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<!-- Copyright (c) 1999 Nik Clayton, All rights reserved.

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<chapter id="translations">
  <title>Translations</title>

  <para>This is the FAQ for people translating the FreeBSD documentation
    (FAQ, Handbook, tutorials, manual pages, and others) to different
    languages.</para>
  
  <para>It is <emphasis>very</emphasis> heavily based on the translation FAQ
    from the FreeBSD German Documentation Project, originally written by Frank
    Gr&uuml;nder <email>elwood@mc5sys.in-berlin.de</email> and translated back to
    English by Bernd Warken <email>bwarken@mayn.de</email>.</para>

  <para>The FAQ is maintained by the &a.doceng;.</para>

  <qandaset>
    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>Why a FAQ?</para>
      </question>

      <answer>
	<para>More and more people are approaching the freebsd-doc mailing
	  list and volunteering to translate FreeBSD documentation to other
	  languages. This FAQ aims to answer their questions so they can start
	  translating documentation as quickly as possible.</para>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>

    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>What do <phrase>i18n</phrase> and <phrase>l10n</phrase>
	  mean?</para>
      </question>
      
      <answer>
	<para><phrase>i18n</phrase> means
	  <phrase>internationalization</phrase> and <phrase>l10n</phrase>
	  means <phrase>localization</phrase>. They are just a convenient
	  shorthand.</para>

	<para><phrase>i18n</phrase> can be read as <quote>i</quote> followed by
	  18 letters, followed by <quote>n</quote>. Similarly,
	  <phrase>l10n</phrase> is <quote>l</quote> followed by 10 letters,
	  followed by <quote>n</quote>.</para>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>

    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>Is there a mailing list for translators?</para>
      </question>

      <answer>
	<para>Yes.  Different translation groups have their own mailing
          lists.  The <ulink url="http://www.freebsd.org/docproj/translations.html">list
            of translation projects</ulink> has more information about the
          mailing lists and web sites run by each translation project.</para>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>

    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>Are more translators needed?</para>
      </question>

      <answer>
	<para>Yes. The more people work on translation the faster it gets
	  done, and the faster changes to the English documentation are
	  mirrored in the translated documents.</para>

	<para>You do not have to be a professional translator to be able to
	  help.</para>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>

    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>What languages do I need to know?</para>
      </question>

      <answer>
	<para>Ideally, you will have a good knowledge of written English, and
	  obviously you will need to be fluent in the language you are
	  translating to.</para>

	<para>English is not strictly necessary. For example, you could do a
	  Hungarian translation of the FAQ from the Spanish
	  translation.</para>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>
    
    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>What software do I need to know?</para>
      </question>

      <answer>
	<para>It is strongly recommended that you maintain a local copy of the
	  FreeBSD CVS repository (at least the documentation part) either
	  using <application>CTM</application> or
	  <application>CVSup</application>. The "Staying current with FreeBSD"
	  chapter in the Handbook explains how to use these
	  applications.</para>

	<para>You should be comfortable using <application>CVS</application>.
	  This will allow you to see what has changed between different
	  versions of the files that make up the documentation.</para>

	<para>[XXX To Do -- write a tutorial that shows how to use CVSup to
	  get just the documentation, check it out, and see what has changed
	  between two arbitrary revisions]</para>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>

    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>How do I find out who else might be translating to the same
	  language?</para>
      </question>

      <answer>
	<para>The <ulink
	    url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/docproj/translations.html">Documentation
	    Project translations page</ulink> lists the translation efforts
	  that are currently known about. If others are already working
	  on translating documentation to your language, please do not
	  duplicate their efforts. Instead, contact them to see how you can
	  help.</para>

	<para>If no one is listed on that page as translating for your
	  language, then send a message to the &a.doc; in case someone else
	  is thinking of doing a translation, but has not announced it yet.
	  </para>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>
      
    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>No one else is translating to my language.  What do I do?</para>
      </question>

      <answer>
	<para>Congratulations, you have just started the <quote>FreeBSD
	  <replaceable>your-language-here</replaceable> Documentation
          Translation Project</quote>. Welcome aboard.</para>

