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<!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     $FreeBSD$
-->

<appendix id="mirrors">
  <title>Obtaining &os;</title>

  <sect1 id="mirrors-cdrom">
    <title>CDROM and DVD Publishers</title>

    <sect2>
      <title>Retail Boxed Products</title>

      <para>&os; is available as a boxed product (&os; CDs,
	additional software, and printed documentation) from several
	retailers:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <address>
	    <otheraddr>CompUSA</otheraddr>
	    WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://www.compusa.com/"></ulink></otheraddr>
	  </address>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <address>
	    <otheraddr>Frys Electronics</otheraddr>
	    WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://www.frys.com/"></ulink></otheraddr>
	  </address>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>CD and DVD Sets</title>

      <para>&os; CD and DVD sets are available from many online
	retailers:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
        <address>
	  <otheraddr>&os; Mall, Inc.</otheraddr>
	  <street>700 Harvest Park Ste F</street>
	  <city>Brentwood</city>, <state>CA</state>  <postcode>94513</postcode>
	  <country>USA</country>
	  Phone: <phone>+1 925 240-6652</phone>
	  Fax: <fax>+1 925 674-0821</fax>
	  Email: <email>info@freebsdmall.com</email>
	  WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://www.freebsdmall.com/"></ulink></otheraddr>
        </address>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<address>
	  <otheraddr>Dr. Hinner EDV</otheraddr>
	  <street>St. Augustinus-Str. 10</street>
	  <postcode>D-81825</postcode> <city>M&uuml;nchen</city>
	  <country>Germany</country>
	  Phone: <phone>(089) 428 419</phone>
	  WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://www.hinner.de/linux/freebsd.html"></ulink></otheraddr>
        </address>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<address>
	  <otheraddr>Ikarios</otheraddr>
	  <street>22-24 rue Voltaire</street>
	  <postcode>92000</postcode> <city>Nanterre</city>
	  <country>France</country>
	  WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://ikarios.com/form/#freebsd"></ulink></otheraddr>
        </address>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<address>
	  <otheraddr>JMC Software</otheraddr>
	  <country>Ireland</country>
	  Phone: <phone>353 1 6291282</phone>
	  WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://www.thelinuxmall.com"></ulink></otheraddr>
	</address>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<address>
	  <otheraddr>Linux Distro UK</otheraddr>
	  <street>42 Wharfedale Road</street>
	  <city>Margate</city>
	  <postcode>CT9 2TB</postcode>
	  <country>United Kingdom</country>
	  WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="https://linux-distro.co.uk/"></ulink></otheraddr>
        </address>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<address>
	  <otheraddr>The Linux Emporium</otheraddr>
	  <street>Hilliard House, Lester Way</street>
	  <city>Wallingford</city>
	  <postcode>OX10 9TA</postcode>
	  <country>United Kingdom</country>
	  Phone: <phone>+44 1491 837010</phone>
	  Fax: <fax>+44 1491 837016</fax>
	  WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://www.linuxemporium.co.uk/products/bsd/"></ulink></otheraddr>
        </address>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<address>
	  <otheraddr>Linux+ DVD Magazine</otheraddr>
	  <street>Lewartowskiego 6</street>
	  <city>Warsaw</city>
	  <postcode>00-190</postcode>
	  <country>Poland</country>
	  Phone: <phone>+48 22 860 18 18</phone>
	  Email: <email>editors@lpmagazine.org</email>
	  WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://www.lpmagazine.org/"></ulink></otheraddr>
	</address>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<address>
	  <otheraddr>Linux System Labs Australia</otheraddr>
	  <street>21 Ray Drive</street>
	  <city>Balwyn North</city>
	  <postcode>VIC - 3104</postcode>
	  <country>Australia</country>
	  Phone: <phone>+61 3 9857 5918</phone>
	  Fax: <fax>+61 3 9857 8974</fax>
	  WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://www.lsl.com.au"></ulink></otheraddr>
        </address>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<address>
	  <otheraddr>LinuxCenter.Ru</otheraddr>
	  <street>Galernaya Street, 55</street>
	  <city>Saint-Petersburg</city>
	  <postcode>190000</postcode>
	  <country>Russia</country>
	  Phone: <phone>+7-812-3125208</phone>
	  Email: <email>info@linuxcenter.ru</email>
	  WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://linuxcenter.ru/shop/freebsd"></ulink></otheraddr>
	</address>
      </listitem>

    </itemizedlist>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Distributors</title>

      <para>If you are a reseller and want to carry &os; CDROM products,
	please contact a distributor:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <address>
	    <otheraddr>Cylogistics</otheraddr>
	    <street>809B Cuesta Dr., #2149</street>
	    <city>Mountain View</city>, <state>CA</state> <postcode>94040</postcode>
	    <country>USA</country>
	    Phone: <phone>+1 650 694-4949</phone>
	    Fax: <fax>+1 650 694-4953</fax>
	    Email: <email>sales@cylogistics.com</email>
	    WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://www.cylogistics.com/"></ulink></otheraddr>
	  </address>
	</listitem>

        <listitem>
	  <address>
	    <otheraddr>Ingram Micro</otheraddr>
	    <street>1600 E. St. Andrew Place</street>
	    <city>Santa Ana</city>, <state>CA</state>  <postcode>92705-4926</postcode>
	    <country>USA</country>
	    Phone: <phone>1 (800) 456-8000</phone>
	    WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://www.ingrammicro.com/"></ulink></otheraddr>
          </address>
        </listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <address>
	    <otheraddr>Kudzu, LLC</otheraddr>
	    <street>7375 Washington Ave. S.</street>
	    <city>Edina</city>, <state>MN</state> <postcode>55439</postcode>
	    <country>USA</country>
	    Phone: <phone>+1 952 947-0822</phone>
	    Fax: <fax>+1 952 947-0876</fax>
	    Email: <email>sales@kudzuenterprises.com</email>
	  </address>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <address>
	    <otheraddr>LinuxCenter.Ru</otheraddr>
	    <street>Galernaya Street, 55</street>
	    <city>Saint-Petersburg</city>
	    <postcode>190000</postcode>
	    <country>Russia</country>
	    Phone: <phone>+7-812-3125208</phone>
	    Email: <email>info@linuxcenter.ru</email>
	    WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://linuxcenter.ru/freebsd"></ulink></otheraddr>
	  </address>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <address>
	    <otheraddr>Navarre Corp</otheraddr>
	    <street>7400 49th Ave South</street>
	    <city>New Hope</city>, <state>MN</state> <postcode>55428</postcode>
	    <country>USA</country>
	    Phone: <phone>+1 763 535-8333</phone>
	    Fax: <fax>+1 763 535-0341</fax>
	    WWW: <otheraddr><ulink url="http://www.navarre.com/"></ulink></otheraddr>
	  </address>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="mirrors-ftp">
    <title>FTP Sites</title>

    <para>The official sources for &os; are available via anonymous FTP
      from a worldwide set of mirror sites.  The site
      <ulink url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/"></ulink> is well
      connected and allows a large number of connections to it, but
      you are probably better off finding a <quote>closer</quote>
      mirror site (especially if you decide to set up some sort of
      mirror site).</para>

    <para>Additionally, &os; is available via anonymous FTP from the
      following mirror sites.  If you choose to obtain &os; via anonymous
      FTP, please try to use a site near you.  The mirror sites listed as
      <quote>Primary Mirror Sites</quote> typically have the entire &os; archive (all
      the currently available versions for each of the architectures) but
      you will probably have faster download times from a site that is
      in your country or region.  The regional sites carry the most recent
      versions for the most popular architecture(s) but might not carry
      the entire &os; archive.  All sites provide access via anonymous
      FTP but some sites also provide access via other methods.  The access
      methods available for each site are provided in parentheses
      after the hostname.</para>

    &chap.mirrors.ftp.inc;
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="mirrors-bittorrent">
    <title>BitTorrent</title>

    <indexterm>
      <primary>BitTorrent</primary>
    </indexterm>

    <para>The ISO images for the basic release CDs are available via
      BitTorrent.  A collection of torrent files to download the
      images is available at <ulink
      url="http://torrents.freebsd.org:8080/">http://torrents.freebsd.org:8080</ulink></para>

    <para>The BitTorrent client software is available from the
      <filename role="package">net-p2p/py-bittorrent</filename> port,
      or a precompiled package.</para>

