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<!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     $FreeBSD$
-->

<chapter id="l10n">
  <chapterinfo>
    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<firstname>Andrey</firstname>
	<surname>Chernov</surname>
	<contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
      </author>
    </authorgroup>
    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<firstname>Michael C.</firstname>
	<surname>Wu</surname>
	<contrib>Rewritten by </contrib>
      </author>
      <!-- 30 Nv 2000 -->
    </authorgroup>
  </chapterinfo>

  <title>Localization - I18N/L10N Usage and Setup</title>

  <sect1 id="l10n-synopsis">
    <title>Synopsis</title>

    <para>FreeBSD is a very distributed project with users and
      contributors located all over the world.  This chapter discusses
      the internationalization and localization features of FreeBSD
      that allow non-English speaking users to get real work done.
      There are many aspects of the i18n implementation in both the system
      and application levels, so where applicable we refer the reader
      to more specific sources of documentation.</para>

    <para>After reading this chapter, you will know:</para>
    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem><para>How different languages and locales are encoded
      on modern operating systems.</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>How to set the locale for your login
      shell.</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>How to configure your console for non-English
      languages.</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>How to use X Window System effectively with different
      languages.</para></listitem>
      <listitem><para>Where to find more information about writing
      i18n-compliant applications.</para></listitem>
   </itemizedlist>

    <para>Before reading this chapter, you should:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem><para>Know how to install additional third-party
        applications (<xref linkend="ports">).</para></listitem>
    </itemizedlist>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="l10n-basics">
    <title>The Basics</title>

    <sect2>
      <title>What Is I18N/L10N?</title>
    <indexterm>
      <primary>internationalization</primary>
      <see>localization</see>
    </indexterm>
    <indexterm><primary>localization</primary></indexterm> 

      <para>Developers shortened internationalization into the term I18N,
	counting the number of letters between the first and the last
	letters of internationalization.  L10N uses the same naming
	scheme, coming from <quote>localization</quote>.  Combined
	together, I18N/L10N methods, protocols, and applications allow
	users to use languages of their choice.</para>

      <para>I18N applications are programmed using I18N kits under
	libraries.  It allows for developers to write a simple file and
	translate displayed menus and texts to each language.  We strongly
	encourage programmers to follow this convention.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Why Should I Use I18N/L10N?</title>

      <para>I18N/L10N is used whenever you wish to either view, input, or
	process data in non-English languages.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>What Languages Are Supported in the I18N Effort?</title>

      <para>I18N and L10N are not FreeBSD specific.  Currently, one can
	choose from most of the major languages of the World, including
	but not limited to:  Chinese, German, Japanese, Korean, French,
	Russian, Vietnamese and others.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="using-localization">
    <title>Using Localization</title>

    <para>In all its splendor, I18N is not FreeBSD-specific and is a
      convention.  We encourage you to help FreeBSD in following this
      convention.</para>
    <indexterm><primary>locale</primary></indexterm>

    <para>Localization settings are based on three main terms:
      Language Code, Country Code, and Encoding.  Locale names are
      constructed from these parts as follows:</para>

    <programlisting><replaceable>LanguageCode</replaceable>_<replaceable>CountryCode</replaceable>.<replaceable>Encoding</replaceable></programlisting>

    <sect2>
      <title>Language and Country Codes</title>
      <indexterm><primary>language codes</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>country codes</primary></indexterm>

      <para>In order to localize a FreeBSD system to a specific language
	(or any other I18N-supporting &unix; like systems), the user needs to find out
	the codes for the specific country and language (country
	codes tell applications what variation of given
	language to use).  In addition, web
	browsers, SMTP/POP servers, web servers, etc. make decisions based on
	them.  The following are examples of language/country codes:</para>

      <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Language/Country Code</entry>
	      <entry>Description</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry>en_US</entry>
	      <entry>English - United States</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>ru_RU</entry>
	      <entry>Russian for Russia</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>zh_TW</entry>
	      <entry>Traditional Chinese for Taiwan</entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>

    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Encodings</title>
      <indexterm><primary>encodings</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>ASCII</primary></indexterm>

