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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
<!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     $FreeBSD$
-->

<chapter xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
  xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0"
  xml:id="bsdinstall">

  <info>
    <title>Installing &os;&nbsp;9.<replaceable>X</replaceable> and
      Later</title>

    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<personname>
	  <firstname>Jim</firstname>
	  <surname>Mock</surname>
	</personname>

	<contrib>Restructured, reorganized, and parts rewritten
	  by </contrib>
      </author>
    </authorgroup>
<!---
    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<personname>
	  <firstname>Randy</firstname>
	  <surname>Pratt</surname>
	</personname>
	<contrib>The sysinstall walkthrough, screenshots, and general
	copy by </contrib>
      </author>
    </authorgroup>-->

    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<personname>
	  <firstname>Gavin</firstname>
	  <surname>Atkinson</surname>
	</personname>

	<contrib>Updated for bsdinstall by </contrib>
      </author>

      <author>
	<personname>
	  <firstname>Warren</firstname>
	  <surname>Block</surname>
	</personname>
      </author>
    </authorgroup>

    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<personname>
	  <firstname>Allan</firstname>
	  <surname>Jude</surname>
	</personname>

	<contrib>Updated for root-on-ZFS by </contrib>
      </author>
    </authorgroup>
  </info>

  <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-synopsis">
    <title>Synopsis</title>

    <indexterm><primary>installation</primary></indexterm>

    <para>Beginning with &os;&nbsp;9.0-RELEASE, &os; provides an easy
      to use, text-based installation
      program named <application>bsdinstall</application>.   This
      chapter describes how to install &os; using
      <application>bsdinstall</application>.  The use of
      <application>sysinstall</application>, which is the installation
      program used by &os;&nbsp;8.x, is covered in <xref
	linkend="install"/>.</para>

    <para>In general, the installation instructions in this chapter
      are written for the &i386; and <acronym>AMD64</acronym>
      architectures.  Where applicable, instructions specific to other
      platforms will be listed.  There may be minor differences
      between the installer and what is shown here, so use this
      chapter as a general guide rather than as a set of literal
      instructions.</para>

    <note>
      <para>Users who prefer to install &os; using a graphical
	installer may be interested in
	<application>pc-sysinstall</application>, the installer used
	by the PC-BSD Project.  It can be used to install either a
	graphical desktop (PC-BSD) or a command line version of &os;.
	Refer to the PC-BSD Users Handbook for details (<link
	  xlink:href="http://wiki.pcbsd.org/index.php/PC-BSD%C2%AE_Users_Handbook/10.1">http://wiki.pcbsd.org/index.php/PC-BSD%C2%AE_Users_Handbook/10.1</link>).</para>
    </note>

    <para>After reading this chapter, you will know:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>The minimum hardware requirements and &os; supported
	  architectures.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to create the &os; installation media.</para>
      </listitem>

<!-- WB: verify this, including GPT partition notation (ada0p2)
      <listitem>
	<para>How &os; subdivides and refers to hard disks.</para>
      </listitem> -->

      <listitem>
	<para>How to start
	  <application>bsdinstall</application>.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>The questions <application>bsdinstall</application> will
	  ask, what they mean, and how to answer them.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to troubleshoot a failed installation.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to access a live version of &os; before committing
	  to an installation.</para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>

    <para>Before reading this chapter, you should:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>Read the supported hardware list that shipped with the
	  version of &os; to be installed and verify that the system's
	  hardware is supported.</para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-hardware">
    <title>Minimum Hardware Requirements</title>

    <para>The hardware requirements to install &os; vary by the &os;
      version and the hardware architecture.  Hardware architectures
      and devices supported by a &os; release are listed in the
      Hardware Notes file.  Usually named
      <filename>HARDWARE.TXT</filename>, the file is located in the
      root directory of the release media.  Copies of the supported
      hardware list are also available on the Release Information page
      of the &os; web site (<link
	xlink:href="&url.base;/releases/index.html">http://www.FreeBSD.org/releases/index.html</link>).</para>

    <para>A &os; installation will require at least 64&nbsp;MB of
      <acronym>RAM</acronym> and 1.5&nbsp;GB of free hard drive space
      for the most minimal installation.  However, that is a
      <emphasis>very</emphasis> minimal install, leaving almost no
      free space.  A more realistic minimum is 4&nbsp;GB without a
      graphical environment, and 8&nbsp;GB or more if a graphical user
      interface will be used.  Third-party application software
      requires more space.  It is recommended to increase
      <acronym>RAM</acronym> and hard drive space to meet the needs of
      the applications that will be used and the amount of data that
      will be  stored.</para>

    <para>The processor requirements for each architecture can be
      summarized as follows:</para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>&arch.amd64;</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>There are two classes of processors capable of running
	    &arch.amd64;.  The first are <acronym>AMD64</acronym>
	    processors, including the &amd.athlon;64 and &amd.opteron;
	    processors.</para>

	  <para>The second class of processors includes those using
	    the &intel;&nbsp;EM64T architecture.  Examples of these
	    processors include all multi-core &intel;&nbsp;&xeon;
	    processors except Sossaman, the single-core
	    &intel;&nbsp;&xeon; processors Nocona, Irwindale, Potomac,
	    and Cranford, the &intel;&nbsp;&core;&nbsp;2 (not Core
	    Duo) and later processors, all &intel;&nbsp;&pentium; D
	    processors, the &intel;&nbsp;&pentium; 4s and Celeron Ds
	    using the Cedar Mill core, and some &intel;&nbsp;&pentium;
	    4s and Celeron Ds using the Prescott core.</para>

	  <para>Both Uniprocessor (<acronym>UP</acronym>) and
	    Symmetric Multi-processor (<acronym>SMP</acronym>)
	    configurations are supported.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>&arch.i386;</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Almost all i386-compatible processors with a floating
	    point unit are supported.  All &intel; processors 486 or
	    higher are supported.</para>

	  <para>&os; will take advantage of Physical Address
	    Extensions (<acronym>PAE</acronym>) support on
	    <acronym>CPU</acronym>s that support this feature.  A
	    kernel with the <acronym>PAE</acronym> feature enabled
	    will detect memory above 4&nbsp;GB and allow it to be used
	    by the system.  This feature places constraints on the
	    device drivers and other features of &os; which may be
	    used; refer to &man.pae.4; for details.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>ia64</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Currently supported processors are the &itanium; and
	    the &itanium; 2.  Supported chipsets include the HP zx1,
	    &intel; 460GX, and  &intel; E8870.  Both Uniprocessor
	    (<acronym>UP</acronym>) and Symmetric Multi-processor
	    (<acronym>SMP</acronym>) configurations are
	    supported.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>pc98</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>NEC PC-9801/9821 series with almost all
	    i386-compatible processors, including 80486, &pentium;,
	    &pentium; Pro, and &pentium; II, are all supported.  All
	    i386-compatible processors by AMD, Cyrix, IBM, and IDT are
	    also supported.  EPSON PC-386/486/586 series, which are
	    compatible with NEC PC-9801 series, are supported.  The
	    NEC FC-9801/9821 and NEC SV-98 series should be
	    supported.</para>

	  <para>High-resolution mode is not supported.  NEC
	    PC-98XA/XL/RL/XL^2, and NEC PC-H98 series are supported in
	    normal (PC-9801 compatible) mode only.  The
	    <acronym>SMP</acronym>-related features of &os; are not
	    supported.  The New Extend Standard Architecture
	    (<acronym>NESA</acronym>) bus used in the PC-H98, SV-H98,
	    and FC-H98 series, is not supported.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>&arch.powerpc;</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>All New World <acronym>ROM</acronym> &apple;
	    &macintosh; systems with built-in <acronym>USB</acronym>
	    are supported.  <acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on
	    machines with multiple <acronym>CPU</acronym>s.</para>

	  <para>A 32-bit kernel can only use the first 2&nbsp;GB of
	    <acronym>RAM</acronym>.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>&arch.sparc64;</term>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Systems supported by &os;/&arch.sparc64; are listed at
	    the FreeBSD/sparc64 Project (<link
	      xlink:href="&url.base;/platforms/sparc.html">http://www.freebsd.org/platforms/sparc.html</link>).</para>

	  <para><acronym>SMP</acronym> is supported on all systems
	    with more than 1 processor.  A dedicated disk is required
	    as it is not possible to share a disk with another
	    operating system at this time.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-pre">
    <title>Pre-Installation Tasks</title>

    <para>Once it has been determined that the system meets the
      minimum hardware requirements for installing &os;, the
      installation file should be downloaded and the installation
      media prepared.  Before doing this, check that the system is
      ready for an installation by verifying the items in this
      checklist:</para>

    <procedure>
      <step>
	<title>Back Up Important Data</title>

	<para>Before installing any operating system,
	  <emphasis>always</emphasis> backup all important data first.
	  Do not store the backup on the system being installed.
	  Instead, save the data to a removable disk such as a
	  <acronym>USB</acronym> drive, another system on the network,
	  or an online backup service.  Test the backup before
	  starting the installation to make sure it contains all of
	  the needed files.  Once the installer formats the system's
	  disk, all data stored on that disk will be lost.</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<title>Decide Where to Install &os;</title>

	<para>If &os; will be the only operating system installed,
	  this step can be skipped.  But if &os; will share the disk
	  with another operating system, decide which disk or
	  partition will be used for &os;.</para>

