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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
<!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     $FreeBSD$
-->
<chapter xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
  xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0"
  xml:id="tools">
  <info>
    <title>Programming Tools</title>

    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<personname>
	  <firstname>James</firstname>
	  <surname>Raynard</surname>
	</personname>
	<contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
      </author>
      <author>
	<personname>
	  <firstname>Murray</firstname>
	  <surname>Stokely</surname>
	</personname>
      </author>
    </authorgroup>
  </info>

  <sect1 xml:id="tools-synopsis">
    <title>Synopsis</title>

    <para>This chapter is an introduction to using some of the
      programming tools supplied with FreeBSD, although much of it
      will be applicable to many other versions of &unix;.  It does
      <emphasis>not</emphasis> attempt to describe coding in any
      detail.  Most of the chapter assumes little or no previous
      programming knowledge, although it is hoped that most
      programmers will find something of value in it.</para>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="tools-intro">
    <title>Introduction</title>

    <para>FreeBSD offers an excellent development environment.
      Compilers for C and C++ and an assembler come with the basic
      system, not to mention classic &unix; tools such as
      <command>sed</command> and <command>awk</command>.  If that is
      not enough, there are many more compilers and interpreters in
      the Ports collection.  The following section, <link
	linkend="tools-programming">Introduction to
	Programming</link>, lists some of the available options.
      FreeBSD is very compatible with standards such as
      <acronym>&posix;</acronym> and <acronym>ANSI</acronym> C, as
      well with its own BSD heritage, so it is possible to write
      applications that will compile and run with little or no
      modification on a wide range of platforms.</para>

    <para>However, all this power can be rather overwhelming at first
      if you have never written programs on a &unix; platform before.
      This document aims to help you get up and running, without
      getting too deeply into more advanced topics.  The intention is
      that this document should give you enough of the basics to be
      able to make some sense of the documentation.</para>

    <para>Most of the document requires little or no knowledge of
      programming, although it does assume a basic competence with
      using &unix; and a willingness to learn!</para>

  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="tools-programming">
    <title>Introduction to Programming</title>

    <para>A program is a set of instructions that tell the computer to
      do various things; sometimes the instruction it has to perform
      depends on what happened when it performed a previous
      instruction.  This section gives an overview of the two main
      ways in which you can give these instructions, or
      <quote>commands</quote> as they are usually called.  One way
      uses an <firstterm>interpreter</firstterm>, the other a
      <firstterm>compiler</firstterm>.  As human languages are too
      difficult for a computer to understand in an unambiguous way,
      commands are usually written in one or other languages specially
      designed for the purpose.</para>

    <sect2>
      <title>Interpreters</title>

      <para>With an interpreter, the language comes as an environment,
	where you type in commands at a prompt and the environment
	executes them for you.  For more complicated programs, you can
	type the commands into a file and get the interpreter to load
	the file and execute the commands in it.  If anything goes
	wrong, many interpreters will drop you into a debugger to help
	you track down the problem.</para>

      <para>The advantage of this is that you can see the results of
	your commands immediately, and mistakes can be corrected
	readily.  The biggest disadvantage comes when you want to
	share your programs with someone.  They must have the same
	interpreter, or you must have some way of giving it to them,
	and they need to understand how to use it.  Also users may not
	appreciate being thrown into a debugger if they press the
	wrong key! From a performance point of view, interpreters can
	use up a lot of memory, and generally do not generate code as
	efficiently as compilers.</para>

      <para>In my opinion, interpreted languages are the best way to
	start if you have not done any programming before.  This kind
	of environment is typically found with languages like Lisp,
	Smalltalk, Perl and Basic.  It could also be argued that the
	&unix; shell (<command>sh</command>, <command>csh</command>)
	is itself an interpreter, and many people do in fact write
	shell <quote>scripts</quote> to help with various
	<quote>housekeeping</quote> tasks on their machine.  Indeed,
	part of the original &unix; philosophy was to provide lots of
	small utility programs that could be linked together in shell
	scripts to perform useful tasks.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Interpreters Available with FreeBSD</title>

      <para>Here is a list of interpreters that are available from the
	&os; Ports Collection, with a brief discussion of some of the
	more popular interpreted languages.</para>

      <para>Instructions on how to get and install applications from
	the Ports Collection can be found in the <link
	  xlink:href="&url.books.handbook;/ports-using.html">Ports
	  section</link> of the handbook.</para>

      <variablelist>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term><acronym>BASIC</acronym></term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Short for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic
	      Instruction Code.  Developed in the 1950s for teaching
	      University students to program and provided with every
	      self-respecting personal computer in the 1980s,
	      <acronym>BASIC</acronym> has been the first programming
	      language for many programmers.  It is also the
	      foundation for Visual Basic.</para>

	    <para>The Bywater Basic Interpreter can be found in the
	      Ports Collection as <package>lang/bwbasic</package> and
	      the Phil Cockroft's Basic Interpreter (formerly Rabbit
	      Basic) is available as
	      <package>lang/pbasic</package>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Lisp</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>A language that was developed in the late 1950s as
	      an alternative to the <quote>number-crunching</quote>
	      languages that were popular at the time.  Instead of
	      being based on numbers, Lisp is based on lists; in fact,
	      the name is short for <quote>List Processing</quote>.
	      It is very popular in <acronym>AI</acronym> (Artificial
	      Intelligence) circles.</para>

	    <para>Lisp is an extremely powerful and sophisticated
	      language, but can be rather large and unwieldy.</para>

	    <para>Various implementations of Lisp that can run on
	      &unix; systems are available in the Ports Collection for
	      &os;.  GNU Common Lisp can be found as
	      <package>lang/gcl</package>.  CLISP by Bruno Haible and
	      Michael Stoll is available as
	      <package>lang/clisp</package>.  For CMUCL, which
	      includes a highly-optimizing compiler too, or simpler
	      Lisp implementations like SLisp, which implements most
	      of the Common Lisp constructs in a few hundred lines of
	      C code, <package>lang/cmucl</package> and
	      <package>lang/slisp</package> are available
	      respectively.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Perl</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Very popular with system administrators for writing
	      scripts; also often used on World Wide Web servers for
	      writing <acronym>CGI</acronym> scripts.</para>

	    <para>Perl is available in the Ports Collection as
	      <package>lang/perl5.24</package> for all
	      &os; releases.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Scheme</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>A dialect of Lisp that is rather more compact and
	      cleaner than Common Lisp.  Popular in Universities as it
	      is simple enough to teach to undergraduates as a first
	      language, while it has a high enough level of
	      abstraction to be used in research work.</para>

	    <para>Scheme is available from the Ports Collection as
	      <package>lang/elk</package> for the
		Elk Scheme Interpreter.  The MIT Scheme Interpreter
		can be found in
		<package>lang/mit-scheme</package>
		and the SCM Scheme Interpreter in
		<package>lang/scm</package>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Icon</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Icon is a high-level language with extensive
	      facilities for processing strings and structures.
	      The version of Icon for &os; can be found in the
	      Ports Collection as
	      <package>lang/icon</package>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Logo</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Logo is a language that is easy to learn, and has
	      been used as an introductory programming language in
	      various courses.  It is an excellent tool to work with
	      when teaching programming to smaller age groups, as it
	      makes creation of elaborate geometric shapes an easy
	      task.</para>

	    <para>The latest version of Logo for &os; is available
	      from the Ports Collection in
	      <package>lang/logo</package>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Python</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Python is an Object-Oriented, interpreted language.
	      Its advocates argue that it is one of the best languages
	      to start programming with, since it is relatively easy
	      to start with, but is not limited in comparison to other
	      popular interpreted languages that are used for the
	      development of large, complex applications (Perl and Tcl
	      are two other languages that are popular for such
	      tasks).</para>

	    <para>The latest version of Python is available from the
	      Ports Collection in
	      <package>lang/python</package>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Ruby</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Ruby is an interpreter, pure object-oriented
	      programming language.  It has become widely popular
	      because of its easy to understand syntax, flexibility
	      when writing code, and the ability to easily develop and
	      maintain large, complex programs.</para>

	    <para>Ruby is available from the Ports Collection as
	      <package>lang/ruby25</package>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Tcl and Tk</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Tcl is an embeddable, interpreted language, that has
	      become widely used and became popular mostly because of
	      its portability to many platforms.  It can be used both
	      for quickly writing small, prototype applications, or
	      (when combined with Tk, a GUI toolkit) fully-fledged,
	      featureful programs.</para>

	    <para>Various versions of Tcl are available as ports for
	      &os;.  The latest version, Tcl 8.5, can be found in
	      <package>lang/tcl87</package>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
      </variablelist>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Compilers</title>

      <para>Compilers are rather different.  First of all, you write
	your code in a file (or files) using an editor.  You then run
	the compiler and see if it accepts your program.  If it did
	not compile, grit your teeth and go back to the editor; if it
	did compile and gave you a program, you can run it either at a
	shell command prompt or in a debugger to see if it works
	properly.<footnote><para>If you run it in the shell, you may
	    get a core dump.</para></footnote></para>

      <para>Obviously, this is not quite as direct as using an
	interpreter.  However it allows you to do a lot of things
	which are very difficult or even impossible with an
	interpreter, such as writing code which interacts closely with
	the operating system&mdash;or even writing your own operating
	system! It is also useful if you need to write very efficient
	code, as the compiler can take its time and optimize the code,
	which would not be acceptable in an interpreter.  Moreover,
	distributing a program written for a compiler is usually more
	straightforward than one written for an interpreter&mdash;you
	can just give them a copy of the executable, assuming they
	have the same operating system as you.</para>

      <para>As the edit-compile-run-debug cycle is rather tedious when
	using separate programs, many commercial compiler makers have
	produced Integrated Development Environments
	(<acronym>IDE</acronym>s for short).  FreeBSD does not include
	an IDE in the base system, but
	<package>devel/kdevelop</package> is available in the Ports
	Collection and many use <application>Emacs</application> for
	this purpose.  Using <application>Emacs</application> as an
	IDE is discussed in <xref linkend="emacs"/>.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>