      <para>Some languages use non-ASCII encodings that are 8-bit, wide
	or multibyte characters, see &man.multibyte.3; for more
	details. Older applications do not recognize them
	and mistake them for control characters.  Newer applications
	usually do recognize 8-bit characters.  Depending on the
	implementation, users may be required to compile an application
	with wide or multibyte characters support, or configure it correctly.
	To be able to input and process wide or multibyte characters, the <ulink 
	url="&url.base;/ports/index.html">FreeBSD Ports Collection</ulink> has provided
	each language with different programs.  Refer to the I18N
	documentation in the respective FreeBSD Port.</para>

      <para>Specifically, the user needs to look at the application
	documentation to decide on how to configure it correctly or to
	pass correct values into the configure/Makefile/compiler.</para>

      <para>Some things to keep in mind are:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Language specific single C chars character sets
	  (see &man.multibyte.3;), e.g.
	    ISO8859-1, ISO8859-15, KOI8-R, CP437.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Wide or multibyte encodings, e.g., EUC, Big5.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>You can check the active list of character sets at the
	<ulink
	url="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA Registry</ulink>.</para>

      <note>
	<para>&os; uses X11-compatible locale encodings instead.</para>
      </note>

    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>I18N Applications</title>

      <para>In the FreeBSD Ports and Package system, I18N applications
	have been named with <literal>I18N</literal> in their names for
	easy identification.  However, they do not always support the
	language needed.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="setting-locale">
      <title>Setting Locale</title>

      <para>Usually it is sufficient to export the value of the locale name
        as <envar>LANG</envar> in the login shell.  This could be done in
	the user's <filename>~/.login_conf</filename> file or in the
	startup file of the user's shell (<filename>~/.profile</filename>,
	<filename>~/.bashrc</filename>, <filename>~/.cshrc</filename>).
	There is no need to set the locale subsets such as
	<envar>LC_CTYPE</envar>, <envar>LC_CTIME</envar>.  Please
	refer to language-specific FreeBSD documentation for more
	information.</para>

      <para>You should set the following two environment variables in your configuration
	files:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
        <indexterm><primary>POSIX</primary></indexterm>
        <listitem>
	  <para><envar>LANG</envar> for &posix; &man.setlocale.3; family
	    functions</para>
	</listitem>

        <indexterm><primary>MIME</primary></indexterm>
	<listitem>
	  <para><envar>MM_CHARSET</envar> for applications' MIME character
	    set</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>This includes the user shell configuration, the specific application
        configuration, and the X11 configuration.</para>

      <sect3>
	<title>Setting Locale Methods</title>
        <indexterm><primary>locale</primary></indexterm>
        <indexterm><primary>login class</primary></indexterm>

	<para>There are two methods for setting locale, and both are
	  described below.  The first (recommended one) is by assigning
	  the environment variables in <link linkend="login-class">login
	  class</link>, and the second is by adding the environment
	  variable assignments to the system's shell <link
	  linkend="startup-file">startup file</link>.</para>

	<sect4 id="login-class">
	  <title>Login Classes Method</title>

	  <para>This method allows environment variables needed for locale
	    name and MIME character sets to be assigned once for every
	    possible shell instead of adding specific shell assignments to
	    each shell's startup file.  <link linkend="usr-setup">User
	    Level Setup</link> can be done by an user himself and <link
	    linkend="adm-setup">Administrator Level Setup</link> require
	    superuser privileges.</para>

	  <sect5 id="usr-setup">
	    <title>User Level Setup</title>

	    <para>Here is a minimal example of a
	      <filename>.login_conf</filename> file in user's home
	      directory which has both variables set for Latin-1
	      encoding:</para>

	    <programlisting>me:\
	:charset=ISO-8859-1:\
	:lang=de_DE.ISO8859-1:</programlisting>

	    <indexterm><primary>Traditional Chinese</primary><secondary>BIG-5 encoding</secondary></indexterm>
	    <para>Here is an example of a 
	       <filename>.login_conf</filename> that sets the variables
	       for Traditional Chinese in BIG-5 encoding.  Notice the many
	       more variables set because some software does not respect
	       locale variables correctly for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean.</para>