    <para>After downloading the ISO image with BitTorrent, you may
      burn it to CD or DVD media as described in <xref
      linkend="burncd">, burncd.</para>
  </sect1>

    <sect1 id="anoncvs">
      <title>Anonymous CVS</title>

      <sect2>
	<title><anchor id="anoncvs-intro">Introduction</title>

	<indexterm>
	  <primary>CVS</primary>
	  <secondary>anonymous</secondary>
	</indexterm>

	<para>Anonymous CVS (or, as it is otherwise known,
	  <emphasis>anoncvs</emphasis>) is a feature provided by the CVS
	  utilities bundled with &os; for synchronizing with a remote
	  CVS repository.  Among other things, it allows users of &os;
	  to perform, with no special privileges, read-only CVS operations
	  against one of the &os; project's official anoncvs servers.
	  To use it, one simply sets the <envar>CVSROOT</envar>
	  environment variable to point at the appropriate anoncvs server,
	  provides the well-known password <quote>anoncvs</quote> with the
	  <command>cvs login</command> command, and then uses the
	  &man.cvs.1; command to access it like any local
	  repository.</para>

	<note>
	  <para>The <command>cvs login</command> command, stores the passwords
	    that are used for authenticating to the CVS server in a file
	    called <filename>.cvspass</filename> in your
	    <envar>HOME</envar> directory.  If this file does not exist,
	    you might get an error when trying to use <command>cvs
	    login</command> for the first time.  Just make an empty
	    <filename>.cvspass</filename> file, and retry to login.</para>
	</note>

	<para>While it can also be said that the <link
	  linkend="cvsup">CVSup</link> and <emphasis>anoncvs</emphasis>
	  services both perform essentially the same function, there are
	  various trade-offs which can influence the user's choice of
	  synchronization methods.  In a nutshell,
	  <application>CVSup</application> is much more efficient in its
	  usage of network resources and is by far the most technically
	  sophisticated of the two, but at a price.  To use
	  <application>CVSup</application>, a special client must first be
	  installed and configured before any bits can be grabbed, and
	  then only in the fairly large chunks which
	  <application>CVSup</application> calls
	  <emphasis>collections</emphasis>.</para>

	<para><application>Anoncvs</application>, by contrast, can be used
	  to examine anything from an individual file to a specific
	  program (like <command>ls</command> or <command>grep</command>)
	  by referencing the CVS module name.  Of course,
	  <application>anoncvs</application> is also only good for
	  read-only operations on the CVS repository, so if it is your
	  intention to support local development in one repository shared
	  with the &os; project bits then
	  <application>CVSup</application> is really your only
	  option.</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2>
	<title><anchor id="anoncvs-usage">Using Anonymous CVS</title>

	<para>Configuring &man.cvs.1; to use an Anonymous CVS repository
	  is a simple matter of setting the <envar>CVSROOT</envar>
	  environment variable to point to one of the &os; project's
	  <emphasis>anoncvs</emphasis> servers.  At the time of this
	  writing, the following servers are available:</para>

	<itemizedlist>
	  <listitem>
	    <para><emphasis>France</emphasis>:
	      :pserver:anoncvs@anoncvs.fr.FreeBSD.org:/home/ncvs
	      (For pserver mode, use <command>cvs login</command> and
	      enter the password <quote>anoncvs</quote> when prompted.
	      For ssh, no password is required.)</para>
	  </listitem>
	  <!--
	  <listitem>
	    <para><emphasis>Japan</emphasis>:
	      :pserver:anoncvs@anoncvs.jp.FreeBSD.org:/home/ncvs
	      (Use <command>cvs login</command> and enter the password
	      <quote>anoncvs</quote> when prompted.)</para>
	  </listitem>
	  -->
	  <listitem>
	    <para><emphasis>Taiwan</emphasis>:
	      :pserver:anoncvs@anoncvs.tw.FreeBSD.org:/home/ncvs
	      (For pserver mode, use <command>cvs login</command> and
	      enter any password when prompted. For ssh, no password
	      is required.)</para>

	      <programlisting>SSH2 HostKey: 1024 02:ed:1b:17:d6:97:2b:58:5e:5c:e2:da:3b:89:88:26 /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key.pub
SSH2 HostKey: 1024 e8:3b:29:7b:ca:9f:ac:e9:45:cb:c8:17:ae:9b:eb:55 /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub</programlisting>
      
	  </listitem>
	  <listitem>
	    <para><emphasis>USA</emphasis>:
	      anoncvs@anoncvs1.FreeBSD.org:/home/ncvs (For ssh, use ssh
	      version 2 and no password is required.)</para>

	    <programlisting>SSH2 HostKey: 2048 53:1f:15:a3:72:5c:43:f6:44:0e:6a:e9:bb:f8:01:62 /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key.pub</programlisting>

	  </listitem>
	</itemizedlist>

	<para>Since CVS allows one to <quote>check out</quote> virtually
	  any version of the &os; sources that ever existed (or, in
	  some cases, will exist), you need to be
	  familiar with the revision (<option>-r</option>) flag to
	  &man.cvs.1; and what some of the permissible values for it in
	  the &os; Project repository are.</para>

	<para>There are two kinds of tags, revision tags and branch tags.
	  A revision tag refers to a specific revision.  Its meaning stays
	  the same from day to day.  A branch tag, on the other hand,
	  refers to the latest revision on a given line of development, at
	  any given time.  Because a branch tag does not refer to a
	  specific revision, it may mean something different tomorrow than
	  it means today.</para>

	<para><xref linkend="cvs-tags"> contains revision tags that users
 	  might be interested
	  in.  Again, none of these are valid for the Ports Collection
	  since the Ports Collection does not have multiple
	  branches of development.</para>

	<para>When you specify a branch tag, you normally receive the
	  latest versions of the files on that line of development.  If
	  you wish to receive some past version, you can do so by
	  specifying a date with the <option>-D date</option> flag.
	  See the &man.cvs.1; manual page for more details.</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2>
	<title>Examples</title>

	<para>While it really is recommended that you read the manual page
	  for &man.cvs.1; thoroughly before doing anything, here are some
	  quick examples which essentially show how to use Anonymous
	  CVS:</para>

	<example>
	  <title>Checking Out Something from -CURRENT (&man.ls.1;):</title>

	  <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>setenv CVSROOT :pserver:anoncvs@anoncvs.tw.FreeBSD.org:/home/ncvs</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>cvs login</userinput>
<emphasis>At the prompt, enter any word for</emphasis> <quote>password</quote>.
&prompt.user; <userinput>cvs co ls</userinput>
	  </screen>
	</example>

	<example>
	  <title>Using SSH to Check out the <filename>src/</filename>
	    tree:</title>
	  <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cvs -d anoncvs@anoncvs1.FreeBSD.org:/home/ncvs co src</userinput>
The authenticity of host 'anoncvs1.freebsd.org (216.87.78.137)' can't be established.
DSA key fingerprint is 53:1f:15:a3:72:5c:43:f6:44:0e:6a:e9:bb:f8:01:62.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? <userinput>yes</userinput>
Warning: Permanently added 'anoncvs1.freebsd.org' (DSA) to the list of known hosts.</screen>
	</example>

	<example>
	  <title>Checking Out the Version of &man.ls.1; in the 8-STABLE
	    Branch:</title>

	  <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>setenv CVSROOT :pserver:anoncvs@anoncvs.tw.FreeBSD.org:/home/ncvs</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>cvs login</userinput>
<emphasis>At the prompt, enter any word for</emphasis> <quote>password</quote>.
&prompt.user; <userinput>cvs co -rRELENG_8 ls</userinput>
	  </screen>
	</example>

	<example>
	  <title>Creating a List of Changes (as Unified Diffs) to &man.ls.1;</title>

	  <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>setenv CVSROOT :pserver:anoncvs@anoncvs.tw.FreeBSD.org:/home/ncvs</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>cvs login</userinput>
<emphasis>At the prompt, enter any word for</emphasis> <quote>password</quote>.
&prompt.user; <userinput>cvs rdiff -u -rRELENG_8_0_0_RELEASE -rRELENG_8_1_0_RELEASE ls</userinput>
	  </screen>
	</example>

	<example>
	  <title>Finding Out What Other Module Names Can Be Used:</title>

	  <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>setenv CVSROOT :pserver:anoncvs@anoncvs.tw.FreeBSD.org:/home/ncvs</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>cvs login</userinput>
<emphasis>At the prompt, enter any word for</emphasis> <quote>password</quote>.
&prompt.user; <userinput>cvs co modules</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>more modules/modules</userinput>
	  </screen>
	</example>
      </sect2>

