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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
<!--
     The FreeBSD Documentation Project

     $FreeBSD$
-->

<chapter id="multimedia">
  <chapterinfo>
    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<firstname>Ross</firstname>
	<surname>Lippert</surname>
	<contrib>Edited by </contrib>
      </author>
    </authorgroup>
  </chapterinfo>

  <title>Multimedia</title>

  <sect1 id="multimedia-synopsis">
    <title>Synopsis</title>

    <para>FreeBSD supports a wide variety of sound cards, allowing you
      to enjoy high fidelity output from your computer.  This includes
      the ability to record and playback audio in the MPEG Audio Layer
      3 (MP3), WAV, and Ogg Vorbis formats as well as many other
      formats.  The FreeBSD Ports Collection also contains
      applications allowing you to edit your recorded audio, add sound
      effects, and control attached MIDI devices.</para>

    <para>With some experimentation, &os; can support
      playback of video files and DVDs.  The number of applications
      to encode, convert, and playback various video media is more
      limited than the number of sound applications.  For example as
      of this writing, there are no good re-encoding applications
      in the FreeBSD Ports Collection that could be used to convert
      between formats, as there is with <filename
	role="package">audio/sox</filename>.  However, the software
      landscape in this area is changing rapidly.</para>

    <para>This chapter will describe the necessary steps to configure
      your sound card.  The configuration and installation of X11
      (<xref linkend="x11"/>) has already taken care of the
      hardware issues for your video card, though there may be some
      tweaks to apply for better playback.</para>

    <para>After reading this chapter, you will know:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>How to configure your system so that your sound card
	  is recognized.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Methods to test whether your card is working.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to troubleshoot your sound setup.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to playback and encode MP3s and other audio.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How video is supported by the X server.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Some video player/encoder ports which give good
	  results.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to playback DVDs, <filename>.mpg</filename> and
	  <filename>.avi</filename> files.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to rip CD and DVD content into files.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to configure a TV card.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>How to configure an image scanner.</para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>

    <para>Before reading this chapter, you should:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem><para>Know how to configure and install a new kernel
	(<xref linkend="kernelconfig"/>).</para></listitem>
    </itemizedlist>

    <warning>
      <para>Trying to mount audio CDs with the &man.mount.8; command
	will result in an error, at least, and a <emphasis>kernel
	panic</emphasis>, at worst.  These media have specialized
	encodings which differ from the usual ISO-filesystem.</para>
    </warning>

  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="sound-setup">
    <sect1info>
      <authorgroup>
	<author>
	  <firstname>Moses</firstname>
	  <surname>Moore</surname>
	  <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
	  <!-- 20 November 2000 -->
	</author>
      </authorgroup>
      <authorgroup>
	<author>
	  <firstname>Marc</firstname>
	  <surname>Fonvieille</surname>
	  <contrib>Enhanced by </contrib>
	  <!-- 13 September 2004 -->
	</author>
      </authorgroup>
    </sect1info>

    <title>Setting Up the Sound Card</title>

    <sect2 id="sound-device">
      <title>Configuring the System</title>

      <indexterm><primary>PCI</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>ISA</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>sound cards</primary></indexterm>
      <para>Before you begin, you should know the model of the card
	you have, the chip it uses, and whether it is a PCI or ISA
	card.  FreeBSD supports a wide variety of both PCI and ISA
	cards.  Check the supported audio devices list of the <ulink
	  url="&rel.current.hardware;">Hardware Notes</ulink> to
	see if your card is supported.  The Hardware Notes will
	also mention which driver supports your card.</para>

      <indexterm>
	<primary>kernel</primary>
	<secondary>configuration</secondary>
      </indexterm>

      <para>To use your sound device, you will need to load the proper
	device driver.  This may be accomplished in one of two ways.
	The easiest way is to simply load a kernel module for your
	sound card with &man.kldload.8; which can either be done from
	the command line:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kldload snd_emu10k1</userinput></screen>

    <para>or by adding the appropriate line to the file
      <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> like this:</para>

    <programlisting>snd_emu10k1_load="YES"</programlisting>

    <para>These examples are for a Creative &soundblaster; Live! sound
      card.  Other available loadable sound modules are listed in
      <filename>/boot/defaults/loader.conf</filename>.
      If you are not sure which driver to use, you may try to load
      the <filename>snd_driver</filename> module:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>kldload snd_driver</userinput></screen>

    <para>This is a metadriver loading the most common device drivers
      at once.  This speeds up the search for the correct driver.  It
      is also possible to load all sound drivers via the
      <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> facility.</para>

    <para>If you wish to find out the driver selected for your
      soundcard after loading the <filename>snd_driver</filename>
      metadriver, you may check the <filename>/dev/sndstat</filename>
      file with the <command>cat /dev/sndstat</command>
      command.</para>

    <para>A second method is to statically
      compile in support for your sound card in your kernel.  The
      section below provides the information you need to add support
      for your hardware in this manner.  For more information about
      recompiling your kernel, please see <xref
      linkend="kernelconfig"/>.</para>

  <sect3>
    <title>Configuring a Custom Kernel with Sound Support</title>

    <para>The first thing to do is add the audio framework driver
      &man.sound.4; to the kernel; for that you will need to
      add the following line to the kernel configuration file:</para>

    <programlisting>device sound</programlisting>

    <para>Next, you have to add the support for your sound card.
      Therefore, you need to know which driver supports the card.
      Check the supported audio devices list of the <ulink
	url="&rel.current.hardware;">Hardware Notes</ulink>, to
      determine the correct driver for your sound card.  For
      example, a Creative &soundblaster; Live! sound card is
      supported by the &man.snd.emu10k1.4; driver.  To add the support
      for this card, use the following:</para>

      <programlisting>device snd_emu10k1</programlisting>

      <para>Be sure to read the manual page of the driver for the
	syntax to use.  The explicit syntax for the kernel
	configuration of every supported sound driver can also be
	found in the <filename>/usr/src/sys/conf/NOTES</filename>
	file.</para>

      <para>Non-PnP ISA sound cards may require you to provide the
	kernel with information on the card settings (IRQ, I/O port,
	etc), as is true of all non-PnP ISA cards.  This is done via
	the <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename> file.  During the
	boot process, the &man.loader.8; will read this file and pass
	the settings to the kernel.  For example, an old Creative
	&soundblaster; 16 ISA non-PnP card will use the
	&man.snd.sbc.4; driver in conjunction with
	<literal>snd_sb16</literal>.  For this card the following
	lines must be added to the kernel configuration file:</para>

      <programlisting>device snd_sbc
device snd_sb16</programlisting>

      <para>and these to
	<filename>/boot/device.hints</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>hint.sbc.0.at="isa"
hint.sbc.0.port="0x220"
hint.sbc.0.irq="5"
hint.sbc.0.drq="1"
hint.sbc.0.flags="0x15"</programlisting>

      <para>In this case, the card uses the <literal>0x220</literal>
	I/O port and the IRQ <literal>5</literal>.</para>

      <para>The syntax used in the
	<filename>/boot/device.hints</filename> file is covered in the
	&man.sound.4; driver manual page and the manual page
	for the driver in question.</para>

      <para>The settings shown above are the defaults.  In some
	cases, you may need to change the IRQ or the other settings to
	match your card.  See the &man.snd.sbc.4; manual page for more
	information about this card.</para>
    </sect3>
  </sect2>

  <sect2 id="sound-testing">
    <title>Testing the Sound Card</title>

    <para>After rebooting with the modified kernel, or after loading
      the required module, the sound card should appear in your system
      message buffer (&man.dmesg.8;) as something like:</para>

    <screen>pcm0: &lt;Intel ICH3 (82801CA)&gt; port 0xdc80-0xdcbf,0xd800-0xd8ff irq 5 at device 31.5 on pci0
pcm0: [GIANT-LOCKED]
pcm0: &lt;Cirrus Logic CS4205 AC97 Codec&gt;</screen>

    <para>The status of the sound card may be checked via the
      <filename>/dev/sndstat</filename> file:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cat /dev/sndstat</userinput>
FreeBSD Audio Driver (newpcm)
Installed devices:
pcm0: &lt;Intel ICH3 (82801CA)&gt; at io 0xd800, 0xdc80 irq 5 bufsz 16384
kld snd_ich (1p/2r/0v channels duplex default)</screen>

