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<!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     $FreeBSD: doc/en_US.ISO_8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.sgml,v 1.49 2001/04/21 19:34:53 ache Exp $
-->

<chapter id="l10n">
  <title>Localization - I18N/L10N Usage and Setup</title>

  <para><emphasis>Contributed by &a.ache;</emphasis></para>

  <para><emphasis>Rewritten by &a.keichii;, 30 Nov 2000.</emphasis></para>

  <sect1>
    <title>Synopsis</title>

    <para>This section of the handbook discusses the internationalization
      and localization of FreeBSD to different countries and different
      settings.  If the users wish to use languages other than the system
      default English, he/she will have to setup the system accordingly.
      Please note that language support for each language varies in level.
      Hence, the user should contact the respective FreeBSD local group
      that is responsible for each language.</para>

    <para>The author realizes that he may have been incomplete in the
      description of the I18N process in FreeBSD.  Due to the various
      levels of I18N implementation in both the system and application
      levels, we advise you to refer to individual documentation, man
      pages, READMEs, and so forth.</para>

    <para>Should you have any questions or suggestions regarding this
      chapter, please email the author.</para>
  </sect1>

  <sect1>
    <title>The Basics</title>

    <sect2>
      <title>What is I18N/L10N?</title>

      <para>Developers shortened internationalization into the term I18N,
	counting the number of letters between the first and the last
	letters of internationalization.  L10N uses the same naming
	scheme, coming from "localization".  Combined
	together, I18N/L10N methods, protocols, and applications allow
	users to use languages of their choice.</para>

      <para>I18N applications are programmed using I18N kits under
	libraries.  It allows for developers to write a simple file and
	translate displayed menus and texts to each language.  We strongly
	encourage programmers to follow this convention.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Why should I use I18N/L10N?</title>

      <para>I18N/L10N is used whenever you wish to either view, input, or
	process data in non-English languages.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>What languages are supported in the I18N effort?</title>

      <para>I18N and L10N are not FreeBSD specific.  Currently, one can
	choose from most of the major languages of the World, including
	but not limited to:  Chinese, German, Japanese, Korean, French,
	Russian, Vietnamese and others.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="using-localization">
    <title>Using Localization</title>

    <para>In all its splendor, I18N is not FreeBSD-specific and is a
      convention.  We encourage you to help FreeBSD in following this
      convention.</para>

    <para>Localization settings are based on three main terms:
      Language Code, Country Code, and Encoding.  Locale names are
      constructed from these parts as follows:</para>

    <programlisting><replaceable>LanguageCode</replaceable>_<replaceable>CountryCode</replaceable>.<replaceable>Encoding</replaceable></programlisting>

    <sect2>
      <title>Language and Country Codes</title>

      <para>In order to localize a FreeBSD system to a specific language
	(or any other I18N-supporting UNIX's), the user needs to find out
	the codes for the specify country and language (country
	codes tell applications what variation of given
	language to use).  In addition, web
	browsers, SMTP/POP servers, web servers, etc. make decisions based on
	them.  The following are examples of language/country codes:</para>

      <informaltable frame="none">
	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Language/Country Code</entry>
	      <entry>Description</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry>en_US</entry>
	      <entry>English - United States</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>ru_RU</entry>
	      <entry>Russian for Russia</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>zh_TW</entry>
	      <entry>Traditional Chinese for Taiwan</entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>

    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Encodings</title>

      <para>Some languages use non-ASCII encodings that are 8-bit, wide
	or multibyte characters, see &man.multibyte.3; for more
	details. Older applications do not recognize them
	and mistake them for control characters.  Newer applications
	usually do recognize 8-bit characters.  Depending on the
	implementation, users may be required to compile an application
	with wide or multibyte characters support, or configure it correctly.
	To be able to input and process wide or multibyte characters, the <ulink 
	url="../ports/">FreeBSD Ports collection</ulink> has provided
	each language with different programs.  Refer to the I18N
	documentation in the respective FreeBSD Port.</para>

      <para>Specifically, the user needs to look at the application
	documentation to decide on how to configure it correctly or to
	pass correct values into the configure/Makefile/compiler.</para>