      <sect2>
	<title>Other Resources</title>

	<para>The following additional resources may be helpful in learning
	  CVS:</para>

	<itemizedlist>
	  <listitem>
	    <para><ulink 
	      url="http://users.csc.calpoly.edu/~gfisher/classes/308/handouts/cvs-basics.html">CVS Tutorial</ulink> from California 
		Polytechnic State University.</para>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para><ulink url="http://www.nongnu.org/cvs/">CVS Home</ulink>,
	      the CVS development and support community.</para>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para><ulink
		url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi">CVSweb</ulink> is
	      the &os; Project web interface for CVS.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</itemizedlist>
      </sect2>
    </sect1>
    
    
  <sect1 id="ctm">
    <title>Using CTM</title>

      <indexterm>
	<primary>CTM</primary>
      </indexterm>

      <para><application>CTM</application> is a method for keeping a
	remote directory tree in sync with a central one.  It has been
	developed for usage with &os;'s source trees, though other
	people may find it useful for other purposes as time goes by.
	Little, if any, documentation currently exists at this time on the
	process of creating deltas, so contact the &a.ctm-users.name; mailing list for more
	information and if you wish to use <application>CTM</application>
	for other things.</para>

      <sect2>
	<title>Why Should I Use <application>CTM</application>?</title>

	<para><application>CTM</application> will give you a local copy of
	  the &os; source trees.  There are a number of
	  <quote>flavors</quote> of the tree available.  Whether you wish
	  to track the entire CVS tree or just one of the branches,
	  <application>CTM</application> can provide you the information.
	  If you are an active developer on &os;, but have lousy or
	  non-existent TCP/IP connectivity, or simply wish to have the
	  changes automatically sent to you,
	  <application>CTM</application> was made for you.  You will need
	  to obtain up to three deltas per day for the most  active
	  branches.  However, you should consider having them sent by
	  automatic email.  The sizes of the updates are always kept as
	  small as possible.  This is typically less than 5K, with an
	  occasional (one in ten) being 10-50K and every now and then a
	  large 100K+ or more coming around.</para>

	<para>You will also need to make yourself aware of the various
	  caveats related to working directly from the development sources
	  rather than a pre-packaged release.  This is particularly true
	  if you choose the <quote>current</quote> sources.  It is
	  recommended that you read <link linkend="current">Staying
	  current with &os;</link>.</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2>
	<title>What Do I Need to Use
	  <application>CTM</application>?</title>

	<para>You will need two things: The <application>CTM</application>
	  program, and the initial deltas to feed it (to get up to
	  <quote>current</quote> levels).</para>
	    
	<para>The <application>CTM</application> program has been part of
	  &os; ever since version 2.0 was released, and lives in
	  <filename>/usr/src/usr.sbin/ctm</filename> if you have a copy
	  of the source available.</para>

	<para>The <quote>deltas</quote> you feed
	  <application>CTM</application> can be had two ways, FTP or
	  email.  If you have general FTP access to the Internet then the
	  following FTP sites support access to
	  <application>CTM</application>:</para>

	<para><ulink url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/CTM/"></ulink></para>

	<para>or see section <link
	  linkend="mirrors-ctm">mirrors</link>.</para>

	<para>FTP the relevant directory and fetch the
	  <filename>README</filename> file, starting from there.</para>

	<para>If you wish to get your deltas via email:</para>

	<para>Subscribe to one of the
	  <application>CTM</application> distribution lists.
	  &a.ctm-cvs-cur.name; supports the entire CVS tree.
	  &a.ctm-src-cur.name; supports the head of the development
	  branch.  &a.ctm-src-7.name; supports the 7.X release
	  branch, etc..  (If you do not know how to subscribe yourself
	  to a list, click on the list name above or go to
	  &a.mailman.lists.link; and click on the list that you
	  wish to subscribe to.  The list page should contain all of
	  the necessary subscription instructions.)</para>

	<para>When you begin receiving your <application>CTM</application>
	  updates in the mail, you may use the
	  <command>ctm_rmail</command> program to unpack and apply them.
	  You can actually use the <command>ctm_rmail</command> program
	  directly from a entry in <filename>/etc/aliases</filename> if
	  you want to have the process run in a fully automated fashion.
	  Check the <command>ctm_rmail</command> manual page for more
	  details.</para>

	<note>
	  <para>No matter what method you use to get the
	    <application>CTM</application> deltas, you should subscribe to
	    the &a.ctm-announce.name; mailing list.  In
	    the future, this will be the only place where announcements
	    concerning the operations of the
	    <application>CTM</application> system will be posted.  Click
	    on the list name above and follow the instructions
	    to subscribe to the
	    list.</para>
	</note>
      </sect2>

      <sect2>
	<title>Using <application>CTM</application> for the First
	  Time</title>

	<para>Before you can start using <application>CTM</application>
	  deltas, you will need to get to a starting point for the deltas
	  produced subsequently to it.</para>

	<para>First you should determine what you already have.  Everyone
	  can start from an <quote>empty</quote> directory.  You must use
	  an initial <quote>Empty</quote> delta to start off your
	  <application>CTM</application> supported tree.  At some point it
	  is intended that one of these <quote>started</quote> deltas be
	  distributed on the CD for your convenience, however, this does
	  not currently happen.</para>

	<para>Since the trees are many tens of megabytes, you should
	  prefer to start from something already at hand.  If you have a
	  -RELEASE CD, you can copy or extract an initial source from it.
	  This will save a significant transfer of data.</para>

	<para>You can recognize these <quote>starter</quote> deltas by the
	  <literal>X</literal> appended to the number
	  (<filename>src-cur.3210XEmpty.gz</filename> for instance).  The
	  designation following the <literal>X</literal> corresponds to
	  the origin of your initial <quote>seed</quote>.
	  <filename>Empty</filename> is an empty directory.  As a rule a
	  base transition from <literal>Empty</literal> is produced
	  every 100 deltas.  By the way, they are large! 70 to 80
	  Megabytes of <command>gzip</command>'d data is common for the
	  <filename>XEmpty</filename> deltas.</para>

	<para>Once you have picked a base delta to start from, you will also
	  need all deltas with higher numbers following it.</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2>
	<title>Using <application>CTM</application> in Your Daily
	  Life</title>

	<para>To apply the deltas, simply say:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /where/ever/you/want/the/stuff</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>ctm -v -v /where/you/store/your/deltas/src-xxx.*</userinput></screen>

	<para><application>CTM</application> understands deltas which have
	  been put through <command>gzip</command>, so you do not need to
	  <command>gunzip</command> them first, this saves disk space.</para>

	<para>Unless it feels very secure about the entire process,
	  <application>CTM</application> will not touch your tree.  To
	  verify a delta you can also use the <option>-c</option> flag and
	  <application>CTM</application> will not actually touch your
	  tree; it will merely verify the integrity of the delta and see
	  if it would apply cleanly to your current tree.</para>

	<para>There are other options to <application>CTM</application>
	  as well, see the manual pages or look in the sources for more
	  information.</para>

	<para>That is really all there is to it.  Every time you get a new
	  delta, just run it through <application>CTM</application> to
	  keep your sources up to date.</para>

	<para>Do not remove the deltas if they are hard to download again.
	  You just might want to keep them around in case something bad
	  happens.  Even if you only have floppy disks, consider using
	  <command>fdwrite</command> to make a copy.</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2>
	<title>Keeping Your Local Changes</title>

	<para>As a developer one would like to experiment with and change
	  files in the source tree.  <application>CTM</application>
	  supports local modifications in a limited way: before checking
	  for the presence of a file <filename>foo</filename>, it first
	  looks for <filename>foo.ctm</filename>.  If this file exists,
	  <application>CTM</application> will operate on it instead of
	  <filename>foo</filename>.</para>

	<para>This behavior gives us a simple way to maintain local
	  changes:  simply copy the files you plan to modify to the
	  corresponding file names with a <filename>.ctm</filename>
	  suffix.  Then you can freely hack  the code, while <application>CTM</application> keeps the
	  <filename>.ctm</filename> file up-to-date.</para>
      </sect2>

      <sect2>
	<title>Other Interesting <application>CTM</application> Options</title>

	<sect3>
	  <title>Finding Out Exactly What Would Be Touched by an
	    Update</title>

