.YYMMDD/ after you get it all working, that way if
	  you do something dire the next time you play with your configuration
	  you can boot that kernel instead of having to go all the way back
	  to <tt/kernel.GENERIC/. This is particularly important if you're
	  now booting off a controller that isn't supported in the GENERIC
	  kernel (yes, personal experience).

      <sect1>
        <heading>My kernel compiles fail because <tt/&lowbar;hw&lowbar;float/ is missing.</heading>

        <p>
          Let me guess. You removed <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?npx(4)"
	 name="npx0"> from your kernel configuration
          file because you don't have a math co-processor, right? Wrong! :-)
          The <tt/npx0/ is <bf/MANDATORY/. Even if you don't have a
          mathematic co-processor, you <bf/must/ include the <tt/npx0/
          device.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Interrupt conflicts with multi-port serial code.</heading>
        <p>
           Q. When I compile a kernel with multi-port serial code, it tells me
           that only the first port is probed and the rest skipped due to
           interrupt conflicts.  How do I fix this?

        <p>
          A. The problem here is that FreeBSD has code built-in to keep the
          kernel from getting trashed due to hardware or software
          conflicts.  The way to fix this is to leave out the IRQ settings
          on all but one port.  Here is a example:

<verb>
#
# Multiport high-speed serial line - 16550 UARTS
#
device    sio2    at isa? port 0x2a0 tty irq 5 flags 0x501 vector siointr
device    sio3    at isa? port 0x2a8 tty flags 0x501 vector siointr
device    sio4    at isa? port 0x2b0 tty flags 0x501 vector siointr
device    sio5    at isa? port 0x2b8 tty flags 0x501 vector siointr
</verb>

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I enable support for QIC-40/80 drives?</heading>

        <p>
          You need to uncomment the following line in the generic config
          file (or add it to your config file), add a ``<tt/flags 0x1/''
          on the <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fdc(4)"
	  name="fdc"> line and recompile.

<verb>
controller  fdc0  at isa? port "IO_FD1" bio irq 6 drq 2 flags 0x1 vector fdintr
disk        fd0   at fdc0 drive 0                       ^^^^^^^^^
disk        fd1   at fdc0 drive 1
#tape       ft0   at fdc0 drive 2
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
</verb>

          Next, you create a device called <tt>/dev/ft0</tt> by going into
          <tt>/dev</tt> and run the following command:

          <verb>
            sh MAKEDEV ft0
          </verb>

          for the first device. <tt/ft1/ for a second one and so on.

          You will have a device called <tt>/dev/ft0</tt>, which you can
          write to through a special program to manage it called
          ``<tt/ft/'' - see the man page on <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ft" name="ft">
	  for further details.
          Versions previous to <tt/-current/ also had some trouble dealing
          with bad tape media; if you have trouble where <tt/ft/ seems to
          go back and forth over the same spot, try grabbing the latest
          version of <tt/ft/ from <tt>/usr/src/sbin/ft</tt> in
          <tt/-current/ and try that.
      </sect1>

    <sect>
      <heading>System Administration</heading>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Where are the system start-up configuration files?</heading>

        <p>
          From 2.0.5R to 2.2.2R, the primary configuration file is
          <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>. All the options are to be specified in
          this file and other files such as <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc" name="/etc/rc"> and
          <tt>/etc/netstart</tt> just include it.

          Look in the <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> file and change the value to
          match your system. This file is filled with comments to show what
          to put in there.

	  In post-2.2.2 and 3.0, <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> was renamed
	  to a more self-describing <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc.conf(5)"
	  name="rc.conf"> file and the syntax
	  cleaned up a bit in the process.  <tt>/etc/netstart</tt> was also
	  renamed to <tt>/etc/rc.network</tt> so that all files could be
	  copied with a <tt><htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?cp" name="cp">
	  /usr/src/etc/rc* /etc</tt> command.

          <tt>/etc/rc.local</tt> is here as always and is the place to
          start up additional local services like <htmlurl
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/ports.cgi?^inn" name="INN">
	  or set custom options.

          The <tt>/etc/rc.serial</tt> is for serial port initialization
          (e.g. locking the port characteristics, and so on.).

          The <tt>/etc/rc.i386</tt> is for Intel-specifics settings, such
	  as iBCS2 emulation or the PC system console configuration.

          Starting with 2.1.0R, you can also have "local" startup files in a
          directory specified in <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> (or
	  <tt>/etc/rc.conf</tt>):
          <verb>
            # Location of local startup files.
            local_startup=/usr/local/etc/rc.local.d
          </verb>
          Each file ending in <tt/.sh/ will be executed in alphabetical
          order.

          If you want to ensure a certain execution order without changing all
	  the file names, you can use a scheme similar to the following with
	  digits prepended to each file name to insure the ordering:
          <verb>
            10news.sh
            15httpd.sh
            20ssh.sh
          </verb>
          It can be seen as ugly (or SysV :-)) but it provides a simple and
          regular scheme for locally-added packages without resorting to
          magical editing of <tt>/etc/rc.local</tt>.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I add a user easily?</heading>

        <p>
          Use the <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?adduser"
	  name="adduser"> command.

          There is another package called ``<tt/new-account/'' also written
          in Perl by Ollivier Robert. Ask
          <tt>&lt;roberto@FreeBSD.ORG&gt;</tt> about it.  It is currently
          undergoing further development.

          To remove the user again, use the <htmlurl
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rmuser" name="rmuser">
	  command.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How can I add my new hard disk to my FreeBSD system?</heading>
        <p>
          The easiest way to do this is from the installation program. You
          can start the installation program by running
          <tt>/stand/sysinstall</tt> as root.
        <p>
          Alternatively, if you still have the install floppy, you can just
          reboot from that and use the partition & label editors while
	  the system is totally quiescent.
        <p>
          <label id="2_1-disklabel-fix">
          If the above does not work for you, or if you're a total masochist
	  who likes arcane interfaces, this is how to use 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?disklabel"
	  name="disklabel"> manually:
        <p>
          <em>WARNING: There is no substitute for reading carefully
          &amp; understanding what you are doing! Things described here may
          DESTROY your system. Proceed with caution! Remember, a BACKUP is your
          friend!</em>
        <p>
          <tt /sysinstall/ used to be broken up to 2.1.5-RELEASE and will
          insist on mounting something at / in the disklabel editor. You will
          have to manually run
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?disklabel"
	  name="disklabel"> before you can run
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?newfs"
	  name="newfs">/. This means doing the math for partitions
          yourself. This is rumored to be easy :-) See if you can obtain a
          skeletal label with ''<tt>disklabel -r &lt;diskname&gt;</tt>''
          <em>(e.g.  </em>''<tt>disklabel -r /dev/rwd0s2</tt>''<em>, assuming
          that your new disk is wd0, the first IDE drive, and the FreeBSD
          slice is the second one, s2)</em>. You should see something
          like:-

<verb>
# /dev/rwd0s2:
type: ESDI
disk: wd0s2
label:
flags:
bytes/sector: 512
sectors/track: 63
tracks/cylinder: 64
sectors/cylinder: 4032
cylinders: 610
sectors/unit: 2459520
rpm: 3600
interleave: 1
trackskew: 0
cylinderskew: 0
headswitch: 0           # milliseconds
track-to-track seek: 0  # milliseconds
drivedata: 0

8 partitions:
#        size   offset    fstype   [fsize bsize bps/cpg]
  c:  2459520        0    unused        0     0         # (Cyl.    0 - 609)
  e:  2459520        0    4.2BSD        0     0     0   # (Cyl.    0 - 609)
</verb>

          Make sure that the size is correct, in this case, 2459520
          sectors/unit x 512 bytes/sector / 2**20 (1 Megabyte) = 1200
          Megabytes. The rest of the stuff (b/s, t/c, s/c, interleave, etc.)
          should get suitable defaults from <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?disklabel"
	  name="disklabel">, but see
          <ref id="ESDI" name="this note"> for older disks. 'fsize' is the
          <ref id="fsize" name="Fragment size"> for the filesystem,
          and 'bsize' is the <ref id="bsize" name="Block size">. 'c' is
          the partition covering the entire slice (or entire disk for a
          non-sliced disk), and must remain as it is. <em>It should not be
          used for a filesystem</em>. The 'c' partition is magic in that it
          is faked by the kernel even if no disklabel exists.
        <p>
          In the trivial case, where you want a single filesystem spanning
          the whole slice, the entry for 'e' has to be corrected. Setting fsize
          to 1024 and bsize to 8192 (8 fragments/block), which are reasonable
          values for a filesystem, the correct entry for 'e' would be:-

<verb>
  e:  2459520        0    4.2BSD     1024  8192
</verb>

        <p>
          Now, the (slightly) harder case, where we want 2 partitions for 2
          filesystems. Following the <ref id="fsname" name="BSD naming
          conventions">, the partitions will be <tt /wd0s2e/ &amp;
          <tt /wd0s2f/. Suppose we split up the 1200 MB into 300 MB for
          'e' and the remaining 900 MB for 'f'. The partition entries would
          be:-

<verb>
8 partitions:
#        size   offset    fstype   [fsize bsize bps/cpg]
  c:  2459520        0    unused        0     0         # (Cyl.    0 - 609)
  e:   614400        0    4.2BSD     1024  8192
  f:  1843200   614400    4.2BSD     1024  8192
</verb>

        <p>
          <bf /Note:/ You can directly edit the disklabel with
          ''<tt>disklabel -e wd0s2</tt>''. See
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?disklabel"
	  name="disklabel">.
	  <p>
	  If you have at least FreeBSD 2.1.5, and you want to dedicate
	  an entire disk to FreeBSD without any care for other
	  systems, you might shorten the steps above to something like:
<verb>
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rwd0 count=100
# disklabel -Brw wd0 auto
# disklabel -e wd0
</verb>

	  The first <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?dd"
	  name="dd"> command ensures there is no old junk at
	  the beginning of the disk that might confuse the disk code
	  in the kernel.  Following is an automatic skeleton label
	  generation using the defaults that have been probed from the
	  disk at boot time.  Editing this label continues as described
	  above.
        <p>
          You're done! Time to initialize the filesystems with something
          like:-

        <verb>
            newfs -d0 /dev/rwd0s2e
            newfs -d0 /dev/rwd0s2f
        </verb>

          Depending on the disk name and slice number, it might be
          required that you run the script <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?MAKEDEV"
	  name="/dev/MAKEDEV">
          before in order to create the desired device nodes.

          And mount your new filesystems (See
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?mount"
	  name="mount">):-

        <verb>
            mount /dev/wd0s2e /mnt/foo
            mount /dev/wd0s2f /mnt/bar
        </verb>

          You may wish to edit <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fstab(5)"
	  name="/etc/fstab"> to automatically mount
          the filesystems at boot time.

        <p>
          <bf /Glossary:/
          <descrip>
            <tag><label id="fsize"><bf>Fragment Size (fsize)</bf></tag>
              The basic unit of storage for <tt /ffs/. See
              M. McKusick, W. Joy, S. Leffler, and R. Fabry,
              "A Fast File System for  UNIX",
              ACM Transactions on Computer Systems 2, 3, pp 181-197, August
              1984, (reprinted in the BSD System Manager's Manual, SMM:5) or
              <url url="file:/usr/share/doc/smm/05.fastfs/paper.ascii.gz"
                 name="/usr/share/doc/smm/05.fastfs/paper.ascii.gz">
              on your system.
            <tag><label id="bsize"><bf>Block Size (bsize)</bf></tag>
              A block comprises one or more fragments. See the
              reference above and
              <url url="file:/usr/include/sys/disklabel.h"
                 name="&lt;sys/disklabel.h&gt;">
            <tag><label id="ESDI">
                <bf>Disklabel Characteristics for Older Disks (ESDI)</bf></tag>
              You may need to provide more information to <htmlurl 
	      url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?disklabel"
	      name="disklabel">
              if you happen to own a ``true disk'', i.e. one with a
              uniform geometry, real heads, sectors, and cylinders,
              such as an old ESDI drive. All of this should be easily
              obtainable from the drive case, owner's manual, fellow
              sufferers, etc. :-)
            <tag><label id="fsname">
                <bf>BSD Filesystem Naming Conventions</bf></tag>
              Partition 'a' is by convention reserved for a bootable
              partition, and partition 'b' for swap space. Regular
              partition names should start with 'd'. ('d' used to be
              magic in 386BSD 0.1 through FreeBSD 2.0, thus partition
              'e' is often used for the first non-bootable partition
              containing a filesystem.)
            <tag><label id="swap">
                <bf>Warning about swap space</bf></tag>
              The space required by the BSD partition table is allowed
              for in the file system. It's not allowed for by the swap
              partition. So don't start swap at cylinder 0, either offset
              it or put a file system in partition 'a'.
          </descrip>

       <sect1>
         <heading>I have a new removable drive, how do I use it?</heading>

          <p>
	   Whether it's a removable drive like a ZIP or an EZ drive (or
	   even a floppy, if you want to use it that way), or a new hard
	   disk, once it's installed and recognized by the system, and
	   you have your cartridge/floppy/whatever slotted in, things are
	   pretty much the same for all devices.

