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<!-- $Id: article.sgml,v 1.4 1998-11-30 23:14:55 billf Exp $ -->
<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//Davenport//DTD DocBook V3.0//EN">
<book>

<bookinfo>
<bookbiblio>
<title>Installing and Using FreeBSD With Other Operating Systems</title>

<authorgroup>
<author>
<firstname>Jay</firstname>
<surname>Richmond</surname>
<affiliation>
<address>
<email>jayrich@sysc.com</email>
</address>
</affiliation>
</author>
</authorgroup>

<pubdate>6 August 1996</pubdate>

<abstract><para>This document discusses how to make FreeBSD coexist
nicely with other popular operating systems such as Linux, MS-DOS,
OS/2, and Windows 95.  Special thanks to: Annelise Anderson
<email>andrsn@stanford.edu</email>, Randall Hopper
<email>rhh@ct.picker.com</email>, and Jordan K. Hubbard
<email>jkh@time.cdrom.com</email></para></abstract>

</bookbiblio>
</bookinfo>

<chapter>
<title>Overview</title>

<para>Most people can't fit these operating systems together
comfortably  without having a larger hard disk, so special
information on large EIDE drives is included. Because there are so
many combinations of possible operating systems and hard disk
configurations, the <xref linkend="ch5"> section may be of the most use
to you. It contains descriptions of specific working computer setups
that use multiple operating systems.</para>

<para>This document assumes that you have already made room on your
hard disk  for an additional operating system.  Any time you
repartition your hard  drive, you run the risk of destroying the data
on the original partitions. However, if your hard drive is completely
occupied by DOS, you might find the FIPS utility (included on the
FreeBSD CD-ROM in the <filename>\TOOLS</filename> directory or via
<ulink URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools">ftp</ulink>)
useful. It lets you repartition your hard disk without destroying the
data already on it. There is also a commercial program available
called  Partition Magic, which lets you size and delete partitions
without consequence.</para>

</chapter>

<chapter id="ch2">
<title>Overview of Boot Managers</title>

<para>These are just brief descriptions of some of the different boot
managers you may encounter. Depending on your computer setup, you may
find it useful to use more than one of them on the same
system.</para>

<variablelist>

<varlistentry>
<term>Boot Easy</term>

<listitem>
<para>This is the default boot manager used with FreeBSD. It has  the
ability to boot most anything, including BSD, OS/2 (HPFS), Windows 95
(FAT and FAT32), and Linux. Partitions are selected with the
function keys.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>

<varlistentry>
<term>OS/2 Boot Manager</term>

<listitem>
<para>This will boot FAT, HPFS, FFS (FreeBSD), and EXT2 
(Linux). It will also boot FAT32 partitions. Partitions are
selected using arrow keys. The OS/2 Boot Manager is the only one to
use its own separate partition, unlike the others which  use the
master boot record (MBR). Therefore, it must be installed below the
1024th cylinder to avoid booting problems. It can boot Linux using
LILO when it is part of the boot sector, not the MBR. Go to  <ulink
URL="http://www.linuxresources.com/LDP/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX.html">Linux HOWTOs</ulink>
on the World Wide Web for more information on booting Linux with
OS/2's boot manager.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>

<varlistentry>
<term>OS-BS</term>

<listitem> <para>This is an alternative to Boot Easy. It gives you
more control  over the booting process, with the ability to set the
default partition to boot and the booting timeout. The beta version
of this programs allows you to boot by selecting the OS with  your
arrow keys. It is included on the FreeBSD CD in the
<filename>\TOOLS</filename> directory, and via <ulink
URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools">ftp</ulink>.</para>
</listitem> </varlistentry>

<varlistentry>
<term>LILO, or LInux LOader</term>

<listitem>
<para>This is a limited boot manager. Will boot  FreeBSD, though some
customization work is required in the LILO configuration file.</para>
</listitem>
</varlistentry>

</variablelist>

<note id="fat32"><title>About FAT32</title><para>FAT32 is the replacement to
the FAT filesystem included in  Microsoft's OEM SR2 Beta release,
which is expected to utilitized on computers pre-loaded with Windows
95 towards the end of 1996. It converts the normal FAT file system
and allows you to use smaller cluster sizes for larger hard drives.
FAT32 also modifies the traditional FAT boot sector and allocation
table, making it incompatible with some boot managers.</para></note>