	  <para>You can determine the list of changes that
	    <application>CTM</application> will make on your source
	    repository using the <option>-l</option> option to
	    <application>CTM</application>.</para>

	  <para>This is useful if you would like to keep logs of the
	    changes, pre- or post- process the modified files in any
	    manner, or just are feeling a tad paranoid.</para>
	</sect3>

	<sect3>
	  <title>Making Backups Before Updating</title>

	  <para>Sometimes you may want to backup all the files that would
	    be changed by a <application>CTM</application> update.</para>

	  <para>Specifying the <option>-B backup-file</option> option
	    causes <application>CTM</application> to backup all files that
	    would be touched by a given <application>CTM</application>
	    delta to <filename>backup-file</filename>.</para>
	</sect3>

	<sect3>
	  <title>Restricting the Files Touched by an Update</title>

	  <para>Sometimes you would be interested in restricting the scope
	    of a given <application>CTM</application> update, or may be
	    interested in extracting just a few files from a sequence of
	    deltas.</para>

	  <para>You can control the list of files that
	    <application>CTM</application> would operate on by specifying
	    filtering regular expressions using the <option>-e</option>
	    and <option>-x</option> options.</para>

	  <para>For example, to extract an up-to-date copy of
	    <filename>lib/libc/Makefile</filename> from your collection of
	    saved <application>CTM</application> deltas, run the commands:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /where/ever/you/want/to/extract/it/</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>ctm -e '^lib/libc/Makefile' ~ctm/src-xxx.*</userinput></screen>

	  <para>For every file specified in a
	    <application>CTM</application> delta, the <option>-e</option>
	    and <option>-x</option> options are applied in the order given
	    on the command line.  The file is processed by
	    <application>CTM</application> only if it is marked as
	    eligible after all the <option>-e</option> and
	    <option>-x</option> options are applied to it.</para>
	</sect3>
      </sect2>

      <sect2>
	<title>Future Plans for <application>CTM</application></title>

	<para>Tons of them:</para>

	<itemizedlist>
	  <listitem>
	    <para>Use some kind of authentication into the <application>CTM</application> system, so
	      as to allow detection of spoofed <application>CTM</application> updates.</para>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>Clean up the options to <application>CTM</application>,
	      they became confusing and counter intuitive.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</itemizedlist>
      </sect2>

      <sect2>
	<title>Miscellaneous Stuff</title>

	<para>There is a sequence of deltas for the
	  <literal>ports</literal> collection too, but interest has not
	  been all that high yet.</para>
      </sect2>

    <sect2 id="mirrors-ctm">
      <title>CTM Mirrors</title>
      
    <para><link linkend="ctm">CTM</link>/&os; is available via anonymous
      FTP from the following mirror sites.  If you choose to obtain <application>CTM</application> via
      anonymous FTP, please try to use a site near you.</para>

    <para>In case of problems, please contact the &a.ctm-users.name;
      mailing list.</para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>California, Bay Area, official source</term>

	<listitem>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para><ulink url="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CTM/"></ulink></para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>South Africa, backup server for old deltas</term>

	<listitem>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para><ulink url="ftp://ftp.za.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/CTM/"></ulink></para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Taiwan/R.O.C.</term>

	<listitem>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para><ulink url="ftp://ctm.tw.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CTM/"></ulink></para>
	    </listitem>

	    <listitem>
	      <para><ulink url="ftp://ctm2.tw.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CTM/"></ulink></para>
	    </listitem>

	    <listitem>
	      <para><ulink url="ftp://ctm3.tw.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/development/CTM/"></ulink></para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>

    <para>If you did not find a mirror near to you or the mirror is
      incomplete, try to use a search engine such as
      <ulink url="http://www.alltheweb.com/">alltheweb</ulink>.</para>
  </sect2></sect1>

  <sect1 id="cvsup">
    <title>Using CVSup</title>
    
    <sect2 id="cvsup-intro">
      <title>Introduction</title>
      
      <para><application>CVSup</application> is a software package for
	distributing and updating source trees from a master CVS
	repository on a remote server host.  The &os; sources are
	maintained in a CVS repository on a central development machine
	in California.  With <application>CVSup</application>, &os;
	users can easily keep their own source trees up to date.</para>
      
      <para><application>CVSup</application> uses the so-called
	<emphasis>pull</emphasis> model of updating.  Under the pull
	model, each client asks the server for updates, if and when they
	are wanted.  The server waits passively for update requests from
	its clients.  Thus all updates are instigated by the client.
	The server never sends unsolicited updates.  Users must either
	run the <application>CVSup</application> client manually to get
	an update, or they must set up a <command>cron</command> job to
	run it automatically on a regular basis.</para>
      
      <para>The term <application>CVSup</application>, capitalized just
	so, refers to the entire software package.  Its main components
	are the client <command>cvsup</command> which runs on each
	user's machine, and the server <command>cvsupd</command> which
	runs at each of the &os; mirror sites.</para>

      <para>As you read the &os; documentation and mailing lists, you
	may see references to <application>sup</application>.
	<application>Sup</application> was the predecessor of
	<application>CVSup</application>, and it served a similar
	purpose.  <application>CVSup</application> is used much in the
	same way as sup and, in fact, uses configuration files which are
	backward-compatible with <command>sup</command>'s.
	<application>Sup</application> is no longer used in the &os;
	project, because <application>CVSup</application> is both faster
	and more flexible.</para>

      <note>
	<para>The <application>csup</application> utility is a rewrite of the
	  <application>CVSup</application> software in C.  Its biggest
	  advantage is, that it is faster and does not depend on the
	  Modula-3 language, thus you do not need to install it as a
	  requirement.  Moreover
	  you can use it out-of-the-box, since it is included in the base
	  system.
	  If you decided to use
	  <application>csup</application>, just skip the steps on the
	  installation of <application>CVSup</application> and
	  substitute the references of <application>CVSup</application> with
	  <application>csup</application> while following the remainder of
	  this article.</para>
      </note>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="cvsup-install">
      <title>Installation</title>
      
      <para>The easiest way to install <application>CVSup</application>
	is to use the precompiled <filename role="package">net/cvsup</filename> package
	from the &os; <link linkend="ports">packages collection</link>.
	If you prefer to build <application>CVSup</application> from
	source, you can use the <filename role="package">net/cvsup</filename>
	port instead.  But be forewarned: the
	<filename role="package">net/cvsup</filename> port depends on the Modula-3
	system, which takes a substantial amount of time and
	disk space to download and build.</para>

	<note>
	  <para>If you are going to be using
	  <application>CVSup</application> on a machine which will not have
	  <application>&xorg;</application> installed, such as a server, be
	  sure to use the port which does not include the
	  <application>CVSup</application> <acronym>GUI</acronym>,
	  <filename role="package">net/cvsup-without-gui</filename>.</para>
	</note>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="cvsup-config">
      <title>CVSup Configuration</title>
      
      <para><application>CVSup</application>'s operation is controlled
	by a configuration file called the <filename>supfile</filename>.
	There are some sample <filename>supfiles</filename> in the
	directory <ulink type="html"
	  url="file://localhost/usr/share/examples/cvsup/"><filename>/usr/share/examples/cvsup/</filename></ulink>.</para>
      
      <para>The information in a <filename>supfile</filename> answers
	the following questions for <application>CVSup</application>:</para>
      
      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><link linkend="cvsup-config-files">Which files do you
	      want to receive?</link></para>
	</listitem>
	
	<listitem>
	  <para><link linkend="cvsup-config-vers">Which versions of them
	      do you want?</link></para>
	</listitem>
	
	<listitem>
	  <para><link linkend="cvsup-config-where">Where do you want to
	      get them from?</link></para>
	</listitem>
	
	<listitem>
	  <para><link linkend="cvsup-config-dest">Where do you want to
	      put them on your own machine?</link></para>
	</listitem>
	
	<listitem>
	  <para><link linkend="cvsup-config-status">Where do you want to
	      put your status files?</link></para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>In the following sections, we will construct a typical
	<filename>supfile</filename> by answering each of these
	questions in turn.  First, we describe the overall structure of
	a <filename>supfile</filename>.</para>

      <para>A <filename>supfile</filename> is a text file.  Comments
	begin with <literal>#</literal> and extend to the end of the
	line.  Lines that are blank and lines that contain only
	comments are ignored.</para>
      