	   <label id="disklabel">
	   (this section is based on <url
	   url="http://vinyl.quickweb.com/mark/FreeBSD/ZIP-FAQ.html"
	   name="Mark Mayo's ZIP FAQ">)

	   If it's a ZIP drive or a floppy , you've already got a DOS
	   filesystem on it, you can use a command like this:

	   <verb>
		mount -t msdos /dev/fd0c /floppy
	   </verb>

	   if it's a floppy, or this:

	   <verb>
		mount -t msdos /dev/sd2s4 /zip
	   </verb>

	   for a ZIP disk with the factory configuration.

           For other disks, see how they're laid out
	   using <tt/fdisk/ or <tt>/stand/sysinstall</tt>.

           The rest of the
	   examples will be for a ZIP drive on sd2, the third SCSI disk.

	   Unless it's a floppy, or a removable you plan on sharing with
	   other people, it's probably a better idea to stick a BSD file
	   system on it. You'll get long filename support, at least a 2X
	   improvement in performance, and a lot more stability. First, you
	   need to redo the DOS-level partitions/filesystems. You can either
	   use <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fdisk"
	   name="fdisk"> or <tt>/stand/sysinstall</tt>, or for a small
	   drive that you don't want to bother with multiple operating system
	   support on, just blow away the whole FAT partition table (slices)
	   and just use the BSD partitioning:

	   <verb>
		dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rsd2 count=2
		disklabel -Brw sd2 auto
           </verb>

	   You can use disklabel (more info in <ref id="2_1-disklabel-fix"
	   name="this note">) or <tt>/stand/sysinstall</tt> to create multiple
	   BSD partitions. You'll certainly want to do this if you're adding
	   swap space on a fixed disk, but it's probably irrelevant on a
	   removable drive like a ZIP.

	   Finally, create a new file system, this one's on our ZIP drive
	   using the whole disk:

	   <verb>
		<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?newfs"
		name="newfs"> /dev/rsd2c
	   </verb>

	   and mount it:

	   <verb>
		mount /dev/sd2c /zip
	   </verb>

	   and it's probably a good idea to add a line like this to
	   <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fstab"
	   name="/etc/fstab"> so you can just type "mount /zip" in the
	   future:

	   <verb>
                /dev/sd2c      /zip      ffs   rw,noauto   0   0
	   </verb>

      <sect1>
         <heading>How do I mount a secondary DOS partition?</heading>

          <p>
	    The secondary DOS partitions are found after ALL the primary
	    partitions. For example, if you have an "E" partition as the
	    second DOS partition on the second SCSI drive, you need to create
	    the special files for "slice 5" in /dev, then mount /dev/sd1s5:

	    <verb>
	       % cd /dev
	       % ./MAKEDEV sd1s5
	       % mount -t msdos /dev/sd1s5 /dos/e
	    </verb>

      <sect1>
         <heading>Can I mount other foreign filesystems under FreeBSD?</heading>	   <p>
	     <bf/ Digital UNIX/ UFS CDROMs can be mounted directly on FreeBSD.
             Mounting disk partitions from Digital UNIX and other systems
	     that support UFS may be more complex, depending on the details
	     of the disk partitioning for the operating system in question.
           <p>
	     <bf/ Linux/: 2.2 and later have support for <bf/ext2fs/ partitions.
	     See <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?mount_ext2fs"
	     name="mount_ext2fs"> for more information.

	     Any other information on this subject would be appreciated.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How can I use the NT loader to boot FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
          The general idea is that you copy the first sector of your
          native root FreeBSD or Linux partition into a file in the DOS/NT
          partition.  Assuming you name that file something like
          <tt>c:&bsol;bootsect.bsd</tt> or <tt>c:&bsol;bootsect.lnx</tt>
          (inspired by <tt>c:&bsol;bootsect.dos</tt>) you can then edit the
          <tt>c:&bsol;boot.ini</tt> file to come up with something like
          this:
          <verb>
            [boot loader]
            timeout=30
            default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS
            [operating systems]
            multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS="Windows NT"
            C:\BOOTSECT.BSD="FreeBSD"
            C:\BOOTSECT.LNX="Linux"
            C:\="DOS"
          </verb>
          This procedure assumes that DOS, NT, Linux, FreeBSD, or whatever
          have been installed into their respective fdisk partitions on the
          <bf/same/ disk.  In my case DOS &amp; NT are in the first fdisk
          partition, FreeBSD in the second, and Linux in the third.  I also
          installed FreeBSD and Linux to boot from their native partitions,
          not the disk MBR, and without delay.

          Mount a DOS-formatted floppy (if you've converted to NTFS) or the
          FAT partition, under, say, <tt>/mnt</tt>.

          In FreeBSD:
          <verb>
            dd if=/dev/rsd0a of=/mnt/bootsect.bsd bs=512 count=1
          </verb>

          In Linux:
          <verb>
            dd if=/dev/sda2 of=/mnt/bootsect.lnx bs=512 count=1
          </verb>

          Reboot into DOS or NT.  NTFS users copy the <tt/bootsect.bsd/
          and/or the <tt/bootsect.lnx/ file from the floppy to
          <tt/C:&bsol;/.  Modify the attributes (permissions) on
          <tt/boot.ini/ with:

          <verb>
            attrib -s -r c:\boot.ini
          </verb>

          Edit to add the appropriate entries from the example
          <tt/boot.ini/ above, and restore the attributes:

          <verb>
            attrib -r -s c:\boot.ini
          </verb>

          If FreeBSD or Linux are booting from the MBR, restore it with the
          DOS ``<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fdisk"
		name="fdisk /mbr">'' command after you reconfigure them to
          boot from their native partitions.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How about FreeBSD and Linux? How do I boot FreeBSD from LILO?</heading>
        <p>
          Theoretically you should be able to boot FreeBSD from LILO by
          treating it as a DOS-style operating system, but I haven't been
          able to get it to work. If you put LILO at the start of your Linux
	  boot partition instead of in the MBR, you can boot LILO from the
	  FreeBSD boot manager. This is what I do.

	  If you're running Windows-95 and Linux this is recommended anyway,
	  to make it simpler to get Linux booting again if you should need
	  to reinstall Windows95 (which is a Jealous Operating System, and
	  will bear no other Operating Systems in the Master Boot Record).

      <sect1>
	<heading>Will a ``dangerously dedicated'' disk endanger my health?</heading>
	<p><label id="dedicate">
	  The installation procedure allows you to chose two different
	  methods in partitioning your harddisk(s).  The default way makes
	  it compatible with other operating systems on the same machine,
	  by using fdisk table entries (called ``slices'' in FreeBSD),
	  with a FreeBSD slice that employs partitions of its own.
	  Optionally, one can chose to install a boot-selector to switch
	  between the possible operating systems on the disk(s).

	<p>
	  Now, while this is certainly the common case for people
	  coming from a PC background, those people coming more from a
	  Unix background and who are going to setup a machine just to
	  run FreeBSD and only FreeBSD, are more used to the classic
	  Unix way where the operating system owns the entire disks,
	  from the very first sector through the end.  A true fdisk
	  table isn't of any use in this case, the machine is running
	  FreeBSD 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, no other operating
	  system should ever be booted on it.  So, if you select
	  ``A)ll FreeBSD'' in sysinstall's fdisk editor, and answer the
	  next question with ``No'', you'll get this mode.  Note that
	  this means the BSD bootstrap also forms the MBR for this drive,
	  so there's no space left for anything like a boot manager.
	  Don't ever try to install one, or you'll damage the BSD
	  bootstrap.

	<p>
	  So why it is called ``dangerous''?  A disk in this mode
	  doesn't contain what normal PC utilities would consider a
	  valid fdisk table.  Depending on how well they have been
	  designed, they might complain at you once they are getting
	  in contact with such a disk, or even worse, they might
	  damage the BSD bootstrap without even asking or notifying
	  you.  Some kind of operating system that is in rather
	  widespread use on PCs is known for this kind of
	  user-unfriendliness (of course, it does this in the name of
	  ``user-friendliness'').  At least one Award BIOS that is for
	  example used in HP Netservers (but not only there) is known
	  to ignore any harddisk that doesn't have what it believes to
	  be a valid fdisk table.  When it comes to booting, it simply
	  ignores such a disk drive, advances to the floppy drive, and
	  barfs at you with just ``Read error''.  Very impressive, eh?
	  They probably also call this ``user-friendly'', who knows?

	<p>
	  The advantages of this mode are: FreeBSD owns the entire
	  disk, no need to waste several fictitious `tracks' for just
	  nothing but a 1980-aged simplistic partitioning model
	  enforcing some artificial and now rather nonsensical
	  constraints on how this partitioning needs to be done.
	  These constraints often lead to what might be the biggest
	  headaches for OS installations on PCs, geometry mismatch
	  hassles resulting out of two different, redundant ways how
	  to store the partitioning information in the fdisk table.
	  See the chapter about <ref id="missing_os" name="Missing
	  Operating System">.  In ``dangerously dedicated'' mode, the
	  BSD bootstrap starts at sector 0, and this one is the only
	  sector that always translates into the same C/H/S values,
	  regardless of which `translation' your BIOS is using for
	  your disk.  Thus, you can also swap disks between
	  systems/controllers that use a different translation scheme,
	  without risking that they won't boot anymore.

	<p>
	  To return a ``dangerously dedicated'' disk for normal PC
	  use, there are basically two options.  The first is, you
	  write enough NULL bytes over the MBR to make any subsequent
	  installation believe this to be a blank disk.  You can do
	  this for example with

	  <verb>
	    dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rsd0 count=15
	  </verb>

	  Alternatively, the undocumented DOS command

	  <verb>
	    fdisk /mbr
	  </verb>

	  is supposed to install a new master boot record as well,
	  thus clobbering the BSD bootstrap.


      <sect1>
        <heading>How can I add more swap space?</heading>

	<p>The best way is to increase the size of your swap partition, or
	take advantage of this convenient excuse to add another disk (and
        see <ref id="swap" name="this note"> if you do).
        <p>Adding swap onto a separate disk makes things faster than
        simply adding swap onto the same disk.  As an example, if you
        are compiling source located on one disk, and the swap is on
        another disk, this is much faster than both swap and compile
        on the same disk.  This is true for SCSI disks specifically.
        <p> IDE drives are not able to allow access to both drives on
        the same channel at the same time.  I would still suggest putting
        your swap on a separate drive however.  The drives are so cheap,
        it is not worth worrying about.
        <p>It is a really bad idea to locate your swap file over NFS
        unless you are running in a fast networking environment, with
        a good server.  If you can afford fast ethernet, you will not
        need my advice anyway.


	<p>Here is an example for 64Mb vn-swap (<tt>/usr/swap0</tt>, though
	   of course you can use any name that you want).
	<p>
	  Make sure your kernel was built with the line
	  <verb>
pseudo-device   vn 1   #Vnode driver (turns a file into a device)
	  </verb>
	  in your config-file.  The GENERIC kernel already contains this.
	<p>
	  <enum>
	    <item>
	    create a vn-device
	    <verb>
cd /dev; sh ./MAKEDEV vn0
	    </verb>
	    <item>
	    create a swapfile (<tt>/usr/swap0</tt>)
	    <verb>
dd if=/dev/zero of=/usr/swap0 bs=1024k count=64
	    </verb>
	    <item>
     enable the swap file in /etc/rc.conf
            <verb>
swapfile="/usr/swap0"   # Set to name of swapfile if aux swapfile desired.
            </verb>
	    <item>
	    reboot the machine
	  </enum>
          <p>To enable the swap file immediately try
   <verb>
vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
   </verb>



      </sect1>


      <sect1>
        <heading>I'm having problems setting up my printer.</heading>
        <p>
          Please have a look at the Handbook entry on printing. It
          should cover most of your problem. See the
	  <url
            url="../handbook/printing.html"
            name="Handbook entry on printing.">
      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <heading>The keyboard mappings are wrong for my system.</heading>
        <p>
          The kbdcontrol program has an option to load a keyboard map file.
          Under <tt>/usr/share/syscons/keymaps</tt> are a number of map
          files.  Choose the one relevant to your system and load it.

          <verb>
            kbdcontrol -l uk.iso
          </verb>

          Both the <tt>/usr/share/syscons/keymaps</tt> and the <tt/.kbd/
          extension are assumed by 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?kbdcontrol"
	  name="kbdcontrol">.

          This can be configured in <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>
	  (or <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc.conf(5)"
	  name="rc.conf">). See the
          appropriate comments in this file.

