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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
<!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     $FreeBSD$
-->
<chapter xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
  xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0"
  xml:id="multimedia">

  <info>
    <title>Multimedia</title>

    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<personname>
	  <firstname>Ross</firstname>
	  <surname>Lippert</surname>
	</personname>
	<contrib>Edited by </contrib>
      </author>
    </authorgroup>
  </info>

  <sect1 xml:id="multimedia-synopsis">
    <title>Synopsis</title>

    <para>&os; supports a wide variety of sound cards, allowing users
      to enjoy high fidelity output from a &os; system.  This includes
      the ability to record and play back audio in the MPEG Audio Layer
      3 (<acronym>MP3</acronym>), Waveform Audio File
      (<acronym>WAV</acronym>), Ogg Vorbis, and other formats.  The
      &os; Ports Collection contains many applications for editing
      recorded audio, adding sound effects, and controlling attached
      MIDI devices.</para>

    <para>&os; also supports the playback of video files and
      <acronym>DVD</acronym>s.  The &os; Ports Collection contains
      applications to encode, convert, and playback various video
      media.</para>

    <para>This chapter describes how to configure sound cards, video
      playback, TV tuner cards, and scanners on &os;.  It also
      describes some of the applications which are available for
      using these devices.</para>

    <para>After reading this chapter, you will know how to:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>Configure a sound card on &os;.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Troubleshoot the sound setup.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Playback and encode MP3s and other audio.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Prepare a &os; system for video playback.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Play <acronym>DVD</acronym>s, <filename>.mpg</filename>,
	  and <filename>.avi</filename> files.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Rip <acronym>CD</acronym> and <acronym>DVD</acronym>
	  content into files.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Configure a TV card.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Install and setup MythTV on &os;</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Configure an image scanner.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Configure a Bluetooth headset.</para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>

    <para>Before reading this chapter, you should:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem><para>Know how to install applications as described in
	<xref linkend="ports"/>.</para></listitem>
    </itemizedlist>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="sound-setup">
    <info>
      <title>Setting Up the Sound Card</title>

      <authorgroup>
	<author>
	  <personname>
	    <firstname>Moses</firstname>
	    <surname>Moore</surname>
	  </personname>
	  <contrib>Contributed by </contrib> <!-- in November 2000-->
	</author>
      </authorgroup>

      <authorgroup>
	<author>
	  <personname>
	    <firstname>Marc</firstname>
	    <surname>Fonvieille</surname>
	  </personname>
	  <contrib>Enhanced by </contrib> <!--in September 2004-->
	</author>
      </authorgroup>
    </info>

    <indexterm><primary>PCI</primary></indexterm>
    <indexterm><primary>sound cards</primary></indexterm>
    <para>Before beginning the configuration, determine the model of
      the sound card and the chip it uses.  &os; supports a wide
      variety of sound cards.  Check the supported audio devices
      list of the <link xlink:href="&rel.current.hardware;">Hardware
	Notes</link> to see if the card is supported and which &os;
      driver it uses.</para>

    <indexterm>
      <primary>kernel</primary>
      <secondary>configuration</secondary>
    </indexterm>

    <para>In order to use the sound device, its device driver must be
      loaded.  The easiest way is to load a kernel module for the
      sound card with &man.kldload.8;.  This example loads the driver
      for a built-in audio chipset based on the Intel
      specification:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kldload snd_hda</userinput></screen>

    <para>To automate the loading of this driver at boot time, add the
      driver to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>.  The line for
      this driver is:</para>

    <programlisting>snd_hda_load="YES"</programlisting>

    <para>Other available sound modules are listed in
      <filename>/boot/defaults/loader.conf</filename>.  When unsure
      which driver to use, load the <filename>snd_driver</filename>
      module:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kldload snd_driver</userinput></screen>

    <para>This is a metadriver which loads all of the most common
      sound drivers and can be used to speed up the search for the
      correct driver.  It is also possible to load all sound drivers
      by adding the metadriver to
      <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>.</para>

    <para>To determine which driver was selected for the sound card
      after loading the <filename>snd_driver</filename> metadriver,
      type <command>cat /dev/sndstat</command>.</para>

    <sect2>
      <title>Configuring a Custom Kernel with Sound Support</title>

      <para>This section is for users who prefer to statically compile
	in support for the sound card in a custom kernel.  For more
	information about recompiling a kernel, refer to <xref
	  linkend="kernelconfig"/>.</para>

      <para>When using a custom kernel to provide sound support, make
	sure that the audio framework driver exists in the custom
	kernel configuration file:</para>

      <programlisting>device sound</programlisting>

      <para>Next, add support for the sound card.  To continue the
	example of the built-in audio chipset based on the Intel
	specification from the previous section, use the following
	line in the custom kernel configuration file:</para>

      <programlisting>device snd_hda</programlisting>

      <para>Be sure to read the manual page of the driver for the
	device name to use for the driver.</para>

      <para>Non-PnP ISA sound cards may require the IRQ and I/O port
	settings of the card to be added to
	<filename>/boot/device.hints</filename>.  During the boot
	process, &man.loader.8; reads this file and passes the
	settings to the kernel.  For example, an old Creative
	&soundblaster; 16 ISA non-PnP card will use the
	&man.snd.sbc.4; driver in conjunction with
	<literal>snd_sb16</literal>.  For this card, the following
	lines must be added to the kernel configuration file:</para>

      <programlisting>device snd_sbc
device snd_sb16</programlisting>

      <para>If the card uses the <literal>0x220</literal> I/O port and
	IRQ <literal>5</literal>, these lines must also be added to
	<filename>/boot/device.hints</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>hint.sbc.0.at="isa"
hint.sbc.0.port="0x220"
hint.sbc.0.irq="5"
hint.sbc.0.drq="1"
hint.sbc.0.flags="0x15"</programlisting>

      <para>The syntax used in <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename>
	is described in &man.sound.4; and the manual page for the
	driver of the sound card.</para>

      <para>The settings shown above are the defaults.  In some
	cases, the IRQ or other settings may need to be changed to
	match the card.  Refer to &man.snd.sbc.4; for more information
	about this card.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="sound-testing">
      <title>Testing Sound</title>

      <para>After loading the required module or rebooting into the
	custom kernel, the sound card should be detected.  To confirm,
	run <command>dmesg | grep pcm</command>.  This example is
	from a system with a built-in Conexant CX20590 chipset:</para>

      <screen>pcm0: &lt;NVIDIA (0x001c) (HDMI/DP 8ch)&gt; at nid 5 on hdaa0
pcm1: &lt;NVIDIA (0x001c) (HDMI/DP 8ch)&gt; at nid 6 on hdaa0
pcm2: &lt;Conexant CX20590 (Analog 2.0+HP/2.0)&gt; at nid 31,25 and 35,27 on hdaa1</screen>

      <para>The status of the sound card may also be checked using
	this command:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cat /dev/sndstat</userinput>
FreeBSD Audio Driver (newpcm: 64bit 2009061500/amd64)
Installed devices:
pcm0: &lt;NVIDIA (0x001c) (HDMI/DP 8ch)&gt; (play)
pcm1: &lt;NVIDIA (0x001c) (HDMI/DP 8ch)&gt; (play)
pcm2: &lt;Conexant CX20590 (Analog 2.0+HP/2.0)&gt; (play/rec) default</screen>