    <para>The output from your system may vary.  If no
      <devicename>pcm</devicename> devices are listed, go back and
      review what was done earlier.  Go through your kernel
      configuration file again and make sure the correct
      device driver was chosen.  Common problems are listed in <xref
	linkend="troubleshooting"/>.</para>

    <para>If all goes well, you should now have a functioning sound
      card.  If your CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive's audio-out pins are
      properly connected to your sound card, you can put a CD in the
      drive and play it with &man.cdcontrol.1;:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cdcontrol -f /dev/acd0 play 1</userinput></screen>

    <para>Various applications, such as <filename
	role="package">audio/workman</filename> can provide a
      friendlier interface.  You may want to install an application
      such as <filename role="package">audio/mpg123</filename> to
      listen to MP3 audio files.</para>

    <para>Another quick way to test the card is sending data
      to <filename>/dev/dsp</filename>, like this:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cat <replaceable>filename</replaceable> &gt; /dev/dsp</userinput></screen>

    <para>where
      <filename><replaceable>filename</replaceable></filename> can
      be any file.  This command line should produce some noise,
      confirming the sound card is actually working.</para>

    <note>
      <para>The device nodes <filename>/dev/dsp*</filename> will be
	created automatically when needed.  If they are not used, they
	do not exist and will not appear in the output of
	&man.ls.1;.</para>
    </note>

    <para>Sound card mixer levels can be changed via the &man.mixer.8;
      command.  More details can be found in the &man.mixer.8; manual
      page.</para>

    <sect3 id="troubleshooting">
      <title>Common Problems</title>

      <indexterm><primary>device nodes</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>I/O port</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>IRQ</primary></indexterm>
      <indexterm><primary>DSP</primary></indexterm>

      <informaltable frame="none" pgwide="1">
	<tgroup cols="2">
	  <thead>
	    <row>
	      <entry>Error</entry>
	      <entry>Solution</entry>
	    </row>
	  </thead>

	  <tbody>
	    <row>
	      <entry><errorname>sb_dspwr(XX) timed
		  out</errorname></entry>
	      <entry><para>The I/O port is not set
		correctly.</para></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry><errorname>bad irq XX</errorname></entry>
	      <entry><para>The IRQ is set incorrectly.  Make sure
		that the set IRQ and the sound IRQ are the
		same.</para></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry><errorname>xxx: gus pcm not attached, out of
		  memory</errorname></entry>
	      <entry><para>There is not enough available memory to
		use the device.</para></entry>
	    </row>

	    <row>
	      <entry><errorname>xxx: can't open
		  /dev/dsp!</errorname></entry>
	      <entry><para>Check with <command>fstat | grep
		  dsp</command>
		if another application is holding the device open.
		Noteworthy troublemakers are
		<application>esound</application> and
		<application>KDE</application>'s sound
		support.</para></entry>
	    </row>
	  </tbody>
	</tgroup>
      </informaltable>

      <para>Another issue is that modern graphics cards often come
	with their own sound driver, for use with
	<acronym>HDMI</acronym> and similar.  This sound device will
	sometimes be enumerated before the actual soundcard and the
	soundcard will subsequently not be used as the default
	playback device.  To check if this is the case, run
	<application>dmesg</application> and look for
	<literal>pcm</literal>.  The output looks something like
	this:</para>

      <programlisting>...
hdac0: HDA Driver Revision: 20100226_0142
hdac1: HDA Driver Revision: 20100226_0142
hdac0: HDA Codec #0: NVidia (Unknown)
hdac0: HDA Codec #1: NVidia (Unknown)
hdac0: HDA Codec #2: NVidia (Unknown)
hdac0: HDA Codec #3: NVidia (Unknown)
pcm0: &lt;HDA NVidia (Unknown) PCM #0 DisplayPort&gt; at cad 0 nid 1 on hdac0
pcm1: &lt;HDA NVidia (Unknown) PCM #0 DisplayPort&gt; at cad 1 nid 1 on hdac0
pcm2: &lt;HDA NVidia (Unknown) PCM #0 DisplayPort&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac0
pcm3: &lt;HDA NVidia (Unknown) PCM #0 DisplayPort&gt; at cad 3 nid 1 on hdac0
hdac1: HDA Codec #2: Realtek ALC889
pcm4: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #0 Analog&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1
pcm5: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #1 Analog&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1
pcm6: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #2 Digital&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1
pcm7: &lt;HDA Realtek ALC889 PCM #3 Digital&gt; at cad 2 nid 1 on hdac1
...</programlisting>

      <para>Here the graphics card (<literal>NVidia</literal>) has
	been enumerated before the sound card (<literal>Realtek
	ALC889</literal>).  To use the sound card as default playback
	device, change <literal>hw.snd.default_unit</literal> to the
	unit that should be used for playback, enter the
	following:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl hw.snd.default_unit=<replaceable>n</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>Here, <literal>n</literal> is the number of the sound
	device to use, in this example <literal>4</literal>. You can
	make this change permanent by adding the following line to
	<filename>/etc/sysctl.conf</filename>:</para>

      <programlisting>hw.snd.default_unit=<replaceable>4</replaceable></programlisting>
    </sect3>
  </sect2>

  <sect2 id="sound-multiple-sources">
    <sect2info>
      <authorgroup>
	<author>
	  <firstname>Munish</firstname>
	  <surname>Chopra</surname>
	  <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
	</author>
      </authorgroup>
    </sect2info>
    <title>Utilizing Multiple Sound Sources</title>

    <para>It is often desirable to have multiple sources of sound that
      are able to play simultaneously, such as when
      <application>esound</application> or
      <application>artsd</application> do not support sharing of the
      sound device with a certain application.</para>

    <para>FreeBSD lets you do this through <emphasis>Virtual Sound
	Channels</emphasis>, which can be enabled with the
      &man.sysctl.8; facility.  Virtual channels allow you to
      multiplex your sound card's playback by mixing sound in the
      kernel.</para>

    <para>To set the number of virtual channels, there are three
      sysctl knobs which, if you are the <username>root</username>
      user, can be set like this:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl dev.pcm.0.play.vchans=4</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl dev.pcm.0.rec.vchans=4</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl hw.snd.maxautovchans=4</userinput></screen>

    <para>The above example allocates four virtual channels, which
      is a practical number for everyday use.  Both
      <varname>dev.pcm.0.play.vchans=4</varname> and
      <varname>dev.pcm.0.rec.vchans=4</varname> are the number of
      virtual channels <devicename>pcm0</devicename> has for playback
      and recording, and are configurable once a device has been
      attached.  <literal>hw.snd.maxautovchans</literal> is the number
      of virtual channels a new audio device is given when it is
      attached using &man.kldload.8;.  Since the
      <devicename>pcm</devicename> module can be loaded independently
      of the hardware drivers, <varname>hw.snd.maxautovchans</varname>
      can store how many virtual channels any devices which are
      attached later will be given.  Refer to &man.pcm.4; manual page
      for more information.</para>

    <note>
      <para>You cannot change the number of virtual channels for a
	device while it is in use.  First close any programs using
	the device, such as music players or sound daemons.</para>
    </note>

    <para>
      The correct <devicename>pcm</devicename> device will
      automatically be allocated transparently to a program
      that requests <filename>/dev/dsp0</filename>.</para>
  </sect2>

  <sect2>
    <sect2info>
      <authorgroup>
	<author>
	  <firstname>Josef</firstname>
	  <surname>El-Rayes</surname>
	  <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
	</author>
      </authorgroup>
    </sect2info>

    <title>Setting Default Values for Mixer Channels</title>

    <para>The default values for the different mixer channels are
      hardcoded in the sourcecode of the &man.pcm.4; driver.  There
      are many different applications and daemons that allow
      you to set values for the mixer that are remembered between
      invocations, but this is not a clean solution.  It is possible
      to set default mixer values at the driver level &mdash; this
      is accomplished by defining the appropriate values in
      <filename>/boot/device.hints</filename>, e.g.:</para>

    <programlisting>hint.pcm.0.vol="50"</programlisting>

    <para>This will set the volume channel to a default value of
      50 when the &man.pcm.4; module is loaded.</para>
  </sect2>
</sect1>