      <para>Some things to keep in mind are:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para>Language specific single C chars character sets
	  (see &man.multibyte.3;), i.e.,
	    ISO_8859-1, ISO_8859-15, KOI8-R, CP437.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Wide or multibyte encodings, f.e. EUC, Big5.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>You can check the active list of character sets at the
	<ulink
	url="ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-notes/iana/assignments/character-sets">IANA Registry</ulink>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>I18N applications</title>

      <para>In the FreeBSD Ports and Package system, I18N applications
	have been named with <literal>I18N</literal> in their names for
	easy identification.  However, they do not always support the
	language needed.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="setting-locale">
      <title>Setting Locale</title>

      <para>Theoretically, one only needs to export the value of his/her
	locale name as <envar>LANG</envar> in the login shell and is
	usually done through the user's
	<filename>~/.login_conf</filename> or the user login shell
	configuration (<filename>~/.profile</filename>,
	<filename>~/.bashrc</filename>, <filename>~/.cshrc</filename>).
	This should set all of the locale subsets (such as
	<envar>LC_CTYPE</envar>, <envar>LC_CTIME</envar>, etc.).  Please
	refer to language-specific FreeBSD documentation for more
	information.</para>

      <para>You should set the following two values in your configuration
	files:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
        <listitem>
	  <para><envar>LANG</envar> for POSIX &man.setlocale.3; family
	    functions</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><envar>MM_CHARSET</envar> for applications' MIME character
	    set</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>This includes the user shell config, the specific application
        config, and the X11 config.</para>

      <sect3>
	<title>Setting Locale Methods</title>

	<para>There are two methods for setting locale, and both are
	  described below.  The first (recommended one) is by assigning
	  the environment variables in <link linkend="login-class">login
	  class</link>, and the second is by adding the environment
	  variable assignments to the system's shell <link
	  linkend="startup-file">startup file</link>.</para>

	<sect4 id="login-class">
	  <title>Login Classes Method</title>

	  <para>This method allows environment variables needed for locale
	    name and MIME character sets to be assigned once for every
	    possible shell instead of adding specific shell assignments to
	    each shell's startup file.  <link linkend="usr-setup">User
	    Level Setup</link> can be done by an user himself and <link
	    linkend="adm-setup">Administrator Level Setup</link> require
	    superuser privileges.</para>

	  <sect5 id="usr-setup">
	    <title>User Level Setup</title>

	    <para>Here is a minimal example of a
	      <filename>.login_conf</filename> file in user's home
	      directory which has both variables set for Latin-1
	      encoding:</para>

	    <programlisting>german:German User:\
	:charset=ISO-8859-1:\
	:lang=de_DE.ISO_8859-1:</programlisting>

	    <para>Here is an example of a 
	       <filename>.login_conf</filename> that sets the variables
	       for Traditional Chinese in BIG-5 encoding.  Notice the many
	       more variables set because some software does not respect
	       locale variables correctly for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean.</para>

	    <programlisting>#Users who do not wish to use monetary units or time formats
#of Taiwan can manually change each variable
taiwan:Taiwanese User:\
	lang=zh_TW.Big5:\
	lc_all=zh_TW.Big:\
	lc_collate=zh_TW.Big5:\ 
	lc_ctype=zh_TW.Big5:\
	lc_messages=zh_TW.Big5:\
	lc_monetary=zh_TW.Big5:\
	lc_numeric=zh_TW.Big5:\
	lc_time=zh_TW.Big5:\
	charset=big5:\
	xmodifiers="@im=xcin": #Setting the XIM Input Server</programlisting> 

	    <para>See <link linkend="adm-setup">Administrator Level
	      Setup</link> and &man.login.conf.5; for more details.</para>
	  </sect5>

	  <sect5 id="adm-setup">
	    <title>Administrator Level Setup</title>

	    <para>Check that <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename> have the
	      correct language user's class.  Make sure these settings
	      appear in <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename>:</para>

	    <programlisting><replaceable>language_name</replaceable>:<replaceable>accounts_title</replaceable>:\
	:charset=<replaceable>MIME_charset</replaceable>:\
	:lang=<replaceable>locale_name</replaceable>:\
	:tc=default:</programlisting>

	    <para>So sticking with our previous example using Latin-1, it
	      would look like this:</para>

	    <programlisting>german:German Users Accounts:\
	:charset=ISO-8859-1:\
	:lang=de_DE.ISO_8859-1:\
	:tc=default:</programlisting>

