aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/l10n/chapter.xml
blob: 73dcc7919d2f5e360f660e0cf5182a1032437666 (plain) (blame)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
763
764
765
766
767
768
769
770
771
772
773
774
775
776
777
778
779
780
781
782
783
784
785
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796
797
798
799
800
801
802
803
804
805
806
807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
824
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
834
835
836
837
838
839
840
841
842
843
844
845
846
847
848
849
850
851
852
853
854
855
856
857
858
859
860
861
862
863
864
865
866
867
868
869
870
871
872
873
874
875
876
877
878
879
880
881
882
883
884
885
886
887
888
889
890
891
892
893
894
895
896
897
898
899
900
901
902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
917
918
919
920
921
922
923
924
925
926
927
928
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
946
947
948
949
950
951
952
953
954
955
956
957
958
959
960
961
962
963
964
965
966
967
968
969
970
971
972
973
974
975
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
983
984
985
986
987
988
989
990
991
992
993
994
995
996
997
998
999
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
1023
1024
1025
1026
1027
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
1033
1034
1035
1036
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
<!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     $FreeBSD$
-->
<chapter xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
  xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0"
  xml:id="l10n">
  <info>
    <title>Localization -
      <acronym>i18n</acronym>/<acronym>L10n</acronym> Usage and
      Setup</title>

    <authorgroup>
      <author><personname><firstname>Andrey</firstname><surname>Chernov</surname></personname><contrib>Contributed
	by </contrib></author>
    </authorgroup>
    <authorgroup>
      <author><personname><firstname>Michael
	C.</firstname><surname>Wu</surname></personname><contrib>Rewritten
	by </contrib></author>
      <!-- 30 Nv 2000 -->
    </authorgroup>
  </info>

  <sect1 xml:id="l10n-synopsis">
    <title>Synopsis</title>

    <para>&os; is a distributed project with users and contributors
      located all over the world.  As such, &os; supports localization
      into many languages, allowing users to view, input, or process
      data in non-English languages.  One can choose from most of the
      major languages, including, but not limited to:  Chinese,
      German, Japanese, Korean, French, Russian, and
      Vietnamese.</para>

    <indexterm>
      <primary>internationalization</primary>
	<see>localization</see>
    </indexterm>
    <indexterm><primary>localization</primary></indexterm>

    <para>The term internationalization has been shortened to
      <acronym>i18n</acronym>, which represents the number of letters
      between the first and the last letters of
      <literal>internationalization</literal>.
      <acronym>L10n</acronym> uses the same naming scheme, but from
      <literal>localization</literal>.  The
      <acronym>i18n</acronym>/<acronym>L10n</acronym> methods,
      protocols, and applications allow users to use languages of
      their choice.</para>

    <para>This chapter discusses the internationalization and
      localization features of &os;.  After reading this chapter, you
      will know:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>How locale names are constructed.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to set the locale for a login shell.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to configure the console for non-English
	  languages.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to configure <application>Xorg</application> for
	  different languages.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to find <acronym>i18n</acronym>-compliant
	  applications.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Where to find more information for configuring specific
	  languages.</para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>

    <para>Before reading this chapter, you should:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem><para>Know how to <link linkend="ports">install
	  additional third-party
	  applications</link>.</para></listitem>
    </itemizedlist>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="using-localization">
    <title>Using Localization</title>

    <indexterm><primary>locale</primary></indexterm>

    <para>Localization settings are based on three components:
      the language code, country code, and encoding.  Locale names are
      constructed from these parts as follows:</para>

    <programlisting><replaceable>LanguageCode</replaceable>_<replaceable>CountryCode</replaceable>.<replaceable>Encoding</replaceable></programlisting>

      <indexterm><primary>language codes</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>country codes</primary></indexterm>

      <para>The <replaceable>LanguageCode</replaceable> and
	<replaceable>CountryCode</replaceable> are used to determine
	the country and the specific language variation.  <xref
	  linkend="locale-lang-country"/> provides some examples of
	<replaceable>LanguageCode</replaceable>_<replaceable>CountryCode</replaceable>:</para>

      <table xml:id="locale-lang-country" frame="none" pgwide="1">
	<title>Common Language and Country Codes</title>

