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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
<!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     $FreeBSD$
-->
<appendix xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
  xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0"
  xml:id="mirrors">
  <title>Obtaining &os;</title>

  <sect1 xml:id="mirrors-cdrom">
    <title><acronym>CD</acronym> and
      <acronym>DVD</acronym> Sets</title>

    <para>&os; <acronym>CD</acronym> and <acronym>DVD</acronym> sets
      are available from several online retailers:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<address>&os; Mall, Inc.
	  <street>2420 Sand Creek Rd C-1 #347</street>
	  <city>Brentwood</city>, <state>CA</state>
	  <postcode>94513</postcode>
	  <country>USA</country>
	  Phone: <phone>+1 925 240-6652</phone>
	  Fax: <fax>+1 925 674-0821</fax>
	  Email: <email>info@freebsdmall.com</email>
	  WWW: <otheraddr
	    xlink:href="http://www.freebsdmall.com/">http://www.freebsdmall.com/</otheraddr>
	</address>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<address>Getlinux
	  <street>78 Rue de la Croix Rochopt</street>
	  <city>&Eacute;pinay-sous-S&eacute;nart</city>
	  <postcode>91860</postcode>
	  <country>France</country>
	  Email: <email>contact@getlinux.fr</email>
	  WWW: <otheraddr
	    xlink:href="http://www.getlinux.fr">http://www.getlinux.fr/</otheraddr>
	</address>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<address>Dr. Hinner EDV
	  <street>Kochelseestr. 11</street>
	  <postcode>D-81371</postcode> <city>M&uuml;nchen</city>
	  <country>Germany</country>
	  Phone: <phone>(0177) 428 419 0</phone>
	  Email: <email>infow@hinner.de</email>
	  WWW: <otheraddr
	    xlink:href="http://www.hinner.de/linux/freebsd.html">http://www.hinner.de/linux/freebsd.html</otheraddr>
	</address>
      </listitem>

<!--
This site is just showing the Apache test page.
      <listitem>
	<address>
	  Linux Distro UK
	  <street>42 Wharfedale Road</street>
	  <city>Margate</city>
	  <postcode>CT9 2TB</postcode>
	  <country>United Kingdom</country>
	  WWW: <otheraddr
	    xlink:href="https://linux-distro.co.uk/">https://linux-distro.co.uk/</otheraddr>
	</address>
      </listitem>

This site doesn't have any products newer than 8.1 which is now EOL'd
      <listitem>
	<address>The Linux Emporium
	  <street>The Techno Centre, Puma Way</street>
	  <city>Parkside</city>
	  <postcode>CV1 2TT</postcode>
	  <country>United Kingdom</country>
	  Phone: <phone>+44 (0)247 615 8121</phone>
	  Fax: <fax>+44 1491 837016</fax>
	  WWW: <otheraddr
	    xlink:href="http://www.linuxemporium.co.uk/products/bsd/">http://www.linuxemporium.co.uk/products/bsd/</otheraddr>
	</address>
      </listitem>
-->

      <listitem>
	<address>Linux Center
	  <street>Galernaya Street, 55</street>
	  <city>Saint-Petersburg</city>
	  <postcode>190000</postcode>
	  <country>Russia</country>
	  Phone: <phone>+7-812-309-06-86</phone>
	  Email: <email>info@linuxcenter.ru</email>
	  WWW: <otheraddr
	    xlink:href="http://linuxcenter.ru/shop/freebsd">http://linuxcenter.ru/shop/freebsd</otheraddr>
	</address>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="mirrors-ftp">
    <title><acronym>FTP</acronym> Sites</title>

    <para>The official sources for &os; are available via anonymous
      <acronym>FTP</acronym> from a worldwide set of mirror sites.
      The site <uri
	xlink:href="ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/">ftp://ftp.FreeBSD.org/pub/FreeBSD/</uri>
      is available via <acronym>HTTP</acronym> and
      <acronym>FTP</acronym>.  It is made up of many machines operated
      by the project cluster administrators and behind GeoDNS to
      direct users to the closest available mirror.</para>