      <para>Each remaining line describes a set of files that the user
	wishes to receive.  The line begins with the name of a
	<quote>collection</quote>, a logical grouping of files defined by
	the server. The name of the collection tells the server which
	files you want.  After the collection name come zero or more
	fields, separated by white space.  These fields answer the
	questions listed above.  There are two types of fields: flag
	fields and value fields.  A flag field consists of a keyword
	standing alone, e.g., <literal>delete</literal> or
	<literal>compress</literal>.  A value field also begins with a
	keyword, but the keyword is followed without intervening white
	space by <literal>=</literal> and a second word.  For example,
	<literal>release=cvs</literal> is a value field.</para>
      
      <para>A <filename>supfile</filename> typically specifies more than
	one collection to receive.  One way to structure a
	<filename>supfile</filename> is to specify all of the relevant
	fields explicitly for each collection.  However, that tends to
	make the <filename>supfile</filename> lines quite long, and it
	is inconvenient because most fields are the same for all of the
	collections in a <filename>supfile</filename>.
	<application>CVSup</application> provides a defaulting mechanism
	to avoid these problems.  Lines beginning with the special
	pseudo-collection name <literal>*default</literal> can be used
	to set flags and values which will be used as defaults for the
	subsequent collections in the <filename>supfile</filename>.  A
	default value can be overridden for an individual collection, by
	specifying a different value with the collection itself.
	Defaults can also be changed or augmented in mid-supfile by
	additional <literal>*default</literal> lines.</para>

      <para>With this background, we will now proceed to construct a
	<filename>supfile</filename> for receiving and updating the main
	source tree of <link
	  linkend="current">&os;-CURRENT</link>.</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><anchor id="cvsup-config-files">Which files do you want
	    to receive?</para>
	  
	  <para>The files available via <application>CVSup</application>
	    are organized into named groups called
	    <quote>collections</quote>.  The collections that are
	    available are described in the <link
	      linkend="cvsup-collec">following section</link>.  In this
	    example, we
	    wish to receive the entire main source tree for the &os;
	    system.  There is a single large collection
	    <literal>src-all</literal> which will give us all of that.
	    As a first step toward constructing our
	    <filename>supfile</filename>, we
	    simply list the collections, one per line (in this case,
	    only one line):</para>

	  <programlisting>src-all</programlisting>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><anchor id="cvsup-config-vers">Which version(s) of them
	    do you want?</para>

	  <para>With <application>CVSup</application>, you can receive
	    virtually any version of the sources that ever existed.
	    That is possible because the
	    <application>cvsupd</application> server works directly from
	    the CVS repository, which contains all of the versions.  You
	    specify which one of them you want using the
	    <literal>tag=</literal> and <option>date=</option> value
	    fields.</para>
	  
	  <warning>
	    <para>Be very careful to specify any <literal>tag=</literal>
	      fields correctly.  Some tags are valid only for certain
	      collections of files.  If you specify an incorrect or
	      misspelled tag, <application>CVSup</application>
	      will delete files which you probably
	      do not want deleted.  In particular, use <emphasis>only
	      </emphasis> <literal>tag=.</literal> for the
	      <literal>ports-*</literal> collections.</para>
	  </warning>

	  <para>The <literal>tag=</literal> field names a symbolic tag
	    in the repository.  There are two kinds of tags, revision
	    tags and branch tags.  A revision tag refers to a specific
	    revision.  Its meaning stays the same from day to day.  A
	    branch tag, on the other hand, refers to the latest revision
	    on a given line of development, at any given time.  Because
	    a branch tag does not refer to a specific revision, it may
	    mean something different tomorrow than it means
	    today.</para>
	  
	  <para><xref linkend="cvs-tags"> contains branch tags that
	    users might be interested in.  When specifying a tag in
	    <application>CVSup</application>'s configuration file, it
	    must be preceded with <literal>tag=</literal>
	    (<literal>RELENG_8</literal> will become
	    <literal>tag=RELENG_8</literal>).
	    Keep in mind that only the <literal>tag=.</literal> is
	    relevant for the Ports Collection.</para>

	  <warning>
	    <para>Be very careful to type the tag name exactly as shown.
	      <application>CVSup</application> cannot distinguish
	      between valid and invalid tags.  If you misspell the tag,
	      <application>CVSup</application> will behave as though you
	      had specified a valid tag which happens to refer to no
	      files at all.  It will delete your existing sources in
	      that case.</para>
	  </warning>

	  <para>When you specify a branch tag, you normally receive the
	    latest versions of the files on that line of development.
	    If you wish to receive some past version, you can do so by
	    specifying a date with the <option>date=</option> value
	    field. The &man.cvsup.1; manual page explains how to do
	    that.</para>

	  <para>For our example, we wish to receive &os;-CURRENT.  We
	    add this line at the beginning of our
	    <filename>supfile</filename>:</para>
	  
	  <programlisting>*default tag=.</programlisting>

	  <para>There is an important special case that comes into play
	    if you specify neither a <literal>tag=</literal> field nor a
	    <literal>date=</literal> field.  In that case, you receive
	    the actual RCS files directly from the server's CVS
	    repository, rather than receiving a particular version.
	    Developers generally prefer this mode of operation.  By
	    maintaining a copy of the repository itself on their
	    systems, they gain the ability to browse the revision
	    histories and examine past versions of files.  This gain is
	    achieved at a large cost in terms of disk space,
	    however.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><anchor id="cvsup-config-where">Where do you want to get
	    them from?</para>
	  
	  <para>We use the <literal>host=</literal> field to tell
	    <command>cvsup</command> where to obtain its updates.  Any
	    of the <link linkend="cvsup-mirrors">CVSup mirror
	      sites</link> will do, though you should try to select one
	    that is close to you in cyberspace.  In this example we will
	    use a fictional &os; distribution site,
	    <hostid role="fqdn">cvsup99.FreeBSD.org</hostid>:</para>

	  <programlisting>*default host=cvsup99.FreeBSD.org</programlisting>
	  
	  <para>You will need to change the host to one that actually
	    exists before running <application>CVSup</application>.
	    On any particular run of
	    <command>cvsup</command>, you can override the host  setting
	    on the command line, with <option>-h
	      <replaceable>hostname</replaceable></option>.</para>
	</listitem>
	
	<listitem>
	  <para><anchor id="cvsup-config-dest">Where do you want to put
	    them on your own machine?</para>
	  
	  <para>The <literal>prefix=</literal> field tells
	    <command>cvsup</command> where to put the files it receives.
	    In this example, we will put the source files directly into
	    our main source tree, <filename>/usr/src</filename>.  The
	    <filename>src</filename> directory is already implicit in
	    the collections we have chosen to receive, so this is the
	    correct specification:</para>
	  
	  <programlisting>*default prefix=/usr</programlisting>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><anchor id="cvsup-config-status">Where should
	    <command>cvsup</command> maintain its status files?</para>

	  <para>The <application>CVSup</application> client maintains
	    certain status files in what
	    is called the <quote>base</quote> directory.  These files
	    help <application>CVSup</application> to work more
	    efficiently, by keeping track of which updates you have
	    already received.  We will use the standard base directory,
	    <filename>/var/db</filename>:</para>

	  <programlisting>*default base=/var/db</programlisting>

	  <para>If your base directory does not already exist, now would
	    be a good time to create it.  The <command>cvsup</command>
	    client will refuse to run if the base directory does not
	    exist.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Miscellaneous <filename>supfile</filename>
	    settings:</para>
	  
	  <para>There is one more line of boiler plate that normally
	    needs to be present in the
	    <filename>supfile</filename>:</para>

	  <programlisting>*default release=cvs delete use-rel-suffix compress</programlisting>

	  <para><literal>release=cvs</literal> indicates that the server
	    should get its information out of the main &os; CVS
	    repository.  This is virtually always the case, but there
	    are other possibilities which are beyond the scope of this
	    discussion.</para>
	  
	  <para><literal>delete</literal> gives
	    <application>CVSup</application> permission to delete files.
	    You should always specify this, so that
	    <application>CVSup</application> can keep your source tree
	    fully up-to-date.  <application>CVSup</application> is
	    careful to delete only those files for which it is
	    responsible.  Any extra files you happen to have will be
	    left strictly alone.</para>
	  
	  <para><literal>use-rel-suffix</literal> is ... arcane.  If you
	    really want to know about it, see the &man.cvsup.1; manual
	    page.  Otherwise, just specify it and do not worry about
	    it.</para>