<sect1 id="sound-mp3">
  <sect1info>
    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<firstname>Chern</firstname>
	<surname>Lee</surname>
	<contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
      </author>
    </authorgroup>
    <!-- 11 Sept 2001 -->
  </sect1info>

    <title>MP3 Audio</title>

    <para>MP3 (MPEG Layer 3 Audio) accomplishes near CD-quality sound,
      leaving no reason to let your FreeBSD workstation fall short of
      its offerings.</para>

    <sect2 id="mp3-players">
      <title>MP3 Players</title>

      <para>By far, the most popular X11 MP3 player is
	<application>XMMS</application> (X Multimedia System).
	<application>Winamp</application>
	skins can be used with <application>XMMS</application> since
	the GUI is almost identical to that of Nullsoft's
	<application>Winamp</application>.
	<application>XMMS</application> also has native plug-in
	support.</para>

      <para><application>XMMS</application> can be installed from
	the <filename role="package">multimedia/xmms</filename> port
	or package.</para>

      <para><application>XMMS</application>'s interface is intuitive,
	with a playlist, graphic equalizer, and more.  Those familiar
	with <application>Winamp</application> will find
	<application>XMMS</application> simple to use.</para>

      <para>The <filename role="package">audio/mpg123</filename> port
	is an alternative, command-line MP3 player.</para>

      <para><application>mpg123</application> can be run by specifying
	the sound device and the MP3 file on the command line.
	Assuming your audio device is
	<devicename>/dev/dsp1.0</devicename> and you want to play the
	MP3 file <replaceable>Foobar-GreatestHits.mp3</replaceable>
	you would enter the following:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mpg123 -a <devicename>/dev/dsp1.0</devicename> <replaceable>Foobar-GreatestHits.mp3</replaceable></userinput>
High Performance MPEG 1.0/2.0/2.5 Audio Player for Layer 1, 2 and 3.
Version 0.59r (1999/Jun/15). Written and copyrights by Michael Hipp.
Uses code from various people. See 'README' for more!
THIS SOFTWARE COMES WITH ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY! USE AT YOUR OWN RISK!





Playing MPEG stream from Foobar-GreatestHits.mp3 ...
MPEG 1.0 layer III, 128 kbit/s, 44100 Hz joint-stereo</screen>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="rip-cd">
      <title>Ripping CD Audio Tracks</title>

      <para>Before encoding a CD or CD track to MP3, the audio data on
	the CD must be ripped onto the hard drive.  This is done by
	copying the raw CDDA (CD Digital Audio) data to WAV
	files.</para>

      <para>The <command>cdda2wav</command> tool, which is a part of
	the <filename role="package">sysutils/cdrtools</filename>
	suite, is used for ripping audio information from CDs and the
	information associated with them.</para>

      <para>With the audio CD in the drive, the following command can
	be issued (as <username>root</username>) to rip an entire CD
	into individual (per track) WAV files:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cdda2wav -D <replaceable>0,1,0</replaceable> -B</userinput></screen>

      <para><application>cdda2wav</application> will support
	ATAPI (IDE) CDROM drives.  To rip from an IDE drive, specify
	the device name in place of the SCSI unit numbers.  For
	example, to rip track 7 from an IDE drive:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cdda2wav -D <replaceable>/dev/acd0</replaceable> -t 7</userinput></screen>

      <para>The <option>-D <replaceable>0,1,0</replaceable></option>
	indicates the SCSI device <devicename>0,1,0</devicename>,
	which corresponds to the output of <command>cdrecord
	  -scanbus</command>.</para>

      <para>To rip individual tracks, make use of the
	<option>-t</option> option as shown:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cdda2wav -D <replaceable>0,1,0</replaceable> -t 7</userinput></screen>

      <para>This example rips track seven of the audio CDROM.  To rip
	a range of tracks, for example, track one to seven, specify a
	range:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cdda2wav -D <replaceable>0,1,0</replaceable> -t 1+7</userinput></screen>

      <para>The utility &man.dd.1; can also be used to extract audio
	tracks on ATAPI drives, read <xref
	  linkend="duplicating-audiocds"/> for more information on
	that possibility.</para>

    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="mp3-encoding">
      <title>Encoding MP3s</title>

      <para>Nowadays, the mp3 encoder of choice is
	<application>lame</application>.
	<application>Lame</application> can be found at
	<filename role="package">audio/lame</filename> in the ports
	tree.</para>

      <para>Using the ripped WAV files, the following command will
	convert
	<filename><replaceable>audio01.wav</replaceable></filename>
	to
	<filename><replaceable>audio01.mp3</replaceable></filename>:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>lame -h -b <replaceable>128</replaceable> \
--tt "<replaceable>Foo Song Title</replaceable>" \
--ta "<replaceable>FooBar Artist</replaceable>" \
--tl "<replaceable>FooBar Album</replaceable>" \
--ty "<replaceable>2001</replaceable>" \
--tc "<replaceable>Ripped and encoded by Foo</replaceable>" \
--tg "<replaceable>Genre</replaceable>" \
<replaceable>audio01.wav audio01.mp3</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>128&nbsp;kbits seems to be the standard MP3 bitrate in
	use.  Many enjoy the higher quality 160, or 192.  The higher
	the bitrate, the more disk space the resulting MP3 will
	consume--but the quality will be higher.  The
	<option>-h</option> option turns on the <quote>higher quality
	but a little slower</quote> mode.  The options beginning with
	<option>--t</option> indicate ID3 tags, which usually contain
	song information, to be embedded within the MP3 file.
	Additional encoding options can be found by consulting the
	<application>lame</application> man page.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2 id="mp3-decoding">
      <title>Decoding MP3s</title>

      <para>In order to burn an audio CD from MP3s, they must be
	converted to a non-compressed WAV format.  Both
	<application>XMMS</application> and
	<application>mpg123</application> support the output of MP3
	to an uncompressed file format.</para>

      <para>Writing to Disk in <application>XMMS</application>:</para>

      <procedure>
	<step>
	  <para>Launch <application>XMMS</application>.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Right-click on the window to bring up the
	    <application>XMMS</application> menu.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Select <literal>Preference</literal> under
	    <literal>Options</literal>.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Change the Output Plugin to <quote>Disk Writer
	      Plugin</quote>.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Press <literal>Configure</literal>.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Enter (or choose browse) a directory to write the
	    uncompressed files to.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Load the MP3 file into <application>XMMS</application>
	    as usual, with volume at 100% and EQ settings turned
	    off.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Press <literal>Play</literal> &mdash;
	    <application>XMMS</application> will appear as if it is
	    playing the MP3, but no music will be heard.  It is
	    actually playing the MP3 to a file.</para>
	</step>

	<step>
	  <para>Be sure to set the default Output Plugin back to what
	    it was before in order to listen to MP3s again.</para>
	</step>
      </procedure>

      <para>Writing to stdout in
	<application>mpg123</application>:</para>

      <procedure>
	<step>
	  <para>Run <command>mpg123 -s
	      <replaceable>audio01.mp3</replaceable> &gt;
	      <replaceable>audio01.pcm</replaceable></command></para>
	</step>
      </procedure>

      <para><application>XMMS</application> writes a file in the WAV
	format, while <application>mpg123</application> converts the
	MP3 into raw PCM audio data.  Both of these formats can be
	used with <application>cdrecord</application> to create audio
	CDs.  You have to use raw PCM with &man.burncd.8;.  If you
	use WAV files, you will notice a small tick sound at the
	beginning of each track, this sound is the header of the WAV
	file.  You can simply remove the header of a WAV file with
	the utility <application>SoX</application> (it can be
	installed from the <filename
	  role="package">audio/sox</filename> port or package):</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>sox -t wav -r 44100 -s -w -c 2 <replaceable>track.wav track.raw</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>Read <xref linkend="creating-cds"/> for more information
	on using a CD burner in FreeBSD.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="video-playback">
    <sect1info>
      <authorgroup>
	<author>
	  <firstname>Ross</firstname>
	  <surname>Lippert</surname>
	  <contrib>Contributed by </contrib>
	</author>
      </authorgroup>
      <!-- 5 June 2002 -->
    </sect1info>

    <title>Video Playback</title>

    <para>Video playback is a very new and rapidly developing
      application area.  Be patient.  Not everything is going to work
      as smoothly as it did with sound.</para>