	<para>In the &arch.i386; and &arch.amd64; architectures, disks
	  can be divided into multiple partitions using one of two
	  partitioning schemes.  A traditional <firstterm>Master Boot
	    Record</firstterm> (<acronym>MBR</acronym>) holds a
	  partition table defining up to four <firstterm>primary
	    partitions</firstterm>.  For historical reasons, &os;
	  calls these primary partition
	  <firstterm>slices</firstterm>.  One of these primary
	  partitions can be made into an <firstterm>extended
	    partition</firstterm> containing multiple
	  <firstterm>logical partitions</firstterm>.  The
	  <firstterm>GUID Partition Table</firstterm>
	  (<acronym>GPT</acronym>) is a newer and simpler method of
	  partitioning a disk.  Common <acronym>GPT</acronym>
	  implementations allow up to 128 partitions per disk,
	  eliminating the need for logical partitions.</para>

	<warning>
	  <para>Some older operating systems, like &windows;&nbsp;XP,
	    are not compatible with the <acronym>GPT</acronym>
	    partition scheme.  If &os; will be sharing a disk with
	    such an operating system, <acronym>MBR</acronym>
	    partitioning is required.</para>
	</warning>

	<para>The &os; boot loader requires either a primary or
	  <acronym>GPT</acronym> partition.  If all of the primary or
	  <acronym>GPT</acronym> partitions are already in use, one
	  must be freed for &os;.  To create a partition without
	  deleting existing data, use a partition resizing tool to
	  shrink an existing partition and create a new partition
	  using the freed space.</para>

	<para>A variety of free and commercial partition resizing
	  tools are listed at <link
	    xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_disk_partitioning_software">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_disk_partitioning_software</link>.
	  <application>GParted Live</application> (<link
	    xlink:href="http://gparted.sourceforge.net/livecd.php">http://gparted.sourceforge.net/livecd.php</link>)
	  is a free live <acronym>CD</acronym> which includes the
	  <application>GParted</application> partition editor.
	  <application>GParted</application> is also included with
	  many other Linux live <acronym>CD</acronym>
	  distributions.</para>

	<warning>
	  <para>When used properly, disk shrinking utilities can
	    safely create space for creating a new partition.  Since
	    the possibility of selecting the wrong partition exists,
	    always backup any important data and verify the integrity
	    of the backup before modifying disk partitions.</para>
	</warning>

	<para>Disk partitions containing different operating systems
	  make it possible to install multiple operating systems on
	  one computer.  An alternative is to use virtualization
	  (<xref linkend="virtualization"/>) which allows multiple
	  operating systems to run at the same time without modifying
	  any disk partitions.</para>
      </step>

      <step>
	<title>Collect Network Information</title>

	<para>Some &os; installation methods require a network
	  connection in order to download the installation files.
	  After any installation, the installer will offer to setup
	  the system's network interfaces.</para>

	<para>If the network has a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server, it
	  can be used to provide automatic network configuration.  If
	  <acronym>DHCP</acronym> is not available, the following
	  network information for the system must be obtained from the
	  local network administrator or Internet service
	  provider:</para>

	<orderedlist xml:id="bsdinstall-collect-network-information">
	  <title>Required Network Information</title>

	  <listitem>
	    <para><acronym>IP</acronym> address</para>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Subnet mask</para>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para><acronym>IP</acronym> address of default
	      gateway</para>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Domain name of the network</para>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para><acronym>IP</acronym> addresses of the network's
	      <acronym>DNS</acronym> servers</para>
	  </listitem>
	</orderedlist>
      </step>

      <step>
	<title>Check for &os; Errata</title>

	<para>Although the &os;&nbsp;Project strives to ensure that
	  each release of &os; is as stable as possible, bugs
	  occasionally creep into the process.  On very rare occasions
	  those bugs affect the installation process.  As these
	  problems are discovered and fixed, they are noted in the
	  &os; Errata (<link
	    xlink:href="&url.base;/releases/&rel.current;R/errata.html">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/&rel.current;R/errata.html</link>)
	  on the &os; web site.  Check the errata before installing to
	  make sure that there are no problems that might affect the
	  installation.</para>

	<para>Information and errata for all the releases can be found
	  on the release information section of the &os; web site
	  (<link
	    xlink:href="&url.base;/releases/index.html">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>).</para>
      </step>
    </procedure>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-installation-media">
      <title>Prepare the Installation Media</title>

      <para>The &os; installer is not an application that can be run
	from within another operating system.  Instead, download a
	&os; installation file, burn it to the media associated with
	its file type and size (<acronym>CD</acronym>,
	<acronym>DVD</acronym>, or <acronym>USB</acronym>), and boot
	the system to install from the inserted media.</para>

      <para>&os; installation files are available at <link
	  xlink:href="&url.base;/where.html#download">www.freebsd.org/where.html#download</link>.
	Each installation file's name includes the release version of
	&os;, the architecture, and the type of file.  For example, to
	install &os; 10.0 on an &arch.amd64; system from a
	<acronym>DVD</acronym>, download
	<filename>FreeBSD-10.0-RELEASE-amd64-dvd1.iso</filename>, burn
	this file to a <acronym>DVD</acronym>, and boot the system
	with the <acronym>DVD</acronym> inserted.</para>

      <para>Several file types are available, though not all file
	types are available for all architectures.  The possible file
	types are:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>-bootonly.iso</literal>: This is the smallest
	    installation file as it only contains the installer.  A
	    working Internet connection is required during
	    installation as the installer will download the files it
	    needs to complete the &os; installation.  This file should
	    be burned to a <acronym>CD</acronym> using a
	    <acronym>CD</acronym> burning application.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>-disc1.iso</literal>: This file contains all
	    of the files needed to install &os;, its source, and the
	    Ports Collection.  It should be burned to a
	    <acronym>CD</acronym> using a <acronym>CD</acronym>
	    burning application.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>-dvd1.iso</literal>: This file contains all
	    of the files needed to install &os;, its source, and the
	    Ports Collection.  It also contains a set of popular
	    binary packages for installing a window manager and some
	    applications so that a complete system can be installed
	    from media without requiring a connection to the Internet.
	    This file should be burned to a <acronym>DVD</acronym>
	    using a <acronym>DVD</acronym> burning application.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>-memstick.img</literal>: This file contains
	    all of the files needed to install &os;, its source, and
	    the Ports Collection.  It should be burned to a
	    <acronym>USB</acronym> stick using the instructions
	    below.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>Also download <filename>CHECKSUM.SHA256</filename> from
	the same directory as the image file and use it to check the
	image file's integrity by calculating a
	<firstterm>checksum</firstterm>.  &os; provides &man.sha256.1;
	for this, while other operating systems have similar programs.
	Compare the calculated checksum with the one shown in
	<filename>CHECKSUM.SHA256</filename>.  The checksums must
	match exactly.  If the checksums do not match, the file is
	corrupt and should be downloaded again.</para>

      <sect3 xml:id="bsdinstall-usb">
	<title>Writing an Image File to <acronym>USB</acronym></title>

	<para>The <filename>*.img</filename> file is an
	  <emphasis>image</emphasis> of the complete contents of a
	  memory stick.  It <emphasis>cannot</emphasis> be copied
	  to the target device as a file.  Several applications are available
	  for writing the <filename>*.img</filename> to a
	  <acronym>USB</acronym> stick.  This section describes two of
	  these utilities.</para>

	<important>
	  <para>Before proceeding, back up any important data on the
	    <acronym>USB</acronym> stick.  This procedure will erase
	    the existing data on the stick.</para>
	</important>

	<procedure xml:id="bsdinstall-usb-dd">
	  <title>Using <command>dd</command> to Write the
	    Image</title>

	  <warning>
	    <para>This example uses <filename>/dev/da0</filename> as
	      the target device where the image will be written.  Be
	      <emphasis>very careful</emphasis> that the correct
	      device is used as this command will destroy the existing
	      data on the specified target device.</para>
	  </warning>

	  <step>
	    <para>The &man.dd.1; command-line utility is
	      available on BSD, &linux;, and &macos; systems.  To burn
	      the image using <command>dd</command>, insert the
	      <acronym>USB</acronym> stick and determine its device
	      name.  Then, specify the name of the downloaded
	      installation file and the device name for the
	      <acronym>USB</acronym> stick.  This example burns the
	      &arch.amd64; installation image to the first
	      <acronym>USB</acronym> device on an existing &os;
	      system.</para>

	    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=<replaceable>FreeBSD-10.0-RELEASE-amd64-memstick.img</replaceable> of=/dev/<replaceable>da0</replaceable> bs=64k</userinput></screen>

	    <para>If this command fails, verify that the
	      <acronym>USB</acronym> stick is not mounted and that the
	      device name is for the disk, not a partition.  Some
	      operating systems might require this command to be run
	      with &man.sudo.8;.  Systems like &linux; might buffer
	      writes.  To force all writes to complete, use
	      &man.sync.8;.</para>
	  </step>
	</procedure>

	<procedure>
	  <title>Using &windows; to Write the Image</title>

	  <warning>
	    <para>Be sure to give the correct drive letter as the
	      existing data on the specified drive will be overwritten
	      and destroyed.</para>
	  </warning>

	  <step>
	    <title>Obtaining <application>Image Writer for
		&windows;</application></title>

