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<!DOCTYPE linuxdoc PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD linuxdoc//EN">

  <article>

<title>Frequently Asked Questions for FreeBSD 2.X
<author>The FreeBSD FAQ Team, <tt/FAQ@FreeBSD.ORG/
<date> $Id: freebsd-faq.sgml,v 1.4.4.6 1996-07-07 23:26:35 jkh Exp $
<abstract>
This is the FAQ for FreeBSD systems version 2.X  All entries are
assumed to be relevant to FreeBSD 2.0.5+, unless otherwise noted.
Any entries with a &lt;XXX&gt; are under construction.  
</abstract>

    <toc>

    <sect>
      <heading>Preface</heading>
      <p>
        Welcome to the FreeBSD 2.X FAQ !  This document tries to answer
        some of the most frequently asked questions about FreeBSD 2.X  (or
        later, unless specifically indicated).  If there's something you're
        having trouble with and you just don't see it here, then please
        send mail to:

        <url url="mailto:questions@FreeBSD.ORG" name="FreeBSD-questions
          Mailing list"> or to <url url="mailto:faq@FreeBSD.ORG"
          name="FreeBSD FAQ mailing list">

        The latest released version is FreeBSD 2.1.0R. FreeBSD-current
        refers to the future FreeBSD 2.2. The 2.1 release has been issued
        from a special branch of the -current sources and is intended as a
        even more stable version of 2.0.5.

        There are regular snapshots extracted from 2.2-CURRENT. Check on
        <tt>ftp.FreeBSD.ORG</tt> in <tt>/pub/FreeBSD/*-SNAP*</tt>.

        Some of the instructions here will also refer to auxiliary
        utilities in the <tt>/usr/share/FAQ/Text</tt> directory. If you do
        not have this directory, or if it does not contain the file that
        you want, you are probably using a version of FreeBSD prior to
        2.0.5R.  In this case, install the FreeBSD sources and look in
        <tt>/usr/src/share/FAQ/Text</tt> (instead of
        <tt>/usr/share/FAQ</tt>).  CDROM purchasers and net folks who've
        grabbed the FreeBSD 2.X ``<tt/srcdist/'' will have these files.  If
        you don't have the source distribution, then you can either grab
        the whole thing from:

          <url url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current"
            name="FreeBSD-current base directory"> 

        Or you can grab only those files you're interested in straight out
        of the FreeBSD-current distribution in:
        
          <url url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/src"
            name="FreeBSD-current src directory">

      <sect1>
	<heading>What is FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
          FreeBSD 2.X is a UN*X type operating system based on
          U.C. Berkeley's 4.4BSD-lite release for the i386 platform.  It is
          also based indirectly on William Jolitz's port of U.C. Berkeley's
          Net/2 to the i386, 386BSD.  There have been many additions and
          bug fixes made throughout the entire system, some of the
          highlights of which are:

          <itemize>
            <item>More robust and extensive PC device support
            <item>System V-style IPC, messaging and semaphores
            <item>Shared Libraries
            <item>Much improved virtual memory code
            <item>Better console driver support
            <item>Network booting (diskless) support
            <item>YP support
            <item>Full support of the PCI bus
            <item>Loadable kernel modules
            <item>Serial Console Support
            <item>Merged VM/Buffer Cache
            <item>On demand PPP
            <item>Sync PPP
            <item>Improved SCSI support
          </itemize>

      <sect1>
	<heading>What do I need to run FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
          You'll need a 386 or better PC, with 4 Mo or more of RAM and at
          least 60 MB of hard disk space. It can run with a low end MDA
          card but to run X11R6, a VGA or better video card is needed.

          See the section on <ref id="hardware" name="Hardware compatibility">
 
      <sect1>
	<heading>Where can I get FreeBSD</heading>
        <p>
          The distribution is available via anonymous ftp from:
          <url url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/" name="FreeBSD home directory">

          For the current release, 2.1.0R, look in:
          <url url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/2.1.0-RELEASE/" name="FreeBSD 2.1.0-RELEASE">

          FreeBSD is also available via CDROM, from the following place(s):
 
          Walnut Creek CDROM<newline>
          4041 Pike Lane, Suite D-386<newline>
          Concord, CA  94520  USA<newline>
          Orders:     (800)-786-9907<newline>
          Questions:  (510)-674-0783<newline>
          FAX:        (510)-674-0821<newline>
          email: <url url="mailto:orders@cdrom.com" name="WC Orders address"> <newline>
          WWW: <url url="http://www.cdrom.com/" name="WC Home page"><newline> 

          In Australia, you may find it at the following:

          Advanced MM Distributors<newline>
          45 Elstone Ave<newline>
          Airport West VIC 3042<newline>

          Voice: +61 3 374-1410<newline>
          Fax:   +61 3 338-7411 fax<newline>

          CDROM Support BBS<newline>
          17 Irvine St<newline>
          Peppermint Grove  WA 6011<newline>
	
          Voice: +61 9 385-3793<newline>
          Fax:   +61 9 385-2360<newline>

      <sect1>
	<heading>What are the FreeBSD mailing lists, and how can I get on them?</heading>
        <p>
          The following mailing lists are provided for FreeBSD users and
          developers.  For more information, send to
          &lt;majordomo@FreeBSD.ORG&gt; and include a single line saying
          ``help'' in the body of your message.

          <descrip>
            <tag/announce/ For announcements about or on FreeBSD.
            <tag/hackers/ Useful for persons wishing to work on the internals. 
            <tag/questions/ General questions on FreeBSD. 
            <tag/bugs/ Where bugs should be sent.
            <tag/SCSI/ Mailing list for SCSI developers. 
            <tag/current/ This is the mailing list for communications
              between the developers and users of freebsd-current. It also
              carries announcements and discussions on current.
            <tag/security/  For issues dealing with system security. 
            <tag/platforms/ Deals with ports to non-Intel platforms
            <tag/ports/     Discussion of <tt>/usr/ports/???</tt>
            <tag/fs/        Discussion of FreeBSD Filesystems
            <tag/hardware/  Discussion on hardware requirements for
              FreeBSD.
            <tag/committers/ All CVS commit messages
            <tag/chat/  What does not belong elsewhere, general chat, fun.
            <tag/hubs/  This the mailing-list for all of the generous
              people who manage the ``regional'' part of the <tt/freebsd.org/
              domain.
            <tag/users-groups/ This is the mailing list for the
              coordinators from each of the local area Users Groups to
              discuss matters with each other and a designated individual
              from the Core Team.  This mail list should be limited to
              meeting synopsis and coordination of projects that span User
              Groups
          </descrip>
        <p>
          The FreeBSD-commit list has been broken up into groups dealing
          with different areas of interest.  Please see the FreeBSD mailing
          list FAQ in:
          <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/How/handbook/eresources:mail.html" name="Handbook s section on mailing-lists">
        <p>
          Example:
        <p>
          To subscribe to the <tt/questions/ list, you'll to send a message
          containing the following command in the <bf/body/ of the message,
          the subject is ignored:
          <verb>
            subscribe questions john.smith@foo.bar (John Smith)
          </verb>
        <p>
          To unsubscribe, it is as easy. Just remember to send your request
          to 
          <url url="mailto:Majordomo@FreeBSD.ORG" name="The mail administrator"> 
          <bf/not/ to the list itself. The last thing the subscribed
          users want to see is administrative requests...

      <sect1>
	<heading>What are the various FreeBSD news groups?</heading>
        <p>
          There are two newsgroups currently dedicated to FreeBSD:
          <descrip>
            <tag/comp.unix.bsd.freebsd.announce/ For announcements
            <tag/comp.unix.bsd.freebsd.misc/ General discussion
          </descrip>
          The following newsgroups may also be of interest to
          general BSD enthusiasts:
          <descrip>
            <tag><tt/comp.unix.bsd/</tag>
              General BSD topics
          </descrip>
          To setup/run your own News server or just reading Usenet News,
          you may have a look at various packages already ported for
          FreeBSD 2.X in <tt>/usr/ports/news</tt>. You'll find Cnews, INN,
          Trn, TIN and others there.

          For French-speaking  people, the <tt/fr.comp.os.bsd/ group is for
          you.  Ask your system administrator  if   you don't receive  this
          group. 
      </sect1>
      
      <sect1>
        <heading>Books on FreeBSD</heading>
        <p> 
          There currently aren't any books written specifically for
          FreeBSD, although some people are supposedly working on some.
 
          The FreeBSD Documentation Project exists, you may contact (or
          better join them) on the <tt>doc</tt> mailing list:
          <url url="mailto:doc@FreeBSD.ORG" name="&lt;doc@FreeBSD.ORG&gt;">.

          A FreeBSD ``handbook'' is being created, and can be found as:
 
          <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/How/handbook/" name="FreeBSD's Handbook"> 
          Note that this is a work in progress, and so parts may be incomplete.

          However, as FreeBSD 2.X is based upon Berkeley 4.4BSD-Lite, most
          of the 4.4BSD manuals are applicable to FreeBSD 2.X.  O'Reilly
          and Associates publishes these manuals:

          4.4BSD System Manager's Manual <newline>
          By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley <newline>
          1st Edition June 1994, 804 pages <newline>
          ISBN: 1-56592-080-5 <NEWLINE>
          
          4.4BSD User's Reference Manual <newline>
          By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley <newline>
          1st Edition June 1994, 905 pages <newline>
          ISBN: 1-56592-075-9 <NEWLINE>
          
          4.4BSD User's Supplementary Documents <newline>
          By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley <newline>
          1st Edition July 1994, 712 pages <newline>
          ISBN: 1-56592-076-7 <NEWLINE>
          
          4.4BSD Programmer's Reference Manual <newline>
          By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley <newline>
          1st Edition June 1994, 886 pages <newline>
          ISBN: 1-56592-078-3 <NEWLINE>
          
          4.4BSD Programmer's Supplementary Documents <newline>
          By Computer Systems Research Group, UC Berkeley <newline>
          1st Edition July 1994, 596 pages <newline>
          ISBN: 1-56592-079-1 <NEWLINE>
          
          A description of these can be found via WWW as:
 
          <url url="http://gnn.com/gnn/bus/ora/category/bsd.html"
            name="4.4BSD books description">
 
          A good book on system administration is:
 
          Evi Nemeth, Garth Snyder, Scott Seebass &amp; Trent R. Hein,<newline>
          ``Unix System Administration Handbook'', Prentice-Hall, 1995<newline>
          ISBN: 0-13-151051-7<newline>

          <bf/NOTE/ make sure you get the second edition, with a red cover,
          instead of the first edition.
 
          This book covers the basics, as well as TCP/IP, DNS, NFS,
          SLIP/PPP, sendmail, INN/NNTP, printing, etc..  It's expensive
          (approx. US&dollar;45-&dollar;55), but worth it.  It also
          includes a CDROM with the sources for various tools; most of
          these, however, are also on the FreeBSD 2.1.0R CDROM (and the
          FreeBSD CDROM often has newer versions).
 
      <sect1>
	<heading>Other sources of information.</heading>
        <p>
          One good source of additional information is the
          ``&lsqb;comp.unix.bsd&rsqb; NetBSD, FreeBSD, and 386BSD (0.1)
          FAQ''.  Much of the information is relevant to FreeBSD, and this
          FAQ is posted around twice a month to the following newsgroups:
 
          <verb>
            comp.unix.bsd.netbsd.announce
            comp.unix.bsd.freebsd.announce
            comp.answers
            news.answers
          </verb>

          If you have WWW access, the FreeBSD home page is at:
 
          <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/" name="Main FreeBSD page">

          The FreeBSD handbook has a pretty complete bibliography, look at:
          <url url="http://www.FreeBSD.ORG/How/handbook/bibliography.html" name="Bibliography">

    <sect>
      <heading>FreeBSD goals</heading>
      <p>
      <sect1>
	<heading>Copyrights</heading>
        <p>
          The goals of the FreeBSD Project are to provide software that may
          be used for any purpose and without strings attached.  Many of us
          have a significant investment in the code (and project) and would
          certainly not mind a little financial renumeration now and then,
          but we're definitely not prepared to insist on it.  We believe
          that our first and foremost "mission" is to provide code to any
          and all comers, and for whatever purpose, so that the code gets
          the widest possible use and provides the widest possible benefit.
          This is, I believe, one of the most fundamental goals of Free
          Software and one that we enthusiastically support.

          That code in our source tree which falls under the GNU Public License
          (GPL) or GNU Library Public License (GLPL) comes with slightly more
          strings attached, though at least on the side of enforced
          access rather than the usual opposite.  Due to the additional
          complexities that can evolve in the commercial use of GPL software,
          we do, however, endeavor to replace such software with submissions
          under the more relaxed BSD copyright whenever possible.

    <sect>
      <heading>Installation</heading>
      <p>
      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I install FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>

          <bf/IMPORTANT NOTE/ if you  are installing 2.1.0R from tape,  see
          the question  titled, 
          <ref id="install-tape" name="Help!  I can't install from tape!">
 
          Installation instructions can be found as:
 
          <url   url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/2.1.0-RELEASE/INSTALL"
            name="INSTALL from 2.1.0R">
 
          Release notes are also available as:
 
          <url  url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/2.1.0-RELEASE/RELNOTES"
            name="RELNOTES from 2.1.0R">
 
          On the CDROM, the following files are in the top-most directory:
 
          <verb>
            INSTALL         -- Installation instructions
            README.TXT      -- Basic README file
            RELNOTES        -- Release notes
          </verb>

      <sect1>
        <heading>I have only 4 MB of memory in this machine. Can I install FreeBSD 2.1.0 ?</heading>

        <p>
          FreeBSD 2.1.0 does not install with 4 MB.  To be exact: it does
          not install with 640 kB base + 3 MB extended memory.  If your
          motherboard can remap some of the ``lost'' memory out of the
          640kB to 1MB region, then you may still be able to get FreeBSD
          2.1.0 up.

          Try to go into your BIOS setup and look for a ``remap'' option.
          Enable it.  You may also have to disable ROM shadowing.

          It may be easier to get 4 more MB just for the install. Build a
          custom kernel with only the options you need and then get the 4
          MB out again.

          You may also install 2.0.5 and then upgrade your system to 2.1.0
          with the ``upgrade'' option of the 2.1.0 installation program.

          After the installation, if you build a custom kernel, it will run
          in 4 MB. Someone has even succeeded in booting with 2 MB (the
          system was almost unusable though :-))

      <sect1>
        <heading>Help! I have no space! Do I need to delete everything first?</heading>

        <p>
          If your machine is already running DOS and has little or no free
          space available for FreeBSD's installation, all is not lost!  You
          may find the ``<tt/FIPS/'' utility, provided in the
          <tt>tools/</tt> subdirectory on the FreeBSD CDROM or on the
          various FreeBSD ftp sites, to be quite useful.