          In 2.0.5R and later, everything related to text fonts, keyboard
          mapping is in <tt>/usr/share/examples/syscons</tt>.

          The following mappings are currently supported:
          <itemize>
		<!-- automatically created by `kbdmap -p' -->

		<item>Brazilian 275 keyboard Codepage 850
		<item>Brazilian 275 keyboard ISO-8859-1
		<item>Danish Codepage 865
		<item>Danish ISO-8859-1
		<item>French ISO-8859-1
		<item>German Codepage 850
		<item>German ISO-8859-1
		<item>Italian ISO-8859-1
		<item>Japanese 106
		<item>Japanese 106x
		<item>Norwegian ISO-8859-1
		<item>Russian Codepage 866 (alternative)
		<item>Russian koi8-r (shift)
		<item>Russian koi8-r
		<item>Spanish ISO-8859-1
		<item>Swedish Codepage 850
		<item>Swedish ISO-8859-1
		<item>United Kingdom Codepage 850
		<item>United Kingdom ISO-8859-1
		<item>United States of America ISO-8859-1
		<item>United States of America dvorak
		<item>United States of America dvorakx
          </itemize>
      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <heading>I can't get user quotas to work properly.</heading>
        <p>
          <enum>
            <item>Don't turn on quotas on '/',
            <item>Put the quota file on the file system that the quotas are
              to be enforced on. ie:
              <verb>
                FS      QUOTA FILE
                /usr    /usr/admin/quotas
                /home   /home/admin/quotas
                ...
              </verb>
         </enum>

      <sect1>
	<heading>What's inappropriate about my ccd?</heading>
	<p>
	  The symptom of this is:
	  <verb>
	    host# ccdconfig -C
	    ccdconfig: ioctl (CCDIOCSET): /dev/ccd0c: Inappropriate file type or format
	    host#
	  </verb>

	<p>
	  This usually happens when you are trying to concatenate the
	  `c' partitions, which default to type `unused'.  The ccd
	  driver requires the underlying partition type to be
	  FS_BSDFFS.  Edit the disklabel of the disks you are trying
	  to concatenate and change the types of partitions to
	  `4.2BSD'.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Why can't I edit the disklabel on my ccd?</heading>
	<p>
	  The symptom of this is:
	  <verb>
	    host# disklabel ccd0
	    (it prints something sensible here, so let's try to edit it)
	    host# disklabel -e ccd0
	    (edit, save, quit)
	    disklabel: ioctl DIOCWDINFO: No disk label on disk;
	    use "disklabel -r" to install initial label
	    host#
	  </verb>

        <p>
	  This is because the disklabel returned by ccd is actually a
	  `fake' one that is not really on the disk.  You can solve
	  this problem by writing it back explicitly, as in:
	  <verb>
	    host# disklabel ccd0 > /tmp/disklabel.tmp
	    host# disklabel -Rr ccd0 /tmp/disklabel.tmp
	    host# disklabel -e ccd0
	    (this will work now)
	  </verb>

      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Does FreeBSD support System V IPC primitives?</heading>

        <p>
          Yes, FreeBSD supports System V-style IPC.  This includes shared
          memory, messages and semaphores.  You need to add the following
          lines to your kernel config to enable them.

          <verb>
            options    SYSVSHM
            options    "SHMMAXPGS=64"   # 256Kb of sharable memory
            options    SYSVSEM          # enable for semaphores
            options    SYSVMSG          # enable for messaging
          </verb>

          Recompile and install.

	  <bf/NOTE:/ You may need to increase SHMMAXPGS to some
	  ridiculous number like 4096 (16M!) if you want to run
	  GIMP. 256Kb is plenty for X11R6 shared memory.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I use sendmail for mail delivery with UUCP?</heading>

        <p>
          The sendmail configuration that ships with FreeBSD is
          suited for sites that connect directly to the Internet.
          Sites that wish to exchange their mail via UUCP must install
          another sendmail configuration file.

        <p>
          Tweaking <tt>/etc/sendmail.cf</tt> manually is considered
          something for purists.  Sendmail version 8 comes with a
          new approach of generating config files via some 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?m4"
	  name="m4">
          preprocessing, where the actual hand-crafted configuration
          is on a higher abstraction level.  You should use the
          configuration files under

<verb>
     /usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail/cf
</verb>

          If you didn't install your system with full sources,
          the sendmail config stuff has been
          broken out into a separate source distribution tarball just
          for you.  Assuming you've got your CD-ROM mounted, do:

<verb>
     cd /usr/src
     tar -xvzf /cdrom/dists/src/ssmailcf.aa
</verb>

          Don't panic, this is only a few hundred kilobytes in size.
          The file <tt>README</tt> in the <tt>cf</tt> directory can
          serve as a basic introduction to m4 configuration.

        <p>
          For UUCP delivery, you are best advised to use the
          <em>mailertable</em> feature.  This constitutes a database
          that sendmail can use to base its routing decision upon.

        <p>
	  First, you have to create your <tt>.mc</tt> file.  The
          directory <tt>/usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail/cf/cf</tt> is the
          home of these files.  Look around, there are already a few
          examples.  Assuming you have named your file <tt>foo.mc</tt>,
          all you need to do in order to convert it into a valid
          <tt>sendmail.cf</tt> is:

<verb>
     cd /usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail/cf/cf
     make foo.cf
     cp foo.cf /etc/sendmail.cf
</verb>

          A typical <tt>.mc</tt> file might look like:

<verb>
     include(`../m4/cf.m4')
     VERSIONID(`Your version number')
     OSTYPE(bsd4.4)

     FEATURE(nodns)
     FEATURE(nocanonify)
     FEATURE(mailertable)

     define(`UUCP_RELAY', your.uucp.relay)
     define(`UUCP_MAX_SIZE', 200000)

     MAILER(local)
     MAILER(smtp)
     MAILER(uucp)

     Cw    your.alias.host.name
     Cw    youruucpnodename.UUCP
</verb>

          The <em>nodns</em> and <em>nocanonify</em> features will
          prevent any usage of the DNS during mail delivery.  The
          <em>UUCP_RELAY</em> clause is needed for bizarre reasons,
          don't ask.  Simply put an Internet hostname there that
          is able to handle .UUCP pseudo-domain addresses; most likely,
          you will enter the mail relay of your ISP there.

        <p>
          Once you've got this, you need this file called
          <tt>/etc/mailertable</tt>.  A typical example of this
          gender again:

<verb>
     #
     # makemap hash /etc/mailertable.db < /etc/mailertable
     #
     horus.interface-business.de   uucp-dom:horus
     .interface-business.de        uucp-dom:if-bus
     interface-business.de         uucp-dom:if-bus
     .heep.sax.de                  smtp8:%1
     horus.UUCP                    uucp-dom:horus
     if-bus.UUCP                   uucp-dom:if-bus
     .                             uucp-dom:sax
</verb>

          As you can see, this is part of a real-life file.  The first
          three lines handle special cases where domain-addressed mail
          should not be sent out to the default route, but instead to
          some UUCP neighbor in order to ``shortcut'' the delivery
          path.  The next line handles mail to the local Ethernet
          domain that can be delivered using SMTP.  Finally, the UUCP
          neighbors are mentioned in the .UUCP pseudo-domain notation,
          to allow for a ``uucp-neighbor!recipient'' override of the
          default rules.  The last line is always a single dot, matching
          everything else, with UUCP delivery to a UUCP neighbor that
          serves as your universal mail gateway to the world.  All of
          the node names behind the <tt>uucp-dom:</tt> keyword must
          be valid UUCP neighbors, as you can verify using the
          command <tt>uuname</tt>.

        <p>
          As a reminder that this file needs to be converted into a
          DBM database file before being usable, the command line to
          accomplish this is best placed as a comment at the top of
          the mailertable.  You always have to execute this command
          each time you change your mailertable.

        <p>
          Final hint: if you are uncertain whether some particular
          mail routing would work, remember the <tt>-bt</tt> option to
          sendmail.  It starts sendmail in <em>address test mode</em>;
          simply enter ``0 '', followed by the address you wish to
          test for the mail routing.  The last line tells you the used
          internal mail agent, the destination host this agent will be
          called with, and the (possibly translated) address.  Leave
          this mode by typing Control-D.

<verb>
     j@uriah 191% sendmail -bt
     ADDRESS TEST MODE (ruleset 3 NOT automatically invoked)
     Enter <ruleset> <address>
     > 0 foo@interface-business.de
     rewrite: ruleset  0   input: foo @ interface-business . de
     ...
     rewrite: ruleset  0 returns: $# uucp-dom $@ if-bus $: foo \
     < @ interface-business . de >
     > ^D
     j@uriah 192%
</verb>


      </sect1>

    </sect>

    <sect>
      <heading>The X Window System and Virtual Consoles</heading>

      <sect1>
        <heading>I want to run X, how do I go about it?</heading>

        <p>
	  The easiest way is to simply specify that you want to run X
	  during the installation process.
	<p>
	  Then read and follow the documentation on the <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=xf86config"	name="xf86config"> tool, which assists you in
          configuring XFree86(tm) for your particular graphics
          card/mouse/etc.

          You may also wish to investigate the Xaccel server, which is
          available at a very reasonable price.  See section
          <ref id="xig" name="on Xi Graphics"> for more details.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Why doesn't my mouse work with X</heading>

        <p>
          If you are using syscons (the default console driver), you can
          configure FreeBSD to support a mouse pointer on each virtual
          screen.  In order to avoid conflicting with X, syscons supports
          a virtual device called ``<tt>sysmouse</tt>''.  All mouse events
          received from the real mouse device are written to the sysmouse
          device, using the MouseSystems protocol.  If you wish to use your
          mouse on one or more virtual consoles, <bf/and/ use X, the
          following configuration is recommended:

        <verb>
          /etc/sysconfig (or rc.conf):
            mousedtype=ps/2          # or whatever your actual type is
            mousedport=/dev/psm0     # or whatever your real port is

          /etc/XF86Config
            Section Pointer
                Protocol "MouseSystems"
                Device   "/dev/sysmouse"
                .....
        </verb>

        <p>
          Some people prefer to use ``<tt>/dev/mouse</tt>'' under X.  To
          make this work, ``<tt>/dev/mouse</tt>'' should be linked to
          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sysmouse"
	  name="/dev/sysmouse">:

        <verb>
          cd /dev
          rm -f mouse
          ln -s sysmouse mouse
        </verb>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Help! X Window menus and dialog boxes don't work right!</heading>
        <p>
          Try turning off the Num Lock key.

          If your Num Lock key is on by default at boot-time, you may add
          the following line in the ``<tt/Keyboard/'' section of the
          <tt/XF86config/ file.

<verb>
# Let the server do the NumLock processing.  This should only be required
# when using pre-R6 clients
    ServerNumLock
</verb>


      <sect1>
	<heading>What is a virtual console and how do I make more?</heading>
	<p>
	  Virtual consoles, put simply, enable you to have several
	  simultaneous sessions on the same machine without doing anything
	  complicated like setting up a network or running X.
	<p>
	  When the system starts, it will display a login prompt on
	  the monitor after displaying all the boot messages. You can
	  then type in your login name and password and start working (or
	  playing!) on the first virtual console.
	<p>
	  At some point, you will probably wish to start another
	  session, perhaps to look at documentation for a program
	  you are running or to read your mail while waiting for an
	  FTP transfer to finish. Just do Alt-F2 (hold down the Alt
	  key and press the F2 key), and you will find a login prompt
	  waiting for you on the second ``virtual console''! When you
	  want to go back to the original session, do Alt-F1.
	<p>
          The default FreeBSD installation has three virtual consoles
	  enabled, and Alt-F1, Alt-F2, and Alt-F3 will switch between
	  these virtual consoles.

          To enable more of them, edit <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys" name="/etc/ttys">
	  and add
	  entries for ``<tt/ttyv4/'' to ``<tt/ttyvc/'' after the
	  comment on ``Virtual terminals'' (delete the leading
	  whitespace in the following example):

          <verb>
            # Edit the existing entry for ttyv3 in /etc/ttys and change
            # "off" to "on".
            ttyv3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyv4   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyv5   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyv6   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyv7   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyv8   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyv9   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyva   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyvb   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
          </verb>

          Use as many or as few as you want.  The more virtual terminals
          you have, the more resources that are used; this can be important
          if you have 8MB RAM or less.  You may also want to change the
          ``<tt/secure/'' to ``<tt/insecure/''.

          <bf/IMPORTANT NOTE/ if you want to run an X server you <bf/MUST/
          leave at least one virtual terminal unused (or turned off) for it
	  to use.  That is to say that if you want to have a login
	  prompt pop up for all twelve of your Alt-function keys,
	  you're out of luck - you can only do this for eleven of them
	  if you also want to run an X server on the same machine.

