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<!DOCTYPE BOOK PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//DTD DocBook V4.1-Based Extension//EN" [
<!ENTITY % man PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Manual Page Entities//EN">
%man;
<!ENTITY % freebsd PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Miscellaneous FreeBSD Entities//EN">
%freebsd;
<!ENTITY % authors PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Author Entities//EN">
%authors;
<!ENTITY % teams PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Team Entities//EN">
%teams;

<!ENTITY % bookinfo PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook BookInfo Entities//EN">
%bookinfo;

<!ENTITY % mailing-lists PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook Mailing List Entities//EN">
%mailing-lists;

<!ENTITY % urls PUBLIC "-//FreeBSD//ENTITIES DocBook URL Entities//EN">
%urls;

<!ENTITY bibliography SYSTEM "../../../share/sgml/bibliography.sgml">

]>

<book>
  <bookinfo>
    <title>Frequently Asked Questions for FreeBSD 2.X, 3.X, 4.X and 5.X</title>

    <corpauthor>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</corpauthor>

    <pubdate>$FreeBSD$</pubdate>

    <copyright>
      <year>1995</year>
      <year>1996</year>
      <year>1997</year>
      <year>1998</year>
      <year>1999</year>
      <year>2000</year>
      <year>2001</year>
      <year>2002</year>
      <year>2003</year>
      <year>2004</year>
      <holder>The FreeBSD Documentation Project</holder>
    </copyright>

    &bookinfo.trademarks;

    &bookinfo.legalnotice;

    <abstract>
      <para>This is the FAQ for FreeBSD versions 2.X, 3.X, 4.X and 5.X.
        All entries are assumed to be relevant to FreeBSD 2.0.5 and
        later, unless otherwise noted.  If you are interested in
        helping with this project, send email to the &a.doc;.  The
        latest version of this document is always available from the
        <ulink
        URL="http://www.FreeBSD.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/index.html">FreeBSD
        World Wide Web server</ulink>. It may also be downloaded as
        one large <ulink URL="book.html">HTML</ulink> file with HTTP
        or as plain text, PostScript, PDF, etc. from the <ulink
        URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/">FreeBSD FTP
        server</ulink>. You may also want to <ulink
        URL="&url.main;/search/index.html">Search the
        FAQ</ulink>.</para>
    </abstract>
  </bookinfo>

  <chapter id="introduction">
    <title>Introduction</title>

    <para>Welcome to the FreeBSD 2.X-5.X FAQ!</para>

    <para>As is usual with Usenet FAQs, this document aims to cover the
      most frequently asked questions concerning the FreeBSD operating
      system (and of course answer them!).  Although originally intended
      to reduce bandwidth and avoid the same old questions being asked
      over and over again, FAQs have become recognized as valuable
      information resources.</para>

    <para>Every effort has been made to make this FAQ as informative as
      possible; if you have any suggestions as to how it may be improved,
      please feel free to mail them to the &a.doc;.</para>

    <qandaset>
      <qandaentry>
        <question id="what-is-FreeBSD">
          <para>What is FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
         <para>Briefly, FreeBSD is a UN*X-like operating system for
           the i386, IA-64, PC-98, Alpha/AXP, and UltraSPARC platforms
           based on U.C. Berkeley's <quote>4.4BSD-Lite</quote>
           release, with some <quote>4.4BSD-Lite2</quote>
           enhancements.  It is also based indirectly on William
           Jolitz's port of U.C.  Berkeley's <quote>Net/2</quote> to
           the i386, known as <quote>386BSD</quote>, though very
           little of the 386BSD code remains.  A fuller description of
           what FreeBSD is and how it can work for you may be found on
           the <ulink URL="&url.main;/index.html">FreeBSD home
           page</ulink>.</para>

         <para>FreeBSD is used by companies, Internet Service Providers,
           researchers, computer professionals, students and home users
           all over the world in their work, education and recreation.
           See some of them in the <ulink
           URL="&url.main;/gallery/index.html">FreeBSD
           Gallery</ulink>.</para>

         <para>For more detailed information on FreeBSD, please see the
           <ulink URL="../handbook/index.html">FreeBSD
           Handbook</ulink>.</para>
       </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="FreeBSD-goals">
          <para>What is the goal of the FreeBSD Project?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The goal of the FreeBSD Project is to provide software
            that may be used for any purpose and without strings attached.
            Many of us have a significant investment in the code (and
            project) and would certainly not mind a little financial
            compensation now and then, but we definitely do not
            insist on it.  We believe that our first and foremost
            <quote>mission</quote> is to provide code to any and all
            comers, and for whatever purpose, so that the code gets the
            widest possible use and provides the widest possible benefit.
            This is, we believe, one of the most fundamental goals of Free
            Software and one that we enthusiastically support.</para>

          <para>That code in our source tree which falls under the
            <ulink url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/COPYING">GNU
            General Public License (GPL)</ulink> or <ulink
            url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/COPYING.LIB">GNU
            Library General Public License (LGPL)</ulink> comes with
            slightly more strings attached, though at least on the
            side of enforced access rather than the usual opposite.
            Due to the additional complexities that can evolve in the
            commercial use of GPL software, we do, however, endeavor
            to replace such software with submissions under the more
            relaxed <ulink
            url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">
            FreeBSD license</ulink> whenever possible.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="bsd-license-restrictions">
          <para>Does the FreeBSD license have any restrictions?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Yes.  Those restrictions do not control how you use
            the code, merely how you treat the FreeBSD Project itself.
            If you have serious license concerns, read the actual
            <ulink
            url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">
            license</ulink>.  For the simply curious, the license can
            be summarized like this.</para>

          <itemizedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>Do not claim that you wrote this.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Do not sue us if it breaks.</para>
            </listitem>
          </itemizedlist>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="replace-current-OS">
          <para>Can FreeBSD replace my current operating system?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>For most people, yes.  But this question is not quite
            that cut-and-dried.</para>

          <para>Most people do not actually use an operating system.
            They use applications.  The applications are what really
            use the operating system.  FreeBSD is designed to provide
            a robust and full-featured environment for applications.
            It supports a wide variety of web browsers, office suites,
            email readers, graphics programs, programming
            environments, network servers, and just about everything
            else you might want.  Most of these applications can be
            managed through the <ulink
            url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/">Ports
            Collection</ulink>.</para>

          <para>If you need to use an application that is only
            available on one operating system, you simply cannot
            replace that operating system.  Chances are there is a very
            similar application on FreeBSD, however.  If you want a
            solid office or Internet server, a reliable workstation,
            or just the ability to do your job without interruptions,
            FreeBSD will almost certainly do everything you need.
            Many computer users across the world, including both
            novices and experienced &unix; administrators, use FreeBSD
            as their only desktop operating system.</para>

          <para>If you are migrating to FreeBSD from some other &unix;
            environment, you already know most of what you need to.
            If your background is in graphic-driven operating systems
            such as Windows and older versions of Mac OS, expect to
            invest additional time learning the &unix; way of doing
            things.  This FAQ and the <ulink
            url="../handbook/index.html">FreeBSD Handbook</ulink> are
            excellent places to start.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="why-called-FreeBSD">
          <para>Why is it called FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <itemizedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>It may be used free of charge, even by commercial
                users.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Full source for the operating system is freely
                available, and the minimum possible restrictions have
                been placed upon its use, distribution and incorporation
                into other work (commercial or non-commercial).</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Anyone who has an improvement or bug fix is free
                to submit their code and have it added to the source tree
                (subject to one or two obvious provisions).</para>
            </listitem>
          </itemizedlist>

          <para>It is worth pointing out that the word
            <quote>free</quote> is being used in two ways here, one meaning
            <quote>at no cost</quote>, the other meaning <quote>you can do
            whatever you like</quote>.  Apart from one or two things you
            <emphasis>cannot</emphasis> do with the FreeBSD code, for
            example pretending you wrote it, you can really do whatever you
            like with it.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
	<question id="differences-to-other-bsds">
	  <para>What are the differences between FreeBSD and NetBSD, OpenBSD,
	    and other open source BSD operating systems?</para>
	</question>

	<answer>
	  <para>James Howard wrote a good explanation of the history
	    and differences between the various projects for <ulink
	    url="http://www.daemonnews.org/">DaemonNews</ulink>,
	    called <ulink
	    url="http://www.daemonnews.org/200104/bsd_family.html">The
	    BSD Family Tree</ulink> which goes a fair way to answering
	    this question.</para>
	</answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="latest-version">
          <para>What is the latest version of FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

<!--
  This answer is a hack to deal with the fact that for now there are two
  "latest" versions of FreeBSD.
-->

        <answer>
	  <para>At this point in FreeBSD's development, there are two
	    parallel development branches; releases are being made from
	    both branches.  The 4.X series of releases
	    is being made from the <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> branch
	    and the 5.X series of releases is being made from
	    <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis>.</para>

          <para>Version <ulink
            URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel.current;-RELEASE/">&rel.current;</ulink>
            is the latest release from the
            <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> branch; it was released in
            &rel.current.date;.  Version <ulink
            URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel2.current;-RELEASE/">&rel2.current;</ulink>
            is the latest release from the
            <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> branch; it was released in
            &rel2.current.date;.</para>

          <para>Briefly, <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis> is aimed at the
            ISP, corporate user, or any user who wants stability and a
            minimal number of changes compared to the new (and
            possibly unstable) features of the latest
            <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis> snapshot.  Releases can come
            from either branch, but <emphasis>-CURRENT</emphasis>
            should only be used if you are prepared for its increased
            volatility (relative to <emphasis>-STABLE</emphasis>, that
            is).</para>

          <para>Releases are made <link linkend="release-freq">every
            few months</link>. While many people stay more up-to-date with
            the FreeBSD sources (see the questions on <link
            linkend="current">FreeBSD-CURRENT</link> and <link
            linkend="stable">FreeBSD-STABLE</link>) than that, doing so
            is more of a commitment, as the sources are a moving
            target.</para>

	  <para>More information on FreeBSD releases can be found on
	    the <ulink
	    url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releng/index.html">Release
	    Engineering page</ulink> on the FreeBSD Web site.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="current">
          <para>What is FreeBSD-CURRENT?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para><ulink
            URL="../handbook/cutting-edge.html#CURRENT">FreeBSD-CURRENT</ulink>
            is the development version of the operating system, which
            will in due course become the new &os.stable; branch.
            This is expected to happen around 5.3-RELEASE.  As such, it is
            really only of interest to developers working on the
            system and die-hard hobbyists.  See the <ulink
            URL="../handbook/cutting-edge.html#CURRENT">relevant
            section</ulink> in the <ulink
            URL="../handbook/index.html">handbook</ulink> for details
            on running -CURRENT.</para>

          <para>If you are not familiar with the operating system or are
            not capable of identifying the difference between a real
            problem and a temporary problem, you should not use
            FreeBSD-CURRENT.  This branch sometimes evolves quite quickly
            and can be un-buildable for a number of days at a time.
            People that use FreeBSD-CURRENT are expected to be able to
            analyze any problems and only report them if they are deemed
            to be mistakes rather than <quote>glitches</quote>. Questions
            such as <quote>make world produces some error about
            groups</quote> on the -CURRENT mailing list may be
            treated with contempt.</para>

          <para>Every day, <ulink
            URL="&url.main;/releases/snapshots.html">snapshot
            </ulink> releases are made based on the current state of the
            -CURRENT and -STABLE branches.  Distributions of the
            occasional snapshot are made available. The goals
            behind each snapshot release are:</para>

          <itemizedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>To test the latest version of the installation
                software.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>To give people who would like to run -CURRENT or
                -STABLE but who do not have the time or bandwidth to
                follow it on a day-to-day basis an easy way of
                bootstrapping it onto their systems.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>To preserve a fixed reference point for the code in
                question, just in case we break something really badly
                later.  (Although CVS normally prevents anything horrible
                like this happening :)</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>To ensure that all new features and fixes in need
                of testing have the greatest possible number of
                potential testers.</para>
            </listitem>
          </itemizedlist>

          <para>No claims are made that any -CURRENT snapshot can be
            considered <quote>production quality</quote> for any purpose.
            If you want to run a stable and fully tested system, you will
            have to stick to full releases, or use the -STABLE
            snapshots.</para>

          <para>Snapshot releases are directly available from <ulink
            URL="ftp://current.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/snapshots/">
            ftp://current.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/snapshots/</ulink>.
            3-STABLE snapshots are no longer being produced.</para>

          <para>Snapshots are generated, on the average, daily for
            all actively developed branches.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="stable">
          <para>What is the FreeBSD-STABLE concept?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Back when FreeBSD 2.0.5 was released, FreeBSD
            development branched in two.  One branch was named <ulink
            URL="../handbook/current-stable.html#STABLE">-STABLE</ulink>,
            one <ulink
            URL="../handbook/current-stable.html#CURRENT">-CURRENT</ulink>.
            FreeBSD-STABLE is intended for Internet Service Providers
            and other commercial enterprises for whom sudden shifts or
            experimental features are quite undesirable.  It receives
            only well-tested bug fixes and other small incremental
            enhancements.  FreeBSD-CURRENT, on the other hand, has
            been one unbroken line since 2.0 was released, leading
            towards 5.2.1-RELEASE (and beyond).  At 5.3-RELEASE, the
            5-STABLE branch is expected to be created, and
            &os.current; will become 6-CURRENT.  If a little ASCII art
            would help, this is how it looks:</para>

          <programlisting>                 2.0
                  |
                  |
                  |  [2.1-STABLE]
 *BRANCH*       2.0.5 -&gt; 2.1 -&gt; 2.1.5 -&gt; 2.1.6 -&gt; 2.1.7.1  [2.1-STABLE ends]
                  |                            (Mar 1997)
                  |
                  |
                  |  [2.2-STABLE]
 *BRANCH*       2.2.1 -&gt; 2.2.2-RELEASE -&gt; 2.2.5 -&gt; 2.2.6 -&gt; 2.2.7 -&gt; 2.2.8 [end]
                  |       (Mar 1997)    (Oct 97) (Apr 98) (Jul 98) (Dec 98)
                  |
                  |
               3.0-SNAPs  (started Q1 1997)
                  |
                  |
               3.0-RELEASE (Oct 1998)
                  |
                  |  [3.0-STABLE]
 *BRANCH*      3.1-RELEASE  (Feb 1999) -&gt; 3.2 -&gt; 3.3 -&gt; 3.4 -&gt; 3.5 -&gt; 3.5.1
                  |                     (May 1999) (Sep 1999) (Dec 1999) (June 2000) (July 2000)
                  |
                  |  [4.0-STABLE]
 *BRANCH*        4.0  (Mar 2000) -&gt; 4.1 -&gt; 4.1.1 -&gt; 4.2 -&gt; 4.3 -&gt; 4.4 -&gt; ... later 4.X releases ...
                  |
                  |              (July 2000)   (Sep 2000)   (Nov 2000)
               5.0-RELEASE (Jan 2003)
                  |
                  |
               5.1-RELEASE (Jun 2003)
                  |
                  |
               5.2-RELEASE (Jan 2004)
                  |
                  |
               5.2.1-RELEASE (Feb 2004)
                  |
                 \|/
                  +
          [5-CURRENT continues]</programlisting>

          <para>The 2.2-STABLE branch was retired with the release of 2.2.8.
            The 3-STABLE branch has ended with the release of 3.5.1, the
            final 3.X release.  The only changes made to either of these
            branches will be, for the most part, security-related bug
            fixes.</para>

          <para>4-STABLE is the actively developed -STABLE branch.
            The latest release on the 4-STABLE branch is
            &rel2.current;-RELEASE, which was released in
            &rel2.current.date;.</para>

          <para>The 5-CURRENT branch is slowly progressing toward the
            creation of a 5-STABLE branch.  See <link
            linkend="current">What is FreeBSD-CURRENT?</link> for more
            information on this branch.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="release-freq">
          <para>When are FreeBSD releases made?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
	  <para>The &a.re; releases a new version of FreeBSD about every
	    four months, on average.  Release dates are announced well in
	    advance, so that the people working on the system know
	    when their projects need to be finished and tested.  
	    A testing period precedes each release, in order to ensure
	    that the addition of new features does not compromise the
	    stability of the release.
	    Many users regard this caution as one of the best things about
	    FreeBSD, even though waiting for all the latest goodies to reach
	    -STABLE can be a little frustrating.</para>

	  <para>More information on the release engineering process
	    (including a schedule of upcoming releases) can be found
	    on the <ulink
	    url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/releng/index.html">release
	    engineering</ulink> pages on the FreeBSD Web site.</para>

          <para>For people who need or want a little more excitement,
            binary snapshots are made daily as discussed above.</para>
         </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="responsible">
          <para>Who is responsible for FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The key decisions concerning the FreeBSD project, such
            as the overall direction of the project and who is allowed
            to add code to the source tree, are made by a <ulink
            URL="../../articles/contributors/article.html#STAFF-CORE">core
            team</ulink> of 9 people. There is a much larger team of
            more than 200 <ulink
            URL="../../articles/contributors/article.html#STAFF-COMMITTERS">committers</ulink>
            who are authorized to make changes directly to the FreeBSD
            source tree.</para>

          <para>However, most non-trivial changes are discussed in advance
            in the <link linkend="mailing">mailing lists</link>, and there
            are no restrictions on who may take part in the
            discussion.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="where-get">
          <para>Where can I get FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Every significant release of FreeBSD is available via
            anonymous FTP from the <ulink
            URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">
            FreeBSD FTP site</ulink>:</para>

          <itemizedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>For the current 3.X-STABLE release, 3.5.1-RELEASE,
                see the <ulink
                URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/3.5.1-RELEASE/">3.5.1-RELEASE
                directory</ulink>.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>The latest 5.X release, &rel.current;-RELEASE can be
                found in the <ulink
                URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel.current;-RELEASE/">&rel.current;-RELEASE directory</ulink>.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>The latest 4-STABLE release, &rel2.current;-RELEASE can be
                found in the <ulink
                URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/releases/i386/&rel2.current;-RELEASE/">&rel2.current;-RELEASE directory</ulink>.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para><ulink
                URL="ftp://current.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/snapshots/">4.X
                snapshots</ulink> are usually made daily.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para><ulink
                URL="ftp://current.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">
                5.X Snapshot</ulink> releases are made daily for the
                <link linkend="current">-CURRENT</link> branch, these being
                of service purely to bleeding-edge testers and
                developers.</para>
            </listitem>
          </itemizedlist>

	  <para>Information about obtaining FreeBSD on CD, DVD, and other
	    media can be found in <ulink url="../handbook/mirrors.html">the
	      Handbook</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="howto-mirror">
          <para>How do I set up a FreeBSD mirror?</para>
        </question>

	<answer>
	  <para>Information on setting up a FreeBSD mirror can be
	    found in the <ulink url="../../articles/hubs/">Mirroring
	    FreeBSD</ulink> article.</para>
	</answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="access-pr">
          <para>How do I access the Problem Report database?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The Problem Report database of all user change requests
            may be queried by using our web-based PR
            <ulink
            URL="http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/query-pr-summary.cgi?query">
            query</ulink>
            interface.  The &man.send-pr.1; command can
            be used to submit problem reports and change requests via
            electronic mail.</para>

	  <para>The web-based problem report submission interface is
	    currently disabled due to persistent abuse.</para>

          <para>Before submitting a problem report, please read <ulink
            URL="../../articles/problem-reports/article.html">Writing
            FreeBSD Problem Reports</ulink>, an article on how to write
            good problem reports.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="become-web-mirror">
          <para>How do I become a FreeBSD Web mirror?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>There are multiple ways to mirror the Web pages.</para>

          <itemizedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>You can retrieve the formatted files from a
                FreeBSD CVSup server using the application
                <filename role="package">net/cvsup</filename>.  The file
                <filename>/usr/share/examples/cvsup/www-supfile</filename>
                contains an example CVSup configuration file for web
                mirrors.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>You can download the web site source code from any
                FreeBSD FTP server using your favorite ftp mirror
                tool.  Keep in mind that you have to build these
                sources before publishing them.  Start mirroring at
                <ulink URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/FreeBSD-current/www/"></ulink>.</para>
            </listitem>
          </itemizedlist>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="other-info-sources">
          <para>What other sources of information are there?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Please check the <ulink
            url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/docs.html">Documentation</ulink>
            list on the main <ulink
            url="http://www.FreeBSD.org">FreeBSD</ulink> web
            site.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>
    </qandaset>
  </chapter>

  <chapter id="support">
    <title>Documentation and Support</title>
    
    <qandaset>
      <qandaentry>
	<question id="books">
	  <para>What good books are there about FreeBSD?</para>
	</question>
	
	<answer>
	  <para>The project produces a wide range of documentation,
	    available online from this link: <ulink
	    url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/docs.html"></ulink>.  The same
	    documents are available as packages, that you can easily
	    install on your FreeBSD system.  More details on
	    documentation packages can be found in the next
	    paragraphs.</para>
	    