          <tt/FIPS/ allows you to split an existing DOS partition into two
          pieces, preserving the original partition and allowing you to
          install onto the second free piece.  You first ``defrag'' your
          DOS partition, using the DOS 6.xx <tt/DEFRAG/ utility or the
          Norton Disk tools, then run <tt/FIPS/.  It will prompt you for
          the rest of the information it needs.  Afterwards, you can reboot
          and install FreeBSD on the new free slice.  See the Distributions
          menu for an estimation of how much free space you'll need for the
          kind of installation you want.

	  NOTE: <tt/FIPS/ may cause problems with the mounting of your
          DOS partition under FreeBSD 2.X.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I have installed Windows 95 on to my home PC, and I want
        to also install FreeBSD.</heading>

        <p>
          Install Windows 95 first, after that FreeBSD. FreeBSD's boot
          manager will then manage to boot Win95 and FreeBSD.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Can I use compressed DOS filesystems from FreeBSD?</heading>

        <p>
          No.  If you are using a utility such as Stacker(tm) or
          DoubleSpace(tm), FreeBSD will only be able to use whatever
          portion of the filesystem you leave uncompressed.  The rest of
          the filesystem will show up as one large file (the
          stacked/dblspaced file!).  <bf/DO NOT REMOVE THAT FILE!/ You will
          probably regret it greatly!

          It is probably better to create another uncompressed DOS primary
          partition and use this for communications between DOS and
          FreeBSD.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Can I mount my DOS extended partitions?</heading>

        <p>
          Yes.  DOS extended partitions are mapped in at the end of
          the other ``slices'' in FreeBSD, e.g. your D: drive might
          be /dev/sd0s5, your E: drive /dev/sd0s6, and so on.  This
          example assumes, of course, that your extended partition is
          on SCSI drive 0.  For IDE drives, substitute ``wd'' for ``sd''
          and so on.  You otherwise mount them exactly like you would
          mount any other DOS drive, e.g.:

        <p>
              mount -t msdos /dev/sd0s5 /dos_d


      <sect1>
	<heading>Can I run DOS binaries under FreeBSD?</heading>

        <p>
          Not yet, though BSDI has just donated their <tt/rundos/ DOS emulation
          subsystem which we're now working on integrating and enhancing.
          Send mail to
          <url url="mailto:emulation@freebsd.org"
            name="The FreeBSD emulation discussion list">
          if you're interested in joining this effort!

          For now, there is a neat utility called ``<tt/pcemu/'' in the
          ports collection which emulates an 8088 and enough BIOS services
          to run DOS text mode applications.  It requires the X Window
          System (provided as XFree86 3.1.2).

      <sect1>
	<heading>Help! I  can't  install from tape! The  install fails with a ``record too big'' error!<label id="install-tape"></heading>
        <p> 
          If you are installing 2.1.0R from tape, you  must create the tape
          using a  tar blocksize  of  10  (5120  bytes).  The  default  tar
          blocksize is 20  (10240   bytes), and  tapes  created using  this
          default size cannot be used to  install 2.1.0R; with these tapes,
          you will get an error that complains about  the record size being
          too big.
 
       <sect1>
	<heading>I want to install FreeBSD onto a SCSI disk that has more than 1024 cylinders.  How do I do it?</heading>

        <p>
          This depends.  If you don't have DOS (or another operating
          system) on the system, you can just keep the drive in native mode
          and simply make sure that your root partition is below 1024 so
          the BIOS can boot the kernel from it.  It you also have DOS/some
          other OS on the drive then your best bet is to find out what
          parameters that it thinks you have before installing FreeBSD.
          When FreeBSD's installation procedure prompts you for these
          values, you should then enter them rather than simply going with
          the defaults.

          There is a freely available utility distributed with FreeBSD
          called ``<tt/pfdisk/'' (located in the <tt>tools/dos-tools</tt>
          subdirectory) which can be used for this purpose.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I want to install my laptop with PLIP (Parallel Line IP). How's the cable ?

        <p>
          Connect the two computers using a Laplink parallel cable to use
          this feature:

          <verb>
            +----------------------------------------+
            |A-name A-End   B-End   Descr.  Port/Bit |
            +----------------------------------------+
            |DATA0  2       15      Data    0/0x01   |
            |-ERROR 15      2               1/0x08   |
            +----------------------------------------+
            |DATA1  3       13      Data    0/0x02   |
            |+SLCT  13      3               1/0x10   |
            +----------------------------------------+
            |DATA2  4       12      Data    0/0x04   |
            |+PE    12      4               1/0x20   |
            +----------------------------------------+
            |DATA3  5       10      Strobe  0/0x08   |
            |-ACK   10      5               1/0x40   |
            +----------------------------------------+
            |DATA4  6       11      Data    0/0x10   |
            |BUSY   11      6               1/0x80   |
            +----------------------------------------+
            |GND    18-25   18-25   GND -            |
            +----------------------------------------+
          </verb>

      <sect1>
	<heading>When I boot FreeBSD it says ``Missing Operating System''.</heading>

        <p>
          See question above.  This is classically a case of FreeBSD and
          DOS or some other OS conflicting over their ideas of disk
          geometry.  You will have to reinstall FreeBSD, but obeying the
          instructions given above will almost always get you going.

      <sect1>
	<heading>When I install the boot manager and try to boot FreeBSD for the first time, it just comes back with the boot manager prompt `F?' again.</heading>

        <p>
          This is another symptom of the problem described in the preceding
          question.  Your BIOS geometry and FreeBSD geometry settings do
          not agree!  If your controller or BIOS supports cylinder
          translation (often marked as ``&gt;1GB drive support''), try
          toggling its setting and reinstalling FreeBSD.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I'm having lots of trouble trying to disklabel a new SCSI drive.</heading>

	<p>I have made an entry in <tt>/etc/disktab</tt>, but
	  when I try to label the drive the following happens:
          <verb>
            mips# disklabel -w /dev/sd1 sea32550N
            disklabel: ioctl DIOCWDINFO: Operation not supported by device
          </verb>
          What am I doing wrong?

          Answer:<newline>
          Doing this using <tt/disklabel/ (and <tt/fdisk/) is probably
          harder than using <tt/sysinstall/.  The following should work to
          put FreeBSD-2.1.0 on the whole of an <bf/empty/ disk assuming that
          the <tt/disktab/ entry is correct.
          <verb>
            disklabel -r -w /dev/rsd1 sea32550N
                      ^^         ^
          </verb>
          The first <tt/-r/ is essential for writing new labels and using
          the raw device instead of the block device is good technique.  To
          be ``empty'' the disk should have 0's at critical points on the
          first two sectors.  In particular, the 2 byte signature at the
          end of the first sector must not be <tt/0xaa55/ or the disk will
          be interpreted as having a slice (partition) table and it will be
          difficult to write to it where you want unless the slice table is
          initialized correctly.  All bootable hard disks will have the
          <tt/0xaa55/ signature so they won't be empty.  Empty disks may be
          created by copying zeros over the first 2 sectors:

          <verb>
            dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rsd1 bs=1k count=1
          </verb>
          
          Note that this will (appear to) destroy all data on the disk.

          The above is not the best method.  Normally you will have a slice
          table or a label that you want to preserve or modify slightly.
          This can be done using

          <verb>
            fdisk -u /dev/rsd1              # install or change slice table
            disklabel -r -w sd1 sea32550N   # install label
                            ^no /dev/r
          </verb>

          <tt/fdisk/ is unintuitive and has poor error handling so it is
          difficult to change slice tables using it.  However, to install a
          new slice table on an empty drive you just have to accept all the
          defaults except for ``n'' to write at the end.

          Note that the <tt/sd1/ drive in the above is different from
          <tt>/dev/rsd1</tt>.  <tt/disklabel/ modifies path names that
          don't start with a slash by prefixing <tt>/dev/r</tt> and
          suffixing the ``raw'' partition letter.  <tt/sd1/ thus means
          <tt>/dev/rsd1c</tt>, i.e., the ``<tt/c/'' partition on the first
          BSD slice on drive <tt/sd1/, i.e., the whole of the first BSD
          slice on drive sd1, while <tt>/dev/rsd1</tt> is the whole of
          drive sd1.  Thus ``<tt>disklabel ... sd1</tt>'' will fail if
          there is no FreeBSD slice, while ``<tt>disklabel /dev/rsd1</tt>''
          will print the in-core label for the whole drive.  Oops, this
          assumes that slices are enabled by the 0xaa55 signature.  If
          slices aren't enabled, then /dev/rsd1c means the whole drive.  In
          practice, slices have to be enabled to make the disk bootable.

          If there are no BSD slices, then <tt>/dev/rsd1c</tt> will be
          empty instead of unconfigured and attempts to label <tt/sd1/ will
          fail with a bogus error message about <tt>/dev/rsd1c</tt> not
          existing.

          <tt>/dev/sd1</tt> didn't exist in previous versions of FreeBSD or
          386BSD so your ``<tt>disklabel -w /dev/sd1 ...</tt>'' would have
          printed a less confusing error message before failing.

          <verb>
The disklabel I'm trying is
sea32550N|Seagate 32550N:\
       :ty=winchester:dt=SCSI:se#512:nc#3510:nt#11:ns#108:\
       :rm#7200:\
       :pa#2433024:oa#0:ta=4.2BSD:\
       :pc#4169880:oc#0:
          </verb>
          Note that <tt/ns/ has to be < 64 in the slice table.  I would use
          <tt/nt&num;22:ns&num;54/.  This only matters if you don't accept
          <tt/fdisk/'s default (bogus) slice table.  You have to use a
          valid table if you want multiple slices, or the first slice
          starting at a nonzero offset.  Starting a nonempty slice at
          offset 0 is invalid so <tt/sysinstall/ doesn't support creating
          such slices.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I have an IDE drive with lots of bad blocks on it and FreeBSD doesn't seem to install properly.</heading>

        <p>
          FreeBSD's bad block (the ``<tt/bad144/'' command) handling is
          still not 100&percnt; (to put it charitably) and it must
          unfortunately be said that if you've got an IDE or ESDI drive
          with lots of bad blocks, then FreeBSD is probably not for you!
          That said, it does work on thousands of IDE based systems, so
          you'd do well to try it first before simply giving up.

          IDE drives are <em/supposed/ to come with built-in bad-block
          remapping; if you have documentation for your drive, you may want
          to see if this feature has been disabled on your drive.  However,
          ESDI, RLL, and ST-506 drives normally do not do this.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I have 32MB of memory, should I expect any special problems?<label id="bigram"></heading>

        <p>
          No.  FreeBSD 2.X comes with bounce buffers which allows your bus
          mastering controller access to greater than 16MB.

      <sect1>
	<heading>My network card keeps getting errors like, ``<tt/ed1: timeout/''.  What's going on?</heading>

        <p>
          This is usually caused by an interrupt conflict (e.g., two boards
          using the same IRQ).  FreeBSD prior to 2.0.5R used to be tolerant
          of this, and  the  network driver  would  still function  in  the
          presence  of IRQ conflicts.  However, with  2.0.5R and later, IRQ
          conflicts are no  longer tolerated.  Boot with the -c option and
          change the ed0/de0/... entry to match your board.
 
      <sect1>
	<heading>Do I need to install the complete sources?</heading>

        <p> In general, no.  However, we would strongly recommend that you
          install, at a minimum, the ``<tt/base/'' source kit, which
          includes several of the files mentioned here, and the
          ``<tt/sys/'' (kernel) source kit, which includes sources for the
          kernel.  There is nothing in the system which requires the
          presence of the sources to operate, however, except for the
          kernel-configuration program <tt/config(8)/.  With the exception
          of the kernel sources, our build structure is set up so that you
          can read-only mount the sources from elsewhere via NFS and still
          be able to make new binaries.  (Because of the kernel-source
          restriction, we recommend that you not mount this on
          <tt>/usr/src</tt> directly, but rather in some other location
          with appropriate symbolic links to duplicate the top-level
          structure of the source tree.)

          Having the sources on-line and knowing how to build a system with
          them will make it much easier for you to upgrade to future
          releases of FreeBSD.


      <sect1>
	<heading>DES encryption software can not be exported from the United States.  If I live outside the US, how can I encrypt passwords?</heading>

        <p> If it is not absolutely imperative that you use DES style
          encryption, you can use FreeBSD's default encryption for even
          <bf/better/ security, and with no export restrictions.  FreeBSD
          2.0's password default scrambler is now <bf/MD5/-based, and is
          more CPU-intensive to crack with an automated password cracker
          than DES.

          Since the DES encryption algorithm cannot legally be exported
          from the US, non-US users should not download this software (as
          part of the <tt/secrdist/ from US FTP sites.

          There is however a replacement libcrypt available, based on
          sources written in Australia by David Burren.  This code is now
          available on some non-US FreeBSD mirror sites.  Sources for the
          unencumbered libcrypt, and binaries of the programs which use it,
          can be obtained from the following FTP sites:

          <descrip>
            <tag/South Africa/
              <tt>ftp://ftp.internat.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD</tt><newline>
              <tt>ftp://storm.sea.uct.ac.za/pub/FreeBSD</tt>
            <tag/Brazil/
              <tt>ftp://ftp.iqm.unicamp.br/pub/FreeBSD</tt>
            <tag/Finland/
              <tt>ftp://nic.funet.fi/pub/unix/FreeBSD/eurocrypt</tt>
          </descrip>

          The non-US <tt/securedist/ can be used as a direct replacement
          for the encumbered US <tt/securedist/.  This <tt/securedist/
          package is installed the same way as the US package (see
          installation notes for details).  If you are going to install DES
          encryption, you should do so as soon as possible, before
          installing other software.

          Non-US users should please not download any encryption software
          from the USA.  This can get the maintainers of the sites from
          which the software is downloaded into severe legal difficulties.

          A non-US distribution of Kerberos is also being developed, and
          current versions can generally be obtained by anonymous FTP from
          <tt>braae.ru.ac.za</tt>.

          There is a mailing list for the discussion of non-US encryption
          software.  For more information, send an email message with a
          single line saying ``<tt/help/'' in the body of your message to
          <tt>&lt;majordomo@braae.ru.ac.za&gt;</tt>.

      </sect1>
    </sect>
    <sect>
      <heading>Hardware compatibility <label id="hardware"></heading>
      <p>
      <sect1>
	<heading>What kind of hard drives does FreeBSD run on?</heading>

        <p>
          FreeBSD supports ST-506 (sometimes called ``MFM''), RLL, and ESDI
          drives, which are usually connected to WD-1002, WD-1003, or
          WD-1006/7 controllers (although clones should also work).

          FreeBSD also supports IDE and SCSI hard drives.