	  The easiest way to disable a console is by turning it off.  For
	  example, if you had the full 12 terminal allocation mentioned
	  above and you wanted to run X, you would change settings for
	  virtual terminal 12 from:

          <verb>
            ttyvb   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
          </verb>
          to:
          <verb>
            ttyvb   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  off secure
          </verb>

          If your keyboard has only ten function keys, you would end up with:
          <verb>
            ttyv9   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  off secure
            ttyva   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  off secure
            ttyvb   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  off secure
          </verb>
          (You could also just delete these lines.)

          Once you have edited <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys"	name="/etc/ttys">,
	  the next step is to make
          sure that you have enough virtual terminal devices.  The easiest
          way to do this is:
          <verb>
            cd /dev
            ./MAKEDEV vty12                 # For 12 devices
          </verb>

          Next, the easiest (and cleanest) way to activate the virtual
          consoles is to reboot.  However, if you really don't want to
          reboot, you can just shut down the X Window system and execute (as
          <tt/root/):
          <verb>
            kill -HUP 1
          </verb>

          It's imperative that you completely shut down X Window if it is
          running, before running this command.  If you don't, your system
          will probably appear to hang/lock up after executing the kill
          command.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I access the virtual consoles from X?</heading>
        <p>
          If the console is currently displaying X Window, you can use
          Ctrl-Alt-F1, etc. to switch to a virtual console.  Note, however,
          that once you've switched away from X Window to a virtual
          terminal, you use only the Alt- function key to switch to another
          virtual terminal or back to X Window.  You do not also press the
          Ctrl key; the Ctrl-Alt-function key combination is used only when
          switching from X Window to a virtual terminal. If you insist on
	  using the control key to switch back to X you can find your
	  text console stuck in ``control-lock'' mode. Tap the control
	  key to wake it up again.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I start XDM from the <tt>/etc/ttys</tt> file ?</heading>
        <p>
          Starting <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=xdm" name="xdm">
	  via <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys"
	  name="/etc/ttys"> is a Bad Thing. I don't know why this
          crept into some README file.

          Start it from your <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc"
	  name="rc.local">, and be explicit about how it
          has to start.  If this is your last action in <tt/rc.local/, put
          a ``<tt/sleep 1/'' behind, to allow <tt/xdm/ to properly
          daemonize before the <tt/rc/ shell exits.

          <tt/xdm/ should be started without any arguments (i.e., as a
          daemon).

          <bf/NOTE:/ A previos version of this FAQ told you to add the
	  <tt/vt/ you want X to use to the
          <tt>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xdm/Xservers</tt> file. This is not necessary:
	  X will use the first free <tt/vt/ it finds.


       <sect1>
         <heading>When I run xconsole, I get ``Couldn't open console''.</heading>
        <p>
          If you start <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=X" name="X">
	  with <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=startx" name="startx">, the permissions on /dev/console will
          <tt /not/ get changed, resulting in things like 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=xterm" name="xterm -C"> and
          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?manpath=xfree86&amp;query=xconsole" name="xconsole"> not working.

         <p>
           This is because of the way console permissions are set by default.
	   On a multi-user system, one doesn't necessarily want just any user
	   to be able to write on the system console. For users who are logging
	   directly onto a machine with a VTY, the 
	   <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fbtab"
	   name="fbtab"> file exists
	   to solve such problems.

	   In a nutshell, make sure an uncommented line of the form

	   <verb>
	       /dev/ttyv0 0600 /dev/console
	   </verb>

	   is in <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?fbtab(5)"
	   name="/etc/fbtab"> and it will ensure that whomever logs
	   in on <tt>/dev/ttyv0</tt> will own the console.


      <sect1>
        <heading>My PS/2 mouse doesn't behave properly under X Window.</heading>
        <p>
	  Your mouse and the mouse driver have somewhat become out of
	  synchronization.  Switching away from X to a virtual terminal
	  and getting back to X again may make them re-synchronized.
	  If the problem occurs often, you may add the following option
	  in your kernel configuration file and recompile it.
          <verb>
            options PSM_CHECKSYNC
          </verb>

          See the section  on <ref id="make-kernel" name="building  a
          kernel"> if you've no experience with building kernels.

          With this option, there should be less chance of synchronization
          problem between the mouse and the driver.  If, however, you
          still see the problem, click any mouse button while holding
	  the mouse still to re-synchronize the mouse and the driver.

	  Note that unfortunately this option may not work with all the
	  systems and voids the ``tap'' feature of the ALPS GlidePoint
	  device attached to the PS/2 mouse port.


    <sect>
      <heading>Networking</heading>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Where can I get information on ``diskless booting''?</heading>

        <p>
          ``Diskless booting'' means that the FreeBSD box is booted over a
          network, and reads the necessary files from a server instead of
          its hard disk. For full details, please read

          <url url="../handbook/diskless.html"
            name="the Handbook entry on diskless booting">

      <sect1>
        <heading>Can a FreeBSD box be used as a dedicated network router?</heading>

        <p>
          Internet standards and good engineering practice prohibit us from
          providing packet forwarding by default in FreeBSD. You can
          however enable this feature by changing the following variable to
          <tt/YES/ in <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> (or <htmlurl
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc.conf"
	  name="rc.conf">):
          <verb>
            # If you want this host to be a gateway, set to YES.
            gateway=YES
          </verb>

          This  option will put the <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sysctl"
	  name="sysctl"> variable
          <tt/net.inet.ip.forwarding/ to <tt/1/.

          In most cases, you will also need to run a routing process to
          tell other systems on your network about your router; FreeBSD
          comes with the standard BSD routing daemon 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?routed"
	  name="routed">, or for
          more complex situations you may want to try <em/GaTeD/ (available
          by FTP from <tt/ftp.gated.Merit.EDU/) which supports FreeBSD as
          of 3_5Alpha7.

          It is our duty to warn you that, even when FreeBSD is configured
          in this way, it does not completely comply with the Internet
          standard requirements for routers; however, it comes close enough
          for ordinary usage.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I want to recompile the latest BIND from ISC. It blows up during the compilation on some types conflicts. What can I do ? </heading>
        <p>
          There is a conflict between the ``<tt/cdefs.h/'' file in the
          distribution and the one shipped with FreeBSD. Just remove
          <tt>compat/include/sys/cdefs.h</tt>.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Can I connect my Win95 box to the Internet via FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
	  Typically, people who ask this question have two PC's at home, one
	  with FreeBSD and one with Win95; the idea is to use the FreeBSD
	  box to connect to the Internet and then be able to access the
	  Internet from the Windows95 box through the FreeBSD box. This
	  is really just a special case of the previous question.

	  There's a useful document available which explains how to set
	  FreeBSD up as a <url url="http://www.ssimicro.com/~jeremyc/ppp.html"
	  name="PPP Dialup Router">

	  <bf/NOTE:/ This requires having at least two fixed IP addresses
	  available, and possibly three or more, depending on how much
	  work you want to go through to set up the Windows box. As an
	  alternative, if you don't have a fixed IP, you can use one of
	  the private IP subnets and install <bf/proxies/ such as
	  <url url="http://squid.nlanr.net/Squid/" name="SQUID"> and
	  <url url="http://www.tis.com/" name="the TIS firewall toolkit">
	  on your FreeBSD box.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Does FreeBSD support SLIP and PPP?</heading>

        <p>
          Yes.  See the man pages for 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?slattach"
	  name="slattach">, 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sliplogin"
	  name="sliplogin">,
          
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?pppd"
	  name="pppd"> and 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ppp"
	  name="ppp">.  <tt/pppd/ and <tt/ppp/ provide
          support for both incoming and outgoing connections.
          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sliplogin"
	  name="Sliplogin"> deals exclusively with incoming connections and
          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?slattach"
	  name="slattach"> deals exclusively with outgoing connections.

          These programs are described in the following sections of the
          <url url="../handbook/handbook.html" name="handbook">:

          <p><url url="../handbook/slips.html"
            name="Handbook entry on SLIP (server side)">
          <p><url url="../handbook/slipc.html"
            name="Handbook entry on SLIP (client side)">
          <p><url url="../handbook/ppp.html"
            name="Handbook entry on PPP (kernel version)">
          <p><url url="../handbook/userppp.html"
            name="Handbook entry on PPP (user-mode version)">

          <p>
            If you only have access to the Internet through a "shell
            account", you may want to have a look at the 
	    <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/ports.cgi?^slirp"
	    name="slirp">
            package.  It can provide you with (limited) access to services
            such as ftp and http direct from your local machine.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Does FreeBSD support NAT or Masquerading</heading>

          <p>
            If you have a subnet (one or more local machines), but have
            been allocated only a single IP number from your Internet
            provider, you may want to look at the 
	    <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?natd"
	    name="natd"> program.
            <tt/Natd/ allows you to connect an entire subnet to the internet
            using only a single IP number.

          <p>
            The 
	    <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ppp"
	    name="ppp"> program has similar functionality built in via
            the <tt/-alias/ switch.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I can't make <tt/ppp/ work.  What am I doing wrong ?</heading>

          <p>
            You should first read the 
	    <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ppp"
	    name="ppp"> manual page and
            the <url url="../handbook/userppp.html"
            name="ppp section of the handbook">.  Enable logging
            with the command
<verb>
  set log Phase Chat Connect Carrier lcp ipcp ccp command
</verb>
            This command may be typed at the <tt/ppp/ command prompt or
            it may be entered in the <tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.conf</tt>
            configuration file (the start of the <bf>default</bf> section
            is the best place to put it).  Make sure that
            <tt>/etc/syslog.conf</tt> contains the lines
<verb>
  !ppp
  *.*              /var/log/ppp.log
</verb>
            and that the file <tt>/var/log/ppp.log</tt> exists.  You can
            now find out a lot about what's going on from the log file.
            Don't worry if it doesn't all make sense.  If you need to
            get help from someone, it may make sense to them.

            If your version of ppp doesn't understand the "set log"
            command, you should download the
            <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/~brian" name="latest version">.
            It will build on FreeBSD version 2.1.5 and higher.

          <sect2>
            <heading>Ppp won't dial in -auto mode</heading>

            <p>
              First, check that you've got a default route.  By
              running <htmlurl 
	      url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?netstat">
	      name="netstat -rn">, you should see two entries
              like this:
<verb>
Destination        Gateway            Flags     Refs     Use     Netif Expire
default            10.0.0.2           UGSc        0        0      tun0
10.0.0.2           10.0.0.1           UH          0        0      tun0
</verb>
              This is assuming that you've used the addresses from the
              handbook, the man page or from the ppp.conf.sample file.
              If you haven't got a default route, it may be because you're
              running an old version of <htmlurl
	      url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ppp"
	      name="ppp"> that doesn't understand the
              word <tt/HISADDR/ in the ppp.conf file.  If your version of
              <tt/ppp/ is from before FreeBSD 2.2.5, change the
<verb>
  add 0 0 HISADDR
</verb>
              line to one saying
<verb>
  add 0 0 10.0.0.2
</verb>
              Another reason for the default route line being missing is that
              you have mistakenly set up a default router in your
              <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?rc.conf"
	      name="/etc/rc.conf"> file (this file was called
              <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> prior to release 2.2.2), and you have
              omitted the line saying
<verb>
  delete ALL
</verb>
              from <tt>ppp.conf</tt>.  If this is the case, go back to the
              <url url="../handbook/userppp:final.html"
              name="Final system configuration"> section of the handbook.

          <sect2>
            <heading>What does "No route to host" mean</heading>

            <p>
              This error is usually due to a missing
<verb>
MYADDR:
  delete ALL
  add 0 0 HISADDR
</verb>
              section in your <tt>/etc/ppp/ppp.linkup</tt> file.  This is
              only necessary if you have a dynamic IP address or don't
              know the address of your gateway.  If you're using
              interactive mode, you can type the following after entering
              <tt/packet mode/ (packet mode is indicated by the capitalized
              <bf/PPP/ in the prompt):
<verb>
  delete ALL
  add 0 0 HISADDR
</verb>
              Refer to the <url url="../handbook/userppp:dynamicIP.html"
              name="PPP and Dynamic IP addresses"> section of the handbook
              for further details.

          <sect2>
            <heading>My connection drops after about 3 minutes</heading>

            <p>
              The default ppp timeout is 3 minutes.  This can be adjusted
              with the line
<verb>
  set timeout NNN
</verb>
              where NNN is the number of seconds of inactivity before the
              connection is closed.  If NNN is zero, the connection is
              never closed due to a timeout.
              It is possible to put this command in the <tt>ppp.conf</tt>
              file, or to type it at the prompt in interactive mode.  It
              is also possible to adjust it on the fly while the line is
              active by connecting to <tt/ppp/s server socket using
              
	      <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?telnet"
	      name="telnet"> or 
	      <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?pppctl"
	      name="pppctl">.  Refer to the 
	      <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ppp"
	      name="ppp"> man page for further details.