  <sect1 xml:id="tools-compiling">
    <title>Compiling with <command>cc</command></title>

    <para>This section deals with the <application>gcc</application>
      and <application>clang</application> compilers for C and C++,
      since they come with the &os; base system.  Starting with
      &os;&nbsp;10.X <command>clang</command> is installed as
      <command>cc</command>.  The details of producing a program with
      an interpreter vary considerably between interpreters, and are
      usually well covered in the documentation and on-line help for
      the interpreter.</para>

    <para>Once you have written your masterpiece, the next step is to
      convert it into something that will (hopefully!) run on FreeBSD.
      This usually involves several steps, each of which is done by a
      separate program.</para>

    <procedure>
      <step>
	<para>Pre-process your source code to remove comments and do
	  other tricks like expanding macros in C.</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>Check the syntax of your code to see if you have obeyed
	  the rules of the language.  If you have not, it will
	  complain!</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>Convert the source code into assembly
	  language&mdash;this is very close to machine code, but still
	  understandable by humans.  Allegedly.</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>Convert the assembly language into machine
	  code&mdash;yep, we are talking bits and bytes, ones and
	  zeros here.</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>Check that you have used things like functions and
	  global variables in a consistent way.  For example, if you
	  have called a non-existent function, it will
	  complain.</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>If you are trying to produce an executable from several
	  source code files, work out how to fit them all
	  together.</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>Work out how to produce something that the system's
	  run-time loader will be able to load into memory and
	  run.</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<para>Finally, write the executable on the filesystem.</para>
      </step>
    </procedure>

    <para>The word <firstterm>compiling</firstterm> is often used to
      refer to just steps 1 to 4&mdash;the others are referred to as
      <firstterm>linking</firstterm>.  Sometimes step 1 is referred to
      as <firstterm>pre-processing</firstterm> and steps 3-4 as
      <firstterm>assembling</firstterm>.</para>

    <para>Fortunately, almost all this detail is hidden from you, as
      <command>cc</command> is a front end that manages calling all
      these programs with the right arguments for you; simply
      typing</para>

    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc foobar.c</userinput></screen>

    <para>will cause <filename>foobar.c</filename> to be compiled by
      all the steps above.  If you have more than one file to compile,
      just do something like</para>

    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc foo.c bar.c</userinput></screen>

    <para>Note that the syntax checking is just that&mdash;checking
      the syntax.  It will not check for any logical mistakes you may
      have made, like putting the program into an infinite loop, or
      using a bubble sort when you meant to use a binary
      sort.<footnote><para>In case you did not know, a binary sort is
	  an efficient way of sorting things into order and a bubble
	  sort is not.</para></footnote></para>

    <para>There are lots and lots of options for
      <command>cc</command>, which are all in the manual page.  Here
      are a few of the most important ones, with examples of how to
      use them.</para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>
	  <option>-o <replaceable>filename</replaceable></option>
	</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The output name of the file.  If you do not use this
	    option, <command>cc</command> will produce an executable
	    called <filename>a.out</filename>.<footnote><para>The
		reasons for this are buried in the mists of
		history.</para></footnote></para>

	  <informalexample>
	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc foobar.c</userinput>               <lineannotation>executable is a.out</lineannotation>
&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c</userinput>     <lineannotation>executable is foobar</lineannotation></screen>
	  </informalexample>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-c</option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Just compile the file, do not link it.  Useful for toy
	    programs where you just want to check the syntax, or if
	    you are using a <filename>Makefile</filename>.</para>

	  <informalexample>
	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -c foobar.c</userinput></screen>
	  </informalexample>

	  <para>This will produce an <firstterm>object
	      file</firstterm> (not an executable) called
	    <filename>foobar.o</filename>.  This can be linked
	    together with other object files into an
	    executable.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-g</option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Create a debug version of the executable.  This makes
	    the compiler put information into the executable about
	    which line of which source file corresponds to which
	    function call.  A debugger can use this information to
	    show the source code as you step through the program,
	    which is <emphasis>very</emphasis> useful; the
	    disadvantage is that all this extra information makes the
	    program much bigger.  Normally, you compile with
	    <option>-g</option> while you are developing a program and
	    then compile a <quote>release version</quote> without
	    <option>-g</option> when you are satisfied it works
	    properly.</para>

	  <informalexample>
	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -g foobar.c</userinput></screen>
	  </informalexample>

	  <para>This will produce a debug version of the
	    program.

	    <footnote>
	      <para>Note, we did not use the <option>-o</option> flag
		to specify the executable name, so we will get an
		executable called <filename>a.out</filename>.
		Producing a debug version called
		<filename>foobar</filename> is left as an exercise for
		the reader!</para></footnote></para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-O</option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Create an optimized version of the executable.  The
	    compiler performs various clever tricks to try to produce
	    an executable that runs faster than normal.  You can add a
	    number after the <option>-O</option> to specify a higher
	    level of optimization, but this often exposes bugs in the
	    compiler's optimizer.</para>

	  <informalexample>
	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -O -o foobar foobar.c</userinput></screen>
	  </informalexample>

	  <para>This will produce an optimized version of
	    <filename>foobar</filename>.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>

    <para>The following three flags will force <command>cc</command>
      to check that your code complies to the relevant international
      standard, often referred to as the <acronym>ANSI</acronym>
      standard, though strictly speaking it is an
      <acronym>ISO</acronym> standard.</para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-Wall</option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Enable all the warnings which the authors of
	    <command>cc</command> believe are worthwhile.  Despite the
	    name, it will not enable all the warnings
	    <command>cc</command> is capable of.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-ansi</option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Turn off most, but not all, of the
	    non-<acronym>ANSI</acronym>&nbsp;C features provided by
	    <command>cc</command>.  Despite the name, it does not
	    guarantee strictly that your code will comply to the
	    standard.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-pedantic</option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Turn off <emphasis>all</emphasis>
	    <command>cc</command>'s non-<acronym>ANSI</acronym>&nbsp;C
	    features.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>

    <para>Without these flags, <command>cc</command> will allow you to
      use some of its non-standard extensions to the standard.  Some
      of these are very useful, but will not work with other
      compilers&mdash;in fact, one of the main aims of the standard is
      to allow people to write code that will work with any compiler
      on any system.  This is known as <firstterm>portable
	code</firstterm>.</para>

    <para>Generally, you should try to make your code as portable as
      possible, as otherwise you may have to completely rewrite the
      program later to get it to work somewhere else&mdash;and who
      knows what you may be using in a few years time?</para>

    <informalexample>
      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -Wall -ansi -pedantic -o foobar foobar.c</userinput></screen>
    </informalexample>

    <para>This will produce an executable <filename>foobar</filename>
      after checking <filename>foobar.c</filename> for standard
      compliance.</para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term><option>-l<replaceable>library</replaceable></option></term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Specify a function library to be used at link
	    time.</para>

	  <para>The most common example of this is when compiling a
	    program that uses some of the mathematical functions in C.
	    Unlike most other platforms, these are in a separate
	    library from the standard C one and you have to tell the
	    compiler to add it.</para>

	  <para>The rule is that if the library is called
	    <filename>lib<replaceable>something</replaceable>.a</filename>,
	    you give <command>cc</command> the argument
	    <option>-l<replaceable>something</replaceable></option>.
	    For example, the math library is
	    <filename>libm.a</filename>, so you give
	    <command>cc</command> the argument <option>-lm</option>.
	    A common <quote>gotcha</quote> with the math library is
	    that it has to be the last library on the command
	    line.</para>

	  <informalexample>
	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c -lm</userinput></screen>
	  </informalexample>

	  <para>This will link the math library functions into
	    <filename>foobar</filename>.</para>

	  <para>If you are compiling C++ code, use
	    <command>c++</command>.  <command>c++</command> can also
	    be invoked as <command>clang++</command> on &os;.</para>

	  <informalexample>
	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>c++ -o foobar foobar.cc</userinput></screen>
	  </informalexample>

	  <para>This will both produce an executable
	    <filename>foobar</filename> from the C++ source file
	    <filename>foobar.cc</filename>.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>

    <sect2>
      <title>Common <command>cc</command> Queries and Problems</title>

      <qandaset>
	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>I am trying to write a program which uses the
	      <function>sin()</function> function and I get an error
	      like this.  What does it mean?</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>/var/tmp/cc0143941.o: Undefined symbol `_sin' referenced from text segment</screen>
	    </informalexample>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>When using mathematical functions like
	      <function>sin()</function>, you have to tell
	      <command>cc</command> to link in the math library, like
	      so:</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c -lm</userinput></screen>
	    </informalexample>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>All right, I wrote this simple program to practice
	      using <option>-lm</option>.  All it does is raise 2.1 to
	      the power of 6.</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <programlisting>#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;

int main() {
	float f;

	f = pow(2.1, 6);
	printf("2.1 ^ 6 = %f\n", f);
	return 0;
}</programlisting>
	    </informalexample>

	    <para>and I compiled it as:</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc temp.c -lm</userinput></screen>
	    </informalexample>

	    <para>like you said I should, but I get this when I run
	      it:</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>./a.out</userinput>
2.1 ^ 6 = 1023.000000</screen>
	    </informalexample>

	    <para>This is <emphasis>not</emphasis> the right answer!
	      What is going on?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>When the compiler sees you call a function, it
	      checks if it has already seen a prototype for it.  If it
	      has not, it assumes the function returns an
	      <type>int</type>, which is definitely not what you want
	      here.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>So how do I fix this?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>The prototypes for the mathematical functions are in
	      <filename>math.h</filename>.  If you include this file,
	      the compiler will be able to find the prototype and it
	      will stop doing strange things to your
	      calculation!</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <programlisting>#include &lt;math.h&gt;
#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;

int main() {
...</programlisting>
	    </informalexample>

	    <para>After recompiling it as you did before, run
	      it:</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>./a.out</userinput>
2.1 ^ 6 = 85.766121</screen>
	    </informalexample>