	    <para>Changing Login Classes with &man.vipw.8;</para>

	    <para>Use <command>vipw</command> to add new users, and make
	      the entry look like this:</para>

	    <programlisting>user:password:1111:11:<replaceable>language</replaceable>:0:0:User Name:/home/user:/bin/sh</programlisting>

	    <para>Changing Login Classes with &man.adduser.8;</para>

	    <para>Use <command>adduser</command> to add new users, and do
	      the following:</para>

	    <itemizedlist>
	      <listitem>
		<para>Set <literal>defaultclass =
		  <replaceable>language</replaceable></literal> in
		  <filename>/etc/adduser.conf</filename>.  Keep in mind
		  you must enter a <literal>default</literal> class for
		  all users of other languages in this case.</para>
	      </listitem>

	      <listitem>
		<para>An alternative variant is answering the specified
		  language each time that 
<screen><prompt>Enter login class: default []: </prompt></screen>
		  appears from &man.adduser.8;</para>
	      </listitem>

	      <listitem>
		<para>Another alternative is to use the following for each
		  user of a different language that you wish to
		  add:</para>

		<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>adduser -class <replaceable>language</replaceable></userinput></screen>
	      </listitem>
	    </itemizedlist>

	    <para>Changing Login Classes with &man.pw.8;</para>

	    <para>If you use &man.pw.8; for adding new users, call it in
	      this form:</para>

	    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pw useradd <replaceable>user_name</replaceable> -L <replaceable>language</replaceable></userinput></screen>
	  </sect5>
	</sect4>

	<sect4 id="startup-file">
	  <title>Shell Startup File Method</title>

	  <note>
	    <para>This method is not recommended because it requires a
	      different setup for each possible login program chosen.  Use
	      the <link linkend="login-class">Login Class Method</link>
	      instead.</para>
	  </note>

	  <para>To add the locale name and MIME character set, just set
	    the two environment variables shown below in the
	    <filename>/etc/profile</filename> and/or
	    <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename> shell startup files.  We
	    will use the German language as an example below:</para>

	  <para>In <filename>/etc/profile</filename>:</para>

	  <programlisting><envar>LANG=de_DE.ISO_8859-1; export LANG</envar>
<envar>MM_CHARSET=ISO-8859-1; export MM_CHARSET</envar></programlisting>

	  <para>Or in <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename>:</para>

	  <programlisting><envar>setenv LANG de_DE.ISO_8859-1</envar>
<envar>setenv MM_CHARSET ISO-8859-1</envar></programlisting>

	  <para>Alternatively, you can add the above instructions to
	    <filename>/usr/share/skel/dot.profile</filename> (similar to
	    what was used in <filename>/etc/profile</filename> above), or
	    <filename>/usr/share/skel/dot.login</filename> (similar to
	    what was used in <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename>
	    above).</para>

	  <para>For X11:</para>

	  <para>In <filename>$HOME/.xinitrc</filename>:</para>

	  <programlisting><envar>LANG=de_DE.ISO_8859-1; export LANG</envar></programlisting>

	  <para>Or:</para>

	  <programlisting><envar>setenv LANG de_DE.ISO_8859-1</envar></programlisting>

	  <para>Depending on your shell (see above).</para>
	</sect4>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="setting-console">
      <title>Console Setup</title>

      <para>For all single C chars character sets, set the correct
	console fonts in <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename> for the
	language in question with:</para>

      <programlisting>font8x16=<replaceable>font_name</replaceable>
font8x14=<replaceable>font_name</replaceable>
font8x8=<replaceable>font_name</replaceable></programlisting>

      <para>The <replaceable>font_name</replaceable> here is taken from
        the <filename>/usr/share/syscons/fonts</filename> directory,
	without the <filename>.fnt</filename> suffix.</para>

      <para>Also be sure to set the correct keymap and screenmap for your
	single C chars character set through
	<filename>/stand/sysinstall</filename>.
	Once inside sysinstall, choose <literal>Configure</literal>, then
	<literal>Console</literal>.  Alternatively, you can add the
	following to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>scrnmap=<replaceable>screenmap_name</replaceable>
keymap=<replaceable>keymap_name</replaceable>
keychange="<replaceable>fkey_number sequence</replaceable>"</programlisting>
	