</chapter>

<chapter id="ch3">
<title>A Typical Installation</title>

<para>Let's say I have two large EIDE hard drives, and I want to
install FreeBSD, Linux, and Windows 95 on them.</para>

<para>Here's how I might do it using these hard disks:
<itemizedlist>

<listitem>
<para><filename>/dev/wd0</> (first physical hard disk)</para>
</listitem>

<listitem>
<para><filename>/dev/wd1</> (second hard disk)</para>
</listitem>

</itemizedlist>
</para>
  
<para>Both disks have 1416 cylinders.</para>
  
<procedure> 

<step><para>I boot from a MS-DOS or Windows 95 boot disk that
contains the  <filename>FDISK.EXE</> utility and make a small 50 meg
primary partition (35-40 for  Windows 95, plus a little breathing
room) on the first disk.  Also create  a larger partition on the
second hard disk for my Windows applications  and data.</para></step>

<step><para>I reboot and install Windows 95 (easier said than done)
on the  <filename>C:</> partition.</para> </step>

<step><para>The next thing I do is install Linux.  I'm not sure about
all the  distributions of Linux, but slackware includes LILO (see
<xref linkend="ch2">). When I am partitioning out my hard disk with
Linux <command>fdisk</command>, I would put all of Linux on the first
drive (maybe 300 megs for a nice root partition and some swap
space).</para></step>

<step><para>After I install Linux, and are prompted about installing
LILO,  make SURE that  I install it on the boot sector of my root
Linux  partition, not in the MBR (master boot record).</para></step>

<step><para>The remaining hard disk space can go to FreeBSD.  I also
make  sure that my FreeBSD root slice does not go beyond the 1024th 
cylinder. (The 1024th cylinder is 528 megs into the disk with our
hypothetical 720MB disks).  I will use the rest of the hard drive 
(about 270 megs) for the <filename>/usr</> and <filename>/</> slices
if I wish.  The rest  of the second hard disk (size depends on the
amount of my Windows application/data partition that I created in
step 1 can go  to the <filename>/usr/src</> slice and swap
space.</para></step>

<step><para>When viewed with the Windows 95 <command>fdisk</> utility, my hard drives
should now look something like this:
<screen>        
---------------------------------------------------------------------

                  Display Partition Information

Current fixed disk drive: 1

Partition  Status  Type  Volume_Label  Mbytes  System  Usage
C: 1          A   PRI DOS                50    FAT**     7%
   2          A   Non-DOS (Linux)       300             43%

Total disk space is  696 Mbytes (1 Mbyte = 1048576 bytes)

Press Esc to continue

---------------------------------------------------------------------
                        
                  Display Partition Information

Current fixed disk drive: 2

Partition  Status  Type  Volume_Label  Mbytes  System  Usage
D: 1          A   PRI DOS                420   FAT**    60%

Total disk space is  696 Mbytes (1 Mbyte = 1048576 bytes)

Press Esc to continue

---------------------------------------------------------------------
</screen>
** May say FAT16 or FAT32 if you are using the OEM SR2 update.
See <xref linkend="ch2">).</para></step>
  
<step><para>Install FreeBSD.  I make sure to boot with my first hard
disk set at <quote>NORMAL</> in the BIOS.  If it is not, I'll have
the enter my true disk geometry at boot time (to get this, boot
Windows 95 and consult Microsoft Diagnostics (<filename>MSD.EXE</>),
or check your BIOS) with the parameter <literal>hd0=1416,16,63</>
where <replaceable>1416</> is the number of  cylinders on my hard
disk, <replaceable>16</> is the number of heads per track,  and
<replaceable>63</> is the number of sectors per track on the
drive.</para></step>

<step><para>When partitioning out the hard disk, I make sure to install
Boot Easy on the first disk.  I don't worry about the second disk,
nothing is booting off of it.</para></step>
  
<step><para>When I reboot, Boot Easy should recognize my three
bootable partitions as DOS (Windows 95), Linux, and BSD
(FreeBSD).</para></step>

</procedure>

</chapter>

<chapter id="ch4">
<title>Special Considerations</title>

<para>Most operating systems are very picky about where and how they are
placed on the hard disk.  Windows 95 and DOS need to be on the first
primary partitiin on the first hard disk.  OS/2 is the exception. It
can be installed on the first or second disk in a primary or extended
partition.  If you are not sure, keep the beginning of the bootable
partitions below the 1024th cylinder.</para>
  