      <para>The output will vary depending upon the sound card.  If no
	<filename>pcm</filename> devices are listed, double-check
	that the correct device driver was loaded or compiled into the
	kernel.  The next section lists some common problems and their
	solutions.</para>

      <para>If all goes well, the sound card should now work in &os;.
	If the <acronym>CD</acronym> or <acronym>DVD</acronym> drive
	is properly connected to the sound card, one can insert an
	audio <acronym>CD</acronym> in the drive and play it with
	&man.cdcontrol.1;:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cdcontrol -f /dev/acd0 play 1</userinput></screen>

      <warning>
	<para>Audio <acronym>CD</acronym>s have specialized encodings
	  which means that they should not be mounted using
	  &man.mount.8;.</para>
      </warning>

      <para>Various applications, such as
	<package>audio/workman</package>, provide a friendlier
	interface.  The <package>audio/mpg123</package> port can be
	installed to listen to MP3 audio files.</para>

      <para>Another quick way to test the card is to send data to
	<filename>/dev/dsp</filename>:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cat <replaceable>filename</replaceable> &gt; /dev/dsp</userinput></screen>

      <para>where
	<filename><replaceable>filename</replaceable></filename> can
	be any type of file.  This command should produce some noise,
	confirming that the sound card is working.</para>

      <note>
	<para>The <filename>/dev/dsp*</filename> device nodes will
	  be created automatically as needed.  When not in use, they
	  do not exist and will not appear in the output of
	  &man.ls.1;.</para>
      </note>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="bluetooth-headset">
      <title>Setting up Bluetooth Sound Devices</title>

      <indexterm>
	<primary>Bluetooth audio</primary>
      </indexterm>

      <para>Connecting to a Bluetooth device is out of scope for this
	chapter.  Refer to <xref
	  linkend="network-bluetooth"/> for more information.</para>

      <para>To get Bluetooth sound sink working with FreeBSD's sound
	system, users have to install
	<package>audio/virtual_oss</package> first:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg install virtual_oss</userinput></screen>

      <para><package>audio/virtual_oss</package> requires
	<literal>cuse</literal> to be loaded into the kernel:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kldload cuse</userinput></screen>

      <para>To load <literal>cuse</literal> during system startup, run
	this command:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysrc -f /boot/loader.conf cuse_load=yes</userinput></screen>

      <para>To use headphones as a sound sink with
	<package>audio/virtual_oss</package>, users need to create a
	virtual device after connecting to a Bluetooth audio
	device:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>virtual_oss -C 2 -c 2 -r 48000 -b 16 -s 768 -R /dev/null -P /dev/bluetooth/<replaceable>headphones</replaceable> -d dsp</userinput></screen>

      <note>
	<para><replaceable>headphones</replaceable> in this example is
	  a hostname from <filename>/etc/bluetooth/hosts</filename>.
	  <literal>BT_ADDR</literal> could be used instead.</para>
      </note>

      <para>Refer to &man.virtual_oss.8; for more information.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="troubleshooting">
      <title>Troubleshooting Sound</title>

      <indexterm><primary>device nodes</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>I/O port</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>IRQ</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>DSP</primary></indexterm>

      <para><xref linkend="multimedia-sound-common-error-messages"/>
	lists some common error messages and their solutions:</para>

      <table xml:id="multimedia-sound-common-error-messages"
	frame="none" pgwide="1">
	<title>Common Error Messages</title>

	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Error</entry>
	      <entry>Solution</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry><errorname>sb_dspwr(XX) timed
		  out</errorname></entry>
	      <entry><para>The I/O port is not set
		correctly.</para></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry><errorname>bad irq XX</errorname></entry>
	      <entry><para>The IRQ is set incorrectly.  Make sure
		that the set IRQ and the sound IRQ are the
		same.</para></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry><errorname>xxx: gus pcm not attached, out of
		  memory</errorname></entry>
	      <entry><para>There is not enough available memory to
		use the device.</para></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry><errorname>xxx: can't open
		  /dev/dsp!</errorname></entry>
	      <entry><para>Type <command>fstat | grep
		  dsp</command> to check if another application is
		holding the device open.  Noteworthy troublemakers are
		<application>esound</application> and
		<application>KDE</application>'s sound
		support.</para></entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </table>

      <para>Modern graphics cards often come with their own sound
	driver for use with <acronym>HDMI</acronym>.  This sound
	device is sometimes enumerated before the sound card meaning
	that the sound card will not be used as the default playback
	device.  To check if this is the case, run
	<application>dmesg</application> and look for
	<literal>pcm</literal>.  The output looks something like
	this:</para>

      <programlisting>...
hdac0: HDA Driver Revision: 20100226_0142
hdac1: HDA Driver Revision: 20100226_0142
hdac0: HDA Codec #0: NVidia (Unknown)
hdac0: HDA Codec #1: NVidia (Unknown)
hdac0: HDA Codec #2: NVidia (Unknown)
hdac0: HDA Codec #3: NVidia (Unknown)
pcm0: &lt;HDA NVidia (Unknown) PCM #0 DisplayPort&gt; at cad 0 nid 1 on hdac0
pcm1: &lt;HDA NVidia (Unknown) PCM #0 DisplayPort&gt; at cad 1 nid 1 on hdac0
pcm2: &lt;HDA NVidia (Unknown) PCM #0 DisplayPort&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac0
pcm3: &lt;HDA NVidia (Unknown) PCM #0 DisplayPort&gt; at cad 3 nid 1 on hdac0
hdac1: HDA Codec #2: Realtek ALC889
pcm4: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #0 Analog&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1
pcm5: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #1 Analog&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1
pcm6: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #2 Digital&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1
pcm7: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #3 Digital&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1
...</programlisting>

      <para>In this example, the graphics card
	(<literal>NVidia</literal>) has been enumerated before the
	sound card (<literal>Realtek ALC889</literal>).  To use the
	sound card as the default playback device, change
	<varname>hw.snd.default_unit</varname> to the unit that should
	be used for playback:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl hw.snd.default_unit=<replaceable>n</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>where <literal>n</literal> is the number of the sound
	device to use.  In this example, it should be
	<literal>4</literal>.  Make this change permanent by adding
	the following line to
	<filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>hw.snd.default_unit=<replaceable>4</replaceable></programlisting>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="sound-multiple-sources">
      <info>
	<title>Utilizing Multiple Sound Sources</title>

	<authorgroup>
	  <author>
	    <personname>
	      <firstname>Munish</firstname>
	      <surname>Chopra</surname>
	    </personname>
	    <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
	  </author>
	</authorgroup>
      </info>

      <para>It is often desirable to have multiple sources of sound
	that are able to play simultaneously.  &os; uses
	<quote>Virtual Sound Channels</quote> to multiplex the sound
	card's playback by mixing sound in the kernel.</para>

      <para>Three &man.sysctl.8; knobs are available for configuring
	virtual channels:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl dev.pcm.0.play.vchans=4</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl dev.pcm.0.rec.vchans=4</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl hw.snd.maxautovchans=4</userinput></screen>