          <sect2>
            <heading>My connection drops under heavy load</heading>

            <p>
              If you have Link Quality Reporting (LQR) configured, it is
              possible that too many LQR packets are lost between your
              machine and the peer.  Ppp deduces that the line must therefore
              be bad, and disconnects.  Prior to FreeBSD version 2.2.5,
              LQR was enabled by default.  It is now disabled by default.
              LQR can be disabled with the line
<verb>
  disable lqr
</verb>

          <sect2>
            <heading>My connection drops after a random amount of time</heading>

            <p>
              Sometimes, on a noisy phone line or even on a line with
              call waiting enabled, your modem may hang up because it
              thinks (incorrectly) that it lost carrier.

            <p>
              There's a setting on most modems for determining how tolerant
              it should be to temporary losses of carrier.  On a USR
              Sportster for example, this is measured by the S10 register in
              tenths of a second.  To make your modem more forgiving, you could
              add the following send-expect sequence to your dial string:
<verb>
  set dial "...... ATS10=10 OK ......"
</verb>

            <p>
              Refer to your modems manual for details.

          <sect2>
            <heading>Nothing happens after the Login OK! message</heading>

            <p>
              Prior to FreeBSD version 2.2.5, once the link was established,
              <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ppp"
	      name="ppp"> would wait for the peer to initiate the Line Control
              Protocol (LCP).  Many ISPs will not initiate negotiations and
              expect the client to do so.  To force <tt/ppp/ to initiate
              the LCP, use the following line:
<verb>
  set openmode active
</verb>
              <bf/Note/: It usually does no harm if both sides initiate
              negotiation, so openmode is now active by default.  However,
              the next section explains when it <bf/does/ do some harm.

          <sect2>
            <heading>I keep seeing errors about magic being the same</heading>

            <p>
              Occasionally, just after connecting, you may see messages in
              the log that say "magic is the same".  Sometimes, these
              messages are harmless, and sometimes one side or the other
              exits.

            <p>
              This normally happens on server machines with slow disks that
              are spawning a getty on the port, and executing ppp from a
              login script or program after login.  The reason is that in
              the time taken between getty exiting and ppp starting, the
              client-side ppp starts sending Line Control Protocol (LCP)
              packets.  Because ECHO is still switched on for the port on
              the server, the client ppp sees these packets "reflect" back.

            <p>
              One part of the LCP negotiation is to establish a magic number
              for each side of the link so that "reflections" can be detected.
              The protocol says that when the peer tries to negotiate
              the same magic number, a NAK should be sent and a new magic
              number should be chosen.  During the period that the server
              port has ECHO turned on, the client ppp sends LCP packets,
              sees the same magic in the reflected packet and NAKs it.  It
              also sees the NAK reflect (which also means ppp must change
              its magic).  This produces a potentially enormous number of
              magic number changes, all of which are happily piling into
              the servers tty buffer.  As soon as ppp starts on the server,
              it's flooded with magic number changes and almost immediately
              decides it's tried enough to negotiate LCP and gives up.
              Meanwhile, the client, who no longer sees the reflections,
              becomes happy just in time to see a hangup from the server.

            <p>
              The only way to circumvent this is to put the following line
              in your ppp.conf file:
<verb>
  set openmode passive
</verb>
              This tells ppp to wait for the server to initiate LCP
              negotiations.  Some servers may never initiate negotiations.
              If this is the case, please report it as a bug (using send-pr).
              Ppp will need to be adjusted so that the user can configure a
              variable delay before initiating LCP negotiations.

          <sect2>
            <heading>Ppp locks up shortly after connecting</heading>

            <p>
              Prior to version 2.2.5 of FreeBSD, it was possible that your
              link was disabled shortly after connection due to <tt/ppp/
              mis-handling Predictor1 compression negotiation.  This would
              only happen if both sides tried to negotiate different
              Compression Control Protocols (CCP).  This problem is now
              corrected, but if you're still running an old version of
              <tt/ppp/, the problem can be circumvented with the line
<verb>
  disable pred1
</verb>

          <sect2>
            <heading>Ppp locks up when I shell out to test it</heading>

            <p>
              When you execute the <tt/shell/ or <tt/!/ command, <tt/ppp/
              executes a shell (or if you've passed any arguements, <tt/ppp/
              will execute those arguements).  Ppp will wait for the command
              to complete before continuing.  If you attempt to use the
              ppp link while running the command, the link will appear to have
              frozen.  This is because <tt/ppp/ is waiting for the command
              to complete.

            <p>
              If you wish to execute commands like this, use the
              <tt/!bg/ command instead.  This will execute the given command
              in the background, and ppp can continue to service the link.

          <sect2>
            <heading>Ppp over a null-modem cable never exits</heading>

            <p>
              There is no way for <tt/ppp/ to automatically determine that
              a direct connection has been dropped.  This is due to the
              lines that are used in a null-modem serial cable.  When using
              this sort of connection, LQR should always be enabled with
              the line
<verb>
  enable lqr
</verb>
              LQR is accepted by default if negotiated by the peer.

          <sect2>
            <heading>Why does ppp dial for no reason in -auto mode</heading>

            <p>
              If <tt/ppp/ is dialing unexpectedly, you must determine the
              cause, and set up Dial filters (dfilters) to prevent such
              dialing.

            <p>
              To determine the cause, use the following line:
<verb>
  set log +tcp/ip
</verb>
              This will log all traffic through the connection.  The next
              time the line comes up unexpectedly, you will see the reason
              logged with a convenient timestamp next to it.

            <p>
              You can now disable dialing under these circumstances.  Usually,
              this sort of problem arises due to DNS lookups.  To prevent
              DNS lookups from establishing a connection (this will <bf/not/
              prevent <tt/ppp/ from passing the packets through an established
              connection), use the following:
<verb>
  set dfilter 1 deny udp src eq 53
  set dfilter 2 deny udp dst eq 53
  set dfilter 3 permit 0/0 0/0
</verb>

          <sect2>
            <heading>What do these CCP errors mean</heading>

            <p>
              I keep seeing the following errors in my log file:
<verb>
  CCP: CcpSendConfigReq
  CCP: Received Terminate Ack (1) state = Req-Sent (6)
</verb>
              This is because ppp is trying to negotiate Predictor1
              compression, and the peer does not want to negotiate any
              compression at all.  The messages are harmless, but if you
              wish to remove them, you can disable Predictor1 compression
              locally too:
<verb>
  disable pred1
</verb>

          <sect2>
            <heading>Ppp locks up during file transfers with IO errors</heading>

            <p>
              Under FreeBSD 2.2.2 and before, there was a bug in the tun
              driver that prevents incoming packets of a size larger than
              the tun interface's MTU size.  Receipt of a packet greater than
              the MTU size results in an IO error being logged via syslogd.

            <p>
              The ppp specification says that an MRU of 1500 should
              <bf>always</bf> be accepted as a minimum, despite any LCP
              negotiations, therefore it is possible that should you decrease
              the MTU to less than 1500, your ISP will transmit packets of
              1500 regardless, and you will tickle this non-feature - locking
              up your link.

            <p>
              The problem can be circumvented by never setting an MTU of
              less than 1500 under FreeBSD 2.2.2 or before.

          <sect2>
            <heading>None of this helps - I'm desperate !</heading>

            <p>
              If all else fails, send as much information as you can,
              including your config files, how you're starting <tt/ppp/,
              the relevent parts of your log file and the output of the
              <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?netstat"
	      name="netstat -rn"> command (before and after connecting)  to the
              <url url="mailto:freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org"
              name="freebsd-questions@FreeBSD.org"> mailing list, and someone
              should point you in the right direction.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I can't create a <tt>/dev/ed0</tt> device!</heading>

        <p>
          In the Berkeley networking framework, network interfaces are only
          directly accessible by kernel code.  Please see the
          <tt>/etc/netstart</tt> file and the manual pages for the various
          network programs mentioned there for more information.  If this
          leaves you totally confused, then you should pick up a book
          describing network administration on another BSD-related
          operating system; with few significant exceptions, administering
          networking on FreeBSD is basically the same as on SunOS 4.0 or
          Ultrix.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How can I setup Ethernet aliases?</heading>
        <p>
          Add ``<tt/netmask 0xffffffff/'' to your <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ifconfig"
	  name="ifconfig"> command-line like the following:
          <verb>
            ifconfig ed0 alias 204.141.95.2 netmask 0xffffffff
          </verb>

      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I get my 3C503 to use the other network port?</heading>

        <p>
          If you want to use the other ports, you'll have to specify an
          additional parameter on the 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ifconfig"
	  name="ifconfig"> command line. The
          default port is ``<tt/link0/''. To use the AUI port instead of
          the BNC one, use ``<tt/link2/''.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I'm having problems with NFS to/from FreeBSD.</heading>

        <p>
          Certain PC network cards are better than others (to put it
          mildly) and can sometimes cause problems with network intensive
          applications like NFS.

          See
	  <url
            url="../handbook/nfs.html"
            name="the Handbook entry on NFS">

          for more information on
          this topic.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Why can't I NFS-mount from a Linux box?</heading>

        <p>
          Some versions of the Linux NFS code only accept mount requests
          from a privileged port; try
          <verb>
            mount -o -P linuxbox:/blah /mnt
          </verb>
      <sect1>
        <heading>Why can't I NFS-mount from a Sun box?</heading>

        <p>
          Sun workstations running SunOS 4.X only accept mount requests
          from a privileged port; try
          <verb>
            mount -o -P sunbox:/blah /mnt
          </verb>
      <sect1><heading>I'm having problems talking PPP to NeXTStep machines.</heading>

        <p>
          Try disabling the TCP extensions in <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> (or <tt/rc.conf/) by
          changing the following variable to NO:
          <verb>
            tcp_extensions=NO
          </verb>

          Xylogic's Annex boxes are also broken in this regard and you must
          use the above change to connect thru them.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I enable IP multicast support?</heading>

        <p>
          Multicast host operations are fully supported in FreeBSD 2.0 by
          default.  If you want your box to run as a multicast router, you
          will need to load the <tt/ip_mroute_mod/ loadable kernel module
          and run <tt/mrouted/.

For more information:
<verb>
Product		Description		Where
--------------- ----------------------- ---------------------------------------
faq.txt		Mbone FAQ		ftp.isi.edu:/mbone/faq.txt
imm/immserv	IMage Multicast 	ftp.hawaii.edu:/paccom/imm.src.tar.Z
		for jpg/gif images.
nv		Network Video.		ftp.parc.xerox.com:
					/pub/net-reseach/exp/nv3.3alpha.tar.Z
vat		LBL Visual Audio Tool.	ftp.ee.lbl.gov:
					/conferencing/vat/i386-vat.tar.Z
wb		LBL White Board.	ftp.ee.lbl.gov:
					/conferencing/wb/i386-wb.tar.Z
mmcc		MultiMedia Conference	ftp.isi.edu:
		Control program		/confctrl/mmcc/mmcc-intel.tar.Z
rtpqual		Tools for testing the	ftp.psc.edu:/pub/net_tools/rtpqual.c
		quality of RTP packets.
vat_nv_record	Recording tools for vat ftp.sics.se:archive/vat_nv_record.tar.Z
		and nv.
</verb>

      </sect1>
      <sect1>
        <heading>Which network cards are based on the DEC PCI chipset?</heading>

        <p>
          Here is a list compiled by Glen Foster
          <tt/&lt;gfoster@driver.nsta.org&gt;/:
<verb>
Vendor          Model
- --------------------------------------------------------
ASUS            PCI-L101-TB
Accton          ENI1203
Cogent          EM960PCI
Compex          ENET32-PCI
D-Link          DE-530
DEC             DE435
Danpex          EN-9400P3
JCIS            Condor JC1260
Linksys         EtherPCI
Mylex           LNP101
SMC             EtherPower 10/100 (Model 9332)
SMC             EtherPower (Model 8432)
TopWare         TE-3500P
Zynx            ZX342
</verb>
      </sect1>
      <sect1>
        <heading>Why do I have to use the FQDN for hosts on my site?</heading>
        <p>
	  You will probably find that the host is actually in a different
	  domain; for example, if you are in foo.bar.edu and you wish to reach
	  a host called ``mumble'' in the bar.edu domain, you will have to
	  refer to it by the fully-qualified domain name, ``mumble.bar.edu'',
	  instead of just ``mumble''.
	<p>
	  Traditionally, this was allowed by BSD BIND resolvers. However
	  the current version of <em>BIND</em> that ships with FreeBSD
	  no longer provides default abbreviations for non-fully
	  qualified domain names other than the domain you are in.
	  So an unqualified host <tt>mumble</tt> must either be found
	  as <tt>mumble.foo.bar.edu</tt>, or it will be searched for
	  in the root domain.
	<p>
	  This is different from the previous behavior, where the
	  search continued across <tt>mumble.bar.edu</tt>, and
	  <tt>mumble.edu</tt>.  Have a look at RFC 1535 for why this
	  was considered bad practice, or even a security hole.
	<p>
	  As a good workaround, you can place the line
<p><tt>
search foo.bar.edu bar.edu
</tt><p>
	  instead of the previous

<p><tt>
domain foo.bar.edu
</tt><p>
	  into your <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?resolv.conf"
	  name="/etc/resolv.conf">.  However, make sure
	  that the search order does not go beyond the ``boundary
	  between local and public administration'', as RFC 1535
	  calls it.