      <para>The <replaceable>screenmap_name</replaceable> here is taken
        from the <filename>/usr/share/syscons/scrnmaps</filename>
	directory, without the <filename>.scm</filename> suffix.  A
	screenmap with a corresponding mapped font is usually needed as a
	workaround for expanding bit 8 to bit 9 on a VGA adapter's font
	character matrix in pseudographics area, i.e., to move letters out
	of that area if screen font uses a bit 8 column.</para>

      <para>If you have the moused daemon enabled by setting the following
	in your <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

<programlisting>moused_enable="YES"</programlisting>

      <para>then examine the mouse cursor information in the next
	paragraph.</para>

      <para>By default the mouse cursor of the syscons driver occupies the
	0xd0-0xd3 range in the character set.  If your language uses this
	range, you need to move the cursor's range outside of it.  To enable
	the workaround for FreeBSD versions before 5.0, insert the following
	line into your kernel config:</para>

      <programlisting>options		SC_MOUSE_CHAR=0x03</programlisting>

      <para>For the FreeBSD versions 5.0 and up insert the following line
	into <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>mousechar_start=3</programlisting>

      <para>The <replaceable>keymap_name</replaceable> here is taken from
        the <filename>/usr/share/syscons/keymaps</filename> directory,
	without the <filename>.kbd</filename> suffix.</para>

      <para>The <literal>keychange</literal> is usually needed to program
        function keys to match the selected terminal type because
	function key sequences can not be defined in the key map.</para>

      <para>Also be sure to set the correct console terminal type in
        <filename>/etc/ttys</filename> for all <literal>ttyv*</literal>
	entries.  Current pre-defined correspondences are:</para>

      <informaltable frame="none">
	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Character Set</entry>
	      <entry>Terminal Type</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry>ISO-8859-1 or ISO-8859-15</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25l1</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>ISO-8859-2</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25l2</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>KOI8-R</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25r</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>KOI8-U</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25u</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>CP437 (hardware default)</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25</literal></entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>

      <para>For wide or multibyte characters languages, use the correct
	FreeBSD port in your
	<filename>/usr/ports/<replaceable>language</replaceable></filename>
	directory.  Some ports appear as console while the system sees it
	as serial vtty's, hence you must reserve enough vtty's for both
	X11 and the pseudo-serial console.  Here is a partial list of
	applications for using other languages in console:</para>

      <informaltable frame="none">
	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Language</entry>
	      <entry>Location</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Traditional Chinese (BIG-5)</entry>
	      <entry><filename>/usr/ports/chinese/big5con</filename></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><filename>/usr/ports/japanese/ja-kon2-*</filename> or
	        <filename>/usr/ports/japanese/Mule_Wnn</filename></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Korean</entry>
	      <entry><filename>/usr/ports/korean/ko-han</filename></entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>X11 Setup</title>

      <para>Although X11 is not part of the FreeBSD Project, we have
	included some information here for FreeBSD users.  For more
	details, refer to the <ulink url="http://www.xfree86.org/">XFree86
	web site</ulink> or whichever X11 Server you use.</para>

      <para>In <filename>~/.Xresources</filename>, you can additionally
	tune application specific I18N settings (e.g., fonts, menus,
	etc.).</para>

      <sect3>
	<title>Displaying Fonts</title>

	<para>Install the X11 True Type-Common server (XTT-common) and
	  install the language truetype fonts.  Setting the correct
	  locale should allow you to view your selected language in menus
	  and such.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>Inputting Non-English Characters</title>

	<para>The X11 Input Method (XIM) Protocol is a new standard for
	  all X11 clients.  All X11 applications should be written as XIM
	  clients that take input from XIM Input servers.  There are
	  several XIM servers available for different languages.</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Printer Setup</title>

      <para>Some single C chars character sets are usually hardware
	coded into printers. Wide or multibyte
	character sets require special setup and we recommend using
	<application>apsfilter</application>.  You may also convert the
	document to Postscript or PDF formats using language specific
	converters.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Kernel and File Systems</title>