	    <para>If you are using any of the mathematical functions,
	      <emphasis>always</emphasis> include
	      <filename>math.h</filename> and remember to link in the
	      math library.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>I compiled a file called
	      <filename>foobar.c</filename> and I cannot find an
	      executable called <filename>foobar</filename>.  Where
	      has it gone?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>Remember, <command>cc</command> will call the
	      executable <filename>a.out</filename> unless you tell it
	      differently.  Use the
	      <option>-o&nbsp;<replaceable>filename</replaceable></option>
	      option:</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -o foobar foobar.c</userinput></screen>
	    </informalexample>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>OK, I have an executable called
	      <filename>foobar</filename>, I can see it when I run
	      <command>ls</command>, but when I type in
	      <command>foobar</command> at the command prompt it tells
	      me there is no such file.  Why can it not find
	      it?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>Unlike &ms-dos;, &unix; does not look in the current
	      directory when it is trying to find out which executable
	      you want it to run, unless you tell it to.  Type
	      <command>./foobar</command>, which means <quote>run the
		file called <filename>foobar</filename> in the current
		directory.</quote></para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>I called my executable <filename>test</filename>,
	      but nothing happens when I run it.  What is going
	      on?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>Most &unix; systems have a program called
	      <command>test</command> in <filename>/usr/bin</filename>
	      and the shell is picking that one up before it gets to
	      checking the current directory.  Either type:</para>

	    <informalexample>
	      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>./test</userinput></screen>
	    </informalexample>

	    <para>or choose a better name for your program!</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>I compiled my program and it seemed to run all right
	      at first, then there was an error and it said something
	      about <errorname>core dumped</errorname>.  What does
	      that mean?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>The name <firstterm>core dump</firstterm> dates back
	      to the very early days of &unix;, when the machines used
	      core memory for storing data.  Basically, if the program
	      failed under certain conditions, the system would write
	      the contents of core memory to disk in a file called
	      <filename>core</filename>, which the programmer could
	      then pore over to find out what went wrong.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>Fascinating stuff, but what I am supposed to do
	      now?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>Use a debugger to analyze the core (see
	      <xref linkend="debugging"/>).</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>When my program dumped core, it said something about
	      a <errorname>segmentation fault</errorname>.  What is
	      that?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>This basically means that your program tried to
	      perform some sort of illegal operation on memory; &unix;
	      is designed to protect the operating system and other
	      programs from rogue programs.</para>

	    <para>Common causes for this are:</para>

	    <itemizedlist>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Trying to write to a <symbol>NULL</symbol>
		  pointer, eg</para>

		<programlisting>char *foo = NULL;
strcpy(foo, "bang!");</programlisting>
	      </listitem>

	      <listitem>
		<para>Using a pointer that has not been initialized,
		  eg</para>

		<programlisting>char *foo;
strcpy(foo, "bang!");</programlisting>

		<para>The pointer will have some random value that,
		  with luck, will point into an area of memory that is
		  not available to your program and the kernel will
		  kill your program before it can do any damage.  If
		  you are unlucky, it will point somewhere inside your
		  own program and corrupt one of your data structures,
		  causing the program to fail mysteriously.</para>
	      </listitem>

	      <listitem>
		<para>Trying to access past the end of an array,
		  eg</para>

		<programlisting>int bar[20];
bar[27] = 6;</programlisting>
	      </listitem>

	      <listitem>
		<para>Trying to store something in read-only memory,
		  eg</para>

		<programlisting>char *foo = "My string";
strcpy(foo, "bang!");</programlisting>

		<para>&unix; compilers often put string literals like
		  <literal>"My string"</literal> into read-only areas
		  of memory.</para>
	      </listitem>

	      <listitem>
		<para>Doing naughty things with
		  <function>malloc()</function> and
		  <function>free()</function>, eg</para>

		<programlisting>char bar[80];
free(bar);</programlisting>

		<para>or</para>

		<programlisting>char *foo = malloc(27);
free(foo);
free(foo);</programlisting>
	      </listitem>
	    </itemizedlist>

	    <para>Making one of these mistakes will not always lead to
	      an error, but they are always bad practice.  Some
	      systems and compilers are more tolerant than others,
	      which is why programs that ran well on one system can
	      crash when you try them on an another.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>Sometimes when I get a core dump it says
	      <errorname>bus error</errorname>.  It says in my &unix;
	      book that this means a hardware problem, but the
	      computer still seems to be working.  Is this
	      true?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>No, fortunately not (unless of course you really do
	      have a hardware problem&hellip;).  This is usually
	      another way of saying that you accessed memory in a way
	      you should not have.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>

	<qandaentry>
	  <question>
	    <para>This dumping core business sounds as though it could
	      be quite useful, if I can make it happen when I want to.
	      Can I do this, or do I have to wait until there is an
	      error?</para>
	  </question>

	  <answer>
	    <para>Yes, just go to another console or xterm, do</para>

	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>ps</userinput></screen>

	    <para>to find out the process ID of your program, and
	      do</para>

	    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>kill -ABRT <replaceable>pid</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	    <para>where
	      <parameter><replaceable>pid</replaceable></parameter> is
	      the process ID you looked up.</para>

	    <para>This is useful if your program has got stuck in an
	      infinite loop, for instance.  If your program happens to
	      trap <symbol>SIGABRT</symbol>, there are several other
	      signals which have a similar effect.</para>

	    <para>Alternatively, you can create a core dump from
	      inside your program, by calling the
	      <function>abort()</function> function.  See the manual
	      page of &man.abort.3; to learn more.</para>

	    <para>If you want to create a core dump from outside your
	      program, but do not want the process to terminate, you
	      can use the <command>gcore</command> program.  See the
	      manual page of &man.gcore.1; for more
	      information.</para>
	  </answer>
	</qandaentry>
      </qandaset>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="tools-make">
    <title>Make</title>

    <sect2>
      <title>What is <command>make</command>?</title>

      <para>When you are working on a simple program with only one or
	two source files, typing in</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc file1.c file2.c</userinput></screen>

      <para>is not too bad, but it quickly becomes very tedious when
	there are several files&mdash;and it can take a while to
	compile, too.</para>

      <para>One way to get around this is to use object files and only
	recompile the source file if the source code has changed.  So
	we could have something like:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc file1.o file2.o</userinput> &hellip; <userinput>file37.c</userinput> &hellip;</screen>

      <para>if we had changed <filename>file37.c</filename>, but not
	any of the others, since the last time we compiled.  This may
	speed up the compilation quite a bit, but does not solve the
	typing problem.</para>

      <para>Or we could write a shell script to solve the typing
	problem, but it would have to re-compile everything, making it
	very inefficient on a large project.</para>

      <para>What happens if we have hundreds of source files lying
	about? What if we are working in a team with other people who
	forget to tell us when they have changed one of their source
	files that we use?</para>

      <para>Perhaps we could put the two solutions together and write
	something like a shell script that would contain some kind of
	magic rule saying when a source file needs compiling.  Now all
	we need now is a program that can understand these rules, as
	it is a bit too complicated for the shell.</para>

      <para>This program is called <command>make</command>.  It reads
	in a file, called a <firstterm>makefile</firstterm>, that
	tells it how different files depend on each other, and works
	out which files need to be re-compiled and which ones do not.
	For example, a rule could say something like <quote>if
	  <filename>fromboz.o</filename> is older than
	  <filename>fromboz.c</filename>, that means someone must have
	  changed <filename>fromboz.c</filename>, so it needs to be
	  re-compiled.</quote> The makefile also has rules telling
	make <emphasis>how</emphasis> to re-compile the source file,
	making it a much more powerful tool.</para>

      <para>Makefiles are typically kept in the same directory as the
	source they apply to, and can be called
	<filename>makefile</filename>, <filename>Makefile</filename>
	or <filename>MAKEFILE</filename>.  Most programmers use the
	name <filename>Makefile</filename>, as this puts it near the
	top of a directory listing, where it can easily be
	seen.<footnote><para>They do not use the
	    <filename>MAKEFILE</filename> form as block capitals are
	    often used for documentation files like
	    <filename>README</filename>.</para></footnote></para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Example of Using <command>make</command></title>

      <para>Here is a very simple make file:</para>

      <programlisting>foo: foo.c
	cc -o foo foo.c</programlisting>

      <para>It consists of two lines, a dependency line and a creation
	line.</para>

      <para>The dependency line here consists of the name of the
	program (known as the <firstterm>target</firstterm>), followed
	by a colon, then whitespace, then the name of the source file.
	When <command>make</command> reads this line, it looks to see
	if <filename>foo</filename> exists; if it exists, it compares
	the time <filename>foo</filename> was last modified to the
	time <filename>foo.c</filename> was last modified.  If
	<filename>foo</filename> does not exist, or is older than
	<filename>foo.c</filename>, it then looks at the creation line
	to find out what to do.  In other words, this is the rule for
	working out when <filename>foo.c</filename> needs to be
	re-compiled.</para>

      <para>The creation line starts with a <token>tab</token> (press
	<keycap>tab</keycap>) and then the command you would type to
	create <filename>foo</filename> if you were doing it at a
	command prompt.  If <filename>foo</filename> is out of date,
	or does not exist, <command>make</command> then executes this
	command to create it.  In other words, this is the rule which
	tells make how to re-compile
	<filename>foo.c</filename>.</para>

      <para>So, when you type <userinput>make</userinput>, it will
	make sure that <filename>foo</filename> is up to date with
	respect to your latest changes to <filename>foo.c</filename>.
	This principle can be extended to
	<filename>Makefile</filename>s with hundreds of
	targets&mdash;in fact, on FreeBSD, it is possible to compile
	the entire operating system just by typing <userinput>make
	  world</userinput> in the appropriate directory!</para>

      <para>Another useful property of makefiles is that the targets
	do not have to be programs.  For instance, we could have a
	make file that looks like this:</para>

      <programlisting>foo: foo.c
	cc -o foo foo.c

install:
	cp foo /home/me</programlisting>

      <para>We can tell make which target we want to make by
	typing:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>make <replaceable>target</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para><command>make</command> will then only look at that target
	and ignore any others.  For example, if we type
	<userinput>make foo</userinput> with the makefile above, make
	will ignore the <buildtarget>install</buildtarget>
	target.</para>