<para>If you install Windows 95 on an existing BSD system, it will
<quote>destroy</> the MBR, and you will have to reinstall your
previous boot manager. Boot Easy can be reinstalled by using the
BOOTINST.EXE utility included in the \TOOLS directory on the CD-ROM,
and via <ulink
URL="ftp://ftp.freebsd.org/pub/FreeBSD/tools">ftp</ulink>.  You can
also re-start the installation process and go to the partition
editor.  From there, mark the FreeBSD partition as bootable,
select Boot Manager, and then type W to (W)rite out the information
to the MBR.  You can now reboot, and  Boot Easy should then
recognize Windows 95 as DOS.</para>

<para>Please keep in mind that OS/2 can read FAT and HPFS partitions,
but not FFS (FreeBSD) or EXT2 (Linux) partitions.   Likewise, Windows
95 can only read and write to FAT and FAT32 (see <xref
linkend="ch2">) partitions.   FreeBSD can read most file systems, but
currently cannot read HPFS partitions.  Linux can read HPFS
partitions, but can't write to them. Recent versions of the Linux
kernel (2.x) can read and write to Windows 95 VFAT partitions (VFAT
is what gives Windows 95 long file names - it's pretty much the same
as FAT).  Linux can read and write to most file systems.  Got that? 
I hope so.</para>

</chapter>

<chapter id="ch5">
<title>Examples</title>

<para><emphasis>(section needs work, please send your example to
<email>jayrich@sysc.com</email>)</emphasis>.</para>

<para>FreeBSD+Win95:  If you installed FreeBSD after Windows 95, you 
should see <literal>DOS</> on the Boot Easy menu.  This is Windows
95. If you installed Windows 95 after FreeBSD, read <xref
linkend="ch4"> above. As long as your hard disk does not have 1024
cylinders you should not have a problem booting.  If one of your
partitions goes beyond the 1024th cylinder however, and you get
messages like <errorname>invalid system disk</> under DOS (Windows 95)
and FreeBSD will not boot, try looking for a setting in your BIOS
called <quote>&gt; 1024 cylinder support</> or <quote>NORMAL/LBA</>
mode.  DOS may need LBA (Logical Block Addressing) in order to boot
correctly.  If the idea of switching BIOS settings every time you
boot up doesn't appeal to you, you can boot FreeBSD through DOS via
the <filename>FBSDBOOT.EXE</> utility on the CD (It should find your
FreeBSD  partition and boot it.)</para>

<para>FreeBSD+OS/2+Win95:  Nothing new here.  OS/2's boot manger
can boot all of these operating systems, so that shouldn't be a
problem.</para>
  
<para>FreeBSD+Linux: You can also use Boot Easy to boot both operating 
systems.</para>
  
<para>FreeBSD+Linux+Win95:  (see <xref linkend="ch3">)</para>
  
</chapter>

<chapter id="sources">
<title>Other Sources of Help</title>

<para>There are many <ulink
URL="http://www.linuxresources.com/LDP/HOWTO/HOWTO-INDEX.html">Linux HOW-TOs</ulink> that
deal with multiple operating systems on the same hard disk.</para>

<para>The <ulink
URL="http://www.linuxresources.com/LDP/HOWTO/mini/Linux+DOS+Win95+OS2.html">Linux+DOS+Win95+OS2
mini-HOWTO</ulink> offers help on configuring the OS/2 boot manager, and the
<ulink
URL="http://www.linuxresources.com/LDP/HOWTO/mini/Linux+FreeBSD.html">Linux+FreeBSD
mini-HOWTO</ulink> might be interesting as well.  The <ulink
URL="http://www.in.net/~jkatz/win95/Linux-HOWTO.html">Linux-HOWTO</ulink> is
also helpful.</para>

<para>The <ulink
URL="http://www.dorsai.org/~dcl/publications/NTLDR_Hacking">NT Loader
Hacking Guide</ulink> provides good information on multibooting
Windows NT, '95, and DOS with other operating systems.</para>

<para>And Hale Landis's "How It Works" document pack contains some good info
on all sorts of disk geometry and booting related topics.  Here are a few
links that might help you find it: <ulink URL="ftp://fission.dt.wdc.com/pub/otherdocs/pc_systems/how_it_works/allhiw.zip">ftp://fission.dt.wdc.com/pub/otherdocs/pc_systems/how_it_works/allhiw.zip</ulink>, 
<ulink URL="http://web.idirect.com/~frank/">http://www.cs.yorku.ca/People/frank/docs/</ulink>.</para>
  