	    <para><application>Image Writer for
		&windows;</application> is a free application that can
	      correctly write an image file to a memory stick.
	      Download it from <uri
		xlink:href="https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/">https://launchpad.net/win32-image-writer/</uri>
	      and extract it into a folder.</para>
	  </step>

	  <step>
	    <title>Writing the Image with Image Writer</title>

	    <para>Double-click the
	      <application>Win32DiskImager</application> icon to start
	      the program.  Verify that the drive letter shown under
	      <computeroutput>Device</computeroutput> is the drive
	      with the memory stick.  Click the folder icon and select
	      the image to be written to the memory stick.  Click
	      <guibutton>[&nbsp;Save&nbsp;]</guibutton> to accept the
	      image file name.  Verify that everything is correct, and
	      that no folders on the memory stick are open in other
	      windows.  When everything is ready, click
	      <guibutton>[&nbsp;Write&nbsp;]</guibutton> to write the
	      image file to the memory stick.</para>
	  </step>
	</procedure>

	<para>You are now ready to start installing &os;.</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-start">
    <title>Starting the Installation</title>

    <important>
      <para>By default, the installation will not make any changes to
	the disk(s) before the following message:</para>

      <programlisting>Your changes will now be written to disk.  If you
have chosen to overwrite existing data, it will
be PERMANENTLY ERASED. Are you sure you want to
commit your changes?</programlisting>

      <para>The install can be exited at any time prior to this
	warning.  If
	there is a concern that something is incorrectly configured,
	just turn the computer off before this point and no changes
	will be made to the system's disks.</para>
    </important>

    <para>This section describes how to boot the system from the
      installation media which was prepared using the instructions in
      <xref linkend="bsdinstall-installation-media"/>.  When using a
      bootable USB stick, plug in the <acronym>USB</acronym> stick
      before turning on the computer.  When booting from
      <acronym>CD</acronym> or <acronym>DVD</acronym>, turn on the
      computer and insert the media at the first opportunity.  How to
      configure the system to boot from the inserted media depends
      upon the architecture.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-starting-i386">
      <title>Booting on &i386; and &arch.amd64;</title>

      <para>These architectures provide a <acronym>BIOS</acronym>
	menu for selecting the boot device.  Depending upon the
	installation media being used, select the
	<acronym>CD</acronym>/<acronym>DVD</acronym> or
	<acronym>USB</acronym> device as the first boot device.  Most
	systems also provide a key for selecting the boot device
	during startup without having to enter the
	<acronym>BIOS</acronym>.  Typically, the key is either
	<keycap>F10</keycap>, <keycap>F11</keycap>,
	<keycap>F12</keycap>, or <keycap>Escape</keycap>.</para>

      <para>If the computer loads the existing operating system
	instead of the &os; installer, then either:</para>

      <orderedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para>The installation media was not inserted early enough
	    in the boot process.  Leave the media inserted and try
	    restarting the computer.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The <acronym>BIOS</acronym> changes were incorrect or
	    not saved.  Double-check that the right boot device is
	    selected as the first boot device.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>This system is too old to support booting from the
	    chosen media.  In this case, the <application>Plop Boot
	      Manager</application> (<link
	      xlink:href="http://www.plop.at/en/bootmanager.html">http://www.plop.at/en/bootmanager.html</link>)
	    can be used to boot the system from the selected
	    media.</para>
	</listitem>
      </orderedlist>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Booting on &powerpc;</title>

      <para>On most machines, holding <keycap>C</keycap> on the
	keyboard during boot will boot from the <acronym>CD</acronym>.
	Otherwise, hold <keycombo action="simul">
	  <keycap>Command</keycap>
	  <keycap>Option</keycap>
	  <keycap>O</keycap>
	  <keycap>F</keycap>
	</keycombo>, or
	<keycombo action="simul">
	  <keycap>Windows</keycap>
	  <keycap>Alt</keycap>
	  <keycap>O</keycap>
	  <keycap>F</keycap>
	</keycombo> on non-&apple; keyboards.  At the
	<prompt>0 &gt;</prompt> prompt, enter</para>

      <screen><userinput>boot cd:,\ppc\loader cd:0</userinput></screen>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Booting on &sparc64;</title>

      <para>Most &sparc64; systems are set up to boot automatically
	from disk.  To install &os; from a <acronym>CD</acronym>
	requires a break into the <acronym>PROM</acronym>.</para>

      <para>To do this, reboot the system and wait until the boot
	message appears.  The message depends on the model, but should
	look something like this:</para>

      <screen>Sun Blade 100 (UltraSPARC-IIe), Keyboard Present
Copyright 1998-2001 Sun Microsystems, Inc.  All rights reserved.
OpenBoot 4.2, 128 MB memory installed, Serial #51090132.
Ethernet address 0:3:ba:b:92:d4, Host ID: 830b92d4.</screen>

      <para>If the system proceeds to boot from disk at this point,
	press <keycombo
	  action="simul"><keycap>L1</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo>
	or <keycombo
	  action="simul"><keycap>Stop</keycap><keycap>A</keycap></keycombo>
	on the keyboard, or send a <command>BREAK</command> over the
	serial console.  When using <application>tip</application> or
	<application>cu</application>, <command>~#</command> will
	issue a BREAK. The <acronym>PROM</acronym> prompt will be
	<prompt>ok</prompt> on systems with one
	<acronym>CPU</acronym> and <prompt>ok {0} </prompt> on
	<acronym>SMP</acronym> systems, where the digit indicates the
	number of the active <acronym>CPU</acronym>.</para>

      <para>At this point, place the <acronym>CD</acronym> into the
	drive and type <command>boot cdrom</command> from the
	<acronym>PROM</acronym> prompt.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-view-probe">
      <title>&os; Boot Menu</title>

      <para>Once the system boots from the installation media, a menu
	similar to the following will be displayed:</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu">
	<title>&os; Boot Loader Menu</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-newboot-loader-menu"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>By default, the menu will wait ten seconds for user input
	before booting into the &os; installer or, if &os; is already
	installed, before booting into &os;.  To pause the boot timer
	in order to review the selections, press
	<keycap>Space</keycap>.  To select an option, press its
	highlighted number, character, or key.  The following options
	are available.</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Boot Multi User</literal>: This will
	    continue the &os; boot process.  If the boot timer has
	    been paused, press <keycap>1</keycap>, upper- or
	    lower-case <keycap>B</keycap>, or
	    <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Boot Single User</literal>: This mode can be
	    used to fix an existing &os; installation as described in
	    <xref linkend="boot-singleuser"/>.  Press
	    <keycap>2</keycap> or the upper- or lower-case
	    <keycap>S</keycap> to enter this mode.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Escape to loader prompt</literal>: This will
	    boot the system into a repair prompt that contains a
	    limited number of low-level commands.  This prompt is
	    described in <xref linkend="boot-loader"/>.  Press
	    <keycap>3</keycap> or <keycap>Esc</keycap> to boot into
	    this prompt.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Reboot</literal>: Reboots the system.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Configure Boot Options</literal>: Opens the
	    menu shown in, and described under, <xref
	      linkend="bsdinstall-boot-options-menu"/>.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-boot-options-menu">
	<title>&os; Boot Options Menu</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-boot-options-menu"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>The boot options menu is divided into two sections.  The
	first section can be used to either return to the main boot
	menu or to reset any toggled options back to their
	defaults.</para>

      <para>The next section is used to toggle the available options
	to <literal>On</literal> or <literal>Off</literal> by pressing
	the option's highlighted number or character.  The system will
	always boot using the settings for these options until they
	are modified.  Several options can be toggled using this
	menu:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>ACPI Support</literal>: If the system hangs
	    during boot, try toggling this option to
	    <literal>Off</literal>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Safe Mode</literal>: If the system still
	    hangs during boot even with <literal>ACPI
	      Support</literal> set to <literal>Off</literal>, try
	    setting this option to <literal>On</literal>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Single User</literal>: Toggle this option to
	    <literal>On</literal> to fix an existing &os; installation
	    as described in <xref linkend="boot-singleuser"/>.  Once
	    the problem is fixed, set it back to
	    <literal>Off</literal>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Verbose</literal>: Toggle this option to
	    <literal>On</literal> to see more detailed messages during
	    the boot process.  This can be useful when troubleshooting
	    a piece of hardware.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>After making the needed selections, press
	<keycap>1</keycap> or <keycap>Backspace</keycap> to return to
	the main boot menu, then press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to
	continue booting into &os;.  A series of boot messages will
	appear as &os; carries out its hardware device probes and
	loads the installation program.  Once the boot is complete,
	the welcome menu shown in <xref
	  linkend="bsdinstall-choose-mode"/> will be displayed.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-choose-mode">
	<title>Welcome Menu</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-choose-mode"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to select the default of
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Install&nbsp;]</guibutton> to enter the
	installer.  The rest of this chapter describes how to use this
	installer.  Otherwise, use the right or left arrows or the
	colorized letter to select the desired menu item.  The
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Shell&nbsp;]</guibutton> can be used to
	access a &os; shell in order to use command line utilities to
	prepare the disks before installation.  The
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Live CD&nbsp;]</guibutton> option can be
	used to try out &os; before installing it.  The live version
	is described in <xref linkend="using-live-cd"/>.</para>