    <para>Before you begin, you should know the model of the video
      card you have and the chip it uses.  While
      <application>&xorg;</application> supports a wide variety of
      video cards, fewer give good playback performance.  To obtain
      a list of extensions supported by the X server using your card
      use the command &man.xdpyinfo.1; while X11 is running.</para>

    <para>It is a good idea to have a short MPEG file which can be
      treated as a test file for evaluating various players and
      options.  Since some DVD players will look for DVD media in
      <filename>/dev/dvd</filename> by default, or have this device
      name hardcoded in them, you might find it useful to make
      symbolic links to the proper devices:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>ln -sf /dev/acd0 /dev/dvd</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>ln -sf /dev/acd0 /dev/rdvd</userinput></screen>

    <para>Note that due to the nature of &man.devfs.5;,
      manually created links like these will not persist if you reboot
      your system.  In order to create the symbolic links
      automatically whenever you boot your system, add the following
      lines to <filename>/etc/devfs.conf</filename>:</para>

    <programlisting>link acd0 dvd
link acd0 rdvd</programlisting>

    <para>Additionally, DVD decryption, which requires invoking
      special DVD-ROM functions, requires write permission on the DVD
      devices.</para>

    <para>To enhance the shared memory X11 interface, it is
      recommended that the values of some &man.sysctl.8; variables
      should be increased:</para>

    <programlisting>kern.ipc.shmmax=67108864
kern.ipc.shmall=32768</programlisting>

  <sect2 id="video-interface">
    <title>Determining Video Capabilities</title>

    <indexterm><primary>XVideo</primary></indexterm>
    <indexterm><primary>SDL</primary></indexterm>
    <indexterm><primary>DGA</primary></indexterm>

    <para>There are several possible ways to display video under X11.
      What will really work is largely hardware dependent.  Each
      method described below will have varying quality across
      different hardware.  Secondly, the rendering of video in X11
      is a topic receiving a lot of attention lately, and with each
      version of <application>&xorg;</application>, there may be
      significant improvement.</para>

    <para>A list of common video interfaces:</para>

    <orderedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>X11: normal X11 output using shared memory.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>XVideo: an extension to the X11 interface which supports
	  video in any X11 drawable.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>SDL: the Simple Directmedia Layer.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>DGA: the Direct Graphics Access.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>SVGAlib: low level console graphics layer.</para>
      </listitem>
    </orderedlist>

    <sect3 id="video-interface-xvideo">
      <title>XVideo</title>

      <para><application>&xorg;</application> has an extension called
	<emphasis>XVideo</emphasis> (aka Xvideo, aka Xv, aka xv) which
	allows video to be directly displayed in drawable objects
	through a special acceleration.  This extension provides very
	good quality playback even on low-end machines.</para>

      <para>To check whether the extension is running, use
	<command>xvinfo</command>:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>xvinfo</userinput></screen>

      <para>XVideo is supported for your card if the result looks
	like:</para>

      <screen>X-Video Extension version 2.2
  screen #0
  Adaptor #0: "Savage Streams Engine"
    number of ports: 1
    port base: 43
    operations supported: PutImage
    supported visuals:
      depth 16, visualID 0x22
      depth 16, visualID 0x23
    number of attributes: 5
      "XV_COLORKEY" (range 0 to 16777215)
              client settable attribute
              client gettable attribute (current value is 2110)
      "XV_BRIGHTNESS" (range -128 to 127)
              client settable attribute
              client gettable attribute (current value is 0)
      "XV_CONTRAST" (range 0 to 255)
              client settable attribute
              client gettable attribute (current value is 128)
      "XV_SATURATION" (range 0 to 255)
              client settable attribute
              client gettable attribute (current value is 128)
      "XV_HUE" (range -180 to 180)
              client settable attribute
              client gettable attribute (current value is 0)
    maximum XvImage size: 1024 x 1024
    Number of image formats: 7
      id: 0x32595559 (YUY2)
        guid: 59555932-0000-0010-8000-00aa00389b71
        bits per pixel: 16
        number of planes: 1
        type: YUV (packed)
      id: 0x32315659 (YV12)
        guid: 59563132-0000-0010-8000-00aa00389b71
        bits per pixel: 12
        number of planes: 3
        type: YUV (planar)
      id: 0x30323449 (I420)
        guid: 49343230-0000-0010-8000-00aa00389b71
        bits per pixel: 12
        number of planes: 3
        type: YUV (planar)
      id: 0x36315652 (RV16)
        guid: 52563135-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
        bits per pixel: 16
        number of planes: 1
        type: RGB (packed)
        depth: 0
        red, green, blue masks: 0x1f, 0x3e0, 0x7c00
      id: 0x35315652 (RV15)
        guid: 52563136-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
        bits per pixel: 16
        number of planes: 1
        type: RGB (packed)
        depth: 0
        red, green, blue masks: 0x1f, 0x7e0, 0xf800
      id: 0x31313259 (Y211)
        guid: 59323131-0000-0010-8000-00aa00389b71
        bits per pixel: 6
        number of planes: 3
        type: YUV (packed)
      id: 0x0
        guid: 00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000
        bits per pixel: 0
        number of planes: 0
        type: RGB (packed)
        depth: 1
        red, green, blue masks: 0x0, 0x0, 0x0</screen>

    <para>Also note that the formats listed (YUV2, YUV12, etc) are
      not present with every implementation of XVideo and their
      absence may hinder some players.</para>

    <para>If the result looks like:</para>

    <screen>X-Video Extension version 2.2
screen #0
no adaptors present</screen>

    <para>Then XVideo is probably not supported for your card.</para>

    <para>If XVideo is not supported for your card, this only means
      that it will be more difficult for your display to meet the
      computational demands of rendering video.  Depending on your
      video card and processor, though, you might still be able to
      have a satisfying experience.  You should probably read about
      ways of improving performance in the advanced reading <xref
	linkend="video-further-reading"/>.</para>

  </sect3>

  <sect3 id="video-interface-SDL">
    <title>Simple Directmedia Layer</title>

    <para>The Simple Directmedia Layer, SDL, is a
      porting layer for many operating systems
      allowing cross-platform applications to be developed which make
      efficient use of sound and graphics.  The SDL layer provides a
      low-level abstraction to the hardware which can sometimes be
      more efficient than the X11 interface.</para>

    <para>The SDL can be found at <filename
	role="package">devel/sdl12</filename>.</para>

  </sect3>

  <sect3 id="video-interface-DGA">
    <title>Direct Graphics Access</title>

    <para>Direct Graphics Access is an X11 extension which allows
      a program to bypass the X server and directly alter the
      framebuffer.  Because it relies on a low level memory mapping to
      effect this sharing, programs using it must be run as
      <username>root</username>.</para>

    <para>The DGA extension can be tested and benchmarked by
      &man.dga.1;.  When <command>dga</command> is running, it
      changes the colors of the display whenever a key is pressed.  To
      quit, use <keycap>q</keycap>.</para>

  </sect3>
</sect2>

  <sect2 id="video-ports">
    <title>Ports and Packages Dealing with Video</title>

    <indexterm><primary>video ports</primary></indexterm>
    <indexterm><primary>video packages</primary></indexterm>

    <para>This section discusses the software available from the
      FreeBSD Ports Collection which can be used for video playback.
      Video playback is a very active area of software development,
      and the capabilities of various applications are bound to
      diverge somewhat from the descriptions given here.</para>

    <para>Firstly, it is important to know that many of the video
      applications which run on FreeBSD were developed as Linux
      applications.  Many of these applications are still
      beta-quality.  Some of the problems that you may encounter with
      video packages on FreeBSD include:</para>

    <orderedlist>

      <listitem>
	<para>An application cannot playback a file which another
	  application produced.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>An application cannot playback a file which the
	  application itself produced.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>The same application on two different machines,
	  rebuilt on each machine for that machine, plays back the
	  same file differently.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>A seemingly trivial filter like rescaling of the image
	  size results in very bad artifacts from a buggy rescaling
	  routine.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>An application frequently dumps core.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Documentation is not installed with the port and can be
	  found either on the web or under the port's <filename
	    class='directory'>work</filename>
	  directory.</para>
      </listitem>