	    <para>In addition, the Bibliography at the end of this
	    FAQ, and the one in the Handbook reference other
	    recommended books.</para>
	</answer>
      </qandaentry>
      
      <qandaentry>
        <question id="doc-formats">
          <para>Is the documentation available in other formats, such as plain
            text (ASCII), or PostScript?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Yes.  The documentation is available in a number of
            different formats and compression schemes on the FreeBSD
            FTP site, in the <ulink
            URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/">/pub/FreeBSD/doc/</ulink>
            directory.</para>

          <para>The documentation is categorized in a number of different
            ways.  These include:</para>

          <itemizedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>The document's name, such as <literal>faq</literal>, or
                <literal>handbook</literal>.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>The document's language and encoding.  These are
                based on the locale names you will find under
                <filename>/usr/share/locale</filename> on your FreeBSD
                system.  The current languages and encodings that we
                have for documentation are as follows:</para>

              <informaltable frame="none">
                <tgroup cols="2">
                  <thead>
                    <row>
                      <entry>Name</entry>

                      <entry>Meaning</entry>
                    </row>
                  </thead>

                  <tbody>
                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>en_US.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>

                      <entry>US English</entry>
                    </row>

                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>de_DE.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>

                      <entry>German</entry>
                    </row>

                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>es_ES.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>

                      <entry>Spanish</entry>
                    </row>

                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>fr_FR.ISO8859-1</literal></entry>

                      <entry>French</entry>
                    </row>

                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>ja_JP.eucJP</literal></entry>

                      <entry>Japanese (EUC encoding)</entry>
                    </row>

                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>ru_RU.KOI8-R</literal></entry>

                      <entry>Russian (KOI8-R encoding)</entry>
                    </row>

                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>zh_TW.Big5</literal></entry>

                      <entry>Chinese (Big5 encoding)</entry>
                    </row>
                  </tbody>
                </tgroup>
              </informaltable>

              <note>
                <para>Some documents may not be available in all
                  languages.</para>
              </note>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>The document's format.  We produce the documentation in a
                number of different output formats.  Each format has its own
                advantages and disadvantages.  Some formats are better suited
                for online reading, while others are meant to be aesthetically
                pleasing when printed on paper.  Having the documentation
                available in any of these formats ensures that our readers
                will be able to read the parts they are interested in, either
                on their monitor, or on paper after printing the documents.
                The currently available formats are:</para>

              <informaltable frame="none">
                <tgroup cols="2">
                  <thead>
                    <row>
                      <entry>Format</entry>

                      <entry>Meaning</entry>
                    </row>
                  </thead>

                  <tbody>
                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>html-split</literal></entry>

                      <entry>A collection of small, linked, HTML
                        files.</entry>
                    </row>

                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>html</literal></entry>

                      <entry>One large HTML file containing the entire
                        document</entry>
                    </row>

                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>pdb</literal></entry>

                      <entry>Palm Pilot database format, for use with the
                        <ulink URL="http://www.iSilo.com/">iSilo</ulink>
                        reader.</entry>
                    </row>

                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>pdf</literal></entry>

                      <entry>Adobe's Portable Document Format</entry>
                    </row>

                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>ps</literal></entry>

                      <entry>PostScript</entry>
                    </row>

                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>rtf</literal></entry>

                      <entry>Microsoft's Rich Text Format<footnote>
                          <para>Page numbers are not automatically
                          updated when loading this format into Word.
                          Press <keycombo
                          action="simul"><keycap>CTRL</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo>,
                          <keycombo
                          action="simul"><keycap>CTRL</keycap><keycap>END</keycap></keycombo>,
                          <keycap>F9</keycap> after loading the
                          document, to update the page numbers.</para>
                        </footnote>
                      </entry>
                    </row>

                    <row>
                      <entry><literal>txt</literal></entry>

                      <entry>Plain text</entry>
                    </row>
                  </tbody>
                </tgroup>
              </informaltable>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>The compression and packaging scheme.  There are three of
                these currently in use.</para>

              <orderedlist>
                <listitem>
                  <para>Where the format is
                    <literal>html-split</literal>, the files are
                    bundled up using &man.tar.1;.  The resulting
                    <filename>.tar</filename> file is then compressed
                    using the compression schemes detailed in the next
                    point.</para>
                </listitem>

                <listitem>
                  <para>All the other formats generate one file,
                    called
                    <filename>book.<replaceable>format</replaceable></filename>
                    (i.e., <filename>book.pdb</filename>,
                    <filename>book.html</filename>, and so on).</para>

                  <para>These files are then compressed using two
                    compression schemes.</para>

                  <informaltable frame="none">
                    <tgroup cols="2">
                      <thead>
                        <row>
                          <entry>Scheme</entry>

                          <entry>Description</entry>
                        </row>
                      </thead>

                      <tbody>
                        <row>
                          <entry><literal>zip</literal></entry>

                          <entry>The Zip format.  If you want to
                            uncompress this on FreeBSD you will need
                            to install the <filename
                            role="package">archivers/unzip</filename>
                            port first.</entry>
                        </row>

                        <row>
                          <entry><literal>bz2</literal></entry>

                          <entry>The BZip2 format.  Less widespread
                            than Zip, but generally gives
                            smaller files.  Install the <filename
                            role="package">archivers/bzip2</filename>
                            port to uncompress these files.</entry>
                        </row>
                      </tbody>
                    </tgroup>
                  </informaltable>

                  <para>So the PostScript version of the Handbook,
                    compressed using BZip2 will be stored in a file
                    called <filename>book.ps.bz2</filename> in the
                    <filename>handbook/</filename> directory.</para>
                </listitem>
              </orderedlist>
            </listitem>
          </itemizedlist>

          <para>After choosing the format and compression mechanism that you
            want to download, you must then decide whether or not you want to
            download the document as a FreeBSD
            <emphasis>package</emphasis>.</para>

          <para>The advantage of downloading and installing the package is
            that the documentation can then be managed using the normal
            FreeBSD package management comments, such as &man.pkg.add.1; and
            &man.pkg.delete.1;.</para>

          <para>If you decide to download and install the package then
            you must know the filename to download.  The
            documentation-as-packages files are stored in a directory
            called <filename>packages</filename>.  Each package file
            looks like
            <filename><replaceable>document-name</replaceable>.<replaceable>lang</replaceable>.<replaceable>encoding</replaceable>.<replaceable>format</replaceable>.tgz</filename>.</para>

          <para>For example, the FAQ, in English, formatted as PDF, is in the
            package called
            <filename>faq.en_US.ISO8859-1.pdf.tgz</filename>.</para>

          <para>Knowing this, you can use the following command to
            install the English PDF FAQ package.</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg_add ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/packages/faq.en_US.ISO8859-1.pdf.tgz</userinput></screen>

          <para>Having done that, you can use &man.pkg.info.1; to determine
            where the file has been installed.</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg_info -f faq.en_US.ISO8859-1.pdf</userinput>
Information for faq.en_US.ISO8859-1.pdf:

Packing list:
        Package name: faq.en_US.ISO8859-1.pdf
        CWD to /usr/share/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq
File: book.pdf
        CWD to .
File: +COMMENT (ignored)
File: +DESC (ignored)</screen>

          <para>As you can see, <filename>book.pdf</filename> will
            have been installed into
            <filename>/usr/share/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq</filename>.</para>

          <para>If you do not want to use the packages then you will have to
            download the compressed files yourself, uncompress them, and then
            copy the appropriate documents into place.</para>

          <para>For example, the split HTML version of the FAQ,
            compressed using &man.bzip2.1;, can be found in the
            <filename>doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/book.html-split.tar.bz2</filename>
            file.  To download and uncompress that file you would have
            to do this.</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>fetch ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/faq/book.html-split.tar.bz2</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>bzip2 -d book.html-split.tar.bz2</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>tar xvf book.html-split.tar</userinput></screen>

          <para>You will be left with a collection of
            <filename>.html</filename> files.  The main one is called
            <filename>index.html</filename>, which will contain the
            table of contents, introductory material, and links to the
            other parts of the document.  You can then copy or move
            these to their final location as necessary.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="mailing">
          <para>Where do I find info on the FreeBSD mailing lists?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>You can find full information in the <ulink
            URL="../handbook/eresources.html#ERESOURCES-MAIL">Handbook
            entry on mailing-lists</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="y2k">
          <para>Where do I find the FreeBSD Y2K info?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>You can find full information in the <ulink
            URL="&url.main;/y2kbug.html">FreeBSD Y2K page</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="newsgroups">
          <para>What FreeBSD news groups are available?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>You can find full information in the <ulink
            URL="../handbook/eresources-news.html">Handbook entry on
            newsgroups</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="irc">
          <para>Are there FreeBSD IRC (Internet Relay Chat)
            channels?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Yes, most major IRC networks host a FreeBSD chat
            channel:</para>

          <itemizedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>Channel <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> on
                <ulink URL="http://www.efnet.org/index.php">EFNet</ulink>
                is a FreeBSD forum, but do not go there for tech
                support or try to get folks there to help you avoid
                the pain of reading manual pages or doing your own research.
                It is a chat channel, first and foremost, and topics there
                are just as likely to involve sex, sports or nuclear
                weapons as they are FreeBSD.  You Have Been Warned!
                Available at server <hostid>irc.chat.org</hostid>.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Channel <literal>#FreeBSDhelp</literal> on
                <ulink URL="http://www.efnet.org/index.php">EFNet</ulink>
                is a channel dedicated to helping FreeBSD users. They
                are much more sympathetic to questions than
                <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> is.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Channel <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> on
                <ulink URL="http://www.dal.net/">DALNET</ulink>
                is available at <hostid>irc.dal.net</hostid> in the
                US and  <hostid>irc.eu.dal.net</hostid> in Europe.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Channel <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> on
                <ulink URL="http://www.undernet.org/">UNDERNET</ulink>
                is available at <hostid>us.undernet.org</hostid>
                in the US and  <hostid>eu.undernet.org</hostid> in Europe.
                Since it is a help channel, be prepared to read the
                documents you are referred to.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Channel <literal>#FreeBSD</literal> on <ulink
                url="http://www.hybnet.net/">HybNet</ulink>.  This channel
                <emphasis>is</emphasis> a help channel.  A list of servers
                can be found on the <ulink
                url="http://www.hybnet.net/">HybNet web site</ulink>.</para>
            </listitem>
          </itemizedlist>

          <para>Each of these channels are distinct and are not
            connected to each other.  Their chat styles also differ,
            so you may need to try each to find one suited to your
            chat style.  As with <emphasis>all</emphasis> types of IRC
            traffic, if you are easily offended or cannot deal with
            lots of young people (and more than a few older ones)
            doing the verbal equivalent of jello wrestling, do not
            even bother with it.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
	<question id="training">
	  <para>Where can I get commercial FreeBSD training and support?</para>
	</question>

	<answer>
	  <para>DaemonNews provides commercial training and support for
	    FreeBSD.  More information can be found at their 
	    <ulink url="http://www.bsdmall.com/">BSD Mall</ulink> 
	    site.</para>

	  <para>FreeBSD Services Ltd provide commercial support for FreeBSD
	    in the UK (as well as selling FreeBSD on DVD).  See their
	    <ulink url="http://www.freebsd-services.com">web site</ulink>
	    for more information.</para>

          <para>The FreeBSD Mall provides commercial FreeBSD support.
            You can get more information at their <ulink
            url="http://www.freebsdmall.com/">web site</ulink>.</para>

	  <para>Any other organizations providing training and support should
	    contact the project in order to be listed here.</para>
	</answer>
      </qandaentry>
    </qandaset>
  </chapter>

  <chapter
    id="install">
    <chapterinfo>
      <author>
	<firstname>Nik</firstname>
	<surname>Clayton</surname>
	<affiliation>
	  <address><email>nik@FreeBSD.org</email></address>
	</affiliation>
      </author>
    </chapterinfo>
    
    <title>Installation</title>

    <qandaset>
      <qandaentry>
        <question id="floppy-download">
          <para>Which file do I download to get FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Prior to release 3.1, you only needed one floppy image to
            install FreeBSD, namely <filename>floppies/boot.flp</filename>.
            However, since release 3.1 the Project has added out-of-the-box
            support for a wide variety of hardware, which takes up more
            space.  For 3.X and later you need two floppy images:
            <filename>floppies/kernel.flp</filename> and
            <filename>floppies/mfsroot.flp</filename>. These images need to
            be copied onto floppies by tools like
            <command>fdimage</command> or &man.dd.1;.</para>

          <para>If you need to download the distributions yourself (for a
            DOS filesystem install, for instance), below are some
            recommendations for distributions to grab:</para>


          <itemizedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>bin/</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>manpages/</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>compat*/</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>doc/</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>src/ssys.*</para>
            </listitem>
          </itemizedlist>


          <para>Full instructions on this procedure and a little bit more
            about installation issues in general can be found in the
            <ulink URL="../handbook/install.html">Handbook entry on
            installing FreeBSD</ulink>.</para>

        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="floppy-image-too-large">
          <para>What do I do if the floppy images does not fit on a single
            floppy?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>A 3.5 inch (1.44MB) floppy can accommodate 1474560 bytes
            of data. The boot image is exactly 1474560 bytes in size.</para>

          <para>Common mistakes when preparing the boot floppy are:</para>

          <itemizedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>Not downloading the floppy image in
                <emphasis>binary</emphasis> mode when using
                <acronym>FTP</acronym>.</para>


              <para>Some FTP clients default their transfer mode to
                <emphasis>ascii</emphasis> and attempt to change any
                end-of-line characters received to match the conventions
                used by the client's system. This will almost invariably
                corrupt the boot image. Check the size of the downloaded
                boot image: if it is not <emphasis>exactly</emphasis> that
                on the server, then the download process is suspect.</para>

              <para>To workaround: type <emphasis>binary</emphasis> at the
                FTP command prompt after getting connected to the server
                and before starting the download of the image.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Using the DOS <command>copy</command> command (or
                equivalent GUI tool) to transfer the boot image to
                floppy.</para>

              <para>Programs like <command>copy</command> will not work as
                the boot image has been created to be booted into directly.
                The image has the complete content of the floppy, track for
                track, and is not meant to be placed on the floppy as a
                regular file. You have to transfer it to the floppy
                <quote>raw</quote>, using the low-level tools (e.g.
                <command>fdimage</command> or <command>rawrite</command>)
                described in the <ulink
                URL="../handbook/install.html">installation guide to
                FreeBSD</ulink>.</para>
            </listitem>
          </itemizedlist>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="install-instructions-location">
          <para>Where are the instructions for installing FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Installation instructions can be found in the
            <ulink URL="../handbook/install.html">Handbook entry on installing FreeBSD</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="need-to-run">
          <para>What do I need in order to run FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>You will need a 386 or better PC, with 5 MB or more of RAM
            and at least 60 MB of hard disk space. It can run with a low
            end MDA graphics card but to run X11R6, a VGA or better video
            card is needed.</para>

          <para>See also <xref linkend="hardware">.</para>

        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="four-meg-ram-install">
          <para>I have only 4 MB of RAM. Can I install FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD 2.1.7 was the last version of FreeBSD that
            could be installed on a 4MB system.  FreeBSD 2.2 and later
            needs at least 5MB to install on a new system.</para>

          <para>All versions of FreeBSD will <emphasis>run</emphasis>
            in 4MB of RAM, they just cannot run the installation
            program in 4MB. You can add extra memory for the install
            process, if you like, and then after the system is up and
            running, go back to 4MB. Or you could swap your disk into
            a system which has &gt;4MB, install onto the disk and then
            swap it back.</para>

          <para>After the installation, if you build a custom kernel,
            it will run in 4 MB. Someone has even successfully booted
            with 2 MB, although the system was almost unusable.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="custom-boot-floppy">
          <para>How can I make my own custom install floppy?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Currently there is no way to <emphasis>just</emphasis>
            make a custom install floppy. You have to cut a whole new
            release, which will include your install floppy.</para>

          <para>To make a custom release, follow the instructions in the
            <ulink url="../../articles/releng/article.html">Release
            Engineering</ulink> article.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="multiboot">
          <para>Can I have more than one operating system on my PC?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Have a look at
            <ulink URL="../../articles/multi-os/index.html">
            the multi-OS page</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="windows-coexist">
          <para>Can Windows 95/98 co-exist with FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Install Windows 95/98 first, after that FreeBSD.
            FreeBSD's boot manager will then manage to boot Win95/98 and
            FreeBSD. If you install Windows 95/98 second, it will boorishly
            overwrite your boot manager without even asking. If that
            happens, see the next section.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="win95-damaged-boot-manager">
          <para>Windows 95/98 killed my boot manager!
            How do I get it back?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>You can reinstall the boot manager FreeBSD comes with in
            one of three ways:</para>

          <itemizedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>Running DOS, go into the tools/ directory of your
                FreeBSD distribution and look for
                <filename>bootinst.exe</filename>.  You run it like
                so:</para>

              <screen><prompt>...\TOOLS&gt;</prompt> <userinput>bootinst.exe boot.bin</userinput></screen>

              <para>and the boot manager will be reinstalled.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Boot the FreeBSD boot floppy again and go to the
                Custom installation menu item. Choose Partition. Select the
                 drive which used to contain your boot manager (likely the
                 first one) and when you come to the partition editor for
                 it, as the very first thing (e.g. do not make any changes)
                 select (W)rite. This will ask for confirmation, say yes,
                 and when you get the Boot Manager selection prompt, be
                 sure to select <quote>Boot Manager</quote>. This will
                 re-write the boot manager to disk. Now quit out of the
                 installation menu and reboot off the hard disk as
                 normal.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Boot the FreeBSD boot floppy (or CDROM) and choose the
                <quote>Fixit</quote> menu item. Select either the Fixit
                floppy or CDROM #2 (the <quote>live</quote> filesystem
                option) as appropriate and enter the fixit shell. Then
                execute the following command:</para>

              <screen><prompt>Fixit#</prompt> <userinput>fdisk -B -b /boot/boot0 <replaceable>bootdevice</replaceable></userinput></screen>

              <para>substituting <replaceable>bootdevice</replaceable> for
                your real
                boot device such as <devicename>ad0</devicename> (first IDE
                disk), <devicename>ad4</devicename> (first IDE disk on
                auxiliary controller), <devicename>da0</devicename> (first
                SCSI disk), etc.</para>
            </listitem>
          </itemizedlist>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="boot-on-thinkpad">
          <para>My A, T, or X series IBM Thinkpad locks up when I first
            booted up my FreeBSD installation.  How can I solve this?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>A bug in early revisions of IBM's BIOS on these machines
            mistakenly identifies the FreeBSD partition as a potential FAT
            suspend-to-disk partition.  When the BIOS tries to parse the
            FreeBSD partition it hangs.</para>

          <para>According to IBM<footnote><para>In an e-mail from Keith
                Frechette
                <email>kfrechet@us.ibm.com</email>.</para></footnote>, the
            following model/BIOS release numbers incorporate the fix.</para>

          <informaltable frame="none">
            <tgroup cols="2">
              <thead>
                <row>
                  <entry>Model</entry>
                  <entry>BIOS revision</entry>
                </row>
              </thead>

              <tbody>
                <row>
                  <entry>T20</entry>
                  <entry>IYET49WW or later</entry>
                </row>

                <row>
                  <entry>T21</entry>
                  <entry>KZET22WW or later</entry>
                </row>

                <row>
                  <entry>A20p</entry>
                  <entry>IVET62WW or later</entry>
                </row>

                <row>
                  <entry>A20m</entry>
                  <entry>IWET54WW or later</entry>
                </row>

                <row>
                  <entry>A21p</entry>
                  <entry>KYET27WW or later</entry>
                </row>

                <row>
                  <entry>A21m</entry>
                  <entry>KXET24WW or later</entry>
                </row>

                <row>
                  <entry>A21e</entry>
                  <entry>KUET30WW</entry>
                </row>
              </tbody>
            </tgroup>
          </informaltable>

	  <para>It has been reported that later IBM BIOS revisions may
	    have reintroduced the bug.  <ulink
	    url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/getmsg.cgi?fetch=200565+208320+/usr/local/www/db/text/2001/freebsd-mobile/20010429.freebsd-mobile">This
	    message</ulink> from Jacques Vidrine to the &a.mobile;
	    describes a procedure which may work if your newer IBM
	    laptop does not boot FreeBSD properly, and you can upgrade
	    or downgrade the BIOS.</para>
	
          <para>If you have an earlier BIOS, and upgrading is not an option a
            workaround is to install FreeBSD, change the partition ID FreeBSD
            uses, and install new boot blocks that can handle the different
            partition ID.</para>

          <para>First, you will need to restore the machine to a state where
            it can get through its self-test screen.  Doing this requires
            powering up the machine without letting it find a FreeBSD
            partition on its primary disk.  One way is to remove the hard disk
            and temporarily move it to an older ThinkPad (such as a ThinkPad
            600) or a desktop PC with an appropriate conversion cable.  Once
            it is there, you can delete the FreeBSD partition and move the hard
            disk back.  The ThinkPad should now be in a bootable state
            again.</para>