	<para>First, decide whether or not you have got the time to spare. Since
	  you are the only person working on your language at the moment it is
	  going to be your responsibility to publicize your work and
	  coordinate any volunteers that might want to help you.</para>

	<para>Write an e-mail to the Documentation Project mailing list,
	  announcing that you are going to translate the documentation, so the
	  Documentation Project translations page can be maintained.</para>

	<para>If there is already someone in your country providing FreeBSD
	  mirroring services you should contact them and ask if you can
	  have some webspace for your project, and possibly an e-mail
	  address or mailing list services.</para>
	
	<para>Then pick a document and start translating. It is best to start
	  with something fairly small&mdash;either the FAQ, or one of the
	  tutorials.</para>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>

    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>I have translated some documentation, where do I send it?</para>
      </question>

      <answer>
	<para>That depends. If you are already working with a translation team
	  (such as the Japanese team, or the German team) then they will have
	  their own procedures for handling submitted documentation, and these
	  will be outlined on their web pages.</para>

	<para>If you are the only person working on a particular language (or
	  you are responsible for a translation project and want to submit
	  your changes back to the FreeBSD project) then you should send your
	  translation to the FreeBSD project (see the next question).</para>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>

    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>I am the only person working on translating to this language, how
	  do I submit my translation?</para>

	<para>or</para>

	<para>We are a translation team, and want to submit documentation that
	  our members have translated for us?</para>
      </question>

      <answer>
	<para>First, make sure your translation is organized properly. This
	  means that it should drop into the existing documentation tree and
	  build straight away.</para>

	<para>Currently, the FreeBSD documentation is stored in a top level
	  directory called <filename>doc/</filename>. Directories below this
	  are named according to the language code they are written in, as
	  defined in ISO639 (<filename>/usr/share/misc/iso639</filename> on a
	  version of FreeBSD newer than 20th January 1999).</para>

	<para>If your language can be encoded in different ways (for example,
	  Chinese) then there should be directories below this, one for each
	  encoding format you have provided.</para>

	<para>Finally, you should have directories for each document.</para>

	<para>For example, a hypothetical Swedish translation might look
	  like</para>

	<programlisting>doc/
    sv_SE.ISO8859-1/
                     Makefile 
                     books/
                           faq/
                               Makefile
                               book.sgml</programlisting>

	<para><literal>sv_SE.ISO8859-1</literal> is the name of the
	  translation, in
	  <filename><replaceable>lang</replaceable>.<replaceable>encoding</replaceable></filename>
	  form.  Note the
	  two Makefiles, which will be used to build the documentation.</para>

	<para>Use &man.tar.1; and &man.gzip.1; to compress up your
	  documentation, and send it to the project.</para>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cd doc</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>tar cf swedish-docs.tar sv</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>gzip -9 swedish-docs.tar</userinput></screen>

	<para>Put <filename>swedish-docs.tar.gz</filename> somewhere.  If you
	  do not have access to your own webspace (perhaps your ISP does not
	  let you have any) then you can e-mail &a.doceng;, and arrange to e-mail
	  the files when it is convenient.</para>

	<para>Either way, you should use &man.send-pr.1; to submit a report
	  indicating that you have submitted the documentation. It would be
	  very helpful if you could get other people to look over your
	  translation and double check it first, since it is unlikely that the
	  person committing it will be fluent in the language.</para>

	<para>Someone (probably the Documentation Project Manager, currently
	  &a.doceng;) will then take your translation and confirm that it builds.
	  In particular, the following things will be looked at:</para>

	<orderedlist>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>Do all your files use RCS strings (such as "ID")?</para>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Does <command>make all</command> in the
	      <filename>sv_SE.ISO8859-1</filename> directory work correctly?</para>
	  </listitem>
	  
	  <listitem>
	    <para>Does <command>make install</command> work correctly?</para>
	  </listitem>
        </orderedlist>
	  
	<para>If there are any problems then whoever is looking at the
	  submission will get back to you to work them out.</para>

	<para>If there are no problems your translation will be committed
	  as soon as possible.</para>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>

    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>Can I include language or country specific text in my
	  translation?</para>
      </question>