	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>LanguageCode_Country Code</entry>
	      <entry>Description</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry>en_US</entry>
	      <entry>English, United States</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>ru_RU</entry>
	      <entry>Russian, Russia</entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>zh_TW</entry>
	      <entry>Traditional Chinese, Taiwan</entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </table>

      <para>A complete listing of available locales can be found by
	typing:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>locale -a | more</userinput></screen>

      <para>To determine the current locale setting:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>locale</userinput></screen>

      <indexterm><primary>encodings</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>ASCII</primary></indexterm>

      <para>Language specific character sets, such as ISO8859-1,
	ISO8859-15, KOI8-R, and CP437, are described in
	&man.multibyte.3;.  The active list of character sets can be
	found at the <link
	  xlink:href="http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets">IANA
	  Registry</link>.</para>

      <para>Some languages, such as Chinese or Japanese, cannot be
	represented using <acronym>ASCII</acronym> characters and
	require an extended language encoding using either wide or
	multibyte characters.  Examples of wide or multibyte encodings
	include EUC and Big5.  Older applications may mistake these
	encodings for control characters while newer applications
	usually recognize these characters.  Depending on the
	implementation, users may be required to compile an
	application with wide or multibyte character support, or to
	configure it correctly.</para>

      <note>
	<para>&os; uses Xorg-compatible locale encodings.</para>
      </note>

      <para>The rest of this section describes the various methods for
	configuring the locale on a &os; system.  The next section
	will discuss the considerations for finding and compiling
	applications with <acronym>i18n</acronym> support.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="setting-locale">
      <title>Setting Locale for Login Shell</title>

      <para>Locale settings are configured either in a user's
	<filename>~/.login_conf</filename>
	or in the startup file of the user's shell:
	<filename>~/.profile</filename>,
	<filename>~/.bashrc</filename>, or
	<filename>~/.cshrc</filename>.</para>

      <para>Two environment
	variables should be set:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><envar>LANG</envar>, which sets the locale<indexterm>
	    <primary>POSIX</primary></indexterm></para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <indexterm><primary>MIME</primary></indexterm>

	  <para><envar>MM_CHARSET</envar>, which sets the
	    <acronym>MIME</acronym> character set used by
	    applications</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>In addition to the user's shell configuration, these
	variables should also be set for specific application
	configuration and <application>Xorg</application>
	configuration.</para>

      <indexterm><primary>locale</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>login class</primary></indexterm>

      <para>Two methods are available for making the needed variable
	assignments: the <link linkend="login-class">login
	  class</link> method, which is the recommended method, and
	the <link linkend="startup-file">startup file</link> method.
	The next two sections demonstrate how to use both
	methods.</para>

      <sect3 xml:id="login-class">
	<title>Login Classes Method</title>

	<para>This first method is the recommended method as it
	  assigns the required environment variables for locale name
	  and <acronym>MIME</acronym> character sets for every
	  possible shell.  This setup can either be performed by each
	  user or it can be configured for all users by the
	  superuser.</para>

	<para>This minimal example sets both variables for Latin-1
	  encoding in the <filename>.login_conf</filename> of an
	  individual user's home directory:</para>

	<programlisting>me:\
	:charset=ISO-8859-1:\
	:lang=de_DE.ISO8859-1:</programlisting>

	<indexterm><primary>Traditional Chinese</primary>
	  <secondary>BIG-5 encoding</secondary></indexterm>

	<para>Here is an example of a user's
	  <filename>~/.login_conf</filename> that sets the variables
	  for Traditional Chinese in BIG-5 encoding.  More variables
	  are needed because some applications do not correctly
	  respect locale variables for Chinese, Japanese, and
	  Korean:</para>

	<programlisting>#Users who do not wish to use monetary units or time formats
#of Taiwan can manually change each variable
me:\
	:lang=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:setenv=LC_ALL=zh_TW.Big5,LC_COLLATE=zh_TW.Big5,LC_CTYPE=zh_TW.Big5,LC_MESSAGES=zh_TW.Big5,LC_MONETARY=zh_TW.Big5,LC_NUMERIC=zh_TW.Big5,LC_TIME=zh_TW.Big5:\
	:charset=big5:\
	:xmodifiers="@im=gcin": #Set gcin as the XIM Input Server</programlisting>