          <para>With the machine functional again, you can use the workaround
            procedure described here to get a working FreeBSD
            installation.</para>

          <procedure>
            <step>
              <para>Download <filename>boot1</filename> and
                <filename>boot2</filename> from <ulink
                  url="http://people.FreeBSD.org/~bmah/ThinkPad/"></ulink>.
                Put these files somewhere you will be able to retrieve them
                later.</para>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>Install FreeBSD as normal on to the ThinkPad.
                <emphasis>Do not</emphasis> use <literal>Dangerously
                  Dedicated</literal> mode.  <emphasis>Do not</emphasis>
                reboot when the install has finished.</para>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>Either switch to the <quote>Emergency Holographic
                  Shell</quote> (<keycombo action="simul"><keycap>ALT</keycap>
                  <keycap>F4</keycap></keycombo>) or start a
                <quote>fixit</quote> shell.</para>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>Use &man.fdisk.8; to change the FreeBSD partition ID from
                <literal>165</literal> to <literal>166</literal> (this is the
                  type used by OpenBSD).</para>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>Bring the <filename>boot1</filename> and
                <filename>boot2</filename> files to the local
                filesystem.</para>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>Use &man.disklabel.8; to write <filename>boot1</filename>
                and <filename>boot2</filename> to your FreeBSD slice.</para>

              <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel -B -b boot1 -s boot2 ad0s<replaceable>n</replaceable></userinput></screen>

              <para><replaceable>n</replaceable> is the number of the slice
                where you installed FreeBSD.</para>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>Reboot.  At the boot prompt you will be given the option
                of booting <literal>OpenBSD</literal>.  This will actually
                boot FreeBSD.</para>
            </step>
          </procedure>

          <para>Getting this to work in the case where you want to dual boot
          OpenBSD and FreeBSD on the same laptop is left as an exercise for
          the reader.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="install-bad-blocks">
          <para>Can I install on a disk with bad blocks?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Prior to 3.0, FreeBSD included a utility known as
            <command>bad144</command>, which automatically remapped bad
            blocks. Because modern IDE drives perform this function
            themselves, <command>bad144</command> has been removed from the
            FreeBSD source tree. If you wish to install FreeBSD 3.0 or
            later, we strongly suggest you purchase a newer disk drive. If
            you do not wish to do this, you must run FreeBSD 2.X.</para>
            <para>If you are seeing bad block errors with a modern IDE
            drive, chances are the drive is going to die very soon (the
            drive's internal remapping functions are no longer sufficient
            to fix the bad blocks, which means the disk is heavily
            corrupted); we suggest you buy a new hard drive.</para>

          <para>If you have a SCSI drive with bad blocks, see
            <link linkend="awre">this answer</link>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="bad144-3x-4x">
          <para>I have just upgraded from 3.X to 4.X, and my first boot
            failed with <errorname>bad sector table not
            supported</errorname></para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD 3.X and earlier supported
            <command>bad144</command>, which automatically remapped
            bad blocks.  FreeBSD 4.X and later do not support this, as
            modern IDE drives include this functionality.  See <link
            linkend="install-bad-blocks">this question</link> for
            more information.</para>

          <para>To fix this after an upgrade, you need to physically
            place the drive in a working system and use
            &man.disklabel.8; as discussed in the following
            questions.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="find-bad144">
          <para>How do I tell if a drive has <command>bad144</command>
            information on it before I try to upgrade to FreeBSD 4.0
            and it fails?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Use &man.disklabel.8; for this.  <command>disklabel -r
            <replaceable>drive device</replaceable></command> will
            give you the contents of your disk label.  Look for a
            <literal>flags</literal> field.  If you see
            <literal>flags: badsect</literal>, this drive is using
            bad144.  For example, the following drive has
            <command>bad144</command> enabled.:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel -r wd0</userinput>
# /dev/rwd0c:
type: ESDI
disk: wd0s1
label:
flags: badsect
bytes/sector: 512
sectors/track: 63</screen>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="disable-bad144">
          <para>How do I remove <command>bad144</command> from my
            pre-4.X system so I can upgrade safely?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Use <command>disklabel -e -rwd0 </command> to edit the
            disklabel in place.  Just remove the word
            <literal>badsect</literal> from the flags field, save, and
            exit.  The bad144 file will still take up some space on
            your drive, but the disk itself will be usable.</para>

          <para>We still recommend you purchase a new disk if you have
            a large number of bad blocks.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="boot-floppy-strangeness">
          <para>Strange things happen when I boot the install floppy!
            What is happening?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>If you are seeing things like the machine grinding to a halt
            or spontaneously rebooting when you try to boot the install
            floppy, here are three questions to ask yourself:-</para>

          <orderedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>Did you use a new, freshly-formatted, error-free floppy
                (preferably a brand-new one straight out of the box, as
                opposed to the magazine cover disk that has been lying under
                the bed for the last three years)?</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Did you download the floppy image in binary (or image)
                mode? (do not be embarrassed, even the best of us have
                accidentally downloaded a binary file in ASCII mode at
                least once!)</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>If you are using Windows95 or Win98 did you run
                <command>fdimage</command> or
                <command>rawrite</command> in pure DOS mode? These
                operating systems can interfere with programs that
                write directly to hardware, which the disk creation
                program does; even running it inside a DOS shell in
                the GUI can cause this problem.</para>
            </listitem>
          </orderedlist>

          <para>There have also been reports of Netscape causing problems
            when downloading the boot floppy, so it is probably best to use
            a different FTP client if you can.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="no-install-cdrom">
          <para>I booted from my ATAPI CDROM, but the install program
            says no CDROM is found.  Where did it go?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The usual cause of this problem is a mis-configured CDROM
            drive.  Many PCs now ship with the CDROM as the slave device on
            the secondary IDE controller, with no master device on that
            controller.  This is illegal according to the ATAPI specification,
            but Windows plays fast and loose with the specification, and the
            BIOS ignores it when booting.  This is why the BIOS was able to
            see the  CDROM to boot from it, but why FreeBSD cannot see it to
            complete  the install.</para>

          <para>Reconfigure your system so that the CDROM is either the
            master device on the IDE controller it is attached to, or make
            sure that it is the slave on an IDE controller that also has a
            master device.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="install-PLIP">
          <para>Can I install on my laptop over PLIP (Parallel Line
            IP)?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Yes. Use a standard Laplink cable. If necessary, you
            can check out the <ulink url="../handbook/plip.html">PLIP
            section of the Handbook</ulink> for details on parallel
            port networking.</para>

          <para>If you are running FreeBSD 3.X or earlier, also look at
            the <ulink
            url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/docs.html#PAO">Mobile
            Computing page</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="geometry">
          <para>Which geometry should I use for a disk drive?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
            <note>
              <para>By the <quote>geometry</quote> of a disk, we mean
              the number of cylinders, heads and sectors/track on a
              disk.  We will refer to this as C/H/S for
              convenience. This is how the PC's BIOS works out which
              area on a disk to read/write from.</para>
            </note>

          <para>This causes a lot of confusion among new system
            administrators.  First of all, the
            <emphasis>physical</emphasis> geometry of a SCSI drive is
            totally irrelevant, as FreeBSD works in term of disk
            blocks. In fact, there is no such thing as
            <quote>the</quote> physical geometry, as the sector
            density varies across the disk.  What manufacturers claim
            is the <quote>physical geometry</quote> is usually the
            geometry that they have determined wastes the least
            space. For IDE disks, FreeBSD does work in terms of C/H/S,
            but all modern drives internally convert this into block
            references.</para>

          <para>All that matters is the <emphasis>logical</emphasis>
            geometry.  This is the answer that the BIOS gets when it
            asks the drive <quote>what is your geometry?</quote> It
            then uses this geometry to access the disk. As FreeBSD
            uses the BIOS when booting, it is very important to get
            this right. In particular, if you have more than one
            operating system on a disk, they must all agree on the
            geometry.  Otherwise you will have serious problems
            booting!</para>

          <para>For SCSI disks, the geometry to use depends on whether
           extended translation support is turned on in your
           controller (this is often referred to as <quote>support for
           DOS disks &gt;1GB</quote> or something similar). If it is
           turned off, then use <replaceable>N</replaceable>
           cylinders, 64 heads and 32 sectors/track, where
           <replaceable>N</replaceable> is the capacity of the disk in
           MB. For example, a 2GB disk should pretend to have 2048
           cylinders, 64 heads and 32 sectors/track.</para>

          <para>If it <emphasis>is</emphasis> turned on (it is often
            supplied this way to get around certain limitations in
            MSDOS) and the disk capacity is more than 1GB, use M
            cylinders, 63 sectors per track (<emphasis>not</emphasis>
            64), and 255 heads, where 'M' is the disk capacity in MB
            divided by 7.844238 (!). So our example 2GB drive would
            have 261 cylinders, 63 sectors per track and 255
            heads.</para>

          <para>If you are not sure about this, or FreeBSD fails to
            detect the geometry correctly during installation, the
            simplest way around this is usually to create a small DOS
            partition on the disk. The BIOS should then detect the
            correct geometry, and you can always remove the DOS
            partition in the partition editor if you do not want to
            keep it.  You might want to leave it around for
            programming network cards and the like, however.</para>

          <para>Alternatively, there is a freely available utility
            distributed with FreeBSD called
            <filename>pfdisk.exe</filename>.  You can find it in the
            <filename>tools</filename> subdirectory on the FreeBSD
            CDROM or on the various FreeBSD FTP sites.  This program
            can be used to work out what geometry the other operating
            systems on the disk are using. You can then enter this
            geometry in the partition editor.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="disk-divide-restrictions">
          <para>Are there any restrictions on how I divide the disk up?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Yes. You must make sure that your root partition is below 1024
            cylinders so the BIOS can boot the kernel from it.  (Note that
            this is a limitation in the PC's BIOS, not FreeBSD).</para>

          <para>For a SCSI drive, this will normally imply that the root
            partition will be in the first 1024MB (or in the first 4096MB
            if extended translation is turned on - see previous question).
            For IDE, the corresponding figure is 504MB.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="disk-manager">
          <para>Is FreeBSD compatible with any disk managers?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD recognizes the Ontrack Disk Manager and makes
            allowances for it. Other disk managers are not supported.</para>

          <para>If you just want to use the disk with FreeBSD you do not
            need a disk manager. Just configure the disk for as much space
            as the BIOS can deal with (usually 504 megabytes), and FreeBSD
            should figure out how much space you really have. If you are
            using an old disk with an MFM controller, you may need to
            explicitly tell FreeBSD how many cylinders to use.</para>

          <para>If you want to use the disk with FreeBSD and another
            operating system, you may be able to do without a disk manager:
            just make sure the FreeBSD boot partition and the slice for
            the other operating system are in the first 1024 cylinders. If
            you are reasonably careful, a 20 megabyte boot partition should
            be plenty.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="missing-os">
          <para>When I boot FreeBSD I get <errorname>Missing Operating
            System</errorname>.  What is happening?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>This is classically a case of FreeBSD and DOS or some other
            OS conflicting over their ideas of disk <link
            linkend="geometry">geometry</link>. You will have to reinstall
            FreeBSD, but obeying the instructions given above will almost
            always get you going.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="stop-at-boot-manager">
          <para>Why can I not get past the boot manager's <prompt>F?</prompt>
            prompt?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>This is another symptom of the problem described in the
            preceding question. Your BIOS geometry and FreeBSD geometry
            settings do not agree! If your controller or BIOS supports
            cylinder translation (often marked as <quote>&gt;1GB drive
            support</quote>), try toggling its setting and reinstalling
            FreeBSD.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="need-complete-sources">
          <para>Do I need to install the complete sources?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>In general, no.  However, we would strongly recommend that
            you install, at a minimum, the <literal>base</literal> source
            kit, which includes several of the files mentioned here, and
            the <literal>sys</literal> (kernel) source kit, which includes
            sources for the kernel. There is nothing in the system which
            requires the presence of the sources to operate, however,
            except for the kernel-configuration program &man.config.8;.
            With the exception of the kernel sources, our build structure
            is set up so that you can read-only mount the sources from
            elsewhere via NFS and still be able to make new binaries
            (due to the kernel-source restriction, we recommend that
            you not mount this on <filename>/usr/src</filename> directly,
            but rather in some other location with appropriate symbolic
            links to duplicate the top-level structure of the source
            tree).</para>

          <para>Having the sources on-line and knowing how to build a
            system with them will make it much easier for you to upgrade
            to future releases of FreeBSD.</para>

          <para>To actually select a subset of the sources, use the Custom
            menu item when you are in the Distributions menu of the
            system installation tool.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="need-kernel">
          <para>Do I need to build a kernel?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Building a new kernel was originally pretty much a required
            step in a FreeBSD installation, but more recent releases have
            benefited from the introduction of a much friendlier kernel
            configuration tool. When at the FreeBSD boot prompt (boot:),
            use the <option>-c</option> flag and you will be dropped into a
            visual configuration screen which allows you to configure the
            kernel's settings for most common ISA cards.</para>

          <para>It is still recommended that you eventually build a new
            kernel containing just the drivers that you need, just to save a
            bit of RAM, but it is no longer a strict requirement for most
            systems.</para>

        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="password-encryption">
          <para>Should I use DES, Blowfish, or MD5 passwords and how
            do I specify which form my users receive?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The default password format on FreeBSD is to use
            <emphasis>MD5</emphasis>-based passwords. These are
            believed to be more secure than the traditional Unix
            password format, which used a scheme based on the
            <emphasis>DES</emphasis> algorithm.  DES passwords are
            still available if you need to share your password file
            with legacy operating systems which still use the less
            secure password format (they are available if you choose
            to install the <quote>crypto</quote> distribution in
            sysinstall, or by installing the crypto sources if
            building from source). Installing the crypto libraries
            will also allow you to use the Blowfish password format,
            which is more secure.  Which password format to use for
            new passwords is controlled by the
            <quote>passwd_format</quote> login capability in
            <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename>, which takes values
            of <quote>des</quote>, <quote>blf</quote> (if these are
            available) or <quote>md5</quote>.  See the
            &man.login.conf.5; manual page for more information about
            login capabilities.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="boot-floppy-hangs">
          <para>Why does the boot floppy start, but hang at the
            <literal>Probing Devices...</literal> screen?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>

          <para>If you have a IDE Zip or Jaz drive installed, remove it
            and try again. The boot floppy can get confused by the drives.
            After the system is installed you can reconnect the drive.
            Hopefully this will be fixed in a later release.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="panic-on-install-reboot">
          <para>Why do I get a <errorname>panic: can't mount root</errorname>
            error when rebooting the system after installation?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>This error comes from confusion between the boot block's
            and the kernel's understanding of the disk devices. The error
            usually manifests on two-disk IDE systems, with the hard disks
            arranged as the master or single device on separate IDE
            controllers, with FreeBSD installed on the secondary IDE
            controller. The boot blocks think the system is installed on
            wd1 (the second BIOS disk) while the kernel assigns the first
            disk on the secondary controller device wd2. After the device
            probing, the kernel tries to mount what the boot blocks think
            is the boot disk, wd1, while it is really wd2, and
            fails.</para>

          <para>To fix the problem, do one of the following:</para>

            <orderedlist>
              <listitem>
                <para>For FreeBSD 3.3 and later, reboot the system and hit
                  <keycap>Enter</keycap> at the <literal>Booting kernel
                  in 10 seconds; hit [Enter] to interrupt</literal> prompt.
                  This will drop you into the boot loader.</para>

                <para>Then type
                  <literal>
                  set root_disk_unit="<replaceable>disk_number</replaceable>"
                  </literal>. <replaceable>disk_number</replaceable>
                  will be <literal>0</literal> if FreeBSD is installed on
                  the master drive on the first IDE controller,
                  <literal>1</literal> if it is installed on the slave on
                  the first IDE controller, <literal>2</literal> if it is
                  installed on the master of the second IDE controller, and
                  <literal>3</literal> if it is installed on the slave of
                  the second IDE controller.</para>

                <para>Then type <literal>boot</literal>, and your system
                  should boot correctly.</para>

                <para>To make this change permanent (ie so you do not
                  have to do this every time you reboot or turn on
                  your FreeBSD machine), put the line <literal>
                  root_disk_unit="<replaceable>disk_number</replaceable>"</literal>
                  in <filename>/boot/loader.conf.local
                  </filename>.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>If using FreeBSD 3.2 or earlier, at the Boot:
                  prompt, enter <literal>1:wd(2,a)kernel</literal> and
                  press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.  If the system starts,
                  then run the command <command>echo "1:wd(2,a)kernel"
                  &gt; /boot.config</command> to make it the default
                  boot string.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Move the FreeBSD disk onto the primary IDE controller,
                  so the hard disks are consecutive.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para><ulink URL="../handbook/kernelconfig.html">Rebuild
                  your kernel,</ulink> modify the wd configuration lines to
                  read:</para>

                  <programlisting>controller      wdc0    at isa? port "IO_WD1" bio irq 14 vector wdintr
disk            wd0     at wdc0 drive 0
# disk            wd1     at wdc0 drive 1 # comment out this line

controller      wdc1    at isa? port "IO_WD2" bio irq 15 vector wdintr
disk            wd1     at wdc1 drive 0 # change from wd2 to wd1
disk            wd2     at wdc1 drive 1 # change from wd3 to wd2</programlisting>

                <para>Install the new kernel.  If you moved your disks and
                  wish to restore the previous configuration, replace the
                  disks in the desired configuration and reboot.  Your
                  system should boot successfully.</para>
              </listitem>
            </orderedlist>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="memory-limits">
          <para>What are the limits for memory?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>For memory, the limit is 4 gigabytes.  If you plan to install
            this much memory into a machine, you need to be careful. You will
            probably want to use ECC memory and to reduce capacitive
            loading use 9 chip memory modules versus 18 chip memory
            modules.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="ffs-limits">
          <para>What are the limits for ffs filesystems?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>For ffs filesystems, the maximum theoretical limit is 8
            terabytes (2G blocks), or 16TB for the default block size of
            8K. In practice, there is a soft limit of 1 terabyte, but with
            modifications filesystems with 4 terabytes are possible (and
            exist).</para>

          <para>The maximum size of a single ffs file is approximately 1G
            blocks, or 4TB with a block size of 4K.</para>

          <table>
            <title>Maximum file sizes</title>

            <tgroup cols="5">
              <thead>
                <row>
                  <entry>fs block size</entry>

                  <entry>2.2.7-stable</entry>

                  <entry>3.0-current</entry>

                  <entry>works</entry>

                  <entry>should work</entry>
                </row>
              </thead>

              <tbody>
                <row>
                  <entry>4K</entry>

                  <entry>4T-1</entry>

                  <entry>4T-1</entry>

                  <entry>4T-1</entry>

                  <entry>&gt;4T</entry>
                </row>

                <row>
                  <entry>8K</entry>

                  <entry>&gt;32G</entry>

                  <entry>8T-1</entry>

                  <entry>&gt;32G</entry>

                  <entry>32T-1</entry>
                </row>

                <row>
                  <entry>16K</entry>

                  <entry>&gt;128G</entry>

                  <entry>16T-1</entry>

                  <entry>&gt;128G</entry>

                  <entry>32T-1</entry>
                </row>

                <row>
                  <entry>32K</entry>

                  <entry>&gt;512G</entry>

                  <entry>32T-1</entry>

                  <entry>&gt;512G</entry>

                  <entry>64T-1</entry>
                </row>

                <row>
                  <entry>64K</entry>

                  <entry>&gt;2048G</entry>

                  <entry>64T-1</entry>

                  <entry>&gt;2048G</entry>

                  <entry>128T-1</entry>
                </row>
              </tbody>
            </tgroup>
          </table>

          <para>When the fs block size is 4K, triple indirect blocks work
            and everything should be limited by the maximum fs block number
            that can be represented using triple indirect blocks (approx.
            1K^3 + 1K^2 + 1K), but everything is limited by a (wrong) limit
            of 1G-1 on fs block numbers. The limit on fs block numbers
            should be 2G-1. There are some bugs for fs block numbers near
            2G-1, but such block numbers are unreachable when the fs block
            size is 4K.</para>

          <para>For block sizes of 8K and larger, everything should be
            limited by the 2G-1 limit on fs block numbers, but is actually
            limited by the 1G-1 limit on fs block numbers, except under
            -STABLE triple indirect blocks are unreachable, so the limit is
            the maximum fs block number that can be represented using
            double indirect blocks (approx. (blocksize/4)^2 +
            (blocksize/4)), and under -CURRENT exceeding this limit may
            cause problems. Using the correct limit of 2G-1 blocks does
            cause problems.</para>