      <answer>
	<para>We would prefer that you did not.</para>

	<para>For example, suppose that you are translating the Handbook to
	  Korean, and want to include a section about retailers in Korea in
	  your Handbook.</para>

	<para>There is no real reason why that information should not be in the
	  English (or German, or Spanish, or Japanese, or &hellip;) versions
	  as well. It is feasible that an English speaker in Korea might try
	  and pick up a copy of FreeBSD whilst over there. It also helps
	  increase FreeBSD's perceived presence around the globe, which is not
	  a bad thing.</para>

	<para>If you have country specific information, please submit it as a
	  change to the English Handbook (using &man.send-pr.1;) and then
	  translate the change back to your language in the translated
	  Handbook.</para>

	<para>Thanks.</para>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>

    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>How should language specific characters be included?</para>
      </question>

      <answer>
	<para>Non-ASCII characters in the documentation should be included
	  using SGML entities.</para>

	<para>Briefly, these look like an ampersand (&amp;), the name of the
	  entity, and a semi-colon (;).</para>

	<para>The entity names are defined in ISO8879, which is in the ports
	  tree as <filename role="package">textproc/iso8879</filename>.</para>

	<para>A few examples include</para>

	<segmentedlist>
          <segtitle>Entity</segtitle>

          <segtitle>Appearance</segtitle>

          <segtitle>Description</segtitle>

	  <seglistitem>
	    <seg>&amp;eacute;</seg>
	    <seg>&eacute;</seg>
	    <seg>Small <quote>e</quote> with an acute accent</seg>
	  </seglistitem>

	  <seglistitem>
	    <seg>&amp;Eacute;</seg>
	    <seg>&Eacute;</seg>
	    <seg>Large <quote>E</quote> with an acute accent</seg>
	  </seglistitem>

	  <seglistitem>
	    <seg>&amp;uuml;</seg>
	    <seg>&uuml;</seg>
	    <seg>Small <quote>u</quote> with an umlaut</seg>
	  </seglistitem>
	</segmentedlist>

	<para>After you have installed the iso8879 port, the files in
	  <filename>/usr/local/share/sgml/iso8879</filename> contain the
	  complete list.</para>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>

    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>Addressing the reader</para>
      </question>

      <answer>
	<para>In the English documents, the reader is addressed as
	  <quote>you</quote>, there is no formal/informal distinction as there
	  is in some languages.</para>

	<para>If you are translating to a language which does distinguish, use
	  whichever form is typically used in other technical documentation in
	  your language. If in doubt, use a mildly polite form.</para>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>

    <qandaentry>
      <question>
	<para>Do I need to include any additional information in my
	  translations?</para>
      </question>

      <answer>
	<para>Yes.</para>

	<para>The header of the English version of each document will look
	  something like this;</para>

	<programlisting>&lt;!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     &dollar;FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/fdp-primer/translations/chapter.sgml,v 1.5 2000/07/07 18:38:38 dannyboy Exp &dollar;
--&gt;</programlisting>

	<para>The exact boilerplate may change, but it will always include a
	  &dollar;FreeBSD&dollar; line and the phrase <literal>The FreeBSD Documentation
	    Project</literal>.
	  Note that the &dollar;FreeBSD part is expanded automatically by
	  CVS, so it should be empty (just
	  <literal>&dollar;FreeBSD&dollar;</literal>) for new files.</para>

	<para>Your translated documents should include their own
	  &dollar;FreeBSD&dollar; line, and change the
	  <literal>FreeBSD Documentation Project</literal> line to
	  <literal>The FreeBSD <replaceable>language</replaceable>
	    Documentation Project</literal>.</para>

	<para>In addition, you should add a third line which indicates which
	  revision of the English text this is based on.</para>
	
	<para>So, the Spanish version of this file might start</para>

	<programlisting>&lt;!--
     The FreeBSD Spanish Documentation Project

     &dollar;FreeBSD: doc/es_ES.ISO8859-1/books/fdp-primer/translations/chapter.sgml,v 1.3 1999/06/24 19:12:32 jesusr Exp &dollar;
     Original revision: 1.11
--&gt;</programlisting>
      </answer>
    </qandaentry>
  </qandaset>
</chapter>

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