	<para>Alternately, the superuser can configure all users of
	  the system for localization.  The following variables in
	  <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename> are used to set the
	  locale and <acronym>MIME</acronym> character set:</para>

	<programlisting><replaceable>language_name</replaceable>|<replaceable>Account Type Description</replaceable>:\
	:charset=<replaceable>MIME_charset</replaceable>:\
	:lang=<replaceable>locale_name</replaceable>:\
	:tc=default:</programlisting>

	<para>So, the previous Latin-1 example would look like
	  this:</para>

	<programlisting>german|German Users Accounts:\
	:charset=ISO-8859-1:\
	:lang=de_DE.ISO8859-1:\
	:tc=default:</programlisting>

	<para>See &man.login.conf.5; for more details about these
	  variables.  Note that it already contains pre-defined
	  <replaceable>russian</replaceable> class.</para>

	<para>Whenever <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename> is edited,
	  remember to execute the following command to update the
	  capability database:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cap_mkdb /etc/login.conf</userinput></screen>

	<note>
	  <para>For an end user, the <command>cap_mkdb</command> command will
	    need to be run on their <filename>~/.login_conf</filename> for
	    any changes to take effect.</para>
	</note>

	<sect4>
	  <title>Utilities Which Change Login Classes</title>

	  <indexterm>
	    <primary><command>vipw</command></primary>
	  </indexterm>

	  <para>In addition to manually editing
	    <filename>/etc/login.conf</filename>, several utilities
	    are available for setting the locale for newly created
	    users.</para>

	  <para>When using <command>vipw</command> to add new users,
	    specify the <replaceable>language</replaceable> to set the
	    locale:</para>

	  <programlisting>user:password:1111:11:<replaceable>language</replaceable>:0:0:User Name:/home/user:/bin/sh</programlisting>

	  <indexterm>
	    <primary><command>adduser</command></primary>
	  </indexterm>
	  <indexterm><primary>login class</primary></indexterm>

	  <para>When using <command>adduser</command> to add new
	    users, the default language can be pre-configured for all
	    new users or specified for an individual user.</para>

	  <para>If all new users use the same language, set
	    <literal>defaultclass=<replaceable>language</replaceable></literal> in
	    <filename>/etc/adduser.conf</filename>.</para>

	  <para>To override this setting when creating a user, either
	    input the required locale at this prompt:</para>

	  <screen><prompt>Enter login class: default []:</prompt></screen>

	  <para>or specify the locale to set when invoking
	    <command>adduser</command>:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>adduser -class <replaceable>language</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	  <indexterm>
	    <primary><command>pw</command></primary>
	  </indexterm>

	  <para>If <command>pw</command> is used to add new users,
	    specify the locale as follows:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pw useradd <replaceable>user_name</replaceable> -L <replaceable>language</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	  <para>To change the login class of an existing user,
	    <command>chpass</command> can be used.  Invoke it as
	    superuser and provide the username to edit as the
	    argument.</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>chpass <replaceable>user_name</replaceable></userinput></screen>
	  </sect4>
	</sect3>

	<sect3 xml:id="startup-file">
	  <title>Shell Startup File Method</title>

	  <para>This second method is not recommended as each shell
	    that is used requires manual configuration, where each
	    shell has a different configuration file and differing
	    syntax.  As an example, to set the German language for the
	    <command>sh</command> shell, these lines could be added to
	    <filename>~/.profile</filename> to set the shell for that
	    user only.  These lines could also be added to
	    <filename>/etc/profile</filename> or
	    <filename>/usr/share/skel/dot.profile</filename> to set
	    that shell for all users:</para>

	  <programlisting><envar>LANG</envar>=de_DE.ISO8859-1; export <envar>LANG</envar>
<envar>MM_CHARSET</envar>=ISO-8859-1; export <envar>MM_CHARSET</envar></programlisting>