      <tip>
	<para>To review the boot messages, including the hardware
	  device probe, press the upper- or lower-case
	  <keycap>S</keycap> and then <keycap>Enter</keycap> to access
	  a shell.  At the shell prompt, type <command>more
	    /var/run/dmesg.boot</command> and use the space bar to
	  scroll through the messages.  When finished, type
	  <command>exit</command> to return to the welcome
	  menu.</para>
      </tip>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="using-bsdinstall">
    <title>Using <application>bsdinstall</application></title>

    <para>This section shows the order of the
      <application>bsdinstall</application> menus and the type of
      information that will be asked before the system is installed.
      Use the arrow keys to highlight a menu option, then
      <keycap>Space</keycap> to select or deselect that menu item.
      When finished, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to save the selection
      and move onto the next screen.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-keymap">
      <title>Selecting the Keymap Menu</title>

      <para>Depending on the system console being used,
	<application>bsdinstall</application> may initially display
	the menu shown in <xref
	  linkend="bsdinstall-keymap-select-default"/>.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-keymap-select-default">
	<title>Keymap Selection</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-select-default"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>To configure the keyboard layout, press
	<keycap>Enter</keycap> with
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;YES&nbsp;]</guibutton> selected, which will
	display the menu shown in <xref
	  linkend="bsdinstall-config-keymap"/>.  To instead use the
	default layout, use the arrow key to select
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;NO&nbsp;]</guibutton> and press
	<keycap>Enter</keycap> to skip this menu screen.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-config-keymap">
	<title>Selecting Keyboard Menu</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-keymap"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>When configuring the keyboard layout, use the up and down
	arrows to select the keymap that most closely represents the
	mapping of the keyboard attached to the system.  Press
	<keycap>Enter</keycap> to save the selection.</para>

      <note>
	<para>Pressing <keycap>Esc</keycap> will exit this menu and
	  use the default keymap.  If the choice of keymap is not
	  clear, <guimenuitem>United States of America
	    ISO-8859-1</guimenuitem> is also a safe option.</para>
      </note>

      <para>In &os; 10.0-RELEASE and later, this menu has been
	enhanced.  The full selection of keymaps is shown, with the
	default preselected.  In addition, when selecting a different
	keymap, a dialog is displayed that allows the user to try the
	keymap and ensure it is correct before proceeding.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-keymap-10">
	<title>Enhanced Keymap Menu</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-keymap-10"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-hostname">
      <title>Setting the Hostname</title>

      <para>The next <application>bsdinstall</application> menu is
	used to set the hostname for the newly installed
	system.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-config-hostname">
	<title>Setting the Hostname</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-hostname"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Type in a hostname that is unique for the network.  It
	should be a fully-qualified hostname, such as <systemitem
	  class="fqdomainname">machine3.example.com</systemitem>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-components">
      <title>Selecting Components to Install</title>

      <para>Next, <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt to
	select optional components to install.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-config-components">
	<title>Selecting Components to Install</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-components"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Deciding which components to install will depend largely
	on the intended use of the system and the amount of disk space
	available.  The &os; kernel and userland, collectively known
	as the <firstterm>base system</firstterm>, are always
	installed.  Depending on the architecture, some of these
	components may not appear:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>doc</literal> - Additional documentation,
	    mostly of historical interest, to install into
	    <filename>/usr/share/doc</filename>.  The documentation
	    provided by the FreeBSD Documentation Project may be
	    installed later using the instructions in <xref
	      linkend="updating-upgrading-documentation"/>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>games</literal> - Several traditional
	    <acronym>BSD</acronym> games, including
	    <application>fortune</application>,
	    <application>rot13</application>, and others.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>lib32</literal> - Compatibility libraries for
	    running 32-bit applications on a 64-bit version of
	    &os;.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>ports</literal> - The &os; Ports Collection
	    is a collection of files which automates the downloading,
	    compiling and installation of third-party software
	    packages.  <xref linkend="ports"/> discusses how to use
	    the Ports Collection.</para>

	  <warning>
	    <para>The installation program does not check for
	      adequate disk space.  Select this option only if
	      sufficient hard disk space is available.  The &os; Ports
	      Collection takes up about &ports.size; of disk
	      space.</para>
	  </warning>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>src</literal> - The complete &os; source code
	    for both the kernel and the userland.  Although not
	    required for the majority of applications, it may be
	    required to build device drivers, kernel modules, or some
	    applications from the Ports Collection.  It is also used
	    for developing &os; itself.  The full source tree requires
	    1&nbsp;GB of disk space and recompiling the entire &os;
	    system requires an additional 5&nbsp;GB of space.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-netinstall">
      <title>Installing from the Network</title>

      <para>The menu shown in <xref
	  linkend="bsdinstall-netinstall-notify"/> only appears when
	installing from a <filename>-bootonly.iso</filename>
	<acronym>CD</acronym> as this installation media does not hold
	copies of the installation files.  Since the installation
	files must be retrieved over a network connection, this menu
	indicates that the network interface must be first
	configured.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-netinstall-notify">
	<title>Installing from the Network</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-files"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>To configure the network connection, press
	<keycap>Enter</keycap> and follow the instructions in <xref
	  linkend="bsdinstall-config-network-dev"/>.  Once the
	interface is configured, select a mirror site that is
	located in the same region of the world as the computer on
	which &os; is being installed.  Files can be retrieved more
	quickly when the mirror is close to the target computer,
	reducing installation time.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-netinstall-mirror">
	<title>Choosing a Mirror</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-netinstall-mirrorselect"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Installation will then continue as if the installation
	files were located on the local installation media.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-partitioning">
    <title>Allocating Disk Space</title>

    <para>The next menu is used to determine the method for
      allocating disk space.  The options available in the menu
      depend upon the version of &os; being installed.</para>

    <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-guided-manual">
      <title>Partitioning Choices on &os; 9.x</title>

      <mediaobject>
	<imageobject>
	  <imagedata
	    fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-manual"/>
	</imageobject>
      </mediaobject>
    </figure>

    <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu">
      <title>Partitioning Choices on &os; 10.x and Higher</title>

      <mediaobject>
	<imageobject>
	  <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-partmenu"/>
	</imageobject>
      </mediaobject>
    </figure>

    <para><literal>Guided</literal> partitioning automatically sets up
      the disk partitions, <literal>Manual</literal> partitioning
      allows advanced users to create customized partitions from menu
      options, and <literal>Shell</literal> opens a shell prompt where
      advanced users can create customized partitions using
      command-line utilities like &man.gpart.8;, &man.fdisk.8;, and
      &man.bsdlabel.8;.  <literal>ZFS</literal> partitioning, only
      available in &os; 10 and later, creates an optionally encrypted
      root-on-ZFS system with support for <firstterm>boot
	environments</firstterm>.</para>

    <para>This section describes what to consider when laying out the
      disk partitions.  It then demonstrates how to use the different
      partitioning methods.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="configtuning-initial">
      <title>Designing the Partition Layout</title>

      <indexterm><primary>partition layout</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm>
	<primary><filename>/etc</filename></primary>
      </indexterm>
      <indexterm>
	<primary><filename>/var</filename></primary>
      </indexterm>
      <indexterm>
	<primary><filename>/usr</filename></primary>
      </indexterm>

      <para>When laying out file systems, remember that hard drives
	transfer data faster from the outer tracks to the inner.
	Thus, smaller and heavier-accessed file systems should be
	closer to the outside of the drive, while larger partitions
	like <filename>/usr</filename> should be placed toward the
	inner parts of the disk.  It is a good idea to create
	partitions in an order similar to: <filename>/</filename>,
	swap, <filename>/var</filename>, and
	<filename>/usr</filename>.</para>

      <para>The size of the <filename>/var</filename> partition
	reflects the intended machine's usage.  This partition is
	used to hold mailboxes, log files, and printer spools.
	Mailboxes and log files can grow to unexpected sizes
	depending on the number of users and how long log files are
	kept.  On average, most users rarely need more than about a
	gigabyte of free disk space in
	<filename>/var</filename>.</para>

      <note>
	<para>Sometimes, a lot of disk space is required in
	  <filename>/var/tmp</filename>.  When new software is
	  installed, the packaging tools extract a temporary copy of
	  the packages under <filename>/var/tmp</filename>.  Large
	  software packages, like <application>Firefox</application>,
	  <application>OpenOffice</application> or
	  <application>LibreOffice</application> may be tricky to
	  install if there is not enough disk space under
	  <filename>/var/tmp</filename>.</para>
      </note>

      <para>The <filename>/usr</filename> partition holds many of the
	files which support the system, including the &os; Ports
	Collection and system source code.  At least 2 gigabytes is
	recommended for this partition.</para>

      <para>When selecting partition sizes, keep the space
	requirements in mind.  Running out of space in one partition
	while barely using another can be a hassle.</para>

      <indexterm>
	<primary>swap sizing</primary>
      </indexterm>
      <indexterm>
	<primary>swap partition</primary>
      </indexterm>

      <para>As a rule of thumb, the swap partition should be about
	double the size of physical memory (<acronym>RAM</acronym>).
	Systems with minimal <acronym>RAM</acronym> may perform
	better with more swap.  Configuring too little swap can lead
	to inefficiencies in the <acronym>VM</acronym> page scanning
	code and might create issues later if more memory is
	added.</para>