      <para>This example allocates four virtual channels, which is a
	practical number for everyday use.  Both
	<varname>dev.pcm.0.play.vchans=4</varname> and
	<varname>dev.pcm.0.rec.vchans=4</varname> are configurable
	after a device has been attached and represent the number of
	virtual channels <filename>pcm0</filename> has for playback
	and recording.  Since the <filename>pcm</filename> module can
	be loaded independently of the hardware drivers,
	<varname>hw.snd.maxautovchans</varname> indicates how many
	virtual channels will be given to an audio device when it is
	attached.  Refer to &man.pcm.4; for more information.</para>

      <note>
	<para>The number of virtual channels for a device cannot be
	  changed while it is in use.  First, close any programs using
	  the device, such as music players or sound daemons.</para>
      </note>

      <para>The correct <filename>pcm</filename> device will
	automatically be allocated transparently to a program that
	requests <filename>/dev/dsp0</filename>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <info>
	<title>Setting Default Values for Mixer Channels</title>

	<authorgroup>
	  <author>
	    <personname>
	      <firstname>Josef</firstname>
	      <surname>El-Rayes</surname>
	    </personname>
	    <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
	  </author>
	</authorgroup>
      </info>

      <para>The default values for the different mixer channels are
	hardcoded in the source code of the &man.pcm.4; driver.  While
	sound card mixer levels can be changed using &man.mixer.8; or
	third-party applications and daemons, this is not a permanent
	solution.  To instead set default mixer values at the driver
	level, define the appropriate values in
	<filename>/boot/device.hints</filename>, as seen in this
	example:</para>

      <programlisting>hint.pcm.0.vol="50"</programlisting>

      <para>This will set the volume channel to a default value of
	<literal>50</literal> when the &man.pcm.4; module is
	loaded.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="sound-mp3">
    <info>
      <title>MP3 Audio</title>

      <authorgroup>
	<author>
	  <personname>
	    <firstname>Chern</firstname>
	    <surname>Lee</surname>
	  </personname>
	  <contrib>Contributed by </contrib> <!--in Sept 2001-->
	</author>
      </authorgroup>
    </info>

    <para>This section describes some <acronym>MP3</acronym>
      players available for &os;, how to rip audio
      <acronym>CD</acronym> tracks, and how to encode and decode
      <acronym>MP3</acronym>s.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="mp3-players">
      <title>MP3 Players</title>

      <para>A popular graphical <acronym>MP3</acronym> player is
	<application>Audacious</application>.  It supports
	<application>Winamp</application> skins and additional
	plugins.  The interface is intuitive, with a playlist, graphic
	equalizer, and more.  Those familiar with
	<application>Winamp</application> will find
	<application>Audacious</application> simple to use.  On &os;,
	<application>Audacious</application> can be installed from the
	<package>multimedia/audacious</package> port or package.
	Audacious is a descendant of XMMS.</para>

      <para>The <package>audio/mpg123</package> package or port
	provides an alternative, command-line <acronym>MP3</acronym>
	player.  Once installed, specify the <acronym>MP3</acronym>
	file to play on the command line.  If the system has multiple
	audio devices, the sound device can also be specified:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mpg123 <replaceable>-a /dev/dsp1.0 Foobar-GreatestHits.mp3</replaceable></userinput>
High Performance MPEG 1.0/2.0/2.5 Audio Player for Layers 1, 2 and 3
        version 1.18.1; written and copyright by Michael Hipp and others
        free software (LGPL) without any warranty but with best wishes

Playing MPEG stream from Foobar-GreatestHits.mp3 ...
MPEG 1.0 layer III, 128 kbit/s, 44100 Hz joint-stereo</screen>

      <para>Additional <acronym>MP3</acronym> players are available in
	the &os; Ports Collection.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="rip-cd">
      <title>Ripping <acronym>CD</acronym> Audio Tracks</title>

      <para>Before encoding a <acronym>CD</acronym> or
	<acronym>CD</acronym> track to <acronym>MP3</acronym>, the
	audio data on the <acronym>CD</acronym> must be ripped to the
	hard drive.  This is done by copying the raw
	<acronym>CD</acronym> Digital Audio (<acronym>CDDA</acronym>)
	data to <acronym>WAV</acronym> files.</para>

      <para>The <command>cdda2wav</command> tool, which is installed
	with the <package>sysutils/cdrtools</package> suite, can be
	used to rip audio information from
	<acronym>CD</acronym>s.</para>

      <para>With the audio <acronym>CD</acronym> in the drive, the
	following command can be issued as
	<systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> to rip an
	entire <acronym>CD</acronym> into individual, per track,
	<acronym>WAV</acronym> files:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cdda2wav -D <replaceable>0,1,0</replaceable> -B</userinput></screen>

      <para>In this example, the
	<option>-D <replaceable>0,1,0</replaceable></option> indicates
	the <acronym>SCSI</acronym> device <filename>0,1,0</filename>
	containing the <acronym>CD</acronym> to rip.  Use
	<command>cdrecord -scanbus</command> to determine the correct
	device parameters for the system.</para>

      <para>To rip individual tracks, use <option>-t</option> to
	specify the track:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cdda2wav -D <replaceable>0,1,0</replaceable> -t 7</userinput></screen>

      <para>To rip a range of tracks, such as track one to seven,
	specify a range:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cdda2wav -D <replaceable>0,1,0</replaceable> -t 1+7</userinput></screen>

      <para>To rip from an <acronym>ATAPI</acronym>
	(<acronym>IDE</acronym>) <acronym>CDROM</acronym> drive,
	specify the device name in place of the
	<acronym>SCSI</acronym> unit numbers.  For example, to rip
	track 7 from an IDE drive:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cdda2wav -D <replaceable>/dev/acd0 -t 7</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>Alternately, <command>dd</command> can be used to extract
	audio tracks on <acronym>ATAPI</acronym> drives, as described
	in <xref linkend="duplicating-audiocds"/>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="mp3-encoding">
      <title>Encoding and Decoding MP3s</title>

      <para><application>Lame</application> is a popular
	<acronym>MP3</acronym> encoder which can be installed from the
	<package>audio/lame</package> port.  Due to patent issues, a
	package is not available.</para>

      <para>The following command will convert the ripped
	<acronym>WAV</acronym> file
	<filename><replaceable>audio01.wav</replaceable></filename> to
	<filename><replaceable>audio01.mp3</replaceable></filename>:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>lame -h -b <replaceable>128</replaceable> --tt "<replaceable>Foo Song Title</replaceable>" --ta "<replaceable>FooBar Artist</replaceable>" --tl "<replaceable>FooBar Album</replaceable>" \
--ty "<replaceable>2014</replaceable>" --tc "<replaceable>Ripped and encoded by Foo</replaceable>" --tg "<replaceable>Genre</replaceable>" <replaceable>audio01.wav audio01.mp3</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>The specified 128&nbsp;kbits is a standard
	<acronym>MP3</acronym> bitrate while the 160 and 192 bitrates
	provide higher quality.  The higher the bitrate, the larger
	the size of the resulting <acronym>MP3</acronym>.  The
	<option>-h</option> turns on the
	<quote>higher quality but a little slower</quote>
	mode.  The options beginning with <option>--t</option>
	indicate <acronym>ID3</acronym> tags, which usually contain
	song information, to be embedded within the
	<acronym>MP3</acronym> file.  Additional encoding options can
	be found in the <application>lame</application> manual
	page.</para>