      <para>If we just type <userinput>make</userinput> on its own,
	make will always look at the first target and then stop
	without looking at any others.  So if we typed
	<userinput>make</userinput> here, it will just go to the
	<buildtarget>foo</buildtarget> target, re-compile
	<filename>foo</filename> if necessary, and then stop without
	going on to the <buildtarget>install</buildtarget>
	target.</para>

      <para>Notice that the <buildtarget>install</buildtarget> target
	does not actually depend on anything! This means that the
	command on the following line is always executed when we try
	to make that target by typing <userinput>make
	  install</userinput>.  In this case, it will copy
	<filename>foo</filename> into the user's home directory.  This
	is often used by application makefiles, so that the
	application can be installed in the correct directory when it
	has been correctly compiled.</para>

      <para>This is a slightly confusing subject to try to explain.
	If you do not quite understand how <command>make</command>
	works, the best thing to do is to write a simple program like
	<quote>hello world</quote> and a make file like the one above
	and experiment.  Then progress to using more than one source
	file, or having the source file include a header file.
	<command>touch</command> is very useful here&mdash;it changes
	the date on a file without you having to edit it.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Make and include-files</title>

      <para>C code often starts with a list of files to include, for
	example stdio.h.  Some of these files are system-include
	files, some of them are from the project you are now working
	on:</para>

      <programlisting>#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;
#include "foo.h"

int main(....</programlisting>

      <para>To make sure that this file is recompiled the moment
	<filename>foo.h</filename> is changed, you have to add it in
	your <filename>Makefile</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>foo: foo.c foo.h</programlisting>

      <para>The moment your project is getting bigger and you have
	more and more own include-files to maintain, it will be a pain
	to keep track of all include files and the files which are
	depending on it.  If you change an include-file but forget to
	recompile all the files which are depending on it, the results
	will be devastating.  <command>clang</command> has an option
	to analyze your files and to produce a list of include-files
	and their dependencies: <option>-MM</option>.</para>

      <para>If you add this to your Makefile:</para>

      <programlisting>depend:
	cc -E -MM *.c &gt; .depend</programlisting>

      <para>and run <userinput>make depend</userinput>, the file
	<filename>.depend</filename> will appear with a list of
	object-files, C-files and the include-files:</para>

      <programlisting>foo.o: foo.c foo.h</programlisting>

      <para>If you change <filename>foo.h</filename>, next time you
	run <command>make</command> all files depending on
	<filename>foo.h</filename> will be recompiled.</para>

      <para>Do not forget to run <command>make depend</command> each
	time you add an include-file to one of your files.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>FreeBSD Makefiles</title>

      <para>Makefiles can be rather complicated to write.
	Fortunately, BSD-based systems like FreeBSD come with some
	very powerful ones as part of the system.  One very good
	example of this is the FreeBSD ports system.  Here is the
	essential part of a typical ports
	<filename>Makefile</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>MASTER_SITES=   ftp://freefall.cdrom.com/pub/FreeBSD/LOCAL_PORTS/
DISTFILES=      scheme-microcode+dist-7.3-freebsd.tgz

.include &lt;bsd.port.mk&gt;</programlisting>

      <para>Now, if we go to the directory for this port and type
	<userinput>make</userinput>, the following happens:</para>

      <procedure>
	<step>
	  <para>A check is made to see if the source code for this
	    port is already on the system.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>If it is not, an FTP connection to the URL in
	    <symbol>MASTER_SITES</symbol> is set up to download the
	    source.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>The checksum for the source is calculated and compared
	    it with one for a known, good, copy of the source.  This
	    is to make sure that the source was not corrupted while in
	    transit.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Any changes required to make the source work on
	    FreeBSD are applied&mdash;this is known as
	    <firstterm>patching</firstterm>.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Any special configuration needed for the source is
	    done.  (Many &unix; program distributions try to work out
	    which version of &unix; they are being compiled on and
	    which optional &unix; features are present&mdash;this is
	    where they are given the information in the FreeBSD ports
	    scenario).</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>The source code for the program is compiled.  In
	    effect, we change to the directory where the source was
	    unpacked and do <command>make</command>&mdash;the
	    program's own make file has the necessary information to
	    build the program.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>We now have a compiled version of the program.  If we
	    wish, we can test it now; when we feel confident about the
	    program, we can type <userinput>make install</userinput>.
	    This will cause the program and any supporting files it
	    needs to be copied into the correct location; an entry is
	    also made into a <database>package database</database>, so
	    that the port can easily be uninstalled later if we change
	    our mind about it.</para>
	</step>
      </procedure>

      <para>Now I think you will agree that is rather impressive for a
	four line script!</para>

      <para>The secret lies in the last line, which tells
	<command>make</command> to look in the system makefile called
	<filename>bsd.port.mk</filename>.  It is easy to overlook this
	line, but this is where all the clever stuff comes
	from&mdash;someone has written a makefile that tells
	<command>make</command> to do all the things above (plus a
	couple of other things I did not mention, including handling
	any errors that may occur) and anyone can get access to that
	just by putting a single line in their own make file!</para>

      <para>If you want to have a look at these system makefiles, they
	are in <filename>/usr/share/mk</filename>, but it is probably
	best to wait until you have had a bit of practice with
	makefiles, as they are very complicated (and if you do look at
	them, make sure you have a flask of strong coffee
	handy!)</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>More Advanced Uses of <command>make</command></title>

      <para><command>Make</command> is a very powerful tool, and can
	do much more than the simple example above shows.
	Unfortunately, there are several different versions of
	<command>make</command>, and they all differ considerably.
	The best way to learn what they can do is probably to read the
	documentation&mdash;hopefully this introduction will have
	given you a base from which you can do this.</para>

      <para>The version of make that comes with FreeBSD is the
	<application>Berkeley make</application>; there is a tutorial
	for it in <filename>/usr/share/doc/psd/12.make</filename>.  To
	view it, do</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>zmore paper.ascii.gz</userinput></screen>

      <para>in that directory.</para>

      <para>Many applications in the ports use <application>GNU
	  make</application>, which has a very good set of
	<quote>info</quote> pages.  If you have installed any of these
	ports, <application>GNU make</application> will automatically
	have been installed as <command>gmake</command>.  It is also
	available as a port and package in its own right.</para>

      <para>To view the info pages for <application>GNU
	  make</application>, you will have to edit
	<filename>dir</filename> in the
	<filename>/usr/local/info</filename> directory to add an entry
	for it.  This involves adding a line like</para>

      <programlisting> * Make: (make).                 The GNU Make utility.</programlisting>

      <para>to the file.  Once you have done this, you can type
	<userinput>info</userinput> and then select
	<guimenuitem>make</guimenuitem> from the menu (or in
	<application>Emacs</application>, do <userinput>C-h
	  i</userinput>).</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="debugging">
    <title>Debugging</title>

    <sect2>
      <title>Introduction to Available Debuggers</title>

      <para>Using a debugger allows running the program under more
	controlled circumstances.  Typically, it is possible to step
	through the program a line at a time, inspect the value of
	variables, change them, tell the debugger to run up to a
	certain point and then stop, and so on.  It is also possible
	to attach to a program that is already running, or load a core
	file to investigate why the program crashed.  It is even
	possible to debug the kernel, though that is a little trickier
	than the user applications we will be discussing in this
	section.</para>

      <para>This section is intended to be a quick introduction to
	using debuggers and does not cover specialized topics such as
	debugging the kernel.  For more information about that, refer
	to <xref linkend="kerneldebug" />.</para>

      <para>The standard debugger supplied with
	&os;&nbsp;&rel121.current; is called <command>lldb</command>
	(<application>LLVM debugger</application>).  As it is part of
	the standard installation for that release, there is no need
	to do anything special to use it.  It has good command help,
	accessible via the <userinput>help</userinput> command, as
	well as <link xlink:href="https://lldb.llvm.org/">a web
	tutorial and documentation</link>.</para>

      <note>
	<para>The <command>lldb</command> command is available for
	  &os;&nbsp;&rel1.current; <link
	    xlink:href="&url.books.handbook;/ports-using.html">from
	    ports or packages</link> as
	  <package>devel/llvm</package>.  This will install the
	  default version of lldb (currently 9.0).</para>
      </note>

      <para>The other debugger available with &os; is called
	<command>gdb</command> (<application>GNU
	  debugger</application>).  Unlike lldb, it is not installed
	by default on &os;&nbsp;&rel121.current;; to use it, <link
	xlink:href="&url.books.handbook;/ports-using.html">install</link>
	<package>devel/gdb</package> from ports or packages.  The
	version installed by default on &os;&nbsp;&rel1.current; is
	old; instead, install <package>devel/gdb</package> there as
	well.  It has quite good on-line help, as well as a set of
	info pages.</para>

      <para>Which one to use is largely a matter of taste.  If
	familiar with one only, use that one.  People familiar
	with neither or both but wanting to use one from inside
	<application>Emacs</application> will need to use
	<command>gdb</command> as <command>lldb</command> is
	unsupported by <application>Emacs</application>.  Otherwise,
	try both and see which one you prefer.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Using lldb</title>

      <sect3>
	<title>Starting lldb</title>

	<para>Start up lldb by typing</para>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>lldb -- <replaceable>progname</replaceable></userinput></screen>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>Running a Program with lldb</title>

	<para>Compile the program with <option>-g</option> to get the
	  most out of using <command>lldb</command>.  It will work
	  without, but will only display the name of the function
	  currently running, instead of the source code.  If it
	  displays a line like:</para>

	<screen>Breakpoint 1: where = temp`main, address = &hellip;</screen>

	<para>(without an indication of source code filename and line
	  number) when setting a breakpoint, this means that the
	  program was not compiled with <option>-g</option>.</para>

	<tip>
	  <para>Most <command>lldb</command> commands have shorter
	    forms that can be used instead.  The longer forms are
	    used here for clarity.</para>
	</tip>