    </orderedlist>

    <para>Many of these applications may also exhibit
      <quote>Linux-isms</quote>.  That is, there may be issues
      resulting from the way some standard libraries are
      implemented in the Linux distributions, or some features of
      the Linux kernel which have been assumed by the authors of the
      applications.  These issues are not always noticed and worked
      around by the port maintainers, which can lead to problems like
      these:</para>

    <orderedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>The use of <filename>/proc/cpuinfo</filename> to detect
	  processor characteristics.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>A misuse of threads which causes a program to hang upon
	  completion instead of truly terminating.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Software not yet in the FreeBSD Ports Collection
	  which is commonly used in conjunction with the
	  application.</para>
      </listitem>
    </orderedlist>

    <para>So far, these application developers have been cooperative
      with port maintainers to minimize the work-arounds needed for
      port-ing.</para>

    <sect3 id="video-mplayer">
      <title>MPlayer</title>

      <para><application>MPlayer</application> is a recently developed
	and rapidly developing video player.  The goals of the
	<application>MPlayer</application> team are speed and
	flexibility on Linux and other Unices.  The project was
	started when the team founder got fed up with bad playback
	performance on then available players.  Some would say that
	the graphical interface has been sacrificed for a streamlined
	design.  However, once you get used to the command line
	options and the key-stroke controls, it works very
	well.</para>

      <sect4 id="video-mplayer-building">
	<title>Building MPlayer</title>

	<indexterm><primary>MPlayer</primary>
	  <secondary>making</secondary></indexterm>

	<para><application>MPlayer</application> resides in <filename
	    role="package">multimedia/mplayer</filename>.
	  <application>MPlayer</application> performs a variety of
	  hardware checks during the build process, resulting in a
	  binary which will not be portable from one system to
	  another.  Therefore, it is important to build it from
	  ports and not to use a binary package.  Additionally, a
	  number of options can be specified in the
	  <command>make</command> command line, as described in the
	  <filename>Makefile</filename> and at the start of the
	  build:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/multimedia/mplayer</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make</userinput>
N - O - T - E

Take a careful look into the Makefile in order
to learn how to tune mplayer towards you personal preferences!
For example,
make WITH_GTK1
builds MPlayer with GTK1-GUI support.
If you want to use the GUI, you can either install
/usr/ports/multimedia/mplayer-skins
or download official skin collections from
http://www.mplayerhq.hu/homepage/dload.html</screen>

	<para>The default port options should be sufficient for most
	  users.  However, if you need the XviD codec, you have to
	  specify the <makevar>WITH_XVID</makevar> option in the
	  command line.  The default DVD device can also be defined
	  with the <makevar>WITH_DVD_DEVICE</makevar> option, by
	  default <filename>/dev/acd0</filename> will be used.</para>

	<para>As of this writing, the
	  <application>MPlayer</application> port will build its HTML
	  documentation and two executables,
	  <command>mplayer</command>, and <command>mencoder</command>,
	  which is a tool for re-encoding video.</para>

	<para>The HTML documentation for
	  <application>MPlayer</application> is very informative.
	  If the reader finds the information on video hardware and
	  interfaces in this chapter lacking, the
	  <application>MPlayer</application> documentation is a very
	  thorough supplement.  You should definitely take the time
	  to read the <application>MPlayer</application> documentation
	  if you are looking for information about video support in
	  &unix;.</para>

      </sect4>

      <sect4 id="video-mplayer-using">
	<title>Using MPlayer</title>

	<indexterm><primary>MPlayer</primary>
	  <secondary>use</secondary></indexterm>

	<para>Any user of <application>MPlayer</application> must set
	  up a <filename>.mplayer</filename> subdirectory of her
	  home directory.  To create this necessary subdirectory,
	  you can type the following:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/multimedia/mplayer</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>make install-user</userinput></screen>

	<para>The command options for <command>mplayer</command> are
	  listed in the manual page.  For even more detail there is
	  HTML documentation.  In this section, we will describe only
	  a few common uses.</para>

	<para>To play a file, such as
	  <filename><replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></filename>,
	  through one of the various video interfaces set the
	  <option>-vo</option> option:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mplayer -vo xv <replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	  <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mplayer -vo sdl <replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mplayer -vo x11 <replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mplayer -vo dga <replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mplayer -vo 'sdl:dga' <replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	<para>It is worth trying all of these options, as their
	  relative performance depends on many factors and will vary
	  significantly with hardware.</para>

	<para>To play from a DVD, replace the
	  <filename><replaceable>testfile.avi</replaceable></filename>
	  with <option>dvd://<replaceable>N</replaceable> -dvd-device
	   <replaceable>DEVICE</replaceable></option> where
	  <replaceable>N</replaceable> is the title number to play
	  and <filename><replaceable>DEVICE</replaceable></filename>
	  is the device node for the DVD-ROM.  For example, to play
	  title 3 from <filename>/dev/dvd</filename>:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mplayer -vo xv dvd://3 -dvd-device /dev/dvd</userinput></screen>

	<note>
	  <para>The default DVD device can be defined during the build
	    of the <application>MPlayer</application> port via the
	    <makevar>WITH_DVD_DEVICE</makevar> option.  By default,
	    this device is <filename>/dev/acd0</filename>.  More
	    details can be found in the port
	    <filename>Makefile</filename>.</para>
	</note>

	<para>To stop, pause, advance and so on, consult the
	  keybindings, which are output by running <command>mplayer
	    -h</command> or read the manual page.</para>

	<para>Additional important options for playback are:
	  <option>-fs -zoom</option> which engages the fullscreen mode
	  and <option>-framedrop</option> which helps
	  performance.</para>

	<para>In order for the mplayer command line to not become too
	  large, the user can create a file
	  <filename>.mplayer/config</filename> and set default options
	  there:</para>
	<programlisting>vo=xv
fs=yes
zoom=yes</programlisting>

	<para>Finally, <command>mplayer</command> can be used to rip a
	  DVD title into a <filename>.vob</filename> file.  To dump
	  out the second title from a DVD, type this:</para>

	  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mplayer -dumpstream -dumpfile out.vob dvd://2 -dvd-device /dev/dvd</userinput></screen>

	<para>The output file, <filename>out.vob</filename>, will be
	  MPEG and can be manipulated by the other packages described
	  in this section.</para>

      </sect4>
      <sect4 id="video-mencoder">
	<title>mencoder</title>

	<indexterm>
	  <primary>mencoder</primary>
	</indexterm>

	<para>Before using <command>mencoder</command> it is a good
	  idea to familiarize yourself with the options from the HTML
	  documentation.  There is a manual page, but it is not very
	  useful without the HTML documentation.  There are
	  innumerable ways to improve quality, lower bitrate, and
	  change formats, and some of these tricks may make the
	  difference between good or bad performance.  Here are a
	  couple of examples to get you going.  First a simple
	  copy:</para>

	 <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mencoder <replaceable>input.avi</replaceable> -oac copy -ovc copy -o <replaceable>output.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	<para>Improper combinations of command line options can yield
	  output files that are unplayable even by
	  <command>mplayer</command>.  Thus, if you just want to rip
	  to a file, stick to the <option>-dumpfile</option> in
	  <command>mplayer</command>.</para>

	<para>To convert
	  <filename><replaceable>input.avi</replaceable></filename>
	  to the MPEG4 codec with MPEG3 audio encoding (<filename
	    role="package">audio/lame</filename> is required):</para>

	<screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>mencoder <replaceable>input.avi</replaceable> -oac mp3lame -lameopts br=192 \
	 -ovc lavc -lavcopts vcodec=mpeg4:vhq -o <replaceable>output.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

	<para>This has produced output playable by
	  <command>mplayer</command> and
	  <command>xine</command>.</para>

	<para><filename><replaceable>input.avi</replaceable></filename>
	  can be replaced with <option>dvd://1 -dvd-device
	    /dev/dvd</option> and run as <username>root</username>
	  to re-encode a DVD title directly.  Since you are likely
	  to be dissatisfied with your results the first time around,
	  it is recommended you dump the title to a file and work on
	  the file.</para>
      </sect4>