      <para>In order to burn an audio <acronym>CD</acronym> from
	<acronym>MP3</acronym>s, they must first be converted to a
	non-compressed file format.  <application>XMMS</application>
	can be used to convert to the <acronym>WAV</acronym> format,
	while <application>mpg123</application> can be used to convert
	to the raw Pulse-Code Modulation (<acronym>PCM</acronym>)
	audio data format.</para>

      <para>To convert <filename>audio01.mp3</filename> using
	<application>mpg123</application>, specify the name of the
	<acronym>PCM</acronym> file:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mpg123 -s <replaceable>audio01.mp3</replaceable> &gt; <replaceable>audio01.pcm</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>To use <application>XMMS</application> to convert a
	<acronym>MP3</acronym> to <acronym>WAV</acronym> format, use
	these steps:</para>

      <procedure>
	<title>Converting to <acronym>WAV</acronym> Format in
	  <application>XMMS</application></title>

	<step>
	  <para>Launch <application>XMMS</application>.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Right-click the window to bring up the
	    <application>XMMS</application> menu.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Select <literal>Preferences</literal> under
	    <literal>Options</literal>.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Change the Output Plugin to <quote>Disk Writer
	      Plugin</quote>.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Press <literal>Configure</literal>.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Enter or browse to a directory to write the
	    uncompressed files to.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Load the <acronym>MP3</acronym> file into
	    <application>XMMS</application> as usual, with volume at
	    100% and EQ settings turned off.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Press <literal>Play</literal>.  The
	    <application>XMMS</application> will appear as if it is
	    playing the <acronym>MP3</acronym>, but no music will be
	    heard.  It is actually playing the <acronym>MP3</acronym>
	    to a file.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>When finished, be sure to set the default Output
	    Plugin back to what it was before in order to listen to
	    <acronym>MP3</acronym>s again.</para>
	</step>
      </procedure>

      <para>Both the <acronym>WAV</acronym> and <acronym>PCM</acronym>
	formats can be used with <application>cdrecord</application>.
	When using <acronym>WAV</acronym> files, there will be a small
	tick sound at the beginning of each track.  This sound is the
	header of the <acronym>WAV</acronym> file.  The
	<package>audio/sox</package> port or package can be used to
	remove the header:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>sox -t wav -r 44100 -s -w -c 2 <replaceable>track.wav track.raw</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>Refer to <xref linkend="creating-cds"/> for more
	information on using a <acronym>CD</acronym> burner in
	&os;.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="video-playback">
    <info>
      <title>Video Playback</title>

      <authorgroup>
	<author>
	  <personname>
	    <firstname>Ross</firstname>
	    <surname>Lippert</surname>
	  </personname>
	  <contrib>Contributed by </contrib> <!--in June 2002-->
	</author>
      </authorgroup>
    </info>

    <para>Before configuring video playback, determine the model and
      chipset of the video card.  While
      <application>&xorg;</application> supports a wide variety of
      video cards, not all provide good playback performance.  To
      obtain a list of extensions supported by the
      <application>&xorg;</application> server using the card, run
      <command>xdpyinfo</command> while
      <application>&xorg;</application> is running.</para>

    <para>It is a good idea to have a short MPEG test file for
      evaluating various players and options.  Since some
      <acronym>DVD</acronym> applications look for
      <acronym>DVD</acronym> media in <filename>/dev/dvd</filename> by
      default, or have this device name hardcoded in them, it might be
      useful to make a symbolic link to the proper device:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ln -sf /dev/cd0 /dev/dvd</userinput></screen>

    <para>Due to the nature of &man.devfs.5;, manually created links
      will not persist after a system reboot.  In order to recreate
      the symbolic link automatically when the system boots, add the
      following line to <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename>:</para>

    <programlisting>link cd0 dvd</programlisting>

    <para><acronym>DVD</acronym> decryption invokes certain functions
      that require write permission to the <acronym>DVD</acronym>
      device.</para>

    <para>To enhance the shared memory
      <application>&xorg;</application> interface, it is recommended
      to increase the values of these &man.sysctl.8;
      variables:</para>

    <programlisting>kern.ipc.shmmax=67108864
kern.ipc.shmall=32768</programlisting>

    <sect2 xml:id="video-interface">
      <title>Determining Video Capabilities</title>

      <indexterm><primary>XVideo</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>SDL</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>DGA</primary></indexterm>

      <para>There are several possible ways to display video under
	<application>&xorg;</application> and what works is largely
	hardware dependent.  Each method described below will have
	varying quality across different hardware.</para>

      <para>Common video interfaces include:</para>

      <orderedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><application>&xorg;</application>: normal output using
	    shared memory.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>XVideo: an extension to the
	    <application>&xorg;</application> interface which
	    allows video to be directly displayed in drawable objects
	    through a special acceleration.  This extension provides
	    good quality playback even on low-end machines.  The next
	    section describes how to determine if this extension is
	    running.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><acronym>SDL</acronym>: the Simple Directmedia Layer
	    is a porting layer for many operating systems, allowing
	    cross-platform applications to be developed which make
	    efficient use of sound and graphics.
	    <acronym>SDL</acronym> provides a low-level abstraction to
	    the hardware which can sometimes be more efficient than
	    the <application>&xorg;</application> interface.  On &os;,
	    <acronym>SDL</acronym> can be installed using the
	    <package>devel/sdl20</package> package or port.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para><acronym>DGA</acronym>: the Direct Graphics Access is
	    an <application>&xorg;</application> extension which
	    allows a program to bypass the
	    <application>&xorg;</application> server and directly
	    alter the framebuffer.  Because it relies on a low level
	    memory mapping, programs using it must be run as
	    <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem>.  The
	    <acronym>DGA</acronym> extension can be tested and
	    benchmarked using &man.dga.1;.  When
	    <command>dga</command> is running, it changes the colors
	    of the display whenever a key is pressed.  To quit, press
	    <keycap>q</keycap>.</para>
	</listitem>

	<listitem>
	  <para>SVGAlib: a low level console graphics layer.</para>
	</listitem>
      </orderedlist>

      <sect3 xml:id="video-interface-xvideo">
	<title>XVideo</title>

	<para>To check whether this extension is running, use
	  <command>xvinfo</command>:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>xvinfo</userinput></screen>