	  <para>However, the name of the configuration file and the
	    syntax used differs for the <command>csh</command> shell.
	    These are the equivalent settings for
	    <filename>~/.csh.login</filename>,
	    <filename>/etc/csh.login</filename>, or
	    <filename>/usr/share/skel/dot.login</filename>:</para>

	  <programlisting>setenv <envar>LANG</envar> de_DE.ISO8859-1
setenv <envar>MM_CHARSET</envar> ISO-8859-1</programlisting>

	  <para>To complicate matters, the syntax needed to configure
	    <application>Xorg</application> in
	    <filename>~/.xinitrc</filename> also depends upon the
	    shell.  The first example is for the <command>sh</command>
	    shell and the second is for the <command>csh</command>
	    shell:</para>

	  <programlisting><envar>LANG</envar>=de_DE.ISO8859-1; export <envar>LANG</envar></programlisting>

	  <programlisting>setenv <envar>LANG</envar> de_DE.ISO8859-1</programlisting>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="setting-console">
      <title>Console Setup</title>

      <para>Several localized fonts are available for the console.  To
	see a listing of available fonts, type
	<command>ls /usr/share/syscons/fonts</command>.  To configure
	the console font, specify the
	<replaceable>font_name</replaceable>,
	without the <filename>.fnt</filename> suffix, in
	<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>font8x16=<replaceable>font_name</replaceable>
font8x14=<replaceable>font_name</replaceable>
font8x8=<replaceable>font_name</replaceable></programlisting>

      <indexterm><primary>keymap</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>screenmap</primary></indexterm>
      <para>The keymap and screenmap  can be set by adding the
	following to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>scrnmap=<replaceable>screenmap_name</replaceable>
keymap=<replaceable>keymap_name</replaceable>
keychange="<replaceable>fkey_number sequence</replaceable>"</programlisting>

      <para>To see the list of available screenmaps, type
	<command>ls /usr/share/syscons/scrnmaps</command>.  Do not
	include the <filename>.scm</filename> suffix when specifying
	<replaceable>screenmap_name</replaceable>.  A screenmap with a
	corresponding mapped font is usually needed as a workaround
	for expanding bit 8 to bit 9 on a VGA adapter's font character
	matrix so that letters are moved out of the pseudographics
	area if the screen font uses a bit 8 column.</para>

      <para>To see the list of available keymaps, type
	<command>ls /usr/share/syscons/keymaps</command>.  When
	specifying the <replaceable>keymap_name</replaceable>, do not
	include the <filename>.kbd</filename> suffix.  To test
	keymaps without rebooting,
	use &man.kbdmap.1;.</para>

      <para>The <literal>keychange</literal> entry is usually needed
	to program function keys to match the selected terminal type
	because function key sequences cannot be defined in the
	keymap.</para>

      <para>Next, set the correct console terminal type in
	<filename>/etc/ttys</filename> for all virtual terminal
	entries.  <xref linkend="locale-charset"/> summarizes the
	available terminal types.:</para>

      <table xml:id="locale-charset" frame="none" pgwide="1">
	<title>Defined Terminal Types for Character Sets</title>

	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Character Set</entry>
	      <entry>Terminal Type</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry>ISO8859-1 or ISO8859-15</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25l1</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>ISO8859-2</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25l2</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>ISO8859-7</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25l7</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>KOI8-R</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25r</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>KOI8-U</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25u</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>CP437 (VGA default)</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>US-ASCII</entry>
	      <entry><literal>cons25w</literal></entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </table>

      <indexterm>
	<primary><application>moused</application></primary>
      </indexterm>

      <para>For languages with wide or multibyte characters, install a
	console for that language from the &os; Ports Collection.  The
	available ports are summarized in <xref
	  linkend="locale-console"/>.  Once installed, refer to the
	port's <filename>pkg-message</filename> or man pages for
	configuration and usage instructions.</para>

      <table xml:id="locale-console" frame="none" pgwide="1">
	<title>Available Console from Ports Collection</title>

	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Language</entry>
	      <entry>Port Location</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Traditional Chinese (BIG-5)</entry>
	      <entry><package>chinese/big5con</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Chinese/Japanese/Korean</entry>
	      <entry><package>chinese/cce</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Chinese/Japanese/Korean</entry>
	      <entry><package>chinese/zhcon</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>chinese/kon2</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/kon2-14dot</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/kon2-16dot</package></entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </table>

