aboutsummaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/preface/preface.xml
blob: b407afb658e01e38c4c75b74bf92b5f90f8d56fc (plain) (blame)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220
221
222
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
230
231
232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
249
250
251
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
270
271
272
273
274
275
276
277
278
279
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
302
303
304
305
306
307
308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
335
336
337
338
339
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
379
380
381
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
418
419
420
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439
440
441
442
443
444
445
446
447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
457
458
459
460
461
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
469
470
471
472
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
483
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
495
496
497
498
499
500
501
502
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536
537
538
539
540
541
542
543
544
545
546
547
548
549
550
551
552
553
554
555
556
557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598
599
600
601
602
603
604
605
606
607
608
609
610
611
612
613
614
615
616
617
618
619
620
621
622
623
624
625
626
627
628
629
630
631
632
633
634
635
636
637
638
639
640
641
642
643
644
645
646
647
648
649
650
651
652
653
654
655
656
657
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
667
668
669
670
671
672
673
674
675
676
677
678
679
680
681
682
683
684
685
686
687
688
689
690
691
692
693
694
695
696
697
698
699
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
708
709
710
711
712
713
714
715
716
717
718
719
720
721
722
723
724
725
726
727
728
729
730
731
732
733
734
735
736
737
738
739
740
741
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
753
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
762
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?>
<!--
     $FreeBSD$
-->
<preface xmlns="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
  xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" version="5.0"
  xml:id="book-preface">
  <title>Preface</title>

  <bridgehead xml:id="preface-audience" renderas="sect1">Intended
  Audience</bridgehead>

  <para>The &os; newcomer will find that the first section of this
    book guides the user through the &os; installation process and
    gently introduces the concepts and conventions that underpin
    &unix;.  Working through this section requires little more than
    the desire to explore, and the ability to take on board new
    concepts as they are introduced.</para>

  <para>Once you have traveled this far, the second, far larger,
    section of the Handbook is a comprehensive reference to all manner
    of topics of interest to &os; system administrators.  Some of
    these chapters may recommend that you do some prior reading, and
    this is noted in the synopsis at the beginning of each
    chapter.</para>

  <para>For a list of additional sources of information, please see
    <xref linkend="bibliography"/>.</para>

  <bridgehead xml:id="preface-changes-from3" renderas="sect1">Changes
    from the Third Edition</bridgehead>

  <para>The current online version of the Handbook represents the
    cumulative effort of many hundreds of contributors over the past
    10 years.  The following are some of the significant changes since
    the two volume third edition was published in 2004:</para>

  <itemizedlist>
    <listitem>
      <para><xref linkend="wine"/> has been added with information
	about how to run &windows; applications on &os;.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para><xref linkend="dtrace"/> has been added with information
	about the powerful &dtrace; performance analysis tool.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para><xref linkend="filesystems"/> has been added with
	information about non-native file systems in &os;, such as ZFS
	from &sun;.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para><xref linkend="audit"/> has been added to cover the new
	auditing capabilities in &os; and explain its use.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para><xref linkend="virtualization"/> has been added with
	information about installing &os; on virtualization
	software.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para><xref linkend="bsdinstall"/> has been added to cover
	installation of &os; using the new installation utility,
	<application>bsdinstall</application>.</para>
    </listitem>
  </itemizedlist>

  <bridgehead xml:id="preface-changes-from2" renderas="sect1">Changes
    from the Second Edition (2004)</bridgehead>

  <para>The third edition was the culmination of over two years of
    work by the dedicated members of the &os; Documentation
    Project.  The printed edition grew to such a size that it was
    necessary to publish as two separate volumes.  The following are
    the major changes in this new edition:</para>

  <itemizedlist>
    <listitem>
      <para><xref linkend="config-tuning"/> has been expanded with new
	information about the ACPI power and resource management, the
	<command>cron</command> system utility, and more kernel tuning
	options.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para><xref linkend="security"/> has been expanded with new
	information about virtual private networks (VPNs), file system
	access control lists (ACLs), and security advisories.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para><xref linkend="mac"/> is a new chapter with this edition.
	It explains what MAC is and how this mechanism can be used to
	secure a &os; system.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para><xref linkend="disks"/> has been expanded with new
	information about USB storage devices, file system snapshots,
	file system quotas, file and network backed filesystems, and
	encrypted disk partitions.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para>A troubleshooting section has been added to <xref
	  linkend="ppp-and-slip"/>.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para><xref linkend="mail"/> has been expanded with new
	information about using alternative transport agents, SMTP
	authentication, UUCP, <application>fetchmail</application>,
	<application>procmail</application>, and other advanced
	topics.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para><xref linkend="network-servers"/> is all new with this
	edition.  This chapter includes information about setting up
	the <application>Apache HTTP Server</application>,
	<application>ftpd</application>, and setting up a server for
	&microsoft; &windows; clients with
	<application>Samba</application>.  Some sections from <xref
	  linkend="advanced-networking"/> were moved here to improve
	the presentation.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para><xref linkend="advanced-networking"/> has been expanded
	with new information about using &bluetooth; devices with
	&os;, setting up wireless networks, and Asynchronous Transfer
	Mode (ATM) networking.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para>A glossary has been added to provide a central location
	for the definitions of technical terms used throughout the
	book.</para>
    </listitem>