      <sect1>
	<heading>What SCSI controllers are supported?</heading>

        <p>
          FreeBSD supports the following SCSI controllers:

          <descrip>
            <tag/Adaptec/
              AH-152x Series &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
              AH-154x Series &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
              AH-174x Series &lt;EISA&gt; <newline>
              Sound Blaster SCSI (AH-152x compat) &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
              AH-2742/2842 Series &lt;ISA/EISA&gt; <newline>
              AH-2820/2822/2825 Series (Narrow/Twin/Wide) &lt;VLB&gt; <newline>
              AH-294x and aic7870 MB controllers (Narrow/Twin/Wide) &lt;PCI&gt;<newline>
              AH-394x (Narrow/Twin/Wide)
            <tag/Buslogic/
              BT-445 Series &lt;VLB&gt; (but see section <ref id="bigram"
                name="on 32 MB machines">) <newline>
              BT-545 Series &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
              BT-742 Series &lt;EISA&gt;<newline>
              BT-747 Series &lt;EISA&gt;<newline>
              BT-946 Series &lt;PCI&gt; <newline>
              BT-956 Series &lt;PCI&gt; <newline>
            <tag/Future Domain/
              TMC-950 Series &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
            <tag/PCI Generic/
              NCR 53C81x based controllers &lt;PCI&gt; <newline>
              NCR 53C82x based controllers &lt;PCI&gt; <newline>
              NCR 53C860/75 based controllers &lt;PCI&gt; <newline>
            <tag/ProAudioSpectrum/
              Zilog 5380 based controllers &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
              Trantor 130 based controllers &lt;ISA&gt; <newline>
            <tag/DTC/
              DTC 3290 EISA SCSI in AHA-154x emulation.<newline>
            <tag/Seagate/
              ST-01/02 Series &lt;ISA&gt;<newline>
            <tag/UltraStor/
              UH-14f Series &lt;ISA&gt;<newline>
              UH-24f Series &lt;EISA&gt; <newline>
              UH-34f Series &lt;VLB&gt;<newline>
            <tag/Western Digital/
              WD7000 &lt;ISA&gt; &lt;No scatter/gather&gt;
          </descrip>

      <sect1>
	<heading>What CD-ROM drives are supported by FreeBSD?</heading>

        <p>
          Any SCSI drive connected to a supported controller.

          <itemize>
            <item>Mitsumi LU002 (8bit), LU005 (16bit) and FX001D (16bit 2x
              Speed).
            <item>Sony CDU 31/33A<newline>
            <item>Sound Blaster Non-SCSI CD-ROM<newline>
            <item>Matsushita/Panasonic CD-ROM<newline>
            <item>ATAPI compatible IDE CD-ROMs (should be considered
              <bf/experimental/)
          </itemize>
          All non-SCSI cards are known to be extremely slow compared to
          SCSI drives.
 
      <sect1>
	<heading>What multi-port serial cards are supported by FreeBSD?</heading>

        <p>
          <itemize>
            <item>AST/4 in shared IRQ mode,
            <item>ARNET 8 port in shared IRQ mode,
            <item>BOCA 4/8/16 port cards in shared IRQ mode,
            <item>Cyclades 8/16 port &lt;Alpha&gt;,
            <item>Cronyx/Sigfgma multiport sync/async,
            <item>RISCom/8 multiport card,
            <item>SCCSI Usenet II in shared IRQ mode,
            <item>STB 4 port i shared IRQ mode,
          </itemize>

          Some unnamed clone cards have also been known to work, especially
          those that claim to be AST compatible.

          A Digiboard driver is currently in alpha stage.  If you want to
          test it, take the file in 
          <url url="ftp://freefall.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/incoming" 
            name="the incoming directory">

          Check the <tt/sio(4)/ man page to get more information on
          configuring such cards.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Does FreeBSD support the AHA-2xxx SCSI adapters from Adaptec?</heading>

        <p>
          FreeBSD supports the AHA-2xxx line of adapters.  The GPL portions
          of the old drivers have been re-written and now it is fully
          under the Berkeley style copyright.
 
      <sect1>
	<heading>I have a Mumbleco bus mouse.  Is it supported and if so, how do I set it up for XFree86?</heading>

        <p>
          FreeBSD supports the Logitech and ATI Inport bus mice.  You need
          to add the following line to the kernel config file and recompile
          for the Logitech and ATI mice:
          <verb>
            device        mse0    at isa? port 0x23c tty irq5 vector mseintr
          </verb>
          
      <sect1>
	<heading>I have a PS/2 mouse (``keyboard'' mouse) (Alternatively: I have a laptop with a track-ball mouse).  How do I use it?</heading>
        <p>
          You'll have to add the following lines to your kernel
          configuration file and recompile:
<verb>
device    psm0    at isa? port "IO_KBD" conflicts tty irq 12 vector psmintr
# Options for psm:
options   PSM_NO_RESET       #don't reset mouse hardware (some laptops)
</verb>

	<p>
	  See <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/handbook/kernelconfig.html"
	  name="configuring the kernel">
	  if you've no experience with building kernels.

	  Once you have a kernel detecting psm0 correctly at boot time,
	  make sure that an entry for psm0 exists in /dev.  You can do this
	  by typing:
<verb>
	cd /dev; sh MAKEDEV psm0
</verb>
	  When logged in as root.
	<p>
	  Note: Some PS/2 mouse controllers have a problem
	  where the presence of the psm0 driver will cause the keyboard to
	  lock up (which is why this driver is not present by default in the
	  GENERIC kernel).  This can sometimes be fixed by bouncing the
	  NumLock key during the boot process. Also suggest going into CMOS
	  setup and toggling any value for Numlock On/Off at boot time. The
	  real fix is, of course, to merge the PS/2 mouse driver with syscons.
	  Any volunteers? :)

      <sect1>
	<heading>What types of tape drives are supported under FreeBSD?</heading>
          
        <p>
          FreeBSD supports SCSI, QIC-02 and QIC-40/80 (Floppy based) tape
          drives.  This includes 8-mm (aka Exabyte) and DAT drives.
          The QIC-40/80 drives are known to be slow.

      <sect1>
	<heading>What sound cards are supported by FreeBSD?</heading>
          
        <p>
          FreeBSD supports the SoundBlaster, SoundBlaster Pro, SoundBlaster
          16, Pro Audio Spectrum 16, AdLib and Gravis UltraSound sound
          cards. There is also limited support for MPU-401 and compatible
          MIDI cards. The SoundBlaster 16 ASP cards are not yet
          supported. The Microsoft Sound System is also supported.
          
          <bf/NOTE/ This is only for sound!  This driver does not support
          CD-ROMs, SCSI or joysticks on these cards.
          
      <sect1>
	<heading>What network cards does FreeBSD support?</heading>

        <p>
          There is support for the following cards:

          <descrip>
            <tag/``de'' driver/
              DEC DC21x40 and compatible PCI controllers<newline>
              (including 21140 100bT cards) <newline>
            <tag/``ed'' driver/
              NE2000 and 1000<newline>
              WD/SMC 8003, 8013 and Elite Ultra (8216)<newline>
              3Com 3c503 <newline>
              And clones of the above <newline>
            <tag/``le'' driver/
              DEC EtherWORKS II and EtherWORKS III controllers. <newline>
            <tag/``ie'' driver/
              AT&amp;T EN100/StarLAN 10 <newline>
              3COM 3c507 Etherlink 16/TP<newline>
              NI5210 <newline>
            <tag/``is'' driver/
              Isolan AT 4141-0 <newline>
              Isolink 4110 <newline>
            <tag/``el'' driver/
              3com 3c501 (does not support Multicast or DMA)
            <tag/``eg'' driver/
              3com 3c505 Etherlink/+
            <tag/``ze'' driver/
              IBM PCMCIA credit card adapter
            <tag/``lnc'' drive/
              Lance/PCnet cards (Isolan, Novell NE2100, NE32-VL)(*)
            <tag/``ep'' driver/
              3com 3c509 (Must disable PNP support on card)
            <tag/``ix'' driver/
              Intel InterExpress
            <tag/``cx'' driver/
              Cronyx/Sigma multiport Sync/Async (Cisco and PPP framing)
            <tag/``zp'' driver/
              3Com PCMCIA Etherlink III (aka 3c589)
            <tag/``fea'' driver/
              DEC DEFEA EISA FDDI controller
            <tag/``fpa'' driver/
              DEC DEFPA PCI FDDI controller
            <tag/``fe'' driver/
              Fujitsu MB86960A/MB86965A Ethernet cards
          </descrip>

          <bf/NOTE/     PCMCIA Ethernet cards from IBM and National
          Semiconductor.

          <bf/NOTE/	Drivers marked with (*) are known to have problems.

          <bf/NOTE/ We also support TCP/IP over parallel lines.  At this point
          we are incompatible with other versions, but we hope to correct
          this in the near future.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I have a 386/486sx/486SLC machine without a math co-processor. Will this cause me any problems?</heading>

        <p>
          Generally no, but there are circumstances where you will take a
          hit, either in performance or accuracy of the math emulation code
          (see the section <ref id="emul" name="on FP emulation">).  In
          particular, drawing arcs in X will be VERY slow.  It is highly
          recommended that you buy a math co-processor; it's well worth it.

          <bf/NOTE/ Some math co-processors are better than others.  It pains
          us to say it, but nobody ever got fired for buying Intel.  Unless
          you're sure it works with FreeBSD, beware of clones.

      <sect1>
	<heading>What other devices does 2.X support?</heading>

        <p>
          Here is a listing of drivers that do not fit into any of the
          above areas.

          <descrip>
            <tag><tt/b004.c/</tag>
              Driver for B004 compatible Transputer boards <newline>
            <tag>``ctx'' driver</tag>
              Driver for CORTEX-I Frame grabber <newline>
            <tag>``gp'' driver</tag>
              Driver for National Instruments AT-GPIB and<newline>
              AT-GPIB/TNT boards 
            <tag>``pca'' driver</tag>
              Driver for PC speakers to allow the playing of audio files
            <tag>``spigot'' driver</tag>
              Driver for the Creative Labs Video Spigot
            <tag>``gsc'' driver</tag>
              Driver for the Genuis GS-4500 Hand scanner
            <tag>``joy'' driver</tag>
              Driver for a joystick
            <tag/``labpc'' driver/
              Driver for National Instrument's Lab-PC and Lab-PC+
            <tag/``uart'' driver/
              Stand-alone 6850 UART for MIDI
            <tag/``nic'' driver/
              Dr Neuhaus NICCY 3008, 3009 &amp; 5000 ISDN cards
            <tag/``psm'' driver/
              PS/2 mouse port
            <tag><tt/tw.c/</tag>
              Driver for the X-10 POWERHOUSE <newline>
          </descrip>
<!--
      <sect1>
	<heading>I am about to buy a new machine to run FreeBSD on and want an idea of what other people are running. Is there list of other systems anywhere?</heading>

        <p>
          See the <htmlurl url="handbook/hw.html" name="hardware section">
	  of the handbook.
-->
      <sect1>
	<heading>I have a lap-top with power management. Can FreeBSD take advantage of this?</heading>
        <p>
          Yes it can on certain machines.  Please look in the <tt/LINT/
          kernel config file under <tt/APM/.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I cannot get my Bustek 742a EISA SCSI to be recognized by FreeBSD 2.1</heading>
        <p>
          This info is specific to the 742a but may also cover other
          Buslogic cards.  (Bustek = Buslogic)

          There are 2 general ``versions'' of the 742a card.  They are
          hardware revisions A-G, and revisions H - onwards.  The revision
          letter is located after the Assembly number on the edge of the
          card.  The 742a has 2 ROM chips on it, one is the BIOS chip and
          the other is the Firmware chip.  FreeBSD doesen't care what
          version of BIOS chip you have but it does care about what version
          of firmware chip.  Buslogic will send upgrade ROMS out if you
          call their tech support dept.  The BIOS and Firmware chips are
          shipped as a matched pair.  You must have the most current
          Firmware ROM in your adapter card for your hardware revision.

          The REV A-G cards can only accept BIOS/Firmware sets up to
          2.41/2.21.  The REV H- up cards can accept the most current
          BIOS/Firmware sets of 4.70/3.37. The difference between the
          firmware sets is that the 3.37 firmware supports ``round robin''

          The Buslogic cards also have a serial number on them.  If you
          have a old hardware revision card you can call the Buslogic RMA
          department and give them the serial number and attempt to
          exchange the card for a newer hardware revision.  If the card is
          young enough they will do so.

          FreeBSD 2.1 only supports Firmware revisions 2.21 onward.  If you
          have a Firmware revision older than this your card will not be
          recognized as a Buslogic card.  It may be recognized as an
          Adaptec 1540, however.  The early Buslogic firmware contains an
          AHA1540 ``emulation'' mode.  This is not a good thing for an EISA
          card, however.

          If yu have an old hardware revision card and you obtain the 2.21
          firmware for it, you will need to check the position of jumper W1
          to B-C, the default is A-B.  

          The 742a EISA cards never had the ``> 16MB'' problem mentioned in
          the section <ref id="bigram" name="on 32 MB machines">. This is a
          problem that occurs with the Vesa-Local Buslogic SCSI cards.

    <sect>
      <heading>Commercial Applications</heading>

      <p>
        <bf/NOTE/ This section is still very sparse, though we're hoping, of
        course, that companies will add to it! :) The FreeBSD group has no
        financial interest in any of the companies listed here but simply
        lists them as a public service (and feels that commercial interest
        in FreeBSD can have very positive effects on FreeBSD's long-term
        viability).  We encourage commercial software vendors to send their
        entries here for inclusion.


      <sect1>
	<heading>Where can I get Motif for FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>Contact <url url="http://www.xinside.com" name="X Inside, Inc.">
          for a Motif v2.0 distribution for FreeBSD 2.1 (tested also with
	  2.2-current as of May 10, 1996).

	  This distribution includes:
          <itemize>
	     <item>OSF/Motif manager, xmbind, panner, wsm.
	     <item>Development kit with uil, mrm, xm, xmcxx, include and Imake files.
	     <item>Static and dynamic libraries.
	     <item>Demonstration applets.
	     <item>Preformatted man pages.
	  </itemize>

	  <p>Be sure to specify that you want the FreeBSD version of Motif
	  when ordering!  Versions for BSDI and Linux are also sold by
	  <em>X Inside.</em></p>

      <sect1>
	<heading>Are there any commercial X servers for some of the high-end graphics cards like the Matrox or &num;9 I-128, or offering 8/16/24 bit deep pallettes?<label id="xinside"></heading>
        <p>
          Yes, <url url="http://www.xinside.com" name="X Inside, Inc.">
          sells their Accelerated-X product for FreeBSD and other Intel
          based systems.

          This high performance X Server offers easy configuration, support
          for multiple concurrent video boards and is distributed in binary
          form only.

          Price is &dollar;99.50 (promotional price for Linux/FreeBSD
          version) for the 1.1 version, which is available now.

          This product is for FreeBSD 1.1 and runs under 2.0 with the
          FreeBSD 1.1 compatibility libs (``<tt/compat1xdist/'').

          <descrip>
            <tag/More info/
              <url url="http://www.xinside.com/" name="X inside WWW page">
            <tag/or/
              <url url="ftp://ftp.xinside.com/accelx/1.1/prodinfo.txt"
              name="Products information">
            <tag/or/
              <url url="mailto:info@xinside.com" name="Info E-mail address">
            <tag/or/
              phone +1 (303) 298-7478.
          </descrip>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Are there any Database systems for FreeBSD?</heading>
        <p>
         Yes! Conetic Software Systems has ported their C/base and C/books
         database systems to FreeBSD 2.0.5 and higher.