	    <programlisting>#Users who do not wish to use monetary units or time formats
#of Taiwan can manually change each variable
me:\
	:lang=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:setenv=LC_ALL=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:setenv=LC_COLLATE=zh_TW.Big5:\ 
	:setenv=LC_CTYPE=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:setenv=LC_MESSAGES=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:setenv=LC_MONETARY=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:setenv=LC_NUMERIC=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:setenv=LC_TIME=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:charset=big5:\
	:xmodifiers="@im=gcin": #Set gcin as the XIM Input Server</programlisting> 

	    <para>See <link linkend="adm-setup">Administrator Level
	      Setup</link> and &man.login.conf.5; for more details.</para>
	  </sect5>

	  <sect5 id="adm-setup">
	    <title>Administrator Level Setup</title>

	    <para>Verify that the user's login class in
	      <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename> sets the correct
	      language.  Make sure these settings
	      appear in <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename>:</para>

	    <programlisting><replaceable>language_name</replaceable>|<replaceable>Account Type Description</replaceable>:\
	:charset=<replaceable>MIME_charset</replaceable>:\
	:lang=<replaceable>locale_name</replaceable>:\
	:tc=default:</programlisting>

	    <para>So sticking with our previous example using Latin-1, it
	      would look like this:</para>

	    <programlisting>german|German Users Accounts:\
	:charset=ISO-8859-1:\
	:lang=de_DE.ISO8859-1:\
	:tc=default:</programlisting>

	    <para>Before changing users Login Classes execute
	      the following command:</para>

	    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf</userinput></screen>

	    <para>to make new configuration in
	      <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename> visible to the system.</para>

	    <bridgehead renderas=sect4>Changing Login Classes with &man.vipw.8;</bridgehead>

	    <indexterm>
        <primary><command>vipw</command></primary>
      </indexterm>
	    <para>Use <command>vipw</command> to add new users, and make
	      the entry look like this:</para>

	    <programlisting>user:password:1111:11:<replaceable>language</replaceable>:0:0:User Name:/home/user:/bin/sh</programlisting>

	    <bridgehead renderas=sect4>Changing Login Classes with &man.adduser.8;</bridgehead>

	    <indexterm>
        <primary><command>adduser</command></primary>
      </indexterm>
	    <indexterm><primary>login class</primary></indexterm>
	    <para>Use <command>adduser</command> to add new users, and do
	      the following:</para>

	    <itemizedlist>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Set <literal>defaultclass =
		  <replaceable>language</replaceable></literal> in
		  <filename>/etc/adduser.conf</filename>.  Keep in mind
		  you must enter a <literal>default</literal> class for
		  all users of other languages in this case.</para>
	      </listitem>

	      <listitem>
		<para>An alternative variant is answering the specified
		  language each time that 
<screen><prompt>Enter login class: default []: </prompt></screen>
		  appears from &man.adduser.8;.</para>
	      </listitem>

	      <listitem>
		<para>Another alternative is to use the following for each
		  user of a different language that you wish to
		  add:</para>

		<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>adduser -class <replaceable>language</replaceable></userinput></screen>
	      </listitem>
	    </itemizedlist>

	    <bridgehead renderas=sect4>Changing Login Classes with &man.pw.8;</bridgehead>
	    <indexterm>
        <primary><command>pw</command></primary>
      </indexterm>
	    <para>If you use &man.pw.8; for adding new users, call it in
	      this form:</para>

	    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pw useradd <replaceable>user_name</replaceable> -L <replaceable>language</replaceable></userinput></screen>
	  </sect5>
	</sect4>

	<sect4 id="startup-file">
	  <title>Shell Startup File Method</title>

	  <note>
	    <para>This method is not recommended because it requires a
	      different setup for each possible shell program chosen.  Use
	      the <link linkend="login-class">Login Class Method</link>
	      instead.</para>
	  </note>

	  <indexterm><primary>MIME</primary></indexterm>
	  <indexterm><primary>locale</primary></indexterm>
	  <para>To add the locale name and MIME character set, just set
	    the two environment variables shown below in the
	    <filename>/etc/profile</filename> and/or
	    <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename> shell startup files.  We
	    will use the German language as an example below:</para>

