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<!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/developers-handbook/book.sgml,v 1.5 2000/11/06 13:52:26 murray Exp $
-->

<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook V3.1-Based Extension//EN" [
<!ENTITY % bookinfo PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook BookInfo Entities//EN">
%bookinfo;
]>

<book>
  <bookinfo>
    <title>FreeBSD Developers' Handbook</title>
    
    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<surname>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</surname>
        <affiliation>
          <address>
            <email>doc@FreeBSD.org</email>
          </address>
        </affiliation>
      </author>
    </authorgroup>
    
    <pubdate>August 2000</pubdate>
    
    <copyright>
      <year>2000</year>
      <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>
    </copyright>

    &bookinfo.legalnotice;
    
    <abstract>
      <para>Welcome to the Developers' Handbook.</para>
    </abstract>
  </bookinfo>
  
  <part id="introduction">
    <title>Introduction</title>

    <chapter id="developmentplatform">
      <title>Developing on FreeBSD</title>

      <para>This will need to discuss FreeBSD as a development
        platform, the vision of BSD, architectural overview, layout of
        /usr/src, history, etc.</para>

      <para>Thank you for considering FreeBSD as your development
        platform!  We hope it will not let you down.</para>
    </chapter>

    <chapter id="bsdvision">
      <title>The BSD Vision</title>

      <para></para>
    </chapter>

    <chapter id="archoverview">
      <title>Architectural Overview</title>

      <para></para>
    </chapter>

    <chapter id="sourcelayout">
      <title>The Layout of /usr/src</title>

      <para>The complete source code to FreeBSD is available from our
      public CVS repository.  The source code is normally installed in
      <filename class=directory>/usr/src</filename> which contains the
      following subdirectories.</para>

      <para>
      <informaltable frame="none">
        <tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Directory</entry>
	      <entry>Description</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>
	  
	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>bin/</filename></entry>
            <entry>Source for files in
            <filename>/bin</filename></entry>
	    </row>
	    
	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>contrib/</filename></entry>
	    <entry>Source for files from contribued software.</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>crypto/</filename></entry>
	    <entry>DES source</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>etc/</filename></entry>
	    <entry>Source for files in <filename
	    class=directory>/etc</filename></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>games/</filename></entry>
	    <entry>Source for files in <filename
	    class=directory>/usr/games</filename></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>gnu/</filename></entry>
	    <entry>Utilities covered by the GNU Public License</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>include/</filename></entry>
            <entry>Source for files in <filename
            class=directory>/usr/include</filename></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename
 class=directory>kerberosIV/</filename></entry>
            <entry>Source for Kerbereros version IV</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename
 class=directory>kerberos5/</filename></entry>
            <entry>Source for Kerbereros version 5</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>lib/</filename></entry>
	    <entry>Source for files in <filename
	    class=directory>/usr/lib</filename></entry>
	    </row>
	    
	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>libexec/</filename></entry>
	    <entry>Source for files in <filename
	    class=directory>/usr/libexec</filename></entry>
	    </row>
	    
	    <row>
	    <entry><filename
 class=directory>release/</filename></entry>
            <entry>Files required to produce a FreeBSD release</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>sbin/</filename></entry>
	    <entry>Source for files in <filename
	    class=directory>/sbin</filename></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>secure/</filename></entry>
	    <entry>FreeSec sources</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>share/</filename></entry>
	    <entry>Source for files in <filename
	    class=directory>/sbin</filename></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>sys/</filename></entry>
	    <entry>Kernel source files</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename class=directory>tools/</filename></entry>
	    <entry>Tools used for maintenance and testing of
	    FreeBSD</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename
 class=directory>usr.bin/</filename></entry>
            <entry>Source for files in <filename
 class=directory>/usr/bin</filename></entry>
            </row>

	    <row>
	    <entry><filename
 class=directory>usr.sbin/</filename></entry>
            <entry>Source for files in <filename
 class=directory>/usr/sbin</filename></entry>
            </row>
          </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>

      </para>

    </chapter>
  </part>

  <part id="Basics">
    <title>Basics</title>

    <chapter id="programming-tools">
      <title>Programming Tools</title>

      <para><emphasis>This chapter was written by James Raynard.
      Modifications for the Developer's Handbook by Murray Stokely.
      </emphasis></para>

      <sect1><title>Synopsis</title>

      <para>This document is an introduction to using some of the
	programming tools supplied with FreeBSD, although much of it
	will be applicable to many other versions of Unix.  It does
	<emphasis>not</emphasis> attempt to describe coding in any
	detail.  Most of the document assumes little or no previous
	programming knowledge, although it is hoped that most
	programmers will find something of value in it</para>

      </sect1>

      <sect1><title>Introduction</title>
  
      <para>FreeBSD offers an excellent development environment.
      Compilers for C, C++, and Fortran and an assembler come with the
      basic system, not to mention a Perl interpreter and classic Unix
      tools such as <command>sed</command> and <command>awk</command>.
      If that is not enough, there are many more compilers and
      interpreters in the Ports collection.  FreeBSD is very
      compatible with standards such as <acronym>POSIX</acronym> and
      <acronym>ANSI</acronym> C, as well with its own BSD heritage, so
      it is possible to write applications that will compile and run
      with little or no modification on a wide range of
      platforms.</para>

      <para>However, all this power can be rather overwhelming at
      first if you've never written programs on a Unix platform
      before.  This document aims to help you get up and running,
      without getting too deeply into more advanced topics.  The
      intention is that this document should give you enough of the
      basics to be able to make some sense of the
      documentation.</para>

      <para>Most of the document requires little or no knowledge of
      programming, although it does assume a basic competence with
      using Unix and a willingness to learn!</para>

      </sect1>

      <sect1>
      <title>Introduction to Programming</title>

      <para>A program is a set of instructions that tell the computer
      to do various things; sometimes the instruction it has to
      perform depends on what happened when it performed a previous
      instruction.  This section gives an overview of the two main
      ways in which you can give these instructions, or
      <quote>commands</quote> as they are usually called.  One way
      uses an <firstterm>interpreter</firstterm>, the other a
      <firstterm>compiler</firstterm>.  As human languages are too
      difficult for a computer to understand in an unambiguous way,
      commands are usually written in one or other languages specially
      designed for the purpose.</para>

    <sect2>
      <title>Interpreters</title>

      <para>With an interpreter, the language comes as an environment,
	where you type in commands at a prompt and the environment
	executes them for you.  For more complicated programs, you can
	type the commands into a file and get the interpreter to load
	the file and execute the commands in it.  If anything goes
	wrong, many interpreters will drop you into a debugger to help
	you track down the problem.</para>

      <para>The advantage of this is that you can see the results of
	your commands immediately, and mistakes can be corrected
	readily.  The biggest disadvantage comes when you want to
	share your programs with someone.  They must have the same
	interpreter, or you must have some way of giving it to them,
	and they need to understand how to use it.  Also users may not
	appreciate being thrown into a debugger if they press the
	wrong key! From a performance point of view, interpreters can
	use up a lot of memory, and generally do not generate code as
	efficiently as compilers.</para>

      <para>In my opinion, interpreted languages are the best way to
	start if you have not done any programming before.  This kind
	of environment is typically found with languages like Lisp,
	Smalltalk, Perl and Basic.  It could also be argued that the
	Unix shell (<command>sh</command>, <command>csh</command>) is itself an
	interpreter, and many people do in fact write shell
	<quote>scripts</quote> to help with various
	<quote>housekeeping</quote> tasks on their machine.  Indeed, part
	of the original Unix philosophy was to provide lots of small
	utility programs that could be linked together in shell
	scripts to perform useful tasks.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Interpreters available with FreeBSD</title>

      <para>Here is a list of interpreters that are available as
	<ulink
	  URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/">FreeBSD
	  packages</ulink>, with a brief discussion of some of the
	more popular interpreted languages.</para>

      <para>To get one of these packages, all you need to do is to
	click on the hotlink for the package, then run</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg_add <replaceable>package name</></userinput>
      </screen>

      <para>as root.  Obviously, you will need to have a fully
	functional FreeBSD 2.1.0 or later system for the package to
	work!</para>

      <variablelist>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term><acronym>BASIC</acronym></term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Short for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic
	      Instruction Code.  Developed in the 1950s for teaching
	      University students to program and provided with every
	      self-respecting personal computer in the 1980s,
	      <acronym>BASIC</acronym> has been the first programming
	      language for many programmers.  It's also the foundation
	      for Visual Basic.</para>

	    <para>The <ulink
		URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/bwbasic-2.10.tgz">Bywater
		Basic Interpreter</ulink> and the <ulink
		URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/pbasic-2.0.tgz">Phil
		Cockroft's Basic Interpreter</ulink> (formerly Rabbit
	      Basic) are available as FreeBSD <ulink
		URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/">FreeBSD
		packages</ulink></para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Lisp</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>A language that was developed in the late 1950s as
	      an alternative to the <quote>number-crunching</quote>
	      languages that were popular at the time.  Instead of
	      being based on numbers, Lisp is based on lists; in fact
	      the name is short for <quote>List Processing</quote>.
	      Very popular in AI (Artificial Intelligence)
	      circles.</para>

	    <para>Lisp is an extremely powerful and sophisticated
	      language, but can be rather large and unwieldy.</para>

	    <para>FreeBSD has <ulink
		URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/gcl-2.0.tgz">GNU
		Common Lisp</ulink> available as a package.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Perl</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Very popular with system administrators for writing
	      scripts; also often used on World Wide Web servers for
	      writing <acronym>CGI</acronym> scripts.</para>

	    <para>The latest version (version 5) comes with FreeBSD.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Scheme</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>A dialect of Lisp that is rather more compact and
	      cleaner than Common Lisp.  Popular in Universities as it
	      is simple enough to teach to undergraduates as a first
	      language, while it has a high enough level of
	      abstraction to be used in research work.</para>

	    <para>FreeBSD has packages of the <ulink
		URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/elk-3.0.tgz">Elk
		Scheme Interpreter</ulink>, the <ulink
		URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/mit-scheme-7.3.tgz">MIT
		Scheme Interpreter</ulink> and the <ulink
		URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/scm-4e1.tgz">SCM
		Scheme Interpreter</ulink>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Icon</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para><ulink
		URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/icon-9.0.tgz">The
		Icon Programming Language</ulink>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Logo</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para><ulink
		URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/ucblogo-3.3.tgz">Brian
		Harvey's LOGO Interpreter</ulink>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Python</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para><ulink
		URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org:pub/FreeBSD/packages/lang/python-1.2">The
		Python Object-Oriented Programming
		Language</ulink></para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
      </variablelist>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Compilers</title>

      <para>Compilers are rather different.  First of all, you write
	your code in a file (or files) using an editor.  You then run
	the compiler and see if it accepts your program.  If it did
	not compile, grit your teeth and go back to the editor; if it
	did compile and gave you a program, you can run it either at a
	shell command prompt or in a debugger to see if it works
	properly.
	
	<footnote>
	  <para>If you run it in the shell, you may get a core
	    dump.</para>
	</footnote></para>

      <para>Obviously, this is not quite as direct as using an
	interpreter.  However it allows you to do a lot of things
	which are very difficult or even impossible with an
	interpreter, such as writing code which interacts closely with
	the operating system&mdash;or even writing your own operating
	system! It's also useful if you need to write very efficient
	code, as the compiler can take its time and optimise the code,
	which would not be acceptable in an interpreter.  And
	distributing a program written for a compiler is usually more
	straightforward than one written for an interpreter&mdash;you
	can just give them a copy of the executable, assuming they
	have the same operating system as you.</para>

      <para>Compiled languages include Pascal, C and C++.  C and C++
	are rather unforgiving languages, and best suited to more
	experienced programmers; Pascal, on the other hand, was
	designed as an educational language, and is quite a good
	language to start with.  Unfortunately, FreeBSD doesn't have
	any Pascal support, except for a Pascal-to-C converter in the
	ports.</para>

      <para>As the edit-compile-run-debug cycle is rather tedious when
	using separate programs, many commercial compiler makers have
	produced Integrated Development Environments

	(<acronym>IDE</acronym>s for short).  FreeBSD does not have an
	<acronym>IDE</acronym> as such; however it is possible to use Emacs
	for this purpose.  This is discussed in <xref
	  linkend="emacs">.</para>
    </sect2>


  </sect1>


  <sect1>
    <title>Compiling with <command>cc</command></title>

    <para>This section deals only with the GNU compiler for C and C++,
      since that comes with the base FreeBSD system.  It can be
      invoked by either <command>cc</command> or <command>gcc</command>.  The
      details of producing a program with an interpreter vary
      considerably between interpreters, and are usually well covered
      in the documentation and on-line help for the
      interpreter.</para>

    <para>Once you've written your masterpiece, the next step is to
      convert it into something that will (hopefully!) run on FreeBSD.
      This usually involves several steps, each of which is done by a
      separate program.</para>

    <procedure>
      <step>
	<para>Pre-process your source code to remove comments and do
	  other tricks like expanding macros in C.</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>Check the syntax of your code to see if you have obeyed
	  the rules of the language.  If you have not, it will
	  complain!</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>Convert the source code into assembly
	  language&mdash;this is very close to machine code, but still
	  understandable by humans.  Allegedly.