	  <para><literal>compress</literal> enables the use of
	    gzip-style compression on the communication channel.  If
	    your network link is T1 speed or faster, you probably should
	    not use compression.  Otherwise, it helps
	    substantially.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Putting it all together:</para>

	  <para>Here is the entire <filename>supfile</filename> for our
	    example:</para>

	  <programlisting>*default tag=.
*default host=cvsup99.FreeBSD.org
*default prefix=/usr
*default base=/var/db
*default release=cvs delete use-rel-suffix compress

src-all</programlisting>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>
      <sect3 id="cvsup-refuse-file">
       <title>The <filename>refuse</filename> File</title>

       <para>As mentioned above, <application>CVSup</application> uses
       a <emphasis>pull method</emphasis>. Basically, this means that
       you connect to the <application>CVSup</application> server, and
       it says, <quote>Here is what you can download from
       me...</quote>, and your client responds <quote>OK, I will take
       this, this, this, and this.</quote> In the default
       configuration, the <application>CVSup</application> client will
       take every file associated with the collection and tag you
       chose in the configuration file. However, this is not always
       what you want, especially if you are synching the <filename>doc</filename>, <filename>ports</filename>, or
       <filename>www</filename> trees &mdash; most people cannot read four or five
       languages, and therefore they do not need to download the
       language-specific files. If you are
       <application>CVSup</application>ing the Ports Collection, you
       can get around this by specifying each collection individually
       (e.g., <emphasis>ports-astrology</emphasis>,
       <emphasis>ports-biology</emphasis>, etc instead of simply
       saying <emphasis>ports-all</emphasis>). However, since the <filename>doc</filename>
       and <filename>www</filename> trees do not have language-specific collections, you
       must use one of <application>CVSup</application>'s many nifty
       features: the <filename>refuse</filename> file.</para>

       <para>The <filename>refuse</filename> file essentially tells
       <application>CVSup</application> that it should not take every
       single file from a collection; in other words, it tells the
       client to <emphasis>refuse</emphasis> certain files from the
       server. The <filename>refuse</filename> file can be found (or, if you do not yet
       have one, should be placed) in
       <filename><replaceable>base</replaceable>/sup/</filename>.
       <replaceable>base</replaceable> is defined in your <filename>supfile</filename>;
       our defined <replaceable>base</replaceable> is
       <filename>/var/db</filename>, 
       which means that by default the <filename>refuse</filename> file is
       <filename>/var/db/sup/refuse</filename>.</para>

       <para>The <filename>refuse</filename> file has a very simple format; it simply
       contains the names of files or directories that you do not wish
       to download.  For example, if you cannot speak any languages other
       than English and some German, and you do not feel the need to read
       the German translation of documentation, you can put the following in your
       <filename>refuse</filename> file:</para>

       <screen>doc/bn_*
doc/da_*
doc/de_*
doc/el_*
doc/es_*
doc/fr_*
doc/hu_*
doc/it_*
doc/ja_*
doc/mn_*
doc/nl_*
doc/no_*
doc/pl_*
doc/pt_*
doc/ru_*
doc/sr_*
doc/tr_*
doc/zh_*</screen>

       <para>and so forth for the other languages (you can find the
       full list by browsing the <ulink
       url="http://www.FreeBSD.org/cgi/cvsweb.cgi/">&os;
       CVS repository</ulink>).</para>

       <para>With this very useful feature, those users who are on
       slow links or pay by the minute for their Internet connection
       will be able to save valuable time as they will no longer need
       to download files that they will never use. For more
       information on <filename>refuse</filename> files and other neat
       features of <application>CVSup</application>, please view its
       manual page.</para> 
      </sect3>
    </sect2>
    
    <sect2>
      <title>Running <application>CVSup</application></title>
      
      <para>You are now ready to try an update.  The command line for
	doing this is quite simple:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cvsup <replaceable>supfile</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>where <filename><replaceable>supfile</replaceable></filename>
	is of course the name of the <filename>supfile</filename> you have just created. 
	Assuming you are running under X11, <command>cvsup</command>
	will display a GUI window with some buttons to do the usual
	things.  Press the <guibutton>go</guibutton> button, and watch it
	run.</para>
      
      <para>Since you are updating your actual
	<filename>/usr/src</filename> tree in this example, you will
	need to run the program as <username>root</username> so that
	<command>cvsup</command> has the permissions it needs to update
	your files.  Having just created your configuration file, and
	having never used this program before, that might
	understandably make you nervous. There is an easy way to do a
	trial run without touching your precious files.  Just create an
	empty directory somewhere convenient, and name it as an extra
	argument on the command line:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mkdir /var/tmp/dest</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>cvsup supfile /var/tmp/dest</userinput></screen>
      
      <para>The directory you specify will be used as the destination
	directory for all file updates.
	<application>CVSup</application> will examine your usual files
	in <filename>/usr/src</filename>, but it will not modify or
	delete any of them.  Any file updates will instead land in
	<filename>/var/tmp/dest/usr/src</filename>.
	<application>CVSup</application> will also leave its base
	directory status files untouched when run this way.  The new
	versions of those files will be written into the specified
	directory.  As long as you have read access to
	<filename>/usr/src</filename>, you do not even need to be
	<username>root</username> to perform this kind of trial run.</para>
      
      <para>If you are not running X11 or if you just do not like GUIs,
	you should add a couple of options to the command line when you
	run <command>cvsup</command>:</para>
      
      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cvsup -g -L 2 <replaceable>supfile</replaceable></userinput></screen>
	    
      <para>The <option>-g</option> tells
	<application>CVSup</application> not to use its GUI.  This is
	automatic if you are not running X11, but otherwise you have to
	specify it.</para>
      
      <para>The <option>-L 2</option> tells 
	<application>CVSup</application> to print out the
	details of all the file updates it is doing.  There are three
	levels of verbosity, from <option>-L 0</option> to
	<option>-L 2</option>.  The default is 0, which means total
	silence except for error messages.</para>
      
      <para>There are plenty of other options available.  For a brief
	list of them, type <command>cvsup -H</command>.  For more
	detailed descriptions, see the manual page.</para>

      <para>Once you are satisfied with the way updates are working, you
	can arrange for regular runs of <application>CVSup</application>
	using &man.cron.8;.
	Obviously, you should not let <application>CVSup</application>
	use its GUI when running it from &man.cron.8;.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="cvsup-collec">
      <title><application>CVSup</application> File Collections</title>
	    
      <para>The file collections available via
	<application>CVSup</application> are organized hierarchically.
	There are a few large collections, and they are divided into
	smaller sub-collections.  Receiving a large collection is
	equivalent to receiving each of its sub-collections.  The
	hierarchical relationships among collections are reflected by
	the use of indentation in the list below.</para>
      
      <para>The most commonly used collections are
	<literal>src-all</literal>, and
	<literal>ports-all</literal>.  The other collections are used
	only by small groups of people for specialized purposes, and
	some mirror sites may not carry all of them.</para>
      
      <variablelist>
	<varlistentry>
	  <term><literal>cvs-all release=cvs</literal></term>
	  
	  <listitem>
	    <para>The main &os; CVS repository, including the
	      cryptography code.</para>
	    
	    <variablelist>
	      <varlistentry>
		<term><literal>distrib release=cvs</literal></term>
		
		<listitem>
		  <para>Files related to the distribution and mirroring
		    of &os;.</para>
		</listitem>
	      </varlistentry>
	      
	      <varlistentry>
		<term><literal>doc-all release=cvs</literal></term>
		<listitem>
		  <para>Sources for the &os; Handbook and other
		    documentation.  This does not include files for
		    the &os; web site.</para>
		</listitem>
	      </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		<term><literal>ports-all release=cvs</literal></term>

		<listitem>
		  <para>The &os; Ports Collection.</para>

		  <important id="cvsup-collec-pbase-warn">
		    <para>If you do not want to update the whole of
		      <literal>ports-all</literal> (the whole ports tree),
		      but use one of the subcollections listed below,
		      make sure that you <emphasis>always</emphasis> update
		      the <literal>ports-base</literal> subcollection!
		      Whenever something changes in the ports build
		      infrastructure represented by
		      <literal>ports-base</literal>, it is virtually certain
		      that those changes will be used by <quote>real</quote>
		      ports real soon.  Thus, if you only update the
		      <quote>real</quote> ports and they use some of the new
		      features, there is a very high chance that their build
		      will fail with some mysterious error message.  The
		      <emphasis>very first</emphasis> thing to do in this
		      case is to make sure that your
		      <literal>ports-base</literal> subcollection is up to
		      date.</para>
		  </important>