	  <para>In <filename>/etc/profile</filename>:</para>

	  <programlisting><envar>LANG=de_DE.ISO8859-1; export LANG</envar>
<envar>MM_CHARSET=ISO-8859-1; export MM_CHARSET</envar></programlisting>

	  <para>Or in <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename>:</para>

	  <programlisting><envar>setenv LANG de_DE.ISO8859-1</envar>
<envar>setenv MM_CHARSET ISO-8859-1</envar></programlisting>

	  <para>Alternatively, you can add the above instructions to
	    <filename>/usr/share/skel/dot.profile</filename> (similar to
	    what was used in <filename>/etc/profile</filename> above), or
	    <filename>/usr/share/skel/dot.login</filename> (similar to
	    what was used in <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename>
	    above).</para>

	  <para>For X11:</para>

	  <para>In <filename>$HOME/.xinitrc</filename>:</para>

	  <programlisting><envar>LANG=de_DE.ISO8859-1; export LANG</envar></programlisting>

	  <para>Or:</para>

	  <programlisting><envar>setenv LANG de_DE.ISO8859-1</envar></programlisting>

	  <para>Depending on your shell (see above).</para>

	</sect4>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="setting-console">
      <title>Console Setup</title>

      <para>For all single C chars character sets, set the correct
	console fonts in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> for the
	language in question with:</para>

      <programlisting>font8x16=<replaceable>font_name</replaceable>
font8x14=<replaceable>font_name</replaceable>
font8x8=<replaceable>font_name</replaceable></programlisting>

      <para>The <replaceable>font_name</replaceable> here is taken from
        the <filename>/usr/share/syscons/fonts</filename> directory,
	without the <filename>.fnt</filename> suffix.</para>

      <indexterm>
        <primary><application>sysinstall</application></primary>
      </indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>keymap</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>screenmap</primary></indexterm>
      <para>If required, set the keymap and screenmap for your
	single C chars character set through
	<command>sysinstall</command>.
	Once inside <application>sysinstall</application>, choose <guimenuitem>Configure</guimenuitem>, then
	<guimenuitem>Console</guimenuitem>.  Alternatively, you can add the
	following to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>scrnmap=<replaceable>screenmap_name</replaceable>
keymap=<replaceable>keymap_name</replaceable>
keychange="<replaceable>fkey_number sequence</replaceable>"</programlisting>
	
      <para>The <replaceable>screenmap_name</replaceable> here is taken
        from the <filename>/usr/share/syscons/scrnmaps</filename>
	directory, without the <filename>.scm</filename> suffix.  A
	screenmap with a corresponding mapped font is usually needed as a
	workaround for expanding bit 8 to bit 9 on a VGA adapter's font
	character matrix in pseudographics area, i.e., to move letters out
	of that area if screen font uses a bit 8 column.</para>

      <para>If you have the <application>moused</application> daemon
	enabled by setting the following
	in your <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

<programlisting>moused_enable="YES"</programlisting>

      <para>then examine the mouse cursor information in the next
	paragraph.</para>

      <indexterm>
        <primary><application>moused</application></primary>
      </indexterm>
      <para>By default the mouse cursor of the &man.syscons.4; driver occupies the
	0xd0-0xd3 range in the character set.  If your language uses this
	range, you need to move the cursor's range outside of it.  To enable
	the workaround for &os;, add the following line to
	<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>mousechar_start=3</programlisting>

      <para>The <replaceable>keymap_name</replaceable> here is taken from
        the <filename>/usr/share/syscons/keymaps</filename> directory,
	without the <filename>.kbd</filename> suffix.  If you are
	uncertain which keymap to use, you use can &man.kbdmap.1; to test
	keymaps without rebooting.</para>

      <para>The <literal>keychange</literal> is usually needed to program
        function keys to match the selected terminal type because
	function key sequences cannot be defined in the key map.</para>

      <para>Also be sure to set the correct console terminal type in
        <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> for all <literal>ttyv*</literal>
	entries.  Current pre-defined correspondences are:</para>

      <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Character Set</entry>
	      <entry>Terminal Type</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry>ISO8859-1 or ISO8859-15</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25l1</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>ISO8859-2</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25l2</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>ISO8859-7</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25l7</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>KOI8-R</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25r</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>KOI8-U</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25u</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>CP437 (VGA default)</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>US-ASCII</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25w</literal></entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>

