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<!--
     $FreeBSD$

     "Explaining BSD"
     The FreeBSD Greek Documentation Project
     Original version: 1.3
-->

<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook V4.1-Based Extension//EN" [
<!ENTITY % man PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Manual Page Entities//EN">
%man;
]>

<article>
  <articleinfo>
    <title>Explaining BSD</title>

    <author>
      <firstname>Greg</firstname>
      <surname>Lehey</surname>

      <affiliation>
        <address><email>grog@FreeBSD.org</email></address>
      </affiliation>
    </author>

    <abstract>
      <para>   open source,   <quote>Linux</quote> 
             <quote> </quote>, 
            open source <trademark>UNIX</trademark> 
        .     <ulink
          url="http://www.leb.net/hzo/ioscount/data/r.9904.txt">
           Internet</ulink>,     1999
         31.3%         
         Linux.   14.6%  BSD UNIX.     
           ,   <ulink
          url="http://www.yahoo.com">Yahoo!</ulink>,  BSD.    
          FTP   ,  <ulink
          url="ftp://ftp.cdrom.com">ftp.cdrom.com</ulink>,  BSD
             1.4 TB   .   
              :  BSD   
         .</para>

      <para>,    ;    BSD    
        ;          
         .</para>

      <para>   ,     BSD   Linux 
         <emphasis>   </emphasis>.</para>
    </abstract>
  </articleinfo>

  <sect1>
    <title>   BSD;</title>

    <para>BSD  <quote>Berkeley Software Distribution</quote>.  
                 
      , Berkeley (University of California, Berkeley),  
          U    
      AT&amp;T.   open source     
              4.4BSD-Lite.   
      ,         Open Source ,
         GNU       .  , 
        :</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
        <para> BSD ,     
          ,  ,   - (symmetric
          multi-processing, SMP)   , .</para>

        <para><emphasis>      Linux,  
             BSD   
          .</emphasis></para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
        <para>   C,   API  .</para>
          
        <para><emphasis> C   BSD     
           Berkeley,     GNU.</emphasis></para>
      </listitem>
          
      <listitem>
        <para>   (shells),   ,
           (compilers, linkers).</para>
        
        <para><emphasis>        GNU,
            .</emphasis></para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
        <para>  X Window,     .</para>

        <para>  X Window      
           BSD      , 
          <ulink url="http://www.XFree86.org/"> XFree86</ulink>.  
                  Linux.   BSD 
              <quote> </quote>, 
           GNOME   KDE,       .</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
        <para>    .</para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>
  </sect1>
  
  <sect1>
    <title>,   UNIX;</title> 

    <para> BSD     ,  open source
             UNIX   
      AT&amp;T,       UNIX System V.  
         .       ,  
      AT&amp;T         open source;</para>

    <para>    AT&amp;T UNIX   open source,  
       ,         ,
       BSD  <emphasis></emphasis>  UNIX,   
      ,    AT&amp;T      
      ,            
            California, Berkeley,
      CA (CSRG: Computer Sciences Research Group, University of California,
      Berkeley, CA).    1976,  CSRG    tapes
         ,   <emphasis>Berkeley Software
      Distribution</emphasis> or <emphasis>BSD</emphasis>.</para>

    <para>    BSD     
      ,       CSRG    
       Defense Advanced Projects Research Agency (DARPA)   
            DARPA,  ARPANET.   
          <emphasis>Internet Protocols</emphasis>,
       <emphasis>TCP/IP</emphasis>       
        .         
      4.2BSD,    1982.</para>

    <para>    '80s,      
        .      
        UNIX       .
      ,  Sun Microsystems     UNIX  
         4.2BSD    SunOS.      
      AT&amp;T      UNIX,    
         System III,     
      System V.       System V   
      ,         
      BSD,    TCP/IP,   
         <emphasis>csh</emphasis>    
      <emphasis>vi</emphasis>.  ,      
      <emphasis>  Berkeley</emphasis>.</para>

    <para> tapes  BSD     AT&amp;T  
            UNIX.    1990, 
        CSRG ,    .   
            BSD ,   Open
      Source,      AT&amp;T .   
         <emphasis>Networking Tape 2</emphasis>,   
      <emphasis>Net/2</emphasis>.   Net/2    
       .   20%      .  
          CSRG,  William F. Jolitz,    
             1992  
      <emphasis>386BSD</emphasis>.    ,     
        CSRG       <ulink
      url="http://www.bsdi.com">Berkeley Software Design Inc.</ulink> 
              
      <ulink url="http://www.bsdi.com">BSD/386</ulink>,   
          .      
          BSD/OS.</para>

    <para> 386BSD       .
        ,        1993.    
      <ulink url="http://www.NetBSD.org">NetBSD</ulink>     <ulink
        url="http://www.FreeBSD.org">FreeBSD</ulink>.     
              