		  <important id="cvsup-collec-index-warn">
		    <para>If you are going to be building your own local
		      copy of <filename>ports/INDEX</filename>, you
		      <emphasis>must</emphasis> accept 
		      <literal>ports-all</literal> (the whole ports tree).
		      Building <filename>ports/INDEX</filename> with
		      a partial tree is not supported.  See the
		      <ulink url="&url.books.faq;/applications.html#MAKE-INDEX">
		      FAQ</ulink>.</para>
		  </important>

		  <variablelist>
		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-accessibility
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Software to help disabled users.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-arabic
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Arabic language support.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-archivers
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Archiving tools.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-astro
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Astronomical ports.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-audio
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Sound support.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-base
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>The Ports Collection build infrastructure -
			  various files located in the
			  <filename>Mk/</filename> and
			  <filename>Tools/</filename> subdirectories of
			  <filename>/usr/ports</filename>.</para>

			<note>
			  <para>Please see the <link
			    linkend="cvsup-collec-pbase-warn">important
			    warning above</link>: you should
			    <emphasis>always</emphasis> update this
			    subcollection, whenever you update any part of
			    the &os; Ports Collection!</para>
			</note>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-benchmarks
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Benchmarks.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-biology
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Biology.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-cad
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Computer aided design tools.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-chinese
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
			
		      <listitem>
			<para>Chinese language support.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-comms
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Communication software.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-converters
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>character code converters.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-databases
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Databases.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>
		    
		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-deskutils
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Things that used to be on the desktop
			  before computers were invented.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-devel
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Development utilities.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-dns
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>DNS related software.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>
		    
		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-editors
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Editors.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-emulators
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Emulators for other operating
			  systems.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-finance
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Monetary, financial and related applications.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-ftp
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>FTP client and server utilities.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-games
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Games.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>
		    
		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-german
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>German language support.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-graphics
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Graphics utilities.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-hebrew
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Hebrew language support.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-hungarian
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Hungarian language support.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-irc
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Internet Relay Chat utilities.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-japanese
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Japanese language support.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>
		    
		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-java
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>&java; utilities.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-korean
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Korean language support.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-lang
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Programming languages.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-mail
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Mail software.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-math
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Numerical computation software.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-misc
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Miscellaneous utilities.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-multimedia
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Multimedia software.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-net
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Networking software.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-net-im
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Instant messaging software.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-net-mgmt
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Network management software.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-net-p2p
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Peer to peer networking.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-news
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>USENET news software.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>
		    
		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-palm
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Software support for <trademark class="trade">Palm</trademark>
			  series.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-polish
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Polish language support.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-ports-mgmt
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Utilities to manage ports and packages.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-portuguese
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Portuguese language support.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-print
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Printing software.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-russian
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Russian language support.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-science
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Science.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-security
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Security utilities.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-shells
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Command line shells.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-sysutils
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>System utilities.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-textproc
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>text processing utilities (does not
			  include desktop publishing).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-ukrainian
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Ukrainian language support.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-vietnamese
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Vietnamese language support.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-www
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Software related to the World Wide
			  Web.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-x11
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Ports to support the X window
			  system.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-x11-clocks
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>X11 clocks.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-x11-drivers
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>X11 drivers.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-x11-fm
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>X11 file managers.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-x11-fonts
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>X11 fonts and font utilities.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-x11-toolkits
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>X11 toolkits.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-x11-servers
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>X11 servers.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-x11-themes
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>X11 themes.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>ports-x11-wm
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>X11 window managers.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>
		  </variablelist>
		</listitem>
	      </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		<term><literal>projects-all release=cvs</literal></term>
		<listitem>
		  <para>Sources for the &os; projects repository.</para>
		</listitem>
	      </varlistentry>

	      <varlistentry>
		<term><literal>src-all release=cvs</literal></term>
		
		<listitem>
		  <para>The main &os; sources, including the
		    cryptography code.</para>

		  <variablelist>
		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-base
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Miscellaneous files at the top of
			  <filename>/usr/src</filename>.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-bin
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>User utilities that may be needed in
			  single-user mode
			  (<filename>/usr/src/bin</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-cddl
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Utilities and libraries covered by the
			  CDDL license
			  (<filename>/usr/src/cddl</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-contrib
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Utilities and libraries from outside the
			  &os; project, used relatively unmodified
			  (<filename>/usr/src/contrib</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-crypto release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Cryptography utilities and libraries from
			  outside the &os; project, used relatively
			  unmodified
			  (<filename>/usr/src/crypto</filename>).</para>
			  </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-eBones release=cvs</literal></term>
		
		      <listitem>
			<para>Kerberos and DES
			  (<filename>/usr/src/eBones</filename>).  Not
			  used in current releases of &os;.</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-etc
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>System configuration files
			  (<filename>/usr/src/etc</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-games
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Games
			  (<filename>/usr/src/games</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-gnu
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Utilities covered by the GNU Public
			  License (<filename>/usr/src/gnu</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-include
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Header files
			  (<filename>/usr/src/include</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-kerberos5
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Kerberos5 security package
			  (<filename>/usr/src/kerberos5</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-kerberosIV
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>KerberosIV security package
			  (<filename>/usr/src/kerberosIV</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-lib
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Libraries
			  (<filename>/usr/src/lib</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-libexec
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>System programs normally executed by other
			  programs
			  (<filename>/usr/src/libexec</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>
		    
		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-release
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Files required to produce a &os;
			  release
			  (<filename>/usr/src/release</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>
		    
		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-rescue
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>Statically linked programs for emergency
			   recovery; see &man.rescue.8;
			  (<filename>/usr/src/rescue</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-sbin release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>System utilities for single-user mode
			  (<filename>/usr/src/sbin</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>
		    
		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-secure
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Cryptographic libraries and commands
			  (<filename>/usr/src/secure</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-share
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Files that can be shared across multiple
			  systems
			  (<filename>/usr/src/share</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-sys
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>The kernel
			  (<filename>/usr/src/sys</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-sys-crypto
			release=cvs</literal></term>
		
		      <listitem>
			<para>Kernel cryptography code
			  (<filename>/usr/src/sys/crypto</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-tools
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>Various tools for the maintenance of
			  &os;
			  (<filename>/usr/src/tools</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-usrbin
			  release=cvs</literal></term>

		      <listitem>
			<para>User utilities
			  (<filename>/usr/src/usr.bin</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>

		    <varlistentry>
		      <term><literal>src-usrsbin
			  release=cvs</literal></term>
		      
		      <listitem>
			<para>System utilities
			  (<filename>/usr/src/usr.sbin</filename>).</para>
		      </listitem>
		    </varlistentry>
		  </variablelist>
		</listitem>
	      </varlistentry>
	      
	      <varlistentry>
		<term><literal>www release=cvs</literal></term>
		
		<listitem>
		  <para>The sources for the &os; WWW site.</para>
		</listitem>
	      </varlistentry>
	    </variablelist>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
	
	<varlistentry>
	  <term><literal>distrib release=self</literal></term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>The <application>CVSup</application> server's own 
	      configuration files.  Used by <application>CVSup</application>
	      mirror sites.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term><literal>gnats release=current</literal></term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>The GNATS bug-tracking database.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term><literal>mail-archive release=current</literal></term>
	  
	  <listitem>
	    <para>&os; mailing list archive.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>

	<varlistentry>
	  <term><literal>www release=current</literal></term>

	  <listitem>
	    <para>The pre-processed &os; WWW site files (not the
	      source files).  Used by WWW mirror sites.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</varlistentry>
      </variablelist>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>For More Information</title>

      <para>For the <application>CVSup</application> FAQ and other 
	information about <application>CVSup</application>, see
	<ulink url="http://www.cvsup.org">The
	  CVSup Home Page</ulink>.</para>

      <para>Most &os;-related discussion of
	<application>CVSup</application> takes place on the
	&a.hackers;.  New versions of the software are announced there,
	as well as on the &a.announce;.</para>

      <para>For questions or bug reports about
	<application>CVSup</application> take a look at the
	<ulink url="http://www.cvsup.org/faq.html#bugreports">
	CVSup FAQ</ulink>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="cvsup-mirrors">
    <title>CVSup Sites</title>