      <para>If <application>moused</application> is enabled in
	<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>, additional configuration
	may be required.  By default, the mouse cursor of the
	&man.syscons.4; driver occupies the
	<literal>0xd0</literal>-<literal>0xd3</literal> range in the
	character set.  If the language uses this range, move the
	cursor's range by adding the
	following line to <filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>mousechar_start=3</programlisting>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Xorg Setup</title>

      <para><xref linkend="x11"/> describes how to install and
	configure <application>Xorg</application>.  When configuring
	<application>Xorg</application> for localization, additional
	fonts and input methods are available from the &os; Ports
	Collection.  Application specific <acronym>i18n</acronym>
	settings such as fonts and menus can be tuned in
	<filename>~/.Xresources</filename> and should allow users to
	view their selected language in graphical application
	menus.</para>

      <indexterm><primary>X Input Method (XIM)</primary></indexterm>

      <para>The X Input Method (<acronym>XIM</acronym>) protocol is an
	<application>Xorg</application> standard for  inputting
	non-English characters.  <xref linkend="locale-xim"/>
	summarizes the input method applications which are available
	in the &os; Ports Collection.  Additional Fcitx and Uim
	applications are also available.</para>

      <table xml:id="locale-xim" frame="none" pgwide="1">
	<title>Available Input Methods</title>

	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Language</entry>
	      <entry>Input Method</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Chinese</entry>
	      <entry><package>chinese/gcin</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Chinese</entry>
	      <entry><package>chinese/ibus-chewing</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Chinese</entry>
	      <entry><package>chinese/ibus-pinyin</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Chinese</entry>
	      <entry><package>chinese/oxim</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Chinese</entry>
	      <entry><package>chinese/scim-fcitx</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Chinese</entry>
	      <entry><package>chinese/scim-pinyin</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Chinese</entry>
	      <entry><package>chinese/scim-tables</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/ibus-anthy</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/ibus-mozc</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/ibus-skk</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/im-ja</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/kinput2</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/scim-anthy</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/scim-canna</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/scim-honoka</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/scim-honoka-plugin-romkan</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/scim-honoka-plugin-wnn</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/scim-prime</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/scim-skk</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/scim-tables</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/scim-tomoe</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/scim-uim</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/skkinput</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/skkinput3</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Japanese</entry>
	      <entry><package>japanese/uim-anthy</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Korean</entry>
	      <entry><package>korean/ibus-hangul</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Korean</entry>
	      <entry><package>korean/imhangul</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Korean</entry>
	      <entry><package>korean/nabi</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Korean</entry>
	      <entry><package>korean/scim-hangul</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Korean</entry>
	      <entry><package>korean/scim-tables</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Vietnamese</entry>
	      <entry><package>vietnamese/xvnkb</package></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Vietnamese</entry>
	      <entry><package>vietnamese/x-unikey</package></entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </table>
    </sect2>
<!--
Comment out for now. If needed, can be added as note in new Printing chapter.
    <sect2>
      <title>Printer Setup</title>

      <para>Some single C chars character sets are hardware coded
	into printers.  Wide or multibyte character sets require
	special setup using a utility such as
	<application>apsfilter</application>.  Documents can be
	converted to &postscript; or PDF formats using language
	specific converters.</para>
    </sect2>
Not sure where to put this section, perhaps as a note in the File system chapter?
    <sect2>
      <title>Kernel and File Systems</title>

      <para>The &os; fast filesystem (<acronym>FFS</acronym>) is 8-bit
	clean, so it can be used with any single C chars character
	set.  However, character set names are not stored in the
	filesystem as it is raw 8-bit and does not understand encoding
	order.  Officially, <acronym>FFS</acronym> does not support
	any form of wide or multibyte character sets.  However, some
	wide or multibyte character sets have independent patches for
	enabling support on <acronym>FFS</acronym>.  Refer to the
	respective languages' web sites for more information and the
	patch files.</para>