	  <footnote>
	    <para>To be strictly accurate, <command>cc</command> converts the
	      source code into its own, machine-independent
	      <firstterm>p-code</firstterm> instead of assembly language at
	      this stage.</para>
	  </footnote></para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>Convert the assembly language into machine
	  code&mdash;yep, we are talking bits and bytes, ones and
	  zeros here.</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>Check that you have used things like functions and
	  global variables in a consistent way.  For example, if you
	  have called a non-existent function, it will
	  complain.</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>If you are trying to produce an executable from several
	  source code files, work out how to fit them all
	  together.</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>Work out how to produce something that the system's
	  run-time loader will be able to load into memory and
	  run.</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>Finally, write the executable on the file system.</para>
      </step>
    </procedure>

    <para>The word <firstterm>compiling</firstterm> is often used to refer to
      just steps 1 to 4&mdash;the others are referred to as
      <firstterm>linking</firstterm>.  Sometimes step 1 is referred to as
      <firstterm>pre-processing</firstterm> and steps 3-4 as
      <firstterm>assembling</firstterm>.</para>

    <para>Fortunately, almost all this detail is hidden from you, as
      <command>cc</command> is a front end that manages calling all these
      programs with the right arguments for you; simply typing</para>

    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc foobar.c</>
    </screen>

    <para>will cause <filename>foobar.c</filename> to be compiled by all the
      steps above.  If you have more than one file to compile, just do
      something like</para>

    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc foo.c bar.c</>
    </screen>

    <para>Note that the syntax checking is just that&mdash;checking
      the syntax.  It will not check for any logical mistakes you may
      have made, like putting the program into an infinite loop, or
      using a bubble sort when you meant to use a binary
      sort.

      <footnote>
	<para>In case you didn't know, a binary sort is an efficient
	  way of sorting things into order and a bubble sort
	  isn't.</para>
      </footnote></para>

    <para>There are lots and lots of options for <command>cc</command>, which
      are all in the man page.  Here are a few of the most important
      ones, with examples of how to use them.</para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-o <replaceable>filename</replaceable></option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The output name of the file.  If you do not use this
	    option, <command>cc</command> will produce an executable called
	    <filename>a.out</filename>.

	    <footnote>
	      <para>The reasons for this are buried in the mists of
		history.</para>
	    </footnote></para>

	  <informalexample>
	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc foobar.c</>               <lineannotation>executable is <filename>a.out</></>
&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c</>     <lineannotation>executable is <filename>foobar</></>
	    </screen>
	  </informalexample>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-c</option></term>
	
	<listitem>
	  <para>Just compile the file, do not link it.  Useful for toy
	    programs where you just want to check the syntax, or if
	    you are using a <filename>Makefile</filename>.</para>

	  <informalexample>
	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -c foobar.c</userinput>
	    </screen>
	  </informalexample>

	  <para>This will produce an <firstterm>object file</firstterm> (not an
	    executable) called <filename>foobar.o</filename>.  This
	    can be linked together with other object files into an
	    executable.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-g</option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Create a debug version of the executable.  This makes
	    the compiler put information into the executable about
	    which line of which source file corresponds to which
	    function call.  A debugger can use this information to show
	    the source code as you step through the program, which is
	    <emphasis>very</emphasis> useful; the disadvantage is that
	    all this extra information makes the program much bigger.
	    Normally, you compile with <option>-g</option> while you
	    are developing a program and then compile a <quote>release
	      version</quote> without <option>-g</option> when you're
	    satisfied it works properly.</para>

	  <informalexample>
	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -g foobar.c</userinput>
	    </screen>
	  </informalexample>

	  <para>This will produce a debug version of the
	    program.

	    <footnote>
	      <para>Note, we didn't use the <option>-o</option> flag
		to specify the executable name, so we will get an
		executable called <filename>a.out</filename>.
		Producing a debug version called
		<filename>foobar</filename> is left as an exercise for
		the reader!</para>
	    </footnote></para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-O</option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Create an optimised version of the executable.  The
	    compiler performs various clever tricks to try and produce
	    an executable that runs faster than normal.  You can add a
	    number after the <option>-O</option> to specify a higher
	    level of optimisation, but this often exposes bugs in the
	    compiler's optimiser.  For instance, the version of
	    <command>cc</command> that comes with the 2.1.0 release of
	    FreeBSD is known to produce bad code with the
	    <option>-O2</option> option in some circumstances.</para>

	  <para>Optimisation is usually only turned on when compiling
	    a release version.</para>

	  <informalexample>
	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -O -o foobar foobar.c</userinput>
	    </screen>
	  </informalexample>

	  <para>This will produce an optimised version of
	    <filename>foobar</filename>.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>

    <para>The following three flags will force <command>cc</command>
      to check that your code complies to the relevant international
      standard, often referred to as the <acronym>ANSI</acronym>
      standard, though strictly speaking it is an
      <acronym>ISO</acronym> standard.</para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-Wall</option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Enable all the warnings which the authors of
	    <command>cc</command> believe are worthwhile.  Despite the
	    name, it will not enable all the warnings
	    <command>cc</command> is capable of.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-ansi</option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Turn off most, but not all, of the
	    non-<acronym>ANSI</acronym>&nbsp;C features provided by
	    <command>cc</command>.  Despite the name, it does not
	    guarantee strictly that your code will comply to the
	    standard.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-pedantic</option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Turn off <emphasis>all</emphasis>
	    <command>cc</command>'s non-<acronym>ANSI</acronym>&nbsp;C
	    features.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>

    <para>Without these flags, <command>cc</command> will allow you to
      use some of its non-standard extensions to the standard.  Some
      of these are very useful, but will not work with other
      compilers&mdash;in fact, one of the main aims of the standard is
      to allow people to write code that will work with any compiler
      on any system.  This is known as <firstterm>portable
	code</firstterm>.</para>

    <para>Generally, you should try to make your code as portable as
      possible, as otherwise you may have to completely re-write the
      program later to get it to work somewhere else&mdash;and who
      knows what you may be using in a few years time?</para>

    <informalexample>
      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -Wall -ansi -pedantic -o foobar foobar.c</userinput>
      </screen>
    </informalexample>

    <para>This will produce an executable <filename>foobar</filename>
      after checking <filename>foobar.c</filename> for standard
      compliance.</para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-l<replaceable>library</replaceable></option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Specify a function library to be used during when
	    linking.</para>

	  <para>The most common example of this is when compiling a
	    program that uses some of the mathematical functions in C.
	    Unlike most other platforms, these are in a separate
	    library from the standard C one and you have to tell the
	    compiler to add it.</para>

	  <para>The rule is that if the library is called
	    <filename>lib<replaceable>something</replaceable>.a</filename>,
	    you give <command>cc</command> the argument
	    <option>-l<replaceable>something</replaceable></option>.
	    For example, the math library is
	    <filename>libm.a</filename>, so you give
	    <command>cc</command> the argument <option>-lm</option>.
	    A common <quote>gotcha</quote> with the math library is
	    that it has to be the last library on the command
	    line.</para>

	  <informalexample>
	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c -lm</userinput>
	    </screen>
	  </informalexample>

	  <para>This will link the math library functions into
	    <filename>foobar</filename>.</para>

	  <para>If you are compiling C++ code, you need to add
	    <option>-lg++</option>, or <option>-lstdc++</option> if
	    you are using FreeBSD 2.2 or later, to the command line
	    argument to link the C++ library functions.
	    Alternatively, you can run <command>c++</command> instead
	    of <command>cc</command>, which does this for you.
	    <command>c++</command> can also be invoked as
	    <command>g++</command> on FreeBSD.</para>

	  <informalexample>
	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.cc -lg++</userinput>     <lineannotation>For FreeBSD 2.1.6 and earlier</>
&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.cc -lstdc++</userinput>  <lineannotation>For FreeBSD 2.2 and later</>
&prompt.user; <userinput>c++ -o foobar foobar.cc</userinput>
	    </screen>
	  </informalexample>

	  <para>Each of these will both produce an executable
	    <filename>foobar</filename> from the C++ source file
	    <filename>foobar.cc</filename>.  Note that, on Unix
	    systems, C++ source files traditionally end in
	    <filename>.C</filename>, <filename>.cxx</filename> or
	    <filename>.cc</filename>, rather than the
	    MS-DOS style
	    <filename>.cpp</filename> (which was already used for
	    something else).  <command>gcc</command> used to rely on
	    this to work out what kind of compiler to use on the
	    source file; however, this restriction no longer applies,
	    so you may now call your C++ files
	    <filename>.cpp</filename> with impunity!</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>

    <sect2>
      <title>Common <command>cc</command> Queries and Problems</title>

      <qandaset>
	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>I am trying to write a program which uses the
	      <function>sin()</function> function and I get an error
	      like this.  What does it mean?</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>/var/tmp/cc0143941.o: Undefined symbol `_sin' referenced from text segment
	      </screen>
	    </informalexample>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>When using mathematical functions like
	      <function>sin()</function>, you have to tell
	      <command>cc</command> to link in the math library, like
	      so:</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c -lm</userinput>
	      </screen>
	    </informalexample>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>All right, I wrote this simple program to practice
	      using <option>-lm</option>.  All it does is raise 2.1 to
	      the power of 6.</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <programlisting>#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;

int main() {
	float f;

	f = pow(2.1, 6);
	printf("2.1 ^ 6 = %f\n", f);
	return 0;
}
	      </programlisting>
	    </informalexample>

	    <para>and I compiled it as:</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc temp.c -lm</userinput>
	      </screen>
	    </informalexample>

	    <para>like you said I should, but I get this when I run
	      it:</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>./a.out</userinput>
2.1 ^ 6 = 1023.000000
	      </screen>
	    </informalexample>

	    <para>This is <emphasis>not</emphasis> the right answer!
	      What is going on?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>When the compiler sees you call a function, it
	      checks if it has already seen a prototype for it.  If it
	      has not, it assumes the function returns an
	      <type>int</type>, which is definitely not what you want
	      here.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>So how do I fix this?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>The prototypes for the mathematical functions are in
	      <filename>math.h</filename>.  If you include this file,
	      the compiler will be able to find the prototype and it
	      will stop doing strange things to your
	      calculation!</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <programlisting>#include &lt;math.h&gt;
#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;

int main() {
...
	      </programlisting>
	    </informalexample>

	    <para>After recompiling it as you did before, run
	      it:</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>./a.out</userinput>
2.1 ^ 6 = 85.766121
	      </screen>
	    </informalexample>

	    <para>If you are using any of the mathematical functions,
	      <emphasis>always</emphasis> include
	      <filename>math.h</filename> and remember to link in the
	      math library.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>I compiled a file called
	      <filename>foobar.c</filename> and I cannot find an
	      executable called <filename>foobar</filename>.  Where's
	      it gone?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>Remember, <command>cc</command> will call the
	      executable <filename>a.out</filename> unless you tell it
	      differently.  Use the
	      <option>-o&nbsp;<replaceable>filename</replaceable></option>
	      option:</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c</userinput>
	      </screen>
	    </informalexample>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>
	
	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>OK, I have an executable called
	      <filename>foobar</filename>, I can see it when I run
	      <command>ls</command>, but when I type in
	      <command>foobar</command> at the command prompt it tells
	      me there is no such file.  Why can it not find
	      it?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>Unlike MS-DOS, Unix does not
	      look in the current directory when it is trying to find
	      out which executable you want it to run, unless you tell
	      it to.  Either type <command>./foobar</command>, which
	      means <quote>run the file called
		<filename>foobar</filename> in the current
		directory</quote>, or change your <systemitem
		class=environvar>PATH</systemitem> environment
	      variable so that it looks something like</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin:.
	      </screen>
	    </informalexample>

	    <para>The dot at the end means <quote>look in the current
		directory if it is not in any of the
		others</quote>.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>I called my executable <filename>test</filename>,
	      but nothing happens when I run it.  What is going
	      on?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>Most Unix systems have a program called
	      <command>test</command> in <filename>/usr/bin</filename>
	      and the shell is picking that one up before it gets to
	      checking the current directory.  Either type:</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>./test</userinput>
	      </screen>
	    </informalexample>

	    <para>or choose a better name for your program!</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>I compiled my program and it seemed to run all right
	      at first, then there was an error and it said something
	      about <errorname>core dumped</errorname>.  What does that
	      mean?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>The name <firstterm>core dump</firstterm> dates back
	      to the very early days of Unix, when the machines used
	      core memory for storing data.  Basically, if the program
	      failed under certain conditions, the system would write
	      the contents of core memory to disk in a file called
	      <filename>core</filename>, which the programmer could
	      then pore over to find out what went wrong.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>Fascinating stuff, but what I am supposed to do
	      now?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>Use <command>gdb</command> to analyse the core (see
	      <xref linkend="debugging">).</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>When my program dumped core, it said something about
	      a <errorname>segmentation fault</errorname>.  What's
	      that?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>This basically means that your program tried to
	      perform some sort of illegal operation on memory; Unix
	      is designed to protect the operating system and other
	      programs from rogue programs.</para>

	    <para>Common causes for this are:</para>

	    <itemizedlist>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Trying to write to a <symbol>NULL</symbol>
		  pointer, eg</para>

		<programlisting>char *foo = NULL;
strcpy(foo, "bang!");
		</programlisting>
	      </listitem>

	      <listitem>
		<para>Using a pointer that hasn't been initialised,
		  eg</para>

		<programlisting>char *foo;
strcpy(foo, "bang!");
		</programlisting>

		<para>The pointer will have some random value that,
		  with luck, will point into an area of memory that
		  isn't available to your program and the kernel will
		  kill your program before it can do any damage.  If
		  you're unlucky, it'll point somewhere inside your
		  own program and corrupt one of your data structures,
		  causing the program to fail mysteriously.</para>
	      </listitem>

	      <listitem>
		<para>Trying to access past the end of an array,
		  eg</para>

		<programlisting>int bar[20];
bar[27] = 6;
		</programlisting>
	      </listitem>

	      <listitem>
		<para>Trying to store something in read-only memory,
		  eg</para>

		<programlisting>char *foo = "My string";
strcpy(foo, "bang!");
		</programlisting>

		<para>Unix compilers often put string literals like
		  <literal>"My string"</literal> into read-only areas
		  of memory.</para>
	      </listitem>