      <para>The FreeBSD FFS filesystem is 8-bit clean, so it can be used
	with any single C chars character set (see &man.multibyte.3;),
	but there is no character set
	name stored in the filesystem; i.e., it is raw 8-bit and does not
	know anything about encoding order.  Officially, FFS does not
	support any form of wide or multibyte character sets yet.  However, some
	wide or multibyte character sets have independent patches for FFS
	enabling such support.  They are only temporary unportable
	solutions or hacks and we have decided to not include them in the
	source tree.  Refer to respective languages' web sites for more
	informations and the patch files.</para>

      <para>The FreeBSD MS-DOS filesystem has the configurable ability to
	convert between MS-DOS, Unicode character sets and chosen
	FreeBSD filesystem character sets.  See &man.mount.msdos.8; for
	details.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1>
    <title>Advanced Topics</title>

    <para>If you wish to compile I18N applications or program I18N
      compliant applications, please read this section.</para>

    <sect2>
      <title>Compiling I18N Programs</title>

      <para>Many FreeBSD Ports have been ported with I18N support.  Some
	of them are marked with -I18N in the port name.  These and many
	other programs have built in support for I18N and need no special
	consideration.</para>

      <para>However, some applications such as MySQL need to be have the
	<filename>Makefile</filename> configured with the specific
	charset.  This is usually done in the
	<filename>Makefile</filename> or done by passing a value to
	configure in the source.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Programming I18N Compliant Applications</title>

      <para>To make your application more useful for speakers of other
	languages, we hope that you will program I18N compliant.  The GNU
	gcc compiler, GUI Libraries like QT and GTK support I18N through
	special handling of strings.  Making a program I18N compliant is
	very easy.  It allows contributors to port your application to
	other languages quickly.  Refer to library specific I18N
	documentation for more details.</para>

      <para>To the contrary of common perception, I18N compliant code is
	easy to write.  Usually, it only involves wrapping your strings
	with library specific functions.  In addition, please be sure to
	allow for wide or multibyte characters support.</para>

      <sect3>
	<title>A Call to Unify the I18N effort</title>

	<para>It has come to our attention that the individual I18N/L10N
	  efforts for each country has been repeating each others'
	  efforts.  Many of us have been reinventing the wheel repeatedly
	  and inefficiently.  We hope that the various major groups in
	  I18N could congregate into a group effort similar to the Core
	  Team's responsibility.</para>

	<para>Currently, we hope that, when you write or port I18N
	  programs, you would send it out to each country's related
	  FreeBSD mailing lists for testing.  In the future, we hope to
	  create applications that work in all the languages
	  out-of-the-box without dirty hacks.</para>

	<para>The mailing list <email>FreeBSD-I18N@FreeBSD.org</email>
	  has been established.  If you are an I18N/L10N developer,
	  please send your comments, ideas, questions, and anything
	  you deem related to it. </para>
	
	<para> Michael C. Wu will be maintaining an I18N works in progress
	  homepage at <ulink
	  url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/~keichii/i18n/index.html">http://www.FreeBSD.org/~keichii/i18n/index.html</ulink>
	  Please also read the BSDCon2000 I18N paper and presentations
	  by Clive Lin, Chia-Liang Kao, and Michael C. Wu at <ulink
	  url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/~keichii/papers/">http://www.FreeBSD.org/~keichii/papers/</ulink></para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>Perl and Python</title>

	<para>Perl and Python have I18N and wide characters handling
	  libraries.  Please use them for I18N compliance.</para>

	<para>In older FreeBSD versions,
	  Perl may gives warning about not having a wide characters locale
	  that is already installed in your system.  You can set the
	  environmental variable <envar>LD_PRELOAD</envar> to
	  <filename>/usr/lib/libxpg4.so</filename> in your shell.</para>

	<para>In <literal>sh</literal>-based shells:</para>

	<programlisting><envar>LD_PRELOAD=/usr/lib/libxpg4.so</envar></programlisting>

	<para>In <literal>C</literal>-based shells:</para>

	<programlisting><envar>setenv LD_PRELOAD /usr/lib/libxpg4.so</envar></programlisting>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="lang-setup">
    <title>Localizing FreeBSD to Specific Languages</title>

    <sect2 id="ru-localize">
      <title>Russian Language (KOI8-R encoding)</title>

      <para><emphasis>Originally contributed by
        &a.ache;.</emphasis></para>

      <para>For more information about KOI8-R encoding, see the <ulink
	url="http://koi8.pp.ru/">KOI8-R References
	(Russian Net Character Set)</ulink>.</para>