         <descrip>
         <tag/For more information/
           <url url="http://www.conetic.com/" name="Conetic Software Systems"> 
         <tag/or mail/
           <url url="mailto:info@conetic.com" name="Information E-mail address">
         </descrip>
        
      <sect1>
	<heading>Any other applications I might be interested in?</heading>

        <p>
          RenderMorphics, Ltd. sells a high-speed 3D rendering package for
          FreeBSD called ``Reality Lab'' (tm).

          Send email to <url url="mailto:info@render.com"
          name="info@render.com">

          or call: +44(0)71-251-4411 / FAX: +44(0)71-251-0939

          This package is also for FreeBSD 1.1.5 but has been tested and
          shown to run under FreeBSD 2.0 with the ``<tt/compat1xdist/''
          installed.

          Thanks must be extended to all of these companies for showing
          enough faith in FreeBSD to port their products to it.  While we
          get no direct benefit from the sales of these products, the
          indirect benefits of FreeBSD proving itself to be a successful
          platform for such commercial interests will be immense!  We wish
          these companies every measure of success, and can only hope that
          others are encouraged to follow suit.

      </sect1>

    <sect>
      <heading>User Applications</heading>
        
      <sect1>
        <heading>I want to run X, how do I go about it?</heading>

        <p>
          First, get the XFree86(tm) distribution of X11R6 from
          <tt/XFree86.cdrom.com/ The version you want for FreeBSD 2.X and
          later is <tt/XFree86 3.1.1/.  Follow the instructions for
          installation carefully. You may then wish to read the
          documentation for the <tt/ConfigXF86/ tool, which assists you in
          configuring XFree86(tm) for your particular graphics
          card/mouse/etc.

          You may also wish to investigate the Xaccel server, which is
          available at a very reasonable price.  See section
          <ref id="xinside" name="on Xaccel"> for more details.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I've been trying to run ghostscript on a 386 (or 486sx) with no math co-processor and I keep getting errors. What's up?<label id="emul"></heading>

        <p>
          You will need to add the alternate math emulator to your kernel,
          you do this by adding the following to your kernel config file
          and it will be compiled in.

          <verb>
            options GPL_MATH_EMULATE
          </verb>

          <bf/NOTE/ You will need to remove the <tt/MATH&lowbar;EMULATE/
          option when you do this.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I want all this neat software, but I haven't got the space or CPU power to compile it all myself.  Is there any way of getting binaries?</heading>

        <p>
          Yes.  We support the concept of a ``package'', which is
          essentially a gzipped binary distribution with a little extra
          intelligence embedded in it for doing any custom installation
          work required.  Packages can also be installed or uninstalled
          again easily without having to know the gory details.  CDROM
          people will have a <tt>packages/</tt> directory on their CD,
          others can get the currently available packages from:

          <url url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/packages"
            name="FreeBSD's packages"> 
 
          Note that all ports may not be available as packages, and that
          new packages are constantly being added.  It is always a good
          idea to check periodically to see which packages are available.
          A <tt/README/ file in the packages directory provides more
          details on the care and feeding of the package software, so no
          explicit details will be given here.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I'm trying to get a SCO/iBCS2 application to run, it keeps bombing about <tt/socksys/. How do I set this up ?</heading>

        <p>
          You first need to edit the <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> in the last
          section to change the following variable to <tt/YES/:
          <code>
            # Set to YES if you want ibcs2 (SCO) emulation loaded at startup
            ibcs2=NO
          </code>
          It will load the <tt/ibcs2/ kernel module at startup.

          You'll then need to set up /compat/ibcs2/dev to look like:

          <code>
lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel         9 Oct 15 22:20 X0R@ -> /dev/null
lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel         7 Oct 15 22:20 nfsd@ -> socksys
-rw-rw-r--  1 root  wheel         0 Oct 28 12:02 null
lrwxr-xr-x  1 root  wheel         9 Oct 15 22:20 socksys@ -> /dev/null
crw-rw-rw-  1 root  wheel   41,   1 Oct 15 22:14 spx
          </code>
          You just need socksys to go to <tt>/dev/null</tt> to fake the
          open &amp; close. The code in -current will handle the rest.
          This is much cleaner than the way it was done before.  If you
          want the <tt/spx/ driver for a local socket X connection, define
          <tt/SPX&lowbar;HACK/ when you compile the system.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I configure the INN (Internet News) software on my machine?</heading>
	
        <p>After installing the inn package or port, the
        <htmlurl url="http://elwing.unibe.ch/%7Eguggis/faqs/inn/inn-faq.home.html" name="INN FAQ"> may be an excellent place to start.

    <sect>
      <heading>Miscellaneous Questions</heading>
      <p>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Why does FreeBSD consume far more swap space than Linux?</heading>

        <p>
          It doesn't.  You might mean ``why does my swap seem full?''.  If
          that is what you really meant, it's because putting stuff in swap
          rather than discarding it makes it faster to recover than if the
          pager had to go through the file system to pull in clean
          (unmodified) blocks from an executable.

          The actual amount of dirty pages that you can have in core at
          once is not reduced; the clean pages are displaced as necessary.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How can I add more swap space?</heading>

	<p>(by Werner Griessl)

	<p>Here is an example for 64Mb vn-swap (<tt>/usr/swap0</tt>)
	<p>
	  <enum>
	    <item>
	    create a vn-device
	    <verb>
cd /dev; sh ./MAKEDEV vn0
	    </verb>
	    <item>
	    create a swapfile (<tt>/usr/swap0</tt>)
	    <verb>
dd if=/dev/zero of=/usr/swap0 bs=1024k count=64
	    </verb>
	    <item>
	    put into /etc/rc.local the line
	    <verb>
vnconfig -ce /dev/vn0c /usr/swap0 swap
	    </verb>
	    <item>
	    reboot the machine
	  </enum>

	<p>
	  You must also have a kernel with the line
	  <verb>
pseudo-device   vn   #Vnode driver (turns a file into a device)
	  </verb>
	  in your config-file.

      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Hey!  Chmod doesn't change the  file permissions of  symlinked files!  What's going on?</heading>
        <p>
          You have to use either ``<tt/-H/'' or ``<tt/-L/'' together with
          the ``<tt/-R/'' option to make this work.  See the <tt/chmod(1)/
          and <tt/symlink(7)/ man pages for more info.
 
          <bf/WARNING/ the ``<tt/-R/'' option does a <bf/RECURSIVE/
          <tt/chmod/.  Be careful about specifying directories or symlinks
          to directories to <tt/chmod/.  If you want to change the
          permissions of a directory referenced by a symlink, use
          <tt/chmod(1)/ without any options and follow the symlink with a
          trailing slash (``<tt>/</tt>'').  For example, if ``<tt/foo/'' is
          a symlink to directory ``<tt/bar/'', and you want to change the
          permissions of ``<tt/foo/'' (actually ``<tt/bar/''), you would do
          something like:
          <verb>
            chmod 555 foo/
          </verb>

          With the trailing slash, <tt/chmod/ will follow the symlink,
          ``<tt/foo/'', to change the permissions of the directory,
          ``<tt/bar/''.
 
      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I mount a CDROM?  I've tried using <tt/mount(8)/, but it keeps on giving me an error like, ``<tt>/dev/cd0a on /mnt: Incorrect super block.</tt>''</heading>
        <p>
          You have to tell <tt/mount(8)/ the type of the device that you
          want to mount.  By default, <tt/mount(8)/ will assume the
          filesystem is of type ``<tt/ufs/''.  You want to mount a CDROM
          filesystem, and you do this by specifying the ``<tt/-t cd9660/''
          option to <tt/mount(8)/.  This does, of course, assume that the
          CDROM contains an ISO 9660 filesystem, which is what most CDROMs
          have.  As of 1.1R, FreeBSD also understands the Rock Ridge
          (long filename) extensions.

          As an example, if you want to mount the CDROM device,
          ``<tt>/dev/cd0c</tt>'', under <tt>/mnt</tt>, you would execute:

          <verb>
            mount -t cd9660 /dev/cd0c /mnt
          </verb>

          Note that your device name (``<tt>/dev/cd0c</tt>'' in this
          example) could be different, depending on the CDROM interface.
          Note that the ``<tt/-t cd9660/'' option just causes the
          ``<tt/mount&lowbar;cd9660/'' command to be executed, and so the
          above example could be shortened to:
          <verb>
            mount_cd9660 /dev/cd0c /mnt
          </verb>
          
      <sect1>
        <heading>How can  I use the  NT  loader to  boot Linux, FreeBSD, or whatever ?</heading>
        <p>
          The general idea is that one copies the first sector of your
          native root Linux or FreeBSD partition into a file in the DOS/NT
          partition.  Assuming one names that file something like
          <tt>c:&bsol;bootsect.lnx</tt> or <tt>c:&bsol;bootsect.bsd</tt>
          (inspired by <tt>c:&bsol;bootsect.dos</tt>) one can then edit the
          <tt>c:&bsol;boot.ini</tt> file to come up with something like
          this:
          <verb>
            [boot loader]
            timeout=30
            default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS
            [operating systems]
            multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS="Windows NT" 
            C:\BOOTSECT.LNX="Linux"
            C:\BOOTSECT.BSD="FreeBSD"
            C:\="DOS"
          </verb>
          This procedure assumes that DOS, NT, Linux, FreeBSD, or whatever
          have been installed into their respective fdisk partitions on the
          <bf/same/ disk.  In my case DOS &amp; NT are in the first fdisk
          partition, Linux in the second, and FreeBSD in the third.  I also
          installed Linux and FreeBSD to boot from their native partitions,
          not the disk MBR, and without delay.

          Mount a DOS-formatted floppy (if you've converted to NTFS) or the
          FAT partition, under, say, <tt>/mnt</tt>.

          In Linux:
          <verb>
            dd if=/dev/sda2 of=/mnt/bootsect.lnx bs=512 count=1
          </verb>

          In FreeBSD:  
          <verb>
            dd if=/dev/rsd0a of=/mnt/bootsect.bsd bs=512 count=1
          </verb>

          Reboot into DOS or NT.  NTFS users copy the <tt/bootsect.lnx/
          and/or the <tt/bootsect.bsd/ file from the floppy to
          <tt/C:&bsol;/.  Modify the attributes (permissions) on
          <tt/boot.ini/ with:
 
          <verb>
            attrib -s -r c:\boot.ini
          </verb>

          Edit to add the appropriate entries from the example
          <tt/boot.ini/ above, and restore the attributes:

          <verb>
            attrib -r -s c:\boot.ini
          </verb>

          If Linux or FreeBSD are booting from the MBR, restore it with the
          DOS ``<tt>fdisk /mbr</tt>'' command after you reconfigure them to
          boot from their native partitions.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Hey! My printer is slow as a dog. What can I do ?</heading>
        <p>
          If it's parallel, and all your problem is that it's terribly
          slow, try setting your printer port into ``polled'' mode:

          <verb>
            lptcontrol -p
          </verb>

          Some newer HP printers are told to not work correctly in
          interrupt mode, apparently due to some (not yet exactly
          understood) timing problem.  Slowaris is also affected by this
          (and that's probably the reason why the HP support does rather
          act like an ``unsupport'' here).

      <sect1>
        <heading>I Installed FreeBSD on my XYZ-brand PC, and my keyboard (and probably bus mouse, too) is locking up after switching between vtys (or even spontaneous). What's wrong?</heading>
        <p>
          Try adding the following option in your kernel configuration file
          and recompile it.
          <verb>
            options ASYNCH
          </verb>

          See the section  on <ref id="make-kernel" name="about building  a
          kernel"> if you've no experience with building kernels.

      <sect1>
	<heading>When I try to mount a CDROM, I get a ``Device not configured'' error.  What's going on?</heading>
        <p>
          This generally means that there is no CDROM in the CDROM drive.
          or the drive is not visible on the bus. Feed the drive
          something, and/or check it's master/slave status if it is
          IDE (ATAPI).

  
      <sect1>
	<heading>My programs occasionally die with ``Signal 11'' errors. What's going on?</heading>
        <p>
          This can be caused by bad hardware (memory, motherboard, etc.).
          Try running a memory-testing program on your PC.  Note that, even
          though every memory testing program you try will report your
          memory as being fine, it's possible for slightly marginal memory
          to pass all memory tests, yet fail under operating conditions
          (such as during busmastering DMA from a SCSI controller like the
          Adaptec 1542).
 
      <sect1>
	<heading>Help, some of my X Window menus and dialog boxes don't work right!  I can't select them.</heading>
        <p>
          Try turning off the Num Lock key.

          If your Num Lock key is on by default at boot-time, you may add
          the following line in the ``<tt/Keyboard/'' section of the
          <tt/XF86config/ file.

<verb> 
# Let the server do the NumLock processing.  This should only be required
# when using pre-R6 clients
    ServerNumLock
</verb>

      <sect1>
        <heading>When I boot FreeBSD with my ATI Mach 64 videocard the following happens: when the system probes the hardware during boot the screen goes black and synchronization is lost and I'm not even using X! What's the problem?!</heading>
        <p>
          The problem is that the ATI Mach 64 uses address <tt/2e8/, and
          the fourth serial port does too. Due to a bug (feature?) in the
          sio.c driver it will touch this port even if you don't have the
          fourth serial port, and <bf/even/ if you disable sio3 (the fourth
          port) which normally uses this address.

      <sect1>
        <heading>What's the solution or workaround for this problem?</heading>
        <p>
          Until the bug has been fixed, you can use this workaround:
          <enum>
            <item> Enter <tt/-c/ at the bootprompt. <newline>
              &lsqb; the kernel goes into configuration mode &rsqb;
            <item> Disable <tt/sio0/, <tt/sio1/, <tt/sio2/ and <tt/sio3/
              (all of them).  This way the sio driver doesn't get activated
              -> no problems.
            <item> Type exit to continue booting.
          </enum>

      <sect1>
        <heading>The workaround works fine, but now I want to use my serial ports.</heading>
        <p>
          You'll have to build a new kernel with the following
          modification: in <tt>/usr/src/sys/i386/isa/sio.c</tt> find the
          one occurrence of the string <tt/0x2e8/ and remove that string
          and the preceding comma (keep the trailing comma).  Now follow
          the normal procedure of building a new kernel.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Now everything runs great, except for X Window: my screen goed black or X Window runs but with all kinds of problems.</heading>
        <p>
          Some newer ATI Mach 64 video cards (notably ATI Mach Xpression)
          do not run with the current version of <tt/XFree86/. You can get
          a beta-version of a new X-server that works better, by looking at
          <url url="http://www.xfree86.org" name="the XFree86 site">
          and following the links to the new beta release. Get the
          following files:

          <tt>AccelCards, BetaReport, Cards, Devices, FILES, README.ati,
            README.FreeBSD, README.Mach64, RELNOTES, VGADriver.Doc,
            X312BMa64.tgz</tt>

          Replace the older files with the new versions and make sure you
          run <tt/xf86config/ again.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I access the virtual consoles?</heading>
        <p>
          If the console is not currently displaying X Window, just press
          Alt-F1 to Alt-F12.  