	      <listitem>
		<para>Doing naughty things with
		  <function>malloc()</function> and
		  <function>free()</function>, eg</para>

		<programlisting>char bar[80];
free(bar);
		</programlisting>

		<para>or</para>

		<programlisting>char *foo = malloc(27);
free(foo);
free(foo);
		</programlisting>
	      </listitem>
	    </itemizedlist>

	    <para>Making one of these mistakes will not always lead to
	      an error, but they are always bad practice.  Some
	      systems and compilers are more tolerant than others,
	      which is why programs that ran well on one system can
	      crash when you try them on an another.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>Sometimes when I get a core dump it says
	      <errorname>bus error</errorname>.  It says in my Unix
	      book that this means a hardware problem, but the
	      computer still seems to be working.  Is this
	      true?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>No, fortunately not (unless of course you really do
	      have a hardware problem&hellip;).  This is usually
	      another way of saying that you accessed memory in a way
	      you shouldn't have.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>This dumping core business sounds as though it could
	      be quite useful, if I can make it happen when I want to.
	      Can I do this, or do I have to wait until there's an
	      error?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>Yes, just go to another console or xterm, do</para>

	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>ps</userinput>
	    </screen>

	    <para>to find out the process ID of your program, and
	      do</para>

	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>kill -ABRT <replaceable>pid</replaceable></userinput>
	    </screen>

	    <para>where
	      <parameter><replaceable>pid</replaceable></parameter> is
	      the process ID you looked up.</para>

	    <para>This is useful if your program has got stuck in an
	      infinite loop, for instance.  If your program happens to
	      trap <symbol>SIGABRT</symbol>, there are several other
	      signals which have a similar effect.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>
      </qandaset>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1>
    <title>Make</title>

    <sect2>
      <title>What is <command>make</command>?</title>

      <para>When you're working on a simple program with only one or
	two source files, typing in</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc file1.c file2.c</userinput>
      </screen>

      <para>is not too bad, but it quickly becomes very tedious when
	there are several files&mdash;and it can take a while to
	compile, too.</para>

      <para>One way to get around this is to use object files and only
	recompile the source file if the source code has changed.  So
	we could have something like:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc file1.o file2.o</userinput> &hellip; <userinput>file37.c</userinput> &hellip
      </screen>

      <para>if we'd changed <filename>file37.c</filename>, but not any
	of the others, since the last time we compiled.  This may
	speed up the compilation quite a bit, but doesn't solve the
	typing problem.</para>

      <para>Or we could write a shell script to solve the typing
	problem, but it would have to re-compile everything, making it
	very inefficient on a large project.</para>

      <para>What happens if we have hundreds of source files lying
	about? What if we're working in a team with other people who
	forget to tell us when they've changed one of their source
	files that we use?</para>

      <para>Perhaps we could put the two solutions together and write
	something like a shell script that would contain some kind of
	magic rule saying when a source file needs compiling.  Now all
	we need now is a program that can understand these rules, as
	it's a bit too complicated for the shell.</para>

      <para>This program is called <command>make</command>.  It reads
	in a file, called a <firstterm>makefile</firstterm>, that
	tells it how different files depend on each other, and works
	out which files need to be re-compiled and which ones don't.
	For example, a rule could say something like <quote>if
	  <filename>fromboz.o</filename> is older than
	  <filename>fromboz.c</filename>, that means someone must have
	  changed <filename>fromboz.c</filename>, so it needs to be
	  re-compiled.</quote> The makefile also has rules telling
	make <emphasis>how</emphasis> to re-compile the source file,
	making it a much more powerful tool.</para>

      <para>Makefiles are typically kept in the same directory as the
	source they apply to, and can be called
	<filename>makefile</filename>, <filename>Makefile</filename>
	or <filename>MAKEFILE</filename>.  Most programmers use the
	name <filename>Makefile</filename>, as this puts it near the
	top of a directory listing, where it can easily be
	seen.

	<footnote>
	  <para>They don't use the <filename>MAKEFILE</filename> form
	    as block capitals are often used for documentation files
	    like <filename>README</filename>.</para>
	</footnote></para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Example of using <command>make</command></title>

      <para>Here's a very simple make file:</para>

      <programlisting>foo: foo.c
	cc -o foo foo.c
      </programlisting>

      <para>It consists of two lines, a dependency line and a creation
	line.</para>

      <para>The dependency line here consists of the name of the
	program (known as the <firstterm>target</firstterm>), followed
	by a colon, then whitespace, then the name of the source file.
	When <command>make</command> reads this line, it looks to see
	if <filename>foo</filename> exists; if it exists, it compares
	the time <filename>foo</filename> was last modified to the
	time <filename>foo.c</filename> was last modified.  If
	<filename>foo</filename> does not exist, or is older than
	<filename>foo.c</filename>, it then looks at the creation line
	to find out what to do.  In other words, this is the rule for
	working out when <filename>foo.c</filename> needs to be
	re-compiled.</para>

      <para>The creation line starts with a <token>tab</token> (press
	the <keycap>tab</keycap> key) and then the command you would
	type to create <filename>foo</filename> if you were doing it
	at a command prompt.  If <filename>foo</filename> is out of
	date, or does not exist, <command>make</command> then executes
	this command to create it.  In other words, this is the rule
	which tells make how to re-compile
	<filename>foo.c</filename>.</para>

      <para>So, when you type <userinput>make</userinput>, it will
	make sure that <filename>foo</filename> is up to date with
	respect to your latest changes to <filename>foo.c</filename>.
	This principle can be extended to
	<filename>Makefile</filename>s with hundreds of
	targets&mdash;in fact, on FreeBSD, it is possible to compile
	the entire operating system just by typing <userinput>make
	  world</userinput> in the appropriate directory!</para>

      <para>Another useful property of makefiles is that the targets
	don't have to be programs.  For instance, we could have a make
	file that looks like this:</para>

      <programlisting>foo: foo.c
	cc -o foo foo.c

install:
	cp foo /home/me
      </programlisting>

      <para>We can tell make which target we want to make by
	typing:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>make <replaceable>target</replaceable></userinput>
      </screen>

      <para><command>make</command> will then only look at that target
	and ignore any others.  For example, if we type
	<userinput>make foo</userinput> with the makefile above, make
	will ignore the <action>install</action> target.</para>

      <para>If we just type <userinput>make</userinput> on its own,
	make will always look at the first target and then stop
	without looking at any others.  So if we typed
	<userinput>make</userinput> here, it will just go to the
	<action>foo</action> target, re-compile
	<filename>foo</filename> if necessary, and then stop without
	going on to the <action>install</action> target.</para>

      <para>Notice that the <action>install</action> target doesn't
	actually depend on anything! This means that the command on
	the following line is always executed when we try to make that
	target by typing <userinput>make install</userinput>.  In this
	case, it will copy <filename>foo</filename> into the user's
	home directory.  This is often used by application makefiles,
	so that the application can be installed in the correct
	directory when it has been correctly compiled.</para>

      <para>This is a slightly confusing subject to try and explain.
	If you don't quite understand how <command>make</command>
	works, the best thing to do is to write a simple program like
	<quote>hello world</quote> and a make file like the one above
	and experiment.  Then progress to using more than one source
	file, or having the source file include a header file.  The
	<command>touch</command> command is very useful here&mdash;it
	changes the date on a file without you having to edit
	it.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>FreeBSD Makefiles</title>

      <para>Makefiles can be rather complicated to write.  Fortunately,
	BSD-based systems like FreeBSD come with some very powerful
	ones as part of the system.  One very good example of this is
	the FreeBSD ports system.  Here's the essential part of a
	typical ports <filename>Makefile</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>MASTER_SITES=   ftp://freefall.cdrom.com/pub/FreeBSD/LOCAL_PORTS/
DISTFILES=      scheme-microcode+dist-7.3-freebsd.tgz

.include &lt;bsd.port.mk&gt;
      </programlisting>

      <para>Now, if we go to the directory for this port and type
	<userinput>make</userinput>, the following happens:</para>

      <procedure>
	<step>
	  <para>A check is made to see if the source code for this
	    port is already on the system.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>If it isn't, an FTP connection to the URL in
	    <symbol>MASTER_SITES</symbol> is set up to download the
	    source.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>The checksum for the source is calculated and compared
	    it with one for a known, good, copy of the source.  This
	    is to make sure that the source was not corrupted while in
	    transit.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Any changes required to make the source work on
	    FreeBSD are applied&mdash;this is known as
	    <firstterm>patching</firstterm>.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Any special configuration needed for the source is
	    done.  (Many Unix program distributions try to work out
	    which version of Unix they are being compiled on and which
	    optional Unix features are present&mdash;this is where
	    they are given the information in the FreeBSD ports
	    scenario).</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>The source code for the program is compiled.  In
	    effect, we change to the directory where the source was
	    unpacked and do <command>make</command>&mdash;the
	    program's own make file has the necessary information to
	    build the program.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>We now have a compiled version of the program.  If we
	    wish, we can test it now; when we feel confident about the
	    program, we can type <userinput>make install</userinput>.
	    This will cause the program and any supporting files it
	    needs to be copied into the correct location; an entry is
	    also made into a <database>package database</database>, so
	    that the port can easily be uninstalled later if we change
	    our mind about it.</para>
	</step>
      </procedure>

      <para>Now I think you'll agree that's rather impressive for a
	four line script!</para>

      <para>The secret lies in the last line, which tells
	<command>make</command> to look in the system makefile called
	<filename>bsd.port.mk</filename>.  It's easy to overlook this
	line, but this is where all the clever stuff comes
	from&mdash;someone has written a makefile that tells
	<command>make</command> to do all the things above (plus a
	couple of other things I didn't mention, including handling
	any errors that may occur) and anyone can get access to that
	just by putting a single line in their own make file!</para>

      <para>If you want to have a look at these system makefiles,
	they're in <filename>/usr/share/mk</filename>, but it's
	probably best to wait until you've had a bit of practice with
	makefiles, as they are very complicated (and if you do look at
	them, make sure you have a flask of strong coffee
	handy!)</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>More advanced uses of <command>make</command></title>

      <para><command>Make</command> is a very powerful tool, and can
	do much more than the simple example above shows.
	Unfortunately, there are several different versions of
	<command>make</command>, and they all differ considerably.
	The best way to learn what they can do is probably to read the
	documentation&mdash;hopefully this introduction will have
	given you a base from which you can do this.</para>

      <para>The version of make that comes with FreeBSD is the
	<application>Berkeley make</application>; there is a tutorial
	for it in <filename>/usr/share/doc/psd/12.make</filename>.  To
	view it, do</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>zmore paper.ascii.gz</userinput>
      </screen>

      <para>in that directory.</para>

      <para>Many applications in the ports use <application>GNU
	  make</application>, which has a very good set of
	<quote>info</quote> pages.  If you have installed any of these
	ports, <application>GNU make</application> will automatically
	have been installed as <command>gmake</command>.  It's also
	available as a port and package in its own right.</para>

      <para>To view the info pages for <application>GNU
	make</application>, you will have to edit the
	<filename>dir</filename> file in the
	<filename>/usr/local/info</filename> directory to add an entry
	for it.  This involves adding a line like</para>

      <programlisting> * Make: (make).                 The GNU Make utility.
      </programlisting>

      <para>to the file.  Once you have done this, you can type
	<userinput>info</userinput> and then select
	<guimenuitem>make</guimenuitem> from the menu (or in
	<application>Emacs</application>, do <userinput>C-h
	  i</userinput>).</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="debugging">
    <title>Debugging</title>

    <sect2>
      <title>The Debugger</title>

      <para>The debugger that comes with FreeBSD is called
	<command>gdb</command> (<application>GNU
	  debugger</application>).  You start it up by typing</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>gdb <replaceable>progname</replaceable></userinput>
      </screen>

      <para>although most people prefer to run it inside
	<application>Emacs</application>.  You can do this by:</para>

      <screen><userinput>M-x gdb RET <replaceable>progname</replaceable> RET</userinput>
      </screen>

      <para>Using a debugger allows you to run the program under more
	controlled circumstances.  Typically, you can step through the
	program a line at a time, inspect the value of variables,
	change them, tell the debugger to run up to a certain point
	and then stop, and so on.  You can even attach to a program
	that's already running, or load a core file to investigate why
	the program crashed.  It's even possible to debug the kernel,
	though that's a little trickier than the user applications
	we'll be discussing in this section.</para>

      <para><command>gdb</command> has quite good on-line help, as
	well as a set of info pages, so this section will concentrate
	on a few of the basic commands.</para>

      <para>Finally, if you find its text-based command-prompt style
	off-putting, there's a graphical front-end for it <ulink
	  URL="../../ports/devel.html">xxgdb</ulink> in the ports
	collection.</para>

      <para>This section is intended to be an introduction to using
	<command>gdb</command> and does not cover specialised topics
	such as debugging the kernel.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Running a program in the debugger</title>

      <para>You'll need to have compiled the program with the
	<option>-g</option> option to get the most out of using
	<command>gdb</command>.  It will work without, but you'll only
	see the name of the function you're in, instead of the source
	code.  If you see a line like:</para>

      <screen>&hellip; (no debugging symbols found) &hellip;
      </screen>

      <para>when <command>gdb</command> starts up, you'll know that
	the program wasn't compiled with the <option>-g</option>
	option.</para>

      <para>At the <command>gdb</command> prompt, type
	<userinput>break main</userinput>.  This will tell the
	debugger to skip over the preliminary set-up code in the
	program and start at the beginning of your code.  Now type
	<userinput>run</userinput> to start the program&mdash;it will
	start at the beginning of the set-up code and then get stopped
	by the debugger when it calls <function>main()</function>.
	(If you've ever wondered where <function>main()</function>
	gets called from, now you know!).</para>