	<para>At the <command>lldb</command> prompt, type
	  <userinput>breakpoint set -n main</userinput>.  This will
	  tell the debugger not to display the preliminary set-up code
	  in the program being run and to stop execution at the
	  beginning of the program's code.  Now type
	  <userinput>process launch</userinput> to actually start the
	  program&mdash; it will start at the beginning of the set-up
	  code and then get stopped by the debugger when it calls
	  <function>main()</function>.</para>

	<para>To step through the program a line at a time, type
	  <userinput>thread step-over</userinput>.  When the program
	  gets to a function call, step into it by typing
	  <userinput>thread step-in</userinput>.  Once in a function
	  call, return from it by typing
	  <userinput>thread step-out</userinput> or use
	  <userinput>up</userinput> and <userinput>down</userinput> to
	  take a quick look at the caller.</para>

	<para>Here is a simple example of how to spot a mistake in a
	  program with <command>lldb</command>.  This is our program
	  (with a deliberate mistake):</para>

	<programlisting>#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;

int bazz(int anint);

main() {
	int i;

	printf("This is my program\n");
	bazz(i);
	return 0;
}

int bazz(int anint) {
	printf("You gave me %d\n", anint);
	return anint;
}</programlisting>

	<para>This program sets <symbol>i</symbol> to be
	  <literal>5</literal> and passes it to a function
	  <function>bazz()</function> which prints out the number we
	  gave it.</para>

	<para>Compiling and running the program displays</para>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -g -o temp temp.c</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>./temp</userinput>
This is my program
anint = -5360</screen>

	<para>That is not what was expected! Time to see what is going
	  on!</para>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>lldb -- temp</userinput>
(lldb) target create "temp"
Current executable set to 'temp' (x86_64).
(lldb) <userinput>breakpoint set -n main</userinput>				<lineannotation>Skip the set-up code</lineannotation>
Breakpoint 1: where = temp`main + 15 at temp.c:8:2, address = 0x00000000002012ef	<lineannotation>lldb puts breakpoint at main()</lineannotation>
(lldb) <userinput>process launch</userinput>					<lineannotation>Run as far as main()</lineannotation>
Process 9992 launching
Process 9992 launched: '/home/pauamma/tmp/temp' (x86_64)	<lineannotation>Program starts running</lineannotation>

Process 9992 stopped
* thread #1, name = 'temp', stop reason = breakpoint 1.1	<lineannotation>lldb stops at main()</lineannotation>
    frame #0: 0x00000000002012ef temp`main at temp.c:8:2
   5	main() {
   6		int i;
   7
-> 8		printf("This is my program\n");			<lineannotation>Indicates the line where it stopped</lineannotation>
   9		bazz(i);
   10		return 0;
   11	}
(lldb) <userinput>thread step-over</userinput>			<lineannotation>Go to next line</lineannotation>
This is my program						<lineannotation>Program prints out</lineannotation>
Process 9992 stopped
* thread #1, name = 'temp', stop reason = step over
    frame #0: 0x0000000000201300 temp`main at temp.c:9:7
   6		int i;
   7
   8		printf("This is my program\n");
-> 9		bazz(i);
   10		return 0;
   11	}
   12
(lldb) <userinput>thread step-in</userinput>			<lineannotation>step into bazz()</lineannotation>
Process 9992 stopped
* thread #1, name = 'temp', stop reason = step in
    frame #0: 0x000000000020132b temp`bazz(anint=-5360) at temp.c:14:29	<lineannotation>lldb displays stack frame</lineannotation>
   11	}
   12
   13	int bazz(int anint) {
-> 14		printf("You gave me %d\n", anint);
   15		return anint;
   16	}
(lldb)</screen>

	<para>Hang on a minute! How did <symbol>anint</symbol> get to
	  be <literal>-5360</literal>? Was it not set to
	  <literal>5</literal> in <function>main()</function>? Let us
	  move up to <function>main()</function> and have a
	  look.</para>

	<screen>(lldb) <userinput>up</userinput>		<lineannotation>Move up call stack</lineannotation>
frame #1: 0x000000000020130b temp`main at temp.c:9:2		<lineannotation>lldb displays stack frame</lineannotation>
   6		int i;
   7
   8		printf("This is my program\n");
-> 9		bazz(i);
   10		return 0;
   11	}
   12
(lldb) <userinput>frame variable i</userinput>			<lineannotation>Show us the value of i</lineannotation>
(int) i = -5360							<lineannotation>lldb displays -5360</lineannotation></screen>

	<para>Oh dear! Looking at the code, we forgot to initialize
	  <symbol>i</symbol>.  We meant to put</para>

	<programlisting><lineannotation>&hellip;</lineannotation>
main() {
	int i;

	i = 5;
	printf("This is my program\n");
<lineannotation>&hellip;</lineannotation></programlisting>

	<para>but we left the <literal>i=5;</literal> line out.  As we
	  did not initialize <symbol>i</symbol>, it had whatever
	  number happened to be in that area of memory when the
	  program ran, which in this case happened to be
	  <literal>-5360</literal>.</para>

	<note>
	  <para>The <command>lldb</command> command displays the stack
	    frame every time we go into or out of a function, even if
	    we are using <userinput>up</userinput> and
	    <userinput>down</userinput> to move around the call stack.
	    This shows the name of the function and the values of its
	    arguments, which helps us keep track of where we are and
	    what is going on.  (The stack is a storage area where the
	    program stores information about the arguments passed to
	    functions and where to go when it returns from a function
	    call.)</para>
	</note>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>Examining a Core File with lldb</title>

	<para>A core file is basically a file which contains the
	  complete state of the process when it crashed.  In
	  <quote>the good old days</quote>, programmers had to print
	  out hex listings of core files and sweat over machine code
	  manuals, but now life is a bit easier.  Incidentally, under
	  &os; and other 4.4BSD systems, a core file is called
	  <filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable>.core</filename>
	  instead of just <filename>core</filename>, to make it
	  clearer which program a core file belongs to.</para>

	<para>To examine a core file, specify the name of the core
	  file in addition to the program itself.  Instead of starting
	  up <command>lldb</command> in the usual way, type
	  <userinput>lldb -c <replaceable>progname</replaceable>.core
	    -- <replaceable>progname</replaceable></userinput></para>

	<para>The debugger will display something like this:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>lldb -c <filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable>.core</filename> -- <filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable></filename></userinput>
(lldb) target create "<filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable></filename>" --core "<filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable></filename>.core"
Core file '/home/pauamma/tmp/<filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable>.core</filename>' (x86_64) was loaded.
(lldb)</screen>

	<para>In this case, the program was called
	  <filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable></filename>, so
	  the core file is called
	  <filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable>.core</filename>.
	  The debugger does not display why the program crashed or
	  where.  For this, use
	  <userinput>thread backtrace all</userinput>.  This will also
	  show how the function where the program dumped core was
	  called.</para>

	<screen>(lldb) <userinput>thread backtrace all</userinput>
* thread #1, name = '<filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable></filename>', stop reason = signal SIGSEGV
  * frame #0: 0x0000000000201347 <filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable></filename>`bazz(anint=5) at temp2.c:17:10
    frame #1: 0x0000000000201312 <filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable></filename>`main at temp2.c:10:2
    frame #2: 0x000000000020110f <filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable></filename>`_start(ap=&lt;unavailable&gt;, cleanup=&lt;unavailable&gt;) at crt1.c:76:7
(lldb)</screen>

	<para><literal>SIGSEGV</literal> indicates that the program
	  tried to access memory (run code or read/write data usually)
	  at a location that does not belong to it, but does not give
	  any specifics.  For that, look at the source code at line 10
	  of file temp2.c, in <function>bazz()</function>.  The
	  backtrace also says that in this case,
	  <function>bazz()</function> was called from
	  <function>main()</function>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>Attaching to a Running Program with lldb</title>

	<para>One of the neatest features about
	  <command>lldb</command> is that it can attach to a program
	  that is already running.  Of course, that requires
	  sufficient permissions to do so.  A common problem is
	  stepping through a program that forks and wanting to trace
	  the child, but the debugger will only trace the
	  parent.</para>

	<para>To do that, start up another <command>lldb</command>,
	  use <command>ps</command> to find the process ID for the
	  child, and do</para>

	<screen>(lldb) <userinput>process attach -p <replaceable>pid</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	<para>in <command>lldb</command>, and then debug as
	  usual.</para>

	<para>For that to work well, the code that calls
	  <function>fork</function> to create the child needs to do
	  something like the following (courtesy of the
	  <command>gdb</command> info pages):</para>

	<programlisting><lineannotation>&hellip;</lineannotation>
if ((pid = fork()) &lt; 0)		/* _Always_ check this */
	error();
else if (pid == 0) {		/* child */
	int PauseMode = 1;

	while (PauseMode)
		sleep(10);	/* Wait until someone attaches to us */
	<lineannotation>&hellip;</lineannotation>
} else {			/* parent */
	<lineannotation>&hellip;</lineannotation></programlisting>

	<para>Now all that is needed is to attach to the child, set
	  <symbol>PauseMode</symbol> to <literal>0</literal> with
	  <userinput>expr PauseMode = 0</userinput> and wait
	  for the <function>sleep()</function> call to return.</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Using gdb</title>

      <sect3>
      <title>Starting gdb</title>

      <para>Start up gdb by typing</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>gdb <replaceable>progname</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>although many people prefer to run it inside
	<application>Emacs</application>.  To do this, type:</para>

      <screen><userinput>M-x gdb RET <replaceable>progname</replaceable> RET</userinput></screen>

      <para>Finally, for those finding its text-based command-prompt
	style off-putting, there is a graphical front-end for it
	(<package>devel/xxgdb</package>) in the Ports
	Collection.</para>

      </sect3>

      <sect3>
      <title>Running a Program with gdb</title>

      <para>Compile the program with
	<option>-g</option> to get the most out of using
	<command>gdb</command>.  It will work without, but will
	only display the name of the function currently running,
	instead of the source code.  A line like:</para>

      <screen>&hellip; (no debugging symbols found) &hellip;</screen>

      <para>when <command>gdb</command> starts up means that the
	program was not compiled with <option>-g</option>.</para>