      </sect1>

      <sect1>
	<heading>``Permission denied'' for all networking operations.</heading>
        <p>
          If you have compiled your kernel with the <tt/IPFIREWALL/
          option, you need to be aware that the default policy as of
          2.1.7R (this actually changed during 2.1-STABLE development)
          is to deny all packets that are not explicitly allowed.

        <p>
          If you had unintentionally misconfigured your system for
          firewalling, you can restore network operability by typing
          the following while logged in as root:

        <verb>
     ipfw add 65534 allow all from any to any
        </verb>

          For further information on configuring a FreeBSD firewall,
          see the <url url="../handbook/handbook.html" name="FreeBSD Handbook.">

      </sect1>

    <sect>
      <heading>Serial Communications</heading>
      <p>
        This section answers common questions about serial communications
        with FreeBSD.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I tell if FreeBSD found my serial ports?</heading>
        <p>
          As the FreeBSD kernel boots, it will probe for the serial ports
          in your system for which the kernel was configured.  You can
          either watch your system closely for the messages it prints or
          run the command
          <verb>
            dmesg | grep sio
          </verb>
          after your system's up and running.

          Here's some example output from the above command:
          <verb>
            sio0 at 0x3f8-0x3ff irq 4 on isa
            sio0: type 16550A
            sio1 at 0x2f8-0x2ff irq 3 on isa
            sio1: type 16550A
          </verb>

          This shows two serial ports.  The first is on irq 4, is using
          port address <tt/0x3f8/, and has a 16550A-type UART chip.  The
          second uses the same kind of chip but is on irq 3 and is at port
          address <tt/0x2f8/.  Internal modem cards are treated just like
          serial ports---except that they always have a modem ``attached''
          to the port.

          The <tt/GENERIC/ kernel includes support for two serial ports
          using the same irq and port address settings in the above
          example.  If these settings aren't right for your system, or if
          you've added modem cards or have more serial ports than your
          kernel is configured for, just reconfigure your kernel.  See
          section <ref id="make-kernel" name="about building a kernel"> for
          more details.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I tell if FreeBSD found my modem cards?</heading>
        <p>
          Please refer to the answer to the previous question.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I just upgraded to 2.0.5 and my <tt/tty0X/ are missing!</heading>
        <p>
          Don't worry, they have been merged with the <tt/ttydX/ devices.
          You'll have to change any old configuration files you have, though.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I access the serial ports on FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
          The third serial port, <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sio"
	  name="sio2"> (known as COM3 in DOS), is on
          <tt>/dev/cuaa2</tt> for dial-out devices, and on
          <tt>/dev/ttyd2</tt> for dial-in devices.  What's the difference
          between these two classes of devices?

          You use <tt/ttydX/ for dial-ins.  When opening
          <tt>/dev/ttydX</tt> in blocking mode, a process will wait for the
          corresponding <tt/cuaaX/ device to become inactive, and then wait
          for the carrier detect line to go active.  When you open the
          <tt/cuaaX/ device, it makes sure the serial port isn't already in
          use by the <tt/ttydX/ device.  If the port's available, it
          ``steals'' it from the <tt/ttydX/ device.  Also, the <tt/cuaXX/
          device doesn't care about carrier detect.  With this scheme and
          an auto-answer modem, you can have remote users log in and you
          can still dialout with the same modem and the system will take
          care of all the conflicts.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I enable support for a multiport serial card?</heading>
        <p>
          Again, the section on kernel configuration provides information
          about configuring your kernel.  For a multiport serial card,
          place an <htmlurl
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?sio"
	  name="sio"> line for each serial port on the card in the
          kernel configuration file.  But place the irq and vector
          specifiers on only one of the entries.  All of the ports on the
          card should share one irq.  For consistency, use the last serial
          port to specify the irq.  Also, specify the
          <tt/COM&lowbar;MULTIPORT/ option.

          The following example is for an AST 4-port serial card on irq 7:
          <verb>
            options "COM_MULTIPORT"
            device sio4 at isa? port 0x2a0 tty flags 0x781
            device sio5 at isa? port 0x2a8 tty flags 0x781
            device sio6 at isa? port 0x2b0 tty flags 0x781
            device sio7 at isa? port 0x2b8 tty flags 0x781 irq 7 vector siointr
          </verb>
          The flags indicate that the master port has minor number 7
          (<tt/0x700/), diagnostics enabled during probe (<tt/0x080/), and
          all the ports share an irq (<tt/0x001/).

      <sect1>
        <heading>Can FreeBSD handle multiport serial cards sharing irqs?</heading>
        <p>
          Not yet. You'll have to use a different irq for each card.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How can I set the default serial parameters for a port?</heading>
        <p>
          The <tt/ttydX/ (or <tt/cuaaX/) device is the regular device
          you'll want to open for your applications.  When a process opens
          the device, it'll have a default set of terminal I/O settings.
          You can see these settings with the command
          <verb>
            stty -a -f /dev/ttyd1
          </verb>

          When you change the settings to this device, the settings are in
          effect until the device is closed.  When it's reopened, it goes
          back to the default set.  To make changes to the default set, you
          can open and adjust the settings of the ``initial state'' device.
          For example, to turn on <tt/CLOCAL/ mode, 8 bits, and
          <tt>XON/XOFF</tt> flow control by default for ttyd5, do:
          <verb>
            stty -f /dev/ttyid5 clocal cs8 ixon ixoff
          </verb>

          A good place to do this is in <tt>/etc/rc.serial</tt>. Now, an
          application will have these settings by default when it opens
          <tt/ttyd5/.  It can still change these settings to its liking,
          though.

          You can also prevent certain settings from being changed by an
          application by making adjustments to the ``lock state'' device.
          For example, to lock the speed of <tt/ttyd5/ to 57600 bps, do
          <verb>
            stty -f /dev/ttyld5 57600
          </verb>

          Now, an application that opens <tt/ttyd5/ and tries to change the
          speed of the port will be stuck with 57600 bps.

          Naturally, you should make the initial state and lock state
          devices writable only by <tt/root/. The <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?MAKEDEV"
	  name="MAKEDEV"> script does
          <bf/NOT/ do this when it creates the device entries.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How can I enable dialup logins on my modem?</heading>
        <p>
          So you want to become an Internet service provider, eh?  First,
          you'll need one or more modems that can auto-answer.  Your modem
          will need to assert carrier-detect when it detects a carrier and
          not assert it all the time.  It will need to hang up the phone
          and reset itself when the data terminal ready (<tt/DTR/) line
          goes from on to off.  It should probably use <tt>RTS/CTS</tt>
          flow control or no local flow control at all.  Finally, it must
          use a constant speed between the computer and itself, but (to be
          nice to your callers) it should negotiate a speed between itself
          and the remote modem.

          For many Hayes command-set--compatible modems, this command will
          make these settings and store them in nonvolatile memory:
          <verb>
            AT &amp;C1 &amp;D3 &amp;K3 &amp;Q6 S0=1 &amp;W
          </verb>
          See the section <ref id="direct-at" name="on sending AT
          commands"> below for information on how to make these settings
          without resorting to an MS-DOS terminal program.

          Next, make an entry in <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys"
	  name="/etc/ttys"> for the modem.  This
          file lists all the ports on which the operating system will await
          logins.  Add a line that looks something like this:
          <verb>
            ttyd1 "/usr/libexec/getty std.57600" dialup on insecure
          </verb>
          This line indicates that the second serial port
          (<tt>/dev/ttyd1</tt>) has a modem connected running at 57600 bps
          and no parity (<tt/std.57600/, which comes from the file
          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?gettytab"
	  name="/etc/gettytab">). The terminal type for this port is
          ``dialup.''  The port is ``on'' and is ``insecure''---meaning
          root logins on the port aren't allowed.  For dialin ports like
          this one, use the <tt/ttydX/ entry.

          It's common practice to use ``dialup'' as the terminal type.
          Many users set up in their .profile or .login files a prompt for
          the actual terminal type if the starting type is dialup.  The
          example shows the port as insecure.  To become root on this port,
          you have to login as a regular user, then <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?su"
	  name="su">'' to
          <tt/root/.  If you use ``secure'' then <tt/root/ can login in
          directly.

          After making modifications to <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys"
	  name="/etc/ttys">, you need to
          send a hangup or <tt/HUP/ signal to the <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?init"
	  name="init"> process:
          <verb>
            kill -1 1
          </verb>
          This forces the init process to reread <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys"
	  name="/etc/ttys">.  The
          init process will then start getty processes on all ``on'' ports.
          You can find out if logins are available for your port by typing
          <verb>
            ps -ax | grep '[t]tyd1'
          </verb>

          You should see something like:
          <verb>
            747 ??  I      0:00.04 /usr/libexec/getty std.57600 ttyd1
          </verb>

      <sect1>
        <heading>How can I connect a dumb terminal to my FreeBSD box?</heading>
        <p>
          If you're using another computer as a terminal into your FreeBSD
          system, get a null modem cable to go between the two serial
          ports.  If you're using an actual terminal, see its accompanying
          instructions.

          Then, modify <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?ttys"
	  name="/etc/ttys">, like above.  For example, if
          you're hooking up a WYSE-50 terminal to the fifth serial port,
          use an entry like this:
          <verb>
            ttyd4 "/usr/libexec/getty std.38400" wyse50 on secure
          </verb>
          This example shows that the port on <tt>/dev/ttyd4</tt> has a
          wyse50 terminal connected at 38400 bps with no parity
          (<tt/std.38400/ from <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?gettytab"
	  name="/etc/gettytab">) and <tt/root/ logins
          are allowed (secure).

      <sect1>
	<heading>Why can't I run <tt/tip/ or <tt/cu/?</heading>
        <p>
          On your system, the programs <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
	  name="tip"> and <htmlurl
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?cu"
	  name="cu"> are probably
          executable only by <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?uucp"
	  name="uucp"> and group <tt/dialer/.  You can use
          the group <tt/dialer/ to control who has access to your modem or
          remote systems.  Just add yourself to group dialer.

          Alternatively, you can let everyone on your system run <tt/tip/
          and <tt/cu/ by typing:
          <verb>
            chmod 4511 /usr/bin/cu
            chmod 4511 /usr/bin/tip
          </verb>

      <sect1>
	<heading>My stock Hayes modem isn't supported---what can I do?</heading>
        <p>
          Actually, the man page for <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
	  name="tip"> is out of date.  There is a
          generic Hayes dialer already built in.  Just use
          ``<tt/at=hayes/'' in your <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?remote"
	  name="/etc/remote"> file.

          The Hayes driver isn't smart enough to recognize some of the
          advanced features of newer modems---messages like <tt/BUSY/,
          <tt/NO DIALTONE/, or <tt/CONNECT 115200/ will just confuse it.
          You should turn those messages off when you use <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
	  name="tip"> (using
          <tt/ATX0&amp;W/).

          Also, the dial timeout for <tt/tip/ is 60 seconds.  Your modem
          should use something less, or else tip will think there's a
          communication problem.  Try <tt/ATS7=45&amp;W/.

          Actually, as shipped <tt/tip/ doesn't yet support it fully. The
          solution is to edit the file <tt/tipconf.h/ in the directory
          <tt>/usr/src/usr.bin/tip/tip</tt> Obviously you need the source
          distribution to do this.

          Edit the line ``<tt/#define HAYES 0/'' to ``<tt/#define HAYES
          1/''. Then ``<tt/make/'' and ``<tt/make install/''. Everything
          works nicely after that.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How am I expected to enter these AT commands?<label id="direct-at"></heading>
        <p>
          Make what's called a ``<tt/direct/'' entry in your
          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?remote"
	  name="/etc/remote"> file.  For example, if your modem's hooked
          up to the first serial port, <tt>/dev/cuaa0</tt>, then put in the
          following line:
          <verb>
            cuaa0:dv=/dev/cuaa0:br#19200:pa=none
          </verb>
          Use the highest bps rate your modem supports in the br
          capability.  Then, type <htmlurl
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
	  name="tip cuaa0"> and you'll be
          connected to your modem.