    <listitem>
      <para>A number of aesthetic improvements have been made to the
	tables and figures throughout the book.</para>
    </listitem>
  </itemizedlist>

  <bridgehead xml:id="preface-changes" renderas="sect1">Changes from
    the First Edition (2001)</bridgehead>

    <para>The second edition was the culmination of over two years of
      work by the dedicated members of the &os; Documentation Project.
      The following were the major changes in this edition:</para>

<!-- Talk a little about justification and other stylesheet changes? -->

    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
	<para>A complete Index has been added.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>All ASCII figures have been replaced by graphical
	  diagrams.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>A standard synopsis has been added to each chapter to
	  give a quick summary of what information the chapter
	  contains, and what the reader is expected to know.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>The content has been logically reorganized into three
	  parts: <quote>Getting Started</quote>, <quote>System
	  Administration</quote>, and
	  <quote>Appendices</quote>.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para><xref linkend="basics"/> has been expanded to contain
	  additional information about processes, daemons, and
	  signals.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para><xref linkend="ports"/> has been expanded to contain
	  additional information about binary package
	  management.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para><xref linkend="x11"/> has been completely rewritten with
	  an emphasis on using modern desktop technologies such as
	  <application>KDE</application> and
	  <application>GNOME</application> on &xfree86; 4.X.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para><xref linkend="boot"/> has been expanded.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para><xref linkend="disks"/> has been written from what used
	  to be two separate chapters on <quote>Disks</quote> and
	  <quote>Backups</quote>.  We feel that the topics are easier
	  to comprehend when presented as a single chapter.  A section
	  on RAID (both hardware and software) has also been
	  added.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para><xref linkend="serialcomms"/> has been completely
	  reorganized and updated for &os; 4.X/5.X.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para><xref linkend="ppp-and-slip"/> has been substantially
	  updated.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>Many new sections have been added to <xref
	    linkend="advanced-networking"/>.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para><xref linkend="mail"/> has been expanded to include more
	  information about configuring
	  <application>sendmail</application>.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para><xref linkend="linuxemu"/> has been expanded to include
	  information about installing
	  <application>&oracle;</application> and
	  <application>&sap.r3;</application>.</para>
      </listitem>

      <listitem>
	<para>The following new topics are covered in this second
	  edition:</para>

	<itemizedlist>
	  <listitem>
	    <para><xref linkend="config-tuning"/>.</para>
	  </listitem>

	  <listitem>
	    <para><xref linkend="multimedia"/>.</para>
	  </listitem>
	</itemizedlist>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>

    <bridgehead xml:id="preface-overview"
      renderas="sect1">Organization of This Book</bridgehead>

  <para>This book is split into five logically distinct sections.
    The first section, <emphasis>Getting Started</emphasis>, covers
    the installation and basic usage of &os;.  It is expected that
    the reader will follow these chapters in sequence, possibly
    skipping chapters covering familiar topics.  The second section,
    <emphasis>Common Tasks</emphasis>, covers some frequently used
    features of &os;.  This section, and all subsequent sections,
    can be read out of order.  Each chapter begins with a succinct
    synopsis that describes what the chapter covers and what the
    reader is expected to already know.  This is meant to allow the
    casual reader to skip around to find chapters of interest.  The
    third section, <emphasis>System Administration</emphasis>, covers
    administration topics.  The fourth section, <emphasis>Network
      Communication</emphasis>, covers networking and server topics.
    The fifth section contains appendices of reference
    information.</para>