      <para>For wide or multibyte characters languages, use the correct
	FreeBSD port in your
	<filename>/usr/ports/<replaceable>language</replaceable></filename>
	directory.  Some ports appear as console while the system sees it
	as serial vtty's, hence you must reserve enough vtty's for both
	X11 and the pseudo-serial console.  Here is a partial list of
	applications for using other languages in console:</para>

      <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Language</entry>
	      <entry>Location</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Traditional Chinese (BIG-5)</entry>
	      <entry><filename role="package">chinese/big5con</filename></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><filename role="package">japanese/kon2-16dot</filename> or
	        <filename role="package">japanese/mule-freewnn</filename></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Korean</entry>
	      <entry><filename role="package">korean/han</filename></entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>X11 Setup</title>

      <para>Although X11 is not part of the FreeBSD Project, we have
	included some information here for FreeBSD users.  For more
	details, refer to the <ulink
	url="http://www.x.org/">&xorg;
	web site</ulink> or whichever X11 Server you use.</para>

      <para>In <filename>~/.Xresources</filename>, you can additionally
	tune application specific I18N settings (e.g., fonts, menus,
	etc.).</para>

      <sect3>
	<title>Displaying Fonts</title>
	<indexterm><primary>X11 True Type font server</primary></indexterm>
	<para>Install <application>&xorg;</application> server
	  (<filename role="package">x11-servers/xorg-server</filename>),
	  then install the language &truetype; fonts.  Setting the correct
	  locale should allow you to view your selected language in menus
	  and such.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>Inputting Non-English Characters</title>
	<indexterm><primary>X11 Input Method (XIM)</primary></indexterm>
	<para>The X11 Input Method (XIM) Protocol is a new standard for
	  all X11 clients.  All X11 applications should be written as XIM
	  clients that take input from XIM Input servers.  There are
	  several XIM servers available for different languages.</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Printer Setup</title>

      <para>Some single C chars character sets are usually hardware
	coded into printers. Wide or multibyte
	character sets require special setup and we recommend using
	<application>apsfilter</application>.  You may also convert the
	document to &postscript; or PDF formats using language specific
	converters.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Kernel and File Systems</title>

      <para>The FreeBSD fast filesystem (FFS) is 8-bit clean, so it can be used
	with any single C chars character set (see &man.multibyte.3;),
	but there is no character set
	name stored in the filesystem; i.e., it is raw 8-bit and does not
	know anything about encoding order.  Officially, FFS does not
	support any form of wide or multibyte character sets yet.  However, some
	wide or multibyte character sets have independent patches for FFS
	enabling such support.  They are only temporary unportable
	solutions or hacks and we have decided to not include them in the
	source tree.  Refer to respective languages' web sites for more
	information and the patch files.</para>

      <indexterm><primary>DOS</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>Unicode</primary></indexterm>
      <para>The FreeBSD &ms-dos; filesystem has the configurable ability to
	convert between &ms-dos;, Unicode character sets and chosen
	FreeBSD filesystem character sets.  See &man.mount.msdosfs.8; for
	details.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="l10n-compiling">
    <title>Compiling I18N Programs</title>

    <para>Many FreeBSD Ports have been ported with I18N support.  Some
      of them are marked with -I18N in the port name.  These and many
      other programs have built in support for I18N and need no special
      consideration.</para>

    <indexterm>
      <primary><application>MySQL</application></primary>
    </indexterm>
    <para>However, some applications such as 
      <application>MySQL</application> need to have their
      <filename>Makefile</filename> configured with the specific
      charset.  This is usually done in the
      <filename>Makefile</filename> or done by passing a value to
      <application>configure</application> in the source.</para>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="lang-setup">	
    <title>Localizing FreeBSD to Specific Languages</title>

    <sect2 id="ru-localize">
      <sect2info>
	<authorgroup>
	  <author>
	    <firstname>Andrey</firstname>
	    <surname>Chernov</surname>
	    <contrib>Originally contributed by </contrib>
	  </author>
	</authorgroup>
      </sect2info>
      <title>Russian Language (KOI8-R Encoding)</title>
      <indexterm>
	<primary>localization</primary>
	<secondary>Russian</secondary>
      </indexterm>