        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="archsw-readin-failed-error">
          <para>Why do I get an error message,
            <errorname>archsw.readin.failed</errorname> after compiling
            and booting a new kernel?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>You can boot by specifying the kernel directly at the second
            stage, pressing any key when the | shows up before loader is
            started. More specifically, you have upgraded the source for
            your kernel, and installed a new kernel builtin from them
            <emphasis>without making world</emphasis>. This is not
            supported. Make world.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="security-profiles">
          <para>What are these <quote>security profiles</quote>?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>A <quote>security profile</quote> is a set of configuration
            options that attempts to achieve the desired ratio of security
            to convenience by enabling and disabling certain programs and
            other settings.  For full details, see the <ulink
            url="../handbook/install-post.html#SECURITYPROFILE">Security
            Profile</ulink> section of the Handbook's <ulink
            url="../handbook/install-post.html">post-install
            chapter</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>
    </qandaset>
  </chapter>

  <chapter
    id="hardware">
    <title>Hardware compatibility</title>

    <qandaset>
      <qandaentry>
        <question id="architectures">
          <para>Does FreeBSD support architectures other than the x86?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>

          <para>Yes.  FreeBSD currently runs on the Intel x86 and DEC (now
            Compaq) Alpha architectures.  As of FreeBSD 5.0, the
            IA-64, AMD-64 and SPARC-64 architectures are also supported.
            Upcoming platforms are
            MIPS and PowerPC; join the &a.ppc; or the
            &a.mips; respectively for more information about ongoing
            work on these platforms.  For general discussion on new
            architectures, join the &a.platforms;.</para>

          <para>If your machine has a different architecture and you need
            something right now, we suggest you look at <ulink
            URL="http://www.netbsd.org/">NetBSD</ulink> or <ulink
            URL="http://www.openbsd.org/">OpenBSD</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="which-hardware-to-get">
          <para>I want to get a piece of hardware for my FreeBSD
            system.  Which model/brand/type is best?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>This is discussed continually on the FreeBSD mailing
            lists.  Since hardware changes so quickly, however, we
            expect this.  We <emphasis>still</emphasis> strongly
            recommend that you read through the Hardware notes for &os;
	    <ulink URL="&rel.current.hardware;">&rel.current;</ulink>
	    or
	    <ulink URL="&rel2.current.hardware;">&rel2.current;</ulink>
	    and search the mailing list
            <ulink URL="http://www.FreeBSD.org/search/#mailinglists">
            archives</ulink> before asking about the latest and
            greatest hardware.  Chances are a discussion about the
            type of hardware you are looking for took place just last
            week.</para>

          <para>If you are looking for a laptop, check the
            FreeBSD-mobile mailing list archives.  Otherwise, you
            probably want the archives for FreeBSD-questions, or
            possibly a specific mailing list for a particular hardware
            type.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="supported-hard-drives">
          <para>What kind of hard drives does FreeBSD support?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD supports EIDE and SCSI drives (with a compatible
            controller; see the next section), and all drives using the
            original <quote>Western Digital</quote> interface (MFM, RLL,
            ESDI, and of course IDE). A few ESDI controllers that use
            proprietary interfaces may not work: stick to WD1002/3/6/7
            interfaces and clones.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="supported-scsi-controllers">
          <para>Which SCSI controllers are supported?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>See the complete list in the Hardware Notes for &os;
	    <ulink URL="&rel.current.hardware;">&rel.current;</ulink> or
	    <ulink URL="&rel2.current.hardware;">&rel2.current;</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="supported-cdrom-drives">
          <para>Which CDROM drives are supported by FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Any SCSI drive connected to a supported controller is
            supported.</para>

          <para>The following proprietary CDROM interfaces are also
            supported:</para>

            <itemizedlist>
              <listitem>
                <para>Mitsumi LU002 (8bit), LU005 (16bit) and FX001D
                  (16bit 2x Speed).</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Sony CDU 31/33A</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Sound Blaster Non-SCSI CDROM</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Matsushita/Panasonic CDROM</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>ATAPI compatible IDE CDROMs</para>
              </listitem>
            </itemizedlist>

          <para>All non-SCSI cards are known to be extremely slow compared
            to SCSI drives, and some ATAPI CDROMs may not work.</para>

          <para>The official FreeBSD CDROM ISO, and CDROMs from Daemon
            News and FreeBSD Mall, support booting directly from the
            CD.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="supported-cdrw-drives">
          <para>Which CD-RW drives are supported by FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

	<answer>
	  <para>FreeBSD supports any ATAPI-compatible IDE CD-R or CD-RW
	    drive.  For FreeBSD versions 4.0 and later, see the manual page for
	      &man.burncd.8;.  For earlier FreeBSD versions, see the examples
	    in <filename>/usr/share/examples/atapi</filename>.</para>

	  <para>FreeBSD also supports any SCSI CD-R or CD-RW drives.
	    Install and use the <command>cdrecord</command> command from the
	    ports or packages system, and make sure that you have the
	    <devicename>pass</devicename> device compiled in your
	    kernel.</para>
	</answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="zip-support">
          <para>Does FreeBSD support ZIP drives?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD supports SCSI and ATAPI (IDE) ZIP drives out
            of the box, of course. SCSI ZIP drives can only be set to
            run at SCSI target IDs 5 or 6, but if your SCSI host
            adapter's BIOS supports it you can even boot from it.  It
            is not clear which host adapters support booting from
            targets other than 0 or 1, so you will have to consult
            your adapter's documentation if you would like to use this
            feature.</para>

          <para>FreeBSD also supports Parallel Port Zip Drives.  Check
            that your kernel contains the
            <devicename>scbus0</devicename>,
            <devicename>da0</devicename>,
            <devicename>ppbus0</devicename>, and
            <devicename>vp0</devicename> drivers (the GENERIC kernel
            contains everything except
            <devicename>vp0</devicename>). With all these drivers
            present, the Parallel Port drive should be available as
            <devicename>/dev/da0s4</devicename>. Disks can be mounted
            using <command>mount /dev/da0s4 /mnt</command> OR (for dos
            disks) <command>mount_msdos /dev/da0s4 /mnt</command> as
            appropriate.</para>

          <para>Also check out <link linkend="jaz">the FAQ on
            removable drives</link> later in this chapter, and <link
            linkend="disklabel">the note on
            <quote>formatting</quote></link>in the Administration
            chapter.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="jaz-zip-removable-support">
          <para>Does FreeBSD support JAZ, EZ and other removable drives?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Apart from the IDE version of the EZ drive, these are all
            SCSI devices, so they should all look like SCSI disks to
            FreeBSD, and the IDE EZ should look like an IDE drive.</para>

          <para><anchor id="jaz">I am not sure how well FreeBSD supports
            changing the media out while running. You will of course need
            to dismount the drive before swapping media, and make sure that
            any external units are powered on when you boot the system so
            FreeBSD can see them.</para>

          <para>See <link linkend="disklabel">this note on
            <quote>formatting</quote></link>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="multiport-serial-support">
          <para>Which multi-port serial cards are supported by
            FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>There is a list of these in the <ulink
            URL="../handbook/install.html#INSTALL-MISC">Miscellaneous
            devices</ulink> section of the handbook.</para>

          <para>Some unnamed clone cards have also been known to work,
            especially those that claim to be AST compatible.</para>

          <para>Check the &man.sio.4; manual page to get more
            information on configuring such cards.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="usbkbd">
          <para>Does FreeBSD support my USB keyboard?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD 4.X and later supports USB keyboards
            out-of-the-box.  Preliminary USB device support appeared
            in FreeBSD 3.1, but might not always work as of version
            3.2.  If you want to experiment with the USB keyboard
            support in FreeBSD 3.X, follow the procedure described
            below.</para>

          <procedure>
            <step>
              <para>Use a version of FreeBSD 3.X later than
                3.2.</para>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>Add the following lines to your kernel configuration
                file, and rebuild the kernel.</para>

              <programlisting>controller      uhci0
controller      ohci0
controller      usb0
controller      ukbd0
options         KBD_INSTALL_CDEV</programlisting>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>Go to the <filename>/dev</filename> directory and create
                device nodes as follows:</para>

              <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>./MAKEDEV kbd0 kbd1</userinput></screen>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>Edit <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and add the
                following lines:</para>

              <programlisting>usbd_enable="YES"
usbd_flags=""</programlisting>

            </step>
          </procedure>

	  <para>If you want to use a USB keyboard in FreeBSD 4.X or
	    later, you just need to enable USB support in
	    <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>.</para>

          <para>Once you have USB keyboard support enabled on your
            system, the AT keyboard becomes
            <devicename>/dev/kbd0</devicename> and the USB keyboard
            becomes <devicename>/dev/kbd1</devicename>, if both are
            connected to the system.  If there is the USB keyboard
            only, it will be
            <devicename>/dev/ukbd0</devicename>.</para>

          <para>If you want to use the USB keyboard in the console, you
            have to explicitly tell the console driver to use the existing
            USB keyboard. This can be done by running the following
            command as a part of system initialization.</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kbdcontrol -k /dev/kbd1 &lt; /dev/ttyv0 &gt; /dev/null</userinput></screen>

          <para>Note that if the USB keyboard is the only keyboard, it is
            accessed as <devicename>/dev/kbd0</devicename>, thus, the command
            should look like:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kbdcontrol -k /dev/kbd0 &lt; /dev/ttyv0 &gt; /dev/null</userinput></screen>

          <para><filename>/etc/rc.i386</filename> is a good place to add the
            above command.</para>

          <para>Once this is done, the USB keyboard should work in the X
            environment as well without any special settings.</para>

          <para>Hot-plugging and unplugging of the USB keyboard may not
            work quite right yet. We recommend connecting the keyboard
            before starting the system and leaving it connected until the
            system is shutdown to avoid troubles.</para>

          <para>See the &man.ukbd.4; manual page for more information.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="busmouse">
          <para>I have an unusual bus mouse. How do I set it up?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD supports the bus mouse and the InPort bus mouse
            from such manufactures as Microsoft, Logitech and ATI. The bus
            device driver is compiled in the GENERIC kernel by default in
            FreeBSD versions 2.X, but not included in version 3.0 or later.
            If you are building a custom kernel with the bus mouse driver,
            make sure to add the following line to the kernel config
            file</para>

          <para>In FreeBSD 3.0 or before, add:</para>

          <programlisting>device mse0 at isa? port 0x23c tty irq5 vector mseintr</programlisting>

          <para>In FreeBSD 3.X, the line should be:</para>

          <programlisting>device mse0 at isa? port 0x23c tty irq5</programlisting>

          <para>And in FreeBSD 4.X and later, the line should read:</para>

          <programlisting>device mse0 at isa? port 0x23c irq5</programlisting>

          <para>Bus mice usually comes with dedicated interface cards.
            These cards may allow you to set the port address and the IRQ
            number other than shown above. Refer to the manual of your
            mouse and the &man.mse.4; manual page for more information.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="ps2mouse">
          <para>How do I use my PS/2 (<quote>mouse port</quote> or
            <quote>keyboard</quote>) mouse?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The PS/2 mouse is supported out-of-the-box in all
            recent versions of FreeBSD.  The necessary device driver,
            <devicename>psm</devicename>, is included in the GENERIC
            kernel.</para>

          <para>If your custom kernel does not have this, add the
            appropriate following line to your kernel configuration
            file and compile a new kernel.</para>

          <para>In FreeBSD 3.0 or earlier, the line should be:</para>

          <programlisting>device psm0 at isa? port "IO_KBD" conflicts tty irq 12 vector psmintr</programlisting>

          <para>In FreeBSD 3.1 or later, the line should be:</para>

          <programlisting>device psm0 at isa? tty irq 12</programlisting>

          <para>In FreeBSD 4.0 or later, the line should be:</para>

          <programlisting>device psm0 at atkbdc? irq 12</programlisting>

          <para>Once the kernel detects <devicename>psm0</devicename>
            correctly at boot time, make sure that an entry for
            <devicename>psm0</devicename> exists in
            <filename>/dev</filename>.  You can do this by
            typing:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev; sh MAKEDEV psm0</userinput></screen>

          <para>when logged in as <username>root</username>.</para>

          <note>
	    <para>You can omit this step if you are running FreeBSD
	      5.0-RELEASE or newer with &man.devfs.5; enabled,
	      since the proper device nodes will be created automatically
	      under <filename>/dev</filename>.</para>
	  </note>
	</answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="moused">
          <para>Is it possible to use a mouse in any way outside the X
            Window system?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>If you are using the default console driver,
            &man.syscons.4;, you can use a mouse pointer in text
            consoles to cut &amp; paste text. Run the mouse daemon,
            &man.moused.8;, and turn on the mouse pointer in the
            virtual console:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>moused -p /dev/<replaceable>xxxx</replaceable> -t <replaceable>yyyy</replaceable></userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>vidcontrol -m on</userinput></screen>

          <para>Where <replaceable>xxxx</replaceable> is the mouse
            device name and <replaceable>yyyy</replaceable> is a
            protocol type for the mouse.  The mouse daemon can
            automatically determine the protocol type of most
            mice, except old serial mice. Specify the
            <literal>auto</literal> protocol to invoke automatic
            detection.  If automatic detection does not work, see the
            &man.moused.8; manual page for a list of supported
            protocol types.</para>

          <para>If you have a PS/2 mouse, just add
            <literal>moused_enable="YES"</literal> to
            <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> to start the mouse
            daemon at boot-time.  Additionally, if you would like to
            use the mouse daemon on all virtual terminals instead of
            just the console, add <literal>allscreens_flags="-m
            on"</literal> to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>.</para>

          <para>When the mouse daemon is running, access to the mouse
            must be coordinated between the mouse daemon and other
            programs such as X Windows. Refer to the FAQ <link
            linkend="x-and-moused">Why does my mouse not work with
            X?</link> for more details on this issue.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="text-mode-cut-paste">
          <para>How do I cut and paste text with a mouse in the text
            console?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Once you get the mouse daemon running (see the <link
            linkend="moused">previous section</link>), hold down the
            button 1 (left button) and move the mouse to select a
            region of text. Then, press the button 2 (middle button)
            to paste it at the text cursor.  Pressing button 3 (right
            button) will <quote>extend</quote> the selected region of
            text.</para>

	  <para>If your mouse does not have a middle button, you may
            wish to emulate one or remap buttons using mouse daemon
            options. See the &man.moused.8; manual page for
            details.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="usbmouse">
          <para>Does FreeBSD support any USB mice?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>

          <para>Preliminary USB device support was added to FreeBSD
            3.1.  It did not always work through early versions of
            3.X.  As of FreeBSD 4.0, USB devices should work out of
            the box.  If you want to experiment with the USB mouse
            support under FreeBSD 3.X, follow the procedure described
            below.</para>

          <procedure>
            <step>
              <para>Use FreeBSD 3.2 or later.</para>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>Add the following lines to your kernel configuration
                file, and rebuild the kernel.</para>

              <programlisting>device  uhci
device  ohci
device  usb
device  ums</programlisting>

              <para>In versions of FreeBSD before 4.0, use this
                instead:</para>

              <programlisting>controller        uhci0
controller        ohci0
controller        usb0
device            ums0</programlisting>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>Go to the <filename>/dev</filename> directory and
                create a device node as follows:</para>

              <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>./MAKEDEV ums0</userinput></screen>

              <note>
	        <para>You can omit this step if you are running FreeBSD
	          5.0-RELEASE or newer with &man.devfs.5; enabled,
	          since the proper device nodes will be created automatically
	          under <filename>/dev</filename>.</para>
	      </note>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>Edit <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> and add the
                following lines:</para>

              <programlisting>moused_enable="YES"
moused_type="auto"
moused_port="/dev/ums0"
moused_flags=""
usbd_enable="YES"
usbd_flags=""</programlisting>

              <para>See the <link linkend="moused">previous section</link>
                for more detailed discussion on moused.</para>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>In order to use the USB mouse in the X session, edit
                <filename>XF86Config</filename>.  If you are using XFree86
                3.3.2 or later, be sure to have the following lines in the
                <emphasis>Pointer</emphasis> section:</para>

              <programlisting>Device          "/dev/sysmouse"
Protocol        "Auto"</programlisting>

              <para>If you are using earlier versions of XFree86, be sure to
                have the following lines in the <emphasis>Pointer</emphasis>
                section:</para>

              <programlisting>Device          "/dev/sysmouse"
Protocol        "SysMouse"</programlisting>
            </step>
          </procedure>

          <para>Refer to <link linkend="x-and-moused">another section</link>
            on the mouse support in the X environment.</para>

          <para>Hot-plugging and unplugging of the USB mouse may not work
            quite right yet. It is a good idea connect the mouse before you
            start the system and leave it connected until the system is
            shutdown to avoid trouble.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="mouse-wheel-buttons">
          <para>My mouse has a fancy wheel and buttons.  Can I use them in
            FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The answer is, unfortunately, <quote>It depends</quote>.
            These mice with additional features require specialized driver
            in most cases. Unless the mouse device driver or the user
            program has specific support for the mouse, it will act just
            like a standard two, or three button mouse.</para>

          <para>For the possible usage of wheels in the X Window
            environment, refer to <link linkend="x-and-wheel">that
            section</link>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="laptop-mouse-trackball">
          <para>How do I use the mouse/trackball/touchpad on my laptop?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Please refer to <link linkend="ps2mouse">the answer to
            the previous question</link>.  Also check out the <ulink
            url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/docs.html#PAO">Mobile
            Computing page</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="tape-support">
          <para>What types of tape drives are supported?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>

          <para>FreeBSD supports SCSI and QIC-36 (with a QIC-02 interface).
            This includes 8-mm (aka Exabyte) and DAT drives.</para>

          <para>Some of the early 8-mm drives are not quite compatible
          with SCSI-2, and may not work well with FreeBSD.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="tape-changer-support">
          <para>Does FreeBSD support tape changers?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD supports SCSI changers using the &man.ch.4;
            device and the &man.chio.1; command. The details of how you
            actually control the changer can be found in the &man.chio.1;
            manual page.</para>

          <para>If you are not using <application>AMANDA</application>
            or some other product that already understands changers,
            remember that they only know how to move a tape from one
            point to another, so you need to keep track of which slot a
            tape is in, and which slot the tape currently in the drive
            needs to go back to.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="sound-card-support">
          <para>Which sound cards are supported by FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD supports the SoundBlaster, SoundBlaster Pro,
            SoundBlaster 16, Pro Audio Spectrum 16, AdLib and Gravis
            UltraSound sound cards. There is also limited support for
            MPU-401 and compatible MIDI cards. Cards conforming to the
            Microsoft Sound System specification are also supported through
            the pcm driver.</para>

            <note>
              <para>This is only for sound!  This driver does not support
                CDROMs, SCSI or joysticks on these cards, except for the
                SoundBlaster. The SoundBlaster SCSI interface and some
                non-SCSI CDROMs are supported, but you cannot boot off this
                device.</para>
             </note>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="es1370-silent-pcm">
          <para>Workarounds for no sound from es1370 with pcm driver?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>You can run the following command every time the machine
            booted up:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mixer pcm 100 vol 100 cd 100</userinput></screen>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="network-cards">
          <para>Which network cards does FreeBSD support?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>See the Hardware Notes supplied with each release of
            FreeBSD for a more
            complete list.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="no-math-coprocessor">
          <para>I do not have a math co-processor - is that bad?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
            <note>
              <para>This will only affect 386/486SX/486SLC owners - other
                machines will have one built into the CPU.</para>
            </note>

          <para>In general this will not cause any problems, but there are
            circumstances where you will take a hit, either in performance
            or accuracy of the math emulation code (see the section <link
            linkend="emul">on FP emulation</link>). In particular, drawing
            arcs in X will be VERY slow. It is highly recommended that you
            buy a math co-processor; it is well worth it.</para>

            <note>
              <para>Some math co-processors are better than others.  It
                pains us to say it, but nobody ever got fired for buying
                Intel. Unless you are sure it works with FreeBSD, beware of
                clones.</para>
            </note>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="other-device-support">
          <para>What other devices does FreeBSD support?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>See the <ulink
            URL="../handbook/install.html#INSTALL-MISC">Handbook</ulink>
            for the list of other devices supported.</para>

        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="power-management-support">
          <para>Does FreeBSD support power management on my laptop?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD supports <acronym>APM</acronym> on certain machines.
            Please look in the <filename>LINT</filename> kernel config file,
            searching for the <acronym>APM</acronym> keyword.  Further
            information can be found in &man.apm.4;.</para>

        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="micron-hang-boot">
          <para>Why does my Micron system hang at boot time?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Certain Micron motherboards have a non-conforming PCI BIOS
            implementation that causes grief when FreeBSD boots because PCI
            devices do not get configured at their reported addresses.</para>

          <para>Disable the <quote>Plug and Play Operating System</quote>
            flag in the BIOS to work around this problem. More information
            can be found at <ulink
            URL="http://cesdis.gsfc.nasa.gov/linux/drivers/vortex.html#micron">
            http://cesdis.gsfc.nasa.gov/linux/drivers/vortex.html#micron</ulink></para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="internal-plugnplay-modem">
          <para>Why is FreeBSD not finding my internal Plug &amp; Play
            modem?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>You will need to add the modem's PnP ID to the PnP ID
            list in the serial driver. To enable Plug &amp; Play support,
            compile a new kernel with <literal>controller pnp0</literal> in
            the configuration file, then reboot the system. The kernel will
            print the PnP IDs of all the devices it finds. Copy the PnP ID
            from the modem to the table in
            <filename>/sys/i386/isa/sio.c</filename>, at about line 2777.
            Look for the string <literal>SUP1310</literal> in the structure
            <literal>siopnp_ids[]</literal> to find the table. Build the
            kernel again, install, reboot, and your modem should be
            found.</para>