	<para>XVideo is supported for the card if the result is
	  similar to:</para>

	<screen>X-Video Extension version 2.2
  screen #0
  Adaptor #0: "Savage Streams Engine"
    number of ports: 1
    port base: 43
    operations supported: PutImage
    supported visuals:
      depth 16, visualID 0x22
      depth 16, visualID 0x23
    number of attributes: 5
      "XV_COLORKEY" (range 0 to 16777215)
              client settable attribute
              client gettable attribute (current value is 2110)
      "XV_BRIGHTNESS" (range -128 to 127)
              client settable attribute
              client gettable attribute (current value is 0)
      "XV_CONTRAST" (range 0 to 255)
              client settable attribute
              client gettable attribute (current value is 128)
      "XV_SATURATION" (range 0 to 255)
              client settable attribute
              client gettable attribute (current value is 128)
      "XV_HUE" (range -180 to 180)
              client settable attribute
              client gettable attribute (current value is 0)
    maximum XvImage size: 1024 x 1024
    Number of image formats: 7
      id: 0x32595559 (YUY2)
        guid: 59555932-0000-0010-8000-00aa00389b71
        bits per pixel: 16
        number of planes: 1
        type: YUV (packed)
      id: 0x32315659 (YV12)
        guid: 59563132-0000-0010-8000-00aa00389b71
        bits per pixel: 12
        number of planes: 3
        type: YUV (planar)
      id: 0x30323449 (I420)
        guid: 49343230-0000-0010-8000-00aa00389b71
        bits per pixel: 12
        number of planes: 3
        type: YUV (planar)
      id: 0x36315652 (RV16)
        guid: 52563135-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
        bits per pixel: 16
        number of planes: 1
        type: RGB (packed)
        depth: 0
        red, green, blue masks: 0x1f, 0x3e0, 0x7c00
      id: 0x35315652 (RV15)
        guid: 52563136-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
        bits per pixel: 16
        number of planes: 1
        type: RGB (packed)
        depth: 0
        red, green, blue masks: 0x1f, 0x7e0, 0xf800
      id: 0x31313259 (Y211)
        guid: 59323131-0000-0010-8000-00aa00389b71
        bits per pixel: 6
        number of planes: 3
        type: YUV (packed)
      id: 0x0
        guid: 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
        bits per pixel: 0
        number of planes: 0
        type: RGB (packed)
        depth: 1
        red, green, blue masks: 0x0, 0x0, 0x0</screen>

	<para>The formats listed, such as YUV2 and YUV12, are not
	  present with every implementation of XVideo and their
	  absence may hinder some players.</para>

	<para>If the result instead looks like:</para>

	<screen>X-Video Extension version 2.2
screen #0
no adaptors present</screen>

	<para>XVideo is probably not supported for the card.  This
	  means that it will be more difficult for the display to meet
	  the computational demands of rendering video, depending on
	  the video card and processor.</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 xml:id="video-ports">
      <title>Ports and Packages Dealing with Video</title>

      <indexterm><primary>video ports</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>video packages</primary></indexterm>

      <para>This section introduces some of the software available
	from the &os; Ports Collection which can be used for video
	playback.</para>

      <sect3 xml:id="video-mplayer">
	<title><application>MPlayer</application> and
	  <application>MEncoder</application></title>

	<para><application>MPlayer</application> is a command-line
	  video player with an optional graphical interface which aims
	  to provide speed and flexibility.  Other graphical
	  front-ends to <application>MPlayer</application> are
	  available from the &os; Ports Collection.</para>

	<indexterm><primary>MPlayer</primary></indexterm>

	<para><application>MPlayer</application> can be installed
	  using the <package>multimedia/mplayer</package> package or
	  port.  Several compile options are available and a variety
	  of hardware checks occur during the build process.  For
	  these reasons, some users prefer to build the port rather
	  than install the package.</para>

	<para>When compiling the port, the menu options should be
	  reviewed to determine the type of support to compile into
	  the port.  If an option is not selected,
	  <application>MPlayer</application> will not be able to
	  display that type of video format.  Use the arrow keys and
	  spacebar to select the required formats.  When finished,
	  press <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue the port compile
	  and installation.</para>

	<para>By default, the package or port will build the
	  <command>mplayer</command> command line utility and the
	  <command>gmplayer</command> graphical utility.  To encode
	  videos, compile the <package>multimedia/mencoder</package>
	  port.  Due to licensing restrictions, a package is not
	  available for <application>MEncoder</application>.</para>

	<para>The first time <application>MPlayer</application> is
	  run, it will create <filename>~/.mplayer</filename> in the
	  user's home directory.  This subdirectory contains default
	  versions of the user-specific configuration files.</para>

	<para>This section describes only a few common uses.  Refer to
	  mplayer(1) for a complete description of its numerous
	  options.</para>

	<para>To play the file
	  <filename><replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></filename>,
	  specify the video interfaces with <option>-vo</option>, as
	  seen in the following examples:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mplayer -vo xv <replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mplayer -vo sdl <replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mplayer -vo x11 <replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mplayer -vo dga <replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mplayer -vo 'sdl:dga' <replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	<para>It is worth trying all of these options, as their
	  relative performance depends on many factors and will vary
	  significantly with hardware.</para>

	<para>To play a <acronym>DVD</acronym>, replace
	  <filename><replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></filename>
	  with <option>dvd://<replaceable>N</replaceable> -dvd-device
	   <replaceable>DEVICE</replaceable></option>, where
	  <replaceable>N</replaceable> is the title number to play and
	  <replaceable>DEVICE</replaceable> is the device node for the
	  <acronym>DVD</acronym>.  For example, to play title 3 from
	  <filename>/dev/dvd</filename>:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mplayer -vo xv dvd://3 -dvd-device /dev/dvd</userinput></screen>

	<note>
	  <para>The default <acronym>DVD</acronym> device can be
	    defined during the build of the
	    <application>MPlayer</application> port by including the
	    <varname>WITH_DVD_DEVICE=/path/to/desired/device</varname>
	    option.  By default, the device is
	    <filename>/dev/cd0</filename>.  More details can be found
	    in the port's
	    <filename>Makefile.options</filename>.</para>
	</note>

	<para>To stop, pause, advance, and so on, use a keybinding.
	  To see the list of keybindings, run <command>mplayer
	    -h</command> or read mplayer(1).</para>

	<para>Additional playback options include <option>-fs
	    -zoom</option>, which engages fullscreen mode, and
	  <option>-framedrop</option>, which helps performance.</para>

	<para>Each user can add commonly used options to their
	  <filename>~/.mplayer/config</filename> like so:</para>

	<programlisting>vo=xv
fs=yes
zoom=yes</programlisting>

	<para><command>mplayer</command> can be used to rip a
	  <acronym>DVD</acronym> title to a <filename>.vob</filename>.
	  To dump the second title from a
	  <acronym>DVD</acronym>:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mplayer -dumpstream -dumpfile out.vob dvd://2 -dvd-device /dev/dvd</userinput></screen>

	<para>The output file, <filename>out.vob</filename>, will be
	  in <acronym>MPEG</acronym> format.</para>

	<para>Anyone wishing to obtain a high level of expertise with
	  &unix; video should consult <link
	    xlink:href="http://www.mplayerhq.hu/DOCS/">mplayerhq.hu/DOCS</link>
	  as it is technically informative.  This documentation should
	  be considered as required reading before submitting any bug
	  reports.</para>

	<indexterm>
	  <primary>mencoder</primary>
	</indexterm>

	<para>Before using <command>mencoder</command>, it is a good
	  idea to become familiar with the options described at <link
	    xlink:href="http://www.mplayerhq.hu/DOCS/HTML/en/mencoder.html">mplayerhq.hu/DOCS/HTML/en/mencoder.html</link>.
	  There are innumerable ways to improve quality, lower
	  bitrate, and change formats, and some of these options may
	  make the difference between good or bad performance.
	  Improper combinations of command line options can yield
	  output files that are unplayable even by
	  <command>mplayer</command>.</para>