      <para>You can now step through the program, a line at a time, by
	pressing <command>n</command>.  If you get to a function call,
	you can step into it by pressing <command>s</command>.  Once
	you're in a function call, you can return from stepping into a
	function call by pressing <command>f</command>.  You can also
	use <command>up</command> and <command>down</command> to take
	a quick look at the caller.</para>

      <para>Here's a simple example of how to spot a mistake in a
	program with <command>gdb</command>.  This is our program
	(with a deliberate mistake):</para>

      <programlisting>#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;

int bazz(int anint);

main() {
	int i;

	printf("This is my program\n");
	bazz(i);
	return 0;
}

int bazz(int anint) {
	printf("You gave me %d\n", anint);
	return anint;
}
      </programlisting>

      <para>This program sets <symbol>i</symbol> to be
	<literal>5</literal> and passes it to a function
	<function>bazz()</function> which prints out the number we
	gave it.</para>

      <para>When we compile and run the program we get</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -g -o temp temp.c</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>./temp</userinput>
This is my program
anint = 4231
      </screen>

      <para>That wasn't what we expected! Time to see what's going
	on!</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>gdb temp</userinput>
GDB is free software and you are welcome to distribute copies of it
 under certain conditions; type "show copying" to see the conditions.
There is absolutely no warranty for GDB; type "show warranty" for details.
GDB 4.13 (i386-unknown-freebsd), Copyright 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
(gdb) <userinput>break main</>				<lineannotation>Skip the set-up code</>
Breakpoint 1 at 0x160f: file temp.c, line 9.	<lineannotation><command>gdb</command> puts breakpoint at <function>main()</></>
(gdb) <userinput>run</>					<lineannotation>Run as far as <function>main()</></>
Starting program: /home/james/tmp/temp		<lineannotation>Program starts running</>

Breakpoint 1, main () at temp.c:9		<lineannotation><command>gdb</command> stops at <function>main()</></>
(gdb) <userinput>n</>						<lineannotation>Go to next line</>
This is my program				<lineannotation>Program prints out</>
(gdb) <userinput>s</>						<lineannotation>step into <function>bazz()</></>
bazz (anint=4231) at temp.c:17			<lineannotation><command>gdb</command> displays stack frame</>
(gdb)
      </screen>

      <para>Hang on a minute! How did <symbol>anint</symbol> get to be
	<literal>4231</literal>? Didn't we set it to be
	<literal>5</literal> in <function>main()</function>? Let's
	move up to <function>main()</function> and have a look.</para>

      <screen>(gdb) <userinput>up</>					<lineannotation>Move up call stack</>
#1  0x1625 in main () at temp.c:11		<lineannotation><command>gdb</command> displays stack frame</>
(gdb) <userinput>p i</>					<lineannotation>Show us the value of <symbol>i</></>
$1 = 4231					<lineannotation><command>gdb</command> displays <literal>4231</></>
      </screen>

      <para>Oh dear! Looking at the code, we forgot to initialise
	<symbol>i</symbol>.  We meant to put</para>

      <programlisting><lineannotation>&hellip;</>
main() {
	int i;

	i = 5;
	printf("This is my program\n");
<lineannotation>&hellip</>
      </programlisting>

      <para>but we left the <literal>i=5;</literal> line out.  As we
	didn't initialise <symbol>i</symbol>, it had whatever number
	happened to be in that area of memory when the program ran,
	which in this case happened to be
	<literal>4231</literal>.</para>

      <note>
	<para><command>gdb</command> displays the stack frame every
	  time we go into or out of a function, even if we're using
	  <command>up</command> and <command>down</command> to move
	  around the call stack.  This shows the name of the function
	  and the values of its arguments, which helps us keep track
	  of where we are and what's going on.  (The stack is a
	  storage area where the program stores information about the
	  arguments passed to functions and where to go when it
	  returns from a function call).</para>
      </note>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Examining a core file</title>

      <para>A core file is basically a file which contains the
	complete state of the process when it crashed.  In <quote>the
	  good old days</quote>, programmers had to print out hex
	listings of core files and sweat over machine code manuals,
	but now life is a bit easier.  Incidentally, under FreeBSD and
	other 4.4BSD systems, a core file is called
	<filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable>.core</filename> instead of just
	<filename>core</filename>, to make it clearer which program a
	core file belongs to.</para>

      <para>To examine a core file, start up <command>gdb</command> in
	the usual way.  Instead of typing <command>break</command> or
	<command>run</command>, type</para>

      <screen>(gdb) <userinput>core <replaceable>progname</replaceable>.core</userinput>
      </screen>

      <para>If you're not in the same directory as the core file,
	you'll have to do <userinput>dir
	  /path/to/core/file</userinput> first.</para>

      <para>You should see something like this:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>gdb a.out</userinput>
GDB is free software and you are welcome to distribute copies of it
 under certain conditions; type "show copying" to see the conditions.
There is absolutely no warranty for GDB; type "show warranty" for details.
GDB 4.13 (i386-unknown-freebsd), Copyright 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
(gdb) <userinput>core a.out.core</userinput>
Core was generated by `a.out'.
Program terminated with signal 11, Segmentation fault.
Cannot access memory at address 0x7020796d.
#0  0x164a in bazz (anint=0x5) at temp.c:17
(gdb)
      </screen>

      <para>In this case, the program was called
	<filename>a.out</filename>, so the core file is called
	<filename>a.out.core</filename>.  We can see that the program
	crashed due to trying to access an area in memory that was not
	available to it in a function called
	<function>bazz</function>.</para>

      <para>Sometimes it's useful to be able to see how a function was
	called, as the problem could have occurred a long way up the
	call stack in a complex program.  The <command>bt</command>
	command causes <command>gdb</command> to print out a
	back-trace of the call stack:</para>

      <screen>(gdb) <userinput>bt</userinput>
#0  0x164a in bazz (anint=0x5) at temp.c:17
#1  0xefbfd888 in end ()
#2  0x162c in main () at temp.c:11
(gdb)
      </screen>

      <para>The <function>end()</function> function is called when a
	program crashes; in this case, the <function>bazz()</function>
	function was called from <function>main()</function>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Attaching to a running program</title>

      <para>One of the neatest features about <command>gdb</command>
	is that it can attach to a program that's already running.  Of
	course, that assumes you have sufficient permissions to do so.
	A common problem is when you are stepping through a program
	that forks, and you want to trace the child, but the debugger
	will only let you trace the parent.</para>

      <para>What you do is start up another <command>gdb</command>,
	use <command>ps</command> to find the process ID for the
	child, and do</para>

      <screen>(gdb) <userinput>attach <replaceable>pid</replaceable></userinput>
      </screen>

      <para>in <command>gdb</command>, and then debug as usual.</para>

      <para><quote>That's all very well,</quote> you're probably
	thinking, <quote>but by the time I've done that, the child
	  process will be over the hill and far away</quote>.  Fear
	not, gentle reader, here's how to do it (courtesy of the
	<command>gdb</command> info pages):</para>

      <screen><lineannotation>&hellip</lineannotation>
if ((pid = fork()) < 0)		/* _Always_ check this */
	error();
else if (pid == 0) {		/* child */
	int PauseMode = 1;

	while (PauseMode)
		sleep(10);	/* Wait until someone attaches to us */
	<lineannotation>&hellip</lineannotation>
} else {			/* parent */
	<lineannotation>&hellip</lineannotation>
      </screen>

      <para>Now all you have to do is attach to the child, set
	<symbol>PauseMode</symbol> to <literal>0</literal>, and wait
	for the <function>sleep()</function> call to return!</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="emacs">
    <title>Using Emacs as a Development Environment</title>

    <sect2>
      <title>Emacs</title>

      <para>Unfortunately, Unix systems don't come with the kind of
	everything-you-ever-wanted-and-lots-more-you-didn't-in-one-gigantic-package
	integrated development environments that other systems
	have.

	<footnote>
	  <para>At least, not unless you pay out very large sums of
	    money.</para>
	</footnote>

	However, it is possible to set up your own environment.  It
	may not be as pretty, and it may not be quite as integrated,
	but you can set it up the way you want it.  And it's free.
	And you have the source to it.</para>

      <para>The key to it all is Emacs.  Now there are some people who
	loathe it, but many who love it.  If you're one of the former,
	I'm afraid this section will hold little of interest to you.
	Also, you'll need a fair amount of memory to run it&mdash;I'd
	recommend 8MB in text mode and 16MB in X as the bare minimum
	to get reasonable performance.</para>

      <para>Emacs is basically a highly customisable
	editor&mdash;indeed, it has been customised to the point where
	it's more like an operating system than an editor! Many
	developers and sysadmins do in fact spend practically all
	their time working inside Emacs, leaving it only to log
	out.</para>

      <para>It's impossible even to summarise everything Emacs can do
	here, but here are some of the features of interest to
	developers:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Very powerful editor, allowing search-and-replace on
	    both strings and regular expressions (patterns), jumping
	    to start/end of block expression, etc, etc.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Pull-down menus and online help.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Language-dependent syntax highlighting and
	    indentation.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Completely customisable.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>You can compile and debug programs within
	    Emacs.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>On a compilation error, you can jump to the offending
	    line of source code.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Friendly-ish front-end to the <command>info</command>
	    program used for reading GNU hypertext documentation,
	    including the documentation on Emacs itself.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Friendly front-end to <command>gdb</command>, allowing
	    you to look at the source code as you step through your
	    program.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>You can read Usenet news and mail while your program
	    is compiling.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>And doubtless many more that I've overlooked.</para>

      <para>Emacs can be installed on FreeBSD using <ulink
	  URL="../../ports/editors.html">the Emacs
	  port</ulink>.</para>

      <para>Once it's installed, start it up and do <userinput>C-h
	  t</userinput> to read an Emacs tutorial&mdash;that means
	hold down the <keycap>control</keycap> key, press
	<keycap>h</keycap>, let go of the <keycap>control</keycap>
	key, and then press <keycap>t</keycap>.  (Alternatively, you
	can you use the mouse to select <guimenuitem>Emacs
	  Tutorial</guimenuitem> from the <guimenu>Help</guimenu>
	menu).</para>

      <para>Although Emacs does have menus, it's well worth learning
	the key bindings, as it's much quicker when you're editing
	something to press a couple of keys than to try and find the
	mouse and then click on the right place.  And, when you're
	talking to seasoned Emacs users, you'll find they often
	casually throw around expressions like <quote><literal>M-x
	    replace-s RET foo RET bar RET</literal></quote> so it's
	useful to know what they mean.  And in any case, Emacs has far
	too many useful functions for them to all fit on the menu
	bars.</para>

      <para>Fortunately, it's quite easy to pick up the key-bindings,
	as they're displayed next to the menu item.  My advice is to
	use the menu item for, say, opening a file until you
	understand how it works and feel confident with it, then try
	doing C-x C-f.  When you're happy with that, move on to
	another menu command.</para>

      <para>If you can't remember what a particular combination of
	keys does, select <guimenuitem>Describe Key</guimenuitem> from
	the <guimenu>Help</guimenu> menu and type it in&mdash;Emacs
	will tell you what it does.  You can also use the
	<guimenuitem>Command Apropos</guimenuitem> menu item to find
	out all the commands which contain a particular word in them,
	with the key binding next to it.</para>

      <para>By the way, the expression above means hold down the
	<keysym>Meta</keysym> key, press <keysym>x</keysym>, release
	the <keysym>Meta</keysym> key, type
	<userinput>replace-s</userinput> (short for
	<literal>replace-string</literal>&mdash;another feature of
	Emacs is that you can abbreviate commands), press the
	<keysym>return</keysym> key, type <userinput>foo</userinput>
	(the string you want replaced), press the
	<keysym>return</keysym> key, type bar (the string you want to
	replace <literal>foo</literal> with) and press
	<keysym>return</keysym> again.  Emacs will then do the
	search-and-replace operation you've just requested.</para>

      <para>If you're wondering what on earth the
	<keysym>Meta</keysym> key is, it's a special key that many
	Unix workstations have.  Unfortunately, PC's don't have one,
	so it's usually the <keycap>alt</keycap> key (or if you're
	unlucky, the <keysym>escape</keysym> key).</para>

      <para>Oh, and to get out of Emacs, do <command>C-x C-c</command>
	(that means hold down the <keysym>control</keysym> key, press
	<keysym>x</keysym>, press <keysym>c</keysym> and release the
	<keysym>control</keysym> key).  If you have any unsaved files
	open, Emacs will ask you if you want to save them.  (Ignore
	the bit in the documentation where it says
	<command>C-z</command> is the usual way to leave
	Emacs&mdash;that leaves Emacs hanging around in the
	background, and is only really useful if you're on a system
	which doesn't have virtual terminals).</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Configuring Emacs</title>

      <para>Emacs does many wonderful things; some of them are built
	in, some of them need to be configured.</para>

      <para>Instead of using a proprietary macro language for
	configuration, Emacs uses a version of Lisp specially adapted
	for editors, known as Emacs Lisp.  This can be quite useful if
	you want to go on and learn something like Common Lisp, as
	it's considerably smaller than Common Lisp (although still
	quite big!).</para>

      <para>The best way to learn Emacs Lisp is to download the <ulink
	  URL="ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu:pub/gnu/elisp-manual-19-2.4.tar.gz">Emacs
	  Tutorial</ulink></para>

      <para>However, there's no need to actually know any Lisp to get
	started with configuring Emacs, as I've included a sample
	<filename>.emacs</filename> file, which should be enough to
	get you started.  Just copy it into your home directory and
	restart Emacs if it's already running; it will read the
	commands from the file and (hopefully) give you a useful basic
	setup.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>A sample <filename>.emacs</filename> file</title>

      <para>Unfortunately, there's far too much here to explain it in
	detail; however there are one or two points worth
	mentioning.</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Everything beginning with a <literal>;</literal> is a comment
	    and is ignored by Emacs.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>In the first line, the
	    <literal>-*-&nbsp;Emacs-Lisp&nbsp;-*-</literal> is so that
	    we can edit the <filename>.emacs</filename> file itself
	    within Emacs and get all the fancy features for editing
	    Emacs Lisp.  Emacs usually tries to guess this based on
	    the filename, and may not get it right for
	    <filename>.emacs</filename>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The <keysym>tab</keysym> key is bound to an
	    indentation function in some modes, so when you press the
	    tab key, it will indent the current line of code.  If you
	    want to put a <token>tab</token> character in whatever
	    you're writing, hold the <keysym>control</keysym> key down
	    while you're pressing the <keysym>tab</keysym> key.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>This file supports syntax highlighting for C, C++,
	    Perl, Lisp and Scheme, by guessing the language from the
	    filename.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Emacs already has a pre-defined function called
	    <function>next-error</function>.  In a compilation output
	    window, this allows you to move from one compilation error
	    to the next by doing <command>M-n</command>; we define a
	    complementary function,
	    <function>previous-error</function>, that allows you to go
	    to a previous error by doing <command>M-p</command>.  The
	    nicest feature of all is that <command>C-c C-c</command>
	    will open up the source file in which the error occurred
	    and jump to the appropriate line.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>We enable Emacs's ability to act as a server, so that
	    if you're doing something outside Emacs and you want to
	    edit a file, you can just type in</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>emacsclient <replaceable>filename</replaceable></userinput>
	  </screen>

	  <para>and then you can edit the file in your
	    Emacs!