<para>Finally, don't overlook FreeBSD's kernel documentation on the booting
procedure, available in the kernel source distribution (it unpacks to 
<ulink URL="file:/usr/src/sys/i386/boot/biosboot/README.386BSD">file:/usr/src/sys/i386/boot/biosboot/README.386BSD</ulink>.</para>
  
</chapter>

<chapter>
<title>Technical Details</title>

<para><emphasis>(Contributed by Randall Hopper,
<email>rhh@ct.picker.com</email>)</emphasis></para>

<para>This section attempts to give you enough basic information
about your hard disks and the disk booting process so that you can
troubleshoot most problems you might encounter when getting set up to
boot several operating systems.  It starts in pretty basic terms, so
you may want to skim down in this section until it begins to look
unfamiliar and then start reading.</para>


<sect1>
<title>Disk Primer</title>

<para>Three fundamental terms are used to describe the location of
data on your hard disk: Cylinders, Heads, and Sectors.  It's not
particularly important to know what these terms relate to except to
know that, together, they identify where data is physically on your
disk.</para>
  
<para>Your disk has a particular number of cylinders, number of
heads, and number of sectors per cylinder-head (a cylinder-head also
known nown as a track).  Collectively this information defines the
"physical disk geometry" for your hard disk.  There are typically 512
bytes per sector, and 63 sectors per track, with the number of
cylinders and heads varying widely from disk to disk.  Thus you can
figure the number of bytes of data that'll fit on your own disk by
calculating: <informalexample><para>(# of cylinders) &times; (#
heads) &times; (63 sectors/track) &times; (512
bytes/sect)</></informalexample> For example, on my 1.6 Gig Western
Digital AC31600 EIDE hard disk,that's: <informalexample><para>(3148
cyl) &times; (16 heads) &times; (63 sectors/track) &times (512
bytes/sect)</para></informalexample></para>

<para>which is 1,624,670,208 bytes, or around 1.6 Gig.</para>
  
<para>You can find out the physical disk geometry (number of
cylinders, heads, and sectors/track counts) for your hard disks using
ATAID or other programs off the net.  Your hard disk probably came
with this information as well.  Be careful though: if you're using
BIOS LBA (see <xref linkend="limits">), you  can't use just any
program to get the physical geometry.  This is because  many programs
(e.g. <filename>MSD.EXE</> or FreeBSD fdisk) don't identify the
physical  disk geometry; they instead report the
<firstterm>translated geometry</> (virtual  numbers from using LBA). 
Stay tuned for what that means.</para>

<para>One other useful thing about these terms.  Given 3
numbers&mdash;a cylinder number, a head number, and a
sector-within-track number&mdash;you identify a specific absolute
sector (a 512 byte block of data) on your disk.  Cylinders and Heads
are numbered up from 0, and Sectors are numbered up from 1.</para>

<para>For those that are interested in more technical details,
information on disk geometry, boot sectors, BIOSes, etc. can be found
all over the net. Query Lycos, Yahoo, etc. for <literal>boot
sector</> or <literal>master boot record</>. Among the useful info
you'll find are Hale Landis's <citetitle>How It Works</> document
pack.  See the <xref linkend="sources"> section for a few pointers to
this pack.</para>

<para>Ok, enough terminology.  We're talking about booting
here.</para>

</sect1>

<sect1 id="booting">
<title>The Booting Process</title>

<para>On the first sector of your disk (Cyl 0, Head 0, Sector 1)
lives the Master Boot Record (MBR).  It contains a map of your disk. 
It identifies up to 4 <firstterm>partitions</>, each of which is a
contiguous chunk of that disk.  FreeBSD calls partitions
<firstterm>slices</> to avoid confusion with it's own partitions, but
we won't do that here.  Each partition can contain its own operating
system.</para>

<para>Each partition entry in the MBR has a <firstterm>Partition
ID</>, a <firstterm>Start Cylinder/Head/Sector</>, and an
<firstterm>End Cylinder/Head/Sector</>.  The Partition ID tells what
type of partition it is (what OS) and the Start/End tells where it
is.  <xref linkend="tbl-pid"> lists a smattering of some common
Partition IDs.</para>

<table id="tbl-pid">
<title>Partition IDs</>
<tgroup cols="2">
<thead>
<row>
<entry>ID (hex)</entry>
<entry>Description</entry>
</row>
</thead>