          <bf/NOTE/ the default FreeBSD installation has
          only three (3) virtual consoles enabled, and so only Alt-F1,
          Alt-F2, and Alt-F3 will work to switch between three virtual
          consoles.  If you want to increase this number, see the next
          question.
 
          If the console is currently displaying X Window, you can use
          Ctrl-Alt-F1, etc. to switch to a virtual console.  Note, however,
          that once you've switched away from X Window to a virtual
          terminal, you use only the Alt- function key to switch to another
          virtual terminal or back to X Window.  You do not also press the
          Ctrl key; the Ctrl-Alt-function key combination is used only when
          switching from X Window to a virtual terminal.
  
      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I increase the number of virtual consoles?</heading>
        <p>
          Edit <tt>/etc/ttys</tt> and add entries for ``<tt/ttyv4/'' to
          ``<tt/ttyvc/'' after the comment on ``Virtual terminals'' (delete
          the leading whitespace in the following example):

          <verb>
            # Edit the existing entry for ttyv3 in /etc/ttys and change
            # "off" to "on".
            ttyv3   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyv4   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyv5   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyv6   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyv7   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyv8   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyv9   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyva   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
            ttyvb   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
          </verb> 

          Use as many or as few as you want.  The more virtual terminals
          you have, the more resources that are used; this can be important
          if you have 8MB RAM or less.  You may also want to change the
          ``<tt/secure/'' to ``<tt/insecure/''.
 
          <bf/IMPORTANT NOTE/ if you want to run X Window, you <bf/MUST/
          leave a virtual terminal unused (or turned off).  For example, if
          you want to attach a virtual terminal to all of your twelve
          Alt-function keys, you can only attach virtual terminals to
          eleven of them.  The last must be left unused, because X Windows
          will use it, and you will use the last Alt-function key to switch
          back to X Window (after you have switched from X Window to a
          virtual console via a Ctrl-Alt-function key).  The easiest way to
          do this is to disable a console by turning it off.  For example,
          if you have a keyboard with twelve function keys, you would
          change settings for virtual terminal 12 from:
 
          <verb>
            ttyvb   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  on secure
          </verb>
          to:
          <verb>
            ttyvb   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  off secure
          </verb>

          If your keyboard has only ten function keys, you would end up with:
          <verb>
            ttyv9   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  off secure
            ttyva   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  off secure
            ttyvb   "/usr/libexec/getty Pc"         cons25  off secure
          </verb>
          (You could also just delete these lines.)
 
          Once you have edited <tt>/etc/ttys</tt>, the next step is to make
          sure that you have enough virtual terminal devices.  The easiest
          way to do this is:
          <verb>
            cd /dev
            ./MAKEDEV vty12                 # For 12 devices
          </verb>

          Next, the easiest (and cleanest) way to activate the virtual
          consoles is to reboot.  However, if you really don't want to
          reboot, you can just shut down X Window and execute (as
          <tt/root/):
          <verb>
            kill -HUP 1
          </verb>

          It's imperative that you completely shut down X Window if it is
          running, before running this command.  If you don't, your system
          will probably appear to hang/lock up after executing the kill
          command.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How do I start XDM from the <tt>/etc/ttys</tt> file ?</heading>
        <p>
          Starting xdm via /etc/ttys is a Bad Thing. I don't know why this
          crept into some README file.

          Start it from your <tt/rc.local/, and be explicit about how it
          has to start.  If this is your last action in <tt/rc.local/, put
          a ``<tt/sleep 1/'' behind, to allow <tt/xdm/ to properly
          daemonize before the <tt/rc/ shell exits.

          <tt/xdm/ should be started without any arguments (i.e., as a
          daemon).

          The Xserver config file (default:
          <tt>/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/xdm/Xservers</tt>) should contain the
          line:

          <code>
            :0 local /usr/X11R6/bin/X :0 vt08 -wm
          </code>

          Of course, you can omit the ``<tt/-wm/'' if you don't like it,
          but the `<tt/`vt08/'' is quite important -- it must point to a vt
          that won't be used by <tt/getty/'s about a second later.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I've heard of something called FreeBSD-current. How do I run it, and where can I get more information?</heading>

        <p>
          Read this:
          <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/How/handbook/current.html"
            name="Handbook's section of FreeBSD-CURRENT">
          it will tell you all you need to know.
          
      <sect1>
	<heading>What is this thing called ``<tt/sup/'', and how do I use it?</heading>

        <p>
          SUP stands for Software Update Protocol, and was developed by CMU
          for keeping their development trees in sync.  We use it to keep
          remote sites in sync with our central development sources.

          Unless you have direct Internet connectivity, and don't care too
          much about the cost/duration of the sessions, you shouldn't use
          sup.  For those ``low/expensive-bandwidth'' applications, we have
          developed <tt/CTM/, see the section <ref id="ctm" name="on CTM">
          for more about that.

          To use it, you need to have direct Internet connectivity (not
          just mail or news).  First, pick up the <tt/sup.tgz/ package
          from:

            <url url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/packages/sup.tgz"
            name="The SUP package">

          Second, read the <url
            url="http://www.freebsd.org/How/handbook/sup.html"
            name="Handbook's section on SUP">

          This file describes how to setup sup on your machine.  You may
          also want to look at

          <tt>/usr/src/share/examples/sup/*-supfile</tt>, or you may grab
          updated supfiles from:

            <url url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.ORG/pub/FreeBSD/FAQ/extras"
            name="Updated SUP files"> 

          which are a set of supfiles for supping from <tt/FreeBSD.ORG/.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Has anyone done any temperature testing while running FreeBSD? I know Linux runs cooler than dos, but have never seen a mention of FreeBSD.  It seems to run really hot</heading>
        <p>
          No, but we have done numerous taste tests on blindfolded
          volunteers who have also had 250 micrograms of LSD-25
          administered beforehand.  35% of the volunteers said that FreeBSD
          tasted sort of orange, whereas Linux tasted like purple haze.
          Neither group mentioned any particular variances in temperature
          that I can remember.  We eventually had to throw the results of
          this survey out entirely anyway when we found that too many
          volunteers were wandering out of the room during the tests, thus
          skewing the results.  I think most of the volunteers are at Apple
          now, working on their new ``scratch and sniff'' GUI.  It's a
          funny old business we're in!

          Seriously, Linux use the ``<tt/HALT/'' instruction when the
          system is idle thus lowering its energy consumption and therefore
          the heat it generates.

      <sect1>
        <heading>Is there anything "odd" that FreeBSD does when compiling the kernel which would cause the memory to make a scratchy sound? When compiling (and for a brief moment after recognizing the floppy drive upon startup, as well), a strange scratchy sound emanates from what appears to be the memory banks.</heading>

        <p>
          Yes!  You'll see frequent references to ``daemons'' in the BSD
          documentation, and what most people don't know is that this
          refers to genuine, non-corporeal entities that now possess your
          computer.  The scratchy sound coming from your memory is actually
          high-pitched whispering exchanged among the daemons as they best
          decide how to deal with various system administration tasks.
 
          If the noise gets to you, a good ``<tt>fdisk /mbr</tt>'' from DOS
          will get rid of them, but don't be surprised if they react
          adversely and try to stop you.  In fact, if at any point during
          the exercise you hear the satanic voice of Bill Gates coming from
          the built-in speaker, take off running and don't ever look back!
          Freed from the counterbalancing influence of the BSD daemons, the
          twin demons of DOS and Windows are often able to re-assert total
          control over your machine to the eternal damnation of your soul.
          Given a choice, I think I'd prefer to get used to the scratchy
          noises, myself!
      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I create customized installation disks that I can give out to other people at my site?</heading>

        <p>
          The entire process of creating installation disks and source and
          binary archives is automated by various targets in
          <tt>/usr/src/release/Makefile</tt>.  The information there should
          be enough to get you started.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I re-build my system without clobbering the existing installed binaries?</heading>

        <p>
          If you define the environment variable <tt/DESTDIR/ while running
          ``<tt/make world/'' or ``<tt/make install/'', the newly-created
          binaries will be deposited in a directory tree identical to the
          installed one, rooted at <tt>&dollar;&lcub;DESTDIR&rcub;</tt>.
          Some random combination of shared libraries modifications and
          program rebuilds can cause this to fail in ``<tt/make world/'',
          however.


      <sect1>
	<heading>When my system booted, it told me that ``(bus speed defaulted)''.  What does that mean?</heading>

        <p>
          The Adaptec 1542 SCSI host adapters allow the user to configure
          their bus access speed in software.  Previous versions of the
          1542 driver tried to determine the fastest usable speed and set
          the adapter to that.  We found that this breaks some users'
          systems, so you now have to define the ``<tt/TUNE&lowbar;1542/'' kernel
          configuration option in order to have this take place.  Using it
          on those systems where it works may make your disks run faster,
          but on those systems where it doesn't, your data could be
          corrupted.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I would like to track changes to current and do not have net access.  Is there any way besides downloading the whole tree?<label id="ctm"></heading>

        <p>
          Yes, you can use the <tt/CTM/ facility.  Check out the

            <url
            url="http://www.freebsd.org/How/handbook/handbook/ctm.html" name="Handbook's section on for CTM">
          for more information.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I split up large binary files into smaller 240k files like the distribution does?</heading>

        <p>
          Newer BSD based systems have a ``<tt/-b/'' option to split that
          allows them to split files on arbitrary byte boundaries.

          Here is an example from <tt>/usr/src/Makefile</tt>.

          <verb>
            bin-tarball:
            (cd $&lcub;DISTDIR&rcub;; \
            tar cf - . \
            gzip --no-name -9 -c | \
            split -b 240640 - \
            $&lcub;RELEASEDIR&rcub;/tarballs/bindist/bin_tgz.)
          </verb>

      <sect1>
        <heading>&lt;XXX&gt; I've had a couple of system panics and would like to be able browse the system dumps.  The normal kernel is stripped and I don't want to run a bloated kernel.  What can I do?</heading>

      <sect1>
	<heading>I've got this neato kernel extension I just know everyone will will want.  How do I get it included into the distribution?</heading>
        <p>
          Please take a look at the FAQ for submitting code to FreeBSD at:

          <url url="http://www.FreeBSD.ORG/How/handbook/submitters.html"
            name="Handbook's section on how to submit code">.

          And thanks for the thought.

       <sect1>
         <heading>I run X with 'startx', and the permissions on /dev/console don't seem to get set correctly. Things like 'xterm -C' and 'xconsole' don't work.</heading>
    
         <p>
           This is because of the way console permissions are set by default.
	   On a multi-user system, one doesn't necessarily want just any user
	   be able to write on the system console.  For users who are logging
	   directly onto a machine with a VTY, the <tt/fbtab(5)/ file exists
	   to solve such problems.

	   In a nutshell, make sure an uncommented line of the form

	   <verb>
	       /dev/ttyv0 0600 /dev/console
	   </verb>

	   is in <tt>/etc/fbtab</tt> and it will ensure that whomever logs
	   in on <tt>/dev/ttyv0</tt> will own the console.

      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <heading>How does one detect and initialize a Plug N Play ISA card?</heading>
        <p>
          By: Frank Durda IV <tt>&lt;uhclem@nemesis.lonestar.org&gt;</tt>

          In a nutshell, there a few I/O ports that all of the PnP boards
          respond to when the host asks if anyone is out there.  So when
          the PnP probe routine starts, he asks if there are any PnP boards
          present, and all the PnP boards respond with their model &num; to
          a I/O read of the same port, so the probe routine gets a wired-OR
          ``yes'' to that question.  At least one bit will be on in that
          reply.  Then the probe code is able to cause boards with board
          model IDs (assigned by Microsoft/Intel) lower than X to go
          ``off-line''.  It then looks to see if any boards are still
          responding to the query.  If the answer was ``<tt/0/'', then
          there are no boards with IDs above X.  Now probe asks if there
          are any boards below ``X''.  If so, probe knows there are boards
          with a model numbers below X.  Probe then asks for boards greater
          than X-(limit/4) to go off-line.  If repeats the query.  By
          repeating this semi-binary search of IDs-in-range enough times,
          the probing code will eventually identify all PnP boards present
          in a given machine with a number of iterations that is much lower
          than what 2^64 would take.

          The IDs are two 32-bit fields (hence 2&circ;64) + 8 bit checksum.
          The first 32 bits are a vendor identifier.  They never come out
          and say it, but it appears to be assumed that different types of
          boards from the same vendor could have different 32-bit vendor
          ids.  The idea of needing 32 bits just for unique manufacturers
          is a bit excessive.

          The lower 32 bits are a serial &num;, ethernet address, something
          that makes this one board unique.  The vendor must never produce
          a second board that has the same lower 32 bits unless the upper
          32 bits are also different.  So you can have multiple boards of
          the same type in the machine and the full 64 bits will still be
          unique.

          The 32 bit groups can never be all zero.  This allows the
          wired-OR to show non-zero bits during the initial binary search.

          Once the system has identified all the board IDs present, it will
          reactivate each board, one at a time (via the same I/O ports),
          and find out what resources the given board needs, what interrupt
          choices are available, etc.  A scan is made over all the boards
          to collect this information.

          This info is then combined with info from any ECU files on the
          hard disk or wired into the MLB BIOS.  The ECU and BIOS PnP
          support for hardware on the MLB is usually synthetic, and the
          peripherals don't really do geniune PnP.  However by examining
          the BIOS info plus the ECU info, the probe routines can cause the
          devices that are PnP to avoid those devices the probe code cannot
          relocate.

          Then the PnP devices are visited once more and given their I/O,
          DMA, IRQ and Memory-map address assignments.  The devices will
          then appear at those locations and remain there until the next
          reboot, although there is nothing that says you can't move them
          around whenever you want.

          There is a lot of oversimplification above, but you should get
          the general idea.

          Microsoft took over some of the primary printer status ports to
          do PnP, on the logic that no boards decoded those addresses for
          the opposing I/O cycles.  I found a genuine IBM printer board
          that did decode writes of the status port during the early PnP
          proposal review period, but MS said ``tough''.  So they do a
          write to the printer status port for setting addresses, plus that
          use that address + <tt/0x800/, and a third I/O port for reading
          that can be located anywhere between <tt/0x200/ and <tt/0x3ff/.

          
    <sect>
      <heading>Kernel Configuration</heading>
      <p>
      <sect1>
	<heading>Ok, so how DO I compile my own kernel, anyway?<label id="make-kernel"></heading>
        <p>
          Before you can compile a kernel, you need either the complete
          <tt/srcdist/ or, at the minimum, the <tt/kerndist/ loaded on your
          system.  This provides the necessary sources for building the
          kernel, as we have a policy of <bf/NOT/ shipping our kernels in
          linkable object form as most commercial UNIX vendors do.
          Shipping the source takes a bit more space, but it also means
          that you can refer to the actual kernel sources in case of
          difficulty or to further your understanding of what's
          <bf/actually/ happening.