        386BSD.     NetBSD    
      ,      FreeBSD      
       .           
                  .
      ,          
      .   1996,   ,   <ulink
        url="http://www.OpenBSD.org">OpenBSD</ulink>,   
      NetBSD.</para>
  </sect1>
  
  <sect1>
    <title>    BSD  ;</title>
    
    <para>  ,  BSD   :</para>
    
    <orderedlist>
      <listitem>
        <para>    BSD     
                    .</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
        <para>     Linux   
           (       Linux),  
           ,         
             Linux.   ,  open source BSD
             .</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
        <para>    BSD      
             Linux        
             .        
               Linux.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
        <para> 1992,  AT&amp;T    <ulink
          url="http://www.bsdi.com">BSDI</ulink>,    
           BSD/386,        
                AT&amp;T.   
              1994,    
                .    
          ,    2000,      
                 <quote>
          </quote>.</para>

        <para>         
          :      '80,  BSD  
           <quote>BSD UNIX</quote>.       
               AT&amp;T,    
            UNIX.          
          <quote>the 4.3BSD UNIX operating system</quote>  <quote>the
          4.4BSD operating system</quote>.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
        <para>     BSD   
          .  <ulink
          url="http://interactive.wsj.com/bin/login?Tag=/&amp;URI=/archive/retrieve.cgi%253Fid%253DSB952470579348918651.djm&">Wall
        Street Journal</ulink>   <quote>balkanization</quote> 
           BSD.      ,   
            .</para>
      </listitem>
    </orderedlist>
  </sect1>

  <sect1>
    <title>  BSD   Linux</title>

    <para>     ,  ,  Debian Linux 
       FreeBSD;     ,     
      :           UNIX.
              (   
          Linux ).    , 
           BSD       Linux.  
           FreeBSD,      80%
        BSD,      NetBSD   OpenBSD
       .</para>

    <sect2>
      <title>    BSD;</title>

      <para>           BSD.
                
                 
         .       BSD   Open
        Source projects       
        .</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>     BSD;</title>

      <para> BSD     Open Source 
        .      <emphasis> 
        </emphasis>     ,  
        <ulink url="http://www.sourcegear.com/CVS">Concurrent Versions
        System</ulink> (CVS).        
              ,    
          .   CVS    
        <quote></quote> (      )
           .</para>

      <para>       
             BSD.    
        :</para>

      <itemizedlist>
        <listitem>
          <para> <emphasis>Contributors</emphasis>   
            .       commit ( 
            )    .       
                      
                 ,  
              <emphasis>committer</emphasis>.</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para> <emphasis>Committers</emphasis>   
                   .  
               committer       
              ,    .</para>

          <para>    committer     
                     
             .  ,   committer   
                    .  
            ,  committer      
                   
            .    ,     
                     
                  commit.   
            ,      (core team)  
              Principal Architect      
                ,    
            <emphasis>backing out</emphasis>.    committers 
            mail        commit,
                   .</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para> <emphasis>Core team</emphasis>.   ,  FreeBSD  
            NetBSD       (core team)   
              .       
              project,        
            .       
            ,         
                  BSD.      
                 project  ,    
                    project
               .</para>
        </listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>       Linux  
        :</para>

      <orderedlist>
        <listitem>
          <para>         
             .  ,    ,  
            Chief Architect       ,
                Linux      
              .</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para>  , <emphasis></emphasis>  
            repository,        
                 ,  
            ,   .</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para> BSD project    <quote>
            </quote>,     .     
              .    BSD,   Linux   
              .      
            BSD         
             Linux.</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para>       
             CVS   ,    BSD 
            ,         
                ,   .   CVS
                 .   ,
             repository  FreeBSD   100   .
                    .</para>
        </listitem>
      </orderedlist>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>  BSD</title>

      <para> BSD project      
        <quote></quote>.      Linux,    
         , .. 1.4.1  3.5.    ,    
          ,       :</para>