          <para>You may have to manually configure the PnP devices using
            the <literal>pnp</literal> command in the boot-time
            configuration with a command like</para>

          <programlisting>pnp 1 0 enable os irq0 3 drq0 0 port0 0x2f8</programlisting>

          <para>to make the modem show.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="support-winmodem">
          <para>Does FreeBSD support software modems, such as Winmodems?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD supports many software modems via add-on
            software.  The <filename role="package">comms/ltmdm</filename> port adds
            support for modems based on the very popular Lucent LT
            chipset.  The <filename role="package">comms/mwavem</filename> port
            supports the modem in IBM Thinkpad 600 and 700
            laptops.</para>

          <para>You cannot install FreeBSD via a software modem; this
            software must be installed after the OS is
            installed.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="serial-console-prompt">
          <para>How do I get the boot: prompt to show on the serial
            console?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
            <orderedlist>
              <listitem>
                <para>Build a kernel with
                  <literal>options COMCONSOLE</literal>.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Create /boot.config and place <option>-P</option>
                  as the only text in the file.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Unplug the keyboard from the system.</para>
              </listitem>
            </orderedlist>

          <para>See
            <filename>/usr/src/sys/i386/boot/biosboot/README.serial</filename>
            for information.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="micron-3comnic-failure">
          <para>Why does my 3Com PCI network card not work with my Micron
            computer?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Certain Micron motherboards have a non-conforming PCI BIOS
            implementation that does not configure PCI devices at the
            addresses reported. This causes grief when FreeBSD
            boots.</para>

          <para>To work around this problem, disable the
            <quote>Plug and Play Operating System</quote> flag in the
            BIOS.</para>

          <para>More information on this problem is available at URL:
            <ulink URL="http://cesdis.gsfc.nasa.gov/linux/drivers/vortex.html#micron"></ulink></para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="smp-support">
          <para>Does FreeBSD support Symmetric Multiprocessing
            (SMP)?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Yes.  SMP is not enabled in the
            <emphasis>GENERIC</emphasis> kernel, so you must recompile
            your kernel to enable SMP. Take a look at
            <filename>/sys/i386/conf/LINT</filename> to learn what
            options to put in your kernel config file.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="asusk7v-boot-failure">
          <para>The boot floppy hangs on a system with an ASUS K7V
            motherboard.  How do I fix this?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Go into the BIOS setup and disable the <quote>boot virus
            protection</quote>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>
    </qandaset>
  </chapter>

  <chapter id="troubleshoot">
    <title>Troubleshooting</title>

    <qandaset>
      <qandaentry>
        <question id="awre">
          <para>What do I do when I have bad blocks on my hard drive?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>With SCSI drives, the drive should be capable of re-mapping
            these automatically.  However, many drives are shipped with
            this feature disabled, for some mysterious reason...</para>

          <para>To enable this, you will need to edit the first device page
            mode, which can be done on FreeBSD by giving the command
            (as <username>root</username>)</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>scsi -f /dev/rsd0c -m 1 -e -P 3</userinput></screen>

          <para>and changing the values of AWRE and ARRE from 0 to 1:-</para>

          <programlisting>AWRE (Auto Write Reallocation Enbld):  1
ARRE (Auto Read Reallocation Enbld):  1</programlisting>

          <para>The following paragraphs were submitted by Ted Mittelstaedt
            <email>tedm@toybox.placo.com</email>:</para>

          <para>For IDE drives, any bad block is usually a sign of
            potential trouble. All modern IDE drives come with internal
            bad-block remapping turned on. All IDE hard drive manufacturers
            today offer extensive warranties and will replace drives with
            bad blocks on them.</para>

          <para>If you still want to attempt to rescue an IDE drive with
            bad blocks, you can attempt to download the IDE drive
            manufacturer's IDE diagnostic program, and run this against the
            drive. Sometimes these programs can be set to force the drive
            electronics to rescan the drive for bad blocks and lock them
            out.</para>

          <para>For ESDI, RLL and MFM drives, bad blocks are a normal part
            of the drive and are no sign of trouble, generally. With a PC,
            the disk drive controller card and BIOS handle the task of
            locking out bad sectors. This is fine for operating systems
            like DOS that use BIOS code to access the disk. However,
            FreeBSD's disk driver does not go through BIOS, therefore a
            mechanism, bad144, exists that replaces this functionality.
            bad144 only works with the wd driver (which means it is not
            supported in FreeBSD 4.0), it is NOT able to be used with SCSI.
            bad144 works by entering all bad sectors found into a special
            file.</para>

          <para>One caveat with bad144 - the bad block special file is
            placed on the last track of the disk. As this file may possibly
            contain a listing for a bad sector that would occur near the
            beginning of the disk, where the /kernel file might be located,
            it therefore must be accessible to the bootstrap program that
            uses BIOS calls to read the kernel file. This means that the
            disk with bad144 used on it must not exceed 1024 cylinders, 16
            heads, and 63 sectors. This places an effective limit of 500MB
            on a disk that is mapped with bad144.</para>

          <para>To use bad144, simply set the <quote>Bad Block</quote>
            scanning to ON in the FreeBSD fdisk screen during the initial
            install. This works up through FreeBSD 2.2.7. The disk must
            have less than 1024 cylinders. It is generally recommended that
            the disk drive has been in operation for at least 4 hours prior
            to this to allow for thermal expansion and track
            wandering.</para>

          <para>If the disk has more than 1024 cylinders (such as a large
            ESDI drive) the ESDI controller uses a special translation mode
            to make it work under DOS. The wd driver understands about
            these translation modes, IF you enter the
            <quote>translated</quote> geometry with the <quote>set
            geometry</quote> command in fdisk. You must also NOT use the
            <quote>dangerously dedicated</quote> mode of creating the
            FreeBSD partition, as this ignores the geometry. Also, even
            though fdisk will use your overridden geometry, it still knows
            the true size of the disk, and will attempt to create a too
            large FreeBSD partition. If the disk geometry is changed to the
            translated geometry, the partition MUST be manually created
            with the number of blocks.</para>

          <para>A quick trick to use is to set up the large ESDI disk
            with the ESDI controller, boot it with a DOS disk and
            format it with a DOS partition. Then, boot the FreeBSD
            install and in the fdisk screen, read off and write down
            the blocksize and block numbers for the DOS
            partition. Then, reset the geometry to the same that DOS
            uses, delete the DOS partition, and create a
            <quote>cooperative</quote> FreeBSD partition using the
            blocksize you recorded earlier. Then, set the partition
            bootable and turn on bad block scanning. During the actual
            install, bad144 will run first, before any filesystems are
            created (you can view this with an <keycombo
            action="simul"><keycap>Alt</keycap><keycap>F2</keycap></keycombo>).
            If it has any trouble creating the badsector file, you
            have set too large a disk geometry - reboot the system and
            start all over again (including repartitioning and
            reformatting with DOS).</para>

          <para>If remapping is enabled and you are seeing bad blocks,
            consider replacing the drive. The bad blocks will only get
            worse as time goes on.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="bustek742a-eisa-scsi">
          <para>Why does FreeBSD not recognize my Bustek 742a EISA
            SCSI controller?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>This info is specific to the 742a but may also cover
            other Buslogic cards.  (Bustek = Buslogic)</para>

          <para>There are 2 general <quote>versions</quote> of the 742a
            card. They are hardware revisions A-G, and revisions H -
            onwards. The revision letter is located after the Assembly
            number on the edge of the card. The 742a has 2 ROM chips on it,
            one is the BIOS chip and the other is the Firmware chip.
            FreeBSD does not care what version of BIOS chip you have but it
            does care about what version of firmware chip. Buslogic will
            send upgrade ROMs out if you call their tech support dept. The
            BIOS and Firmware chips are shipped as a matched pair. You must
            have the most current Firmware ROM in your adapter card for
            your hardware revision.</para>

          <para>The REV A-G cards can only accept BIOS/Firmware sets up to
            2.41/2.21. The REV H- up cards can accept the most current
            BIOS/Firmware sets of 4.70/3.37. The difference between the
            firmware sets is that the 3.37 firmware supports <quote>round
            robin</quote>.</para>

          <para>The Buslogic cards also have a serial number on them.  If
            you have an old hardware revision card you can call the Buslogic
            RMA department and give them the serial number and attempt to
            exchange the card for a newer hardware revision. If the card is
            young enough they will do so.</para>

          <para>FreeBSD 2.1 only supports Firmware revisions 2.21 onward.
            If you have a Firmware revision older than this your card will
            not be recognized as a Buslogic card. It may be recognized as
            an Adaptec 1540, however. The early Buslogic firmware contains
            an AHA1540 <quote>emulation</quote> mode. This is not a good
            thing for an EISA card, however.</para>

          <para>If you have an old hardware revision card and you obtain
            the 2.21 firmware for it, you will need to check the position
            of jumper W1 to B-C, the default is A-B.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="hpnetserver-scsi-failure">
          <para>Why does FreeBSD not detect my HP Netserver's SCSI
            controller?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>This is basically a known problem.  The EISA on-board SCSI
            controller in the HP Netserver machines occupies EISA slot
            number 11, so all the <quote>true</quote> EISA slots are in
            front of it. Alas, the address space for EISA slots &gt;= 10
            collides with the address space assigned to PCI, and FreeBSD's
            auto-configuration currently cannot handle this situation very
            well.</para>

          <para>So now, the best you can do is to pretend there is no
            address range clash :), by bumping the kernel option
            <literal>EISA_SLOTS</literal> to a value of 12. Configure and
            compile a kernel, as described in the <ulink
            URL="../handbook/kernelconfig.html">Handbook entry on
            configuring the kernel</ulink>.</para>

          <para>Of course, this does present you with a chicken-and-egg
            problem when installing on such a machine. In order to work
            around this problem, a special hack is available inside
            <emphasis>UserConfig</emphasis>. Do not use the
            <quote>visual</quote> interface, but the plain command-line
            interface there. Simply type</para>

          <programlisting>eisa 12
quit</programlisting>

          <para>at the prompt, and install your system as usual.  While
            it is recommended you compile and install a custom kernel
            anyway.</para>

          <para>Hopefully, future versions will have a proper fix for
            this problem.</para>

            <note>
              <para>You cannot use a
                <literal>dangerously dedicated</literal> disk
                with an HP Netserver. See <link linkend="dedicate">this
                note</link> for more info.</para>
            </note>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="ed1-timeout">
          <para>I keep seeing messages like
            <errorname>ed1: timeout</errorname>.  What do these messages
            mean?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>This is usually caused by an interrupt conflict (e.g.,
            two boards using the same IRQ). FreeBSD prior to 2.0.5R used to
            be tolerant of this, and the network driver would still
            function in the presence of IRQ conflicts. However, with 2.0.5R
            and later, IRQ conflicts are no longer tolerated. Boot with the
            -c option and change the ed0/de0/... entry to match your
            board.</para>

          <para>If you are using the BNC connector on your network card,
            you may also see device timeouts because of bad termination. To
            check this, attach a terminator directly to the NIC (with no
            cable) and see if the error messages go away.</para>

          <para>Some NE2000 compatible cards will give this error if there
            is no link on the UTP port or if the cable is disconnected.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="bad-3c509">
          <para>Why did my 3COM 3C509 card stop working for no
            apparent reason?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>This card has a bad habit of losing its configuration
            information.  Refresh your card's settings with the DOS
            utility <command>3c5x9.exe</command>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="printer-slow">
          <para>My parallel printer is ridiculously slow. What can I do?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>If the only problem is that the printer is terribly
            slow, try changing your <ulink
            url="../handbook/printing-intro-setup.html#PRINTING-PARALLEL-PORT-MODE">printer
            port mode</ulink> as discussed in the <ulink
            url="../handbook/printing-intro-setup.html">Printer
            Setup</ulink> section of the Handbook.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="signal11">
          <para>Why do my programs occasionally die with
            <errorname>Signal 11</errorname> errors?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Signal 11 errors are caused when your process has attempted
            to access memory which the operating system has not granted it
            access to. If something like this is happening at seemingly
            random intervals then you need to start investigating things
            very carefully.</para>

          <para>These problems can usually be attributed to either:</para>

          <orderedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>If the problem is occurring only in a specific
                application that you are developing yourself it is probably
                a bug in your code.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>If it is a problem with part of the base FreeBSD system,
                it may also be buggy code, but more often than not these
                problems are found and fixed long before us general FAQ
                readers get to use these bits of code (that is what -current
                is for).</para>
            </listitem>
          </orderedlist>

          <para>In particular, a dead giveaway that this is
            <emphasis>not</emphasis> a FreeBSD bug is if you see the
            problem when you are compiling a program, but the activity
            that the compiler is carrying out changes each
            time.</para>

          <para>For example, suppose you are running <quote>make
            buildworld</quote>, and the compile fails while trying to
            compile <filename>ls.c</filename> into
            <filename>ls.o</filename>. If you then run <quote>make
            buildworld</quote> again, and the compile fails in the same
            place then this is a broken build -- try updating your sources
            and try again. If the compile fails elsewhere then this is
            almost certainly hardware.</para>

          <para>What you should do:</para>

          <para>In the first case you can use a debugger e.g. gdb to find
            the point in the program which is attempting to access a bogus
            address and then fix it.</para>

          <para>In the second case you need to verify that it is not your
            hardware at fault.</para>

          <para>Common causes of this include:</para>

          <orderedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>Your hard disks might be overheating: Check the fans in
                your case are still working, as your disk (and perhaps
                other hardware might be overheating).</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>The processor running is overheating: This might be
                because the processor has been overclocked, or the fan on
                the processor might have died. In either case you need to
                ensure that you have hardware running at what it is
                specified to run at, at least while trying to solve this
                problem. i.e. Clock it back to the default settings.</para>

              <para>If you are overclocking then note that it is far cheaper
                to have a slow system than a fried system that needs
                replacing! Also the wider community is not often
                sympathetic to problems on overclocked systems, whether you
                believe it is safe or not.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Dodgy memory: If you have multiple memory SIMMS/DIMMS
                installed then pull them all out and try running the
                machine with each SIMM or DIMM individually and narrow the
                problem down to either the problematic DIMM/SIMM or perhaps
                even a combination.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Over-optimistic Motherboard settings: In your BIOS
                settings, and some motherboard jumpers you have options to
                set various timings, mostly the defaults will be
                sufficient, but sometimes, setting the wait states on RAM
                too low, or setting the <quote>RAM Speed: Turbo</quote> option, or
                similar in the BIOS will cause strange behavior. A
                possible idea is to set to BIOS defaults, but it might be
                worth noting down your settings first!</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Unclean or insufficient power to the motherboard. If you
                have any unused I/O boards, hard disks, or CDROMs in your
                system, try temporarily removing them or disconnecting the
                power cable from them, to see if your power supply can
                manage a smaller load. Or try another power supply,
                preferably one with a little more power (for instance, if
                your current power supply is rated at 250 Watts try one
                rated at 300 Watts).</para>
            </listitem>

          </orderedlist>

          <para>You should also read the SIG11 FAQ (listed below) which has
            excellent explanations of all these problems, albeit from a
            Linux viewpoint. It also discusses how memory testing software
            or hardware can still pass faulty memory.</para>

          <para>Finally, if none of this has helped it is possible that
            you have just found a bug in FreeBSD, and you should follow the
            instructions to send a problem report.</para>

          <para>There is an extensive FAQ on this at <ulink
            URL="http://www.bitwizard.nl/sig11/">
            the SIG11 problem FAQ</ulink></para>
          </answer>
        </qandaentry>

        <qandaentry>
          <question id="trap-12-panic">
            <para>My system crashes with either <errorname>Fatal
              trap 12: page fault in kernel mode</errorname>, or
              <errorname>panic:</errorname>, and spits out a
              bunch of information.  What should I do?</para>
          </question>

          <answer>
            <para>The FreeBSD developers are very interested in these
              errors, but need some more information than just the
              error you see.  Copy your full crash message.  Then
              consult the FAQ section on <link linkend=
              "KERNEL-PANIC-TROUBLESHOOTING">kernel panics</link>,
              build a debugging kernel, and get a backtrace.  This
              might sound difficult, but you do not need any
              programming skills; you just have to follow the
              instructions.</para>
          </answer>
        </qandaentry>

        <qandaentry>
          <question id="screen-loses-sync">
            <para>Why does the screen go black and lose sync when I
              boot?</para>
          </question>

          <answer>
            <para>This is a known problem with the ATI Mach 64 video card.
              The problem is that this card uses address
              <literal>2e8</literal>, and the fourth serial port does too.
              Due to a bug (feature?) in the &man.sio.4;
              driver it will touch this port even if you do not have the
              fourth serial port, and <emphasis>even</emphasis> if
              you disable sio3 (the fourth port) which normally uses this
              address.</para>

            <para>Until the bug has been fixed, you can use this
              workaround:</para>

              <orderedlist>
                <listitem>
                  <para>Enter <option>-c</option> at the boot prompt.
                    (This will put the kernel into configuration mode).</para>
                </listitem>

                <listitem>
                  <para>Disable <devicename>sio0</devicename>,
                    <devicename>sio1</devicename>,
                    <devicename>sio2</devicename> and
                    <devicename>sio3</devicename> (all of them).  This way
                    the sio driver does not get activated -&gt; no
                    problems.</para>
                </listitem>

                <listitem>
                  <para>Type exit to continue booting.</para>
                </listitem>
              </orderedlist>

          <para>If you want to be able to use your serial ports, you will
            have to build a new kernel with the following modification: in
            <filename>/usr/src/sys/i386/isa/sio.c</filename> find the one
            occurrence of the string <literal>0x2e8</literal> and remove
            that string and the preceding comma (keep the trailing comma).
            Now follow the normal procedure of building a new
            kernel.</para>

          <para>Even after applying these workarounds, you may still find
            that the X Window System does not work properly. If this is the
            case, make sure that the XFree86 version you are using is at
            least XFree86 3.3.3 or higher. This version and upwards has
            built-in support for the Mach64 cards and even a dedicated X
            server for those cards.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="reallybigram">
          <para>Why does FreeBSD only use 64 MB of RAM when my system has
            128 MB of RAM installed?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Due to the manner in which FreeBSD gets the memory size
            from the BIOS, it can only detect 16 bits worth of Kbytes in
            size (65535 Kbytes = 64MB) (or less... some BIOSes peg the
            memory size to 16M). If you have more than 64MB, FreeBSD will
            attempt to detect it; however, the attempt may fail.</para>

          <para>To work around this problem, you need to use the kernel
            option specified below. There is a way to get complete memory
            information from the BIOS, but we do not have room in the
            bootblocks to do it. Someday when lack of room in the
            bootblocks is fixed, we will use the extended BIOS functions to
            get the full memory information...but for now we are stuck with
            the kernel option.</para>

          <para><literal>options "MAXMEM=<replaceable>n</replaceable>"</literal></para>

          <para>Where <replaceable>n</replaceable> is your memory in
            Kilobytes. For a 128 MB machine, you would want to use
            <literal>131072</literal>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="panic-kmemmap-too-small">
          <para>Why does FreeBSD 2.0 panic with
            <errorname>kmem_map too small!</errorname>?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
            <note>
              <para>The message may also be
                <literal>mb_map too small!</literal></para>
            </note>

          <para>The panic indicates that the system ran out of virtual
            memory for network buffers (specifically, mbuf clusters). You
            can increase the amount of VM available for mbuf clusters by
            adding:</para>

          <para><literal>options "NMBCLUSTERS=<replaceable>n</replaceable>"</literal></para>

          <para>to your kernel config file, where
            <replaceable>n</replaceable> is a number in the range
            512-4096, depending on the number of concurrent TCP
            connections you need to support. I would recommend trying
            2048 - this should get rid of the panic completely. You
            can monitor the number of mbuf clusters allocated/in use
            on the system with <command>netstat -m</command> (see
            &man.netstat.1;). The default value for NMBCLUSTERS is
            <literal>512 + MAXUSERS * 16</literal>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="proc-table-full">
          <para>Why do I get the error <errorname>/kernel: proc: table
            is full</errorname>?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The FreeBSD kernel will only allow a certain number of
            processes to exist at one time.  The number is based on
            the <literal>MAXUSERS</literal> option in the kernel
            configuration.  <literal>MAXUSERS</literal> also affects
            various other in-kernel limits, such as network buffers
            (see <link linkend="panic-kmemmap-too-small">this</link>
            earlier question).  If your machine is heavily loaded, you
            probably want to increase <literal>MAXUSERS</literal>.
            This will increase these other system limits in addition
            to the maximum number of processes.</para>

          <para>After FreeBSD 4.4, <literal>MAXUSERS</literal> became
            a tunable value that could be set with
            <varname>kern.maxusers</varname> in
            <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>.  In earlier
            versions of FreeBSD, you need to adjust
            <literal>MAXUSERS</literal> in your kernel
            configuration.</para>

          <para>If your machine is lightly loaded, and you are simply
            running a very large number of processes, you can adjust
            this with the <varname>kern.maxproc</varname> sysctl.  If
            these processes are being run by a single user, you will
            also need to adjust <varname>kern.maxprocperuid</varname>
            to be one less than your new
            <varname>kern.maxproc</varname> value.  (It must be at
            least one less because one system program, &man.init.8;,
            must always be running.)</para>

          <para>To make a sysctl permanent across reboots, set this in
            <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename> in recent versions
            of FreeBSD, or <filename>/etc/rc.local</filename> in older
            versions.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="cmap-busy-panic">
          <para>Why do I get an error reading <errorname>CMAP
              busy</errorname> when rebooting with a new
            kernel?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The logic that attempts to detect an out of date
            <filename>/var/db/kvm_*.db</filename> files sometimes fails
            and using a mismatched file can sometimes lead to panics.</para>

          <para>If this happens, reboot single-user and do:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>rm /var/db/kvm_*.db</userinput></screen>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="brkadrint-illegal-host-access">
          <para>What does the message <errorname>ahc0: brkadrint,
              Illegal Host Access at seqaddr 0x0</errorname>
            mean?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>This is a conflict with an Ultrastor SCSI Host Adapter.</para>

          <para>During the boot process enter the kernel configuration
            menu and disable
            <devicename>uha0</devicename>,
            which is causing the problem.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="aci0-illegal-cable">
          <para>When I boot my system, I get the error
            <errorname>ahc0: illegal cable configuration</errorname>.
            My cabling is correct.  What is going on?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
           <para>Your motherboard lacks the external logic to support
             automatic termination.  Switch your SCSI BIOS to specify
             the correct termination for your configuration rather
             than automatic termination.  The AIC7XXX driver cannot
             determine if the external logic for cable detection (and
             thus auto-termination) is available.  The driver simply
             assumes that this support must exist if the configuration
             contained in the serial EEPROM is set to "automatic
             termination".  Without the external cable detection logic
             the driver will often configure termination incorrectly,
             which can compromise the reliability of the SCSI
             bus.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="mail-loopback">
          <para>Why does Sendmail give me an error reading
            <quote><errorname>mail loops back to
              myself</errorname></quote>?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>This is answered in the sendmail FAQ as follows:-</para>

<literallayout>        * I'm getting "Local configuration error" messages, such as:

        553 relay.domain.net config error: mail loops back to myself
        554 &lt;user@domain.net&gt;... Local configuration error

        How can I solve this problem?