          Anyway, to answer the question, once you have the <tt/kerndist/
          or <tt/srcdist/ loaded, do this:

          <enum>
            <item> <tt>cd /usr/src/sys/i386/conf</tt>
            <item> <tt/cp GENERIC MYKERNEL/
            <item> <tt/vi MYKERNEL/
            <item> <tt/config MYKERNEL/
            <item> <tt>cd ../../compile/MYKERNEL</tt>
            <item> <tt/make depend/
            <item> <tt/make all/
            <item> <tt/make install/
            <item> <tt/reboot/
          </enum>

          Step 2 may not be necessary if you already have a kernel
          configuration file from a previous release of FreeBSD 2.X. -
          simply bring your old one over and check it carefully for any
          drivers that may have changed boot syntax or been rendered
          obsolete.

          A good kernel config file to look into is <tt/LINT/, which
          contains entries for <bf/all/ possible kernel options and
          documents them fairly well.  The <tt/GENERIC/ kernel config file
          is used to build the initial release you probably loaded (unless
          you upgraded in-place) and contains entries for the most common
          configurations.  It's a pretty good place to start from.

          If you don't need to make any changes to <tt/GENERIC/, you can
          also skip step 3, where you customize the kernel for your
          configuration.  Step 8 should only be undertaken if steps 6 and 7
          succeed.  This will copy the new kernel image to
          <tt>/kernel</tt> and <bf/BACK UP YOUR OLD ONE IN/
          <tt>/kernel.old</tt>!  It's very important to remember this in
          case the new kernel fails to work for some reason - you can still
          select <tt>/kernel.old</tt> at the boot prompt to boot the old
          one.  When you reboot, the new kernel will boot by default.

          If the compile in step 7 falls over for some reason, then it's
          recommended that you start from step 4 but substitute
          <tt/GENERIC/ for <tt/MYKERNEL/.  If you can generate a
          <tt/GENERIC/ kernel, then it's likely something in your special
          configuration file that's bad (or you've uncovered a bug!).  If
          the build of the <tt/GENERIC/ kernel does <bf/NOT/ succeed, then
          it's very likely that your sources are somehow corrupted.

          Finally, if you need to see your original boot messages again to
          compile a new kernel that's better tailored to your hardware, try
          the <tt/dmesg(8)/ command.  It should print out all the boot-time
          messages printed by your old kernel, some of which may be quite
          helpful in configuring the new one.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I don't understand, I have removed <tt/npx0/ from my kernel configuration file as I don't have a mathematic co-processor but it keeps bombing saying that <tt/&lowbar;hw&lowbar;float/ is missing.</heading>

        <p>
          The <tt/npx0/ is <bf/MANDATORY/. Even if you don't have a
          mathematic co-processor, you <bf/must/ include the <tt/npx0/
          device.

      <sect1>
	<heading>When I compile a kernel with multi-port serial code, it tells me that only the first port is probed and the rest skipped due to interrupt conflicts.  How do I fix this?</heading>

        <p>
          The problem here is that FreeBSD has code built-in to keep the
          kernel from getting trashed due t hardware or software
          conflicts.  The way to fix this is to leave out the IRQ settings
          on other ports besides the first.  Here is a example:

<verb>
#
# Multiport high-speed serial line - 16550 UARTS
#
device    sio2    at isa? port 0x2a0 tty irq 5 flags 0x501 vector siointr
device    sio3    at isa? port 0x2a8 tty flags 0x501 vector siointr 
device    sio4    at isa? port 0x2b0 tty flags 0x501 vector siointr
device    sio5    at isa? port 0x2b8 tty flags 0x501 vector siointr
</verb>

      <sect1>
	<heading>FreeBSD is supposed to come with support for QIC-40/80 drives but when I look, I can't find it.</heading>

        <p>
          You need to uncomment the following line in the generic config
          file (or add it to your config file), add a ``<tt/flags 0x1/''
          on the <tt/fdc/ line and recompile.
          
<verb>
controller  fdc0  at isa? port "IO_FD1" bio irq 6 drq 2 flags 0x1 vector fdintr
disk        fd0   at fdc0 drive 0                       ^^^^^^^^^
disk        fd1   at fdc0 drive 1
#tape       ft0   at fdc0 drive 2
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
</verb>

          Next, you create a device called <tt>/dev/ft0</tt> by going into
          <tt>/dev</tt> and run the following command:

          <verb>
            sh MAKEDEV ft0
          </verb>

          for the first device. <tt/ft1/ for a second one and so on.

          You will have a device called <tt>/dev/ft0</tt>, which you can
          write to through a special program to manage it called
          ``<tt/ft/'' - see the man page on <tt/ft/ for further details.
          Versions previous to <tt/-current/ also had some trouble dealing
          with bad tape media; if you have trouble where <tt/ft/ seems to
          go back and forth over the same spot, try grabbing the latest
          version of <tt/ft/ from <tt>/usr/src/sbin/ft</tt> in
          <tt/-current/ and try that.


      <sect1>
	<heading>Does FreeBSD support IPC primitives like those in System V?</heading>

        <p>
          Yes, FreeBSD supports System V-style IPC.  This includes shared
          memory, messages and semaphores.  You need to add the following
          lines to your kernel config to enable them.

          <verb>
            options    SYSVSHM
            options    "SHMMAXPGS=64"   # 256Kb of sharable memory
            options    SYSVSEM          # enable for semaphores
            options    SYSVMSG          # enable for messaging
          </verb>

          Recompile and install.

      <sect1>
        <heading>I have 128 MB of RAM but it seems that the system use only the first 64 MB. What's going on ?</heading>

        <p>
          Due to the manner in which FreeBSD gets the memory size from the
          BIOS, it can only detect 16 bits worth of Kbytes in size (65535
          Kbytes = 64MB). If you have more than 64MB, FreeBSD will only see
          the first 64MB. To work around this problem, you need to use the
          kernel option specified below. There is a way to get complete
          memory information from the BIOS, but we don't have room in the
          bootblocks to do it. Someday when lack of room in the bootblocks
          is fixed, we'll use the extended BIOS functions to get the full
          memory information...but for now we're stuck with the kernel
          option.

          <code>
            options "MAXMEM=<n>"
          </code>
          Where <tt/n/ is your memory in Kilobytes. For a 128 MB machine,
          you'd want to use <tt/131072/

      <sect1>
        <heading>Sometimes my FreeBSD 2.0 reboots saying: ``Panic: kmem_map (or mb_map) too small !''.

        <p>
          The panic indicates that the system ran out of virtual memory for
          network buffers (specifically, mbuf clusters). You can increase
          the amount of VM available for mbuf clusters by adding:

          <code>
            options "NMBCLUSTERS=<n>"
          </code>

          to your kernel config file, where &lt;n&gt; is a number in the
          range 512-4096, depending on the number of concurrent TCP
          connections you need to support. I'd recommend trying 2048 - this
          should get rid of the panic completely. You can monitor the
          number of mbuf clusters allocated/in use on the system with
          <tt/netstat -m/.


      <sect1>
        <heading>Will FreeBSD ever support other architectures?</heading>

        <p>
          Several different groups have expressed interest in working on
          multi-architecture support for FreeBSD.  If you are interested in
          doing so, please contact the developers at
          <tt>&lt;platforms@FreeBSD.ORG&gt;</tt> for more information on our
          strategy for porting.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I just wrote a device driver for a Foobar Systems, Inc. Integrated Adaptive Gronkulator card.  How do I get the appropriate major numbers assigned?</heading>

        <p>
          This depends on whether or not you plan on making the driver
          publicly available.  If you do, then please send us a copy of the
          driver source code, plus the appropriate modifications to
          <tt>files.i386</tt>, a sample configuration file entry, and the
          appropriate <tt>MAKEDEV</tt> code to create any special files
          your device uses.  If you do not, or are unable to because of
          licensing restrictions, then character major number 32 and block
          major number 8 have been reserved specifically for this purpose;
          please use them.  In any case, we'd appreciate hearing about your
          driver on <tt>&lt;hackers@FreeBSD.ORG&gt;</tt>.

      </sect1>

    <sect>
      <heading>System Administration</heading>

<sect1>
	<heading>Hmm, where are my familiar BSD system files ? What's this <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> thing?</heading>

        <p>
          As for 2.0.5R, the primary configuration file is
          <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>. All the options are to be specified in
          this one and the other one (<tt>/etc/rc</tt> and
          <tt>/etc/netstart</tt>) just include it.

          Look in the <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> file and change the value to
          match your system. This file is filled with comments to show what
          to put in there.

          The <tt>/etc/rc.local</tt> is here as always and is the place to
          put additional services like <tt/INN/ or a <tt/http/ server.

          The <tt>/etc/rc.serial</tt> is for serial port initialization
          (e.g. locking the port characteristics, and so on.).

          The <tt>/etc/rc.i386</tt> is for Intel-specifics setting like the
          iBCS2 emulation.

          Starting with 2.1.0R, you can have "local" startup files in a
          directory specified in <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>:
          <verb>
            # Location of local startup files.
            local_startup=/usr/local/etc/rc.local.d
          </verb>
          Each file ending in <tt/.sh/ will be executed in alphabetic
          order.

          If you want to have a proper order without changing all the file
          names, you can use a scheme similar to the following with digits
          prepended to each file name to insure order:
          <verb>
            10news.sh
            15httpd.sh
            20ssh.sh
          </verb>
          It can be seen as ugly (or SysV :-)) but it provides a simple and
          regular scheme for locally-added packages without resorting to
          magical editing of <tt>/etc/rc.local</tt>.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I add a user easily?  I read the man page and am more confused than ever!</heading>

        <p>
          Use the <tt/adduser/ command.

          There is another package called ``<tt/new-account/'' also written
          in Perl by Ollivier Robert. Ask
          <tt>&lt;roberto@FreeBSD.ORG&gt;</tt> about it.  It is currently
          under further development.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I'm trying to use my printer and keep running into problems.  I tried looking at <tt>/etc/printcap</tt>, but it's close to useless.  Any ideas?</heading>
        <p>
          Please have a look at the section of the Handbook on printing. It
          should cover most of your problem. See
          <url
            url="http://www.freebsd.org/How/handbook/printing.html"
            name="Handbook's section on printing">
      </sect1>

      <sect1>
	<heading>My keyboard mappings are wrong for my system. How can I fix them?</heading>
        <p>
          The kbdcontrol program has an option to load a keyboard map file.
          Under <tt>/usr/share/syscons/keymaps</tt> are a number of map
          files.  Choose the one relevant to your system and load it.

          <verb>
            kbdcontrol -l uk.iso
          </verb>

          Both the <tt>/usr/share/syscons/keymaps</tt> and the <tt/.kbd/
          extension are assumed by <tt/kbdcontrol(1)/.

          This can be configured in <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>. See the
          appropriate comments in tis file.

          In 2.0.5R and later, everything related to text fonts, keyboard
          mapping is in <tt>/usr/share/examples/syscons</tt>.

          The following mappings are currently supported:
          <itemize>
            <item>Danish (both ISO and cp865),
            <item>French (ISO only),
            <item>German (both ISO and cp850),
            <item>Russian,
            <item>Swedish (both ISO and cp850),
            <item>U.K. (both ISO and cp850),
            <item>Spain,
            <item>U.S.A. (ISO only),
            <item>Dvorak US.
          </itemize>
      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Why do I get a ``CMAP busy panic during boot just after installing a new kernel?</heading>
        <p>
          The logic that attempts to detect an out of data
          <tt>/var/db/kvm_*.db</tt> files sometimes fails and using a
          mismatched file can sometimes lead to panics.

          If this happens, reboot single-user and do:
          <verb>
            rm /var/db/kvm_*.db
          </verb>

      <sect1>
        <heading>I'm trying to use quotas for my users and it keeps bombing...</heading>   
        <p>
          <enum>
            <item>Don't turn on quotas on '/',
            <item>Put the quota file on the file system that the quotas are
              to be enforced on. ie: 
              <verb>
                FS      QUOTA FILE
                /usr    /usr/admin/quotas
                /home   /home/admin/quotas
                ...
              </verb>
         </enum>

    <sect>
      <heading>Networking</heading>

      <sect1>
	<heading>Where can I get information booting FreeBSD ``diskless'', that is booting and running a FreeBSD box from a server rather than having a local disk?</heading>

        <p>
          Please read the diskless section in the Handbook. It is in
          <tt>/usr/share/doc/handbook</tt> or use the following WWW link:

          <url url="http://www.FreeBSD.ORG/How/handbook/diskless.html"
            name="Handbook's section on diskless boot">

      <sect1>
	<heading>I've heard that you can use a FreeBSD box as a dedicated network router - is there any easy support for this?</heading>

        <p>
          Internet standards and good engineering practice prohibit us from
          providing packet forwarding by default in FreeBSD. You can
          however enable this feature by changing the following variable to
          <tt/YES/ in <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt>:
          <verb>
            # If you want this host to be a gateway, set to YES.
            gateway=YES
          </verb>

          This  option will put the <tt/sysctl/ variable
          <tt/net.inet.ip.forwarding/ to <tt/1/.

          In most cases, you will also need to run a routing process to
          tell other systems on your network about your router; FreeBSD
          comes with the standard BSD routing daemon <tt/routed(8)/, or for
          more complex situations you may want to try <em/GaTeD/ (available
          by FTP from <tt/ftp.gated.Merit.EDU/) which supports FreeBSD as
          of 3_5Alpha7.

          It is our duty to warn you that, even when FreeBSD is configured
          in this way, it does not completely comply with the Internet
          standard requirements for routers; however, it comes close enough
          for ordinary usage.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Does FreeBSD support SLIP and PPP?</heading>

        <p>
          Yes.  See the man pages for <tt/slattach(8)/ and/or <tt/pppd(8)/
          if you're using FreeBSD to connect to another site.  If you're
          using FreeBSD as a server for other machines, look at the man
          page for <tt/sliplogin(8)/.  

          You can also have a look at the SLIP/PPP/Use PPP sections of the
          handbook in <tt>/usr/share/doc/handbook</tt> or use the following
          links:

          <url url="http://www.FreeBSD.ORG/How/handbook/slips.html"
            name="Handbook's section on SLIP (server side)">
          <url url="http://www.FreeBSD.ORG/How/handbook/slipc.html"
            name="Handbook's section on SLIP (client side)">
          <url url="http://www.FreeBSD.ORG/How/handbook/ppp.html"
            name="Handbook's section on PPP (kernel version)">
          <url url="http://www.FreeBSD.ORG/How/handbook/userppp.html"
            name="Handbook's section on SLIP (user-mode version)">

      <sect1> 
        <heading>I've got problems with my IJPPP, I connect and it goes to PPP mode but I can't get out!  Whats up?</heading>

        <p>
        One problem we have had reported is IJPPPs' use of predictor1 
        compression.  One way of determining if you have this problem
        is to look at your log and if you have protocol errors then this is 
        most likely it.
        These can be shut off with:
<verb>
deny pred1
disable pred1
</verb>
        Use these two before you dial out and it should work.  