      <para>At the <command>gdb</command> prompt, type
	<userinput>break main</userinput>.  This will tell the
	debugger to skip the preliminary set-up code in the program
	being run and to stop execution at the beginning of the
	program's code.  Now type <userinput>run</userinput> to start
	the program&mdash; it will start at the beginning of the
	set-up code and then get stopped by the debugger when it calls
	<function>main()</function>.</para>

      <para>To step through the program a line at a time, press
	<command>n</command>.  When at a function call, step into it
	by pressing <command>s</command>.  Once in a function call,
	return from it by pressing <command>f</command>, or use
	<command>up</command> and <command>down</command> to take
	a quick look at the caller.</para>

      <para>Here is a simple example of how to spot a mistake in a
	program with <command>gdb</command>.  This is our program
	(with a deliberate mistake):</para>

      <programlisting>#include &lt;stdio.h&gt;

int bazz(int anint);

main() {
	int i;

	printf("This is my program\n");
	bazz(i);
	return 0;
}

int bazz(int anint) {
	printf("You gave me %d\n", anint);
	return anint;
}</programlisting>

      <para>This program sets <symbol>i</symbol> to be
	<literal>5</literal> and passes it to a function
	<function>bazz()</function> which prints out the number we
	gave it.</para>

      <para>Compiling and running the program displays</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cc -g -o temp temp.c</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>./temp</userinput>
This is my program
anint = 4231</screen>

      <para>That was not what we expected! Time to see what is going
	on!</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>gdb temp</userinput>
GDB is free software and you are welcome to distribute copies of it
 under certain conditions; type "show copying" to see the conditions.
There is absolutely no warranty for GDB; type "show warranty" for details.
GDB 4.13 (i386-unknown-freebsd), Copyright 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
(gdb) <userinput>break main</userinput>				<lineannotation>Skip the set-up code</lineannotation>
Breakpoint 1 at 0x160f: file temp.c, line 9.	<lineannotation>gdb puts breakpoint at main()</lineannotation>
(gdb) <userinput>run</userinput>					<lineannotation>Run as far as main()</lineannotation>
Starting program: /home/james/tmp/temp		<lineannotation>Program starts running</lineannotation>

Breakpoint 1, main () at temp.c:9		<lineannotation>gdb stops at main()</lineannotation>
(gdb) <userinput>n</userinput>						<lineannotation>Go to next line</lineannotation>
This is my program				<lineannotation>Program prints out</lineannotation>
(gdb) <userinput>s</userinput>						<lineannotation>step into bazz()</lineannotation>
bazz (anint=4231) at temp.c:17			<lineannotation>gdb displays stack frame</lineannotation>
(gdb)</screen>

      <para>Hang on a minute! How did <symbol>anint</symbol> get to be
	<literal>4231</literal>? Was it not set to
	<literal>5</literal> in <function>main()</function>? Let us
	move up to <function>main()</function> and have a look.</para>

      <screen>(gdb) <userinput>up</userinput>					<lineannotation>Move up call stack</lineannotation>
#1  0x1625 in main () at temp.c:11		<lineannotation>gdb displays stack frame</lineannotation>
(gdb) <userinput>p i</userinput>					<lineannotation>Show us the value of i</lineannotation>
$1 = 4231					<lineannotation>gdb displays 4231</lineannotation></screen>

      <para>Oh dear! Looking at the code, we forgot to initialize
	<symbol>i</symbol>.  We meant to put</para>

      <programlisting><lineannotation>&hellip;</lineannotation>
main() {
	int i;

	i = 5;
	printf("This is my program\n");
<lineannotation>&hellip;</lineannotation></programlisting>

      <para>but we left the <literal>i=5;</literal> line out.  As we
	did not initialize <symbol>i</symbol>, it had whatever number
	happened to be in that area of memory when the program ran,
	which in this case happened to be
	<literal>4231</literal>.</para>

      <note>
	<para>The <command>gdb</command> command displays the stack
	  frame every time we go into or out of a function, even if we
	  are using <command>up</command> and <command>down</command>
	  to move around the call stack.  This shows the name of the
	  function and the values of its arguments, which helps us
	  keep track of where we are and what is going on.  (The stack
	  is a storage area where the program stores information about
	  the arguments passed to functions and where to go when it
	  returns from a function call.)</para>
	</note>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
      <title>Examining a Core File with gdb</title>

      <para>A core file is basically a file which contains the
	complete state of the process when it crashed.  In <quote>the
	  good old days</quote>, programmers had to print out hex
	listings of core files and sweat over machine code manuals,
	but now life is a bit easier.  Incidentally, under &os; and
	other 4.4BSD systems, a core file is called
	<filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable>.core</filename>
	instead of just <filename>core</filename>, to make it clearer
	which program a core file belongs to.</para>

      <para>To examine a core file, start up <command>gdb</command> in
	the usual way.  Instead of typing <command>break</command> or
	<command>run</command>, type</para>

      <screen>(gdb) <userinput>core <replaceable>progname</replaceable>.core</userinput></screen>

      <para>If the core file is not in the current directory, type
	<userinput>dir /path/to/core/file</userinput> first.</para>

      <para>The debugger should display something like this:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>gdb <filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable></filename></userinput>
GDB is free software and you are welcome to distribute copies of it
 under certain conditions; type "show copying" to see the conditions.
There is absolutely no warranty for GDB; type "show warranty" for details.
GDB 4.13 (i386-unknown-freebsd), Copyright 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
(gdb) <userinput>core <filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable>.core</filename></userinput>
Core was generated by `<filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable></filename>'.
Program terminated with signal 11, Segmentation fault.
Cannot access memory at address 0x7020796d.
#0  0x164a in bazz (anint=0x5) at temp.c:17
(gdb)</screen>

      <para>In this case, the program was called
	<filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable></filename>, so
	the core file is called
	<filename><replaceable>progname</replaceable>.core</filename>.
	We can see that the program crashed due to trying to access an
	area in memory that was not available to it in a function
	called <function>bazz</function>.</para>

      <para>Sometimes it is useful to be able to see how a function
	was called, as the problem could have occurred a long way up
	the call stack in a complex program.  <command>bt</command>
	causes <command>gdb</command> to print out a back-trace of the
	call stack:</para>

      <screen>(gdb) <userinput>bt</userinput>
#0  0x164a in bazz (anint=0x5) at temp.c:17
#1  0xefbfd888 in end ()
#2  0x162c in main () at temp.c:11
(gdb)</screen>

      <para>The <function>end()</function> function is called when a
	program crashes; in this case, the <function>bazz()</function>
	function was called from <function>main()</function>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
      <title>Attaching to a Running Program with gdb</title>

      <para>One of the neatest features about <command>gdb</command>
	is that it can attach to a program that is already running.
	Of course, that requires sufficient permissions to do
	so.  A common problem is stepping through a program that forks
	and wanting to trace the child, but the debugger will only
	trace the parent.</para>

      <para>To do that, start up another <command>gdb</command>,
	use <command>ps</command> to find the process ID for the
	child, and do</para>

      <screen>(gdb) <userinput>attach <replaceable>pid</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>in <command>gdb</command>, and then debug as usual.</para>

      <para>For that to work well, the code that calls
	<function>fork</function> to create the child needs to do
	something like the following (courtesy of the
	<command>gdb</command> info pages):</para>

      <programlisting><lineannotation>&hellip;</lineannotation>
if ((pid = fork()) &lt; 0)		/* _Always_ check this */
	error();
else if (pid == 0) {		/* child */
	int PauseMode = 1;

	while (PauseMode)
		sleep(10);	/* Wait until someone attaches to us */
	<lineannotation>&hellip;</lineannotation>
} else {			/* parent */
	<lineannotation>&hellip;</lineannotation></programlisting>

      <para>Now all that is needed is to attach to the child, set
	<symbol>PauseMode</symbol> to <literal>0</literal>, and wait
	for the <function>sleep()</function> call to return!</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="emacs">
    <title>Using Emacs as a Development Environment</title>

    <sect2>
      <title>Emacs</title>

      <para>Emacs is a highly customizable
	editor&mdash;indeed, it has been customized to the point where
	it is more like an operating system than an editor! Many
	developers and sysadmins do in fact spend practically all
	their time working inside Emacs, leaving it only to log
	out.</para>

      <para>It is impossible even to summarize everything Emacs can do
	here, but here are some of the features of interest to
	developers:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Very powerful editor, allowing search-and-replace on
	    both strings and regular expressions (patterns), jumping
	    to start/end of block expression, etc, etc.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Pull-down menus and online help.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Language-dependent syntax highlighting and
	    indentation.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Completely customizable.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>You can compile and debug programs within
	    Emacs.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>On a compilation error, you can jump to the offending
	    line of source code.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Friendly-ish front-end to the <command>info</command>
	    program used for reading GNU hypertext documentation,
	    including the documentation on Emacs itself.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Friendly front-end to <command>gdb</command>, allowing
	    you to look at the source code as you step through your
	    program.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>And doubtless many more that have been overlooked.</para>

      <para>Emacs can be installed on &os; using
	the <package>editors/emacs</package>
	port.</para>

      <para>Once it is installed, start it up and do <literal>C-h
	  t</literal> to read an Emacs tutorial&mdash;that means hold
	down <keycap>control</keycap>, press <keycap>h</keycap>, let
	go of <keycap>control</keycap>, and then press
	<keycap>t</keycap>.  (Alternatively, you can use the mouse to
	select <guimenuitem>Emacs Tutorial</guimenuitem> from the
	<guimenu>Help</guimenu> menu.)</para>

      <para>Although Emacs does have menus, it is well worth learning
	the key bindings, as it is much quicker when you are editing
	something to press a couple of keys than to try to find the
	mouse and then click on the right place.  And, when you are
	talking to seasoned Emacs users, you will find they often
	casually throw around expressions like <quote><literal>M-x
	    replace-s RET foo RET bar RET</literal></quote> so it is
	useful to know what they mean.  And in any case, Emacs has far
	too many useful functions for them to all fit on the menu
	bars.</para>