	    <footnote>
	      <para>Many Emacs users set their <systemitem
		  class=environvar>EDITOR</systemitem> environment to
		<literal>emacsclient</literal> so this happens every
		time they need to edit a file.</para>
	    </footnote></para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <example>
	<title>A sample <filename>.emacs</filename> file</title>

	<programlisting>;; -*-Emacs-Lisp-*-

;; This file is designed to be re-evaled; use the variable first-time
;; to avoid any problems with this.
(defvar first-time t 
  "Flag signifying this is the first time that .emacs has been evaled")

;; Meta
(global-set-key "\M- " 'set-mark-command)
(global-set-key "\M-\C-h" 'backward-kill-word)
(global-set-key "\M-\C-r" 'query-replace)
(global-set-key "\M-r" 'replace-string)
(global-set-key "\M-g" 'goto-line)
(global-set-key "\M-h" 'help-command)

;; Function keys
(global-set-key [f1] 'manual-entry)
(global-set-key [f2] 'info)
(global-set-key [f3] 'repeat-complex-command)
(global-set-key [f4] 'advertised-undo)
(global-set-key [f5] 'eval-current-buffer)
(global-set-key [f6] 'buffer-menu)
(global-set-key [f7] 'other-window)
(global-set-key [f8] 'find-file)
(global-set-key [f9] 'save-buffer)
(global-set-key [f10] 'next-error)
(global-set-key [f11] 'compile)
(global-set-key [f12] 'grep)
(global-set-key [C-f1] 'compile)
(global-set-key [C-f2] 'grep)
(global-set-key [C-f3] 'next-error)
(global-set-key [C-f4] 'previous-error)
(global-set-key [C-f5] 'display-faces)
(global-set-key [C-f8] 'dired)
(global-set-key [C-f10] 'kill-compilation)

;; Keypad bindings
(global-set-key [up] "\C-p")
(global-set-key [down] "\C-n")
(global-set-key [left] "\C-b")
(global-set-key [right] "\C-f")
(global-set-key [home] "\C-a")
(global-set-key [end] "\C-e")
(global-set-key [prior] "\M-v")
(global-set-key [next] "\C-v")
(global-set-key [C-up] "\M-\C-b")
(global-set-key [C-down] "\M-\C-f")
(global-set-key [C-left] "\M-b")
(global-set-key [C-right] "\M-f")
(global-set-key [C-home] "\M-&lt;")
(global-set-key [C-end] "\M-&gt;")
(global-set-key [C-prior] "\M-&lt;")
(global-set-key [C-next] "\M-&gt;")

;; Mouse
(global-set-key [mouse-3] 'imenu)

;; Misc
(global-set-key [C-tab] "\C-q\t")	; Control tab quotes a tab.
(setq backup-by-copying-when-mismatch t)

;; Treat 'y' or &lt;CR&gt; as yes, 'n' as no.
(fset 'yes-or-no-p 'y-or-n-p)
    (define-key query-replace-map [return] 'act)
    (define-key query-replace-map [?\C-m] 'act)

;; Load packages
(require 'desktop)
(require 'tar-mode)

;; Pretty diff mode
(autoload 'ediff-buffers "ediff" "Intelligent Emacs interface to diff" t)
(autoload 'ediff-files "ediff" "Intelligent Emacs interface to diff" t)
(autoload 'ediff-files-remote "ediff"
  "Intelligent Emacs interface to diff")

(if first-time
    (setq auto-mode-alist
	  (append '(("\\.cpp$" . c++-mode)
		    ("\\.hpp$" . c++-mode)
                    ("\\.lsp$" . lisp-mode)
		    ("\\.scm$" . scheme-mode)
		    ("\\.pl$" . perl-mode)
		    ) auto-mode-alist)))

;; Auto font lock mode
(defvar font-lock-auto-mode-list 
  (list 'c-mode 'c++-mode 'c++-c-mode 'emacs-lisp-mode 'lisp-mode 'perl-mode 'scheme-mode)
  "List of modes to always start in font-lock-mode")

(defvar font-lock-mode-keyword-alist
  '((c++-c-mode . c-font-lock-keywords)
    (perl-mode . perl-font-lock-keywords))
  "Associations between modes and keywords")

(defun font-lock-auto-mode-select ()
  "Automatically select font-lock-mode if the current major mode is
in font-lock-auto-mode-list"
  (if (memq major-mode font-lock-auto-mode-list) 
      (progn
	(font-lock-mode t))
    )
  )

(global-set-key [M-f1] 'font-lock-fontify-buffer)

;; New dabbrev stuff
;(require 'new-dabbrev)
(setq dabbrev-always-check-other-buffers t)
(setq dabbrev-abbrev-char-regexp "\\sw\\|\\s_")
(add-hook 'emacs-lisp-mode-hook
	  '(lambda () 
	     (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-fold-search) nil)
	     (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-replace) nil)))
(add-hook 'c-mode-hook
	  '(lambda () 
	     (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-fold-search) nil)
	     (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-replace) nil)))
(add-hook 'text-mode-hook
	  '(lambda () 
	     (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-fold-search) t)
	     (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-replace) t)))

;; C++ and C mode...
(defun my-c++-mode-hook ()
  (setq tab-width 4)
  (define-key c++-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
  (define-key c++-mode-map "\C-ce" 'c-comment-edit)
  (setq c++-auto-hungry-initial-state 'none)
  (setq c++-delete-function 'backward-delete-char)
  (setq c++-tab-always-indent t)
  (setq c-indent-level 4)
  (setq c-continued-statement-offset 4)
  (setq c++-empty-arglist-indent 4))

(defun my-c-mode-hook ()
  (setq tab-width 4)
  (define-key c-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
  (define-key c-mode-map "\C-ce" 'c-comment-edit)
  (setq c-auto-hungry-initial-state 'none)
  (setq c-delete-function 'backward-delete-char)
  (setq c-tab-always-indent t)
;; BSD-ish indentation style
  (setq c-indent-level 4)
  (setq c-continued-statement-offset 4)
  (setq c-brace-offset -4)
  (setq c-argdecl-indent 0)
  (setq c-label-offset -4))

;; Perl mode
(defun my-perl-mode-hook ()
  (setq tab-width 4)
  (define-key c++-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
  (setq perl-indent-level 4)
  (setq perl-continued-statement-offset 4))

;; Scheme mode...
(defun my-scheme-mode-hook ()
  (define-key scheme-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent))

;; Emacs-Lisp mode...
(defun my-lisp-mode-hook ()
  (define-key lisp-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
  (define-key lisp-mode-map "\C-i" 'lisp-indent-line)
  (define-key lisp-mode-map "\C-j" 'eval-print-last-sexp))

;; Add all of the hooks...
(add-hook 'c++-mode-hook 'my-c++-mode-hook)
(add-hook 'c-mode-hook 'my-c-mode-hook)
(add-hook 'scheme-mode-hook 'my-scheme-mode-hook)
(add-hook 'emacs-lisp-mode-hook 'my-lisp-mode-hook)
(add-hook 'lisp-mode-hook 'my-lisp-mode-hook)
(add-hook 'perl-mode-hook 'my-perl-mode-hook)

;; Complement to next-error
(defun previous-error (n)
  "Visit previous compilation error message and corresponding source code."
  (interactive "p")
  (next-error (- n)))

;; Misc...
(transient-mark-mode 1)
(setq mark-even-if-inactive t)
(setq visible-bell nil)
(setq next-line-add-newlines nil)
(setq compile-command "make")
(setq suggest-key-bindings nil)
(put 'eval-expression 'disabled nil)
(put 'narrow-to-region 'disabled nil)
(put 'set-goal-column 'disabled nil)

;; Elisp archive searching
(autoload 'format-lisp-code-directory "lispdir" nil t)
(autoload 'lisp-dir-apropos "lispdir" nil t)
(autoload 'lisp-dir-retrieve "lispdir" nil t)
(autoload 'lisp-dir-verify "lispdir" nil t)

;; Font lock mode
(defun my-make-face (face colour &amp;optional bold)
  "Create a face from a colour and optionally make it bold"
  (make-face face)
  (copy-face 'default face)
  (set-face-foreground face colour)
  (if bold (make-face-bold face))
  )

(if (eq window-system 'x)
    (progn
      (my-make-face 'blue "blue")
      (my-make-face 'red "red")
      (my-make-face 'green "dark green")
      (setq font-lock-comment-face 'blue)
      (setq font-lock-string-face 'bold)
      (setq font-lock-type-face 'bold)
      (setq font-lock-keyword-face 'bold)
      (setq font-lock-function-name-face 'red)
      (setq font-lock-doc-string-face 'green)
      (add-hook 'find-file-hooks 'font-lock-auto-mode-select)

      (setq baud-rate 1000000)
      (global-set-key "\C-cmm" 'menu-bar-mode)
      (global-set-key "\C-cms" 'scroll-bar-mode)
      (global-set-key [backspace] 'backward-delete-char)
					;      (global-set-key [delete] 'delete-char)
      (standard-display-european t)
      (load-library "iso-transl")))

;; X11 or PC using direct screen writes
(if window-system
    (progn
      ;;      (global-set-key [M-f1] 'hilit-repaint-command)
      ;;      (global-set-key [M-f2] [?\C-u M-f1])
      (setq hilit-mode-enable-list  
	    '(not text-mode c-mode c++-mode emacs-lisp-mode lisp-mode
		  scheme-mode)
	    hilit-auto-highlight nil
	    hilit-auto-rehighlight 'visible
	    hilit-inhibit-hooks nil
	    hilit-inhibit-rebinding t)
      (require 'hilit19)
      (require 'paren))
  (setq baud-rate 2400)			; For slow serial connections
  )

;; TTY type terminal
(if (and (not window-system) 
	 (not (equal system-type 'ms-dos)))
    (progn
      (if first-time
	  (progn
	    (keyboard-translate ?\C-h ?\C-?)
	    (keyboard-translate ?\C-? ?\C-h)))))

;; Under UNIX
(if (not (equal system-type 'ms-dos))
    (progn
      (if first-time
	  (server-start))))

;; Add any face changes here
(add-hook 'term-setup-hook 'my-term-setup-hook)
(defun my-term-setup-hook ()
  (if (eq window-system 'pc)
      (progn
;;	(set-face-background 'default "red")
	)))

;; Restore the "desktop" - do this as late as possible
(if first-time
    (progn
      (desktop-load-default)
      (desktop-read)))

;; Indicate that this file has been read at least once
(setq first-time nil)

;; No need to debug anything now
(setq debug-on-error nil)

;; All done
(message "All done, %s%s" (user-login-name) ".")
	</programlisting>
      </example>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Extending the Range of Languages Emacs Understands</title>

      <para>Now, this is all very well if you only want to program in
	the languages already catered for in the
	<filename>.emacs</filename> file (C, C++, Perl, Lisp and
	Scheme), but what happens if a new language called
	<quote>whizbang</quote> comes out, full of exciting
	features?</para>

      <para>The first thing to do is find out if whizbang comes with
	any files that tell Emacs about the language.  These usually
	end in <filename>.el</filename>, short for <quote>Emacs
	  Lisp</quote>.  For example, if whizbang is a FreeBSD port, we
	can locate these files by doing</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>find /usr/ports/lang/whizbang -name "*.el" -print</userinput>
      </screen>

      <para>and install them by copying them into the Emacs site Lisp
	directory.  On FreeBSD 2.1.0-RELEASE, this is
	<filename>/usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp</filename>.</para>

      <para>So for example, if the output from the find command
	was</para>

      <screen>/usr/ports/lang/whizbang/work/misc/whizbang.el
      </screen>

      <para>we would do</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cp /usr/ports/lang/whizbang/work/misc/whizbang.el /usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp</userinput>
      </screen>

      <para>Next, we need to decide what extension whizbang source
	files have.  Let's say for the sake of argument that they all
	end in <filename>.wiz</filename>.  We need to add an entry to
	our <filename>.emacs</filename> file to make sure Emacs will
	be able to use the information in
	<filename>whizbang.el</filename>.</para>

      <para>Find the <symbol>auto-mode-alist entry</symbol> in
	<filename>.emacs</filename> and add a line for whizbang, such
	as:</para>