      <sect3>
	<title>Locale Setup</title>

	<para>Put the following lines into your
	  <filename>~/.login_conf</filename> file:</para>

	<programlisting>me:My Account:\
	:charset=KOI8-R:\
	:lang=ru_RU.KOI8-R:</programlisting>

	<para>See earlier in this chapter for examples of setting up the
	  <link linkend="setting-locale">locale</link>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>Console Setup</title>

	<itemizedlist>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>For the FreeBSD versions before 5.0 add the following line
	      to your kernel configuration file:</para>

	    <programlisting>options		SC_MOUSE_CHAR=0x03</programlisting>

	    <para>For the FreeBSD versions 5.0 and up insert the following
	      line into <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

	    <programlisting>mousechar_start=3</programlisting>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Use following settings in
	      <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

	    <programlisting>keymap="ru.koi8-r"
scrnmap="koi8-r2cp866"
font8x16="cp866b-8x16"
font8x14="cp866-8x14"
font8x8="cp866-8x8"</programlisting>

	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>For each <literal>ttyv*</literal> entry in
	      <filename>/etc/ttys</filename>, use
	      <literal>cons25r</literal> as the terminal type.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</itemizedlist>

	<para>See earlier in this chapter for examples of setting up the
	  <link linkend="setting-console">console</link>.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>Printer Setup</title>

	<para>Since most printers with Russian characters come with
	  hardware code page CP866, a special output filter is needed for
	  KOI8-R -&gt; CP866 conversion.  Such a filter is installed by
	  default as <filename>/usr/libexec/lpr/ru/koi2alt</filename>.
	  A Russian printer <filename>/etc/printcap</filename> entry
	  should look like:</para>

	<programlisting>lp|Russian local line printer:\
	:sh:of=/usr/libexec/lpr/ru/koi2alt:\
	:lp=/dev/lpt0:sd=/var/spool/output/lpd:lf=/var/log/lpd-errs:</programlisting>

	<para>See &man.printcap.5; for a detailed description.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>MS-DOS FS and Russian Filenames</title>

	<para>The following example &man.fstab.5; entry enables support
	  for Russian filenames in mounted MS-DOS filesystems:</para>

	<programlisting>/dev/ad0s2      /dos/c  msdos   rw,-W=koi2dos,-L=ru_RU.KOI8-R 0 0</programlisting>

	<para>See &man.mount.msdos.8; for a detailed description of the
	  <option>-W</option> and <option>-L</option> options.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>X11 Setup</title>

	<orderedlist>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>Do <link linkend="setting-locale">non-X locale
	      setup</link> first as described.</para>

	    <note>
	      <para><anchor id="russian-note">The Russian KOI8-R locale
		may not work with old XFree86 releases (lower than 3.3).
		The XFree86 port from
		<filename>/usr/ports/x11/XFree86</filename> already is the
		most recent XFree86 version, so it will work if you
		install XFree86 from the port.  This should not be an
		issue unless you are using an old version of
		FreeBSD.</para>
	    </note>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Go to the
	      <filename>/usr/ports/russian/X.language</filename> directory
	      and issue the following command:</para>

	    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make install</userinput></screen>
      
	    <para>The above port installs the latest version of the KOI8-R
	      fonts.  XFree86 3.3 already has some KOI8-R fonts, but these
	      are scaled better.</para>

	    <para>Check the <literal>"Files"</literal> section
	      in your <filename>/etc/XF86Config</filename> file.
	      The following
	      lines must be added <emphasis>before</emphasis> any other
	      <literal>FontPath</literal> entries:</para>

	    <programlisting>FontPath   "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/cyrillic/misc"
FontPath   "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/cyrillic/75dpi"
FontPath   "/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fonts/cyrillic/100dpi"</programlisting>

	    <para>If you use a high resolution video mode, swap the 75 dpi
	      and 100 dpi lines.</para>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>To activate a Russian keyboard, add the following to the
	      <literal>"Keyboard"</literal> section of your
	      <filename>XF86Config</filename> file.</para>

	    <para>For XFree86 v3.*:</para>

	    <programlisting>XkbLayout  "ru"
XkbOptions "grp:caps_toggle"</programlisting>

	    <para>For XFree86 v4.*:</para>

	    <programlisting>Option "XkbLayout"   "ru"
Option "XkbOptions"  "grp:caps_toggle"</programlisting>