    </sect3>

    <sect3 id="video-xine">
      <title>The xine Video Player</title>

      <para>The <application>xine</application> video player is a
	project of wide scope aiming not only at being an all in one
	video solution, but also in producing a reusable base library
	and a modular executable which can be extended with plugins.
	It comes both as a package and as a port, <filename
	  role="package">multimedia/xine</filename>.</para>

      <para>The <application>xine</application> player
	is still very rough around the edges, but it is clearly off
	to a good start.  In practice, <application>xine</application>
	requires either a fast CPU with a fast video card, or support
	for the XVideo extension.  The GUI is usable, but a bit
	clumsy.</para>

      <para>As of this writing, there is no input module shipped with
	<application>xine</application> which will play CSS encoded
	DVDs.  There are third party builds which do have modules for
	this built in them, but none of these are in the FreeBSD Ports
	Collection.</para>

      <para>Compared to <application>MPlayer</application>,
	<application>xine</application> does more for the user, but
	at the same time, takes some of the more fine-grained control
	away from the user.  The <application>xine</application> video
	player performs best on XVideo interfaces.</para>

      <para>By default, <application>xine</application> player will
	start up in a graphical user interface.  The menus can then
	be used to open a specific file:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>xine</userinput></screen>

      <para>Alternatively, it may be invoked to play a file
	immediately without the GUI with the command:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>xine -g -p <replaceable>mymovie.avi</replaceable></userinput></screen>

    </sect3>

    <sect3 id="video-ports-transcode">
      <title>The transcode Utilities</title>

      <para>The software <application>transcode</application> is not a
	player, but a suite of tools for re-encoding video and audio
	files.  With <application>transcode</application>, one has the
	ability to merge video files, repair broken files, using
	command line tools with <filename>stdin/stdout</filename>
	stream interfaces.</para>

      <para>A great number of options can be specified during the
	build from the <filename
	  role="package">multimedia/transcode</filename> port, we
	recommend the following command line to build
	<application>transcode</application>:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>make WITH_OPTIMIZED_CFLAGS=yes WITH_LIBA52=yes WITH_LAME=yes WITH_OGG=yes \
WITH_MJPEG=yes -DWITH_XVID=yes</userinput></screen>

    <para>The proposed settings should be sufficient for most
      users.</para>

    <para>To illustrate <command>transcode</command> capacities, one
      example to show how to convert a DivX file into a PAL MPEG-1
      file (PAL VCD):</para>

    <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>transcode -i
<replaceable>input.avi</replaceable> -V --export_prof vcd-pal -o output_vcd</userinput>
&prompt.user; <userinput>mplex -f 1 -o <replaceable>output_vcd.mpg output_vcd.m1v output_vcd.mpa</replaceable></userinput></screen>

    <para>The resulting MPEG file,
      <filename><replaceable>output_vcd.mpg</replaceable></filename>,
      is ready to be played with <application>MPlayer</application>.
      You could even burn the file on a CD-R media to create a Video
      CD, in this case you will need to install and use both <filename
	role="package">multimedia/vcdimager</filename> and <filename
	role="package">sysutils/cdrdao</filename> programs.</para>

    <para>There is a manual page for <command>transcode</command>, but
      you should also consult the <ulink
	url="http://www.transcoding.org/cgi-bin/transcode">transcode
	wiki</ulink> for further information and examples.</para>
  </sect3>
</sect2>

  <sect2 id="video-further-reading">
    <title>Further Reading</title>

    <para>The various video software packages for FreeBSD are
      developing rapidly.  It is quite possible that in the near
      future many of the problems discussed here will have been
      resolved.  In the mean time, those who want to get the very
      most out of FreeBSD's A/V capabilities will have to cobble
      together knowledge from several FAQs and tutorials and use a
      few different applications.  This section exists to give the
      reader pointers to such additional information.</para>

    <para>The <ulink url="http://www.mplayerhq.hu/DOCS/">MPlayer
	documentation</ulink> is very technically informative.
      These documents should probably be consulted by anyone wishing
      to obtain a high level of expertise with &unix; video.  The
      <application>MPlayer</application> mailing list is hostile to
      anyone who has not bothered to read the documentation, so if
      you plan on making bug reports to them, RTFM.</para>

    <para>The <ulink
	url="http://dvd.sourceforge.net/xine-howto/en_GB/html/howto.html">
      xine HOWTO</ulink> contains a chapter on performance improvement
      which is general to all players.</para>

    <para>Finally, there are some other promising applications which
      the reader may try:</para>

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para><ulink
	    url="http://avifile.sourceforge.net/">Avifile</ulink>
	  which is also a port <filename
	    role='package'>multimedia/avifile</filename>.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para><ulink
	    url="http://www.dtek.chalmers.se/groups/dvd/">Ogle</ulink>
	  which is also a port <filename
	    role='package'>multimedia/ogle</filename>.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para><ulink
	    url="http://xtheater.sourceforge.net/">Xtheater</ulink></para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para><filename
	    role="package">multimedia/dvdauthor</filename>, an open
	  source package for authoring DVD content.</para>
      </listitem>

    </itemizedlist>

  </sect2>
</sect1>

<sect1 id="tvcard">
  <sect1info>
    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<firstname>Josef</firstname>
	<surname>El-Rayes</surname>
	<contrib>Original contribution by </contrib>
      </author>
    </authorgroup>
    <authorgroup>
      <author>
	<firstname>Marc</firstname>
	<surname>Fonvieille</surname>
	<contrib>Enhanced and adapted by </contrib>
	<!-- 02 January 2004 -->
      </author>
    </authorgroup>
  </sect1info>

  <title>Setting Up TV Cards</title>

  <indexterm>
    <primary>TV cards</primary>
  </indexterm>

  <sect2>
    <title>Introduction</title>

    <para>TV cards allow you to watch broadcast or cable TV on your
      computer.  Most of them accept composite video via an RCA or
      S-video input and some of these cards come with a FM radio
      tuner.</para>

    <para>&os; provides support for PCI-based TV cards using a
      Brooktree Bt848/849/878/879 or a Conexant CN-878/Fusion 878a
      Video Capture Chip with the &man.bktr.4; driver.  You must
      also ensure the board comes with a supported tuner, consult
      the &man.bktr.4; manual page for a list of supported
      tuners.</para>
  </sect2>

  <sect2>
    <title>Adding the Driver</title>

    <para>To use your card, you will need to load the &man.bktr.4;
      driver, this can be done by adding the following line to the
      <filename>/boot/loader.conf</filename> file like this:</para>

    <programlisting>bktr_load="YES"</programlisting>

      <para>Alternatively, you may statically compile the support for
	the TV card in your kernel, in that case add the following
	lines to your kernel configuration:</para>

      <programlisting>device	 bktr
device	iicbus
device	iicbb
device	smbus</programlisting>

      <para>These additional device drivers are necessary because
	of the card components being interconnected via an I2C bus.
	Then build and install a new kernel.</para>

      <para>Once the support was added to your system, you have to
	reboot your machine.  During the boot process, your TV card
	should show up, like this:</para>

      <programlisting>bktr0: &lt;BrookTree 848A&gt; mem 0xd7000000-0xd7000fff irq 10 at device 10.0 on pci0
iicbb0: &lt;I2C bit-banging driver&gt; on bti2c0
iicbus0: &lt;Philips I2C bus&gt; on iicbb0 master-only
iicbus1: &lt;Philips I2C bus&gt; on iicbb0 master-only
smbus0: &lt;System Management Bus&gt; on bti2c0
bktr0: Pinnacle/Miro TV, Philips SECAM tuner.</programlisting>

      <para>Of course these messages can differ according to your
	hardware.  However you should check if the tuner is correctly
	detected; it is still possible to override some of the
	detected parameters with &man.sysctl.8; MIBs and kernel
	configuration file options.  For example, if you want to force
	the tuner to a Philips SECAM tuner, you should add the
	following line to your kernel configuration file:</para>

      <programlisting>options OVERRIDE_TUNER=6</programlisting>

      <para>or you can directly use &man.sysctl.8;:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sysctl hw.bt848.tuner=6</userinput></screen>

      <para>See the &man.bktr.4; manual page and the
	<filename>/usr/src/sys/conf/NOTES</filename> file for more
	details on the available options.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Useful Applications</title>

      <para>To use your TV card you need to install one of the
	following applications:</para>