  <variablelist>

<!-- Part I - Introduction -->

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="introduction"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Introduces &os; to a new user.  It describes the
	  history of the &os; Project, its goals and development
	  model.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="bsdinstall"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Walks a user through the entire installation process of
	  &os;&nbsp;9.<replaceable>x</replaceable> and later using
	  <application>bsdinstall</application>.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="basics"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Covers the basic commands and functionality of the
	  &os; operating system.  If you are familiar with &linux;
	  or another flavor of &unix; then you can probably skip this
	  chapter.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="ports"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Covers the installation of third-party software with
	  both &os;'s innovative <quote>Ports Collection</quote> and
	  standard binary packages.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="x11"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes the X Window System in general and using X11
	  on &os; in particular.  Also describes common desktop
	  environments such as <application>KDE</application> and
	  <application>GNOME</application>.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

<!-- Part II Common Tasks -->

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="desktop"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Lists some common desktop applications, such as web
	  browsers and productivity suites, and describes how to
	  install them on &os;.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="multimedia"/></emphasis></term>
      <listitem>
	<para>Shows how to set up sound and video playback support
	  for your system.  Also describes some sample audio and video
	  applications.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="kernelconfig"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Explains why you might need to configure a new kernel
	  and provides detailed instructions for configuring,
	  building, and installing a custom kernel.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="printing"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes managing printers on &os;, including
	  information about banner pages, printer accounting, and
	  initial setup.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="linuxemu"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes the &linux; compatibility features of &os;.
	  Also provides detailed installation instructions for many
	  popular &linux; applications such as
	  <application>&oracle;</application> and
	  <application>&mathematica;</application>.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

<!-- Part III - System Administration -->

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref
	    linkend="config-tuning"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes the parameters available for system
	  administrators to tune a &os; system for optimum
	  performance.  Also describes the various configuration files
	  used in &os; and where to find them.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="boot"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes the &os; boot process and explains how to
	  control this process with configuration options.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="security"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes many different tools available to help keep
	  your &os; system secure, including Kerberos, IPsec and
	  OpenSSH.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="jails"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes the jails framework, and the improvements of
	  jails over the traditional chroot support of &os;.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="mac"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Explains what Mandatory Access Control (MAC) is and
	  how this mechanism can be used to secure a &os;
	  system.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="audit"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes what &os; Event Auditing is, how it can be
	  installed, configured, and how audit trails can be inspected
	  or monitored.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="disks"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes how to manage storage media and filesystems
	  with &os;.  This includes physical disks, RAID arrays,
	  optical and tape media, memory-backed disks, and network
	  filesystems.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="geom"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes what the GEOM framework in &os; is and how
	  to configure various supported RAID levels.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="filesystems"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Examines support of non-native file systems in &os;,
	  like the Z File System from &sun;.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref
	    linkend="virtualization"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes what virtualization systems offer, and how
	  they can be used with &os;.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="l10n"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes how to use &os; in languages other than
	  English.  Covers both system and application level
	  localization.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref
	    linkend="updating-upgrading"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Explains the differences between &os;-STABLE,
	  &os;-CURRENT, and &os; releases.  Describes which users
	  would benefit from tracking a development system and
	  outlines that process.  Covers the methods users may take
	  to update their system to the latest security
	  release.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="dtrace"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes how to configure and use the &dtrace; tool
	  from &sun; in &os;.  Dynamic tracing can help locate
	  performance issues, by performing real time system
	  analysis.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

<!-- Part IV - Network Communications -->

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="serialcomms"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Explains how to connect terminals and modems to your
	  &os; system for both dial in and dial out
	  connections.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="ppp-and-slip"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes how to use PPP to connect to remote systems
	  with &os;.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="mail"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Explains the different components of an email server
	  and dives into simple configuration topics for the most
	  popular mail server software:
	  <application>sendmail</application>.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref
	    linkend="network-servers"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Provides detailed instructions and example configuration
	  files to set up your &os; machine as a network filesystem
	  server, domain name server, network information system
	  server, or time synchronization server.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="firewalls"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Explains the philosophy behind software-based firewalls
	  and provides detailed information about the configuration
	  of the different firewalls available for &os;.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref
	    linkend="advanced-networking"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes many networking topics, including sharing an
	  Internet connection with other computers on your LAN,
	  advanced routing topics, wireless networking, &bluetooth;,
	  ATM, IPv6, and much more.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

<!-- Part V - Appendices -->

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="mirrors"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Lists different sources for obtaining &os; media on
	  CDROM or DVD as well as different sites on the Internet
	  that allow you to download and install &os;.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="bibliography"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>This book touches on many different subjects that may
	  leave you hungry for a more detailed explanation.  The
	  bibliography lists many excellent books that are referenced
	  in the text.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="eresources"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Describes the many forums available for &os; users to
	  post questions and engage in technical conversations about
	  &os;.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis><xref linkend="pgpkeys"/></emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>Lists the PGP fingerprints of several &os;
	  Developers.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>
  </variablelist>