<tbody>
<row>
<entry>01</entry>
<entry>Primary DOS12 (12-bit FAT)</entry>
</row>

<row>
<entry>04</entry>
<entry>Primary DOS16 (16-bit FAT)</entry>
</row>

<row>
<entry>05</entry>
<entry>Extended DOS</entry>
</row>

<row>
<entry>06</entry>
<entry>Primary big DOS (&gt; 32MB)</entry>
</row>

<row>
<entry>0A</entry>
<entry>OS/2</entry>
</row>

<row>
<entry>83</entry>
<entry>Linux (EXT2FS)</entry>
</row>

<row>
<entry>A5</entry>
<entry>FreeBSD, NetBSD, 386BSD (UFS)</entry>
</row>

</tbody>
</tgroup>
</table>

<para>Note that not all partitions are bootable (e.g. Extended DOS).
Some are&mdash;some aren't.  What makes a partition bootable is the
configuration of the <firstterm>Partition Boot Sector</> that exists
at the beginning of each partition.</para>

<para>When you configure your favorite boot manager, it looks up the entries
in the MBR partition tables of all your hard disks and lets you name the
entries in that list.  Then when you boot, the boot manager is invoked by
special code in the Master Boot Sector of the first probed hard disk on
your system.  It looks at the MBR partition table entry corresponding to
the partition choice you made, uses the Start Cylinder/Head/Sector
information for that partition, loads up the Partition Boot Sector for that
partition, and gives it control.  That Boot Sector for the partition itself
contains enough information to start loading the operating system on that
partition.</para>
  
<para>One thing we just brushed past that's important to know.  All of your
hard disks have MBRs.  However, the one that's important is the one on the
disk that's first probed by the BIOS.  If you have only IDE hard disks, its
the first IDE disk (e.g. primary disk on first controller).  Similarly for
SCSI only systems.  If you have both IDE and SCSI hard disks though, the
IDE disk is typically probed first by the BIOS, so the first IDE disk is
the first probed disk.  The boot manager you will install will be hooked into
the MBR on this first probed hard disk that we've just described.</para>
  
</sect1>

<sect1 id="limits">
<title>Booting Limitations and Warnings</title>

<para>Now the interesting stuff that you need to watch out for.</para>
  
<sect2>
<title>The dreaded 1024 cylinder limit and how BIOS LBA helps</title>
  
<para>The first part of the booting process is all done through the
BIOS, (if that's a new term to you, the BIOS is a software chip on
your system motherboard which provides startup code for your
computer).  As such, this first part of the process is subject to the
limitations of the BIOS interface.</para>
  
<para>The BIOS interface used to read the hard disk during this period
(INT 13H, Subfunction 2) allocates 10 bits to the Cylinder Number, 8
bits to the Head Number, and 6 bits to the Sector Number.  This
restricts users of this interface (i.e. boot managers hooked into
your disk's MBR as well as OS loaders hooked into the Boot Sectors)
to the following limits:
<itemizedlist>
<listitem><para>1024 cylinders, max</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>256 heads    , max</para></listitem>
<listitem><para>64 sectors/track, max (actually 63, <literal>0</> isn't
available)</para></listitem>
</itemizedlist>
</para>
  
<para>Now big hard disks have lots of cylinders but not a lot of
heads, so invariably with big hard disks the number of cylinders is
greater than 1024.  Given this and the BIOS interface as is, you
can't boot off just anywhere on your hard disk.  The boot code (the
boot manager and the OS loader hooked into all bootable partitions'
Boot Sectors) has to reside below cylinder 1024.  In fact, if your
hard disk is typical and has 16 heads, this equates to:
<informalexample>
<para>1024 cyl/disk &times; 16 heads/disk &times; 63 sect/(cyl-head)
&times; 512 bytes/sector</para>
</informalexample>
</para>
  
<para>which is around the often-mentioned 528MB limit.</para>
  
<para>This is where BIOS LBA (Logical Block Addressing) comes in.  BIOS LBA
gives the user of the BIOS API calls access to physical cylinders above
1024 though the BIOS interfaces by redefining a cylinder.  That is, it
remaps your cylinders and heads, making it appear through the BIOS as
though the disk has fewer cylinders and more heads than it actually
does.  In other words, it takes advantage of the fact that hard disks have
relatively few heads and lots of cylinders by shifting the balance between
number of cylinders and number of heads so that both numbers lie below the
above-mentioned limits (1024 cylinders, 256 heads).</para>
  