          If there is no <tt>/dev/cuaa0</tt> on your system, do this:
          <verb>
            cd /dev
            MAKEDEV cuaa0
          </verb>
        <p>
          Or use cu as root with the following command:
          <verb>
            cu -l``line'' -s``speed''
          </verb>
          with line being the serial port (e.g.<tt>/dev/cuaa0</tt>)
          and speed being the speed (e.g.<tt>57600</tt>).
          When you are done entering the AT commands hit <tt>~.</tt> to exit.

      <sect1>
        <heading>The <tt/@/ sign for the pn capability doesn't work!</heading>
        <p>
          The <tt/@/ sign in the phone number capability tells tip to look in
          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?phones(5)"
	  name="/etc/phones"> for a phone number.  But the <tt/@/ sign is
          also a special character in capability files like
          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?remote"
	  name="/etc/remote">.  Escape it with a backslash:
          <verb>
            pn=\@
          </verb>

      <sect1>
	<heading>How can I dial a phone number on the command line?</heading>
        <p>
          Put what's called a ``<tt/generic/'' entry in your
          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?remote"
	  name="/etc/remote"> file.  For example:
          <verb>
            tip115200|Dial any phone number at 115200 bps:\
            :dv=/dev/cuaa0:br#115200:at=hayes:pa=none:du:
            tip57600|Dial any phone number at 57600 bps:\
            :dv=/dev/cuaa0:br#57600:at=hayes:pa=none:du:
          </verb>

          Then you can things like ``<tt/tip -115200 5551234/''.  If you
          prefer <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?cu"
	  name="cu"> over <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
	  name="tip">, use a generic cu entry:
          <verb>
            cu115200|Use cu to dial any number at 115200bps:\
            :dv=/dev/cuaa1:br#57600:at=hayes:pa=none:du:
          </verb>
          and type ``<tt/cu 5551234 -s 115200/''.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Do I have to type in the bps rate every time I do that?</heading>
        <p>
          Put in an entry for <tt/tip1200/ or <tt/cu1200/, but go ahead and
          use whatever bps rate is appropriate with the br
          capability. <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
	  name="tip"> thinks a good default is 1200 bps which is
          why it looks for a ``<tt/tip1200/'' entry.  You don't have to use
          1200 bps, though.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I access a number of hosts through a terminal server.</heading>
        <p>
          Rather than waiting until you're connected and typing
          ``<tt/CONNECT &lt;host&gt;/'' each time, use tip's <tt/cm/
          capability. For example, these entries in
          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?remote"
	   name="/etc/remote">:
          <verb>
            pain|pain.deep13.com|Forrester's machine:\
            :cm=CONNECT pain\n:tc=deep13:
            muffin|muffin.deep13.com|Frank's machine:\
            :cm=CONNECT muffin\n:tc=deep13:
            deep13:Gizmonics Institute terminal server:\
            :dv=/dev/cua02:br#38400:at=hayes:du:pa=none:pn=5551234:
          </verb>

          will let you type ``<tt/tip pain/'' or ``<tt/tip muffin/'' to
          connect to the hosts pain or muffin; and ``<tt/tip deep13/'' to
          get to the terminal server.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Can tip try more than one line for each site?</heading>
        <p>
          This is often a problem where a university has several modem lines
          and several thousand students trying to use them...
        <p>
          Make an entry for your university in <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?remote"
	  name="/etc/remote">
          and use <tt>\@</tt> for the <tt/pn/ capability:
          <verb>
            big-university:\
            :pn=\@:tc=dialout
            dialout:\
            :dv=/dev/cuaa3:br#9600:at=courier:du:pa=none:
          </verb>

          Then, list the phone numbers for the university in
          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?phones"
	  name="/etc/phones">:
          <verb>
            big-university 5551111
            big-university 5551112
            big-university 5551113
            big-university 5551114
          </verb>

          <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
	  name="tip"> will try each one in the listed order, then give up.  If
          you want to keep retrying, run <tt/tip/ in a while loop.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Why do I have to hit CTRL+P twice to send CTRL+P once?</heading>
        <p>
          CTRL+P is the default ``force'' character, used to tell 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
	  name="tip">
          that the next character is literal data.  You can set the force
          character to any other character with the <tt/~s/ escape, which
          means ``set a variable.''

          Type ``<tt/~sforce=&lt;single-char&gt;/'' followed by a newline.
          <tt/&lt;single-char&gt;/ is any single character.  If you leave
          out <tt/&lt;single-char&gt;/, then the force character is the nul
          character, which you can get by typing CTRL+2 or CTRL+SPACE.  A
          pretty good value for <tt/&lt;single-char&gt;/ is SHIFT+CTRL+6,
          which I've seen only used on some terminal servers.

          You can have the force character be whatever you want by
          specifying the following in your <tt>&dollar;HOME/.tiprc</tt>
          file:
          <verb>
            force=<single-char>
          </verb>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Suddenly everything I type is in UPPER CASE??</heading>
        <p>
          You must've pressed CTRL+A, <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?tip"
	  name="tip"> ``raise character,''
          specially designed for people with broken caps-lock keys. Use
          <tt/~s/ as above and set the variable ``raisechar'' to something
          reasonable.  In fact, you can set it to the same as the force
          character, if you never expect to use either of these features.

          Here's a sample .tiprc file perfect for Emacs users who need to
          type CTRL+2 and CTRL+A a lot:
          <verb>
            force=^^
            raisechar=^^
          </verb>
          The ^^ is SHIFT+CTRL+6.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How can I do file transfers with <tt/tip/?</heading>
        <p>
          If you're talking to another UNIX system, you can send and
          receive files with <tt/~p/ (put) and <tt/~t/ (take).  These
          commands run <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?cat"
	  name="cat"> and <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?echo"
	  name="echo"> on the remote system
          to accept and send files.  The syntax is:
          <verb>
            ~p <local-file> [<remote-file>]
            ~t <remote-file> [<local-file>]
          </verb>

          There's no error checking, so you probably should use another
          protocol, like zmodem.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How can I run zmodem with <tt/tip/?</heading>
        <p>
          To receive files, start the sending program on the remote end.
          Then, type ``<tt/~C rz/'' to begin receiving them locally.

          To send files, start the receiving program on the remote end.
          Then, type ``<tt/~C sz &lt;files&gt;/'' to send them to the
          remote system.

    </sect>

    <sect>
      <heading>Miscellaneous Questions</heading>
      <p>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Why does FreeBSD consume far more swap space than Linux?</heading>

        <p>
          It doesn't.  You might mean ``why does my swap seem full?''.  If
          that is what you really meant, it's because putting stuff in swap
          rather than discarding it makes it faster to recover than if the
          pager had to go through the file system to pull in clean
          (unmodified) blocks from an executable.

          The actual amount of dirty pages that you can have in core at
          once is not reduced; the clean pages are displaced as necessary.

      <sect1>
	<heading>What is FreeBSD's a.out executable format, and why not ELF?</heading>
	<p>To understand why FreeBSD uses the <tt>a.out</tt> format, you must
	first know a little about the 3 currently "dominant" executable
	formats for UNIX:

	<itemize>
	<item><htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?a.out(5)"
	name="a.out">
	<p>The oldest and `classic' unix object format.  It uses a
	short and compact header with a magic number at the beginning
	that's often used to characterize the format (see the
	<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?a.out(5)"
	name="a.out(5)"> for more details).  It contains three loaded
	segments: .text, .data, and .bss plus a symbol table and a
	string table.
	</item>


	<item><bf>COFF</bf>
	<p>The SVR3 object format.  The header now comprises a section
	table, so you can have more than just .text, .data, and .bss
	sections.</item>
	
	<item><bf>ELF</bf>
	<p>The successor to <tt/COFF/, featuring Multiple sections
	and 32-bit or 64-bit possible values.  One major drawback:
	<tt/ELF/ was also designed with the assumption that there
	would be only one ABI per system architecture.  That
	assumption is actually quite incorrect, and not even in the
	commercial SYSV world (which has at least three ABIs: SVR4,
	Solaris, SCO) does it hold true.

	FreeBSD tries to work around this problem somewhat by
	providing a utility for <em>branding</em> a known <tt/ELF/
	executable with information about the ABI it's compliant with.
	See the man page for 
	<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?brandelf"
	name="brandelf"> for more information.</item>
	</itemize>

	<p>FreeBSD comes from the "classic" camp and uses the
	<htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?a.out(5)"
	name="a.out"> format, a technology tried and proven through
	many generations of BSD releases.  Though it has also been possible
	for some time to build and run native <tt/ELF/ binaries (and
	kernels) on a FreeBSD system, no official "push" to switch to
	ELF as the default format has, as yet, been made. Why?  Well,
	when the Linux camp made their painful transition to <tt/ELF/, it
	was not so much to flee the <tt/a.out/ executable format
	as it was their inflexible jump-table based shared library
	mechanism, which made the construction of shared libraries
	very difficult for vendors and developers alike. Since the <tt/ELF/
	tools available offered a solution to the shared library
	problem and were generally seen as "the way forward" anyway, the
	migration cost was accepted as necessary and the transition
	made.

	<p>In FreeBSD's case, it's not quite so simple since our shared
	library mechanism is based more closely on Sun's
	<tt>SunOS</tt>-style shared library mechanism and, as such, is very
	easy to use.  The only thing we actually lack with <tt/a.out/
	which <tt/ELF/ would give us is cleaner support for C++ constructors
	and destructors, among other similarly esoteric things, and it
	simply hasn't become much of a problem yet (and there is quite
	a bit of C++ code in FreeBSD's source tree).  Should that change,
	a migration may, at some point, be more seriously contemplated.
      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Why doesn't chmod change the permissions on symlinks?</heading>
        <p>
          You have to use either ``<tt/-H/'' or ``<tt/-L/'' together with
          the ``<tt/-R/'' option to make this work.  See the 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?chmod"
	  name="chmod"> and 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?symlink"
	  name="symlink"> man pages for more info.

          <bf/WARNING/ the ``<tt/-R/'' option does a <bf/RECURSIVE/
          <tt/chmod/.  Be careful about specifying directories or symlinks
          to directories to <tt/chmod/.  If you want to change the
          permissions of a directory referenced by a symlink, use
          
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?chmod"
	  name="chmod"> without any options and follow the symlink with a
          trailing slash (``<tt>/</tt>'').  For example, if ``<tt/foo/'' is
          a symlink to directory ``<tt/bar/'', and you want to change the
          permissions of ``<tt/foo/'' (actually ``<tt/bar/''), you would do
          something like:
          <verb>
            chmod 555 foo/
          </verb>

          With the trailing slash, <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?chmod"
	  name="chmod"> will follow the symlink,
          ``<tt/foo/'', to change the permissions of the directory,
          ``<tt/bar/''.
      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Why are login names <bf/still/ resticted to 8 characters</heading>

        <p>You'd think it'd be easy enough to change <bf/UT_NAMESIZE/ and rebuild
        the whole world, and everything would just work. Unfortunately there's
        scads of applications and utilities (including system tools) that have
        hard-coded small numbers (not always "8" or "9", but oddball ones
        like "15" and "20") in structures and buffers... and it would break
        Sun's NIS clients and no doubt cause other problems in interacting
        with other UNIX systems.
      </sect1>

      <sect1>
	<heading>Can I run DOS binaries under FreeBSD?</heading>

        <p>
          Not yet, though BSDI has just donated their <tt/rundos/ DOS emulation
          subsystem which we're now working on integrating and enhancing.
          Send mail to
          <url url="mailto:emulation@freebsd.org"
            name="The FreeBSD emulation discussion list">
          if you're interested in joining this effort!

          For now, there is a neat utility called 
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/ports.cgi?^pcemu" 
	  name="pcemu"> in the
          ports collection which emulates an 8088 and enough BIOS services
          to run DOS text mode applications.  It requires the X Window
          System (provided as XFree86 3.1.2).

      <sect1>
	<heading>What is this thing called ``<tt/sup/'', and how do I use it?</heading>

        <p>
	  <htmlurl url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/ports.cgi?^sup" 
	  name="SUP">
	  stands for Software Update Protocol, and was developed by CMU
          for keeping their development trees in sync.  We used it to keep
          remote sites in sync with our central development sources.

 	SUP is not bandwidth friendly, and has been retired.  The current
	recommended method to keep your sources up to date is
	<url url="../handbook/cvsup.html" name="Handbook entry on CVSup">

      <sect1>
        <heading>How cool is FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
          Q. Has anyone done any temperature testing while running FreeBSD?
          I know Linux runs cooler than dos, but have never seen a mention of
          FreeBSD. It seems to run really hot.
        <p>
          A. No, but we have done numerous taste tests on blindfolded
          volunteers who have also had 250 micrograms of LSD-25
          administered beforehand.  35% of the volunteers said that FreeBSD
          tasted sort of orange, whereas Linux tasted like purple haze.
          Neither group mentioned any particular variances in temperature
          that I can remember.  We eventually had to throw the results of
          this survey out entirely anyway when we found that too many
          volunteers were wandering out of the room during the tests, thus
          skewing the results.  I think most of the volunteers are at Apple
          now, working on their new ``scratch and sniff'' GUI.  It's a
          funny old business we're in!