  <bridgehead xml:id="preface-conv" renderas="sect1">Conventions used
    in this book</bridgehead>

    <para>To provide a consistent and easy to read text, several
      conventions are followed throughout the book.</para>

    <bridgehead xml:id="preface-conv-typographic"
      renderas="sect2">Typographic Conventions</bridgehead>

  <variablelist>
    <varlistentry>
      <term><emphasis>Italic</emphasis></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>An <emphasis>italic</emphasis> font is used for
	  filenames, URLs, emphasized text, and the first usage of
	  technical terms.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><literal>Monospace</literal></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>A <literal>monospaced</literal> font is used for error
	  messages, commands, environment variables, names of ports,
	  hostnames, user names, group names, device names, variables,
	  and code fragments.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>

    <varlistentry>
      <term><application>Bold</application></term>

      <listitem>
	<para>A <keycap>bold</keycap> font is used for
	  applications, commands, and keys.</para>
      </listitem>
    </varlistentry>
  </variablelist>

<!-- Var list -->
  <bridgehead xml:id="preface-conv-commands" renderas="sect2">User
    Input</bridgehead>

  <para>Keys are shown in <keycap>bold</keycap> to stand out from
    other text.  Key combinations that are meant to be typed
    simultaneously are shown with `<literal>+</literal>' between
    the keys, such as:</para>

  <para>
    <keycombo action="simul">
      <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>
      <keycap>Alt</keycap>
      <keycap>Del</keycap></keycombo></para>

  <para>Meaning the user should type the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>,
    <keycap>Alt</keycap>, and <keycap>Del</keycap> keys at the same
    time.</para>

  <para>Keys that are meant to be typed in sequence will be separated
    with commas, for example:</para>

  <para>
    <keycombo action="simul">
      <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>
      <keycap>X</keycap>
    </keycombo>,
    <keycombo action="simul">
      <keycap>Ctrl</keycap>
      <keycap>S</keycap></keycombo></para>

  <para>Would mean that the user is expected to type the
    <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> and <keycap>X</keycap> keys simultaneously
    and then to type the <keycap>Ctrl</keycap> and <keycap>S</keycap>
    keys simultaneously.</para>

<!-- How to type in key stokes, etc.. -->
  <bridgehead xml:id="preface-conv-examples"
    renderas="sect2">Examples</bridgehead>

  <para>Examples starting with <filename>C:\&gt;</filename>
    indicate a &ms-dos; command.  Unless otherwise noted, these
    commands may be executed from a <quote>Command Prompt</quote>
    window in a modern &microsoft.windows;
    environment.</para>

  <screen><prompt>E:\&gt;</prompt> <userinput>tools\fdimage floppies\kern.flp A:</userinput></screen>

  <para>Examples starting with &prompt.root; indicate a command that
    must be invoked as the superuser in &os;.  You can login as
    <systemitem class="username">root</systemitem> to type the
    command, or login as your normal account and use &man.su.1; to
    gain superuser privileges.</para>

  <screen>&prompt.root; <userinput>dd if=kern.flp of=/dev/fd0</userinput></screen>

  <para>Examples starting with &prompt.user; indicate a command that
    should be invoked from a normal user account.  Unless otherwise
    noted, C-shell syntax is used for setting environment variables
    and other shell commands.</para>

  <screen>&prompt.user; <userinput>top</userinput></screen>

  <bridgehead xml:id="preface-acknowledgements"
    renderas="sect1">Acknowledgments</bridgehead>

  <para>The book you are holding represents the efforts of many
    hundreds of people around the world.  Whether they sent in fixes
    for typos, or submitted complete chapters, all the contributions
    have been useful.</para>

  <para>Several companies have supported the development of this
    document by paying authors to work on it full-time, paying for
    publication, etc.  In particular, BSDi (subsequently acquired by
    <link xlink:href="http://www.windriver.com">Wind River
      Systems</link>) paid members of the &os; Documentation Project
    to work on improving this book full time leading up to the
    publication of the first printed edition in March 2000 (ISBN
    1-57176-241-8).  Wind River Systems then paid several additional
    authors to make a number of improvements to the print-output
    infrastructure and to add additional chapters to the text.  This
    work culminated in the publication of the second printed edition
    in November 2001 (ISBN 1-57176-303-1).  In 2003-2004, <link
      xlink:href="http://www.freebsdmall.com">&os; Mall, Inc</link>,
    paid several contributors to improve the Handbook in preparation
    for the third printed edition.</para>

</preface>