<para>With BIOS LBA, the hard disk size limitation is virtually
removed (well, pushed up to 8 Gigabytes anyway).  If you have an LBA
BIOS, you can put FreeBSD or any OS anywhere you want and not hit the
1024 cylinder limit.</para>
  
<para>To use my 1.6 Gig Western Digital as an example again, it's
physical geometry is:
<informalexample>
<para>(3148 cyl, 16 heads, 63 sectors/track, 512 bytes/sector)</para>
</informalexample>
</para>
  
<para>However, my BIOS LBA remaps this to:
<informalexample>
<para>( 787 cyl, 64 heads, 63 sectors/track, 512 bytes/sector)</para>
</informalexample>
</para>
  
<para>giving the same effective size disk, but with cylinder and head
counts within the BIOS API's range (Incidentally, I have both Linux and
FreeBSD existing on one of my hard disks above the 1024th physical
cylinder, and both operating systems boot fine, thanks to BIOS LBA).</para>
  
</sect2>

<sect2>
<title>Boot Managers and Disk Allocation</title>
  
<para>Another gotcha to watch out when installing boot managers is
allocating space for your boot manager.  It's best to be aware of
this issue up front to save yourself from having to reinstall one or
more of your OSs.</para>
  
<para>If you followed the discussion in <xref linkend="booting"> 
about the Master Boot Sector (where the MBR is), Partition Boot
Sectors, and the booting process, you may have been wondering just
exactly where on your hard disk that nifty boot manager is going to
live.  Well, some boot managers are small enough to fit entirely
within the Master Boot Sector (Cylinder 0, Head 0, Sector 0) along
with the partition table. Others need a bit more room and actually
extend a few sectors past the Master Boot Sector in the Cylinder 0
Head 0 track, since that's typically free&hellip;typically.</para>

<para>That's the catch.  Some operating systems (FreeBSD included) let
you start their partitions right after the Master Boot Sector at
Cylinder 0, Head 0, Sector 2 if you want.  In fact, if you give
FreeBSD's sysinstall a disk with an empty chunk up front or the whole
disk empty, that's where it'll start the FreeBSD partition by default
(at least it did when I fell into this trap).  Then when you go to
install your boot manager, if it's one that occupies a few extra
sectors after the MBR, it'll overwrite the front of the first
partition's data.  In the case of FreeBSD, this overwrites the
disk label, and renders your FreeBSD partition unbootable.</para>
  
<para>The easy way to avoid this problem (and leave yourself the
flexibility to try different boot managers later) is just to always
leave the first full track on your disk unallocated when you
partition your disk.  That is, leave the space from Cylinder 0, Head
0, Sector 2 through Cylinder 0, Head 0, Sector 63 unallocated, and
start your first partition at Cylinder 0, Head 1, Sector 1.
For what it's worth, when you create a DOS partition at the
front of your disk, DOS leaves this space open by default (this is
why some boot managers assume it's free).  So creating a DOS
partition up at the front of your disk avoids this problem
altogether.  I like to do this myself, creating 1 Meg DOS partition
up front, because it also avoids my primary DOS drive letters
shifting later when I repartition.</para>
  
<para>For reference, the following boot managers use the
Master Boot Sector to store their code and data:
<itemizedlist>

<listitem>
<para>OS-BS 1.35</para>
</listitem>

<listitem>
<para>Boot Easy</para>
</listitem>

<listitem>
<para>LILO</para>
</listitem>

</itemizedlist>
</para>
  
<para>These boot managers use a few additional sectors after the
Master Boot Sector:
<itemizedlist>

<listitem>
<para>OS-BS 2.0 Beta 8      (sectors 2-5)</para>
</listitem>

<listitem>
<para>OS/2's boot manager</para>
</listitem>

</itemizedlist>
</para>
  
</sect2>

<sect2>
<title>What if your machine won't boot?</title>
  
<para>At some point when installing boot managers, you might leave the
MBR in a state such that your machine won't boot.  This is unlikely,
but possible when re-FDISKing underneath an already-installed boot
manager.</para>
  
<para>If you have a bootable DOS partition on your disk, you can boot
off a DOS floppy, and run:
<informalexample>
<screen>A:\> <userinput>FDISK /MBR</></screen>
</informalexample>
</para>
  
<para>to put the original, simple DOS boot code back into the system.  You can
then boot DOS (and DOS only) off the hard drive.  Alternatively, just
re-run your boot manager installation program off a bootable floppy.</para>
  
</sect2>
</sect1>
</chapter>
</book>