	<para>Here is an example of a simple copy:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mencoder <replaceable>input.avi</replaceable> -oac copy -ovc copy -o <replaceable>output.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	<para>To rip to a file, use <option>-dumpfile</option> with
	  <command>mplayer</command>.</para>

	<para>To convert
	  <filename><replaceable>input.avi</replaceable></filename> to
	  the MPEG4 codec with MPEG3 audio encoding, first install the
	  <package>audio/lame</package> port.  Due to licensing
	  restrictions, a package is not available.  Once installed,
	  type:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mencoder <replaceable>input.avi</replaceable> -oac mp3lame -lameopts br=192 \
	 -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4:vhq -o <replaceable>output.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	<para>This will produce output playable by applications such
	  as <command>mplayer</command> and
	  <command>xine</command>.</para>

	<para><filename><replaceable>input.avi</replaceable></filename>
	  can be replaced with <option>dvd://1 -dvd-device
	    /dev/dvd</option> and run as <systemitem
	    class="username">root</systemitem> to re-encode a
	  <acronym>DVD</acronym> title directly.  Since it may take a
	  few tries to get the desired result, it is recommended to
	  instead dump the title to a file and to work on the
	  file.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3 xml:id="video-xine">
	<title>The <application>xine</application> Video
	  Player</title>

	<para><application>xine</application> is a video player with a
	  reusable base library and a modular executable which can be
	  extended with plugins.  It can be installed using the
	  <package>multimedia/xine</package> package or port.</para>

	<para>In practice, <application>xine</application> requires
	  either a fast CPU with a fast video card, or support for the
	  XVideo extension.  The <application>xine</application> video
	  player performs best on XVideo interfaces.</para>

	<para>By default, the <application>xine</application> player
	  starts a graphical user interface.  The menus can then be
	  used to open a specific file.</para>

	<para>Alternatively, <application>xine</application> may be
	  invoked from the command line by specifying the name of the
	  file to play:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>xine -g -p <replaceable>mymovie.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	<para>Refer to <link
	    xlink:href="http://www.xine-project.org/faq">
	    xine-project.org/faq</link> for more information and
	  troubleshooting tips.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3 xml:id="video-ports-transcode">
	<title>The <application>Transcode</application>
	  Utilities</title>

	<para><application>Transcode</application> provides a suite of
	  tools for re-encoding video and audio files.
	  <application>Transcode</application> can be used to merge
	  video files or repair broken files using command line tools
	  with stdin/stdout stream interfaces.</para>

	<para>In &os;, <application>Transcode</application> can be
	  installed using the <package>multimedia/transcode</package>
	  package or port.  Many users prefer to compile the port as
	  it provides a menu of compile options for specifying the
	  support and codecs to compile in.  If an option is not
	  selected, <application>Transcode</application> will not be
	  able to encode that format.  Use the arrow keys and spacebar
	  to select the required formats.  When finished, press
	  <keycap>Enter</keycap> to continue the port compile and
	  installation.</para>

	<para>This example demonstrates how to convert a DivX file
	  into a PAL MPEG-1 file (PAL VCD):</para>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>transcode -i <replaceable>input.avi</replaceable> -V --export_prof vcd-pal -o output_vcd</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>mplex -f 1 -o <replaceable>output_vcd.mpg output_vcd.m1v output_vcd.mpa</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	<para>The resulting <acronym>MPEG</acronym> file,
	  <filename><replaceable>output_vcd.mpg</replaceable></filename>,
	  is ready to be played with
	  <application>MPlayer</application>.  The file can be burned
	  on a <acronym>CD</acronym> media to create a video
	  <acronym>CD</acronym> using a utility such as
	  <package>multimedia/vcdimager</package> or
	  <package>sysutils/cdrdao</package>.</para>

	<para>In addition to the manual page for
	  <command>transcode</command>, refer to  <link
	    xlink:href="http://www.transcoding.org/cgi-bin/transcode">transcoding.org/cgi-bin/transcode</link>
	  for further information and examples.</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="tvcard">
    <info>
      <title>TV Cards</title>

      <authorgroup>
	<author>
	  <personname>
	    <firstname>Josef</firstname>
	    <surname>El-Rayes</surname>
	  </personname>
	  <contrib>Original contribution by </contrib>
	</author>
      </authorgroup>

      <authorgroup>
	<author>
	  <personname>
	    <firstname>Marc</firstname>
	    <surname>Fonvieille</surname>
	  </personname>
	  <contrib>Enhanced and adapted by </contrib> <!-- in January 2004-->
	</author>
      </authorgroup>
    </info>

    <indexterm>
      <primary>TV cards</primary>
    </indexterm>

    <para>TV cards can be used to watch broadcast or cable TV on a
      computer.  Most cards accept composite video via an
      <acronym>RCA</acronym> or S-video input and some cards include a
      <acronym>FM</acronym> radio tuner.</para>

    <para>&os; provides support for PCI-based TV cards using a
      Brooktree Bt848/849/878/879 video capture chip with the
      &man.bktr.4; driver.  This driver supports most Pinnacle PCTV
      video cards.  Before purchasing a TV card, consult &man.bktr.4;
      for a list of supported tuners.</para>

    <sect2>
      <title>Loading the Driver</title>

      <para>In order to use the card, the &man.bktr.4; driver must be
	loaded.  To automate this at boot time, add the following line
	to <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>bktr_load="YES"</programlisting>

      <para>Alternatively, one can statically compile support for
	the TV card into a custom kernel.  In that case, add the
	following lines to the custom kernel configuration
	file:</para>

      <programlisting>device	 bktr
device	iicbus
device	iicbb
device	smbus</programlisting>

      <para>These additional devices are necessary as the card
	components are interconnected via an I2C bus.  Then, build and
	install a new kernel.</para>

      <para>To test that the tuner is correctly detected, reboot the
	system.  The TV card should appear in the boot messages, as
	seen in this example:</para>

      <programlisting>bktr0: &lt;BrookTree 848A&gt; mem 0xd7000000-0xd7000fff irq 10 at device 10.0 on pci0
iicbb0: &lt;I2C bit-banging driver&gt; on bti2c0
iicbus0: &lt;Philips I2C bus&gt; on iicbb0 master-only
iicbus1: &lt;Philips I2C bus&gt; on iicbb0 master-only
smbus0: &lt;System Management Bus&gt; on bti2c0
bktr0: Pinnacle/Miro TV, Philips SECAM tuner.</programlisting>

      <para>The messages will differ according to the hardware.  If
	necessary, it is possible to override some of the detected
	parameters using &man.sysctl.8; or custom kernel configuration
	options.  For example, to force the tuner to a Philips SECAM
	tuner, add the following line to a custom kernel configuration
	file:</para>

      <programlisting>options OVERRIDE_TUNER=6</programlisting>

      <para>or, use &man.sysctl.8;:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl hw.bt848.tuner=6</userinput></screen>