      <para>For more information about KOI8-R encoding, see the <ulink
	url="http://koi8.pp.ru/">KOI8-R References
	(Russian Net Character Set)</ulink>.</para>

      <sect3>
	<title>Locale Setup</title>

	<para>Put the following lines into your
	  <filename>~/.login_conf</filename> file:</para>

	<programlisting>me:My Account:\
	:charset=KOI8-R:\
	:lang=ru_RU.KOI8-R:</programlisting>

	<para>See earlier in this chapter for examples of setting up the
	  <link linkend="setting-locale">locale</link>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>Console Setup</title>

	<itemizedlist>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>Add the following line
	      to your <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> file:</para>

	    <programlisting>mousechar_start=3</programlisting>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Also, use following settings in
	      <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

	    <programlisting>keymap="ru.koi8-r"
scrnmap="koi8-r2cp866"
font8x16="cp866b-8x16"
font8x14="cp866-8x14"
font8x8="cp866-8x8"</programlisting>

	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>For each <literal>ttyv*</literal> entry in
	      <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>, use
	      <literal>cons25r</literal> as the terminal type.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</itemizedlist>

	<para>See earlier in this chapter for examples of setting up the
	  <link linkend="setting-console">console</link>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>Printer Setup</title>
	<indexterm><primary>printers</primary></indexterm>
	<para>Since most printers with Russian characters come with
	  hardware code page CP866, a special output filter is needed
	  to convert from KOI8-R to CP866.  Such a filter is installed by
	  default as <filename>/usr/libexec/lpr/ru/koi2alt</filename>.
	  A Russian printer <filename>/etc/printcap</filename> entry
	  should look like:</para>

	<programlisting>lp|Russian local line printer:\
	:sh:of=/usr/libexec/lpr/ru/koi2alt:\
	:lp=/dev/lpt0:sd=/var/spool/output/lpd:lf=/var/log/lpd-errs:</programlisting>

	<para>See &man.printcap.5; for a detailed description.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>&ms-dos; FS and Russian Filenames</title>

	<para>The following example &man.fstab.5; entry enables support
	  for Russian filenames in mounted &ms-dos; filesystems:</para>

	<programlisting>/dev/ad0s2      /dos/c  msdos   rw,-Wkoi2dos,-Lru_RU.KOI8-R 0 0</programlisting>

	<para>The option <option>-L</option> selects the locale name
	  used, and <option>-W</option> sets the character conversion
	  table.  To use the <option>-W</option> option, be sure to
	  mount <filename>/usr</filename> before the &ms-dos; partition
	  because the conversion tables are located in
	  <filename>/usr/libdata/msdosfs</filename>.  For more
	  information, see the &man.mount.msdosfs.8; manual
	  page.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>X11 Setup</title>

	<orderedlist>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>Do <link linkend="setting-locale">non-X locale
	      setup</link> first as described.</para>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>If you use <application>&xorg;</application>,
	    install
	    <filename role="package">x11-fonts/xorg-fonts-cyrillic</filename>
	    package.</para>

	    <para>Check the <literal>"Files"</literal> section
	      in your <filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename> file.
	      The following
	      line must be added <emphasis>before</emphasis> any other
	      <literal>FontPath</literal> entries:</para>

	    <programlisting>FontPath   "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/cyrillic"</programlisting>

	    <note>
	      <para>See ports for more cyrillic fonts.</para></note>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>To activate a Russian keyboard, add the following to the
	      <literal>"Keyboard"</literal> section of your
	      <filename>xorg.conf</filename> file:</para>

	    <programlisting>Option "XkbLayout"   "us,ru"
Option "XkbOptions"  "grp:toggle"</programlisting>

	    <para>Also make sure that <literal>XkbDisable</literal> is
	      turned off (commented out) there.</para>