      <para>Fortunately, it is quite easy to pick up the key-bindings,
	as they are displayed next to the menu item.  My advice is to
	use the menu item for, say, opening a file until you
	understand how it works and feel confident with it, then try
	doing C-x C-f.  When you are happy with that, move on to
	another menu command.</para>

      <para>If you cannot remember what a particular combination of
	keys does, select <guimenuitem>Describe Key</guimenuitem> from
	the <guimenu>Help</guimenu> menu and type it in&mdash;Emacs
	will tell you what it does.  You can also use the
	<guimenuitem>Command Apropos</guimenuitem> menu item to find
	out all the commands which contain a particular word in them,
	with the key binding next to it.</para>

      <para>By the way, the expression above means hold down the
	<keysym>Meta</keysym> key, press <keysym>x</keysym>, release
	the <keysym>Meta</keysym> key, type
	<userinput>replace-s</userinput> (short for
	<literal>replace-string</literal>&mdash;another feature of
	Emacs is that you can abbreviate commands), press the
	<keysym>return</keysym> key, type <userinput>foo</userinput>
	(the string you want replaced), press the
	<keysym>return</keysym> key, type bar (the string you want to
	replace <literal>foo</literal> with) and press
	<keysym>return</keysym> again.  Emacs will then do the
	search-and-replace operation you have just requested.</para>

      <para>If you are wondering what on earth <keysym>Meta</keysym>
	is, it is a special key that many &unix; workstations have.
	Unfortunately, PC's do not have one, so it is usually
	<keycap>alt</keycap> (or if you are unlucky, the
	<keysym>escape</keysym> key).</para>

      <para>Oh, and to get out of Emacs, do <command>C-x C-c</command>
	(that means hold down the <keysym>control</keysym> key, press
	<keysym>x</keysym>, press <keysym>c</keysym> and release the
	<keysym>control</keysym> key).  If you have any unsaved files
	open, Emacs will ask you if you want to save them.  (Ignore
	the bit in the documentation where it says
	<command>C-z</command> is the usual way to leave
	Emacs&mdash;that leaves Emacs hanging around in the
	background, and is only really useful if you are on a system
	which does not have virtual terminals).</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Configuring Emacs</title>

      <para>Emacs does many wonderful things; some of them are built
	in, some of them need to be configured.</para>

      <para>Instead of using a proprietary macro language for
	configuration, Emacs uses a version of Lisp specially adapted
	for editors, known as Emacs Lisp.  Working with Emacs Lisp can
	be quite helpful if you want to go on and learn something like
	Common Lisp.  Emacs Lisp has many features of Common Lisp,
	although it is considerably smaller (and thus easier to
	master).</para>

      <para>The best way to learn Emacs Lisp is to download the <link
	  xlink:href="ftp://ftp.gnu.org/old-gnu/emacs/elisp-manual-19-2.4.tar.gz">Emacs
	  Tutorial</link></para>

      <para>However, there is no need to actually know any Lisp to get
	started with configuring Emacs, as I have included a sample
	<filename>.emacs</filename>, which should be enough to get you
	started.  Just copy it into your home directory and restart
	Emacs if it is already running; it will read the commands from
	the file and (hopefully) give you a useful basic setup.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>A Sample <filename>.emacs</filename></title>

      <para>Unfortunately, there is far too much here to explain it in
	detail; however there are one or two points worth
	mentioning.</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Everything beginning with a <literal>;</literal> is a
	    comment and is ignored by Emacs.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>In the first line, the
	    <literal>-*-&nbsp;Emacs-Lisp&nbsp;-*-</literal> is so that
	    we can edit <filename>.emacs</filename> itself within
	    Emacs and get all the fancy features for editing Emacs
	    Lisp.  Emacs usually tries to guess this based on the
	    filename, and may not get it right for
	    <filename>.emacs</filename>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The <keysym>tab</keysym> key is bound to an
	    indentation function in some modes, so when you press the
	    tab key, it will indent the current line of code.  If you
	    want to put a <token>tab</token> character in whatever you
	    are writing, hold the <keysym>control</keysym> key down
	    while you are pressing the <keysym>tab</keysym>
	    key.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>This file supports syntax highlighting for C, C++,
	    Perl, Lisp and Scheme, by guessing the language from the
	    filename.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Emacs already has a pre-defined function called
	    <function>next-error</function>.  In a compilation output
	    window, this allows you to move from one compilation error
	    to the next by doing <command>M-n</command>; we define a
	    complementary function,
	    <function>previous-error</function>, that allows you to go
	    to a previous error by doing <command>M-p</command>.  The
	    nicest feature of all is that <command>C-c C-c</command>
	    will open up the source file in which the error occurred
	    and jump to the appropriate line.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>We enable Emacs's ability to act as a server, so that
	    if you are doing something outside Emacs and you want to
	    edit a file, you can just type in</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>emacsclient <replaceable>filename</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	  <para>and then you can edit the file in your
	    Emacs!<footnote> <para>Many Emacs users set their
		<envar>EDITOR</envar> environment to
		<literal>emacsclient</literal> so this happens every
		time they need to edit a
		file.</para></footnote></para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <example>
	<title>A Sample <filename>.emacs</filename></title>

	<programlisting>;; -*-Emacs-Lisp-*-

;; This file is designed to be re-evaled; use the variable first-time
;; to avoid any problems with this.
(defvar first-time t
  "Flag signifying this is the first time that .emacs has been evaled")

;; Meta
(global-set-key "\M- " 'set-mark-command)
(global-set-key "\M-\C-h" 'backward-kill-word)
(global-set-key "\M-\C-r" 'query-replace)
(global-set-key "\M-r" 'replace-string)
(global-set-key "\M-g" 'goto-line)
(global-set-key "\M-h" 'help-command)

;; Function keys
(global-set-key [f1] 'manual-entry)
(global-set-key [f2] 'info)
(global-set-key [f3] 'repeat-complex-command)
(global-set-key [f4] 'advertised-undo)
(global-set-key [f5] 'eval-current-buffer)
(global-set-key [f6] 'buffer-menu)
(global-set-key [f7] 'other-window)
(global-set-key [f8] 'find-file)
(global-set-key [f9] 'save-buffer)
(global-set-key [f10] 'next-error)
(global-set-key [f11] 'compile)
(global-set-key [f12] 'grep)
(global-set-key [C-f1] 'compile)
(global-set-key [C-f2] 'grep)
(global-set-key [C-f3] 'next-error)
(global-set-key [C-f4] 'previous-error)
(global-set-key [C-f5] 'display-faces)
(global-set-key [C-f8] 'dired)
(global-set-key [C-f10] 'kill-compilation)

;; Keypad bindings
(global-set-key [up] "\C-p")
(global-set-key [down] "\C-n")
(global-set-key [left] "\C-b")
(global-set-key [right] "\C-f")
(global-set-key [home] "\C-a")
(global-set-key [end] "\C-e")
(global-set-key [prior] "\M-v")
(global-set-key [next] "\C-v")
(global-set-key [C-up] "\M-\C-b")
(global-set-key [C-down] "\M-\C-f")
(global-set-key [C-left] "\M-b")
(global-set-key [C-right] "\M-f")
(global-set-key [C-home] "\M-&lt;")
(global-set-key [C-end] "\M-&gt;")
(global-set-key [C-prior] "\M-&lt;")
(global-set-key [C-next] "\M-&gt;")

;; Mouse
(global-set-key [mouse-3] 'imenu)

;; Misc
(global-set-key [C-tab] "\C-q\t")	; Control tab quotes a tab.
(setq backup-by-copying-when-mismatch t)

;; Treat 'y' or &lt;CR&gt; as yes, 'n' as no.
(fset 'yes-or-no-p 'y-or-n-p)
(define-key query-replace-map [return] 'act)
(define-key query-replace-map [?\C-m] 'act)

;; Load packages
(require 'desktop)
(require 'tar-mode)

;; Pretty diff mode
(autoload 'ediff-buffers "ediff" "Intelligent Emacs interface to diff" t)
(autoload 'ediff-files "ediff" "Intelligent Emacs interface to diff" t)
(autoload 'ediff-files-remote "ediff"
  "Intelligent Emacs interface to diff")

(if first-time
    (setq auto-mode-alist
	  (append '(("\\.cpp$" . c++-mode)
		    ("\\.hpp$" . c++-mode)
		    ("\\.lsp$" . lisp-mode)
		    ("\\.scm$" . scheme-mode)
		    ("\\.pl$" . perl-mode)
		    ) auto-mode-alist)))

;; Auto font lock mode
(defvar font-lock-auto-mode-list
  (list 'c-mode 'c++-mode 'c++-c-mode 'emacs-lisp-mode 'lisp-mode 'perl-mode 'scheme-mode)
  "List of modes to always start in font-lock-mode")

(defvar font-lock-mode-keyword-alist
  '((c++-c-mode . c-font-lock-keywords)
    (perl-mode . perl-font-lock-keywords))
  "Associations between modes and keywords")

(defun font-lock-auto-mode-select ()
  "Automatically select font-lock-mode if the current major mode is in font-lock-auto-mode-list"
  (if (memq major-mode font-lock-auto-mode-list)
      (progn
	(font-lock-mode t))
    )
  )

(global-set-key [M-f1] 'font-lock-fontify-buffer)

;; New dabbrev stuff
;(require 'new-dabbrev)
(setq dabbrev-always-check-other-buffers t)
(setq dabbrev-abbrev-char-regexp "\\sw\\|\\s_")
(add-hook 'emacs-lisp-mode-hook
	  '(lambda ()
	     (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-fold-search) nil)
	     (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-replace) nil)))
(add-hook 'c-mode-hook
	  '(lambda ()
	     (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-fold-search) nil)
	     (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-replace) nil)))
(add-hook 'text-mode-hook
	  '(lambda ()
	     (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-fold-search) t)
	     (set (make-local-variable 'dabbrev-case-replace) t)))