      <para>On larger systems with multiple <acronym>SCSI</acronym>
	disks or multiple <acronym>IDE</acronym> disks operating on
	different controllers, it is recommended that swap be
	configured on each drive, up to four drives.  The swap
	partitions should be approximately the same size.  The
	kernel can handle arbitrary sizes but internal data structures
	scale to 4 times the largest swap partition.  Keeping the swap
	partitions near the same size will allow the kernel to
	optimally stripe swap space across disks.  Large swap sizes
	are fine, even if swap is not used much.  It might be easier
	to recover from a runaway program before being forced to
	reboot.</para>

      <para>By properly partitioning a system, fragmentation
	introduced in the smaller write heavy partitions will not
	bleed over into the mostly read partitions.  Keeping the
	write loaded partitions closer to the disk's edge will
	increase <acronym> I/O</acronym> performance in the
	partitions where it occurs the most.  While
	<acronym>I/O</acronym> performance in the larger partitions
	may be needed, shifting them more toward the edge of the disk
	will not lead to a significant performance improvement over
	moving <filename>/var</filename> to the edge.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-part-guided">
      <title>Guided Partitioning</title>

      <para>When this method is selected, a menu will display the
	available disk(s).  If multiple disks are connected, choose
	the one where &os; is to be installed.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-guided-disk">
	<title>Selecting from Multiple Disks</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-guided-disk"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Once the disk is selected, the next menu prompts to
	install to either the entire disk or to create a partition
	using free space.  If
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Entire&nbsp;Disk&nbsp;]</guibutton> is
	chosen, a general partition layout filling the whole disk is
	automatically created.  Selecting
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Partition&nbsp;]</guibutton> creates a
	partition layout from the unused space on the disk.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-entire-part">
	<title>Selecting Entire Disk or Partition</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-entire-part"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>After the partition layout has been created, review it to
	ensure it meets the needs of the installation.  Selecting
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Revert&nbsp;]</guibutton> will reset the
	partitions to their original values and pressing
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Auto&nbsp;]</guibutton> will recreate the
	automatic &os; partitions.  Partitions can also be manually
	created, modified, or deleted.  When the partitioning is
	correct, select <guibutton>[&nbsp;Finish&nbsp;]</guibutton> to
	continue with the installation.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-review">
	<title>Review Created Partitions</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-review"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-part-manual">
      <title>Manual Partitioning</title>

      <para>Selecting this method opens the partition editor:</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-manual-create">
	<title>Manually Create Partitions</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-create"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Highlight the installation drive
	(<filename>ada0</filename> in this example) and select
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Create&nbsp;]</guibutton> to display a menu
	of available partition schemes:</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme">
	<title>Manually Create Partitions</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-partscheme"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para><acronym>GPT</acronym> is usually the most appropriate
	choice for &arch.amd64; computers.  Older computers that are
	not compatible with <acronym>GPT</acronym> should use
	<acronym>MBR</acronym>.  The other partition schemes are
	generally used for uncommon or older computers.</para>

      <table frame="none" rowsep="1" pgwide="1">
	<title>Partitioning Schemes</title>

	<tgroup cols="2" align="left">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry align="left">Abbreviation</entry>
	      <entry align="left">Description</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry>APM</entry>
	      <entry>Apple Partition Map, used by &powerpc;.</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>BSD</entry>
	      <entry><acronym>BSD</acronym> label without an
		<acronym>MBR</acronym>, sometimes called
		<firstterm>dangerously dedicated mode</firstterm> as
		non-<acronym>BSD</acronym> disk utilities may not
		recognize it.</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>GPT</entry>
	      <entry>GUID Partition Table (<link
		  xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GUID_Partition_Table</link>).</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>MBR</entry>
	      <entry>Master Boot Record (<link
		  xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_boot_record</link>).</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>PC98</entry>
	      <entry><acronym>MBR</acronym> variant used by NEC PC-98
		computers (<link
		  xlink:href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pc9801</link>).</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>VTOC8</entry>
	      <entry>Volume Table Of Contents used by Sun SPARC64 and
		UltraSPARC computers.</entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </table>

      <para>After the partitioning scheme has been selected and
	created, select <guibutton>[&nbsp;Create&nbsp;]</guibutton>
	again to create the partitions.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-part-manual-addpart">
	<title>Manually Create Partitions</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-part-manual-addpart"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>A standard &os; <acronym>GPT</acronym> installation uses
	at least three partitions:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>freebsd-boot</literal> - Holds the &os; boot
	    code.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>freebsd-ufs</literal> - A &os;
	    <acronym>UFS</acronym> file system.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>freebsd-swap</literal> - &os; swap
	    space.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>Another partition type worth noting is
	<literal>freebsd-zfs</literal>, used for partitions that will
	contain a &os; <acronym>ZFS</acronym> file system (<xref
	  linkend="zfs"/>).  Refer to &man.gpart.8; for
	descriptions of the available <acronym>GPT</acronym> partition
	types.</para>

      <para>Multiple file system partitions can be created and some
	people prefer a traditional layout with separate partitions
	for the <filename>/</filename>, <filename>/var</filename>,
	<filename>/tmp</filename>, and <filename>/usr</filename> file
	systems.  See <xref
	  linkend="bsdinstall-part-manual-splitfs"/> for an
	example.</para>

      <para>The <literal>Size</literal> may be entered with common
	abbreviations: <emphasis>K</emphasis> for kilobytes,
	<emphasis>M</emphasis> for megabytes, or
	<emphasis>G</emphasis> for gigabytes.</para>

      <tip>
	<para>Proper sector alignment provides the best performance,
	  and making partition sizes even multiples of 4K-bytes helps
	  to ensure alignment on drives with either 512-byte or
	  4K-byte sectors.  Generally, using partition sizes that are
	  even multiples of 1M or 1G is the easiest way to make sure
	  every partition starts at an even multiple of 4K.  There is
	  one exception: the <emphasis>freebsd-boot</emphasis>
	  partition should be no larger than 512K due to current boot
	  code limitations.</para>
      </tip>

      <para>A <literal>Mountpoint</literal> is needed if the partition
	will contain a file system.  If only a single
	<acronym>UFS</acronym> partition will be created, the
	mountpoint should be <filename>/</filename>.</para>

      <para>The <literal>Label</literal> is a name by which the
	partition will be known.  Drive names or numbers can change if
	the drive is connected to a different controller or port, but
	the partition label does not change.  Referring to labels
	instead of drive names and partition numbers in files like
	<filename>/etc/fstab</filename> makes the system more tolerant
	to hardware changes.  <acronym>GPT</acronym> labels appear in
	<filename>/dev/gpt/</filename> when a disk is attached.  Other
	partitioning schemes have different label capabilities and
	their labels appear in different directories in
	<filename>/dev/</filename>.</para>

      <tip>
	<para>Use a unique label on every partition to avoid
	  conflicts from identical labels.  A few letters from the
	  computer's name, use, or location can be added to the label.
	  For instance, use <literal>labroot</literal> or
	  <literal>rootfslab</literal> for the <acronym>UFS</acronym>
	  root partition on the computer named
	  <literal>lab</literal>.</para>
      </tip>

      <example xml:id="bsdinstall-part-manual-splitfs">
	<title>Creating Traditional Split File System
	  Partitions</title>

	<para>For a traditional partition layout where the
	  <filename>/</filename>, <filename>/var</filename>,
	  <filename>/tmp</filename>, and <filename>/usr</filename>
	  directories are separate file systems on their own
	  partitions, create a <acronym>GPT</acronym> partitioning
	  scheme, then create the partitions as shown.  Partition
	  sizes shown are typical for a 20G target disk.  If more
	  space is available on the target disk, larger swap or
	  <filename>/var</filename> partitions may be useful.  Labels
	  shown here are prefixed with <literal>ex</literal> for
	  <quote>example</quote>, but readers should use other unique
	  label values as described above.</para>

	<para>By default, &os;'s <filename>gptboot</filename> expects
	  the first <acronym>UFS</acronym> partition to be the
	  <filename>/</filename> partition.</para>

	<informaltable frame="none">
	  <tgroup cols="4">
	    <thead>
	      <row>
		<entry>Partition Type</entry>
		<entry>Size</entry>
		<entry>Mountpoint</entry>
		<entry>Label</entry>
	      </row>
	    </thead>

	    <tbody>
	      <row>
		<entry><literal>freebsd-boot</literal></entry>
		<entry><literal>512K</literal></entry>
	      </row>

	      <row>
		<entry><literal>freebsd-ufs</literal></entry>
		<entry><literal>2G</literal></entry>
		<entry><filename>/</filename></entry>
		<entry><literal>exrootfs</literal></entry>
	      </row>

	      <row>
		<entry><literal>freebsd-swap</literal></entry>
		<entry><literal>4G</literal></entry>
		<entry></entry>
		<entry><literal>exswap</literal></entry>
	      </row>

	      <row>
		<entry><literal>freebsd-ufs</literal></entry>
		<entry><literal>2G</literal></entry>
		<entry><filename>/var</filename></entry>
		<entry><literal>exvarfs</literal></entry>
	      </row>

	      <row>
		<entry><literal>freebsd-ufs</literal></entry>
		<entry><literal>1G</literal></entry>
		<entry><filename>/tmp</filename></entry>
		<entry><literal>extmpfs</literal></entry>
	      </row>