    <para>Additionally, &os; is available via anonymous
      <acronym>FTP</acronym> from the following mirror sites.  When
      obtaining &os; via anonymous <acronym>FTP</acronym>,
      please try to use a nearby site.  The mirror sites listed as
      <quote>Primary Mirror Sites</quote> typically have the entire
      &os; archive (all the currently available versions for each of
      the architectures) but faster download speeds are probably
      available from a site that is in your country or region.  The
      regional sites carry the most recent versions for the most
      popular architecture(s) but might not carry the entire &os;
      archive.  All sites provide access via anonymous
      <acronym>FTP</acronym> but some sites also provide access via
      other methods.  The access methods available for each site are
      provided in parentheses after the hostname.</para>

    &chap.mirrors.ftp.index.inc;

    &chap.mirrors.lastmod.inc;

    &chap.mirrors.ftp.inc;
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="svn">
    <title>Using <application>Subversion</application></title>

    <indexterm>
      <primary>Subversion</primary>
    </indexterm>

    <sect2 xml:id="svn-intro">
      <title>Introduction</title>

      <para>As of July 2012, &os; uses
	<application>Subversion</application> as the only version
	control system for storing all of &os;'s source code,
	documentation, and the Ports Collection.</para>

      <note>
	<para><application>Subversion</application> is generally a
	  developer tool.  Users may prefer to use
	  <command>freebsd-update</command> (<xref
	    linkend="updating-upgrading-freebsdupdate"/>) to update
	  the &os; base system, and <command>portsnap</command> (<xref
	    linkend="ports-using"/>) to update the &os; Ports
	  Collection.</para>
      </note>

      <para>This section demonstrates how to install
	<application>Subversion</application> on a &os; system and
	use it to create a local copy of a &os; repository.
	Additional information on the use of
	<application>Subversion</application> is included.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="svn-ssl-certificates">
      <title>Root <acronym>SSL</acronym> Certificates</title>

      <para>Installing
	<package role="port">security/ca_root_nss</package> allows
	<application>Subversion</application> to verify the identity
	of <acronym>HTTPS</acronym> repository servers.  The root
	<acronym>SSL</acronym> certificates can be installed from a
	port:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/security/ca_root_nss</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>

      <para>or as a package:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg install ca_root_nss</userinput></screen>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="svn-svnlite">
      <title><application>Svnlite</application></title>

      <para>A lightweight version of
	<application>Subversion</application> is already installed
	on &os; as <command>svnlite</command>.  The port or package
	version of <application>Subversion</application> is only
	needed if the Python or Perl <acronym>API</acronym> is needed,
	or if a later version of Subversion is desired.</para>

      <para>The only difference from normal
	<application>Subversion</application> use is that the command
	name is <literal>svnlite</literal>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="svn-install">
      <title>Installation</title>

      <para>If <command>svnlite</command> is unavailable or the full
	version of <application>Subversion</application> is needed,
	then it must be installed.</para>

      <para><application>Subversion</application> can be installed
	from the Ports Collection:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/devel/subversion</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>

      <para><application>Subversion</application> can also be
	installed as a package:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg install subversion</userinput></screen>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="svn-usage">
      <title>Running <application>Subversion</application></title>

      <para>To fetch a clean copy of the sources into a local
	directory, use <command>svn</command>.  The files in this
	directory are called a <emphasis>local working
	  copy</emphasis>.</para>

      <warning>
	<para>Move or delete an existing destination directory before
	  using <command>checkout</command> for the first time.</para>

	<para>Checkout over an existing
	  non-<command>svn</command> directory can cause conflicts
	  between the existing files and those brought in from the
	  repository.</para>
      </warning>

      <para><application>Subversion</application> uses
	<acronym>URL</acronym>s to designate a repository, taking the
	form of <replaceable>protocol://hostname/path</replaceable>.
	The first component of the path is the &os; repository to
	access.  There are three different repositories,
	<literal>base</literal> for the &os; base system source code,
	<literal>ports</literal> for the Ports Collection, and
	<literal>doc</literal> for documentation.  For example, the
	URL
	<literal>https://svn.FreeBSD.org/ports/head/</literal>
	specifies the main branch of the ports repository,
	using the <literal>https</literal> protocol.</para>