        You have asked mail to the domain (e.g., domain.net) to be
        forwarded to a specific host (in this case, relay.domain.net)
        by using an MX record, but the relay machine does not recognize
        itself as domain.net.  Add domain.net to /etc/mail/local-host-names
        (if you are using FEATURE(use_cw_file)) or add "Cw domain.net"
        to /etc/mail/sendmail.cf.
            </literallayout>

          <para>The current version of the <ulink
            URL="ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/mail/sendmail-faq">sendmail
            FAQ</ulink> is no longer maintained with the sendmail release.
            It is however regularly posted to <ulink
            URL="news:comp.mail.sendmail">comp.mail.sendmail</ulink>,
            <ulink URL="news:comp.mail.misc">comp.mail.misc</ulink>, <ulink
            URL="news:comp.mail.smail">comp.mail.smail</ulink>, <ulink
            URL="news:comp.answers">comp.answers</ulink>, and <ulink
            URL="news:news.answers">news.answers</ulink>. You can also
            receive a copy via email by sending a message to
            <email>mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu</email> with the command
            <literal>send usenet/news.answers/mail/sendmail-faq</literal>
            as the body of the message.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="remote-fullscreen">
          <para>Why do full screen applications on remote machines
            misbehave?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The remote machine may be setting your terminal type
            to something other than the <literal>cons25</literal> terminal
            type required by the FreeBSD console.</para>

          <para>There are a number of possible work-arounds for this
            problem:</para>
            <itemizedlist>
              <listitem>
                <para>After logging on to the remote machine, set your
                  TERM shell variable to <literal>ansi</literal> or
                  <literal>sco</literal> if the remote machine knows
                  about these terminal types.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Use a VT100 emulator like
                  <application>screen</application> at the FreeBSD console.
                  <application>screen</application> offers you the ability
                  to run multiple concurrent sessions from one terminal,
                  and is a neat program in its own right. Each
                  <application>screen</application> window behaves like a
                  VT100 terminal, so the TERM variable at the remote end
                  should be set to <literal>vt100</literal>.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Install the <literal>cons25</literal> terminal
                  database entry on the remote machine. The way to do this
                  depends on the operating system on the remote machine.
                  The system administration manuals for the remote system
                  should be able to help you here.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Fire up an X server at the FreeBSD end and login to
                  the remote machine using an X based terminal emulator
                  such as <command>xterm</command> or
                  <command>rxvt</command>. The TERM variable at the remote
                  host should be set to <literal>xterm</literal> or
                  <literal>vt100</literal>.</para>
              </listitem>
            </itemizedlist>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="calcru-negative">
          <para>Why does my machine print
            <errorname>calcru: negative time...</errorname>?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>This can be caused by various hardware or software
            ailments relating to interrupts. It may be due to bugs but can
            also happen by nature of certain devices. Running TCP/IP over
            the parallel port using a large MTU is one good way to provoke
            this problem. Graphics accelerators can also get you here, in
            which case you should check the interrupt setting of the card
            first.</para>

          <para>A side effect of this problem are dying processes with the
            message <quote>SIGXCPU exceeded cpu time limit</quote>.</para>

          <para>For FreeBSD 3.0 and later from Nov 29, 1998 forward: If the
            problem cannot be fixed otherwise the solution is to set
            this sysctl variable:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl -w kern.timecounter.method=1</userinput></screen>

	  <note>
	    <para>The <option>-w</option> option of &man.sysctl.8; is
	      deprecated and silently ignored in &os; 4.4-RELEASE and all
	      newer versions.  You can safely ommit it when setting options
	      with <command>sysctl</command> as shown above.</para>
	  </note>

          <para>This means a performance impact, but considering the cause
            of this problem, you probably will not notice. If the problem
            persists, keep the sysctl set to one and set the
            <literal>NTIMECOUNTER</literal> option in your kernel to
            increasingly large values. If by the time you have reached
            <literal>NTIMECOUNTER=20</literal> the problem is not solved,
            interrupts are too hosed on your machine for reliable
            time keeping.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="pcm0-not-found">
          <para>I see <errorname>pcm0 not found</errorname> or my
            sound card is found as <devicename>pcm1</devicename> but I
            have <literal>device pcm0</literal> in my kernel config
            file.  What is going on?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>This occurs in FreeBSD 3.X with PCI sound cards. The
            <devicename>pcm0</devicename> device is reserved
            exclusively for ISA-based cards so, if you have a PCI
            card, then you will see this error, and your card will
            appear as <devicename>pcm1</devicename>.

            <note>
              <para>You cannot remove the warning by simply changing
                the line in the kernel config file to <literal>device
                pcm1</literal> as this will result in
                <devicename>pcm1</devicename> being reserved for ISA
                cards and your PCI card being found as
                <devicename>pcm2</devicename> (along with the warning
                <errorname>pcm1 not found</errorname>).</para>
            </note>

            If you have a PCI sound card you will also have to make the
            <devicename>snd1</devicename> device rather than
            <devicename>snd0</devicename>:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>./MAKEDEV snd1</userinput></screen>

          <note>
	    <para>You can omit this step if you are running FreeBSD
	      5.0-RELEASE or newer with &man.devfs.5; enabled,
	      since the proper device nodes will be created automatically
	      under <filename>/dev</filename>.</para>
	  </note>

          <para>This situation does not arise in FreeBSD 4.X as a lot
            of work has been done to make it more
            <emphasis>PnP-centric</emphasis> and the
            <devicename>pcm0</devicename> device is no longer reserved
            exclusively for ISA cards</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="pnp-not-found">
          <para>Why is my PnP card no longer found (or found as
            <literal>unknown</literal>) since upgrading to FreeBSD 4.X?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD 4.X is now much more <emphasis>PnP-centric</emphasis>
            and this has had the side effect of some PnP devices (e.g. sound
            cards and internal modems) not working even though they worked
            under FreeBSD 3.X.</para>

          <para>The reasons for this behavior are explained by the following
            e-mail, posted to the freebsd-questions mailing list by Peter
            Wemm, in answer to a question about an internal modem that was
            no longer found after an upgrade to FreeBSD 4.X (the comments
            in <literal>[]</literal> have been added to clarify the
            context.</para>

          <note>
            <para>The contents of this quotation has been updated from
             its original text.</para>
          </note>

          <blockquote>
            <para>The PNP bios preconfigured it [the modem] and left it
              laying around in port space, so [in 3.X] the old-style ISA
              probes <quote>found</quote> it there.</para>

            <para>Under 4.0, the ISA code is much more PnP-centric. It was
              possible [in 3.X] for an ISA probe to find a
              <quote>stray</quote> device and then for the PNP device id to
              match and then fail due to resource conflicts. So, it
              disables the programmable cards first so this double probing
              cannot happen. It also means that it needs to know the PnP
              id's for supported PnP hardware. Making this more user
              tweakable is on the TODO list.</para>
          </blockquote>

          <para>To get the device working again requires finding its PnP id
            and adding it to the list that the ISA probes use to identify
            PnP devices. This is obtained using &man.pnpinfo.8; to probe the
            device, for example this is the output from &man.pnpinfo.8; for
            an internal modem:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pnpinfo</userinput>
Checking for Plug-n-Play devices...

Card assigned CSN #1
Vendor ID PMC2430 (0x3024a341), Serial Number 0xffffffff
PnP Version 1.0, Vendor Version 0
Device Description: Pace 56 Voice Internal Plug & Play Modem

Logical Device ID: PMC2430 0x3024a341 #0
        Device supports I/O Range Check
TAG Start DF
    I/O Range 0x3f8 .. 0x3f8, alignment 0x8, len 0x8
        [16-bit addr]
    IRQ: 4  - only one type (true/edge)</screen>

          <para>[more TAG lines elided]</para>

          <screen>TAG End DF
End Tag

Successfully got 31 resources, 1 logical fdevs
-- card select # 0x0001

CSN PMC2430 (0x3024a341), Serial Number 0xffffffff

Logical device #0
IO:  0x03e8 0x03e8 0x03e8 0x03e8 0x03e8 0x03e8 0x03e8 0x03e8
IRQ 5 0
DMA 4 0
IO range check 0x00 activate 0x01</screen>

          <para>The information you require is in the
            <quote>Vendor ID</quote> line at the start of the output. The
            hexadecimal number in parentheses (0x3024a341 in this example)
            is the PnP id and the string immediately before this (PMC2430)
            is a unique ASCII id.</para>

          <para>Alternatively, if &man.pnpinfo.8; does not list the card in
            question, &man.pciconf.8; can be used instead.  This is part of
            the output from <command>pciconf -vl</command> for an onboard
            sound chip:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pciconf -vl</userinput>
chip1@pci0:31:5:        class=0x040100 card=0x00931028 chip=0x24158086 rev=0x02 hdr=0x00
    vendor   = 'Intel Corporation'
    device   = '82801AA 8xx Chipset AC'97 Audio Controller'
    class    = multimedia
    subclass = audio</screen>

          <para>Here, you would use the <varname>chip</varname> value,
            <quote>0x24158086</quote>.</para>

          <para>This information (Vendor ID or chip value) needs adding 
            to the file
            <filename>/usr/src/sys/isa/sio.c</filename>.</para>

          <para>You should first make a backup of <filename>sio.c</filename>
            just in case things go wrong. You will also need it to make the
            patch to submit with your PR (you are going to submit a PR,
            are you not?) then edit <filename>sio.c</filename> and search
            for the line</para>

          <programlisting>static struct isa_pnp_id sio_ids[] = {</programlisting>

          <para>then scroll down to find the correct place to add the entry
            for your device. The entries look like this, and are sorted on
            the ASCII Vendor ID string which should be included in the
            comment to the right of the line of code along with all (if it
            will fit) or part of the <emphasis>Device Description</emphasis>
            from the output of &man.pnpinfo.8;:</para>

          <programlisting>{0x0f804f3f, NULL},     /* OZO800f - Zoom 2812 (56k Modem) */
{0x39804f3f, NULL},     /* OZO8039 - Zoom 56k flex */
{0x3024a341, NULL},     /* PMC2430 - Pace 56 Voice Internal Modem */
{0x1000eb49, NULL},     /* ROK0010 - Rockwell ? */
{0x5002734a, NULL},     /* RSS0250 - 5614Jx3(G) Internal Modem */</programlisting>

          <para>Add the hexadecimal Vendor ID for your device in the
            correct place, save the file, rebuild your kernel, and reboot.
            Your device should now be found as an <literal>sio</literal>
            device as it was under FreeBSD 3.X</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="nlist-failed">
          <para>Why do I get the error <errorname>nlist failed</errorname> when
            running, for example, <command>top</command> or
            <command>systat</command>?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The problem is that the application you are trying to run is
            looking for a specific kernel symbol, but, for whatever reason,
            cannot find it; this error stems from one of two problems:</para>

          <itemizedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>Your kernel and userland are not synchronized (i.e., you
                built a new kernel but did not do an
                <maketarget>installworld</maketarget>, or vice versa), and
                thus the symbol table is different from what the user
                application thinks it is.  If this is the case, simply
                complete the upgrade process (see
                <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename> for the correct
                sequence).</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>You are not using <command>/boot/loader</command> to load
                your kernel, but doing it directly from boot2 (see
                &man.boot.8;).  While there is nothing wrong with bypassing
                <command>/boot/loader</command>, it generally does a better
                job of making the kernel symbols available to user
                applications.</para>
            </listitem>
          </itemizedlist>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="connection-delay">
          <para>Why does it take so long to connect to my computer via
            <command>ssh</command> or <command>telnet</command>?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The symptom: there is a long delay between the time the TCP
            connection is established and the time when the client software
            asks for a password (or, in &man.telnet.1;'s case, when a login
            prompt appears).</para>

          <para>The problem: more likely than not, the delay is caused by
            the server software trying to resolve the client's IP address
            into a hostname.  Many servers, including the Telnet and SSH
            servers that come with FreeBSD, do this in order to, among
            other things, store the hostname in a log file for future
            reference by the administrator.</para>

          <para>The remedy: if the problem occurs whenever you connect from
            your computer (the client) to any server, the problem is with
            the client; likewise, if the problem only occurs when someone
            connects to your computer (the server) the problem is with the
            server.</para>

          <para>If the problem is with the client, the only remedy is to
            fix the DNS so the server can resolve it.  If this is on a
            local network, consider it a server problem and keep reading;
            conversely, if this is on the global Internet, you will most
            likely need to contact your ISP and ask them to fix it for
            you.</para>

          <para>If the problem is with the server, and this is on a local
            network, you need to configure the server to be able to resolve
            address-to-hostname queries for your local address range.  See
            the &man.hosts.5; and &man.named.8; manual pages for more
            information.  If this is on the global Internet, the problem
            may be that your server's resolver is not functioning
            correctly.  To check, try to look up another host--say,
            <hostid>www.yahoo.com</hostid>.  If it does not work, that is
            your problem.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="stray-irq">
          <para>What does <errorname>stray IRQ</errorname> mean?</para>
        </question>
	<answer>
	  <para>Stray IRQs are indications of hardware IRQ glitches,
            mostly from hardware that removes its interrupt request in
            the middle of the interrupt request acknowledge
            cycle.</para>
	  <para>One has three options for dealing with this:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>Live with the warnings.  All except the first 5
                per irq are suppressed anyway.</para>
	    </listitem>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>Break the warnings by changing 5 to 0 in
	        <function>isa_strayintr()</function> so that all the
	        warnings are suppressed.</para>
	    </listitem>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>Break the warnings by installing parallel port
              hardware that uses irq 7 and the PPP driver for it (this
              happens on most systems), and install an ide drive or
              other hardware that uses irq 15 and a suitable driver
              for it.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="file-table-full">
          <para>Why does <errorname>file: table is full</errorname> show up
            repeatedly in dmesg?</para>
        </question>
        <answer>
          <para>
            This error message indicates you have exhausted the number
            of available file descriptors on your system.  Please see
            the <ulink
            url="../handbook/configtuning-kernel-limits.html#KERN-MAXFILES">kern.maxfiles
            </ulink>section of the <ulink
            url="../handbook/configtuning-kernel-limits.html">Tuning
            Kernel Limits</ulink> section of the Handbook for a
            discussion and solution.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
	<question id="laptop-clock-skew">
	  <para>Why does the clock on my laptop keep incorrect time?</para>
	</question>

	<answer>
	  <para>Your laptop has two or more clocks, and FreeBSD has chosen to
	    use the wrong one.</para>

	  <para>Run &man.dmesg.8;, and check for lines that contain
	    <literal>Timecounter</literal>.  The last line printed is the one
	    that FreeBSD chose, and will almost certainly be
	    <literal>TSC</literal>.</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dmesg | grep Timecounter</userinput>
Timecounter "i8254"  frequency 1193182 Hz
Timecounter "TSC"  frequency 595573479 Hz</screen>

	  <para>You can confirm this by checking the
	    <varname>kern.timecounter.hardware</varname>
	      &man.sysctl.3;.</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl kern.timecounter.hardware</userinput>
kern.timecounter.hardware: TSC</screen>
	
	  <para>The BIOS may modify the TSC clock&mdash;perhaps to change the
	    speed of the processor when running from batteries, or going into
	    a power saving mode, but FreeBSD is unaware of these adjustments,
	    and appears to gain or lose time.</para>

	  <para>In this example, the <literal>i8254</literal> clock is also
	    available, and can be selected by writing its name to the
	    <varname>kern.timecounter.hardware</varname>
	      &man.sysctl.3;.</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl -w kern.timecounter.hardware=i8254</userinput>
kern.timecounter.hardware: TSC -&gt; i8254</screen>

	  <para>Your laptop should now start keeping more accurate
	    time.</para>

	  <para>To have this change automatically run at boot time, add the
	    following line to <filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>.</para>

	  <programlisting>kern.timecounter.hardware=i8254</programlisting>
	</answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
	<question id="null-null">
	  <para>Why did my laptop fail to correctly probe PC cards?</para>
	</question>

	<answer>
	  <para>This problem is common on laptops that boot more than
	    one operating system.  Some non-BSD operating systems
	    leave PC card hardware in an inconsistent state.
	    <command>pccardd</command> will detect the card as
	    <errorname>"(null)""(null)"</errorname> instead of its
	    actual model.</para>

	  <para>You must remove all power from the PC card slot to
	    fully reset the hardware.  Completely power off the
	    laptop.  (Don't suspend it, don't let it go into standby;
	    the power needs to be completely off.)  Wait a few
	    moments, and reboot.  Your PC card should work now.</para>

	  <para>Some laptop hardware lies when it claims to be off.
	    If the above does not work shut down, remove the battery,
	    wait a moment, replace the battery, and reboot.</para>
	</answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="boot-read-error">
          <para>Why does FreeBSD's boot loader display
            <errorname>Read error</errorname> and stop after the BIOS
            screen?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD's boot loader is incorrectly recognizing the hard 
            drive's geometry. This must be manually set within fdisk when 
            creating or modifying FreeBSD's slice.
          </para>

          <para>The correct drive geometry values can be found within the
            machine's BIOS. Look for the number of cylinders, heads and
            sectors for the particular drive.
          </para>

          <para>Within &man.sysinstall.8;'s fdisk, hit
            <keycap>G</keycap> to set the drive geometry.</para>

          <para>A dialog will pop up requesting the number of
            cylinders, heads and sectors.  Type the numbers found from
            the BIOS separates by forward slashes.
          </para>

          <para>5000 cylinders, 250 sectors and 60 sectors would be entered as
            <userinput>5000/250/60</userinput>
          </para>