	      <row>
		<entry><literal>freebsd-ufs</literal></entry>
		<entry>accept the default (remainder of the
		  disk)</entry>
		<entry><filename>/usr</filename></entry>
		<entry><literal>exusrfs</literal></entry>
	      </row>
	    </tbody>
	  </tgroup>
	</informaltable>
      </example>

      <para>After the custom partitions have been created, select
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Finish&nbsp;]</guibutton> to continue with
	the installation.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-part-zfs">
      <title>Root-on-ZFS Automatic Partitioning</title>

      <para>Support for automatic creation of root-on-ZFS
	installations was added in &os; 10.0-RELEASE.  This
	partitioning mode only works with whole disks and will erase
	the contents of the entire disk.  The installer will
	automatically create partitions aligned to 4k boundaries and
	force <acronym>ZFS</acronym> to use 4k sectors.  This is safe
	even with 512 byte sector disks, and has the added benefit of
	ensuring that pools created on 512 byte disks will be able to
	have 4k sector disks added in the future, either as additional
	storage space or as replacements for failed disks.  The
	installer can also optionally employ <acronym>GELI</acronym>
	disk encryption as described in <xref
	  linkend="disks-encrypting-geli"/>.
	If encryption is enabled, a 2&nbsp;GB unencrypted boot pool
	containing the <filename>/boot</filename> directory is
	created.  It holds the kernel and other files necessary to
	boot the system.  A swap partition of a user selectable size
	is also created, and all remaining space is used for the
	<acronym>ZFS</acronym> pool.</para>

      <para>The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu offers
	a number of options to control the creation of the
	pool.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-menu">
	<title><acronym>ZFS</acronym> Partitioning Menu</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-menu"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Select <keycap>T</keycap> to configure the <literal>Pool
	  Type</literal> and the disk(s) that will constitute the
	pool.  The automatic <acronym>ZFS</acronym> installer
	currently only supports the creation of a single top level
	vdev, except in stripe mode.  To create more complex pools,
	use the instructions in <xref
	  linkend="bsdinstall-part-shell"/> to create the pool.  The
	installer supports the creation of various pool types,
	including stripe (not recommended, no redundancy), mirror
	(best performance, least usable space), and RAID-Z 1, 2, and 3
	(with the capability to withstand the concurrent failure of 1,
	2, and 3 disks, respectively).  while selecting the pool type,
	a tooltip is displayed across the bottom of the screen with
	advice about the number of required disks, and in the case of
	RAID-Z, the optimal number of disks for each
	configuration.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_type">
	<title><acronym>ZFS</acronym> Pool Type</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_type"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Once a <literal>Pool Type</literal> has been selected, a
	list of available disks is displayed, and the user is prompted
	to select one or more disks to make up the pool.  The
	configuration is then validated, to ensure enough disks are
	selected.  If not, select <guibutton>&lt;Change
	  Selection&gt;</guibutton> to return to the list of disks, or
	<guibutton>&lt;Cancel&gt;</guibutton> to change the pool
	type.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-disk_select">
	<title>Disk Selection</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_select"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_invalid">
	<title>Invalid Selection</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-vdev_invalid"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>If one or more disks are missing from the list, or if
	disks were attached after the installer was started, select
	<guibutton>- Rescan Devices</guibutton> to repopulate the list
	of available disks.  To ensure that the correct disks are
	selected, so as not to accidently destroy the wrong disks, the
	<guibutton>- Disk Info</guibutton> menu can be used to inspect
	each disk, including its partition table and various other
	information such as the device model number and serial number,
	if available.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-disk_info">
	<title>Analysing a Disk</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-disk_info"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>The main <acronym>ZFS</acronym> configuration menu also
	allows the user to enter a pool name, disable forcing 4k
	sectors, enable or disable encryption, switch between
	<acronym>GPT</acronym> (recommended) and
	<acronym>MBR</acronym> partition table types, and select the
	amount of swap space.  Once all options have been set to the
	desired values, select the
	<guibutton>&gt;&gt;&gt;&nbsp;Install</guibutton> option at the
	top of the menu.</para>

      <para>If <acronym>GELI</acronym> disk encryption was enabled,
	the installer will prompt twice for the passphrase to be used
	to encrypt the disks.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-geli_password">
	<title>Disk Encryption Password</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-geli_password"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>The installer then offers a last chance to cancel before
	the contents of the selected drives are destroyed to create
	the <acronym>ZFS</acronym> pool.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-zfs-warning">
	<title>Last Chance</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-zfs-warning"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>The installation then proceeds normally.</para>

    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-part-shell">
      <title>Shell Mode Partitioning</title>

      <para>When creating advanced installations, the
	<application>bsdinstall</application> paritioning menus may
	not provide the level of flexibility required.  Advanced users
	can select the <guibutton>Shell</guibutton> option from the
	partitioning menu in order to manually partition the drives,
	create the file system(s), populate
	<filename>/tmp/bsdinstall_etc/fstab</filename>, and mount the
	file systems under <filename>/mnt</filename>.  Once this is
	done, type <command>exit</command> to return to
	<application>bsdinstall</application> and continue the
	installation.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-final-warning">
    <title>Committing to the Installation</title>

    <para>Once the disks are configured, the next menu provides the
      last chance to make changes before the selected hard drive(s)
      are formatted.  If changes need to be made, select
      <guibutton>[&nbsp;Back&nbsp;]</guibutton> to return to the main
      partitioning menu.
      <guibutton>[&nbsp;Revert&nbsp;&amp;&nbsp;Exit&nbsp;]</guibutton>
      will exit the installer without making any changes to the hard
      drive.</para>

    <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-final-confirmation">
      <title>Final Confirmation</title>

      <mediaobject>
	<imageobject>
	  <imagedata
	    fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-confirmation"/>
	</imageobject>
      </mediaobject>
    </figure>

    <para>To instead start the actual installation, select
      <guibutton>[&nbsp;Commit&nbsp;]</guibutton> and press
      <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>

    <para>Installation time will vary depending on the distributions
      chosen, installation media, and speed of the computer.  A series
      of messages will indicate the progress.</para>

    <para>First, the installer formats the selected disk(s) and
      initializes the partitions.  Next, in the case of a bootonly
      media, it downloads the selected components:</para>

    <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-distfile-fetching">
      <title>Fetching Distribution Files</title>

      <mediaobject>
	<imageobject>
	  <imagedata
	    fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-fetching"/>
	</imageobject>
      </mediaobject>
    </figure>

    <para>Next, the integrity of the distribution files is verified
      to ensure they have not been corrupted during download or
      misread from the installation media:</para>

    <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-distfile-verify">
      <title>Verifying Distribution Files</title>

      <mediaobject>
	<imageobject>
	  <imagedata
	    fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-verifying"/>
	</imageobject>
      </mediaobject>
    </figure>

    <para>Finally, the verified distribution files are extracted to
      the disk:</para>

    <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-distfile-extract">
      <title>Extracting Distribution Files</title>

      <mediaobject>
	<imageobject>
	  <imagedata
	    fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-distfile-extracting"/>
	</imageobject>
      </mediaobject>
    </figure>

    <para>Once all requested distribution files have been extracted,
      <application>bsdinstall</application> displays the first
      post-installation configuration screen.  The available
      post-configuration options are described in the next
      section.</para>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-post">
    <title>Post-Installation</title>

    <para>Once &os; is installed,
      <application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt to configure
      several options before booting into the newly installed system.
      This section describes these configuration options.</para>

    <tip>
      <para>Once the system has booted,
	<command>bsdconfig</command> provides a menu-driven method for
	configuring the system using these and additional
	options.</para>
    </tip>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-post-root">
      <title>Setting the <systemitem
	  class="username">root</systemitem> Password</title>

      <para>First, the <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>
	password must be set.  While entering the password, the
	characters being typed are not displayed on the screen.  After
	the password has been entered, it must be entered again.  This
	helps prevent typing errors.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-post-set-root-passwd">
	<title>Setting the <systemitem
	    class="username">root</systemitem> Password</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-post-root-passwd"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-config-network-dev">
      <title>Configuring Network Interfaces</title>

      <para>Next, a list of the network interfaces found on the
	computer is shown.  Select the interface to configure.</para>

      <note>
	<para>The network configuration menus will be skipped if the
	  network was previously configured as part of a
	  <emphasis>bootonly</emphasis> installation.</para>
      </note>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-configure-net-interface">
	<title>Choose a Network Interface</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>If an Ethernet interface is selected, the installer will
	skip ahead to the menu shown in <xref
	  linkend="bsdinstall-configure-net-ipv4"/>.  If a wireless
	network interface is chosen, the system will instead scan for
	wireless access points:</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-wireless-scan">
	<title>Scanning for Wireless Access Points</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-scan"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Wireless networks are identified by a Service Set
	Identifier (<acronym>SSID</acronym>), a short, unique name
	given to each network.  <acronym>SSIDs</acronym> found during
	the scan are listed, followed by a description of the
	encryption types available for that network.  If the desired
	<acronym>SSID</acronym> does not appear in the list, select
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Rescan&nbsp;]</guibutton> to scan again.  If
	the desired network still does not appear, check for problems
	with antenna connections or try moving the computer closer to
	the access point.  Rescan after each change is made.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-wireless-accesspoints">
	<title>Choosing a Wireless Network</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-accesspoints"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Next, enter the encryption information for connecting to
	the selected wireless network.  <acronym>WPA2</acronym>
	encryption is strongly recommended as older encryption types,
	like <acronym>WEP</acronym>, offer little security.  If the
	network uses <acronym>WPA2</acronym>, input the password, also
	known as the Pre-Shared Key (<acronym>PSK</acronym>).  For
	security reasons, the characters typed into the input box are
	displayed as asterisks.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-wireless-wpa2">
	<title>WPA2 Setup</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-wireless-wpa2setup"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Next, choose whether or not an <acronym>IPv4</acronym>
	address should be configured on the Ethernet or wireless
	interface:</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-configure-net-ipv4">
	<title>Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> Networking</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>There are two methods of <acronym>IPv4</acronym>
	configuration.  <acronym>DHCP</acronym> will automatically
	configure the network interface correctly and should be used
	if the network provides a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server.
	Otherwise, the addressing information needs to be input
	manually as a static configuration.</para>