      <para>Refer to &man.bktr.4; for a description of the available
	&man.sysctl.8; parameters and kernel options.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Useful Applications</title>

      <para>To use the TV card, install one of the following
	applications:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><package>multimedia/fxtv</package>
	    provides TV-in-a-window and image/audio/video capture
	    capabilities.</para>
	</listitem>
	<listitem>
	  <para><package>multimedia/xawtv</package>
	    is another TV application with similar features.</para>
	</listitem>
	<listitem>
	  <para><package>audio/xmradio</package>
	    provides an application for using the FM radio tuner of a
	    TV card.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>More applications are available in the &os; Ports
	Collection.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Troubleshooting</title>

      <para>If any problems are encountered with the TV card, check
	that the video capture chip and the tuner are supported by
	&man.bktr.4; and that the right configuration options were
	used.  For more support or to ask questions about supported TV
	cards, refer to the &a.multimedia.name; mailing list.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="mythtv">
    <title>MythTV</title>

    <para>MythTV is a popular, open source Personal Video Recorder
      (<acronym>PVR</acronym>) application.  This section demonstrates
      how to install and setup MythTV on &os;.  Refer to <link
	xlink:href="http://www.mythtv.org/wiki/">mythtv.org/wiki</link>
      for more information on how to use MythTV.</para>

    <para>MythTV requires a frontend and a backend.  These components
      can either be installed on the same system or on different
      machines.</para>

    <para>The frontend can be installed on &os; using the
      <package>multimedia/mythtv-frontend</package> package or port.
      <application>&xorg;</application> must also be installed and
      configured as described in <xref linkend="x11"/>.  Ideally, this
      system has a video card that supports X-Video Motion
      Compensation (<acronym>XvMC</acronym>) and, optionally, a Linux
      Infrared Remote Control (<acronym>LIRC</acronym>)-compatible
      remote.</para>

    <para>To install both the backend and the frontend on &os;, use
      the <package>multimedia/mythtv</package> package or port.  A
      &mysql; database server is also required and should
      automatically be installed as a dependency.  Optionally, this
      system should have a tuner card and sufficient storage to hold
      recorded data.</para>

    <sect2>
      <title>Hardware</title>

      <para>MythTV uses Video for Linux (<acronym>V4L</acronym>) to
	access video input devices such as encoders and tuners.  In
	&os;, MythTV works best with <acronym>USB</acronym> DVB-S/C/T
	cards as they are well supported by the
	<package>multimedia/webcamd</package> package or port which
	provides a <acronym>V4L</acronym> userland application.  Any
	Digital Video Broadcasting (<acronym>DVB</acronym>) card
	supported by <application>webcamd</application> should work
	with MythTV.  A list of known working cards can be found at
	<link
	  xlink:href="https://wiki.freebsd.org/WebcamCompat">wiki.freebsd.org/WebcamCompat</link>.
	Drivers are also available for Hauppauge cards in the
	<package>multimedia/pvr250</package> and
	<package>multimedia/pvrxxx</package> ports, but they provide a
	non-standard driver interface that does not work with versions
	of MythTV greater than 0.23.  Due to licensing restrictions,
	no packages are available and these two ports must be
	compiled.</para>

      <para>The <link
	  xlink:href="https://wiki.freebsd.org/HTPC">wiki.freebsd.org/HTPC</link>
	page contains a list of all available <acronym>DVB</acronym>
	drivers.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Setting up the MythTV Backend</title>

      <para>To install MythTV using binary packages:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg install mythtv</userinput></screen>

      <para>Alternatively, to install from the Ports Collection:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/multimedia/mythtv</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make install</userinput></screen>

      <para>Once installed, set up the MythTV database:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mysql -uroot -p &lt; /usr/local/share/mythtv/database/mc.sql</userinput></screen>

      <para>Then, configure the backend:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mythtv-setup</userinput></screen>

      <para>Finally, start the backend:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysrc mythbackend_enable=yes</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>service mythbackend start</userinput></screen>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 xml:id="scanners">
    <info>
      <title>Image Scanners</title>

      <authorgroup>
	<author>
	  <personname>
	    <firstname>Marc</firstname>
	    <surname>Fonvieille</surname>
	  </personname>
	  <contrib>Written by </contrib> <!-- in August 2004-->
	</author>
      </authorgroup>
    </info>

    <indexterm>
      <primary>image scanners</primary>
    </indexterm>

    <para>In &os;, access to image scanners is provided by
      <application>SANE</application> (Scanner Access Now Easy), which
      is available in the &os; Ports Collection.
      <application>SANE</application> will also use some &os; device
      drivers to provide access to the scanner hardware.</para>

    <para>&os; supports both <acronym>SCSI</acronym> and
      <acronym>USB</acronym> scanners.  Depending upon the scanner
      interface, different device drivers are required.  Be sure the
      scanner is supported by <application>SANE</application> prior
      to performing any configuration.  Refer to <link
	xlink:href="http://www.sane-project.org/sane-supported-devices.html">
      http://www.sane-project.org/sane-supported-devices.html</link>
      for more information about supported scanners.</para>

    <para>This chapter describes how to determine if the scanner has
      been detected by &os;.  It then provides an overview of how to
      configure and use <application>SANE</application> on a &os;
      system.</para>

    <sect2 xml:id="scanners-kernel-usb">
      <title>Checking the Scanner</title>

      <para>The <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel includes the
	device drivers needed to support <acronym>USB</acronym>
	scanners.  Users with a custom kernel should ensure that the
	following lines are present in the custom kernel configuration
	file:</para>

      <programlisting>device usb
device uhci
device ohci
device ehci
device xhci</programlisting>

      <para>To determine if the <acronym>USB</acronym> scanner is
	detected, plug it in and use <command>dmesg</command> to
	determine whether the scanner appears in the system message
	buffer.  If it does, it should display a message similar to
	this:</para>

      <screen>ugen0.2: &lt;EPSON&gt; at usbus0</screen>

      <para>In this example, an &epson.perfection;&nbsp;1650
	<acronym>USB</acronym> scanner was detected on
	<filename>/dev/ugen0.2</filename>.</para>

      <para>If the scanner uses a <acronym>SCSI</acronym> interface,
	it is important to know which <acronym>SCSI</acronym>
	controller board it will use.  Depending upon the
	<acronym>SCSI</acronym> chipset, a custom kernel configuration
	file may be needed.  The <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel
	supports the most common <acronym>SCSI</acronym> controllers.
	Refer to <filename>/usr/src/sys/conf/NOTES</filename> to
	determine the correct line to add to a custom kernel
	configuration file.  In addition to the
	<acronym>SCSI</acronym> adapter driver, the following lines
	are needed in a custom kernel configuration file:</para>

      <programlisting>device scbus
device pass</programlisting>

      <para>Verify that the device is displayed in the system message
	buffer:</para>

      <screen>pass2 at aic0 bus 0 target 2 lun 0
pass2: &lt;AGFA SNAPSCAN 600 1.10&gt; Fixed Scanner SCSI-2 device
pass2: 3.300MB/s transfers</screen>