      <orderedlist>
        <listitem>
          <para>     
            <emphasis>CURRENT</emphasis>.   FreeBSD   
               CURRENT,   FreeBSD 5.0-CURRENT.  
            NetBSD       
                    
                ,  
            NetBSD 1.4.3G.   OpenBSD    
            ("OpenBSD-current").      
                .</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para>   ,      
             ,  project   <emphasis>RELEASE</emphasis>
              ,     CD-ROM  
                 FTP ,  
              OpenBSD 2.6-RELEASE   NetBSD 1.4-RELEASE.  
            RELEASE     ,   
               .   NetBSD   
            <emphasis>patch </emphasis>    ,  
              NetBSD 1.4.2.</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para>     RELEASE ,
            ,      CVS.   FreeBSD,
                STABLE ,   NetBSD  
            OpenBSD     RELEASE .   
                     
                 CURRENT .</para>
        </listitem>
      </orderedlist>

      <para><emphasis> Linux,  ,    
         .       .   
             ,  2.0, 2.2  2.4.  
             ,  2.1, 2.3 
        2.5.    ,       
            .  ,    
             ,     
          .        
          ,        
         <quote>TurboLinux 6.0   2.2.14</quote></emphasis></para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>   BSD  ;</title>

      <para>      Linux,   
         open source BSD.   BSD     
              .  , , 
               BSD   
          Linux.</para>

      <para>        BSD .
            .  ,</para>

      <itemizedlist>
        <listitem>
          <para> FreeBSD         
                .      
                 .    PCs
              Alpha   Compaq.   FreeBSD  
                 projects.</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para> NetBSD    : <quote>
               NetBSD</quote>.     
                ,  
                  NASA.    
                -Intel hardware.</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para> OpenBSD       
              :      open
            source          
               ,        
                  ,  ,
                  .    
            NetBSD    .</para>
        </listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>    BSD     
        open source,  BSD/OS   Mac OS X  Apple:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
        <listitem>
          <para> BSD/OS         4.4BSD
             .    open source,   
                   .  
               FreeBSD.</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para> <ulink url="http://www.apple.com/macosx/server/">Mac OS
            X</ulink>        
                Macintosh  <ulink
            url="http://www.apple.com">Apple Computer Inc.</ulink>
                 ,    open
            source.       Mac OS X, 
              Apple  commit  
            FreeBSD.</para>
        </listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
    </sect2>
    
    <sect2>
      <title>      BSD   GNU Public ;</title>
      
      <para> Linux      
        <ulink url="http://www.fsf.org/copyleft/gpl.html">GNU General Public
        License</ulink> (GPL),       
         - .  ,    
                GPL   
               .  ,  <ulink
          url="http://www.opensource.org/licenses/bsd-license.html">BSD
        </ulink>   :  -
        .       embedded .</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>   '  ;</title>

      <para>      BSD   
        Linux,    BSD     
         Linux,      Linux    
        BSD.        ,   
              Linux,   
           Linux     C.   
                
        Linux     Linux      Linux
            BSD   .</para>

      <para>   BSD, <quote>   </quote>,   
                  Linux.  
        BSD       
        ,         
          .</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>   , BSD  Linux;</title>

      <para>      ;    ' 
         BSD,    '   Linux;</para>
      
      <para>        .   
          :</para>
      
      <itemizedlist>
        <listitem>
          <para><quote>   ,   </quote>:  
              open source  ,  
              ,       
             .</para>
        </listitem>
        
        <listitem>
          <para> BSD ,    FreeBSD,   
                 Linux.     
            .    ,      
              .       Linux 
                FreeBSD.</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para>,  BSD       
              ,       
            .</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para> BSD        
            GPL.</para>
        </listitem>

        <listitem>
          <para> BSD      Linux,   Linux 
                 BSD.   ,
                 BSD   
            Linux.</para>
        </listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>  , service    
        BSD;</title> 

      <para> BSDi      BSD/OS  
               
        FreeBSD.</para>

      <para>,     BSD     consultants 
          :
         
        <ulink url="http://www.freebsd.org/commercial/consulting_bycat.html">FreeBSD</ulink>,
        
        <ulink url="http://www.netbsd.org/gallery/consultants.html">NetBSD</ulink>,
         
        <ulink url="http://www.openbsd.org/support.html">OpenBSD</ulink>.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>
</article>

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