      <note>
	<para>Do not enter random network information as it will not
	  work.  If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available,
	  obtain the information listed in <xref
	    linkend="bsdinstall-collect-network-information"/> from
	  the network administrator or Internet service
	  provider.</para>
      </note>

      <para>If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is available, select
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Yes&nbsp;]</guibutton> in the next menu to
	automatically configure the network interface.  The installer
	will appear to pause for a minute or so as it finds the
	<acronym>DHCP</acronym> server and obtains the addressing
	information for the system.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-net-ipv4-dhcp">
	<title>Choose <acronym>IPv4</acronym> <acronym>DHCP</acronym>
	  Configuration</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-dhcp"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>If a <acronym>DHCP</acronym> server is not available,
	select <guibutton>[&nbsp;No&nbsp;]</guibutton> and input the
	following addressing information in this menu:</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-net-ipv4-static">
	<title><acronym>IPv4</acronym> Static Configuration</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv4-static"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>IP Address</literal> - The
	    <acronym>IPv4</acronym> address assigned to this computer.
	    The address must be unique and not already in use by
	    another piece of equipment on the local network.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Subnet Mask</literal> - The subnet mask for
	    the network.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Default Router</literal> - The
	    <acronym>IP</acronym> address of the network's default
	    gateway.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>The next screen will ask if the interface should be
	configured for <acronym>IPv6</acronym>.  If
	<acronym>IPv6</acronym> is available and desired, choose
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Yes&nbsp;]</guibutton> to select it.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-net-ipv6">
	<title>Choose IPv6 Networking</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para><acronym>IPv6</acronym> also has two methods of
	configuration.    StateLess Address AutoConfiguration
	(<acronym>SLAAC</acronym>) will automatically request the
	correct configuration information from a local router.  Refer
	to <link
	  xlink:href="http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4862">http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4862</link>
	for more information.  Static configuration requires manual
	entry of network information.</para>

      <para>If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is available, select
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Yes&nbsp;]</guibutton> in the next menu to
	automatically configure the network interface.  The installer
	will appear to pause for a minute or so as it finds the router
	and obtains the addressing information for the system.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-net-ipv6-slaac">
	<title>Choose IPv6 SLAAC Configuration</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-slaac"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>If an <acronym>IPv6</acronym> router is not available,
	select <guibutton>[&nbsp;No&nbsp;]</guibutton> and input the
	following addressing information in this menu:</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-net-ipv6-static">
	<title>IPv6 Static Configuration</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-interface-ipv6-static"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>IPv6 Address</literal> - The
	    <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address assigned to this computer.
	    The address must be unique and not already in use by
	    another piece of equipment on the local network.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Default Router</literal> - The
	    <acronym>IPv6</acronym> address of the network's default
	    gateway.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>The last network configuration menu is used to configure
	the Domain Name System (<acronym>DNS</acronym>) resolver,
	which converts hostnames to and from network addresses.  If
	<acronym>DHCP</acronym> or <acronym>SLAAC</acronym> was used
	to autoconfigure the network interface, the <literal>Resolver
	  Configuration</literal> values may already be filled in.
	Otherwise, enter the local network's domain name in the
	<literal>Search</literal> field.  <literal>DNS #1</literal>
	and <literal>DNS #2</literal> are the <acronym>IPv4</acronym>
	and/or <acronym>IPv6</acronym> addresses of the
	<acronym>DNS</acronym> servers.  At least one
	<acronym>DNS</acronym> server is required.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-net-dns-config">
	<title>DNS Configuration</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-configure-network-ipv4-dns"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-timezone">
      <title>Setting the Time Zone</title>

      <para>The next menu asks if the system clock uses
	<acronym>UTC</acronym> or local time.  When in doubt, select
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;No&nbsp;]</guibutton> to choose the more
	commonly-used local time.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-local-utc">
	<title>Select Local or UTC Clock</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-set-clock-local-utc"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>The next series of menus are used to determine the correct
	local time by selecting the geographic region, country, and
	time zone.  Setting the time zone allows the system to
	automatically correct for regional time changes, such as
	daylight savings time, and perform other time zone related
	functions properly.</para>

      <para>The example shown here is for a machine located in the
	Eastern time zone of the United States.  The selections will
	vary according to the geographical location.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-timezone-region">
	<title>Select a Region</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-region"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>The appropriate region is selected using the arrow keys
	and then pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-timezone-country">
	<title>Select a Country</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-country"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Select the appropriate country using the arrow keys and
	press <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-timezone-zone">
	<title>Select a Time Zone</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-zone"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>The appropriate time zone is selected using the arrow keys
	and pressing <keycap>Enter</keycap>.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-timezone-confirmation">
	<title>Confirm Time Zone</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-timezone-confirm"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Confirm the abbreviation for the time zone is correct.  If
	it is, press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue with the
	post-installation configuration.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-sysconf">
      <title>Enabling Services</title>

      <para>The next menu is used to configure which system services
	will be started whenever the system boots.  All of these
	services are optional.  Only start the services that are
	needed for the system to function.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-config-serv">
	<title>Selecting Additional Services to Enable</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-services"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Here is a summary of the services which can be enabled in
	this menu:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>sshd</literal> - The Secure Shell
	    (<acronym>SSH</acronym>) daemon is used to remotely access
	    a system over an encrypted connection.  Only enable this
	    service if the system should be available for remote
	    logins.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>moused</literal> - Enable this service if the
	    mouse will be used from the command-line system
	    console.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>ntpd</literal> - The Network Time Protocol
	    (<acronym>NTP</acronym>) daemon for automatic clock
	    synchronization.  Enable this service if there is a
	    &windows;, Kerberos, or <acronym>LDAP</acronym> server on
	    the network.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>powerd</literal> - System power control
	    utility for power control and energy saving.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-crashdump">
      <title>Enabling Crash Dumps</title>

      <para>The next menu is used to configure whether or not crash
	dumps should be enabled.  Enabling crash dumps can be useful
	in debugging issues with the system, so users are encouraged
	to enable crash dumps.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-config-crashdump">
	<title>Enabling Crash Dumps</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-config-crashdump"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-addusers">
      <title>Add Users</title>

      <para>The next menu prompts to create at least one user account.
	It is recommended to login to the system using a user account
	rather than as <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>.
	When logged in as <systemitem
	  class="username">root</systemitem>, there are essentially no
	limits or protection on what can be done.  Logging in as a
	normal user is safer and more secure.</para>

      <para>Select <guibutton>[&nbsp;Yes&nbsp;]</guibutton> to add new
	users.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-add-user1">
	<title>Add User Accounts</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser1"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Follow the prompts and input the requested information for
	the user account.  The example shown in <xref
	  linkend="bsdinstall-add-user2"/> creates the <systemitem
	  class="username">asample</systemitem> user account.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-add-user2">
	<title>Enter User Information</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser2"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Here is a summary of the information to input:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Username</literal> - The name the user will
	    enter to log in.  A common convention is to use the first
	    letter of the first name combined with the last name, as
	    long as each username is unique for the system.  The
	    username is case sensitive and should not contain any
	    spaces.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Full name</literal> - The user's full name.
	    This can contain spaces and is used as a description for
	    the user account.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Uid</literal> - User <acronym>ID</acronym>.
	    Typically, this is left blank so the system will assign a
	    value.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Login group</literal> - The user's group.
	    Typically this is left blank to accept the default.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Invite <replaceable>user</replaceable> into
	      other groups?</literal> - Additional groups to which the
	    user will be added as a member.  If the user needs
	    administrative access, type <literal>wheel</literal>
	    here.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Login class</literal> - Typically left blank
	    for the default.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Shell</literal> - Type in one of the listed
	    values to set the interactive shell for the user.  Refer
	    to <xref linkend="shells"/> for more information about
	    shells.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Home directory</literal> - The user's home
	    directory.  The default is usually correct.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Home directory permissions</literal> -
	    Permissions on the user's home directory.  The default is
	    usually correct.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Use password-based authentication?</literal>
	    - Typically <literal>yes</literal> so that the user is
	    prompted to input their password at login.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Use an empty password?</literal> -
	    Typically <literal>no</literal> as it is insecure to have
	    a blank password.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Use a random password?</literal> - Typically
	    <literal>no</literal> so that the user can set their own
	    password in the next prompt.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Enter password</literal> - The password for
	    this user.  Characters typed will not show on the
	    screen.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Enter password again</literal> - The password
	    must be typed again for verification.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Lock out the account after
	      creation?</literal> - Typically <literal>no</literal> so
	    that the user can login.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>After entering everything, a summary is shown for review.
	If a mistake was made, enter <literal>no</literal> and try
	again.  If everything is correct, enter <literal>yes</literal>
	to create the new user.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-add-user3">
	<title>Exit User and Group Management</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-adduser3"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>If there are more users to add, answer the <literal>Add
	  another user?</literal> question with
	<literal>yes</literal>.  Enter <literal>no</literal> to finish
	adding users and continue the installation.</para>