          <para>Press enter to set the values, and hit
          <keycap>W</keycap> to write the new partition table to the
          drive.
          </para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="bootmanager-restore">
          <para>Another operating system destroyed my Boot Manager.  How do I 
            get it back?
          </para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Enter &man.sysinstall.8; and choose Configure,
            then Fdisk.  Select the disk the Boot Manager resided on
            with the <keycap>space</keycap> key.  Press 
            <keycap>W</keycap> to write changes to the drive.  A prompt
            will appear asking which boot loader to install.  Select this,
            and it will be restored.
          </para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="indefinite-wait-buffer">
          <para>What does the error <errorname>swap_pager: indefinite
            wait buffer:</errorname> mean?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>This means that a process is trying to page memory to
            disk, and the page attempt has hung trying to access the
            disk for more than 20 seconds.  It might be caused by bad
            blocks on the disk drive, disk wiring, cables, or any
            other disk I/O-related hardware.  If the drive itself is
            actually bad, you will also see disk errors in
            <filename>/var/log/messages</filename> and in the output
            of <command>dmesg</command>.  Otherwise, check your cables
            and connections.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="udma-icrc">
          <para>What are <quote>UDMA ICRC</quote> errors, and how do I
            fix them?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The &man.ata.4; driver reports <quote>UDMA ICRC</quote>
            errors when a DMA transfer to or from a drive is corrupted.
            The driver will retry the operation a few times.  Should
            the retries fail, it will switch from DMA to the slower PIO
            mode of communication with the device.</para>

          <para>The problem can be caused by many factors, although
            perhaps the most common cause is faulty or incorrect
            cabling.  Check that the ATA cables are undamaged and rated
            for the Ultra DMA mode in use.  If you're using removable
            drive trays, they must also be compatible.  Be sure that
            all connections are making good contact.  Problems have
            also been noticed when an old drive is installed on the
            same ATA channel as an Ultra DMA 66 (or faster) drive.
            Lastly, these errors can indicate that the drive is
            failing.  Most drive vendors provide testing software for
            their drives, so test your drive, and, if necessary, back
            up your data and replace it.</para>

          <para>The &man.atacontrol.8; utility can be used to show and
            select the DMA or PIO modes used for each ATA device.  In
            particular, <command>atacontrol mode
            <replaceable>channel</replaceable></command> will show the
            modes in use on a particular ATA channel, where the primary
            channel is numbered 0, and so on.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>
    </qandaset>
  </chapter>

  <chapter id="commercial">
    <title>Commercial Applications</title>

      <note>
        <para>This section is still very sparse, though we are hoping, of
          course, that companies will add to it! :) The FreeBSD group has
          no financial interest in any of the companies listed here but
          simply lists them as a public service (and feels that commercial
          interest in FreeBSD can have very positive effects on FreeBSD's
          long-term viability). We encourage commercial software vendors to
          send their entries here for inclusion. See <ulink
          URL="&url.main;/commercial/index.html">the
          Vendors page</ulink> for a longer list.</para>
      </note>

    <qandaset>
      <qandaentry>
        <question id="officesuite">
          <para>Where can I get an Office Suite for FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
	  <itemizedlist>
  	    <listitem>
	      <para><ulink url="http://www.freebsdmall.com/">The
                FreeBSD Mall</ulink> offers a FreeBSD native version
                of <ulink
                url="http://www.vistasource.com/">VistaSource</ulink>
                ApplixWare 5.</para>
	
	      <para>ApplixWare is a rich full-featured, commercial
	        Office Suite for FreeBSD containing a word processor,
	        spreadsheet, presentation program, vector drawing
	        package, and other applications.
		</para>

	      <para>ApplixWare is offered as part of the FreeBSD Mall's BSD
		Desktop Edition.</para>

  	    </listitem>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>The Linux version of <ulink
	        url="http://www.sun.com/staroffice/">StarOffice</ulink>
	        works flawlessly on FreeBSD.  The easiest way to
	        install the Linux version of StarOffice is through the
	        <ulink url="../handbook/ports.html">FreeBSD Ports
	        collection</ulink>.  Future versions of the
	        open-source <ulink
	        url="http://www.openoffice.org/">OpenOffice</ulink>
	        suite should work as well.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>
      <qandaentry>
        <question id="motif">
          <para>Where can I get Motif for FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
	  <para>The Open Group has released the source code to Motif 2.1.30.
	    You can install the <literal>open-motif</literal> package, or
	    compile it from ports.  Refer to
	    <ulink url="../handbook/ports.html">the ports section of the
	      Handbook</ulink> for more information on how to do this.

	    <note>
	      <para>The Open Motif distribution only allows redistribution
		if it is running on an <ulink url="http://www.opensource.org/">
		  open source</ulink> operating system.</para>
	    </note>
	  </para>

          <para>In addition, there are commercial distributions of the Motif
            software available.  These, however, are not for free, but their
            license allows them to be used in closed-source software.
	    Contact <link linkend="apps2go">Apps2go</link> for the
            least expensive ELF Motif 2.1.20 distribution for FreeBSD
            (either i386 or Alpha).<anchor id="apps2go"></para>

          <para>There are two distributions, the <quote>development
            edition</quote> and the <quote>runtime edition</quote> (for
            much less).  These distributions includes:</para>

            <itemizedlist>
              <listitem>
                <para>OSF/Motif manager, xmbind, panner, wsm.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Development kit with uil, mrm, xm, xmcxx, include
                  and Imake files.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Static and dynamic ELF libraries (for use with
                  FreeBSD 3.0 and above).</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Demonstration applets.</para>
              </listitem>
            </itemizedlist>

          <para>Be sure to specify that you want the FreeBSD version of
            Motif when ordering (do not forget to mention the architecture
            you want too)! Versions for NetBSD and OpenBSD are also sold by
            <emphasis>Apps2go</emphasis>. This is currently a FTP only
            download.</para>

            <variablelist>
              <varlistentry>
                <term>More info</term>
                <listitem>
                  <para><ulink URL="http://www.apps2go.com/">
                    Apps2go WWW page</ulink></para>
                </listitem>
              </varlistentry>

              <varlistentry>
                <term>or</term>
                  <listitem>
                    <para>
                      <email>sales@apps2go.com</email> or
                      <email>support@apps2go.com</email>
                      </para>
                  </listitem>
                </varlistentry>

                <varlistentry>
                  <term>or</term>
                  <listitem>
                    <para>phone (817) 431 8775  or +1 817 431-8775</para>
                  </listitem>
                </varlistentry>
              </variablelist>

          <para>Contact <link linkend="metrox">Metro Link</link>
            for an either ELF or a.out Motif 2.1 distribution for
            FreeBSD.</para>

          <para>This distribution includes:</para>
            <itemizedlist>
              <listitem>
                <para>OSF/Motif manager, xmbind, panner, wsm.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Development kit with uil, mrm, xm, xmcxx, include
                  and Imake files.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Static and dynamic libraries (specify ELF for use
                  with FreeBSD 3.0 and later; or a.out for use with FreeBSD
                  2.2.8 and earlier).</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Demonstration applets.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
              <para>Preformatted manual pages.</para>
              </listitem>

              </itemizedlist>

          <para>Be sure to specify that you want the FreeBSD version
            of Motif when ordering! Versions for Linux are also sold by
            <emphasis>Metro Link</emphasis>. This is available on either a
            CDROM or for FTP download.</para>

          <para>Contact <link linkend="xig">Xi Graphics</link> for an
            a.out Motif 2.0 distribution for FreeBSD.</para>

          <para>This distribution includes:</para>
            <itemizedlist>
              <listitem>
                <para>OSF/Motif manager, xmbind, panner, wsm.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Development kit with uil, mrm, xm, xmcxx, include
                  and Imake files.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Static and dynamic libraries (for use with FreeBSD
                  2.2.8 and earlier).</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Demonstration applets.</para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para>Preformatted manual pages.</para>
              </listitem>
            </itemizedlist>

          <para>Be sure to specify that you want the FreeBSD version
            of Motif when ordering! Versions for BSDI and Linux are also
            sold by <emphasis>Xi Graphics</emphasis>. This is currently a 4
            diskette set... in the future this will change to a unified CD
            distribution like their CDE.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="cde">
          <para>Where can I get CDE for FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para><link linkend="xig">Xi Graphics</link> used to sell CDE
            for FreeBSD, but no longer do.</para>

          <para><ulink URL="http://www.kde.org/">KDE</ulink> is an open
            source X11 desktop which is similar to CDE in many respects.
            You might also like the look and feel of <ulink
            URL="http://www.xfce.org/">xfce</ulink>. KDE and xfce are both
            in the <ulink URL="&url.main;/ports/index.html">ports
            system</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="commercial-xserver">
          <para>Are there any commercial high-performance X servers?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Yes, <ulink URL="http://www.xig.com/">Xi Graphics</ulink>
            and <ulink URL="http://www.metrolink.com/">Metro Link</ulink>
            sell Accelerated-X product for FreeBSD and other Intel based
            systems.</para>

          <para>The Metro Link offering is a high performance X Server
            that offers easy configuration using the FreeBSD Package suite
            of tools, support for multiple concurrent video boards and is
            distributed in binary form only, in a convenient FTP download.
            Not to mention the Metro Link offering is available at the very
            reasonable price of $39. <anchor id="metrox"></para>

          <para>Metro Link also sells both ELF and a.out Motif for
            FreeBSD (see above).</para>

            <variablelist>
              <varlistentry>
                <term>More info</term>
                <listitem>
                  <para><ulink URL="http://www.metrolink.com/">
                    Metro Link WWW page</ulink></para>
                </listitem>
              </varlistentry>

              <varlistentry>
                <term>or</term>
                <listitem>
                  <para><email>sales@metrolink.com</email>
                    or <email>tech@metrolink.com</email>
                    </para>
                </listitem>
              </varlistentry>

              <varlistentry>
                <term>or</term>
                  <listitem>
                    <para>phone (954) 938-0283  or +1 954 938-0283</para>
                  </listitem>
                </varlistentry>
              </variablelist>

          <para>The Xi Graphics offering is a high performance X Server
            that offers easy configuration, support for multiple concurrent
            video boards and is distributed in binary form only, in a
            unified diskette distribution for FreeBSD and Linux. Xi
            Graphics also offers a high performance X Server tailored for
            laptop support.<anchor id="xig"></para>

          <para>There is a free <quote>compatibility demo</quote> of
            version 5.0 available.</para>

          <para>Xi Graphics also sells Motif and CDE for FreeBSD (see
            above).</para>

            <variablelist>
              <varlistentry>
                <term>More info</term>
                <listitem>
                  <para><ulink URL="http://www.xig.com/">
                    Xi Graphics WWW page</ulink></para>
                </listitem>
              </varlistentry>

              <varlistentry>
                <term>or</term>
                  <listitem>
                    <para><email>sales@xig.com</email>
                      or <email>support@xig.com</email>
                      </para>
                  </listitem>
                </varlistentry>

                <varlistentry>
                  <term>or</term>
                  <listitem>
                    <para>phone (800) 946 7433  or +1 303 298-7478.</para>
                  </listitem>
                </varlistentry>
              </variablelist>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="database-systems">
          <para>Are there any Database systems for FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Yes! See the <ulink
            URL="&url.main;/commercial/software_bycat.html#CATEGORY_DATABASE">
            Commercial Vendors</ulink> section of FreeBSD's Web site.</para>

          <para>Also see the <ulink
            URL="&url.main;/ports/databases.html">
            Databases</ulink> section of the Ports collection.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="oracle-support">
          <para>Can I run Oracle on FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Yes. The following pages tell you exactly how to set up
            Linux-Oracle on FreeBSD:</para>

            <itemizedlist>
              <listitem>
                <para><ulink
                  URL="http://www.scc.nl/~marcel/howto-oracle.html">
                  http://www.scc.nl/~marcel/howto-oracle.html</ulink></para>
              </listitem>

              <listitem>
                <para><ulink
                  URL="http://www.lf.net/lf/pi/oracle/install-linux-oracle-on-freebsd">

                  http://www.lf.net/lf/pi/oracle/install-linux-oracle-on-freebsd</ulink></para>

              </listitem>
            </itemizedlist>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>
    </qandaset>
  </chapter>

  <chapter id="applications">
    <title>User Applications</title>

    <qandaset>
      <qandaentry>
        <question id="user-apps">
          <para>So, where are all the user applications?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Please take a look at <ulink
            URL="&url.main;/ports/index.html">the ports page</ulink>
            for info on software packages ported to FreeBSD.  The list
            currently tops &os.numports; and is growing daily, so come
            back to check often or subscribe to the
            <literal>freebsd-announce</literal> <link
            linkend="mailing">mailing list</link> for periodic updates
            on new entries.</para>

          <para>Most ports should work on the 4.X and 5.X branches.
            Each time a FreeBSD release is made, a snapshot of the
            ports tree at the time of release in also included in the
            <filename>ports/</filename> directory.</para>

          <para>We also support the concept of a
            <quote>package</quote>, essentially no more than a gzipped
            binary distribution with a little extra intelligence
            embedded in it for doing whatever custom installation work
            is required. A package can be installed and uninstalled
            again easily without having to know the gory details of
            which files it includes.</para>

          <para>Use the package installation menu in
            <filename>/stand/sysinstall</filename> (under the
            post-configuration menu item) or invoke the
            &man.pkg.add.1; command on the specific package files you
            are interested in installing. Package files can usually be
            identified by their <filename>.tgz</filename> suffix and
            CDROM distribution people will have a
            <filename>packages/All</filename> directory on their CD
            which contains such files. They can also be downloaded
            over the net for various versions of FreeBSD at the
            following locations:</para>

            <variablelist>
              <varlistentry>
                <term>for 4.X-RELEASE/4-STABLE</term>
                <listitem>
                  <para><ulink
                    URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-4-stable/">
                    ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-4-stable/</ulink></para>

                </listitem>
              </varlistentry>

              <varlistentry>
                <term>for 5.X-CURRENT</term>
                <listitem>
                  <para><ulink
                    URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-5-current/">
                    ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/ports/i386/packages-5-current</ulink></para>
                </listitem>
              </varlistentry>
            </variablelist>

          <para>or your nearest local mirror site.</para>

          <para>Note that all ports may not be available as packages since
            new ones are constantly being added. It is always a good idea
            to check back periodically to see which packages are available
            at the <ulink
            URL="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp.FreeBSD.org</ulink>
            master site.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="emul">
           <para>Why does ghostscript give lots of errors with my
              386/486SX?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>You do not have a math co-processor, right?
            You will need to add the alternative math emulator to your
            kernel; you do this by adding the following to your kernel
            config file and it will be compiled in.</para>

          <programlisting>options GPL_MATH_EMULATE</programlisting>

            <note>
              <para>You will need to remove the
                <literal>MATH_EMULATE</literal> option when you do
                this.</para>
            </note>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="configure-inn">
          <para>How do I configure INN (Internet News) for my machine?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>After installing the <filename
            role="package">news/inn</filename> package or port, an
            excellent place to start is <ulink
            URL="http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/~barr/INN.html">Dave
            Barr's INN Page</ulink> where you will find the INN
            FAQ.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="ms-frontpage">
          <para>What version of Microsoft FrontPage should I get?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Use the Port, Luke!  A pre-patched version of Apache,
            <filename role="package">www/apache13-fp</filename>, is
            available in the ports tree.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="java">
          <para>Does FreeBSD support Java?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Yes. Please see <ulink
            URL="&url.main;/java/index.html">
            http://www.FreeBSD.org/java/</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="ports-3x">
          <para>Why can I not build this port on my 3.X-STABLE machine?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>If you are running a FreeBSD version that lags
            significantly behind -CURRENT or -STABLE, you may need a ports
            upgrade kit from <ulink URL="&url.main;/ports/index.html">
            http://www.FreeBSD.org/ports/</ulink>. If you are up to date,
            then someone might have committed a change to the port which
            works for -CURRENT but which broke the port for -STABLE. Please
            submit a bug report on this with the
            &man.send-pr.1; command, since the ports
            collection is supposed to work for both the -CURRENT and
            -STABLE branches.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="find-ldso">
          <para>Where do I find ld.so?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>a.out applications like Netscape Navigator require
            a.out libraries.  A version of FreeBSD built with ELF
            libraries does not install them by default.  You will get
            complaints about not having
            <filename>/usr/libexec/ld.so</filename> if this is the
            case on your system.  These libraries are available as an
            add-on in the compat22 distribution.  Use
            &man.sysinstall.8; to install them.  You can
            also install them from the FreeBSD source code:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/src/lib/compat/compat22</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>

          <para>If you want to install the latest compat22 libraries
            whenever you run <command>make world</command>, edit
            <filename>/etc/make.conf</filename> to include
            <varname>COMPAT22=YES</varname>.  Old compatibility
            libraries change rarely, if ever, so this is not generally
            needed.</para>

          <para>Also see the ERRATAs for 3.1-RELEASE and
            3.2-RELEASE.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="ports-update">
           <para>I updated the sources, now how do I update my installed
             ports?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>FreeBSD does not include a port upgrading tool, but it
            does have some tools to make the upgrade process somewhat
            easier.  You can also install additional tools to simplify
            port handling.</para>

          <para>The &man.pkg.version.1; command can generate a script
            that will update installed ports to the latest version in
            the ports tree.</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg_version -c &gt; <replaceable>/tmp/myscript</replaceable></userinput></screen>

          <para>The output script <emphasis>must</emphasis> be edited by
            hand before you use it. Recent versions of
            &man.pkg.version.1; force this by inserting an
            &man.exit.1; at the beginning of the script.</para>

          <para>You should save the output of the script, as it will note
            packages that depend on the one that has been updated. These
            may or may not need to be updated as well. The usual case where
            they need to be updated is that a shared library has changed
            version numbers, so the ports that used that library need to be
            rebuilt to use the new version.</para>

	  <note>
	    <para>Beginning with FreeBSD 5.0 (and higher revisions),
	      &man.pkg.version.1; no longer supports the
	      <option>-c</option> option.</para>
	  </note>

          <para>If you have the disk space, you can use the
            <command>portupgrade</command> tool to automate all of
            this.  <command>portupgrade</command> includes various
            tools to simplify package handling.  It is available under
            <filename role="package">sysutils/portupgrade</filename>.
            Since it is written in Ruby,
            <command>portupgrade</command> is an unlikely candidate for
            integration with the main FreeBSD tree.  That should not
            stop anyone from using it, however.</para>

          <para>If your system is up full time, the &man.periodic.8; system
            can be used to generate a weekly list of ports that might need
            updating by setting
            <literal>weekly_status_pkg_enable="YES"</literal> in
            <filename>/etc/periodic.conf</filename>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="minimal-sh">
          <para>Why is <command>/bin/sh</command> so minimal?  Why does
            FreeBSD not use <command>bash</command> or another shell?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Because POSIX says that there shall be such a shell.</para>

          <para>The more complicated answer: many people need to write shell
            scripts which will be portable across many systems. That is why
            POSIX specifies the shell and utility commands in great detail.
            Most scripts are written in Bourne shell, and because several
            important programming interfaces (&man.make.1;, &man.system.3;,
            &man.popen.3;, and analogues in higher-level scripting
            languages like Perl and Tcl) are specified to use the Bourne
            shell to interpret commands. Because the Bourne shell is so
            often and widely used, it is important for it to be quick to
            start, be deterministic in its behavior, and have a small
            memory footprint.</para>

          <para>The existing implementation is our best effort at meeting as
            many of these requirements simultaneously as we can. In order to
            keep <command>/bin/sh</command> small, we have not provided many
            of the convenience features that other shells have. That is why the
            Ports Collection includes more featureful shells like bash, scsh,
            tcsh, and zsh.  (You can compare for yourself the memory
            utilization of all these shells by looking at the
            <quote>VSZ</quote> and <quote>RSS</quote> columns in a <command>ps
              -u</command> listing.)</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="netscape-slow-startup">
          <para>Why do Netscape and Opera take so long to
            start?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The usual answer is that DNS on your system is
            misconfigured.  Both Netscape and Opera perform DNS checks
            when starting up.  The browser will not appear on your
            desktop until the program either gets a response or
            determines that the system has no network
            connection.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
	<question id="ports-base-update">
	  <para>I updated parts of the Ports Collection using CVSup, and
	    now many ports fail to build with mysterious error messages!
	    What happened?  Is the Ports Collection broken in some major
	    way?</para>
	</question>

	<answer>
	  <para>If you only update parts of the Ports Collection, using
	    one of its CVSup subcollections and not the
	    <literal>ports-all</literal> CVSup collection, you should
	    <emphasis>always</emphasis> update the
	    <literal>ports-base</literal> subcollection too!  The reasons
	    are described <ulink
	    url="../handbook/cvsup.html#CVSUP-COLLEC-PBASE-WARN">in the
	    Handbook</ulink>.</para>
	</answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
	<question id="midi-sound-files">
	  <para>How do I create audio CDs from my MIDI files?</para>
	</question>

	<answer><para>To create audio CDs from MIDI files, first
          install <filename role="package">audio/timidity++</filename>
          from ports then install manually the GUS patches set by Eric
          A. Welsh, available at <ulink
          url="http://www.stardate.bc.ca/eawpatches/html/default.htm"></ulink>.
          After timidity++ has been installed properly, midi files may
          be converted to wav's with the following command
          line:</para>

        <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>timidity -Ow -s 44100 -o /tmp/juke/01.wav 01.mid</userinput></screen>

          <para>The wav files can then be converted to other formats
            or burned onto audio CDs, as described in the FreeBSD
            Handbook.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>
    </qandaset>
  </chapter>