      <indexterm><primary>DOS</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>Unicode</primary></indexterm>
      <para>&os;'s support for the &ms-dos; filesystem has the
	configurable ability to convert between &ms-dos;, Unicode
	character sets, and chosen &os; filesystem character sets.
	Refer to &man.mount.msdosfs.8; for details.</para>
    </sect2>
        -->
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="l10n-compiling">
    <title>Finding <acronym>i18n</acronym> Applications</title>

    <para><acronym>i18n</acronym> applications are programmed using
      <acronym>i18n</acronym> kits under libraries.  These allow
      developers to write a simple file and translate displayed menus
      and texts to each language.</para>

    <para>The <link xlink:href="&url.base;/ports/index.html">&os;
	Ports Collection</link> contains many applications with
      built-in support for wide or multibyte characters for several
      languages.  Such applications include <literal>i18n</literal> in
      their names for easy identification.  However, they do not
      always support the language needed.</para>

    <para>Some applications can be compiled with the specific
      charset.  This is usually done in the port's
      <filename>Makefile</filename> or by passing a value to
      <application>configure</application>.  Refer to the
      <acronym>i18n</acronym> documentation in the respective &os;
      port's source for more information on how to determine the
      needed <application>configure</application> value  or the port's
      <filename>Makefile</filename> to determine which compile options
      to use when building the port.</para>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="lang-setup">
    <title>Locale Configuration for Specific Languages</title>

    <para>This section provides configuration examples for localizing
      a &os; system for the Russian language.  It then provides some
      additional resources for localizing other languages.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="ru-localize">
      <info>
	<title>Russian Language (KOI8-R Encoding)</title>

	<authorgroup>
	  <author><personname><firstname>Andrey</firstname><surname>Chernov</surname></personname><contrib>Originally
	    contributed by </contrib></author>
	</authorgroup>
      </info>

      <indexterm>
	<primary>localization</primary>
	<secondary>Russian</secondary>
      </indexterm>

      <para>This section shows the specific settings needed to
	localize a &os; system for the Russian language.  Refer to
	<link linkend="using-localization">Using Localization</link>
	for a more complete description of each type of
	setting.</para>

      <para>To set this locale for the login shell, add the following
	lines to each user's
	<filename>~/.login_conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>me:My Account:\
	:charset=KOI8-R:\
	:lang=ru_RU.KOI8-R:</programlisting>

      <para>To configure the console, add the following lines to
	<filename>/etc/rc.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>keymap="ru.koi8-r"
scrnmap="koi8-r2cp866"
font8x16="cp866b-8x16"
font8x14="cp866-8x14"
font8x8="cp866-8x8"
mousechar_start=3</programlisting>

      <para>For each <literal>ttyv</literal> entry in
	<filename>/etc/ttys</filename>, use
	<literal>cons25r</literal> as the terminal type.</para>

      <indexterm><primary>printers</primary></indexterm>
      <para>To configure printing, a special output filter is needed
	to convert from KOI8-R to CP866 since most printers with
	Russian characters come with hardware code page CP866.  &os;
	includes a default filter for this purpose,
	<filename>/usr/libexec/lpr/ru/koi2alt</filename>.  To use this
	filter, add this entry to
	<filename>/etc/printcap</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>lp|Russian local line printer:\
	:sh:of=/usr/libexec/lpr/ru/koi2alt:\
	:lp=/dev/lpt0:sd=/var/spool/output/lpd:lf=/var/log/lpd-errs:</programlisting>

      <para>Refer to &man.printcap.5; for a more detailed
	explanation.</para>

      <para>To configure support for Russian filenames in mounted
	&ms-dos; file systems, include <option>-L</option> and the
	locale name when adding an entry to
	<filename>/etc/fstab</filename>:</para>

     <programlisting>/dev/ad0s2      /dos/c  msdos   rw,-Lru_RU.KOI8-R 0 0</programlisting>

      <para>Refer to &man.mount.msdosfs.8; for more details.</para>

      <para>To configure Russian fonts for
	<application>&xorg;</application>, install the
	<package>x11-fonts/xorg-fonts-cyrillic</package> package.
	Then, check the <literal>"Files"</literal> section in
	<filename>/etc/X11/xorg.conf</filename>.  The following line
	must be added <emphasis>before</emphasis> any other
	<literal>FontPath</literal> entries:</para>