	    <para>For <literal>grp:toggle</literal>
	      the RUS/LAT switch will be <keycap>Right Alt</keycap>,
	      for <literal>grp:ctrl_shift_toggle</literal> switch will be
	      <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Shift</keycap></keycombo>.
	      For <literal>grp:caps_toggle</literal>
	    the RUS/LAT switch will be <keycap>CapsLock</keycap>.
	    The old <keycap>CapsLock</keycap> function is still
	    available via <keycombo action="simul"><keycap>Shift</keycap><keycap>CapsLock</keycap></keycombo> (in LAT mode
	      only).
	    <literal>grp:caps_toggle</literal> does not work in
	    <application>&xorg;</application> for unknown reason.</para>

	    <para>If you have <quote>&windows;</quote> keys on your keyboard,
	      and notice that some non-alphabetical keys are mapped
	      incorrectly in RUS mode, add the following line in your
	      <filename>xorg.conf</filename> file:</para>

	<programlisting>Option "XkbVariant" ",winkeys"</programlisting>

	    <note>
	      <para>The Russian XKB keyboard may not work with non-localized
		applications.</para>
	    </note>
	  </listitem>
	</orderedlist>
	<note>
	  <para>Minimally localized applications
	    should call a <function>XtSetLanguageProc (NULL, NULL,
	    NULL);</function> function early in the program.</para>
	  <para>See <ulink
	    url="http://koi8.pp.ru/xwin.html">
	    KOI8-R for X Window</ulink> for more instructions on
	    localizing X11 applications.</para>
	</note>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Traditional Chinese Localization for Taiwan</title>
      <indexterm>
	<primary>localization</primary>
	<secondary>Traditional Chinese</secondary>
      </indexterm>
      <para>The FreeBSD-Taiwan Project has an Chinese HOWTO for
	FreeBSD at <ulink url="http://netlab.cse.yzu.edu.tw/~statue/freebsd/zh-tut/"></ulink>
	using many Chinese ports.
	Current editor for the <literal>FreeBSD Chinese HOWTO</literal> is
        Shen Chuan-Hsing <email>statue@freebsd.sinica.edu.tw</email>.
      </para>

      <para>Chuan-Hsing Shen <email>statue@freebsd.sinica.edu.tw</email> has
	created the <ulink url="http://netlab.cse.yzu.edu.tw/~statue/cfc/">
	Chinese FreeBSD Collection (CFC)</ulink> using FreeBSD-Taiwan's
	<literal>zh-L10N-tut</literal>.  The packages and the script files
	are available at <ulink url="ftp://freebsd.csie.nctu.edu.tw/pub/taiwan/CFC/"></ulink>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>German Language Localization (for All ISO 8859-1
	Languages)</title>
      <indexterm>
	<primary>localization</primary>
	<secondary>German</secondary>
      </indexterm>

      <para>Slaven Rezic <email>eserte@cs.tu-berlin.de</email> wrote a
	tutorial on using umlauts on a FreeBSD machine.  The tutorial
	is written in German and is available at
	<ulink url="http://user.cs.tu-berlin.de/~eserte/FreeBSD/doc/umlaute/umlaute.html"></ulink>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Greek Language Localization</title>

      <indexterm>
	<primary>localization</primary>
	<secondary>Greek</secondary>
      </indexterm>
      <para>Nikos Kokkalis <email>nickkokkalis@gmail.com</email> has written
	a complete article on Greek support in &os;.  It is available as
	part of the official &os; Greek documentation, in <ulink
	  url="&url.doc.base;/el_GR.ISO8859-7/articles/greek-language-support/index.html">http://www.freebsd.org/doc/el_GR.ISO8859-7/articles/greek-language-support/index.html</ulink>.
	Please note this is in Greek <emphasis>only</emphasis>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Japanese and Korean Language Localization</title>
      <indexterm>
	<primary>localization</primary>
	<secondary>Japanese</secondary>
      </indexterm>
      <indexterm>
	<primary>localization</primary>
	<secondary>Korean</secondary>
      </indexterm>
      <para>For Japanese, refer to
        <ulink url="http://www.jp.FreeBSD.org/"></ulink>,
	and for Korean, refer to
	<ulink url="http://www.kr.FreeBSD.org/"></ulink>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Non-English FreeBSD Documentation</title>

      <para>Some FreeBSD contributors have translated parts of FreeBSD documentation to
	other languages.  They are available through links on the <ulink
	url="&url.base;/index.html">main site</ulink> or in
	<filename>/usr/share/doc</filename>.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>
</chapter>

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