      <programlisting><lineannotation>&hellip;</>
("\\.lsp$" . lisp-mode)
("\\.wiz$" . whizbang-mode)
("\\.scm$" . scheme-mode)
<lineannotation>&hellip;</>
      </programlisting>

      <para>This means that Emacs will automatically go into
	<function>whizbang-mode</function> when you edit a file ending
	in <filename>.wiz</filename>.</para>

      <para>Just below this, you'll find the
	<symbol>font-lock-auto-mode-list</symbol> entry.  Add
	<function>whizbang-mode</function> to it like so:</para>

      <programlisting>;; Auto font lock mode
(defvar font-lock-auto-mode-list 
  (list 'c-mode 'c++-mode 'c++-c-mode 'emacs-lisp-mode 'whizbang-mode 'lisp-mode 'perl-mode 'scheme-mode)
  "List of modes to always start in font-lock-mode")
      </programlisting>

      <para>This means that Emacs will always enable
	<function>font-lock-mode</function> (ie syntax highlighting)
	when editing a <filename>.wiz</filename> file.</para>

      <para>And that's all that's needed.  If there's anything else
	you want done automatically when you open up a
	<filename>.wiz</filename> file, you can add a
	<function>whizbang-mode hook</function> (see
	<function>my-scheme-mode-hook</function> for a simple example
	that adds <function>auto-indent</function>).</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1>
    <title>Further Reading</title>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>Brian Harvey and Matthew Wright
	  <emphasis>Simply Scheme</emphasis>
	  MIT 1994.<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 0-262-08226-8</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Randall Schwartz
	  <emphasis>Learning Perl</emphasis>
	  O'Reilly 1993<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 1-56592-042-2</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Patrick Henry Winston and Berthold Klaus Paul Horn
	  <emphasis>Lisp (3rd Edition)</emphasis>
	  Addison-Wesley 1989<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 0-201-08319-1</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Brian W. Kernighan and Rob Pike
	  <emphasis>The Unix Programming Environment</emphasis>
	  Prentice-Hall 1984<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 0-13-937681-X</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie
	  <emphasis>The C Programming Language (2nd Edition)</emphasis>
	  Prentice-Hall 1988<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 0-13-110362-8</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Bjarne Stroustrup
	<emphasis>The C++ Programming Language</emphasis>
	Addison-Wesley 1991<!-- <br> -->
	ISBN 0-201-53992-6</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>W. Richard Stevens
	  <emphasis>Advanced Programming in the Unix Environment</emphasis>
	  Addison-Wesley 1992<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 0-201-56317-7</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>W. Richard Stevens
	  <emphasis>Unix Network Programming</emphasis>
	  Prentice-Hall 1990<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 0-13-949876-1</para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>
  </sect1>

    </chapter>

    <chapter id="secure-programming">
      <title>Secure Programming</title>

      <para>This chapter was written by Murray Stokely.</para>

      <sect1><title>Synopsis</title>
 
      <para>This chapter describes some of the security issues that
      have plagued Unix programmers for decades and some of the new
      tools available to help programmers avoid writing exploitable
      code.</para>
      </sect1>

      <sect1 id="secure-philosophy"><title>Secure Design
      Methodology</title>

      <para>Writing secure applications takes a very scrutinous and
      pessimistic outlook on life.  Applications should be run with
      the principle of <quote>least privilege</quote> so that no
      process is ever running than more with the bare minimum access
      that it needs to accomplish its function.  Previously tested
      code should be reused whenever possible to avoid common
      mistakes that others may have already fixed.</para>

      <para>One of the pitfalls of the Unix environment is how easy it
      is to make assumptions about the sanity of the environment.
      Applications should never trust user input (in all its forms),
      system resources, inter-process communication, or the timing of
      events.  Unix processes do not execute synchronously so logical
      operations are rarely atomic.</para>
      </sect1>

      <sect1><title>Buffer Overflows</title> 

      <para>Buffer Overflows have been around since the very
      beginnings of the Von-Neuman <xref linkend="COD"> architecture.
      They first gained widespread notoriety in 1988 with the Moorse
      Internet worm.  Unfortunately, the same basic attack remains
      effective today.  Of the 17 CERT security advisories of 1999, 10
      of them were directly caused by buffer-overflow software bugs.
      By far the most common type of buffer overflow attack is based
      on corrupting the stack.</para>

      <para>Most modern computer systems use a stack to pass arguments
      to procedures and to store local variables.  A stack is a last
      in first out (LIFO) buffer in the high memory area of a process
      image.  When a program invokes a function a new "stack frame" is
      created.  This stack frame consists of the arguments passed to
      the function as well as a dynamic amount of local variable
      space.  The "stack pointer" is a register that holds the current
      location of the top of the stack.  Since this value is
      constantly changing as new values are pushed onto the top of the
      stack, many implementations also provide a "frame pointer" that
      is located near the beginning of a stack frame so that local
      variables can more easily be addressed relative to this
      value. <xref linkend="COD"> The return address for function
      calls is also stored on the stack, and this is the cause of
      stack-overflow exploits since overflowing a local variable in a
      function can overwrite the return address of that function,
      potentially allowing a malicious user to execute any code he or
      she wants.</para>

      <para>Although stack-based attacks are by far the most common,
      it would also be possible to overrun the stack with a heap-based
      (malloc/free) attack.</para>

      <para>The C programming language does not perform automatic
      bounds checking on arrays or pointers as many other languages
      do.  In addition, the standard C library is filled with a
      handful of very dangerous functions.</para>

      <informaltable>
        <tgroup cols=2>
          <tbody>
          <row><entry><function>strcpy</function>(char *dest, const char
          *src)</entry>
          <entry><simpara>May overflow the dest buffer</simpara></entry>
          </row>

          <row><entry><function>strcat</function>(char *dest, const char
          *src)</entry>
          <entry><simpara>May overflow the dest buffer</simpara></entry>
          </row>

          <row><entry><function>getwd</function>(char *buf)</entry>
          <entry><simpara>May overflow the buf buffer</simpara></entry>
          </row>

          <row><entry><function>gets</function>(char *s)</entry>
          <entry><simpara>May overflow the s buffer</simpara></entry>
          </row>

          <row><entry><function>[vf]scanf</function>(const char *format,
          ...)</entry>
          <entry><simpara>May overflow its arguments.</simpara></entry>
          </row>

          <row><entry><function>realpath</function>(char *path, char
          resolved_path[])</entry>
          <entry><simpara>May overflow the path buffer</simpara></entry>
          </row>

          <row><entry><function>[v]sprintf</function>(char *str, const char
          *format, ...)</entry>
          <entry><simpara>May overflow the str buffer.</simpara></entry>
          </row>
          </tbody>
        </tgroup>
      </informaltable>

      <sect2><title>Example Buffer Overflow</title>

      <para>The following example code contains a buffer overflow
      designed to overwrite the return address and skip the
      instruction immediately following the function call.  (Inspired
      by <xref linkend="Phrack">)</para>

<programlisting>
#include <sgmltag>stdio.h</sgmltag>

void manipulate(char *buffer) {
  char newbuffer[80];
  strcpy(newbuffer,buffer);
}

int main() {
  char ch,buffer[4096];
  int i=0;

  while ((buffer[i++] = getchar()) != '\n') {};
  
  i=1;
  manipulate(buffer);
  i=2;
  printf("The value of i is : %d\n",i);
  return 0;
}
</programlisting>

      <para>Let us examine what the memory image of this process would
      look like if we were to input 160 spaces into our little program
      before hitting return.</para> 

      <para>[XXX figure here!]</para>

      <para>Obviously more malicious input can be devised to execute
      actual compiled instructions (such as exec(/bin/sh)).</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2><title>Avoiding Buffer Overflows</title>

      <para>The most straightforward solution to the problem of
      stack-overflows is to always use length restricted memory and
      string copy functions.  <function>strncpy</function> and
      <function>strncat</function> are part of the standard C library.
      These functions accept a length value as a parameter which
      should be no larger than the size of the destination buffer.
      These functions will then copy up to `length' bytes from the
      source to the destination.  However there are a number of
      problems with these functions.  Neither function guarantees NUL
      termination if the size of the input buffer is as large as the
      destination.  The length parameter is also used inconsistently
      between strncpy and strncat so it is easy for programmers to get
      confused as to their proper usage.  There is also a significant
      performance loss compared to <function>strcpy</function> when
      copying a short string into a large buffer since
      <function>strncpy</function> NUL fills up the the size
      specified.</para>

      <para>In OpenBSD, another memory copy implementation has been
      created to get around these problem.  The
      <function>strlcpy</function> and <function>strlcat</function>
      functions guarantee that they will always null terminate the
      destination string when given a non-zero length argument.  For
      more information about these functions see <xref
      linkend="OpenBSD">.  The OpenBSD <function>strlcpy</function> and
      <function>strlcat</function> instructions have been in FreeBSD
      since 3.5.</para>

        <sect3><title>Compiler based run-time bounds checking</title>

        <para>Unfortunately there is still a very large assortment of
        code in public use which blindly copies memory around without
        using any of the bounded copy routines we just discussed.
        Fortunately, there is another solution.  Several compiler
        add-ons and libraries exist to do Run-time bounds checking in
        C/C++.</para> 

        <para>StackGuard is one such add-on that is implemented as a
        small patch to the gcc code generator.  From the StackGuard
        website, http://immunix.org/stackguard.html :
        <blockquote><para>"StackGuard detects and defeats stack
        smashing attacks by protecting the return address on the stack
        from being altered.  StackGuard places a "canary" word next to
        the return address when a function is called.  If the canary
        word has been altered when the function returns, then a stack
        smashing attack has been attempted, and the program responds
        by emitting an intruder alert into syslog, and then
        halts."</para></blockquote> 

        <blockquote><para>"StackGuard is implemented as a small patch
        to the gcc code generator, specifically the function_prolog()
        and function_epilog() routines.  function_prolog() has been
        enhanced to lay down canaries on the stack when functions
        start, and function_epilog() checks canary integrity when the
        function exits.  Any attempt at corrupting the return address
        is thus detected before the function
        returns."</para></blockquote>
        </para>

        <para>Recompiling your application with StackGuard is an
        effective means of stopping most buffer-overflow attacks, but
        it can still be compromised.</para>

        </sect3>

        <sect3><title>Library based run-time bounds checking</title>

        <para>Compiler-based mechanisms are completely useless for
        binary-only software for which you cannot recompile.  For
        these situations there are a number of libraries which
        re-implement the unsafe functions of the C-library
        (<function>strcpy</function>, <function>fscanf</function>,
        <function>getwd</function>, etc..) and ensure that these
        functions can never write past the stack pointer.</para>

        <itemizedlist>
        <listitem><simpara>libsafe</simpara></listitem>
        <listitem><simpara>libverify</simpara></listitem>
        <listitem><simpara>libparnoia</simpara></listitem>
        </itemizedlist>

	<para>Unfortunately these library-based defenses have a number
        of shortcomings.  These libraries only protect against a very
        small set of security related issues and they neglect to fix
        the actual problem.  These defenses may fail if the
        application was compiled with -fomit-frame-pointer.  Also, the
        LD_PRELOAD and LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variables can be
        overwritten/unset by the user.</para>
        </sect3>

        </sect2>
      </sect1>

      <sect1><title>SetUID issues</title>

      <para>There are at least 6 different IDs associated with any
      given process.  Because of this you have to be very careful with
      the access that your process has at any given time.  In
      particular, all seteuid applications should give up their
      privileges as soon as it is no longer required.</para>

      <para>The real user ID can only be changed by a superuser
      process.  The <application>login</application> program sets this
      when a user initially logs in and it is seldom changed.</para>

      <para>The effective user ID is set by the
      <function>exec()</function> functions if a program has its
      seteuid bit set.  An application can call
      <function>seteuid()</function> at any time to set the effective
      user ID to either the real user ID or the saved set-user-ID.
      When the effective user ID is set by <function>exec()</function>
      functions, the previous value is saved in the saved set-user-ID.</para>

      </sect1>

      <sect1 id="chroot"><title>Limiting your program's environment</title>

      <para>The traditional method of restricting access to a process
      is with the <function>chroot()</function> system call.  This
      system call changes the root directory from which all other
      paths are referenced for a process and any child processes.  For
      this call to succeed the process must have execute (search)
      permission on the directory being referenced.  The new
      environment does not actually take affect until you
      <function>chdir()</function> into your new environment.  It
      should also be noted that a process can easily break out of a
      chroot environment if it has root privilege.  This could be
      accomplished by creating device nodes to read kernel memory,
      attaching a debugger to a process outside of the jail, or in
      many other creative ways.</para>
      
      <para>The behavior of the <function>chroot()</function> system
      call can be controlled somewhat with the
      kern.chroot_allow_open_directories <command>sysctl</command>
      variable.  When this value is set to 0,
      <function>chroot()</function> will fail with EPERM if there are
      any directories open.  If set to the default value of 1, then
      <function>chroot()</function> will fail with EPERM if there are
      any directories open and the process is already subject to a
      <function>chroot()</function> call.  For any other value, the
      check for open directories will be bypassed completely.</para>

      <sect2><title>FreeBSD's jail functionality</title>

      <para>The concept of a Jail extends upon the
      <function>chroot()</function> by limiting the powers of the
      superuser to create a true `virtual server'.  Once a prison is
      setup all network communication must take place through the
      specified IP address, and the power of "root privilege" in this
      jail is severely constrained.</para>

      <para>While in a prison, any tests of superuser power within the
      kernel using the <function>suser()</function> call will fail.
      However, some calls to <function>suser()</function> have been
      changed to a new interface <function>suser_xxx()</function>.
      This function is responsible for recognizing or denying access
      to superuser power for imprisoned processes.</para>