    <para><link linkend="cvsup">CVSup</link> servers for &os; are running
      at the following sites:</para>

    &chap.mirrors.cvsup.inc;
    </sect2>
  </sect1>
  
  <sect1 id="cvs-tags">
    <title>CVS Tags</title>

    <para>When obtaining or updating sources using
      <application>cvs</application> or
      <application>CVSup</application>, a revision tag must be specified.
      A revision tag refers to either a particular line of &os;
      development, or a specific point in time.  The first type are called
      <quote>branch tags</quote>, and the second type are called
      <quote>release tags</quote>.</para>

    <sect2>
      <title>Branch Tags</title>

      <para>All of these, with the exception of <literal>HEAD</literal> (which
	is always a valid tag), only apply to the <filename>src/</filename>
	tree.  The <filename>ports/</filename>, <filename>doc/</filename>, and
	<filename>www/</filename> trees are not branched.</para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>HEAD</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>Symbolic name for the main line, or &os;-CURRENT.
	    Also the default when no revision is specified.</para>

	  <para>In <application>CVSup</application>, this tag is represented
	    by a <literal>.</literal> (not punctuation, but a literal
	    <literal>.</literal> character).</para>

	  <note>
	    <para>In CVS, this is the default when no revision tag is
	      specified.  It is usually <emphasis>not</emphasis>
	      a good idea to checkout or update to CURRENT sources
	      on a STABLE machine, unless that is your intent.</para>
	  </note>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_9</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The line of development for &os;-9.X, also known
	    as &os; 9-STABLE</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_9_0</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-9.0, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_8</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The line of development for &os;-8.X, also known
	    as &os; 8-STABLE</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_8_2</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-8.2, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_8_1</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-8.1, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_8_0</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-8.0, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_7</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The line of development for &os;-7.X, also known
	    as &os; 7-STABLE</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_7_4</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-7.4, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_7_3</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-7.3, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_7_2</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-7.2, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_7_1</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-7.1, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_7_0</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-7.0, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_6</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The line of development for &os;-6.X, also known
	    as &os; 6-STABLE</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_6_4</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-6.4, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_6_3</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-6.3, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_6_2</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-6.2, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_6_1</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-6.1, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_6_0</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-6.0, used only for
	    security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The line of development for &os;-5.X, also known
	    as &os; 5-STABLE.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5_5</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-5.5, used only 
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5_4</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-5.4, used only 
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5_3</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-5.3, used only 
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5_2</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-5.2 and &os;-5.2.1, used only 
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5_1</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-5.1, used only 
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5_0</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-5.0, used only 
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The line of development for &os;-4.X, also known
	    as &os; 4-STABLE.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_11</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-4.11, used only
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_10</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-4.10, used only 
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_9</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-4.9, used only 
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_8</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-4.8, used only 
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_7</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-4.7, used only 
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_6</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-4.6 and &os;-4.6.2,
            used only for security advisories and other
            critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_5</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-4.5, used only
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_4</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-4.4, used only
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_3</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The release branch for &os;-4.3, used only
	    for security advisories and other critical fixes.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_3</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The line of development for &os;-3.X, also known
	    as 3.X-STABLE.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_2_2</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The line of development for &os;-2.2.X, also known
	    as 2.2-STABLE.  This branch is mostly obsolete.</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Release Tags</title>

      <para>These tags refer to a specific point in time when a particular
	version	of &os; was released.  The release engineering process is
	documented in more detail by the
	<ulink url="&url.base;/releng/">Release Engineering
	  Information</ulink> and
        <ulink url="&url.articles.releng;/release-proc.html">Release
	  Process</ulink> documents.
	The <filename class="directory">src</filename> tree uses tag names that
	start with <literal>RELENG_</literal> tags.
	The <filename class="directory">ports</filename> and
	<filename class="directory">doc</filename> trees use tags whose names
	begin with <literal>RELEASE</literal> tags.
	Finally, the <filename class="directory">www</filename> tree is not
	tagged with any special name for releases.</para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_9_0_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 9.0</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_8_2_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 8.2</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_8_1_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 8.1</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_8_0_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 8.0</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_7_4_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 7.4</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_7_3_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 7.3</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_7_2_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 7.2</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_7_1_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 7.1</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_7_0_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 7.0</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_6_4_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 6.4</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_6_3_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 6.3</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_6_2_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 6.2</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_6_1_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 6.1</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_6_0_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 6.0</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5_5_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 5.5</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5_4_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 5.4</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_11_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.11</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5_3_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 5.3</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_10_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.10</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5_2_1_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 5.2.1</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5_2_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 5.2</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_9_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.9</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5_1_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 5.1</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_8_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.8</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_5_0_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 5.0</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_7_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.7</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_6_2_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.6.2</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_6_1_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.6.1</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_6_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.6</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_5_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.5</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_4_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.4</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_3_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.3</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_2_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.2</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_1_1_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.1.1</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_1_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.1</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_4_0_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os; 4.0</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
	  
      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_3_5_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os;-3.5</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_3_4_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os;-3.4</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_3_3_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os;-3.3</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_3_2_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os;-3.2</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_3_1_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os;-3.1</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_3_0_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os;-3.0</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_2_2_8_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os;-2.2.8</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_2_2_7_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os;-2.2.7</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_2_2_6_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os;-2.2.6</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_2_2_5_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os;-2.2.5</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_2_2_2_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os;-2.2.2</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_2_2_1_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os;-2.2.1</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>RELENG_2_2_0_RELEASE</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>&os;-2.2.0</para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="mirrors-afs">
    <title>AFS Sites</title>

    <para>AFS servers for &os; are running at the following sites:</para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>Sweden</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>The path to the files are:
  	    <filename>/afs/stacken.kth.se/ftp/pub/FreeBSD/</filename></para>

	  <programlisting>stacken.kth.se         # Stacken Computer Club, KTH, Sweden
130.237.234.43         #hot.stacken.kth.se
130.237.237.230        #fishburger.stacken.kth.se
130.237.234.3          #milko.stacken.kth.se</programlisting>

	  <para>Maintainer <email>ftp@stacken.kth.se</email></para>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="mirrors-rsync">
    <title>rsync Sites</title>

    <para>The following sites make &os; available through the rsync
      protocol.  The <application>rsync</application> utility works in
      much the same way as the &man.rcp.1; command,
      but has more options and uses the rsync remote-update protocol
      which transfers only the differences between two sets of files,
      thus greatly speeding up the synchronization over the network.  
      This is most useful if you are a mirror site for the
      &os; FTP server, or the CVS repository.  The
      <application>rsync</application> suite is available for many
      operating systems, on &os;, see the
      <filename role="package">net/rsync</filename>
      port or use the package.</para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>Czech Republic</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://ftp.cz.FreeBSD.org/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem><para>ftp: A partial mirror of the &os; FTP
	      server.</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para>&os;: A full mirror of the &os; FTP
	      server.</para></listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Netherlands</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://ftp.nl.FreeBSD.org/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem><para>&os;: A full mirror of the
	      &os; FTP server.</para></listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Russia</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://ftp.mtu.ru/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem><para>&os;: A full mirror of the &os; FTP
	      server.</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para>&os;-gnats: The GNATS bug-tracking
	      database.</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para>&os;-Archive: The mirror of &os; Archive FTP
	      server.</para></listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Sweden</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://ftp4.se.freebsd.org/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem><para>&os;: A full mirror of the &os; FTP
	      server.</para></listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Taiwan</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://ftp.tw.FreeBSD.org/</para>
	  <para>rsync://ftp2.tw.FreeBSD.org/</para>
	  <para>rsync://ftp6.tw.FreeBSD.org/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem><para>&os;: A full mirror of the &os; FTP
	      server.</para></listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>United Kingdom</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://rsync.mirrorservice.org/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem><para>sites/ftp.freebsd.org: A full mirror of the
	      &os; FTP server.</para></listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>United States of America</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://ftp-master.FreeBSD.org/</para>

	  <para>This server may only be used by &os; primary mirror
	    sites.</para>
	  <para>Available collections:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem><para>&os;: The master archive of the &os;
	      FTP server.</para></listitem>
	    <listitem><para>acl: The &os; master ACL
	      list.</para></listitem>  
	  </itemizedlist>

	  <para>rsync://ftp13.FreeBSD.org/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem><para>&os;: A full mirror of the &os; FTP
	      server.</para></listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>
  </sect1>  
</appendix>

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