      <para>A checkout from a given repository is performed with a
	command like this:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>svn checkout https://svn.FreeBSD.org/<replaceable>repository</replaceable>/<replaceable>branch</replaceable> <replaceable>lwcdir</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>where:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><replaceable>repository</replaceable> is one of the
	    Project repositories: <literal>base</literal>,
	    <literal>ports</literal>, or
	    <literal>doc</literal>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><replaceable>branch</replaceable> depends on the
	    repository used.  <literal>ports</literal> and
	    <literal>doc</literal> are mostly updated in the
	    <literal>head</literal> branch, while
	    <literal>base</literal> maintains the latest version of
	    -CURRENT under <literal>head</literal> and the respective
	    latest versions of the -STABLE branches under
	    <literal>stable/9</literal>
	    (9.<replaceable>x</replaceable>) and
	    <literal>stable/10</literal>
	    (10.<replaceable>x</replaceable>).</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><replaceable>lwcdir</replaceable> is the target
	    directory where the contents of the specified branch
	    should be placed.  This is usually
	    <filename>/usr/ports</filename> for
	    <literal>ports</literal>,
	    <filename>/usr/src</filename> for
	    <literal>base</literal>, and
	    <filename>/usr/doc</filename> for
	    <literal>doc</literal>.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>This example checks out the Ports Collection from the
	&os; repository using the <acronym>HTTPS</acronym>
	protocol, placing the local working copy in
	<filename>/usr/ports</filename>.  If
	<filename>/usr/ports</filename> is already
	present but was not created by <command>svn</command>,
	remember to rename or delete it before the checkout.</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>svn checkout https://svn.FreeBSD.org/ports/head /usr/ports</userinput></screen>

      <para>Because the initial checkout must download the full
	branch of the remote repository, it can take a while.  Please
	be patient.</para>

      <para>After the initial checkout, the local working copy can be
	updated by running:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>svn update <replaceable>lwcdir</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>To update
	<filename>/usr/ports</filename> created in
	the example above, use:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>svn update /usr/ports</userinput></screen>

      <para>The update is much quicker than a checkout, only
	transferring files that have changed.</para>

      <para>An alternate way of updating the local working copy after
	checkout is provided by the <filename>Makefile</filename> in
	the <filename>/usr/ports</filename>,
	<filename>/usr/src</filename>, and
	<filename>/usr/doc</filename> directories.
	Set <varname>SVN_UPDATE</varname> and use the
	<buildtarget>update</buildtarget> target.  For example, to
	update <filename>/usr/src</filename>:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/src</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make update SVN_UPDATE=yes</userinput></screen>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="svn-mirrors">
      <title><application>Subversion</application> Mirror
	Sites</title>

      <indexterm>
	<primary>Subversion Repository</primary>
	<secondary>Mirror Sites</secondary>
      </indexterm>

      <para>The &os; <application>Subversion</application>
	repository is:</para>

      <programlisting>svn.FreeBSD.org</programlisting>

      <para>This is
	a publicly accessible mirror network that uses GeoDNS to
	select an appropriate back end server.  To view the &os;
	<application>Subversion</application> repositories through a
	browser, use <link
	  xlink:href="https://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/">https://svnweb.FreeBSD.org/</link>.</para>

      <note>
	<para>The &os; <application>Subversion</application> mirrors
	  previously used self-signed SSL certificates documented in
	  this chapter.  As of July 14, 2015, all mirrors now use an
	  official SSL certificate that will be recognized by
	  <application>Subversion</application> if the <package
	    role="port">security/ca_root_nss</package> port is
	  installed.  The legacy self-signed certificates and server
	  names are still available but are deprecated and no longer
	  supported.</para>
      </note>

      <para>For those without the <package
	  role="port">security/ca_root_nss</package> port
	installed, the SHA1 and SHA256 fingerprints are:</para>

      <informaltable>
	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
	  <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Hash</entry>
	      <entry>Fingerprint</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry>SHA1</entry>
	      <entry><literal>E9:37:73:80:B5:32:1B:93:92:94:98:17:59:F0:FA:A2:5F:1E:DE:B9</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>SHA256</entry>
	      <entry><literal>D5:27:1C:B6:55:E6:A8:7D:48:D5:0C:F0:DA:9D:51:60:D7:42:6A:F2:05:F1:8A:47:BE:78:A1:3A:72:06:92:60</literal></entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>

      <para><acronym>HTTPS</acronym> is the preferred protocol,
	providing protection against another computer pretending to be
	the &os; mirror (commonly known as a <quote>man in the
	  middle</quote> attack) or otherwise trying to send bad
	content to the end user.</para>