	    <para>Also make sure that <literal>XkbDisable</literal> is
	      turned off (commented out) there.</para>

	    <para>The RUS/LAT switch will be <literal>CapsLock</literal>.
	      The old <literal>CapsLock</literal> function is still
	      available via <literal>Shift+CapsLock</literal> (in LAT mode
	      only).</para>

	    <para>If you have <quote>Windows</quote> keys on your keyboard,
	      and notice that some non-alphabetical keys are mapped
	      incorrectly in RUS mode, add the following line in your
	      <filename>XF86Config</filename> file.</para>

	    <para>For XFree86 v3.*:</para>

	<programlisting>XkbVariant "winkeys"</programlisting>

	    <para>For XFree86 v4.*:</para>

	<programlisting>Option "XkbVariant" "winkeys"</programlisting>

	    <note>
	      <para>The Russian XKB keyboard may not work with old XFree86
		versions, see the <link linkend="russian-note">above
		note</link> for more information.  The Russian XKB
		keyboard may also not work with non-localized
		applications as well.  Minimally localized applications
		should call a <literal>XtSetLanguageProc (NULL, NULL,
		NULL);</literal> function early in the program.
		See <ulink
		url="http://koi8.pp.ru/xwin.html">
		KOI8-R for X-Window</ulink> for more instructions on
		localizing X11 applications.</para>
	    </note>
	  </listitem>
	</orderedlist>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Traditional Chinese Localization for Taiwan</title>

      <para>The FreeBSD-Taiwan Project has an I18N/L10N tutorial for
	FreeBSD at <ulink url="http://freebsd.sinica.edu.tw/~ncvs/zh-l10n-tut/index.html">http://freebsd.sinica.edu.tw/~ncvs/zh-l10n-tut/index.html</ulink>
	using many <filename>/usr/ports/chinese/*</filename> applications.
	The editor for the <literal>zh-L10N-tut</literal> is Clive Lin
	<email>Clive@CirX.org</email>.  You can also cvsup the following
	collections at <hostid
	role="fqdn">freebsd.sinica.edu.tw</hostid>:</para>

      <informaltable frame="none">
	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Collection</entry>
	      <entry>Description</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry>outta-port tag=.</entry>
	      <entry>Beta-quality Ports Collection for Chinese</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>zh-L10N-tut tag=.</entry>
	      <entry>Localizing FreeBSD Tutorial in BIG-5 Traditional
		Chinese</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>zh-doc tag=.</entry>
	      <entry>FreeBSD Documentation Translation to BIG-5 Traditional
		Chinese</entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>

      <para>Chuan-Hsing Shen <email>s874070@mail.yzu.edu.tw</email> has
	created the <ulink url="http://cnpa.yzu.edu.tw/~cfc/">Chinese
	FreeBSD Collection (CFC)</ulink> using FreeBSD-Taiwan's
	<literal>zh-L10N-tut</literal>.  The packages and the script files
	are available at <ulink url="ftp://ftp.csie.ncu.edu.tw/OS/FreeBSD/taiwan/CFC/">ftp://ftp.csie.ncu.edu.tw/OS/FreeBSD/taiwan/CFC/</ulink>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>German Language Localization (For All ISO 8859-1
	Languages)</title>

      <para>Slaven Rezic <email>eserte@cs.tu-berlin.de</email> wrote a
	tutorial how to use umlauts on a FreeBSD machine.  The tutorial
	is written in German and available at <ulink
	url="http://www.de.FreeBSD.org/de/umlaute/">http://www.de.FreeBSD.org/de/umlaute/</ulink>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Japanese and Korean Language Localization</title>

      <para>For Japanese, refer to <ulink
	url="http://www.jp.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.jp.FreeBSD.org/</ulink>,
	and for Korean, refer to <ulink
	url="http://www.kr.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.kr.FreeBSD.org/</ulink>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Non-English FreeBSD Documentation</title>

      <para>Some FreeBSD contributors have translated parts of FreeBSD to
	other languages.  They are available through links on the <ulink
	url="../">main site</ulink> or in
	<filename>/usr/share/doc</filename>.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>
</chapter>