      <itemizedlist>
	<listitem>
	  <para><filename role="package">multimedia/fxtv</filename>
	    provides TV-in-a-window and image/audio/video capture
	    capabilities.</para>
	</listitem>
	<listitem>
	  <para><filename role="package">multimedia/xawtv</filename>
	    is also a TV application, with the same features as
	    <application>fxtv</application>.</para>
	</listitem>
	<listitem>
	  <para><filename role="package">misc/alevt</filename> decodes
	    and displays Videotext/Teletext.</para>
	</listitem>
	<listitem>
	  <para><filename role="package">audio/xmradio</filename>, an
	    application to use the FM radio tuner coming with some
	    TV cards.</para>
	</listitem>
	<listitem>
	  <para><filename role="package">audio/wmtune</filename>, a
	    handy desktop application for radio tuners.</para>
	</listitem>
      </itemizedlist>

      <para>More applications are available in the &os; Ports
	Collection.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Troubleshooting</title>

      <para>If you encounter any problem with your TV card, you should
	check at first if the video capture chip and the tuner are
	really supported by the &man.bktr.4; driver and if you used
	the right configuration options.  For more support and various
	questions about your TV card you may want to contact and use
	the archives of the &a.multimedia.name; mailing list.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="mythtv">
    <title>MythTV</title>

    <para>MythTV is an open source <acronym
	role="Personal Video Recorder">PVR</acronym> software
      project.</para>

    <para>It is well-known in the &linux; world as a complex
      application with many dependencies, and therefore difficult to
      install.  The &os; ports system simplifies much of the process,
      but some components must be set up manually.  This section is
      intended to help and guide in setting up MythTV.</para>

    <sect2>
      <title>Hardware</title>

      <para>MythTV is designed to utilise <acronym
	  role="Video for Linux">V4L</acronym> to access video input
	devices such as encoders and tuners.  At this time, MythTV
	works best with <acronym role="Universal Serial
	  Bus">USB</acronym> DVB-S/C/T cards supported by <filename
	  role="package">multimedia/webcamd</filename> because
	<application>webcamd</application> provides a <acronym
	  role="Video for Linux">V4L</acronym> userland application.
	Any <acronym role="Digital Video Broadcasting">DVB</acronym>
	card supported by <application>webcamd</application> should
	work with MythTV, but a list of known working cards can be
	found <ulink
	  url="http://wiki.freebsd.org/WebcamCompat">here</ulink>.
	There are also drivers available for Hauppauge cards in the
	following packages: <filename
	  role="package">multimedia/pvr250</filename> and <filename
	  role="package">multimedia/pvrxxx</filename>, but they
	provide a non-standard driver interface that does not work
	with versions of MythTV greater than 0.23.</para>

      <para><ulink url="http://wiki.freebsd.org/HTPC">HTPC</ulink>
	contains a list of all available <acronym
	  role="Digital Video Broadcasting">DVB</acronym>
	drivers.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Dependencies</title>

      <para>Being flexible and modular, MythTV allows the user to
	have the frontend and backend on different machines.</para>

      <para>For the frontend, <filename
	  role="package">multimedia/mythtv-frontend</filename> is
	required, as well as an X server, which can be found in
	<filename role="package">x11/xorg</filename>.  Ideally, the
	frontend computer also has a video card that supports <acronym
	  role="X-Video Motion Compensation">XvMC</acronym> and,
	optionally, a <acronym
	  role="Linux Infrared Remote
	  Control">LIRC</acronym>-compatible
	remote.</para>

      <para>For the backend, <filename
	  role="package">multimedia/mythtv</filename> is required,
	as well as a &mysql; database, and optionally a tuner and
	storage for recordings.  The &mysql; package should be
	automatically installed as a dependency when installing
	<filename role="package">multimedia/mythtv</filename>.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Setting up MythTV</title>

      <para>To install MythTV, use the following steps.  First,
	install MythTV from the &os; Ports collection:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>cd /usr/ports/multimedia/mythtv</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>make install</userinput></screen>

      <para>Set up the MythTV database:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mysql -uroot -p &lt; /usr/local/share/mythtv/database/mc.sql</userinput></screen>

      <para>Configure the backend:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>mythtv-setup</userinput></screen>

      <para>Start the backend:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>echo 'mythbackend_enable="YES"' >> /etc/rc.conf</userinput>
&prompt.root; <userinput>service mythbackend start</userinput></screen>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>

  <sect1 id="scanners">
    <sect1info>
      <authorgroup>
	<author>
	  <firstname>Marc</firstname>
	  <surname>Fonvieille</surname>
	  <contrib>Written by </contrib>
	  <!-- 04 August 2004 -->
	</author>
      </authorgroup>
    </sect1info>

    <title>Image Scanners</title>

    <indexterm>
      <primary>image scanners</primary>
    </indexterm>

    <sect2>
      <title>Introduction</title>

      <para>In &os;, access to image scanners is provided
	by the <application>SANE</application> (Scanner Access Now
	Easy) <acronym role="Application Programming
	Interface">API</acronym> available through the &os; Ports
	Collection.  <application>SANE</application> will also use
	some &os; device drivers to access to the scanner
	hardware.</para>

      <para>&os; supports both SCSI and USB scanners.  Be sure your
	scanner is supported by <application>SANE</application> prior
	to performing any configuration.
	<application>SANE</application> has a <ulink
	url="http://www.sane-project.org/sane-supported-devices.html">supported
	devices</ulink> list that can provide you with information
	about the support for a scanner and its status.</para>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>Kernel Configuration</title>

      <para>As mentioned above both SCSI and USB interfaces are
	supported.  According to your scanner interface, different
	device drivers are required.</para>

      <sect3 id="scanners-kernel-usb">
	<title>USB Interface</title>

	<para>The <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel by default
	  includes the device drivers needed to support USB scanners.
	  Should you decide to use a custom kernel, be sure that the
	  following lines are present in your kernel configuration
	  file:</para>

	<programlisting>device usb
device uhci
device ohci
device ehci</programlisting>

	<para>After rebooting with the correct kernel,
	  plug in your USB scanner.  A
	  line showing the detection of your
	  scanner should appear in the system message buffer
	  (&man.dmesg.8;):</para>

	<screen>ugen0.2: &lt;EPSON&gt; at usbus0</screen>

	<para>These messages show that our scanner is using
	  either <filename>/dev/ugen0.2</filename>
	  as device node.  For this example, a
	  &epson.perfection;&nbsp;1650 USB scanner was used.</para>
      </sect3>

      <sect3>
	<title>SCSI Interface</title>

	<para>If your scanner comes with a SCSI interface, it is
	  important to know which SCSI controller board you will use.
	  According to the SCSI chipset used, you will have to tune
	  your kernel configuration file.  The
	  <filename>GENERIC</filename> kernel supports the most common
	  SCSI controllers.  Be sure to read the
	  <filename>NOTES</filename> file
	  and add the correct line to your kernel
	  configuration file.  In addition to the SCSI adapter driver,
	  you need to have the following lines in your kernel
	  configuration file:</para>

	<programlisting>device scbus
device pass</programlisting>

	<para>Once your kernel has been properly compiled and
	  installed, you should be able to see the devices in the
	  system message buffer, when booting:</para>

	<screen>pass2 at aic0 bus 0 target 2 lun 0
pass2: &lt;AGFA SNAPSCAN 600 1.10&gt; Fixed Scanner SCSI-2 device
pass2: 3.300MB/s transfers</screen>

	<para>If your scanner was not powered-on at system boot, it
	  is still possible to manually force the detection by
	  performing a SCSI bus scan with the &man.camcontrol.8;
	  command:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>camcontrol rescan all</userinput>
Re-scan of bus 0 was successful
Re-scan of bus 1 was successful
Re-scan of bus 2 was successful
Re-scan of bus 3 was successful</screen>

	<para>Then the scanner will appear in the SCSI devices
	  list:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>camcontrol devlist</userinput>
&lt;IBM DDRS-34560 S97B&gt;              at scbus0 target 5 lun 0 (pass0,da0)
&lt;IBM DDRS-34560 S97B&gt;              at scbus0 target 6 lun 0 (pass1,da1)
&lt;AGFA SNAPSCAN 600 1.10&gt;           at scbus1 target 2 lun 0 (pass3)
&lt;PHILIPS CDD3610 CD-R/RW 1.00&gt;     at scbus2 target 0 lun 0 (pass2,cd0)</screen>