      <para>If <literal>https</literal> cannot be used due to firewall
	or other problems, <literal>svn</literal> is the next choice,
	with slightly faster transfers.  When neither can be used, use
	<literal>http</literal>.</para>

      <para>For those still using deprecated server names, the SHA1
	and SHA256 fingerprints will be one of:</para>

      <informaltable>
	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
	  <colspec colwidth="1*"/>
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Hash</entry>
	      <entry>Fingerprint</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Legacy-SHA1</entry>
	      <entry><literal>1C:BD:85:95:11:9F:EB:75:A5:4B:C8:A3:FE:08:E4:02:73:06:1E:61</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Legacy-SHA1</entry>
	      <entry><literal>F6:44:AA:B9:03:89:0E:3E:8C:4D:4D:14:F0:27:E6:C7:C1:8B:17:C5</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Legacy-SHA256</entry>
	      <entry><literal>47:35:A9:09:A3:AB:FA:20:33:36:43:C5:1A:D6:E6:FB:EB:C0:C0:83:37:D4:46:9C:A0:AB:89:7F:C2:9C:4C:A3</literal></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry>Legacy-SHA256</entry>
	      <entry><literal>48:3C:84:DB:7C:27:1B:FA:D5:0B:A0:D7:E0:4C:79:AA:A3:8E:A3:FA:84:E6:32:34:7D:EB:30:E6:11:01:CF:BE</literal></entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>

      <para>Seeing one of these legacy certificate
	fingerprints means it is likely that a deprecated
	server name is being used.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>For More Information</title>

      <para>For other information about using
	<application>Subversion</application>, please see the
	<quote>Subversion Book</quote>, titled
	<link xlink:href="http://svnbook.red-bean.com/">Version
	  Control with Subversion</link>, or the <link
	  xlink:href="http://subversion.apache.org/docs/">Subversion
	  Documentation</link>.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="mirrors-rsync">
    <title>Using <application>rsync</application></title>

    <para>These sites make &os; available through the rsync
      protocol.  The <application>rsync</application> utility works in
      much the same way as the &man.rcp.1; command, but has more
      options and uses the rsync remote-update protocol which
      transfers only the differences between two sets of files, thus
      greatly speeding up the synchronization over the network.  This
      is most useful for mirror sites of the &os;
      <acronym>FTP</acronym> server.  The
      <application>rsync</application> suite is available for many
      operating systems, on &os;, see the <package>net/rsync</package>
      port or use the package.</para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
	<term>Czech Republic</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://ftp.cz.FreeBSD.org/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>ftp: A partial mirror of the &os;
		<acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
	    </listitem>

	    <listitem>
	      <para>&os;: A full mirror of the &os;
		<acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Netherlands</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://ftp.nl.FreeBSD.org/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>&os;: A full mirror of the &os;
		<acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Russia</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://ftp.mtu.ru/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>

	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>&os;: A full mirror of the &os;
		<acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
	    </listitem>

	    <listitem>
	      <para>&os;-Archive: The mirror of &os; Archive
		<acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Sweden</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://ftp4.se.freebsd.org/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>&os;: A full mirror of the &os;
		<acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>Taiwan</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://ftp.tw.FreeBSD.org/</para>

	  <para>rsync://ftp2.tw.FreeBSD.org/</para>

	  <para>rsync://ftp6.tw.FreeBSD.org/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>&os;: A full mirror of the &os;
		<acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>United Kingdom</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://rsync.mirrorservice.org/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>
	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>ftp.freebsd.org: A full mirror of the &os;
		<acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
	<term>United States of America</term>

	<listitem>
	  <para>rsync://ftp-master.FreeBSD.org/</para>

	  <para>This server may only be used by &os; primary mirror
	    sites.</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>

	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>&os;: The master archive of the &os;
		<acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
	    </listitem>

	    <listitem>
	      <para>acl: The &os; master ACL list.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>

	  <para>rsync://ftp13.FreeBSD.org/</para>

	  <para>Available collections:</para>

	  <itemizedlist>
	    <listitem>
	      <para>&os;: A full mirror of the &os;
		<acronym>FTP</acronym> server.</para>
	    </listitem>
	  </itemizedlist>
	</listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>
  </sect1>
</appendix>