      <para>A superuser process within a jailed environment has the
      power to : </para>
      <itemizedlist>
      <listitem><simpara>Manipulate credential with
        <function>setuid</function>, <function>seteuid</function>,
        <function>setgid</function>, <function>setegid</function>,
        <function>setgroups</function>, <function>setreuid</function>,
        <function>setregid</function>, <function>setlogin</function></simpara></listitem>
      <listitem><simpara>Set resource limits with <function>setrlimit</function></simpara></listitem>
      <listitem><simpara>Modify some sysctl nodes
        (kern.hostname)</simpara></listitem>
      <listitem><simpara><function>chroot()</function></simpara></listitem>
      <listitem><simpara>Set flags on a vnode:
        <function>chflags</function>,
        <function>fchflags</function></simpara></listitem>
      <listitem><simpara>Set attributes of a vnode such as file
        permission, owner, group, size, access time, and modification
        time.</simpara></listitem>
      <listitem><simpara>Bind to privileged ports in the Internet
        domain (ports < 1024)</simpara></listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para><function>Jail</function> is a very useful tool for
      running applications in a secure environment but it does have
      some shortcomings.  Currently, the IPC mechanisms have not been
      converted to the <function>suser_xxx</function> so applications
      such as MySQL can not be run within a jail.  Superuser access
      may have a very limited meaning within a jail, but there is
      no way to specify exactly what "very limited" means.</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2><title>POSIX.1e Process Capabilities</title>

      <para>Posix has released a working draft that adds event
      auditing, access control lists, fine grained privileges,
      information labeling, and mandatory access control.</para>
      <para>This is a work in progress and is the focus of the <ulink
      url="http://www.trustedbsd.org">TrustedBSD</ulink> project.  Some
      of the initial work has been committed to FreeBSD-current
      (cap_set_proc(3)).</para>

      </sect2>

      </sect1>

      <sect1><title>Trust</title>

      <para>An application should never assume that anything about the
      users environment is sane.  This includes (but is certainly not
      limited to) : user input, signals, environment variables,
      resources, IPC, mmaps, the file system working directory, file
      descriptors, the # of open files, etc.</para>

      <para>You should never assume that you can catch all forms of
      invalid input that a user might supply.  Instead, your
      application should use positive filtering to only allow a
      specific subset of inputs that you deem safe.  Improper data
      validation has been the cause of many exploits, especially with
      CGI scripts on the world wide web.  For filenames you need to be
      extra careful about paths ("../", "/"), symbolic links, and
      shell escape characters.</para>

      <para>Perl has a really cool feature called "Taint" mode which
      can be used to prevent scripts for using data derived outside
      the program in an unsafe way.  This mode will check command line
      arguments, environment variables, locale information, the
      results of certain syscalls (<function>readdir()</function>,
      <function>readlink()</function>,
      <function>getpwxxx()</function>, and all file input.</para>

      </sect1>

      <sect1><title>Race Conditions</title>

      <para>A race condition is anomalous behavior caused by the
      unexpected dependence on the relative timing of events.  In
      other words, a programmer incorrectly assumed that a particular
      event would always happen before another.</para>

      <para>Some of the common causes of race conditions are signals,
      access checks, and file opens.  Signals are asynchronous events
      by nature so special care must be taken in dealing with them.
      Checking access with <function>access(2)</function> then
      <function>open(2)</function> is clearly non-atomic.  Users can
      move files in between the two calls.  Instead, privileged
      applications should <function>seteuid()</function> and then call
      <function>open()</function> directly.  Along the same lines, an
      application should always set a proper umask before
      <function>open()</function> to obviate the need for spurious
      <function>chmod()</function> calls.</para>

      </sect1>

     </chapter>
  </part>

  <part id="kernel">
    <title>Kernel</title>

    <chapter id="kernelhistory">
      <title>History of the Unix Kernel</title>

      <para>Some history of the Unix/BSD kernel, system calls, how do
        processes work, blocking, scheduling, threads (kernel),
        context switching, signals, interrupts, modules, etc.</para>

      <para></para>
    </chapter>
  </part>

  <part id="memory">
    <title>Memory and Virtual Memory</title>

    <chapter id="virtualmemory">
      <title>Virtual Memory</title>

      <para>VM, paging, swapping, allocating memory, testing for
        memory leaks, mmap, vnodes, etc.</para>

      <para></para>
    </chapter>
  </part>

  <part id="iosystem">
    <title>I/O System</title>

    <chapter id="ufs">
      <title>UFS</title>

      <para>UFS, FFS, Ext2FS, JFS, inodes, buffer cache, labeling,
        locking, metadata, soft-updates, LFS, portalfs, procfs,
        vnodes, memory sharing, memory objects, TLBs, caching</para>

    </chapter>
  </part>

  <part id="ipc">
    <title>Interprocess Communication</title>
    
    <chapter id="signals">
      <title>Signals</title>

      <para>Signals, pipes, semaphores, message queues, shared memory,
        ports, sockets, doors</para>

    </chapter>
  </part>

  <part id="networking">
    <title>Networking</title>
    
    <chapter id="sockets">
      <title>Sockets</title>

      <para>Sockets, bpf, IP, TCP, UDP, ICMP, OSI, bridging,
        firewalling, NAT, switching, etc</para>

    </chapter>
  </part>
  
  <part id="networkfs">
    <title>Network Filesystems</title>

    <chapter id="afs">
      <title>AFS</title>

      <para>AFS, NFS, SANs etc]</para>

    </chapter>
  </part>
  
  <part id="terminal">
    <title>Terminal Handling</title>

    <chapter id="syscons">
      <title>Syscons</title>

      <para>Syscons, tty, PCVT, serial console, screen savers,
        etc</para>

    </chapter>
  </part>
  
  <part id="sound">
    <title>Sound</title>

    <chapter id="oss">
      <title>OSS</title>

      <para>OSS, waveforms, etc</para>

    </chapter>
  </part>
  
  <part id="devicedrivers">
    <title>Device Drivers</title>

    <chapter id="driverbasics">
      <title>Writing FreeBSD Device Drivers</title>

      <para>This chapter was written by Murray Stokely with selections from
      a variety of sources including the intro(4) man page by Joerg
      Wunsch.</para>

      <sect1>
        <title>Introduction</title>
	<para>
	This chapter provides a brief introduction to writing device
	drivers for FreeBSD.  A device in this context is a term used
	mostly for hardware-related stuff that belongs to the system,
	like disks, printers, or a graphics display with its keyboard.
	A device driver is the software component of the operating
	system that controls a specific device.  There are also
	so-called pseudo-devices where a device driver emulates the
	behaviour of a device in software without any particular
	underlying hardware.  Device drivers can be compiled into the
	system statically or loaded on demand through the dynamic
	kernel linker facility `kld'.</para>

	<para>Most devices in a Unix-like operating system are
	accessed through device-nodes, sometimes also called special
	files.  These files are usually located under the directory
	<filename>/dev</filename> in the file system hierarchy.  Until
	devfs is fully integrated into FreeBSD, each device node must
	be created statically and independent of the existence of the
	associated device driver.  Most device nodes on the system are
	created by running <command>MAKEDEV</command>.</para>

	<para>Device drivers can roughly be broken down into three
	categories; character (unbuffered), block (buffered), and
	network drivers.</para>
      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <title>Dynamic Kernel Linker Facility - KLD</title>
	<para>The kld interface allows system administrators to
	dynamically add and remove functionality from a running
	system.  This allows device driver writers to load their new
	changes into a running kernel without constantly rebooting to
	test changes.</para>

	<para>The kld interface is used through the following
	administrator commands : 
	<itemizedlist>
	<listitem><simpara><command>kldload</command> - loads a new kernel
	module</simpara></listitem>
	<listitem><simpara><command>kldunload</command> - unloads a kernel
	module</simpara></listitem>
	<listitem><simpara><command>kldstat</command> - lists the currently loadded
	modules</simpara></listitem>
	</itemizedlist>
	</para>

	<para>Skeleton Layout of a kernel module</para>
<programlisting>
/*
 * KLD Skeleton
 * Inspired by Andrew Reiter's Daemonnews article
 */

#include &lt;sys/types.h&gt;
#include &lt;sys/module.h&gt;
#include &lt;sys/systm.h&gt;  /* uprintf */ 
#include &lt;sys/errno.h&gt;
#include &lt;sys/param.h&gt;  /* defines used in kernel.h */
#include &lt;sys/kernel.h&gt; /* types used in module initialization */

/* 
 * Load handler that deals with the loading and unloading of a KLD.
 */

static int
skel_loader(struct module *m, int what, void *arg)
{
  int err = 0;
  
  switch (what) {
  case MOD_LOAD:                /* kldload */
    uprintf("Skeleton KLD loaded.\n");
    break;
  case MOD_UNLOAD:
    uprintf("Skeleton KLD unloaded.\n");
    break;
  default:
    err = EINVAL;
    break;
  }
  return(err);
}

/* Declare this module to the rest of the kernel */

DECLARE_MODULE(skeleton, skel_loader, SI_SUB_KLD, SI_ORDER_ANY);
</programlisting>


	<sect2>
	  <title>Makefile</title>
	  <para>FreeBSD provides a makefile include that you can use
	  to quickly compile your kernel addition.</para>
	  <programlisting>
SRCS=skeleton.c
KMOD=skeleton

.include &lt;bsd.kmod.mk&gt;
</programlisting>


	  <para>Simply running <command>make</command> with
	  this makefile will create a file
	  <filename>skeleton.ko</filename> that can be loaded into
	  your system by typing : 
<screen>  
&prompt.root kldload -v ./skeleton.ko
</screen>
          </para>
         </sect2>
      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <title>Accessing a device driver</title>
	<para>Unix provides a common set of system calls for user
	applications to use.  The upper layers of the kernel dispatch
	these calls to the corresponding device driver when a user
	accesses a device node.  The <command>/dev/MAKEDEV</command>
	script makes most of the device nodes for your system but if
	you are doing your own driver development it may be necessary
	to create your own device nodes with <command>mknod</command>
	</para>

	<sect2>
	<title>Creating static device nodes</title>
	<para>The <command>mknod</command> command requires four
	arguments to create a device node.  You must specify the
	name of this device node, the type of device, the major number
	of the device, and the minor number of the device.</para>
	</sect2>

	<sect2>
	<title>Dynamic device nodes</title>
	<para>The device filesystem, or devfs, provides access to the
	kernel's device namespace in the global filesystem namespace.
	This eliminates the problems of potentially having a device
	driver without a static device node, or a device node without
	an installed device driver.  Unfortunately, devfs is still a
	work in progress.</para>
	</sect2>

      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <title>Character Devices</title>
	<para>A character device driver is one that transfers data
	directly to and from a user process.  This is the most common
	type of device driver and there are plenty of simple examples
	in the source tree.</para>
	<para>This simple example pseudo-device remembers whatever values you write
	to it and can then supply them back to you when you read from
	it.</para>
<programlisting>
/*
 * Simple `echo' pseudo-device KLD
 *
 * Murray Stokely
 */

#define MIN(a,b) (((a) < (b)) ? (a) : (b))

#include &lt;sys/types.h&gt;
#include &lt;sys/module.h&gt;
#include &lt;sys/systm.h&gt; /* uprintf */ 
#include &lt;sys/errno.h&gt;
#include &lt;sys/param.h&gt;  /* defines used in kernel.h */
#include &lt;sys/kernel.h&gt; /* types used in module initialization */
#include &lt;sys/conf.h&gt;   /* cdevsw struct */
#include &lt;sys/uio.h&gt;    /* uio struct */
#include &lt;sys/malloc.h&gt;

#define BUFFERSIZE 256

/* Function prototypes */
d_open_t      echo_open;
d_close_t     echo_close;
d_read_t      echo_read;
d_write_t     echo_write;

/* Character device entry points */
static struct cdevsw echo_cdevsw = {
  echo_open,
  echo_close,
  echo_read,
  echo_write,
  noioctl,
  nopoll,
  nommap,
  nostrategy,
  "echo",
  33,                   /* reserved for lkms - /usr/src/sys/conf/majors */
  nodump,
  nopsize,
  D_TTY,
  -1
};

typedef struct s_echo {
  char msg[BUFFERSIZE];
  int len;
} t_echo;

/* vars */
static dev_t sdev;
static int len;
static int count;
static t_echo *echomsg;

MALLOC_DECLARE(M_ECHOBUF);
MALLOC_DEFINE(M_ECHOBUF, "echobuffer", "buffer for echo module");

/*
 * This function acts is called by the kld[un]load(2) system calls to
 * determine what actions to take when a module is loaded or unloaded.
 */
      
static int
echo_loader(struct module *m, int what, void *arg)
{
  int err = 0;
  
  switch (what) {
  case MOD_LOAD:                /* kldload */
    sdev = make_dev(<literal>&</literal>echo_cdevsw,
		    0,
		    UID_ROOT,
		    GID_WHEEL,
		    0600,
		    "echo");
    /* kmalloc memory for use by this driver */
    /*    malloc(256,M_ECHOBUF,M_WAITOK); */
    MALLOC(echomsg, t_echo *, sizeof(t_echo), M_ECHOBUF, M_WAITOK);
    printf("Echo device loaded.\n");
    break;
  case MOD_UNLOAD:
    destroy_dev(sdev);
    FREE(echomsg,M_ECHOBUF);
    printf("Echo device unloaded.\n");
    break;
  default:
    err = EINVAL;
    break;
  }
  return(err);
}

int 
echo_open(dev_t dev, int oflags, int devtype, struct proc *p)
{
  int err = 0;
  
  uprintf("Opened device \"echo\" successfully.\n");
  return(err);
}

int 
echo_close(dev_t dev, int fflag, int devtype, struct proc *p)
{
  uprintf("Closing device \"echo.\"\n"); 
  return(0);
} 