	<para>More details about SCSI devices are available in the
	  &man.scsi.4; and &man.camcontrol.8; manual pages.</para>
      </sect3>
    </sect2>

    <sect2>
      <title>SANE Configuration</title>

      <para>The <application>SANE</application> system is
	split in two parts: the backends (<filename
	role="package">graphics/sane-backends</filename>) and the
	frontends (<filename
	role="package">graphics/sane-frontends</filename>).  The
	backends part provides access to the scanner itself.  The
	<application>SANE</application>'s <ulink
	url="http://www.sane-project.org/sane-supported-devices.html">supported
	devices</ulink> list specifies which backend will support your
	image scanner.  It is mandatory to determine the correct
	backend for your scanner if you want to be able to use your
	device.  The frontends part provides the graphical scanning
	interface (<application>xscanimage</application>).</para>

      <para>The first step is to install the <filename
	  role="package">graphics/sane-backends</filename> port or
	package.  Then, use the <command>sane-find-scanner</command>
	command to check the scanner detection by the
	<application>SANE</application> system:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sane-find-scanner -q</userinput>
found SCSI scanner "AGFA SNAPSCAN 600 1.10" at /dev/pass3</screen>

      <para>The output will show the interface type of the scanner and
	the device node used to attach the scanner to the system.  The
	vendor and the product model may not appear, it is not
	important.</para>

      <note>
	<para>Some USB scanners require you to load a firmware, this
	  is explained in the backend manual page.  You should also
	  read &man.sane-find-scanner.1; and &man.sane.7; manual
	  pages.</para>
      </note>

      <para>Now we have to check if the scanner will be identified
	by a scanning frontend.  By default, the
	<application>SANE</application> backends comes with a command
	line tool called &man.scanimage.1;.  This command allows you
	to list the devices and to perform an image acquisition from
	the command line.  The <option>-L</option> option is used to
	list the scanner devices:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>scanimage -L</userinput>
device `snapscan:/dev/pass3' is a AGFA SNAPSCAN 600 flatbed scanner</screen>

      <para>Or, for example with the USB scanner used in the <xref
	  linkend="scanners-kernel-usb"/>:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>scanimage -L</userinput>
device 'epson2:libusb:/dev/usb:/dev/ugen0.2' is a Epson GT-8200 flatbed scanner</screen>

      <para>This output comes from a &os;&nbsp;8.X system, the
	<literal>'epson2:libusb:/dev/usb:/dev/ugen0.2'</literal> item
	gives us the backend name (<literal>epson2</literal>) and the
	device node (<literal>/dev/ugen0.2</literal>) used by our
	scanner.</para>

      <note>
	<para>No output or a message saying that no scanners were
	  identified indicates that &man.scanimage.1; is unable to
	  identify the scanner.  If this happens, you will need to
	  edit the backend configuration file and define the scanner
	  device used.  The <filename
	    class="directory">/usr/local/etc/sane.d/</filename>
	  directory contains all backend configuration files.  This
	  identification problem does appear with certain USB
	  scanners.</para>

	<para>For example, with the USB scanner used in the <xref
	    linkend="scanners-kernel-usb"/>, under &os;&nbsp;8.X the
	  scanner is perfectly detected and working but under prior
	  versions of &os; (where &man.uscanner.4; driver is used)
	  <command>sane-find-scanner</command> gives us the following
	  information:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>sane-find-scanner -q</userinput>
found USB scanner (UNKNOWN vendor and product) at device /dev/uscanner0</screen>

	<para>The scanner is correctly detected, it uses the USB
	  interface and is attached to the
	  <filename>/dev/uscanner0</filename> device node.  We can
	  now check if the scanner is correctly identified:</para>

	<screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>scanimage -L</userinput>

No scanners were identified. If you were expecting something different,
check that the scanner is plugged in, turned on and detected by the
sane-find-scanner tool (if appropriate). Please read the documentation
which came with this software (README, FAQ, manpages).</screen>

      <para>Since the scanner is not identified, we will need to edit
	the <filename>/usr/local/etc/sane.d/epson2.conf</filename>
	file.  The scanner model used was the
	&epson.perfection;&nbsp;1650, so we know the scanner will use
	the <literal>epson2</literal> backend.  Be sure to read the
	help comments in the backends configuration files.  Line
	changes are quite simple: comment out all lines that have the
	wrong interface for your scanner (in our case, we will comment
	out all lines starting with the word <literal>scsi</literal>
	as our scanner uses the USB interface), then add at the end
	of the file a line specifying the interface and the device
	node used.  In this case, we add the following line:</para>

      <programlisting>usb /dev/uscanner0</programlisting>

      <para>Please be sure to read the comments provided in the
	backend configuration file as well as the backend manual page
	for more details and correct syntax to use.  We can now verify
	if the scanner is identified:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>scanimage -L</userinput>
device `epson:/dev/uscanner0' is a Epson GT-8200 flatbed scanner</screen>

      <para>Our USB scanner has been identified.  It is not important
	if the brand and the model do not match the scanner.  The
	key item to be concerned with is the
	<literal>`epson:/dev/uscanner0'</literal> field, which give
	us the right backend name and the right device node.</para>
    </note>

    <para>Once the <command>scanimage -L</command> command is able
      to see the scanner, the configuration is complete.  The device
      is now ready to scan.</para>

    <para>While &man.scanimage.1; does allow us to perform an
      image acquisition from the command line, it is preferable to
      use a graphical user interface to perform image scanning.
      <application>SANE</application> offers a simple but efficient
      graphical interface: <application>xscanimage</application>
      (<filename
	role="package">graphics/sane-frontends</filename>).</para>

    <para><application>Xsane</application> (<filename
	role="package">graphics/xsane</filename>) is another popular
      graphical scanning frontend.  This frontend offers advanced
      features such as various scanning mode (photocopy, fax, etc.),
      color correction, batch scans, etc.  Both of these applications
      are usable as a <application>GIMP</application> plugin.</para>
  </sect2>

  <sect2>
    <title>Giving Other Users Access to the Scanner</title>

    <para>All previous operations have been done with
      <username>root</username> privileges.  You may however, need
      other users to have access to the scanner.  The user will need
      read and write permissions to the device node used by the
      scanner.  As an example, our USB scanner uses the device node
      <filename>/dev/ugen0.2</filename> which is in fact just a
      symlink to the real device node called
      <filename>/dev/usb/0.2.0</filename> (a quick look at the
      contents of the <filename class="directory">/dev</filename>
      directory will confirm it).  Both, the symlink and the
      device node, are owned respectively by the
      <groupname>wheel</groupname> and the
      <groupname>operator</groupname> groups.  Adding the user
      <username><replaceable>joe</replaceable></username> to these
      groups will allow him to use the scanner but, for obvious
      security reasons, you should think twice before adding a user
      to any group, especially the <groupname>wheel</groupname> group.
      A better solution would be creating a specific group for using
      the USB devices and make the scanner device accessible to
      members of this group.</para>

    <para>So we will use, for example, a group called
      <groupname><replaceable>usb</replaceable></groupname>.  The
      first step is the creation of this group with the help of the
      &man.pw.8; command:</para>

    <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pw groupadd usb</userinput></screen>

      <para>Then we have to make the <filename>/dev/ugen0.2</filename>
	symlink and  the <filename>/dev/usb/0.2.0</filename> device
	node accessible to the <groupname>usb</groupname> group
	with the correct write permissions (<literal>0660</literal> or
	<literal>0664</literal>), because by default only the owner of
	these files (<username>root</username>) can write to them.
	All of this is done by adding the following
	lines to the <filename>/etc/devfs.rules</filename>
	file:</para>

      <programlisting>[system=5]
add path ugen0.2 mode 0660 group usb
add path usb/0.2.0 mode 0666 group usb</programlisting>

      <para>Now, one will just have to add users to the
	<groupname><replaceable>usb</replaceable></groupname> group to
	allow the access to the scanner:</para>

      <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>pw groupmod usb -m <replaceable>joe</replaceable></userinput></screen>

      <para>For more details read the &man.pw.8; manual page.</para>
    </sect2>
  </sect1>
</chapter>