      <programlisting>FontPath   "/usr/local/lib/X11/fonts/cyrillic"</programlisting>

      <para>Additional Cyrillic fonts are available in the Ports
	Collection.</para>

      <para>To activate a Russian keyboard, add the following to the
	<literal>"Keyboard"</literal> section of
	<filename>/etc/xorg.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>Option "XkbLayout"   "us,ru"
Option "XkbOptions"  "grp:toggle"</programlisting>

      <para>Make sure that <literal>XkbDisable</literal> is
	commented out in that file.</para>

      <para>For <literal>grp:toggle</literal> use
	<keycap>Right Alt</keycap>, for
	<literal>grp:ctrl_shift_toggle</literal> use <keycombo
	  action="simul"><keycap>Ctrl</keycap><keycap>Shift</keycap></keycombo>.
	For <literal>grp:caps_toggle</literal> use
	<keycap>CapsLock</keycap>.  The old
	<keycap>CapsLock</keycap> function is still available in LAT
	mode only using <keycombo
	  action="simul"><keycap>Shift</keycap><keycap>CapsLock</keycap></keycombo>.
	<literal>grp:caps_toggle</literal> does not work in
	<application>&xorg;</application> for some unknown
	reason.</para>

      <para>If the keyboard has <quote>&windows;</quote> keys, and
	some non-alphabetical keys are mapped incorrectly, add the
	following line to <filename>/etc/xorg.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>Option "XkbVariant" ",winkeys"</programlisting>

      <note>
	<para>The Russian XKB keyboard may not work with
	  non-localized applications.  Minimally localized
	  applications should call a <function>XtSetLanguageProc
	    (NULL, NULL, NULL);</function> function early in the
	  program.</para>
      </note>

      <para>See <uri
	  xlink:href="http://koi8.pp.ru/xwin.html">http://koi8.pp.ru/xwin.html</uri>
	for more instructions on localizing
	<application>Xorg</application> applications.  For more
	general information about KOI8-R encoding, refer to <uri
	  xlink:href="http://koi8.pp.ru/">http://koi8.pp.ru/</uri>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Additional Language-Specific Resources</title>

      <para>This section lists some additional resources for
	configuring other locales.</para>

      <indexterm>
	<primary>localization</primary>
	<secondary>Traditional Chinese</secondary>
      </indexterm>
      <indexterm>
	<primary>localization</primary>
	<secondary>German</secondary>
      </indexterm>
      <indexterm>
	<primary>localization</primary>
	<secondary>Greek</secondary>
      </indexterm>
      <indexterm>
	<primary>localization</primary>
	<secondary>Japanese</secondary>
      </indexterm>
      <indexterm>
	<primary>localization</primary>
	<secondary>Korean</secondary>
      </indexterm>

      <variablelist>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Traditional Chinese for Taiwan</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>The &os;-Taiwan Project has a Chinese HOWTO for &os;
	      at <uri
		xlink:href="http://netlab.cse.yzu.edu.tw/~statue/freebsd/zh-tut/">http://netlab.cse.yzu.edu.tw/~statue/freebsd/zh-tut/</uri>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Greek Language Localization</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>A complete article on Greek support in &os;
	      is available <link
		xlink:href="&url.doc.base;/el_GR.ISO8859-7/articles/greek-language-support/index.html">here</link>,
	      in Greek only, as part of the official &os; Greek
	      documentation.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Japanese and Korean Language Localization</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>For Japanese, refer to <uri
		xlink:href="http://www.jp.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.jp.FreeBSD.org/</uri>,
	      and for Korean, refer to <uri
		xlink:href="http://www.kr.FreeBSD.org/">http://www.kr.FreeBSD.org/</uri>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term>Non-English &os; Documentation</term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Some &os; contributors have translated parts of the
	      &os; documentation to other languages.  They are
	      available through links on the <link
		xlink:href="&url.base;/index.html">&os; web
		site</link> or in
	      <filename>/usr/share/doc</filename>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
      </variablelist>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>
</chapter>