/* 
 * The read function just takes the buf that was saved via
 * echo_write() and returns it to userland for accessing.
 * uio(9) 
 */

int
echo_read(dev_t dev, struct uio *uio, int ioflag)
{
  int err = 0;
  int amt;

  /* How big is this read operation?  Either as big as the user wants,
     or as big as the remaining data */
  amt = MIN(uio->uio_resid, (echomsg->len - uio->uio_offset > 0) ? echomsg->len - uio->uio_offset : 0);
  if ((err = uiomove(echomsg->msg + uio->uio_offset,amt,uio)) != 0) {
    uprintf("uiomove failed!\n");
  }

  return err;
}

/*
 * echo_write takes in a character string and saves it
 * to buf for later accessing.
 */

int
echo_write(dev_t dev, struct uio *uio, int ioflag)
{
  int err = 0;

  /* Copy the string in from user memory to kernel memory */
  err = copyin(uio->uio_iov->iov_base, echomsg->msg, MIN(uio->uio_iov->iov_len,BUFFERSIZE));

  /* Now we need to null terminate */
  *(echomsg->msg + MIN(uio->uio_iov->iov_len,BUFFERSIZE)) = 0;
  /* Record the length */
  echomsg->len = MIN(uio->uio_iov->iov_len,BUFFERSIZE);

  if (err != 0) {
    uprintf("Write failed: bad address!\n");
  }

  count++;
  return(err);
}

DEV_MODULE(echo,echo_loader,NULL);
</programlisting>

<para>To install this driver you will first need to make a node on
	your filesystem with a command such as : </para> 
<screen>
	&prompt.root mknod /dev/echo c 33 0
</screen>
<para>With this driver loaded you should now be able to type something
	like :</para>
<screen>
        &prompt.root echo -n "Test Data" > /dev/echo
        &prompt.root cat /dev/echo
	Test Data
</screen>
	<para>Real hardware devices in the next chapter..</para>

	<para>Additional Resources
	<itemizedlist>
	<listitem><simpara><ulink
	url="http://www.daemonnews.org/200010/blueprints.html">Dynamic
	Kernel Linker (KLD) Facility Programming Tutorial</ulink> -
	<ulink url="http://www.daemonnews.org">Daemonnews</ulink> October 2000</simpara></listitem>
	<listitem><simpara><ulink
	url="http://www.daemonnews.org/200007/newbus-intro.html">How
	to Write Kernel Drivers with NEWBUS</ulink> - <ulink
	url="http://www.daemonnews.org">Daemonnews</ulink> July
	2000</simpara></listitem>
	</itemizedlist>
	</para>
      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <title>Block Devices</title>
	<para>A block device driver transfers data to and from the
	operating system's buffer cache.  They are solely intended to
	layer a file system on top of them.  For this reason they are
	normally implemented for disks and disk-like devices only.</para>

	<para>Example test data generator ... </para>

	<para>Example ramdisk device ... </para>

	<para>Real hardware devices in the next chapter..</para>
      </sect1>

      <sect1>
        <title>Network Drivers</title>
	<para>Drivers for network devices do not use device nodes in
	ord to be accessed.  Their selection is based on other
	decisions made inside the kernel and instead of calling
	open(), use of a network device is generally introduced by
	using the system call socket(2).</para>
	<para>man ifnet(), loopback device, Bill Pauls drivers, etc..</para>
      </sect1>

    </chapter>

    <chapter id="pci">
      <title>PCI Devices</title>

      <para>This chapter will talk about the FreeBSD mechanisms for
      writing a device driver for a device on a PCI bus.</para>

      <sect1><title>Probe and Attach</title>

      <para>Information here about how the PCI bus code iterates
      through the unattached devices and see if a newly loaded kld
      will attach to any of them.</para>
<programlisting>
/*
 * Simple KLD to play with the PCI functions.
 *
 * Murray Stokely
 */

#define MIN(a,b) (((a) < (b)) ? (a) : (b))

#include &lt;sys/types.h&gt;
#include &lt;sys/module.h&gt;
#include &lt;sys/systm.h&gt;  /* uprintf */ 
#include &lt;sys/errno.h&gt;
#include &lt;sys/param.h&gt;  /* defines used in kernel.h */
#include &lt;sys/kernel.h&gt; /* types used in module initialization */
#include &lt;sys/conf.h&gt;   /* cdevsw struct */
#include &lt;sys/uio.h&gt;    /* uio struct */
#include &lt;sys/malloc.h&gt;
#include &lt;sys/bus.h&gt;	/* structs, prototypes for pci bus stuff */

#include &lt;pci/pcivar.h&gt; /* For get_pci macros! */

/* Function prototypes */
d_open_t      mypci_open;
d_close_t     mypci_close;
d_read_t      mypci_read;
d_write_t     mypci_write;

/* Character device entry points */

static struct cdevsw mypci_cdevsw = {
  mypci_open,
  mypci_close,
  mypci_read,
  mypci_write,
  noioctl,
  nopoll,
  nommap,
  nostrategy,
  "mypci",
  36,                   /* reserved for lkms - /usr/src/sys/conf/majors */
  nodump,
  nopsize,
  D_TTY,
  -1
};

/* vars */
static dev_t sdev;

/* We're more interested in probe/attach than with
   open/close/read/write at this point */

int 
mypci_open(dev_t dev, int oflags, int devtype, struct proc *p)
{
  int err = 0;

  uprintf("Opened device \"mypci\" successfully.\n");
  return(err);
}

int 
mypci_close(dev_t dev, int fflag, int devtype, struct proc *p)
{
  int err=0;

  uprintf("Closing device \"mypci.\"\n"); 
  return(err);
} 

int
mypci_read(dev_t dev, struct uio *uio, int ioflag)
{
  int err = 0;

  uprintf("mypci read!\n");
  return err;
}

int
mypci_write(dev_t dev, struct uio *uio, int ioflag)
{
  int err = 0;

  uprintf("mypci write!\n");
  return(err);
}

/* PCI Support Functions */

/*
 * Return identification string if this is device is ours.
 */
static int
mypci_probe(device_t dev)
{
  uprintf("MyPCI Probe\n"
	  "Vendor ID : 0x%x\n"
	  "Device ID : 0x%x\n",pci_get_vendor(dev),pci_get_device(dev));

  if (pci_get_vendor(dev) == 0x11c1) {
    uprintf("We've got the Winmodem, probe successful!\n");
    return 0;
  }

  return ENXIO;
}

/* Attach function is only called if the probe is successful */

static int
mypci_attach(device_t dev)
{
  uprintf("MyPCI Attach for : deviceID : 0x%x\n",pci_get_vendor(dev));
  sdev = make_dev(<literal>&</literal>mypci_cdevsw,
		  0,
		  UID_ROOT,
		  GID_WHEEL,
		  0600,
		  "mypci");
  uprintf("Mypci device loaded.\n");
  return ENXIO;
}

/* Detach device. */

static int
mypci_detach(device_t dev)
{
  uprintf("Mypci detach!\n");
  return 0;
}

/* Called during system shutdown after sync. */

static int
mypci_shutdown(device_t dev)
{
  uprintf("Mypci shutdown!\n");
  return 0;
}

/*
 * Device suspend routine.  
 */
static int
mypci_suspend(device_t dev)
{
  uprintf("Mypci suspend!\n");
  return 0;
}

/*
 * Device resume routine.
 */

static int
mypci_resume(device_t dev)
{
  uprintf("Mypci resume!\n");
  return 0;
}

static device_method_t mypci_methods[] = {
	/* Device interface */
	DEVMETHOD(device_probe,		mypci_probe),
	DEVMETHOD(device_attach,	mypci_attach),
	DEVMETHOD(device_detach,	mypci_detach),
	DEVMETHOD(device_shutdown,	mypci_shutdown),
	DEVMETHOD(device_suspend,	mypci_suspend),
	DEVMETHOD(device_resume,	mypci_resume),

	{ 0, 0 }
};

static driver_t mypci_driver = {
	"mypci",
	mypci_methods,
	0,
	/*	sizeof(struct mypci_softc), */
};

static devclass_t mypci_devclass;

DRIVER_MODULE(mypci, pci, mypci_driver, mypci_devclass, 0, 0);
</programlisting>
      
        <para>Additional Resources
	<itemizedlist>
	<listitem><simpara><ulink
	url="http://www.pcisig.org">PCI Special Interest
	Group</ulink></simpara></listitem>
	<listitem><simpara>PCI System Architecture, Fourth Edition by
	Tom Shanley, et al.</simpara></listitem>
	</itemizedlist>
	</para>
      </sect1>
    </chapter>

    <chapter id="usb">
      <title>USB Devices</title>

      <para>This chapter will talk about the FreeBSD mechanisms for
      writing a device driver for a device on a USB bus.</para>
    </chapter>

    <chapter id="newbus">
      <title>NewBus</title>

      <para>This chapter will talk about the FreeBSD NewBus
      architecture.</para>
    </chapter>

  </part>
  
  <part id="architectures">
    <title>Architectures</title>

    <chapter id="ia32">
      <title>IA-32</title>

      <para>Talk about the architectural specifics of FreeBSD/x86.</para>

    </chapter>

    <chapter id="alpha">
      <title>Alpha</title>

      <para>Talk about the architectural specifics of
      FreeBSD/alpha.</para>

      <para>Explanation of allignment errors, how to fix, how to
      ignore.</para>

      <para>Example assembly language code for FreeBSD/alpha.</para>
    </chapter>

    <chapter id="ia64">
      <title>IA-64</title>

      <para>Talk about the architectural specifics of
      FreeBSD/ia64.</para>

    </chapter>
  </part>
  
  <part id="debuggingpart">
    <title>Debugging</title>

    <chapter id="truss">
      <title>Truss</title>

      <para>various descriptions on how to debug certain aspects of
        the system using truss, ktrace, gdb, kgdb, etc</para>

    </chapter>
  </part>
  
  <part id="compatibility">
    <title>Compatibility Layers</title>

    <chapter id="linux">
      <title>Linux</title>

      <para>Linux, SVR4, etc</para>

    </chapter>
  </part>
  
  <part id="appendices">
    <title>Appendices</title>

      <bibliography>

      <biblioentry id="COD" xreflabel="1">
        <authorgroup>
          <author>
            <firstname>Dave</firstname>
            <othername role="MI">A</othername>
            <surname>Patterson</surname>
          </author>
          <author>
            <firstname>John</firstname>
            <othername role="MI">L</othername>
            <surname>Hennessy</surname>
          </author>
        </authorgroup>
        <copyright><year>1998</year><holder>Morgan Kaufmann Publishers,
        Inc.</holder></copyright>
        <isbn>1-55860-428-6</isbn>
        <publisher>
          <publishername>Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, Inc.</publishername>
        </publisher>
        <title>Computer Organization and Design</title>
        <subtitle>The Hardware / Software Interface</subtitle>
        <pagenums>1-2</pagenums>
      </biblioentry>

      <biblioentry xreflabel="2">
        <authorgroup>
          <author>
            <firstname>W.</firstname>
            <othername role="Middle">Richard</othername>
            <surname>Stevens</surname>
          </author>
        </authorgroup>
        <copyright><year>1993</year><holder>Addison Wesley Longman,
        Inc.</holder></copyright>
        <isbn>0-201-56317-7</isbn>
        <publisher>
          <publishername>Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.</publishername>
        </publisher>
        <title>Advanced Programming in the Unix Environment</title>
        <pagenums>1-2</pagenums>
      </biblioentry>

      <biblioentry xreflabel="3">
        <authorgroup>
          <author>
            <firstname>Marshall</firstname>
            <othername role="Middle">Kirk</othername>
            <surname>McKusick</surname>
          </author>
          <author>
            <firstname>Keith</firstname>
            <surname>Bostic</surname>
          </author>
          <author>
            <firstname>Michael</firstname>
            <othername role="MI">J</othername>
            <surname>Karels</surname>
          </author>
          <author>
            <firstname>John</firstname>
            <othername role="MI">S</othername>
            <surname>Quarterman</surname>
          </author>
        </authorgroup>
        <copyright><year>1996</year><holder>Addison-Wesley Publishing Company,
        Inc.</holder></copyright>
        <isbn>0-201-54979-4</isbn>
        <publisher>
          <publishername>Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.</publishername>
        </publisher>
        <title>The Design and Implementation of the 4.4 BSD Operating System</title>
        <pagenums>1-2</pagenums>
      </biblioentry>

      <biblioentry id="Phrack" xreflabel="4">
        <authorgroup>
          <author>
            <firstname>Aleph</firstname>
            <surname>One</surname>
          </author>
        </authorgroup>
        <title>Phrack 49; "Smashing the Stack for Fun and Profit"</title>
      </biblioentry>

      <biblioentry id="StackGuard" xreflabel="5">
        <authorgroup>
          <author>
            <firstname>Chrispin</firstname>
            <surname>Cowan</surname>
          </author>
          <author>
            <firstname>Calton</firstname>
            <surname>Pu</surname>
          </author>
          <author>
            <firstname>Dave</firstname>
            <surname>Maier</surname>
          </author>
        </authorgroup>
        <title>StackGuard; Automatic Adaptive Detection and Prevention of
        Buffer-Overflow Attacks</title>
      </biblioentry>

      <biblioentry id="OpenBSD" xreflabel="6">
        <authorgroup>
	  <author>
	    <firstname>Todd</firstname>
	    <surname>Miller</surname>
	  </author>
	  <author>
	    <firstname>Theo</firstname>
	    <surname>de Raadt</surname>
	  </author>
	</authorgroup>
	<title>strlcpy and strlcat -- consistent, safe string copy and
	concatenation.</title>
      </biblioentry>

      </bibliography>

  </part>

</book>