;; C++ and C mode...
(defun my-c++-mode-hook ()
  (setq tab-width 4)
  (define-key c++-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
  (define-key c++-mode-map "\C-ce" 'c-comment-edit)
  (setq c++-auto-hungry-initial-state 'none)
  (setq c++-delete-function 'backward-delete-char)
  (setq c++-tab-always-indent t)
  (setq c-indent-level 4)
  (setq c-continued-statement-offset 4)
  (setq c++-empty-arglist-indent 4))

(defun my-c-mode-hook ()
  (setq tab-width 4)
  (define-key c-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
  (define-key c-mode-map "\C-ce" 'c-comment-edit)
  (setq c-auto-hungry-initial-state 'none)
  (setq c-delete-function 'backward-delete-char)
  (setq c-tab-always-indent t)
;; BSD-ish indentation style
  (setq c-indent-level 4)
  (setq c-continued-statement-offset 4)
  (setq c-brace-offset -4)
  (setq c-argdecl-indent 0)
  (setq c-label-offset -4))

;; Perl mode
(defun my-perl-mode-hook ()
  (setq tab-width 4)
  (define-key c++-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
  (setq perl-indent-level 4)
  (setq perl-continued-statement-offset 4))

;; Scheme mode...
(defun my-scheme-mode-hook ()
  (define-key scheme-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent))

;; Emacs-Lisp mode...
(defun my-lisp-mode-hook ()
  (define-key lisp-mode-map "\C-m" 'reindent-then-newline-and-indent)
  (define-key lisp-mode-map "\C-i" 'lisp-indent-line)
  (define-key lisp-mode-map "\C-j" 'eval-print-last-sexp))

;; Add all of the hooks...
(add-hook 'c++-mode-hook 'my-c++-mode-hook)
(add-hook 'c-mode-hook 'my-c-mode-hook)
(add-hook 'scheme-mode-hook 'my-scheme-mode-hook)
(add-hook 'emacs-lisp-mode-hook 'my-lisp-mode-hook)
(add-hook 'lisp-mode-hook 'my-lisp-mode-hook)
(add-hook 'perl-mode-hook 'my-perl-mode-hook)

;; Complement to next-error
(defun previous-error (n)
  "Visit previous compilation error message and corresponding source code."
  (interactive "p")
  (next-error (- n)))

;; Misc...
(transient-mark-mode 1)
(setq mark-even-if-inactive t)
(setq visible-bell nil)
(setq next-line-add-newlines nil)
(setq compile-command "make")
(setq suggest-key-bindings nil)
(put 'eval-expression 'disabled nil)
(put 'narrow-to-region 'disabled nil)
(put 'set-goal-column 'disabled nil)
(if (&gt;= emacs-major-version 21)
	(setq show-trailing-whitespace t))

;; Elisp archive searching
(autoload 'format-lisp-code-directory "lispdir" nil t)
(autoload 'lisp-dir-apropos "lispdir" nil t)
(autoload 'lisp-dir-retrieve "lispdir" nil t)
(autoload 'lisp-dir-verify "lispdir" nil t)

;; Font lock mode
(defun my-make-face (face color &amp;optional bold)
  "Create a face from a color and optionally make it bold"
  (make-face face)
  (copy-face 'default face)
  (set-face-foreground face color)
  (if bold (make-face-bold face))
  )

(if (eq window-system 'x)
    (progn
      (my-make-face 'blue "blue")
      (my-make-face 'red "red")
      (my-make-face 'green "dark green")
      (setq font-lock-comment-face 'blue)
      (setq font-lock-string-face 'bold)
      (setq font-lock-type-face 'bold)
      (setq font-lock-keyword-face 'bold)
      (setq font-lock-function-name-face 'red)
      (setq font-lock-doc-string-face 'green)
      (add-hook 'find-file-hooks 'font-lock-auto-mode-select)

      (setq baud-rate 1000000)
      (global-set-key "\C-cmm" 'menu-bar-mode)
      (global-set-key "\C-cms" 'scroll-bar-mode)
      (global-set-key [backspace] 'backward-delete-char)
					;      (global-set-key [delete] 'delete-char)
      (standard-display-european t)
      (load-library "iso-transl")))

;; X11 or PC using direct screen writes
(if window-system
    (progn
      ;;      (global-set-key [M-f1] 'hilit-repaint-command)
      ;;      (global-set-key [M-f2] [?\C-u M-f1])
      (setq hilit-mode-enable-list
	    '(not text-mode c-mode c++-mode emacs-lisp-mode lisp-mode
		  scheme-mode)
	    hilit-auto-highlight nil
	    hilit-auto-rehighlight 'visible
	    hilit-inhibit-hooks nil
	    hilit-inhibit-rebinding t)
      (require 'hilit19)
      (require 'paren))
  (setq baud-rate 2400)			; For slow serial connections
  )

;; TTY type terminal
(if (and (not window-system)
	 (not (equal system-type 'ms-dos)))
    (progn
      (if first-time
	  (progn
	    (keyboard-translate ?\C-h ?\C-?)
	    (keyboard-translate ?\C-? ?\C-h)))))

;; Under UNIX
(if (not (equal system-type 'ms-dos))
    (progn
      (if first-time
	  (server-start))))

;; Add any face changes here
(add-hook 'term-setup-hook 'my-term-setup-hook)
(defun my-term-setup-hook ()
  (if (eq window-system 'pc)
      (progn
;;	(set-face-background 'default "red")
	)))

;; Restore the "desktop" - do this as late as possible
(if first-time
    (progn
      (desktop-load-default)
      (desktop-read)))

;; Indicate that this file has been read at least once
(setq first-time nil)

;; No need to debug anything now

(setq debug-on-error nil)

;; All done
(message "All done, %s%s" (user-login-name) ".")</programlisting>
      </example>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Extending the Range of Languages Emacs
	Understands</title>

      <para>Now, this is all very well if you only want to program in
	the languages already catered for in
	<filename>.emacs</filename> (C, C++, Perl, Lisp and Scheme),
	but what happens if a new language called
	<quote>whizbang</quote> comes out, full of exciting
	features?</para>

      <para>The first thing to do is find out if whizbang comes with
	any files that tell Emacs about the language.  These usually
	end in <filename>.el</filename>, short for <quote>Emacs
	  Lisp</quote>.  For example, if whizbang is a FreeBSD port,
	we can locate these files by doing</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>find /usr/ports/lang/whizbang -name "*.el" -print</userinput></screen>

      <para>and install them by copying them into the Emacs site Lisp
	directory.  On &os;, this is
	<filename>/usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp</filename>.</para>

      <para>So for example, if the output from the find command
	was</para>

      <screen>/usr/ports/lang/whizbang/work/misc/whizbang.el</screen>

      <para>we would do</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cp /usr/ports/lang/whizbang/work/misc/whizbang.el /usr/local/share/emacs/site-lisp</userinput></screen>

      <para>Next, we need to decide what extension whizbang source
	files have.  Let us say for the sake of argument that they all
	end in <filename>.wiz</filename>.  We need to add an entry to
	our <filename>.emacs</filename> to make sure Emacs will be
	able to use the information in
	<filename>whizbang.el</filename>.</para>

      <para>Find the <symbol>auto-mode-alist entry</symbol> in
	<filename>.emacs</filename> and add a line for whizbang, such
	as:</para>

      <programlisting><lineannotation>&hellip;</lineannotation>
("\\.lsp$" . lisp-mode)
("\\.wiz$" . whizbang-mode)
("\\.scm$" . scheme-mode)
<lineannotation>&hellip;</lineannotation></programlisting>

      <para>This means that Emacs will automatically go into
	<function>whizbang-mode</function> when you edit a file ending
	in <filename>.wiz</filename>.</para>

      <para>Just below this, you will find the
	<symbol>font-lock-auto-mode-list</symbol> entry.  Add
	<function>whizbang-mode</function> to it like so:</para>

      <programlisting>;; Auto font lock mode
(defvar font-lock-auto-mode-list
  (list 'c-mode 'c++-mode 'c++-c-mode 'emacs-lisp-mode 'whizbang-mode 'lisp-mode 'perl-mode 'scheme-mode)
  "List of modes to always start in font-lock-mode")</programlisting>

      <para>This means that Emacs will always enable
	<function>font-lock-mode</function> (ie syntax highlighting)
	when editing a <filename>.wiz</filename> file.</para>

      <para>And that is all that is needed.  If there is anything else
	you want done automatically when you open up
	<filename>.wiz</filename>, you can add a
	<function>whizbang-mode hook</function> (see
	<function>my-scheme-mode-hook</function> for a simple example
	that adds <function>auto-indent</function>).</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="tools-reading">
    <title>Further Reading</title>

    <para>For information about setting up a development environment
      for contributing fixes to FreeBSD itself, please see
      &man.development.7;.</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>Brian Harvey and Matthew Wright
	  <emphasis>Simply Scheme</emphasis>
	  MIT 1994.<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 0-262-08226-8</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Randall Schwartz
	  <emphasis>Learning Perl</emphasis>
	  O'Reilly 1993<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 1-56592-042-2</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Patrick Henry Winston and Berthold Klaus Paul Horn
	  <emphasis>Lisp (3rd Edition)</emphasis>
	  Addison-Wesley 1989<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 0-201-08319-1</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Brian W. Kernighan and Rob Pike
	  <emphasis>The Unix Programming Environment</emphasis>
	  Prentice-Hall 1984<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 0-13-937681-X</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Brian W. Kernighan and Dennis M. Ritchie <emphasis>The C
	    Programming Language (2nd Edition)</emphasis>
	  Prentice-Hall 1988<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 0-13-110362-8</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Bjarne Stroustrup
	<emphasis>The C++ Programming Language</emphasis>
	Addison-Wesley 1991<!-- <br> -->
	ISBN 0-201-53992-6</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>W. Richard Stevens <emphasis>Advanced Programming in the
	    Unix Environment</emphasis>
	  Addison-Wesley 1992<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 0-201-56317-7</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>W. Richard Stevens
	  <emphasis>Unix Network Programming</emphasis>
	  Prentice-Hall 1990<!-- <br> -->
	  ISBN 0-13-949876-1</para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>
  </sect1>

</chapter>