      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I get my network set up? I don't see how to make my <tt>/dev/ed0</tt> device!</heading>

        <p>
          In the Berkeley networking framework, network interfaces are only
          directly accessible by kernel code.  Please see the
          <tt>/etc/netstart</tt> file and the manual pages for the various
          network programs mentioned there for more information.  If this
          leaves you totally confused, then you should pick up a book
          describing network administration on another BSD-related
          operating system; with few significant exceptions, administering
          networking on FreeBSD is basically the same as on SunOS 4.0 or
          Ultrix.

      <sect1>
        <heading>How can I setup Ethernet aliases ? It always says: ``File exists''.</heading>
        <p>
          Add ``<tt/netmask 0xffffffff/'' to your <tt/ifconfig/
          command-line like the following:
          <verb>
            ifconfig ed0 alias 204.141.95.2 netmask 0xffffffff
          </verb>

      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I get my 3C503 to use the other network port?</heading>

        <p>
          If you want to use the other ports, you'll have to specify an
          additional parameter on the <tt/ifconfig(1)/ command line. The
          default port is ``<tt/link0/''. To use the AUI port instead of
          the BNC one, use ``<tt/link2/''.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I'm having problems with NFS to/from FreeBSD and my Wuffotronics Workstation / generic NFS appliance, where should I look first?</heading>

        <p>
          Certain PC network cards are better than others (to put it
          mildly) and can sometimes cause problems with network intensive
          applications like NFS.

          See 
	  <url
            url="http://www.freebsd.org/How/handbook/nfs.html"
            name="Handbook's section NFS">

          for more information on
          this topic.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Why can't I NFS-mount from a Linux box?</heading>

        <p>
          Some versions of the Linux NFS code only accept mount requests
          from a privileged port; try
          <verb>
            mount -o -P linuxbox:/blah /mnt
          </verb>
      <sect1>
        <heading>Why can't I NFS-mount from a Sun box?</heading>
          
        <p>
          Sun workstations running SunOS 4.X only accept mount requests
          from a privileged port; try
          <verb>
            mount -o -P sunbox:/blah /mnt
          </verb>
      <sect1><heading>I'm having problems with my NeXTStep machines and other FreeBSD ones across PPP</heading>

        <p>
          Try disabling the TCP extensions in <tt>/etc/sysconfig</tt> by
          changing the following variable to NO:
          <verb>
            tcp_extensions=NO
          </verb>

          Xylogic's Annex boxes are also broken in this regard and you must
          use the above change to connect thru them.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I want to enable IP multicast support on my FreeBSD box, how do I do it?  (Alternatively: What the heck IS multicasting and what applications make use of it?)</heading>

        <p>
          Multicast host operations are fully supported in FreeBSD 2.0 by
          default.  If you want your box to run as a multicast router, you
          will need to load the <tt/ip_mroute_mod/ loadable kernel module
          and run <tt/mrouted/.

For more information:
<verb>
Product		Description		Where
--------------- ----------------------- ---------------------------------------
faq.txt		Mbone FAQ		ftp.isi.edu:/mbone/faq.txt
imm/immserv	IMage Multicast 	ftp.hawaii.edu:/paccom/imm.src.tar.Z
		for jpg/gif images.
nv		Network Video.		ftp.parc.xerox.com:
					/pub/net-reseach/exp/nv3.3alpha.tar.Z
vat		LBL Visual Audio Tool.	ftp.ee.lbl.gov:
					/conferencing/vat/i386-vat.tar.Z
wb		LBL White Board.	ftp.ee.lbl.gov:
					/conferencing/wb/i386-wb.tar.Z
mmcc		MultiMedia Conference	ftp.isi.edu:
		Control program		/confctrl/mmcc/mmcc-intel.tar.Z
rtpqual		Tools for testing the	ftp.psc.edu:/pub/net_tools/rtpqual.c
		quality of RTP packets.
vat_nv_record	Recording tools for vat	ftp.sics.se:archive/vat_nv_record.tar.Z
		and nv.
</verb>

      </sect1>
      <sect1>
        <heading>The 2.1.0R release notes speaks of network card based on the DEC PCI chipset, what are they ?</heading>

        <p>
          Here is a list compiled by Glen Foster
          <tt/&lt;gfoster@driver.nsta.org&gt;/:
<code>
Vendor          Model
- --------------------------------------------------------
ASUS            PCI-L101-TB
Accton          ENI1203
Cogent          EM960PCI
Compex          ENET32-PCI
D-Link          DE-530
DEC             DE435
Danpex          EN-9400P3
JCIS            Condor JC1260
Linksys         EtherPCI
Mylex           LNP101
SMC             EtherPower 10/100 (Model 9332)
SMC             EtherPower (Model 8432)
TopWare         TE-3500P
Zynx            ZX342
</code>
      </sect1>
      <sect1>
        <heading>I'm in <tt>foo.bar.edu</tt>, and I can no longer reach hosts in <tt>bar.edu</tt> by their short names</heading>
        <p>
	  The current version of <em>BIND</em> that ships with FreeBSD
	  no longer provides default abbreviations for non-fully
	  qualified domain names other than the domain you are in.
	  So an unqualified host <tt>mumble</tt> must either be found
	  as <tt>mumble.foo.bar.edu</tt>, or it will be searched for
	  in the root domain.
	<p>
	  This is different from the previous behaviour, where the
	  search did continue across <tt>mumble.bar.edu</tt>, and
	  <tt>mumble.edu</tt>.  Have a look at RFC 1535 for why this
	  has been considered bad practice and even a security hole.
	<p>
	  As a good workaround, you can place the line
<p><tt>
search foo.bar.edu bar.edu
</tt><p>
	  instead of the previous

<p><tt>
domain foo.bar.edu
</tt><p>
	  into your <tt>/etc/resolv.conf</tt>.  However, make sure
	  that the search order does not go beyond the ``boundary
	  between local and public administration'', as RFC 1535
	  calls ist.

      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <heading>Now that I've got all through my UUCP setup, how do I convince sendmail to use it for mail delivery?</heading>

        <p>
          The sendmail configuration that ships with FreeBSD is
          suited for sites that connect directly to the Internet.
          Sites that wish to exchange their mail via UUCP must install
          another sendmail configuration file.

        <p>
          Tweaking <tt>/etc/sendmail.cf</tt> manually is considered
          something for purists.  Sendmail version 8 comes with a
          new approach of generating config files via some <tt>m4</tt>
          preprocessing, where the actual hand-crafted configuration
          is on a higher abstraction level.  You should use the
          configuration files under

<verb>
     /usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail/cf
</verb>

          If you don't have installed your system with full sources,
          this won't be a problem.  The sendmail config stuff has been
          broken out into a separate source distribution tarball just
          for you.  Assuming you've got your CD-ROM mounted, do:

<verb>
     cd /usr/src
     tar -xvzf /cdrom/dists/src/ssmailcf.aa
</verb>

          Don't bother, this is only a few hundred kilobytes in size.
          The file <tt>README</tt> in the <tt>cf</tt> directory can
          serve as a basic introduction into the m4 configuration.

        <p>
          For UUCP delivery, you will go best by using the
          <em>mailertable</em> feature.  This constitutes a database
          that sendmail can use to base its routing decision upon.

        <p>
	  First, you have to create your <tt>.mc</tt> file.  The
          directory <tt>/usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail/cf/cf</tt> is the
          home of these files.  Look around, there are already a few
          examples.  Assuming you have named your file <tt>foo.mc</tt>,
          all you need to do in order to convert it into a valid
          <tt>sendmail.cf</tt> is:

<verb>
     cd /usr/src/usr.sbin/sendmail/cf/cf
     make foo.cf
     cp foo.cf /etc/sendmail.cf
</verb>

          A typical <tt>.mc</tt> file might look like:

<verb>
     include(`../m4/cf.m4')
     VERSIONID(`Your version number')
     OSTYPE(bsd4.4)

     FEATURE(nodns)
     FEATURE(nocanonify)
     FEATURE(mailertable)

     define(`UUCP_RELAY', your.uucp.relay)
     define(`UUCP_MAX_SIZE', 200000)

     MAILER(local)
     MAILER(smtp)
     MAILER(uucp)

     Cw    your.alias.host.name
     Cw    youruucpnodename.UUCP
</verb>

          The <em>nodns</em> and <em>nocanonify</em> features will
          prevent any usage of the DNS during mail delivery.  The
          <em>UUCP_RELAY</em> clause is needed for bizarre reasons,
          don't ask.  Simply put an Internet hostname there that
          is able to handle .UUCP pseudo-domain addresses; most likely,
          you will enter the mail relay of your ISP there.

        <p>
          Once you've got this, you need this file called
          <tt>/etc/mailertable</tt>.  A typical example of this
          gender again:

<verb>
     #
     # makemap hash /etc/mailertable.db < /etc/mailertable
     #
     horus.interface-business.de   uucp-dom:horus
     .interface-business.de        uucp-dom:if-bus
     interface-business.de         uucp-dom:if-bus
     .heep.sax.de                  smtp8:%1
     horus.UUCP                    uucp-dom:horus
     if-bus.UUCP                   uucp-dom:if-bus
     .                             uucp-dom:sax
</verb>

          As you can see, this is part of a real-life file.  The first
          three lines handle special cases where domain-addressed mail
          should not be sent out to the default route, but instead to
          some UUCP neighbour in order to ``shortcut'' the delivery
          path.  The next line handles mail to the local Ethernet
          domain that can be delivered using SMTP.  Finally, the UUCP
          neighbours are mentioned in the .UUCP pseudo-domain notation,
          to allow for a ``uucp-neighbour!recipient'' override of the
          default rules.  The last line is always a single dot, matching
          everything else, with UUCP delivery to a UUCP neighbour that
          serves as your universal mail gateway to the world.  All of
          the node names behind the <tt>uucp-dom:</tt> keyword must
          be valid UUCP neighbours, as you could verify using the
          command <tt>uuname</tt>.

        <p>
          As a reminder that this file needs to be converted into a
          DBM database file before being usable, the command line to
          accomplish this is best placed as a comment at the top of
          the mailertable.  You always have to execute this command
          each time you change your mailertable.

        <p>
          Final hint: if you are uncertain whether some particular
          mail routing would work, remember the <tt>-bt</tt> option to
          sendmail.  It starts sendmail in <em>address test mode</em>,
          simply enter ``0 '', followed by the address you wish to
          test for the mail routing.  The last line tells you the used
          internal mail agent, the destination host this agent will be
          called with, and the (possibly translated) address.  Leave
          this mode by typing Control-D.

<verb>
     j@uriah 191% sendmail -bt
     ADDRESS TEST MODE (ruleset 3 NOT automatically invoked)
     Enter <ruleset> <address>
     > 0 foo@interface-business.de 
     rewrite: ruleset  0   input: foo @ interface-business . de
     ...
     rewrite: ruleset  0 returns: $# uucp-dom $@ if-bus $: foo \
     < @ interface-business . de >
     > ^D
     j@uriah 192% 
</verb>


      </sect1>

      <sect1>
	<heading>I just booted a new kernel and now I'm getting ``Permission denied'' for all networking operations.</heading>
        <p>
          If you have compiled your kernel with the <tt/IPFIREWALL/ 
          option, you need to be aware that the default policy as of
          2.1.5R (this actually changed during 2.1-STABLE development) 
          is to deny all packets that are not explicitly allowed.

        <p>
          If you had unintentionally misconfigured your system for
          firewalling, you can restore network operability by typing
          the following while logged in as root:

        <verb>
     ipfw add 65534 allow all from any to any
        </verb>

          For further information on configuring a FreeBSD firewall,
          see the <url url="http://www.freebsd.org/handbook/handbook.html" name="FreeBSD Handbook.">

      </sect1>

    <sect>
      <heading>Serial Communications</heading>
      <p>
        This section answers common questions about serial communications
        with FreeBSD.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I tell if FreeBSD found my serial ports or modem cards?</heading>
        <p>
          As the FreeBSD kernel boots, it will probe for the serial ports
          in your system for which the kernel was configured.  You can
          either watch your system closely for the messages it prints or
          run the command
          <verb>
            dmesg | grep sio
          </verb>
          after your system's up and running.

          Here's some example output from the above command:
          <verb>
            sio0 at 0x3f8-0x3ff irq 4 on isa
            sio0: type 16550A
            sio1 at 0x2f8-0x2ff irq 3 on isa
            sio1: type 16550A
          </verb>

          This shows two serial ports.  The first is on irq 4, is using
          port address <tt/0x3f8/, and has a 16550A-type UART chip.  The
          second uses the same kind of chip but is on irq 3 and is at port
          address <tt/0x2f8/.  Internal modem cards are treated just like
          serial ports---except that they always have a modem ``attached''
          to the port.

          The <tt/GENERIC/ kernel includes support for two serial ports
          using the same irq and port address settings in the above
          example.  If these settings aren't right for your system, or if
          you've added modem cards or have more serial ports than your
          kernel is configured for, just reconfigure your kernel.  See
          section <ref id="make-kernel" name="about building a kernel"> for
          more details.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Hey, I just upgraded to 2.0.5 and my <tt/tty0X/ are missing!</heading>
        <p>
          Don't worry, they have been merged with the <tt/ttydX/
          devices. You'll have to change old configuration files.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I access the serial ports once FreeBSD is running?</heading>
        <p>
          The third serial port, <tt/sio2/ (known as COM3 in DOS), is on
          <tt>/dev/cuaa2</tt> for dial-out devices, and on
          <tt>/dev/ttyd2</tt> for dial-in devices.  What's the difference
          between these two classes of devices?

          You use <tt/ttydX/ for dial-ins.  When opening
          <tt>/dev/ttydX</tt> in blocking mode, a process will wait for the
          corresponding <tt/cuaaX/ device to become inactive, and then wait
          for the carrier detect line to go active.  When you open the
          <tt/cuaaX/ device, it makes sure the serial port isn't already in
          use by the <tt/ttydX/ device.  If the port's available, it
          ``steals'' it from the <tt/ttydX/ device.  Also, the <tt/cuaXX/
          device doesn't care about carrier detect.  With this scheme and
          an auto-answer modem, you can have remote users log in and you
          can still dialout with the same modem and the system will take
          care of all the conflicts.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How do I configure the kernel for my multiport serial card?</heading>
        <p>
          Again, the section on kernel configuration provides information
          about configuring your kernel.  For a multiport serial card,
          place an <tt/sio/ line for each serial port on the card in the
          kernel configuration file.  But place the irq and vector
          specifiers on only one of the entries.  All of the ports on the
          card should share one irq.  For consistency, use the last serial
          port to specify the irq.  Also, specify the
          <tt/COM&lowbar;MULTIPORT/ option.

          The following example is for an AST 4-port serial card on irq 7:
          <verb>
            options "COM_MULTIPORT"
            device sio4 at isa? port 0x2a0 tty flags 0x781
            device sio5 at isa? port 0x2a8 tty flags 0x781
            device sio6 at isa? port 0x2b0 tty flags 0x781
            device sio7 at isa? port 0x2b8 tty flags 0x781 irq 7 vector siointr
          </verb>
          The flags indicate that the master port has minor number 7
          (<tt/0x700/), diagnostics enabled during probe (<tt/0x080/), and
          all the ports share an irq (<tt/0x001/).