          Seriously, both FreeBSD and Linux uses the ``<tt/HLT/'' (halt)
	  instruction when the system is idle thus lowering its energy
	  consumption and therefore the heat it generates.  Also if you
	  have APM (automatic power management) configured, then FreeBSD
	  can also put the CPU into a low power mode.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Who's scratching in my memory banks??</heading>
        <p>
          Q. Is there anything "odd" that FreeBSD does when compiling the
          kernel which would cause the memory to make a scratchy sound? When
          compiling (and for a brief moment after recognizing the floppy drive
          upon startup, as well), a strange scratchy sound emanates from what
          appears to be the memory banks.
        <p>
          A. Yes!  You'll see frequent references to ``daemons'' in the BSD
          documentation, and what most people don't know is that this
          refers to genuine, non-corporeal entities that now possess your
          computer.  The scratchy sound coming from your memory is actually
          high-pitched whispering exchanged among the daemons as they best
          decide how to deal with various system administration tasks.

          If the noise gets to you, a good ``<tt>fdisk /mbr</tt>'' from DOS
          will get rid of them, but don't be surprised if they react
          adversely and try to stop you.  In fact, if at any point during
          the exercise you hear the satanic voice of Bill Gates coming from
          the built-in speaker, take off running and don't ever look back!
          Freed from the counterbalancing influence of the BSD daemons, the
          twin demons of DOS and Windows are often able to re-assert total
          control over your machine to the eternal damnation of your soul.
          Given a choice, I think I'd prefer to get used to the scratchy
          noises, myself!
      </sect1>


    <sect>
      <heading>For serious FreeBSD hackers only</heading>

      <sect1>
	<heading>What's with all these SNAPshot, RELENG and RELEASE releases?</heading>

	<p>
	There are currently three active/semi-active branches in the FreeBSD
	<url url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi" name="CVS Repository">:

	<itemize>
	<item><bf/RELENG_2_1_0/    AKA <bf/2.1-stable/ AKA <bf/"2.1 branch"/</item>
	<item><bf/RELENG_2_2/      AKA <bf/2.2-stable/ AKA <bf/"2.2 branch"/</item>
	<item><bf/HEAD/            AKA <bf/-current/ AKA <bf/3.0-current/</item>
	</itemize>

	<p><bf/HEAD/ is not an actual branch tag, like the other two, it's
	simply a symbolic constant for
	<em/"the current, non-branched development stream"/
	which we simply refer to as <bf/-current/.

	Right now, <bf/-current/ is the 3.0 development stream and the
	<bf/2.2-stable/ branch, <bf/RELENG_2_2/, forked off from
	<bf/-current/ in November 1996.

	The <bf/2.1-stable/ branch, <bf/RELENG_2_1_0/,departed -current in
	September of 1994.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I make my own custom release?<label id="custrel"></heading>
	<p>
	  To make a release you need to do three things: First, you need to
	  be running a kernel with the <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?vn"
	  name="vn"> driver configured in. Add
	  this to your kernel config file and build a new kernel:

	  <verb>
pseudo-device   vn              #Vnode driver (turns a file into a device)
	  </verb>

	  Second, you have to have the whole CVS repository at hand.
	  To get this you can use
            <url url="../handbook/cvsup.html" name="CVSUP">
          but your tag value, if any, should be `.' and your release name
          should be cvs:

	  <verb>
*default prefix=/home/ncvs base=/a host=cvsup.FreeBSD.org release=cvs delete compress use-rel=suffix

## Main Source Tree
src-all
src-eBones
src-secure

# Other stuff
ports-all
www
	  </verb>

	  Then run <tt/cvsup -g supfile/ to suck all the good bits into your
	  box...

	  Finally, you need a chunk of empty space to build into. Let's
	  say it's in <tt>/some/big/filesystem</tt>, and from the example
	  above you've got the CVS repository in <tt>/home/ncvs</tt>:

	  <verb>
setenv CVSROOT /home/ncvs	# or export CVSROOT=/home/ncvs
cd /usr/src/release
make release BUILDNAME=3.0-MY-SNAP CHROOTDIR=/some/big/filesystem/release
	  </verb>

          An entire release will be built in
	  <tt>/some/big/filesystem/release</tt>
	  and you will have a full FTP-type installation in
	  <tt>/some/big/filesystem/release/R/ftp</tt>
	  when you're done.  If you want to build your SNAP along some other
          branch than -current, you can also add <tt/RELEASETAG=SOMETAG/ to
	  the make release command line above, e.g. <tt/RELEASETAG=RELENG_2_2/
	  would build an up-to-the- minute 2.2 GAMMA snapshot.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I create customized installation disks?</heading>
        <p>
          The entire process of creating installation disks and source and
          binary archives is automated by various targets in
          <tt>/usr/src/release/Makefile</tt>.  The information there should
          be enough to get you started.  However, it should be said that this
          involves doing a ``make world'' and will therefore take up a lot of
          time and disk space.

      <sect1>
        <heading>``make world'' clobbers my existing installed binaries.</heading>

        <p>
	  Yes, this is the general idea; as its name might suggest,
	  ``make world'' rebuilds every system binary from scratch, so
	  you can be certain of having a clean and consistent
	  environment at the end (which is why it takes so long).
	<p>
          If the environment variable <tt/DESTDIR/ is defined while running
          ``<tt/make world/'' or ``<tt/make install/'', the newly-created
          binaries will be deposited in a directory tree identical to the
          installed one, rooted at <tt>&dollar;&lcub;DESTDIR&rcub;</tt>.
          Some random combination of shared libraries modifications and
          program rebuilds can cause this to fail in ``<tt/make world/'',
          however.


      <sect1>
        <heading>When my system boots, it says ``(bus speed defaulted)''.</heading>

        <p>
          The Adaptec 1542 SCSI host adapters allow the user to configure
          their bus access speed in software.  Previous versions of the
          1542 driver tried to determine the fastest usable speed and set
          the adapter to that.  We found that this breaks some users'
          systems, so you now have to define the ``<tt/TUNE&lowbar;1542/'' kernel
          configuration option in order to have this take place.  Using it
          on those systems where it works may make your disks run faster,
          but on those systems where it doesn't, your data could be
          corrupted.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Can I follow current with limited Internet access?<label id="ctm"></heading>

        <p>
          Yes, you can do this <tt /without/ downloading the whole source tree
          by using the
            <url
               url="../handbook/ctm.html"
               name="CTM facility.">

      <sect1>
        <heading>How did you split the distribution up into 240k files?</heading>

        <p>
          Newer BSD based systems have a ``<tt/-b/'' option to split that
          allows them to split files on arbitrary byte boundaries.

          Here is an example from <tt>/usr/src/Makefile</tt>.

          <verb>
            bin-tarball:
            (cd $&lcub;DISTDIR&rcub;; \
            tar cf - . \
            gzip --no-name -9 -c | \
            split -b 240640 - \
            $&lcub;RELEASEDIR&rcub;/tarballs/bindist/bin_tgz.)
          </verb>

      <sect1>
        <heading>I've written a kernel extension, who do I send it to?</heading>
        <p>
          Please take a look at:

          <url url="../handbook/contrib.html"
            name="The Handbook entry on how to submit code.">

          And thanks for the thought!


      <sect1>
        <heading>How are Plug N Play ISA cards detected and initialised?</heading>
        <p>
          By: Frank Durda IV <tt>&lt;uhclem@nemesis.lonestar.org&gt;</tt>

          In a nutshell, there a few I/O ports that all of the PnP boards
          respond to when the host asks if anyone is out there.  So when
          the PnP probe routine starts, he asks if there are any PnP boards
          present, and all the PnP boards respond with their model &num; to
          a I/O read of the same port, so the probe routine gets a wired-OR
          ``yes'' to that question.  At least one bit will be on in that
          reply.  Then the probe code is able to cause boards with board
          model IDs (assigned by Microsoft/Intel) lower than X to go
          ``off-line''.  It then looks to see if any boards are still
          responding to the query.  If the answer was ``<tt/0/'', then
          there are no boards with IDs above X.  Now probe asks if there
          are any boards below ``X''.  If so, probe knows there are boards
          with a model numbers below X.  Probe then asks for boards greater
          than X-(limit/4) to go off-line.  If repeats the query.  By
          repeating this semi-binary search of IDs-in-range enough times,
          the probing code will eventually identify all PnP boards present
          in a given machine with a number of iterations that is much lower
          than what 2^64 would take.

          The IDs are two 32-bit fields (hence 2&circ;64) + 8 bit checksum.
          The first 32 bits are a vendor identifier.  They never come out
          and say it, but it appears to be assumed that different types of
          boards from the same vendor could have different 32-bit vendor
          ids.  The idea of needing 32 bits just for unique manufacturers
          is a bit excessive.

          The lower 32 bits are a serial &num;, ethernet address, something
          that makes this one board unique.  The vendor must never produce
          a second board that has the same lower 32 bits unless the upper
          32 bits are also different.  So you can have multiple boards of
          the same type in the machine and the full 64 bits will still be
          unique.

          The 32 bit groups can never be all zero.  This allows the
          wired-OR to show non-zero bits during the initial binary search.

          Once the system has identified all the board IDs present, it will
          reactivate each board, one at a time (via the same I/O ports),
          and find out what resources the given board needs, what interrupt
          choices are available, etc.  A scan is made over all the boards
          to collect this information.

          This info is then combined with info from any ECU files on the
          hard disk or wired into the MLB BIOS.  The ECU and BIOS PnP
          support for hardware on the MLB is usually synthetic, and the
          peripherals don't really do genuine PnP.  However by examining
          the BIOS info plus the ECU info, the probe routines can cause the
          devices that are PnP to avoid those devices the probe code cannot
          relocate.

          Then the PnP devices are visited once more and given their I/O,
          DMA, IRQ and Memory-map address assignments.  The devices will
          then appear at those locations and remain there until the next
          reboot, although there is nothing that says you can't move them
          around whenever you want.

          There is a lot of oversimplification above, but you should get
          the general idea.

          Microsoft took over some of the primary printer status ports to
          do PnP, on the logic that no boards decoded those addresses for
          the opposing I/O cycles.  I found a genuine IBM printer board
          that did decode writes of the status port during the early PnP
          proposal review period, but MS said ``tough''.  So they do a
          write to the printer status port for setting addresses, plus that
          use that address + <tt/0x800/, and a third I/O port for reading
          that can be located anywhere between <tt/0x200/ and <tt/0x3ff/.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Will FreeBSD ever support other architectures?</heading>

        <p>
          Several different groups have expressed interest in working on
          multi-architecture support for FreeBSD and some people are
	  currently working on a port of FreeBSD to the ALPHA, with the
	  cooperation of DEC.  For general discussion on new architectures,
          use the <tt>&lt;platforms@FreeBSD.ORG&gt;</tt>
	  <ref id="mailing" name="mailing list">.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I need a major number for a device driver I've written.</heading>

        <p>
          This depends on whether or not you plan on making the driver
          publicly available.  If you do, then please send us a copy of the
          driver source code, plus the appropriate modifications to
          <tt>files.i386</tt>, a sample configuration file entry, and the
          appropriate <htmlurl 
	  url="http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/man.cgi?MAKEDEV"
	  name="MAKEDEV"> code to create any special files
          your device uses.  If you do not, or are unable to because of
          licensing restrictions, then character major number 32 and block
          major number 8 have been reserved specifically for this purpose;
          please use them.  In any case, we'd appreciate hearing about your
          driver on <tt>&lt;hackers@FreeBSD.ORG&gt;</tt>.

    <sect>
      <heading>ACKNOWLEDGMENTS</heading>

      <p>
        <verb>
          If you see a problem with this FAQ, or wish to submit an entry,
          please mail us at <FAQ@FreeBSD.ORG>.  We appreciate your
          feedback, and cannot make this a better FAQ without your help!


                                              FreeBSD Core Team
        </verb>

        <descrip>
          <tag/Jordan Hubbard/
            Occasional fits of FAQ-reshuffling and updating.
          <tag/Doug White/
            Services above and beyond the call of duty on freebsd-questions
          <tag/Joerg Wunsch/
            Services above and beyond the call of duty on Usenet
          <tag/Garrett Wollman/
            Networking and formatting
          <tag/Jim Lowe/
            Multicast information
          <tag/Peter da Silva/
            FreeBSD FAQ typing machine slavey
          <tag/The FreeBSD Team/
            Kvetching, moaning, submitting data
        </descrip>

        And to any others we've forgotten, apologies and heartfelt thanks!
  </article>