      <para>If the scanner was not powered-on at system boot, it is
	still possible to manually force detection by performing a
	<acronym>SCSI</acronym> bus scan with
	<command>camcontrol</command>:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>camcontrol rescan all</userinput>
Re-scan of bus 0 was successful
Re-scan of bus 1 was successful
Re-scan of bus 2 was successful
Re-scan of bus 3 was successful</screen>

      <para>The scanner should now appear in the
	<acronym>SCSI</acronym> devices list:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>camcontrol devlist</userinput>
&lt;IBM DDRS-34560 S97B&gt;              at scbus0 target 5 lun 0 (pass0,da0)
&lt;IBM DDRS-34560 S97B&gt;              at scbus0 target 6 lun 0 (pass1,da1)
&lt;AGFA SNAPSCAN 600 1.10&gt;           at scbus1 target 2 lun 0 (pass3)
&lt;PHILIPS CDD3610 CD-R/RW 1.00&gt;     at scbus2 target 0 lun 0 (pass2,cd0)</screen>

      <para>Refer to &man.scsi.4; and &man.camcontrol.8; for more
	details about <acronym>SCSI</acronym> devices on &os;.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title><application>SANE</application> Configuration</title>

      <para>The <application>SANE</application> system provides the
	access to the scanner via backends (<package>graphics/sane-backends</package>).
	Refer to <link
	  xlink:href="http://www.sane-project.org/sane-supported-devices.html">http://www.sane-project.org/sane-supported-devices.html</link>
	to determine which backend supports the scanner.  A
	graphical scanning interface is provided by third party
	applications like <application>Kooka</application>
	(<package>graphics/kooka</package>) or
	<application>XSane</application>
	(<package>graphics/xsane</package>).
	<application>SANE</application>'s backends are enough to test
	the scanner.</para>

      <para>To install the backends from binary package:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pkg install sane-backends</userinput></screen>

      <para>Alternatively, to install from the Ports Collection</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/graphics/sane-backends</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make install clean</userinput></screen>

      <para>After installing the
	<package>graphics/sane-backends</package> port or package, use
	<command>sane-find-scanner</command> to check the scanner
	detection by the <application>SANE</application>
	system:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sane-find-scanner -q</userinput>
found SCSI scanner "AGFA SNAPSCAN 600 1.10" at /dev/pass3</screen>

      <para>The output should show the interface type of the scanner
	and the device node used to attach the scanner to the system.
	The vendor and the product model may or may not appear.</para>

      <note>
	<para>Some <acronym>USB</acronym> scanners require firmware to
	  be loaded.  Refer to sane-find-scanner(1) and sane(7) for
	  details.</para>
      </note>

      <para>Next, check if the scanner will be identified by a
	scanning frontend.  The <application>SANE</application>
	backends include <command>scanimage</command> which can be
	used to list the devices and perform an image acquisition.
	Use <option>-L</option> to list the scanner devices.  The
	first example is for a <acronym>SCSI</acronym> scanner and the
	second is for a <acronym>USB</acronym> scanner:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>scanimage -L</userinput>
device `snapscan:/dev/pass3' is a AGFA SNAPSCAN 600 flatbed scanner
&prompt.root; <userinput>scanimage -L</userinput>
device 'epson2:libusb:000:002' is a Epson GT-8200 flatbed scanner</screen>

      <para>In this second example,
	<literal>epson2</literal> is
	the backend name and
	<literal>libusb:000:002</literal> means
	<filename>/dev/ugen0.2</filename> is the device node used by the
	scanner.</para>

      <para>If <command>scanimage</command> is unable to identify the
	scanner, this message will appear:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>scanimage -L</userinput>

No scanners were identified. If you were expecting something different,
check that the scanner is plugged in, turned on and detected by the
sane-find-scanner tool (if appropriate). Please read the documentation
which came with this software (README, FAQ, manpages).</screen>

      <para>If this happens, edit the backend configuration file in
	<filename>/usr/local/etc/sane.d/</filename> and define the
	scanner device used.  For example, if the undetected scanner
	model is an &epson.perfection;&nbsp;1650 and it uses the
	<literal>epson2</literal> backend, edit
	<filename>/usr/local/etc/sane.d/epson2.conf</filename>.  When
	editing, add a line specifying the interface and the device
	node used.  In this case, add the following line:</para>

      <programlisting>usb /dev/ugen0.2</programlisting>

      <para>Save the edits and verify that the scanner is identified
	with the right backend name and the device node:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>scanimage -L</userinput>
device 'epson2:libusb:000:002' is a Epson GT-8200 flatbed scanner</screen>

      <para>Once <command>scanimage -L</command> sees the scanner, the
	configuration is complete and the scanner is now ready to
	use.</para>

      <para>While <command>scanimage</command> can be used to perform
	an image acquisition from the command line, it is often
	preferable to use a graphical interface to perform image
	scanning.  Applications like <application>Kooka</application>
	or <application>XSane</application> are popular scanning
	frontends.  They
	offer advanced features such as various scanning modes, color
	correction, and batch scans.  <application>XSane</application>
	is also usable as a <application>GIMP</application> plugin.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Scanner Permissions</title>

      <para>In order to have access to the scanner, a user needs read
	and write permissions to the device node used by the scanner.
	In the previous example, the <acronym>USB</acronym> scanner
	uses the device node <filename>/dev/ugen0.2</filename> which
	is really a symlink to the real device node
	<filename>/dev/usb/0.2.0</filename>.  The symlink and the
	device node are owned, respectively, by the <systemitem
	  class="groupname">wheel</systemitem> and <systemitem
	  class="groupname">operator</systemitem> groups.  While
	adding the user to these groups will allow access to the
	scanner, it is considered insecure to add a user to
	<systemitem class="groupname">wheel</systemitem>.  A better
	solution is to create a group and make the scanner device
	accessible to members of this group.</para>

      <para>This example creates a group called <systemitem
	  class="groupname"><replaceable>usb</replaceable></systemitem>:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pw groupadd usb</userinput></screen>

      <para>Then, make the <filename>/dev/ugen0.2</filename> symlink
	and the <filename>/dev/usb/0.2.0</filename> device node
	accessible to the <systemitem
	  class="groupname">usb</systemitem> group with write
	permissions of <literal>0660</literal> or
	<literal>0664</literal> by adding the following lines to
	<filename>/etc/devfs.rules</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>[system=5]
add path ugen0.2 mode 0660 group usb
add path usb/0.2.0 mode 0666 group usb</programlisting>

      <note>
	<para>It happens the device node changes with the addition or
	  removal of devices, so one may want to give access to all
	  USB devices using this ruleset instead:</para>

	<programlisting>[system=5]
add path 'ugen*' mode 0660 group usb
add path 'usb/*' mode 0666 group usb</programlisting>
      </note>

      <para>Refer to &man.devfs.rules.5; for more information about
	this file.</para>

      <para>Next, enable the ruleset in /etc/rc.conf:</para>

      <programlisting>devfs_system_ruleset="system"</programlisting>

      <para>And, restart the &man.devfs.8; system:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>service devfs restart</userinput></screen>

      <para>Finally, add the users to <systemitem
	  class="groupname"><replaceable>usb</replaceable></systemitem>
	in order to allow access to the scanner:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pw groupmod usb -m <replaceable>joe</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>For more details refer to &man.pw.8;.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>
</chapter>