      <sect1>
	<heading>I have two multiport serial cards that can share irqs. Can FreeBSD handle this?</heading>
        <p>
          Not yet. You'll have to use a different irq for each card.

      <sect1>
	<heading>What's the difference between <tt/ttyd1/, <tt/ttyid1/, and <tt/ttyld1/?  Or, how can I set the default serial parameters for a port?</heading>
        <p>
          The <tt/ttydX/ (or <tt/cuaaX/) device is the regular device
          you'll want to open for your applications.  When a process opens
          the device, it'll have a default set of terminal I/O settings.
          You can see these settings with the command
          <verb>
            stty -a -f /dev/ttyd1
          </verb>

          When you change the settings to this device, the settings are in
          effect until the device is closed.  When it's reopened, it goes
          back to the default set.  To make changes to the default set, you
          can open and adjust the settings of the ``initial state'' device.
          For example, to turn on <tt/CLOCAL/ mode, 8 bits, and
          <tt>XON/XOFF</tt> flow control by default for ttyd5, do:
          <verb>
            stty -f /dev/ttyid5 clocal cs8 ixon ixoff
          </verb>

          A good place to do this is in <tt>/etc/rc.serial</tt>. Now, an
          application will have these settings by default when it opens
          <tt/ttyd5/.  It can still change these settings to its liking,
          though.

          You can also prevent certain settings from being changed by an
          application by making adjustments to the ``lock state'' device.
          For example, to lock the speed of <tt/ttyd5/ to 57600 bps, do
          <verb>
            stty -f /dev/ttyld5 57600
          </verb>

          Now, an application that opens <tt/ttyd5/ and tries to change the
          speed of the port will be stuck with 57600 bps.

          Naturally, you should make the initial state and lock state
          devices writable only by <tt/root/. The <tt/MAKEDEV/ script does
          <bf/NOT/ do this when it creates the device entries.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How can I enable dialup logins on my modem?</heading>
        <p>
          So you want to become an Internet service provider, eh?  First,
          you'll need one or more modems that can auto-answer.  Your modem
          will need to assert carrier-detect when it detects a carrier and
          not assert it all the time.  It will need to hang up the phone
          and reset itself when the data terminal ready (<tt/DTR/) line
          goes from on to off.  It should probably use <tt>RTS/CTS</tt>
          flow control or no local flow control at all.  Finally, it must
          use a constant speed between the computer and itself, but (to be
          nice to your callers) it should negotiate a speed between itself
          and the remote modem.

          For many Hayes command-set--compatible modems, this command will
          make these settings and store them in nonvolatile memory:
          <verb>
            AT &ero;C1 &ero;D3 &ero;K3 &ero;Q6 S0=1 &ero;W
          </verb>
          See the section <ref id="direct-at" name="on sending AT
          commands"> below for information on how to make these settings
          without resorting to an MS-DOS terminal program.

          Next, make an entry in <tt>/etc/ttys</tt> for the modem.  This
          file lists all the ports on which the operating system will await
          logins.  Add a line that looks something like this:
          <verb>
            ttyd1 "/usr/libexec/getty std.57600" dialup on insecure
          </verb>
          This line indicates that the second serial port
          (<tt>/dev/ttyd1</tt>) has a modem connected running at 57600 bps
          and no parity (<tt/std.57600/, which comes from the file
          <tt>/etc/gettytab</tt>). The terminal type for this port is
          ``dialup.''  The port is ``on'' and is ``insecure''---meaning
          root logins on the port aren't allowed.  For dialin ports like
          this one, use the <tt/ttydX/ entry.

          It's common practice to use ``dialup'' as the terminal type.
          Many users set up in their .profile or .login files a prompt for
          the actual terminal type if the starting type is dialup.  The
          example shows the port as insecure.  To become root on this port,
          you have to login as a regular user, then ``<tt/su/'' to
          <tt/root/.  If you use ``secure'' then <tt/root/ can login in
          directly.

          After making modifications to <tt>/etc/ttys</tt>, you need to
          send a hangup or <tt/HUP/ signal to the <tt/init/ process:
          <verb>
            kill -1 1
          </verb>
          This forces the init process to reread <tt>/etc/ttys</tt>.  The
          init process will then start getty processes on all ``on'' ports.
          You can find out if logins are available for your port by typing
          <verb>
            ps -ax | grep '[t]tyd1'
          </verb>

          You should see something like:
          <verb>
            747 ??  I      0:00.04 /usr/libexec/getty std.57600 ttyd1 
          </verb>

      <sect1>
	<heading>How can I make my spare computer a dumb terminal connected to my FreeBSD box?</heading>
        <p>
          If you're using another computer as a terminal into your FreeBSD
          system, get a null modem cable to go between the two serial
          ports.  If you're using an actual terminal, see its accompanying
          instructions.

          Then, modify <tt>/etc/ttys</tt>, like above.  For example, if
          you're hooking up a WYSE-50 terminal to the fifth serial port,
          use an entry like this:
          <verb>
            ttyd4 "/usr/libexec/getty std.38400" wyse50 on secure
          </verb>
          This example shows that the port on <tt>/dev/ttyd4</tt> has a
          wyse50 terminal connected at 38400 bps with no parity
          (<tt/std.38400/ from <tt>/etc/gettytab</tt>) and <tt/root/ logins
          are allowed (secure).

      <sect1>
	<heading>Why can't I run <tt/tip/ or <tt/cu/?</heading>
        <p>
          On your system, the programs <tt/tip/ and <tt/cu/ are probably
          executable only by <tt/uucp/ and group <tt/dialer/.  You can use
          the group <tt/dialer/ to control who has access to your modem or
          remote systems.  Just add yourself to group dialer.

          Alternatively, you can let everyone on your system run <tt/tip/
          and <tt/cu/ by typing:
          <verb>
            chmod 4511 /usr/bin/tip
          </verb>
          You don't have to run this command for <tt/cu/, since <tt/cu/ is
          just a hard link to <tt/tip/.

      <sect1>
	<heading>My stock Hayes modem isn't supported---what should I do?</heading>
        <p>
          Actually, the man page for <tt/tip/ is out of date.  There is a
          generic Hayes dialer already built in.  Just use
          ``<tt/at=hayes/'' in your <tt>/etc/remote</tt> file.

          The Hayes driver isn't smart enough to recognize some of the
          advanced features of newer modems---messages like <tt/BUSY/,
          <tt/NO DIALTONE/, or <tt/CONNECT 115200/ will just confuse it.
          You should turn those messages off when you use <tt/tip/ (using
          <tt/ATX0&amp;W/).

          Also, the dial timeout for <tt/tip/ is 60 seconds.  Your modem
          should use something less, or else tip will think there's a
          communication problem.  Try <tt/ATS7=45&amp;W/.

          Actually, as shipped <tt/tip/ doesn't yet support it fully. The
          solution is to edit the file <tt/tipconf.h/ in the directory
          <tt>/usr/src/usr.bin/tip/tip</tt> Obviously you need the source
          distribution to do this.

          Edit the line ``<tt/#define HAYES 0/'' to ``<tt/#define HAYES
          1/''. Then ``<tt/make/'' and ``<tt/make install/''. Everything
          works nicely after that.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How am I expected to enter these AT commands without resorting to some DOS-based terminal program?<label id="direct-at"></heading>
        <p>
          Make what's called a ``<tt/direct/'' entry in your
          <tt>/etc/remote</tt> file.  For example, if your modem's hooked
          up to the first serial port, <tt>/dev/cuaa0</tt>, then put in the
          following line:
          <verb>
            cuaa0:dv=/dev/cuaa0:br#19200:pa=none
          </verb>
          Use the highest bps rate your modem supports in the br
          capability.  Then, type ``<tt/tip cuaa0/'' and you'll be
          connected to your modem.

          If there is no <tt>/dev/cuaa0</tt> on your system, do this:
          <verb>
            cd /dev
            MAKEDEV cuaa0
          </verb>
        <p>
          Or use cu as root with the following command:
          <verb>
            cu -l``line'' -s``speed''
          </verb>
          with line being the serial port (e.g.<tt>/dev/cuaa0</tt>)
          and speed being the speed (e.g.<tt>57600</tt>).
          When you done entering the AT commands hit <tt>~.</tt> to exit.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Why doesn't the <tt/@/ sign for the phone number capability work?</heading>
        <p>
          The <tt/@/ sign in the pn capability tells tip to look in
          <tt>/etc/phones</tt> for a phone number.  But the <tt/@/ sign is
          also a special character in capability files like
          <tt>/etc/remote</tt>.  Escape it with a backslash:
          <verb>
            pn=\@
          </verb>

      <sect1>
	<heading>How can I dial a phone number on the command line?</heading>
        <p>
          Put what's called a ``<tt/generic/'' entry in your
          <tt>/etc/remote</tt> file.  For example:
          <verb>
            tip115200|Dial any phone number at 115200 bps:\
            :dv=/dev/cuaa0:br#115200:at=hayes:pa=none:du:
            tip57600|Dial any phone number at 57600 bps:\
            :dv=/dev/cuaa0:br#57600:at=hayes:pa=none:du:
          </verb>

          Then you can things like ``<tt/tip -115200 5551234/''.  If you
          prefer <tt/cu/ over <tt/tip/, use a generic cu entry:
          <verb>
            cu115200|Use cu to dial any number at 115200bps:\
            :dv=/dev/cuaa1:br#57600:at=hayes:pa=none:du:
          </verb>
          and type ``<tt/cu 5551234 -s 115200/''.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Great---but how can I do that without having to specify the bps rate on the command line?</heading>
        <p>
          Put in an entry for <tt/tip1200/ or <tt/cu1200/, but go ahead and
          use whatever bps rate is appropriate with the br
          capability. <tt/tip/ thinks a good default is 1200 bps which is
          why it looks for a ``<tt/tip1200/'' entry.  You don't have to use
          1200 bps, though.

      <sect1>
	<heading>I want separate entries for various hosts I access through a terminal server, but I don't want to type ``<tt/CONNECT &lt;host&gt;/'' each time once I'm connected. Can <tt/tip/ do that for me?</heading>
        <p>
          Yes. Use the <tt/cm/ capability. For example, these entries in
          <tt>/etc/remote</tt>:
          <verb>
            pain|pain.deep13.com|Forrester's machine:\
            :cm=CONNECT pain\n:tc=deep13:
            muffin|muffin.deep13.com|Frank's machine:\
            :cm=CONNECT muffin\n:tc=deep13:
            deep13:Gizmonics Institute terminal server:\
            :dv=/dev/cua02:br#38400:at=hayes:du:pa=none:pn=5551234:
          </verb>

          will let you type ``<tt/tip pain/'' or ``<tt/tip muffin/'' to
          connect to the hosts pain or muffin; and ``<tt/tip deep13/'' to
          get to the terminal server.

      <sect1>
	<heading>My university has 42 billion students but only 4 modem lines. Can tip automatically try each line?</heading>
        <p>
          Sure.  Make an entry for your university in <tt>/etc/remote</tt>
          and use <tt>\@</tt> for the <tt/pn/ capability:
          <verb>
            big-university:\
            :pn=\@:tc=dialout
            dialout:\
            :dv=/dev/cuaa3:br#9600:at=courier:du:pa=none:
          </verb>

          Then, list the phone numbers for the university in
          <tt>/etc/phones</tt>:
          <verb>
            big-university 5551111
            big-university 5551112
            big-university 5551113
            big-university 5551114
          </verb>

          <tt/tip/ will try each one in the listed order, then give up.  If
          you want to keep retrying, run <tt/tip/ in a while loop.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How come I have to hit CTRL+P twice to send CTRL+P once?</heading>
        <p>
          CTRL+P is the default ``force'' character, used to tell <tt/tip/
          that the next character is literal data.  You can set the force
          character to any other character with the <tt/~s/ escape, which
          means ``set a variable.''

          Type ``<tt/~sforce=&lt;single-char&gt;/'' followed by a newline.
          <tt/&lt;single-char&gt;/ is any single character.  If you leave
          out <tt/&lt;single-char&gt;/, then the force character is the nul
          character, which you can get by typing CTRL+2 or CTRL+SPACE.  A
          pretty good value for <tt/&lt;single-char&gt;/ is SHIFT+CTRL+6,
          which I've seen only used on some terminal servers.

          You can have the force character be whatever you want by
          specifying the following in your <tt>&dollar;HOME/.tiprc</tt>
          file:
          <verb>
            force=<single-char>
          </verb>

      <sect1>
	<heading>Suddenly everything I type is all UPPER CASE.  What gives?</heading>
        <p>
          You must've pressed CTRL+A, <tt/tip/'s ``raise character,''
          specially designed for people with broken caps-lock keys. Use
          <tt/~s/ as above and set the variable ``raisechar'' to something
          reasonable.  In fact, you can set it to the same as the force
          character, if you never expect to use either of these features.

          Here's a sample .tiprc file perfect for Emacs users who need to
          type CTRL+2 and CTRL+A a lot:
          <verb>
            force=^^
            raisechar=^^
          </verb>
          The ^^ is SHIFT+CTRL+6.

      <sect1>
	<heading>How can I do file transfers with <tt/tip/?</heading>
        <p>
          If you're talking to another UNIX system, you can send and
          receive files with <tt/~p/ (put) and <tt/~t/ (take).  These
          commands run ``<tt/cat/'' and ``<tt/echo/'' on the remote system
          to accept and send files.  The syntax is:
          <verb>
            ~p <local-file> [<remote-file>]
            ~t <remote-file> [<local-file>]
          </verb>

          There's no error checking, so you probably should use another
          protocol, like zmodem.

      <sect1>
	<heading>Okay, how can I run zmodem with <tt/tip/?</heading>
        <p>
          To receive files, start the sending program on the remote end.
          Then, type ``<tt/~C rz/'' to begin receiving them locally.

          To send files, start the receiving program on the remote end.
          Then, type ``<tt/~C sz &lt;files&gt;/'' to send them to the
          remote system.

    </sect>

    <sect>
      <heading>ACKNOWLEDGMENTS</heading>

      <p>
        <code>
          If you see a problem with this FAQ, or wish to submit an entry,
          please mail us at <FAQ@FreeBSD.ORG>.  We appreciate your
          feedback, and cannot make this a better FAQ without your help!


                                              FreeBSD Core Team
        </code>

        <descrip>
          <tag/Ollivier Robert/
            FreeBSD FAQ maintenance man 
          <tag/Gary Clark II/
            FreeBSD Doc Team   
          <tag/Jordan Hubbard/
            Janitorial services (I don't do windows)
          <tag/Garrett Wollman/
            Networking and formatting
          <tag/Jim Lowe/
            Multicast information 
          <tag/The FreeBSD Team/
            Kvetching, moaning, submitting data
        </descrip>

        And to any others we've forgotten, apologies and heartfelt thanks!
  </article>