  <chapter id="kernelconfig">
    <title>Kernel Configuration</title>

    <qandaset>
      <qandaentry>
        <question id="make-kernel">
          <para>I would like to customize my kernel. Is it difficult?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Not at all! Check out the <ulink
            URL="../handbook/kernelconfig.html">
            kernel config section of the Handbook</ulink>.</para>

            <note>
	      <para>We recommend that you make a dated snapshot of
	        your new <filename>/kernel</filename> called
	        <filename>/kernel.YYMMDD</filename> after you get it
	        working properly.  Also back up your new
	        <filename>/modules</filename> directory to
	        <filename>/modules.YYMMDD</filename>.  That way, if
	        you make a mistake the next time you play with your
	        configuration you can boot the backup kernel instead
	        of having to fall back to
	        <filename>kernel.GENERIC</filename>. This is
	        particularly important if you are now booting from a
	        controller that GENERIC does not support.</para>
            </note>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="missing-hw-float">
          <para>My kernel compiles fail because
            <literal>_hw_float</literal> is missing.  How do I solve
            this problem?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Let me guess. You removed
            <devicename>npx0</devicename> (see &man.npx.4;)
            from your kernel configuration file because you do not have a
            math co-processor, right? Wrong! :-) The
            <devicename>npx0</devicename> is
            <emphasis>MANDATORY</emphasis>. Even if you do not have a
            mathematic co-processor, you <emphasis>must</emphasis>
            include the <devicename>npx0</devicename> device.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="why-kernel-big">
          <para>Why is my kernel so big (over 10MB)?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Chances are, you compiled your kernel in
            <emphasis>debug mode</emphasis>.  Kernels built in debug
            mode contain many symbols that are used for debugging, thus
            greatly increasing the size of the kernel.  Note that if you
            running a FreeBSD 3.0 or later system, there will be little
            or no performance decrease from running a debug kernel,
            and it is useful to keep one around in case of a system
            panic.</para>

          <para>However, if you are running low on disk space, or
            you simply do not want to run a debug kernel, make sure
            that both of the following are true:</para>

          <itemizedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>You do not have a line in your kernel
                configuration file that reads:</para>

              <programlisting>makeoptions DEBUG=-g</programlisting>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>You are not running &man.config.8; with
                the <option>-g</option> option.</para>
            </listitem>
          </itemizedlist>

          <para>Both of the above situations will cause your kernel to
            be built in debug mode.  As long as you make sure you follow
            the steps above, you can build your kernel normally, and you
            should notice a fairly large size decrease; most kernels
            tend to be around 1.5MB to 2MB.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="multiport-serial-interrupts">
          <para>Why do I get interrupt conflicts with multi-port serial
            code?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>When I compile a kernel
            with multi-port serial code, it tells me that only the first
            port is probed and the rest skipped due to interrupt conflicts.
            How do I fix this?</para>

          <para>The problem here is that
            FreeBSD has code built-in to keep the kernel from getting
            trashed due to hardware or software conflicts. The way to fix
            this is to leave out the IRQ settings on all but one port. Here
            is an example:</para>

          <programlisting>#
# Multiport high-speed serial line - 16550 UARTS
#
device sio2 at isa? port 0x2a0 tty irq 5 flags 0x501 vector siointr
device sio3 at isa? port 0x2a8 tty flags 0x501 vector siointr
device sio4 at isa? port 0x2b0 tty flags 0x501 vector siointr
device sio5 at isa? port 0x2b8 tty flags 0x501 vector siointr</programlisting>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="generic-kernel-build-failure">
          <para>Why does every kernel I try to build fail to compile, even
            GENERIC?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>There are a number of possible causes for this problem.
            They are, in no particular order:</para>

          <itemizedlist>
            <listitem>
              <para>You are not using the new <command>make
                buildkernel</command> and <command>make
                installkernel</command> targets, and your source tree is
                different from the one used to build the currently running
                system (e.g., you are compiling 4.3-RELEASE on a 4.0-RELEASE
                system).  If you are attempting an upgrade, please read the
                <filename>/usr/src/UPDATING</filename> file, paying
                particular attention to the <quote>COMMON ITEMS</quote>
                section at the end.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>You are using the new <command>make
                buildkernel</command> and <command>make
                installkernel</command> targets, but you failed to assert
                the completion of the <command>make buildworld</command>
                target.  The <command>make buildkernel</command> target
                relies on files generated by the <command>make
                buildworld</command> target to complete its job
                correctly.</para>
            </listitem>

            <listitem>
              <para>Even if you are trying to build <link
                linkend="stable">FreeBSD-STABLE</link>, it is possible that
                you fetched the source tree at a time when it was either
                being modified, or broken for other reasons; only releases
                are absolutely guaranteed to be buildable, although <link
                linkend="stable">FreeBSD-STABLE</link> builds fine the
                majority of the time.  If you have not already done so, try
                re-fetching the source tree and see if the problem goes
                away.  Try using a different server in case the one you are
                using is having problems.</para>
            </listitem>
          </itemizedlist>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="scheduler-in-use">
          <para>How can I verify which scheduler is in use on a
            running system?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Just type:
            <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl kern.quantum</userinput></screen>
            If you see
            <screen>unknown oid 'kern.quantum'</screen>
            it means that the current scheduler is <quote>SCHED_ULE</quote>, however,
            if you see
            <screen>kern.quantum: 100000</screen>
	     then the original scheduler <quote>SCHED_4BSD</quote> is the current selection.
          </para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="scheduler-kern-quantum">
          <para>What is 'kern.quantum'?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para><quote>kern.quantum</quote> is the maximum number of
            ticks a process can run without being preempted.  It is
            specific to the 4BSD scheduler, so you can use its
            presence or absence to determine which scheduler is in
            use.
          </para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>
    </qandaset>
  </chapter>

  <chapter id="disks">
    <title>Disks, Filesystems, and Boot Loaders</title>

    <qandaset>
      <qandaentry>
        <question id="adding-disks">
          <para>How can I add my new hard disk to my FreeBSD system?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>See the Disk Formatting Tutorial at <ulink
            URL="../../articles/formatting-media/index.html">
            www.FreeBSD.org</ulink>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="new-huge-disk">
          <para>How do I move my system over to my huge new disk?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The best way is to reinstall the OS on the new
            disk, then move the user data over.  This is highly
            recommended if you have been tracking -STABLE for more
            than one release, or have updated a release instead of
            installing a new one.  You can install booteasy on both
            disks with &man.boot0cfg.8;, and dual boot them until
            you are happy with the new configuration.  Skip the
            next paragraph to find out how to move the data after
            doing this.</para>

          <para>Should you decide not to do a fresh install, you
            need to partition and label the new disk with either
            <filename>/stand/sysinstall</filename>, or &man.fdisk.8;
            and &man.disklabel.8;.  You should also install booteasy
            on both disks with &man.boot0cfg.8;, so that you can
            dual boot to the old or new system after the copying
            is done.  See the <ulink
            url="../../articles/formatting-media/index.html">
            formatting-media article</ulink> for details on this
            process.</para>

          <para>Now you have the new disk set up, and are ready
            to move the data.  Unfortunately, you cannot just blindly
            copy the data.  Things like device files (in
	    <filename>/dev</filename>), flags, and links tend to
            screw that up.  You need to use tools that understand
            these things, which means &man.dump.8;.
            Although it is suggested that you move the data in single user
            mode, it is not required.</para>

          <para>You should never use anything but &man.dump.8; and
            &man.restore.8; to move the root filesystem.  The
            &man.tar.1; command may work - then again, it may not.
            You should also use &man.dump.8; and &man.restore.8;
            if you are moving a single partition to another empty
            partition.  The sequence of steps to use dump to move
            a partitions data to a new partition is:</para>

          <procedure>
            <step>
              <para>newfs the new partition.</para>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>mount it on a temporary mount point.</para>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>cd to that directory.</para>
            </step>

            <step>
              <para>dump the old partition, piping output to the
                new one.</para>
            </step>
          </procedure>

          <para>For example, if you are going to move root to
            <devicename>/dev/ad1s1a</devicename>, with
            <filename>/mnt</filename> as the temporary mount point,
            it is:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs /dev/ad1s1a</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/ad1s1a /mnt</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore xf -</userinput></screen>

          <para>Rearranging your partitions with dump takes a bit more
            work. To merge a partition like <filename>/var</filename>
            into its parent, create the new partition large enough
            for both, move the parent partition as described above,
            then move the child partition into the empty directory
            that the first move created:</para>
	  
          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs /dev/ad1s1a</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/ad1s1a /mnt</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore xf -</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>cd var</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>dump 0af - /var | restore xf -</userinput></screen>

	  <para>To split a directory from its parent, say putting
	    <filename>/var</filename> on its own partition when it was not
	    before, create both partitions, then mount the child partition
	    on the appropriate directory in the temporary mount point, then
	    move the old single partition:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs /dev/ad1s1a</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>newfs /dev/ad1s1d</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/ad1s1a /mnt</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>mkdir /mnt/var</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>mount /dev/ad1s1d /mnt/var</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /mnt</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>dump 0af - / | restore xf -</userinput></screen>

          <para>You might prefer &man.cpio.1;, &man.pax.1;,
            &man.tar.1; to &man.dump.8; for user data. At the time of
            this writing, these are known to lose file flag information,
            so use them with caution.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="dangerously-dedicated">
          <para>Will a <quote>dangerously dedicated</quote> disk endanger
            my health?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>

          <para><anchor id="dedicate">The installation procedure allows
            you to chose two different methods in partitioning your
            hard disk(s). The default way makes it compatible with other
            operating systems on the same machine, by using fdisk table
            entries (called <quote>slices</quote> in FreeBSD), with a
            FreeBSD slice that employs partitions of its own. Optionally,
            one can chose to install a boot-selector to switch between the
            possible operating systems on the disk(s). The alternative uses
            the entire disk for FreeBSD, and makes no attempt to be
            compatible with other operating systems.</para>

          <para>So why it is called <quote>dangerous</quote>?  A disk
            in this mode does not contain what normal PC utilities
            would consider a valid fdisk table. Depending on how well
            they have been designed, they might complain at you once
            they are getting in contact with such a disk, or even
            worse, they might damage the BSD bootstrap without even
            asking or notifying you. In addition, the
            <quote>dangerously dedicated</quote> disk's layout is
            known to confuse many BIOSes, including those from AWARD
            (e.g. as found in HP Netserver and Micronics systems as
            well as many others) and Symbios/NCR (for the popular
            53C8xx range of SCSI controllers). This is not a complete
            list, there are more. Symptoms of this confusion include
            the <errorname>read error</errorname> message printed by
            the FreeBSD bootstrap when it cannot find itself, as well
            as system lockups when booting.</para>

          <para>Why have this mode at all then?  It only saves a few kbytes
            of disk space, and it can cause real problems for a new
            installation. <quote>Dangerously dedicated</quote> mode's
            origins lie in a desire to avoid one of the most common
            problems plaguing new FreeBSD installers - matching the BIOS
            <quote>geometry</quote> numbers for a disk to the disk
            itself.</para>

          <para><quote>Geometry</quote> is an outdated concept, but one
            still at the heart of the PC's BIOS and its interaction with
            disks. When the FreeBSD installer creates slices, it has to
            record the location of these slices on the disk in a fashion
            that corresponds with the way the BIOS expects to find them. If
            it gets it wrong, you will not be able to boot.</para>

          <para><quote>Dangerously dedicated</quote> mode tries to work
            around this by making the problem simpler. In some cases, it
            gets it right. But it is meant to be used as a last-ditch
            alternative - there are better ways to solve the problem 99
            times out of 100.</para>

          <para>So, how do you avoid the need for <quote>DD</quote> mode
            when you are installing? Start by making a note of the geometry
            that your BIOS claims to be using for your disks. You can
            arrange to have the kernel print this as it boots by specifying
            <option>-v</option> at the <literal>boot:</literal> prompt, or
            using <command>boot -v</command> in the loader. Just before the
            installer starts, the kernel will print a list of BIOS
            geometries. Do not panic - wait for the installer to start and
            then use scrollback to read the numbers. Typically the BIOS
            disk units will be in the same order that FreeBSD lists your
            disks, first IDE, then SCSI.</para>

          <para>When you are slicing up your disk, check that the disk
            geometry displayed in the FDISK screen is correct (ie. it
            matches the BIOS numbers); if it is wrong, use the
            <keycap>g</keycap> key to fix it. You may have to do this if
            there is absolutely nothing on the disk, or if the disk has been
            moved from another system. Note that this is only an issue with
            the disk that you are going to boot from; FreeBSD will sort
            itself out just fine with any other disks you may have.</para>

          <para>Once you have got the BIOS and FreeBSD agreeing about the
            geometry of the disk, your problems are almost guaranteed to be
            over, and with no need for <quote>DD</quote> mode at all. If,
            however, you are still greeted with the dreaded <errorname>read
            error</errorname> message when you try to boot, it is time to cross
            your fingers and go for it - there is nothing left to
            lose.</para>

          <para>To return a <quote>dangerously dedicated</quote> disk
            for normal PC use, there are basically two options. The first
            is, you write enough NULL bytes over the MBR to make any
            subsequent installation believe this to be a blank disk. You
            can do this for example with</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/rda0 count=15</userinput></screen>

          <para>Alternatively, the undocumented DOS
            <quote>feature</quote></para>

          <screen><prompt>C:\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>fdisk /mbr</userinput></screen>

          <para>will to install a new master boot record as well, thus
            clobbering the BSD bootstrap.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="safe-softupdates">
          <para>Which partitions can safely use Soft Updates?  I have
            heard that Soft Updates on <filename>/</filename> can cause
            problems.</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Short answer: you can usually use Soft Updates safely
            on all partitions.</para>

          <para>Long answer: There used to be some concern over using
            Soft Updates on the root partition.  Soft Updates has two
            characteristics that caused this.  First, a Soft Updates
            partition has a small chance of losing data during a
            system crash.  (The partition will not be corrupted; the
            data will simply be lost.)  Also, Soft Updates can cause
            temporary space shortages.</para>

          <para>When using Soft Updates, the kernel can take up to
            thirty seconds to actually write changes to the physical
            disk.  If you delete a large file, the file still resides
            on disk until the kernel actually performs the deletion.
            This can cause a very simple race condition.  Suppose you
            delete one large file and immediately create another large
            file.  The first large file is not yet actually removed
            from the physical disk, so the disk might not have enough
            room for the second large file.  You get an error that the
            partition does not have enough space, although you know
            perfectly well that you just released a large chunk of
            space!  When you try again mere seconds later, the file
            creation works as you expect.  This has left more than one
            user scratching his head and doubting his sanity, the
            FreeBSD filesystem, or both.</para>

          <para>If a system should crash after the kernel accepts a
            chunk of data for writing to disk, but before that data is
            actually written out, data could be lost or corrupted.
            This risk is extremely small, but generally manageable.
            Use of IDE write caching greatly increases this risk; it
            is strongly recommended that you disable IDE write caching
            when using Soft Updates.</para>

          <para>These issues affect all partitions using Soft Updates.
            So, what does this mean for the root partition?</para>

          <para>Vital information on the root partition changes very
            rarely.  Files such as <filename>/kernel</filename> and
            the contents of <filename>/etc</filename> only change
            during system maintenance, or when users change their
            passwords.  If the system crashed during the
            thirty-second window after such a change is made, it is
            possible that data could be lost.  This risk is negligible
            for most applications, but you should be aware that it
            exists.  If your system cannot tolerate this much risk,
            do not use Soft Updates on the root filesystem!</para>

          <para><filename>/</filename> is traditionally one of the
            smallest partitions.  By default, FreeBSD puts the
            <filename>/tmp</filename> directory on
            <filename>/</filename>.  If you have a busy
            <filename>/tmp</filename>, you might see intermittent
            space problems.  Symlinking <filename>/tmp</filename> to
            <filename>/var/tmp</filename> will solve this
            problem.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="inappropriate-ccd">
          <para>What is inappropriate about my ccd?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The symptom of this is:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ccdconfig -C</userinput>
ccdconfig: ioctl (CCDIOCSET): /dev/ccd0c: Inappropriate file type or format</screen>

          <para>This usually happens when you are trying to concatenate
            the <literal>c</literal> partitions, which default to type
            <literal>unused</literal>. The ccd driver requires the
            underlying partition type to be FS_BSDFFS. Edit the disklabel
            of the disks you are trying to concatenate and change the types
            of partitions to <literal>4.2BSD</literal>.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="ccd-disklabel">
          <para>Why can I not edit the disklabel on my ccd?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The symptom of this is:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel ccd0</userinput>
(it prints something sensible here, so let us try to edit it)
&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel -e ccd0</userinput>
(edit, save, quit)
disklabel: ioctl DIOCWDINFO: No disk label on disk;
use "disklabel -r" to install initial label</screen>

          <para>This is because the disklabel returned by ccd is actually
            a <quote>fake</quote> one that is not really on the disk.
            You can solve this problem by writing it back explicitly,
            as in:</para>

          <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel ccd0 &gt; /tmp/disklabel.tmp</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel -Rr ccd0 /tmp/disklabel.tmp</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>disklabel -e ccd0</userinput>
(this will work now)</screen>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="mount-foreign-fs">
          <para>Can I mount other foreign filesystems under FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <variablelist>
            <varlistentry>
              <term>Digital UNIX</term>

              <listitem>
                <para>UFS CDROMs can be mounted directly on FreeBSD.
                  Mounting disk partitions from Digital UNIX and other
                  systems that support UFS may be more complex, depending
                  on the details of the disk partitioning for the operating
                  system in question.</para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>

            <varlistentry>
              <term>Linux</term>

              <listitem>
                <para>FreeBSD supports <literal>ext2fs</literal>
                  partitions.  See &man.mount.ext2fs.8; for more
                  information.</para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>

            <varlistentry>
              <term>NT</term>

              <listitem>
                <para>FreeBSD includes a read-only NTFS driver.  For
		  more information, see &man.mount.ntfs.8;.
                </para>
              </listitem>
            </varlistentry>
          </variablelist>

          <para>Any other information on this subject would be
            appreciated.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="mount-dos">
          <para>How do I mount a secondary DOS partition?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>

        <para>The secondary DOS partitions are found after ALL the
          primary partitions. For example, if you have an
          <quote>E</quote> partition as the second DOS partition on
          the second SCSI drive, you need to create the special files
          for <quote>slice 5</quote> in <filename>/dev</filename>,
          then mount <devicename>/dev/da1s5</devicename>:</para>

        <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /dev</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>sh MAKEDEV da1s5</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>mount -t msdos /dev/da1s5 /dos/e</userinput></screen>

        <note>
	  <para>You can omit this step if you are running FreeBSD
	    5.0-RELEASE or newer with &man.devfs.5;
	    enabled.</para>
	</note>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="crypto-filesystem">
          <para>Is there a cryptographic filesystem for &os;?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>Yes; see the <filename
            role="package">security/cfs</filename> port.</para>
        </answer>
      </qandaentry>

      <qandaentry>
        <question id="nt-bootloader">
          <para>How can I use the NT loader to boot FreeBSD?</para>
        </question>

        <answer>
          <para>The general idea is that you copy the first sector of your
            native root FreeBSD partition into a file in the DOS/NT
            partition. Assuming you name that file something like
            <filename>c:\bootsect.bsd</filename> (inspired by
            <filename>c:\bootsect.dos</filename>), you can then edit the
            <filename>c:\boot.ini</filename> file to come up with something
            like this:</para>

          <programlisting>[boot loader]
timeout=30
default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS
[operating systems]
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(1)\WINDOWS="Windows NT"
C:\BOOTSECT.BSD="FreeBSD"
C:\="DOS"</programlisting>

          <para>If FreeBSD is installed on the same disk as the NT boot
            partition simply copy <filename>/boot/boot1</filename> to
            <filename>C:\BOOTSECT.BSD</filename>. However, if FreeBSD is
            installed on a different disk <filename>/boot/boot1</filename>
            will not work, <filename>/boot/boot0</filename> is needed.</para>

          <para><filename>/boot/boot0</filename> needs to be installed
            using sysinstall by selecting the FreeBSD boot manager on
            the screen which asks if you wish to use a boot
            manager. This is because <filename>/boot/boot0</filename>
            has the partition table area filled with NULL characters
            but sysinstall copies the partition table before copying
            <filename>/boot/boot0</filename> to the MBR.</para>

            <warning>
              <para><emphasis>Do not simply copy <filename>/boot/boot0</filename>
                instead of <filename>/boot/boot1</filename>; you will
                overwrite your partition table and render your computer
                un-bootable!</emphasis></para>
            </warning>

          <para>When the FreeBSD boot manager runs it records the last
            OS booted by setting the active flag on the partition table
            entry for that OS and then writes the whole 512-bytes of itself
            back to the MBR so if you just copy
            <filename>/boot/boot0</filename> to
            <filename>C:\BOOTSECT.BSD</filename> then it writes an empty
            partition table, with the active flag set on one entry, to the
            MBR.</para>