      <para>For more information on adding users and user management,
	see <xref linkend="users-synopsis"/>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bsdinstall-final-conf">
      <title>Final Configuration</title>

      <para>After everything has been installed and configured, a
	final chance is provided to modify settings.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-final-config">
	<title>Final Configuration</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-finalconfiguration"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>Use this menu to make any changes or do any additional
	configuration before completing the installation.</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Add User</literal> - Described in <xref
	      linkend="bsdinstall-addusers"/>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Root Password</literal> - Described in <xref
	      linkend="bsdinstall-post-root"/>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Hostname</literal> - Described in <xref
	      linkend="bsdinstall-hostname"/>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Network</literal> - Described in <xref
	      linkend="bsdinstall-config-network-dev"/>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Services</literal> - Described in <xref
	      linkend="bsdinstall-sysconf"/>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Time Zone</literal> - Described in <xref
	      linkend="bsdinstall-timezone"/>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><literal>Handbook</literal> - Download and install the
	    &os; Handbook.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>After any final configuration is complete, select
	<guibutton>Exit</guibutton>.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-final-modification-shell">
	<title>Manual Configuration</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata
	      fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-final-modification-shell"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para><application>bsdinstall</application> will prompt if there
	are any additional configuration that needs to be done before
	rebooting into the new system.  Select
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Yes&nbsp;]</guibutton> to exit to a shell
	within the new system or
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;No&nbsp;]</guibutton> to proceed to the last
	step of the installation.</para>

      <figure xml:id="bsdinstall-final-main">
	<title>Complete the Installation</title>

	<mediaobject>
	  <imageobject>
	    <imagedata fileref="bsdinstall/bsdinstall-mainexit"/>
	  </imageobject>
	</mediaobject>
      </figure>

      <para>If further configuration or special setup is needed,
	select <guibutton>[&nbsp;Live&nbsp;CD&nbsp;]</guibutton> to
	boot the install media into Live <acronym>CD</acronym>
	mode.</para>

      <para>If the installation is complete, select
	<guibutton>[&nbsp;Reboot&nbsp;]</guibutton> to reboot the
	computer and start the new &os; system.  Do not forget to
	remove the &os; install media or the computer may boot from it
	again.</para>

      <para>As &os; boots, informational messages are displayed.
	After the system finishes booting, a login prompt is
	displayed.  At the <prompt>login:</prompt> prompt, enter the
	username added during the installation.  Avoid logging in as
	<systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>.  Refer to
	<xref linkend="users-superuser"/> for instructions on how to
	become the superuser when administrative access is
	needed.</para>

      <para>The messages that appeared during boot can be reviewed by
	pressing <keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> to turn on the
	scroll-back buffer.  The <keycap>PgUp</keycap>,
	<keycap>PgDn</keycap>, and arrow keys can be used to scroll
	back through the messages.  When finished, press
	<keycap>Scroll-Lock</keycap> again to unlock the display and
	return to the console.  To review these messages once the
	system has been up for some time, type <command>less
	  /var/run/dmesg.boot</command> from a command prompt.  Press
	<keycap>q</keycap> to return to the command line after
	viewing.</para>

      <para>If <application>sshd</application> was enabled in <xref
	  linkend="bsdinstall-config-serv"/>, the first boot may be
	a bit slower as the system will generate the
	<acronym>RSA</acronym> and <acronym>DSA</acronym> keys.
	Subsequent boots will be faster.  The fingerprints of the keys
	will be displayed, as seen in this example:</para>

      <screen>Generating public/private rsa1 key pair.
Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.
Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
10:a0:f5:af:93:ae:a3:1a:b2:bb:3c:35:d9:5a:b3:f3 root@machine3.example.com
The key's randomart image is:
+--[RSA1 1024]----+
|    o..          |
|   o . .         |
|  .   o          |
|       o         |
|    o   S        |
|   + + o         |
|o . + *          |
|o+ ..+ .         |
|==o..o+E         |
+-----------------+
Generating public/private dsa key pair.
Your identification has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.
Your public key has been saved in /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
7e:1c:ce:dc:8a:3a:18:13:5b:34:b5:cf:d9:d1:47:b2 root@machine3.example.com
The key's randomart image is:
+--[ DSA 1024]----+
|       ..     . .|
|      o  .   . + |
|     . ..   . E .|
|    . .  o o . . |
|     +  S = .    |
|    +  . = o     |
|     +  . * .    |
|    . .  o .     |
|      .o. .      |
+-----------------+
Starting sshd.</screen>

      <para>Refer to <xref linkend="openssh"/> for more information
	about fingerprints and <acronym>SSH</acronym>.</para>

      <para>&os; does not install a graphical environment by default.
	Refer to <xref linkend="x11"/> for more information about
	installing and configuring a graphical window manager.</para>

      <para>Proper shutdown of a &os; computer helps protect data and
	hardware from damage.  <emphasis>Do not turn off the power
	before the system has been properly shut down!</emphasis>  If
	the user is a member of the <systemitem
	  class="groupname">wheel</systemitem> group, become the
	superuser by typing <command>su</command> at the command line
	and entering the <systemitem
	  class="username">root</systemitem> password.  Then, type
	<command>shutdown -p now</command> and the system will shut
	down cleanly, and if the hardware supports it, turn itself
	off.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="bsdinstall-install-trouble">
    <title>Troubleshooting</title>

    <indexterm>
      <primary>installation</primary>
      <secondary>troubleshooting</secondary>
    </indexterm>
    <para>This section covers basic installation
      troubleshooting, such as common problems people have
      reported.</para>

    <para>Check the Hardware Notes (<link
	xlink:href="&url.base;/releases/index.html">http://www.freebsd.org/releases/index.html</link>)
      document for the version of &os; to make sure the hardware is
      supported.  If the hardware is supported and lock-ups or other
      problems occur, build a custom kernel using the instructions in
      <xref linkend="kernelconfig"/> to add support for devices which
      are not present in the <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel.  The
      default kernel assumes that most hardware devices are in their
      factory default configuration in terms of
      <acronym>IRQ</acronym>s, <acronym>I/O</acronym> addresses, and
      <acronym>DMA</acronym> channels.  If the hardware has been
      reconfigured, a custom kernel configuration file can tell &os;
      where to find things.</para>

    <note>
      <para>Some installation problems can be avoided or alleviated by
	updating the firmware on various hardware components, most
	notably the motherboard.  Motherboard firmware is usually
	referred to as the <acronym>BIOS</acronym>.  Most motherboard
	and computer manufacturers have a website for upgrades and
	upgrade information.</para>

      <para>Manufacturers generally advise against upgrading the
	motherboard <acronym>BIOS</acronym> unless there is a good
	reason for doing so, like a critical update.  The upgrade
	process <emphasis>can</emphasis> go wrong, leaving the
	<acronym>BIOS</acronym> incomplete and the computer
	inoperative.</para>
    </note>

    <para>If the system hangs while probing hardware during boot, or
      it behaves strangely during install, <acronym>ACPI</acronym> may
      be the culprit.  &os; makes extensive use of the system
      <acronym>ACPI</acronym> service on the &arch.i386;,
      &arch.amd64;, and ia64 platforms to aid in system configuration
      if it is detected during boot.  Unfortunately, some bugs still
      exist in both the <acronym>ACPI</acronym> driver and within
      system motherboards and <acronym>BIOS</acronym> firmware.
      <acronym>ACPI</acronym> can be disabled by setting the
      <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled</literal> hint in the third stage
      boot loader:</para>

    <screen><userinput>set hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"</userinput></screen>

    <para>This is reset each time the system is booted, so it is
      necessary to add <literal>hint.acpi.0.disabled="1"</literal> to
      the file <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>.  More
      information about the boot loader can be found in <xref
	linkend="boot-synopsis"/>.</para>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="using-live-cd">
    <title>Using the Live <acronym>CD</acronym></title>

    <para>The welcome menu of <application>bsdinstall</application>,
      shown in <xref linkend="bsdinstall-choose-mode"/>, provides a
      <guibutton>[&nbsp;Live&nbsp;CD&nbsp;]</guibutton> option.  This
      is useful for those who are still wondering whether &os; is the
      right operating system for them and want to test some of the
      features before installing.</para>

    <para>The following points should be noted before using the
      <guibutton>[&nbsp;Live&nbsp;CD&nbsp;]</guibutton>:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>To gain access to the system, authentication is
	  required.  The username is <systemitem
	    class="username">root</systemitem> and the password is
	  blank.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>As the system runs directly from the installation media,
	  performance will be significantly slower than that of a
	  system installed on a hard disk.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>This option only provides a command prompt and not a
	  graphical interface.</para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>
  </sect1>
</chapter>